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Sample records for fluids east rift

  1. The Importance of Magmatic Fluids in Continental Rifting in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Roecker, S. W.; Kianji, G.

    2015-12-01

    The breakup of strong continental lithosphere requires more than far-field tectonic forces. Growing evidence for early-stage cratonic rift zones points to the importance of heat, magma and volatile transfer in driving lithospheric strength reduction. The relative contributions of these processes are fundamental to our understanding of continental rifting. We present a synthesis of results from geological, geochemical and geophysical studies in one of the most seismically and volcanically active sectors of the East African Rift (Kenya-Tanzania border) to investigate the role of fluids during early-stage rifting (<10 Ma). Xenolith data indicate that rifting initiated in initially thick lithosphere. Diffuse soil CO2 flux maxima occur in the vicinity of faults, with carbon isotope values exhibiting a mantle-derived signature. These faults feed aligned sets of hydrothermal springs, which have N2-He-Ar relative abundances also indicating a mantle-derived source. Geochemical and surface faulting information are integrated with subsurface imaging and fault kinematic data derived from the 38-station CRAFTI broadband seismic array. Teleseismic and abundant local earthquakes enable assessment of the state-of-stress and b-values as a function of depth. High Vp/Vs ratios and tomographic imaging suggest the presence of fluids in the crust, with high pore fluid pressures driving failure at lower tectonic stress. Together, these cross-disciplinary data provide compelling evidence that early-stage rifting in East Africa is assisted by fluids exsolved from deep magma bodies, some of which are imaged in the lower crust. We assert that the flux of deep magmatic fluids during rift initiation plays a key role in weakening lithosphere and localizing strain. High surface gas fluxes, fault-fed hydrothermal springs and persistent seismicity highlight the East African Rift as the ideal natural laboratory for investigating fluid-driven faulting processes in extensional tectonic environments.

  2. Contribution of Transverse Structures, Magma, and Crustal Fluids to Continental Rift Evolution: The East African Rift in Southern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattenhorn, S. A.; Muirhead, J.; Dindi, E.; Fischer, T. P.; Lee, H.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Magadi rift in southern Kenya formed at ~7 Ma within Proterozoic rocks of the Mozambique orogenic belt, parallel to its contact with the Archean Tanzania craton. The rift is bounded to the west by the ~1600-m-high Nguruman border fault. The rift center is intensely dissected by normal faults, most of which offset ~1.4-0.8 Ma lavas. Current E-W extensional velocities are ~2-4 mm/yr. Published crustal tomography models from the rift center show narrow high velocity zones in the upper crust, interpreted as cooled magma intrusions. Local, surface-wave, and SKS-splitting measurements show a rift-parallel anisotropy interpreted to be the result of aligned melt zones in the lithosphere. Our field observations suggest that recent fault activity is concentrated at the rift center, consistent with the location of the 1998 seismic swarm that was associated with an inferred diking event. Fault zones are pervasively mineralized by calcite, likely from CO2-rich fluids. A system of fault-fed springs provides the sole fluid input for Lake Magadi in the deepest part of the basin. Many of these springs emanate from the Kordjya fault, a 50-km-long, NW-SE striking, transverse structure connecting a portion of the border fault system (the NW-oriented Lengitoto fault) to the current locus of strain and magmatism at the rift center. Sampled springs are warm (44.4°C) and alkaline (pH=10). Dissolved gas data (mainly N2-Ar-He) suggests two-component mixing (mantle and air), possibly indicating that fluids are delivered into the fault zone from deep sources, consistent with a dominant role of magmatism to the focusing of strain at the rift center. The Kordjya fault has developed prominent fault scarps (~150 m high) despite being oblique to the dominant ~N-S fault fabric, and has utilized an en echelon alignment of N-S faults to accommodate its motion. These N-S faults show evidence of sinistral-oblique motion and imply a bookshelf style of faulting to accommodate dextral-oblique motion

  3. East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria.

    The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Fluid-inclusion evidence for past temperature fluctuations in the Kilauea East Rift Zone geothermal area, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, K.E.; Keith, T.E.C.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    Heating and freezing data were obtained for fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz, calcite, and anhydrite from several depths in three scientific observation holes drilled along the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Comparison of measured drill-hole temperatures with fluid-inclusion homogenization-temperature (Th) data indicates that only about 15% of the fluid inclusions could have formed under the present thermal conditions. The majority of fluid inclusions studied must have formed during one or more times in the past when temperatures fluctuated in response to the emplacement of nearby dikes and their subsequent cooling. -from Authors

  5. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  6. The East African rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  7. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  8. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Pflumio, Catherine; Castrec, Maryse; Boulégue, Jacques; Gente, Pascal; Rolet, Joël; Coussement, Christophe; Stetter, Karl O.; Huber, Robert; Buku, Sony; Mifundu, Wafula

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 °C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza,active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO3-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO3 thermal fluids from lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch off the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction off 219 and 179 °C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130 °N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north- south major rift trend. The source of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza.

  9. Crystallization, Fluid Exsolution, and Eruption of Extremely Volatile-rich Silicate Magma at Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moor, J.; Fischer, T. P.; King, P. L.; Hervig, R. L.; Hilton, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    , however CO2/Nb ratios are much lower than depleted upper mantle values indicating that the magma experienced prior exsolution of C-rich fluid. The MI display a trend of decreasing H2O and increasing CO2 with evolution of the melt. This trend is interpreted to reflect crystallization-driven melt evolution in a stream of C-rich fluid percolating from deeper in the magma system. Melt evolution to higher alkali and lower SiO2 contents resulted in less polymerized melt compositions and increasing CO2 solubility, whereas H2O was partitioned into the fluid phase. Crystallization and degassing of H2O led to increasing magma viscosity, which ultimately inhibited gas-magma separation and triggered the explosive eruption. Once the viscous apex of the magma chamber was expelled then quiescent degassing and NC effusion were able to resume. [1] Klaudius, J., and Keller, J. (2006) Lithos, 91: 173-190. [2] Dawson, J.B., et al. (1995) IAVCEI Proc. in Volc., 4: 70-86. [3] Mitchell, R.H. (2009) Contrib. Min. Pet.,158: 589-598.

  10. Hydrothermal vents is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M.

    1993-06-01

    Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found hydrothermal vents down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in hydrothermal fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with vents at the Pemba site. At Cape Banza, active vents are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of hydrothermal pipes. Hydrothermal fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two sites. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active vents. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such hydrothermal systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Mesozoic and early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, William

    1992-08-01

    A complex history of crustal extension occurred in east and central Africa during the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. Beginning in the Late Jurassic, this resulted in a large system of rifts, the Central African rift system, that spanned from central Sudan to southern Kenya. Late Jurassic rifting is best documented in the White and Blue Nile rifts of the Sudan, and records east-west extension in half-graben that were connected by large-scale shear zones and pull-apart basins. Early Cretaceous rifting re-activated Jurassic basins and spread to the large South Sudan rifts and Anza rift in Kenya. By the Late Cretaceous, the extension direction shifted to the NE-SW, and the presently observed large-scale rift geometry was established. In the early Tertiary, some Mesozoic basins were again reactivated, while other regions underwent wrench faulting and basin inversion. The large number of basins preserved in the Central African rift system can be used to construct an evolutionary model of continental rift tectonics. Early phases of extension at low strains produced alternating half-graben/accommodation zone geometries similar to those observed in most young and active continental rifts. At higher strains, some border faults were abandoned so that through-going, simpler active fault systems could evolve. This is interpreted as representing a switch from complex, oppositely dipping detachment structures, with strike dimensions of 50-150 km, to regional detachment structures that continue for hundreds of kilometers parallel to the rift. This change in the type of detachment was accompanied by a shift in the position of the subsidence away from the breakaway to a position focused further within the regional upper plate. Non-rotational, high angle, normal faulting dominates in the development of these late basin geometries. Deciphering similar rift basin histories from passive continental margins may, in many cases, exceed the limits of available reflection seismic data. East

  12. The hydrothermal system associated with the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Conrad, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    During the last twenty years drilling and fluid production on the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) has shown that an active hydrothermal system is associated with much of the rift. Well logging and fluid geochemistry indicate that reservoir temperatures exceed 360 C but are highly variable. Although neither well testing nor pressure decline data have clearly demonstrated the lateral limits of the reservoir, divergent fluid compositions over short distances suggest that the larger hydrothermal system is strongly compartmentalized across the rift zone. The chemical compositions of production fluids indicate that recharge is derived from ocean water and meteoric recharge and isotopic data suggest that the latter may be derived from subsurface inflow from the flanks of Mauna Loa.

  13. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains.

    PubMed

    Ferraccioli, Fausto; Finn, Carol A; Jordan, Tom A; Bell, Robin E; Anderson, Lester M; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-11-17

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains' origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere. PMID:22094700

  14. The offshore East African Rift System: Structural framework at the toe of a juvenile rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Dieter; Jokat, Wilfried; Ladage, Stefan; Stollhofen, Harald; Klimke, Jennifer; Lutz, Ruediger; Mahanjane, Estevão. Stefane; Ehrhardt, Axel; Schreckenberger, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    The Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) extends from the Red Sea to Mozambique. Here we use seismic reflection and bathymetric data to investigate the tectonic evolution of the offshore branch of the EARS. The data indicate multiple and time transgressive neotectonic deformations along ~800 km of the continental margin of northern Mozambique. We observe a transition from a mature rift basin in the north to a juvenile fault zone in the south. The respective timing of deformation is derived from detailed seismic stratigraphy. In the north, a ~30 km wide and more than 150 km long, N-S striking symmetric graben initiated as half-graben in the late Miocene. Extension accelerated in the Pliocene, causing a continuous conjugate border fault and symmetric rift graben. Coevally, the rift started to propagate southward, which resulted in a present-day ~30 km wide half-graben, approximately 200 km farther south. Since the Pleistocene, the rift has continued to propagate another ~300 km, where the incipient rift is reflected by subrecent small-scale normal faulting. Estimates of the overall brittle extension of the matured rift range between 5 and 12 km, with an along-strike southward decrease of the extension rate. The offshore portion of the EARS evolves magma poor, similar to the onshore western branch. The structural evolution of the offshore EARS is suggested to be related to and controlled by differing inherited lithospheric fabrics. Preexisting fabrics may not only guide and focus extension but also control rift architecture.

  15. Strain distribution in the East African Rift from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, S. D.; Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Delvaux, D.; Ebinger, C.; Combrinck, L.

    2008-12-01

    Rifting of continental lithosphere is a fundamental process that controls the growth and evolution of continents and the birth of ocean basins. Most rifting models assume that stretching results from far-field lithospheric stresses from plate motions, but there is evidence that asthenospheric processes play an active role in rifting, possibly through viscous coupling and/or the added buoyancy and thermal weakening from melt intrusions. The distribution of strain during rifting is a key observable to constrain such models but is however poorly known. The East African Rift (EAR) offers a unique opportunity to quantify strain distribution along and across an active continental rift and to compare a volcanic (Eastern branch) and a non-volcanic (Western branch) segment. In 2006, we established and first surveyed a network of 35 points across Tanzania and installed one continuous station in Dar Es Salaam (TANZ), followed in 2008 by a second occupation campaign. We present a preliminary velocity field for the central part of the EAR, spanning both the Western and Eastern rift branches. We compare our results with a recent kinematic model of the EAR (Stamps et al., GRL, 2008) and discuss its significance for understanding rifting processes.

  16. Continental rift evolution: From rift initiation to incipient break-up in the Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo

    2009-09-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift is a key sector of the East African Rift System that connects the Afar depression, at Red Sea-Gulf of Aden junction, with the Turkana depression and Kenya Rift to the South. It is a magmatic rift that records all the different stages of rift evolution from rift initiation to break-up and incipient oceanic spreading: it is thus an ideal place to analyse the evolution of continental extension, the rupture of lithospheric plates and the dynamics by which distributed continental deformation is progressively focused at oceanic spreading centres. The first tectono-magmatic event related to the Tertiary rifting was the eruption of voluminous flood basalts that apparently occurred in a rather short time interval at around 30 Ma; strong plateau uplift, which resulted in the development of the Ethiopian and Somalian plateaus now surrounding the rift valley, has been suggested to have initiated contemporaneously or shortly after the extensive flood-basalt volcanism, although its exact timing remains controversial. Voluminous volcanism and uplift started prior to the main rifting phases, suggesting a mantle plume influence on the Tertiary deformation in East Africa. Different plume hypothesis have been suggested, with recent models indicating the existence of deep superplume originating at the core-mantle boundary beneath southern Africa, rising in a north-northeastward direction toward eastern Africa, and feeding multiple plume stems in the upper mantle. However, the existence of this whole-mantle feature and its possible connection with Tertiary rifting are highly debated. The main rifting phases started diachronously along the MER in the Mio-Pliocene; rift propagation was not a smooth process but rather a process with punctuated episodes of extension and relative quiescence. Rift location was most probably controlled by the reactivation of a lithospheric-scale pre-Cambrian weakness; the orientation of this weakness (roughly NE-SW) and the Late

  17. East Antarctic rifting triggers uplift of the Gamburtsev Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, Carol A.; Jordan, Tom A.; Bell, Robin E.; Anderson, Lester M.; Damaske, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are the least understood tectonic feature on Earth, because they are completely hidden beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Their high elevation and youthful Alpine topography, combined with their location on the East Antarctic craton, creates a paradox that has puzzled researchers since the mountains were discovered in 1958. The preservation of Alpine topography in the Gamburtsevs may reflect extremely low long-term erosion rates beneath the ice sheet, but the mountains’ origin remains problematic. Here we present the first comprehensive view of the crustal architecture and uplift mechanisms for the Gamburtsevs, derived from radar, gravity and magnetic data. The geophysical data define a 2,500-km-long rift system in East Antarctica surrounding the Gamburtsevs, and a thick crustal root beneath the range. We propose that the root formed during the Proterozoic assembly of interior East Antarctica (possibly about 1 Gyr ago), was preserved as in some old orogens and was rejuvenated during much later Permian (roughly 250 Myr ago) and Cretaceous (roughly 100 Myr ago) rifting. Much like East Africa, the interior of East Antarctica is a mosaic of Precambrian provinces affected by rifting processes. Our models show that the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response to fluvial and glacial erosion explains the high elevation and relief of the Gamburtsevs. The evolution of the Gamburtsevs demonstrates that rifting and preserved orogenic roots can produce broad regions of high topography in continental interiors without significantly modifying the underlying Precambrian lithosphere.

  18. Innovative tephra studies in the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Heiken, Grant

    Geosciences investigations form the foundation for paleoanthropological research in the East African Rift System. However, innovative applications of tephra studies for constraining spatial and temporal relations of diverse geological processes, biostratigraphic records, and paleoenvironmental conditions within the East African Rift System were fueled by paleoanthropological investigations into the origin and evolution of hominids and material culture. Tephra is a collective, size-independent term used for any material ejected during an explosive volcanic eruption.The East African Rift System has become a magnet for paleoanthropological research ever since the discovery of the first hominids at Olduvai Gorge, in Tanzania, in the 1950s [Leakey et al., 1961]. Currently, numerous multidisciplinary scientific teams from academic institutions in the United States and Western Europe make annual pilgrimages for a couple of months to conduct paleoanthropological field research in the fossil-rich sedimentary deposits of the East African Rift System in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. The field expedition consists of geological, paleontological, archaeological, and paleoenvironmental investigations.

  19. Geochemistry of East African Rift basalts: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Tanya

    2007-06-01

    Mafic lavas erupted along the East African Rift System from the Afar triangle in northern Ethiopia to the Rungwe province in southern Tanzania display a wide range of geochemical and isotopic compositions that reflect heterogeneity in both source and process. In areas with the lowest degree of crustal extension (the Western and Southern Kenya Rifts) primitive lavas record the greatest extent of lithospheric melting, manifest in elevated abundances of incompatible elements and highly radiogenic Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions. Where prolonged extension has removed most or all of the mantle lithosphere (the Turkana and Northern Kenya Rifts), a larger role for sub-lithospheric processes is indicated. At intermediate degrees of extension (the Main Ethiopian Rift) both lithospheric and sub-lithospheric contributions are observed, and crustal assimilation occurs in some cases. Despite the wide compositional range of African Rift basalts, a restricted number of source domains contribute to magmatism throughout the area. These individual domains are: (1) the subcontinental mantle lithosphere; (2) a plume source with high-μ Sr-Nd-Pb-He isotopic affinities, present in all areas within and south of the Turkana Depression; and (3) a plume source with isotopic signatures analogous to those observed in some ocean islands, including high 3He/ 4He values, present throughout the Ethiopian Rift and the Afar region. The two plume sources may both be derived from the South African Superplume, which is likely to be a compositionally heterogeneous feature of the lower mantle.

  20. Kīlauea's Upper East Rift Zone: A Rift Zone in Name Only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Fiske, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Kīlauea's upper east rift zone (UERZ) extends ~3 km southeastward from the summit caldera to the Koáe fault system, where it starts to bend into the main part of the ENE-trending rift zone. The UERZ lacks a distinct positive gravity anomaly (though coverage is poor) and any evidence of deformation associated with magma intrusion. All ground ruptures—and the Puhimau thermal area—trend ENE, crossing the UERZ at a high angle. Lua Manu, Puhimau, and Kóokóolau craters are the only surface evidence of the UERZ. Yet the UERZ is seismically active, and all magma entering the rest of the rift zone must pass through it. Rather than a rift zone in the traditional sense, with abundant dikes and ground ruptures along its trend, the UERZ cuts across the ENE structural grain and serves only as a connector to the rest of the rift zone, not a locus of dike formation along its length. The UERZ probably developed as a consequence of gradual SSE migration of the active part of the main east rift zone at the trailing edge of the south flank. During migration, a connection to the summit reservoir complex must be maintained; otherwise, the middle and lower east rift zone would starve and magma from Kīlauea's summit reservoir complex would have to go elsewhere. Over time, the UERZ lengthened and rotated clockwise to maintain the connection. Near the caldera, the UERZ may be widening westward as the summit reservoir complex migrates southward from the center of the caldera to its present position. A layered stress regime results in the upper 2-3 km mimicking the pervasive ENE structural grain of most of Kīlauea, whereas the underlying magmatic part of the UERZ responds to stresses related to SE magma transport. Magma intruding upward from the connector forms a dike that follows the ENE structural grain, as during the 1974 eruption. The active east rift zone has been migrating since ~100 ka, estimated by applying a 700-y extension rate across the Koa'e fault system to the ~6.5 km

  1. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rifting in East Africa is not all coeval; volcanism and faulting have been an ongoing phenomenon on the continent since the Eocene (~45 Ma). The rifting began in northern East Africa, and led to the separation of the Nubia (Africa) and Arabia plates in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and in the Lake Turkana area at the Kenya-Ethiopia border. A Paleogene mantle superplume beneath East Africa caused extension within the Nubia plate, as well as a first order topographic high known as the African superswell which now includes most of the eastern and southern sectors of the Nubia plate. Widespread volcanism erupted onto much of the rising plateau in Ethiopia during the Eocene-Oligocene (45–29 Ma), with chains of volcanoes forming along the rift separating Africa and Arabia. Since the initiation of rifting in northeastern Africa, the system has propagated over 3,000 km to the south and southwest, and it experiences seismicity as a direct result of the extension and active magmatism.

  2. Sensitivity of the East African rift lakes to climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaka, L.; Trauth, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes in the East African Rift have provided excellent proxies to reconstruct past climate changes in the low latitudes. The lakes occupy volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable climate and hydrological setting, that present a good opportunity to study the climatic and hydrogeological influences on the lake water budget. Previous studies have used lake floor sediments to establish the sensitivity of the East African rift lakes. This study focuses on geomorphology and climate to offer additional or alternative record of lake history that are key to quantifying sensitivity of these lakes as archives to external and internal climatic forcings. By using the published Holocene lake areas and levels, we analyze twelve lakes on the eastern arm of the East African rift; Ziway, Awassa, Turkana, Suguta, Baringo, Nakuru, Elmenteita, Naivasha, Natron, Manyara and compare with Lake Victoria, that occupies the plateau between the east and the western arms of the rift. Using the SRTM data, Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis has been used to compare the lake basins between latitude 80 North and 30 South. The mean elevation for the lakes, is between 524 and 2262 meters above sea level, the lakes' hypsometric integrals (HI), a measure of landmass volume above the reference plane, vary from 0.31 to 0.76. The aridity index (Ai), defined as Precipitation/ Evapotranspiration, quantifies the water available to a lake, it encompasses land cover and climatic effects. It is lowest (arid) in the basin between the Ethiopian rift and the Kenyan rift and at the southern termination of the Kenyan Rift in the catchments of lake Turkana, Suguta, Baringo and Manyara with values of 0.55, 0.43, 0.43 and 0.5 respectively. And it is highest (wet) in the catchments of, Ziway, Awassa, Nakuru and Naivasha as 1.33,1.03 and 1.2 respectively, which occupy the highest points of the rift. Lake Victoria has an index of 1.42 the highest of these lakes and receives a high precipitation. We use a

  3. Thermal budget of the lower east rift zone, Kilauea Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, Paul T.; Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.; Kauahikaua, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The lower east rift zone of Kilauea has been the site of repeated fissure eruptions fed by dikes that traverse the depths of interest to geothermal explorations. We find that a hot-rock-and-magma system of low permeability extending along the rift zone at depths below about 4 km and replenished with magma at a rate that is small in comparison to the modern eruption rate Kilauea can supply heat to an overlying hydrothermal aquifer sufficient to maintain temperatures of about 250??C if the characteristic permeability to 4-km depth is about 10-15m2.

  4. At the tip of a propagating rift - The offshore East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Dieter; Jokat, Wilfried; Ladage, Stefan; Stollhofen, Harald; Klimke, Jennifer; Lutz, Ruediger; Mahanjane, Stefane; Ehrhardt, Axel; Schreckenberger, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system (EARS) but surprisingly few the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of sub-recent extensional deformation. The seismic reflection data reveals that recent normal faulting often utilizes preexisting, deeply buried half-graben structures which likely are related to the formation of the Somali Basin. The ~30 km wide and ~150 km long symmetric graben is in a stage where the linkage of scattered normal faults already did happen, resulting in increased displacement and accommodation of most of the extension across the basin. However, deep earthquakes below the rift indicate a strong and still preserved lithospheric mantle. Extension is becoming diffuse where an onshore suture, subdividing the northern from the southern metamorphic basement onshore Mozambique, is closest to the offshore rift. It appears likely that this suture is the origin for the variation in rifting style, indicating that mantle fabric resulting from a Cambrian collision has been preserved as mechanical anisotropy of the lithospheric mantle. Further south the rift focuses in an about 30 km wide half-graben. An important finding is that the entire offshore branch of the EARS lacks significant volcanism. Along the offshore EARS there are only negligible indications for recent volcanism in the reflection seismic data such as sills and dikes. Apparently the "Comoros mantle plume" (French and Romanowicz, 2015) has a very minor influence on the progressive extensional deformation along the northern Mozambique continental margin, leading eventually to breakup sometimes in the future. Combining structural with earthquake data reveals that the magma

  5. Kilauea east rift zone magmatism: An episode 54 perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, C.R.; Heliker, C.; Sherrod, D.R.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Miklius, Asta; Okubo, P.G.; Trusdell, F.A.; Budahn, J.R.; Ridley, W.I.; Meeker, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    On January 29 30, 1997, prolonged steady-state effusion of lava from Pu'u'O'o was briefly disrupted by shallow extension beneath Napau Crater, 1 4 km uprift of the active Kilauea vent. A 23-h-long eruption (episode 54) ensued from fissures that were overlapping or en echelon with eruptive fissures formed during episode 1 in 1983 and those of earlier rift zone eruptions in 1963 and 1968. Combined geophysical and petrologic data for the 1994 1999 eruptive interval, including episode 54, reveal a variety of shallow magmatic conditions that persist in association with prolonged rift zone eruption. Near-vent lava samples document a significant range in composition, temperature and crystallinity of pre-eruptive magma. As supported by phenocryst liquid relations and Kilauea mineral thermometers established herein, the rift zone extension that led to episode 54 resulted in mixture of near-cotectic magma with discrete magma bodies cooled to ???1100??C. Mixing models indicate that magmas isolated beneath Napau Crater since 1963 and 1968 constituted 32 65% of the hybrid mixtures erupted during episode 54. Geophysical measurements support passive displacement of open-system magma along the active east rift conduit into closed-system rift-reservoirs along a shallow zone of extension. Geophysical and petrologic data for early episode 55 document the gradual flushing of episode 54 related magma during magmatic recharge of the edifice.

  6. Anomalous deep earthquakes beneath the East African Rift: evidence for rift induced delamination of the lithosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfeld, Michael; Rümpker, Georg; Schmeling, Harro; Wallner, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    The over 5000 m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System, at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During 2006/2007 a network of 27 seismological stations was operated in this area to investigate crustal and upper mantle structure in conjunction with local seismicity. The data analysis revealed unexpectedly high microseismic activity. On average more than 800 events per month could be located with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Hypocentral depths go as deep as 30 km with a pronounced concentration of activity at a depth of about 15 km. This presentation focuses on a cluster of seven earthquakes that were located at anomalous depths between 53 and 60 km. According to our present knowledge these are the deepest events so far observed within the EARS and the African Plate. Their origin might be connected to magmatic intrusions. However, the existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material close to the surface, which is not capable of seismogenic deformation. We think that these events are closely related to the evolution of the Rwenzoris. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere that is captured between two approaching rift segments. By numerical modelling we show that the RID-process is also able to bring material that is cold and brittle enough to release seismic energy into greater depth. Therefore the RID-mechanism gives a consistent explanation for the detected deep events as well as for the uplift of a mountain block in a rift setting.

  7. Numerical modeling of continental rifting: Implications for the East African Rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) provides a unique system with juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either side of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded into younger lithosphere. Here we take advantage of the improvements in our understanding of deep structures, geological evolution and recent kinematics, together with new cutting edge numerical modeling techniques to design a three-dimensional ultra-high resolution viscous plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model that accounts for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures the essential geophysical features of the central EARS. Based on our experiments, we show that in case of the mantle plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, the ascending plume material is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channeled along the eastern side of the craton, leading to formation of a large rift zone characterized by important magmatic activity with substantial amounts of melts derived from mantle plume material. This model is in good agreement with the observations in the EARS, as it reproduces the magmatic eastern branch and at the same time, anticlockwise rotation of the craton. However, this experiment does not reproduce the observed strain localization along the western margin of the cratonic bloc. To explain the formation of contrasting magmatic and amagmatic rift branches initiating simultaneously on either side of a non-deforming block as observed in the central EARS, we experimentally explored several scenarios of which three can be retained as specifically pertaining to the EARS: (1) The most trivial first scenario assumes rheologically weak vertical interface simulating the suture zone observed in the geological structure along the western border of the craton; (2) The second scenario involves a second smaller plume initially shifted in SW direction; (3) Finally, a

  8. Fault-Controlled Fluid Migration during Early-Stage Continental Rifting in the Magadi Basin, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J.; Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Kianji, G.; Maqway, M. D.; Thomas, N.; Onguso, B.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling the migration of mantle-derived, CO­2-rich fluids in early-stage continental rifts are poorly constrained, yet have important implications for processes occurring during the initiation of continental breakup. Within the East African Rift specifically, the role of normal fault structures in transporting fluids, and the role these fluids play in driving deformation, is yet to be addressed. The 7 Ma Magadi Basin of the EAR exhibits active hydrothermal fluid flow amongst an excellently exposed array of normal faults, providing a unique opportunity to test the mechanics of fault-controlled fluid migration at an early-stage continental rift setting. We present a study utilizing both geochemical and structural data collected from active and fossilized fluid systems observed along faults in the Magadi Basin. The distribution and orientation of veins and systematic fracture sets around fault zones were recorded in the field, and fault throws were measured using a Trimble GPS. Larger faults were analyzed remotely using aerial imagery and the Aster GDEM v.2. Fault data were then compared with CO2 flux measured on soil and from gas-emitting fractures in and around fault zones using an accumulation chamber. Our data reveal that CO2-rich fluids travel along fault-parallel fractures within fault zones, and fault-oblique fracture sets in the accommodation zones between fault segments. Fluids rising through faults may additionally be diverted along lithologic boundaries in fault grabens, such as the contact between lavas and overlying sedimentary fill. The highest CO2 flux observed in the Magadi region occurs in the central axis of the rift, along faults with the highest observable throws (>150 m) as well as the 1998 earthquake rupture. This study illustrates a direct link between fluid flow and faulting during the earliest stages of continental rifting. High CO2 soil flux and active hydrothermal fluid flow is, therefore, a potential indicator of faults

  9. Ambient noise tomography of the East African Rift in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Ana; Silveira, Graça; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Chang, Sung-Joon; Custódio, Susana; Fonseca, João F. B. D.

    2016-03-01

    Seismic ambient noise tomography is applied to central and southern Mozambique, located in the tip of the East African Rift (EAR). The deployment of MOZART seismic network, with a total of 30 broad-band stations continuously recording for 26 months, allowed us to carry out the first tomographic study of the crust under this region, which until now remained largely unexplored at this scale. From cross-correlations extracted from coherent noise we obtained Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for the period range 5-40 s. These dispersion relations were inverted to produce group velocity maps, and 1-D shear wave velocity profiles at selected points. High group velocities are observed at all periods on the eastern edge of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, in agreement with the findings of previous studies. Further east, a pronounced slow anomaly is observed in central and southern Mozambique, where the rifting between southern Africa and Antarctica created a passive margin in the Mesozoic, and further rifting is currently happening as a result of the southward propagation of the EAR. In this study, we also addressed the question concerning the nature of the crust (continental versus oceanic) in the Mozambique Coastal Plains (MCP), still in debate. Our data do not support previous suggestions that the MCP are floored by oceanic crust since a shallow Moho could not be detected, and we discuss an alternative explanation for its ocean-like magnetic signature. Our velocity maps suggest that the crystalline basement of the Zimbabwe craton may extend further east well into Mozambique underneath the sediment cover, contrary to what is usually assumed, while further south the Kaapval craton passes into slow rifted crust at the Lebombo monocline as expected. The sharp passage from fast crust to slow crust on the northern part of the study area coincides with the seismically active NNE-SSW Urema rift, while further south the Mazenga graben adopts an N-S direction

  10. The evolving contribution of border faults and intra-rift faults in early-stage East African rifts: insights from the Natron (Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya) basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Dindi, E.; Gama, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the early stages of continental rifting, East African Rift (EAR) basins are conventionally depicted as asymmetric basins bounded on one side by a ~100 km-long border fault. As rifting progresses, strain concentrates into the rift center, producing intra-rift faults. The timing and nature of the transition from border fault to intra-rift-dominated strain accommodation is unclear. Our study focuses on this transitional phase of continental rifting by exploring the spatial and temporal evolution of faulting in the Natron (border fault initiation at ~3 Ma) and Magadi (~7 Ma) basins of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, respectively. We compare the morphologies and activity histories of faults in each basin using field observations and remote sensing in order to address the relative contributions of border faults and intra-rift faults to crustal strain accommodation as rifting progresses. The ~500 m-high border fault along the western margin of the Natron basin is steep compared to many border faults in the eastern branch of the EAR, indicating limited scarp degradation by mass wasting. Locally, the escarpment shows open fissures and young scarps 10s of meters high and a few kilometers long, implying ongoing border fault activity in this young rift. However, intra-rift faults within ~1 Ma lavas are greatly eroded and fresh scarps are typically absent, implying long recurrence intervals between slip events. Rift-normal topographic profiles across the Natron basin show the lowest elevations in the lake-filled basin adjacent to the border fault, where a number of hydrothermal springs along the border fault system expel water into the lake. In contrast to Natron, a ~1600 m high, densely vegetated, border fault escarpment along the western edge of the Magadi basin is highly degraded; we were unable to identify evidence of recent rupturing. Rift-normal elevation profiles indicate the focus of strain has migrated away from the border fault into the rift center, where

  11. Mantle support of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; van Keken, P. E.; Brandenburg, J. P.; Furman, T.; Bryce, J.

    2007-12-01

    The African Superplume is a region of slow seismic wave velocities in the lower mantle under southern Africa. The uplift, volcanism and rifting that defines the much of eastern and southern Africa suggest a dynamic link between lower mantle dynamics and near-surface processes affecting the African plate. The dynamic link between the lower mantle and the surface, and the structure and dynamics of the upper mantle below the East African Rift System (EARS) remain unclear. As part of a comprehensive geochemical and numerical investigation of basaltic magmatism in the EARS we have modeled the interaction between putative upper mantle plumes and the rifting continental lithosphere. The modeling provides dynamically tested scenarios that explain the observed episodes of Cenozoic volcanism. Results from recent models that provided an explanation for the present day distribution of volcanism (Lin et al., EPSL, 237, 2005) suggest two plumes below Afar and Tanzania whose uplift is influenced by lithospheric topography. In new 3D modeling we provide improved quantification of the mantle involvement in generating EARS volcanism as constrained by the timing of uplift and regional volcanism. The time scales of episodicity of the volcanism observed at Turkana (related to the Tanzania-Kenya plume) since 45 Ma can be explained by deep- seated time-dependent plume activity. We suggest that this time-dependence is due to thermochemical interactions of dense recycled oceanic crust in the thermally hot regions in the African superplume region (Lin and Van Keken, Nature, 436, 2005).

  12. The Albertine Rift, East Africa: Initial rifting, long-term landscape evolution and final surface uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Friederike U.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Ring, Uwe; Grobe, René W.; Starz, Matthias; Mambo, Vikandy S.

    2013-04-01

    The Albertine Rift and associated Rwenzori Mountains form a striking feature at the north-western portion of the East African Rift System. The Rwenzori Mtns are built up by a dissected Precambrian metamorphic basement block that has been uplifted to heights of more than 5 km. The fundamental subject addressed by this study is the temporal and spatial evolution of the Rwenzori Mtns and adjacent Albertine Rift (western Uganda and Eastern Congo) at different time scales. In order to unlock how and at what time the extreme surface uplift occurred, low-temperature thermochronology methods were applied and combined with thermokinematic modelling. By means of apatite fission-track, apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He dating, combined with 2D (HeFTy) and 3D (Pecube) thermokinematic modelling different phases of landscape evolution could be determined for the Albertine area, where movements of surface uplift can be traced from Palaeozoic to Neogene times. Since the Palaeozoic several cooling events affected the Albertine area and Rwenzori Mtns, as revealed from samples along the rift shoulders and across the mountain range. Results from low-temperature thermochronology and thermokinematic modelling demonstrate that the Rwenzoris were not exhumed as a coherent block but are composed of distinct decoupled blocks with diverging exhumation histories and block movements along inherited faults. Thus, the evolution of the Rwenzoris was not solely triggered by Neogene rifting; moreover, a Mesozoic topographic Albertine high is conceivable. Since the Miocene renewed rock and surface uplift of distinct blocks with forced movements at the western flank of the Rwenzoris occurred. Rock uplift, thereby, outweighed erosion, resulting in the recent high topography of the Rwenzoris and their asymmetric character. Detrital thermochronology data confirm a Neogene surface uplift and indicate transition of erosional forces in Plio-/Pleistocene times. Thermokinematic modelling, applied to samples

  13. Stratigraphy, structure, and extent of the East Continent Rift Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, L.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The proven existence of pre-Mt. Simon sedimentary rocks named the Middle Run Formation in southwestern Ohio led to the establishment of the Cincinnati Arch Consortium, a joint industry-government partnership to investigate the areal extent, nature, and origin of this new unit. Utilizing available well, seismic, and potential-field data, the consortium has shown that the Middle Run was deposited in a Precambrian rift basin, named the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). These data indicate the ECRB assemblage consists of a large folded and faulted wedge of interlayered volcanic and sedimentary rocks, unconformably overlain by Cambrian strata. This wedge is estimated to be thickest (up to about 22,000 feet) on the western edge, where it is in fault contact with Grenville Province rocks. To the west, the ECRB may extend as far as central Illinois and postdates the Precambrian Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks. The contact between the ECRB and this older province appears to be in part an angular unconformity and in part block faulted. The northern limit of this basin was not encountered in the study area; this may indicate a connection with the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan. In central Kentucky, the boundary conditions are more complex. It appears that the ECRB is constricted between a large block of the Granite-Rhyolite Province to the west and the Grenville Front on the east. Large Cambrian extensional structures (Rough Creek Graben and Rome Trough) were overprinted on the Granite-Rhyolite and Grenville Provinces. The ECRB may have acted as a stable block between these Cambrian features. The relationships of the ECRB to overlying Paleozoic features may be profound. Indeed, the ECRB may prove to be the reason for the very existence of the Cincinnati and Kankakee Arches.

  14. Combining detrital geochronology and sedimentology to assess basin development in the Rukwa Rift of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Roberts, Eric; Mtelela, Cassy; Downie, Bob

    2015-04-01

    We have employed a multifaceted approach to sedimentary provenance analysis in order to assess the timing and magnitude of tectonic events, sedimentation, and landscape development in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Our approach, termed 'Sedimentary Triple Dating', integrates: (1) U-Pb dating via LA-ICPMS; (2) fission track; and (3) (U-Th)/He thermochronology of detrital zircon and apatite. We integrate geochronology, thermochronology, and provenance analysis to relate the initiation of rifting events to regional dynamic uplift, sedimentation patterns, and interpret the far-reaching climatic and evolutionary effects of fluctuating rift flank topography in the Rukwa Rift, a segment of the Western Branch. This work provides additional data to support the recent concept of synchronous development of the Western and Eastern branches of the East African Rift System ~25 Ma, and better constrains the age, location and provenance of subsequent rifting and sedimentation events in the Rukwa Rift Basin. Investigation of well cuttings and outcrop samples from the Neogene-Recent Lake Beds Succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin revealed a suite of previously unrecognized tuffaceous deposits at the base of the succession. A population of euhedral, magmatic zircons from a basal Lake Beds tuff and Miocene-Pliocene detrital zircons from well cuttings suggest that Neogene rift reactivation and volcanism began ~9-10 Ma. This timing is consistent with demonstrated rifting in Uganda and Malawi, as well as with the initiation of volcanism in the Rungwe Volcanic Province at the southern end of the Rukwa Rift, and the estimated development of Lake Tanganyika to the north. Moreover, there appear to be a suite of unconformity bounded stratigraphic units that make up the Lower Lake Beds succession, and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages from these units suggests episodic sedimentation in the rift, punctuated by long hiatuses or uplift, rather than steady subsidence and

  15. Deep crustal earthquakes in North Tanzania, East Africa: Interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes in an incipient rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaric, Julie; Déverchère, Jacques; Perrot, Julie; Jakovlev, Andrey; Deschamps, Anne

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we explore the origin of lower crustal seismicity and the factors controlling rift propagation using seismological data recorded within the youngest part of the East African Rift System, the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD). Most earthquakes below Lake Manyara occur at depth ranging between 20 and 40 km and have a swarm-like distribution. Focal mechanisms of 26 events indicate a combination of strike-slip and normal faulting involving Archaean basement structures and forming a relay zone. The derived local stress regime is transtensive and the minimum principal stress is oriented N110°E. Crustal seismic tomography reveals low-velocity anomalies below the rifted basins in the NTD, interpreted as localized thermomechanical perturbations promoting fluid release and subsequent seismicity in the lower crust. SKS splitting analysis in the NTD indicates seismic anisotropy beneath 17 stations most likely due to aligned magma lenses and/or dikes beneath the rift and to the lithospheric fabrics. Our results favor a strain pattern intermediate between purely mechanical and purely magmatic. We suggest that melt products arising from a large asthenospheric thermal anomaly enhance lithospheric weakening and facilitate faulting and creeping on critically oriented inherited structures of the Precambrian lower crust. Although the crust is unlikely weakened at a point comparable to other parts of the East African Rift System, this deep-seated thermomechanical process is efficient enough to allow slow rift propagation within the eastern Tanzanian cratonic edge.

  16. Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Ranka, L. S.; Onguso, B.; Kanda, I.; Opiyo-Akech, N.; Sharp, Z. D.; Hilton, D. R.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Muirhead, J.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in

  17. Discovery of sublacustrine hydrothermal activity and associated massive sulfides and hydrocarbons in the north Tanganyika trough, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Thouin, Catherine; Kalala, Tchibangu; Mondeguer, André

    1989-11-01

    Massive sulfides and carbonate mineral deposits associated with sublacustrine thermal springs were recently discovered along the Zaire side of the north Tanganyika trough, western branch of the East African Rift. This hydrothermal activity, investigated by scuba diving at a maximum depth of 20 m, is located at the intersection of major north-south normal faults and northwest-southeast faults belonging to the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) strike-slip fault zone. The preliminary results presented here come from analyses of sulfide deposits, hydrothermal fluids, and associated hydrocarbons that result from geothermal activity in this part of the East African Rift filled by a thick pile of sediment, the north Tanganyika trough.

  18. Persistence of Rift Valley fever virus in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gachohi, J.; Hansen, F.; Bett, B.; Kitala, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock, wildlife and humans that causes severe outbreaks in intervals of several years. One of the open questions is how the virus persists between outbreaks. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based simulation model of the RVFv transmission dynamics to investigate this question. The model, is based on livestock and mosquito population dynamics. Spatial aspects are explicitly represented by a set of grid cells that represent mosquito breeding sites. A grid cell measures 500 by 500m and the model considers a grid of 100 by 100 grid cells; the model thus operates on the regional scale of 2500km2. Livestock herds move between grid cells, and provide connectivity between the cells. The model is used to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of RVFv persistence in absence of a wildlife reservoir in an east African semi-arid context. Specifically, the model assesses the importance of local virus persistence in mosquito breeding sites relative to global virus persistence mitigated by movement of hosts. Local persistence is determined by the length of time the virus remains in a mosquito breeding site once introduced. In the model, this is a function of the number of mosquitoes that emerge infected and their lifespan. Global persistence is determined by the level of connectivity between isolated grid cells. Our work gives insights into the ecological and epidemiological conditions under which RVFv persists. The implication for disease surveillance and management are discussed.

  19. Varying styles of magmatic strain accommodation across the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, James D.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Le Corvec, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Observations of active dike intrusions provide present day snapshots of the magmatic contribution to continental rifting. However, unravelling the contributions of upper crustal dikes over the timescale of continental rift evolution is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we analyzed the morphologies and alignments of >1500 volcanic cones to infer the distribution and trends of upper crustal dikes in various rift basins across the East African Rift (EAR). Cone lineament data reveal along-axis variations in the distribution and geometries of dike intrusions as a result of changing tectonomagmatic conditions. In younger (<10 Ma) basins of the North Tanzanian Divergence, dikes are largely restricted to zones of rift-oblique faulting between major rift segments, referred to here as transfer zones. Cone lineament trends are highly variable, resulting from the interplay between (1) the regional stress field, (2) local magma-induced stress fields, and (3) stress rotations related to mechanical interactions between rift segments. We find similar cone lineament trends in transfer zones in the western branch of the EAR, such as the Virunga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The distributions and orientations of upper crustal dikes in the eastern branch of the EAR vary during continental rift evolution. In early-stage rifts (<10 Ma), upper crustal dikes play a limited role in accommodating extension, as they are confined to areas in and around transfer zones. In evolved rift basins (>10 Ma) in Ethiopia and the Kenya Rift, rift-parallel dikes accommodate upper crustal extension along the full length of the basin.

  20. The Lake Albert Rift (uganda, East African Rift System): Deformation, Basin and Relief Evolution Since 17 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Olivier, Dauteuil; Thierry, Nalpas; Martin, Pickford; Brigitte, Senut; Philippe, Lays; Philippe, Bourges; Martine, Bez

    2016-04-01

    This study is based on a coupled basin infilling study and a landforms analysis of the Lake Albert Rift located at the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift. The basin infilling study is based on both subsurface data and outcrops analysis. The objective was to (1) obtain an age model based on onshore mammals biozones, (2) to reconstruct the 3D architecture of the rift using sequence stratigraphy correlations and seismic data interpretation, (3) to characterize the deformation and its changes through times and (4) to quantify the accommodation for several time intervals. The infilling essentially consists of isopach fault-bounded units composed of lacustrine deposits wherein were characterized two major unconformities dated at 6.2 Ma (Uppermost Miocene) and 2.7 Ma (Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary), coeval with major subsidence and climatic changes. The landforms analysis is based on the characterization and relative dating (geometrical relationships with volcanism) of Ugandan landforms which consist of stepped planation surfaces (etchplains and peplians) and incised valleys. We here proposed a seven-steps reconstruction of the deformation-erosion-sedimentation relationships of the Lake Albert Basin and its catchments: - 55-45 Ma: formation of laterites corresponding to the African Surface during the very humid period of the Lower-Middle Eocene; - 45-22: stripping of the African Surface in response of the beginning of the East-African Dome uplift and formation of a pediplain which associated base level is the Atlantic Ocean; - 17-2.5 Ma: Initiation of the Lake Albert Basin around 17 Ma and creation of local base levels (Lake Albert, Edward and George) on which three pediplains tend to adapt; - 18 - 16 Ma to 6.2 Ma: "Flexural" stage (subsidence rate: 150-200 m/Ma; sedimentation rate 1.3 km3/Ma between 17 and 12 Ma and 0.6 km3/Ma from 12 to 6 Ma) - depocenters location (southern part of Lake Albert Basin) poorly controlled by fault; - 6.2 Ma to 2

  1. East Antarctic Rift Systems - key to understanding of Gondwana break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, D. A.; Golynsky, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The results of analysis of radio-echo sounding surveys, the RADARSAT satellite data, magnetic and gravity information give evidence that East Antarctica contains 13 riftogenic systems and/or large linear tectonic structures. Among known and suggested rifts of East Antarctica the Lambert rift has a pivotal position and it manifests oneself as symmetry axis. Six additional systems are revealed on both sides of it and any one of them possesses special features in geologic and geomorphologic aspects. In most cases they inherited the anisotropy of long-lived cratonic blocks. Riftogenic and/or large linear tectonic structures along the East Antarctica coastal regions are distributed with a steady regularity with average distance between them about 650 km. For six (7) structures from 13 (Lambert, Jutulstraumen-Pencksökket, Vestfjella, Mellor-Slessor (Bailey), Wilkes Basin, Gaussberg (?) and Rennick) there is a distinct spatial coupling with trough complexes of the Beacon Supergroup and their subsequent reactivation in Late Jurassic - Permian time when the East Gondwana started break-up. Rift system of the Lambert-Amery Glaciers and Prydz Bay is related to Mesozoic extension events and it inherited structures of Paleozoic grabens. The total length of the rift system exceeds 4000 km of the same scale as largest the World rift belts. The length of the western branch of the Lambert rift that includes the Mellor rift and graben-like structures of the Bailey and Slessor glaciers exceeds 2300 km. Results of radio-echo sounding investigation of the subglacial Aurora Basin allow to suggest that this large basin of sub-meridian extension is underlain by an extensive (> 1000 km) riftogenic structure that is running towards the Transantarctic Mountains where it forms a triple junction with the eastern branch of the Lambert rift and structures of the Wilkes Basin. It is hereby proposed that Aurora-Scott rift is formed by complex system of sub-parallel depressions divided by

  2. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  3. Seismic Migration Imaging of the Lithosphere beneath the Afar Rift System, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. T. Y.; Chen, C. W.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Afar Rift system in east Africa is an ideal natural laboratory for investigating the incipient continental rifting, an essential component of plate tectonics. The Afar Rift is situated at the triple junction of three rifts, namely the southern Red Sea Rift, Gulf of Aden Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). The ongoing continental rifting at Afar transitions to seafloor spreading toward the southern Red Sea. The tectonic evolution of Afar is thought to be influenced by a mantle plume, but how the plume affects and interacts with the Afar lithosphere remains elusive. In this study, we use array seismic data to produce high-resolution migration images of the Afar lithosphere from scattered teleseismic wavefields to shed light on the lithospheric structure and associated tectonic processes. Our preliminary results indicate the presence of lithospheric seismic discontinuities with depth variation across the Afar region. Beneath the MER axis, we detect a pronounced discontinuity at 55 km depth, characterized by downward fast-to-slow velocity contrast, which appears to abruptly deepen to 75 km depth to the northern flank of MER. This discontinuity may be interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Beneath the Ethiopian Plateau, on the other hand, a dipping structure with velocity increase is identified at 70-90 km depth. Further synthesis of observations from seismic tomography, receiver functions, and seismic anisotropy in the Afar region will offer better understanding of tectonic significance of the lithospheric discontinuities.

  4. The origin and geologic evolution of the East Continent Rift Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Drahovzal, J.A. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    The East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB) is a newly recognized, dominantly sedimentary-volcanic Proterozoic rift basin that apparently represents the southern extension of the Keweenawan Midcontinent Rift. The ECRB extends from central Michigan at least as far south as south-central Kentucky. The inferred age of the rift fill is approximately 1,000 Ma. Evidence supporting a rift origin for the ECRB includes: interbedding of continental flood basalts and felsic volcanics with siliciclastics; sedimentary fill consisting of distal, arid-climate alluvial fan sediments that lack metamorphic lithologies; close proximity and similar lithologic succession to the Keweenawan rift-fill rocks of the Michigan Basin; and inferred marginal block faulting of Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks near the western edge of the ECRB. ECRB evolution is interpreted as follows: (1) formation of Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks (1,500--1,340 Ma); (2) Keweenawan crustal extension and rifting with development of central mafic complexes, emplacement of volcanic rocks, and deposition of siliciclastic fill from eroded marginal Granite-Rhyolite Province tilted fault blocks (ca 1,000 Ma); (3) overthrusting of the Grenville allochthon and associated foreland thrusting and folding of the rift sequence rocks together with deposition of foreland basin sediments (975---890 Ma); (4) Late Proterozoic erosional removal of the foreland basin sediments and interpreted wrench faulting along the Grenville Front (post-975 to pre-570 Ma); and (5) tectonic inversion, with the ECRB area remaining relatively high during major cambrian subsidence in central Kentucky (590--510 Ma).

  5. Evidence From Adakitic Rocks For Lithosphere Recycling At The U.S. East Coast Volcanic Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R.; Van Wijk, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatism at magmatic rifted margins is dominated by asthenospheric melts generated during decompression melting from the upwelling asthenosphere. However reported magma compositions are diverse, giving clues about additional processes during rifting and continental rupture. We report here on adakites from the U.S. East Coast that are related to breakup of the North Atlantic. The sampled adakites are bi-modal, and show a clear high-Si and low-Si major and trace element chemistry. During the closure of the proto-Atlantic and its related back-arc basins, the Appalachian lithosphere sampled an ophiolitic mélange within major sutures. Subsequent metamorphic events in the Blue Ridge province of the U.S. East Coast increased the rock density of the ophiolites (eclogite) and partly hydrated these mafic to ultramafic rocks. Such a preconditioned lithosphere will likely develop gravitational instabilities at the asthenosphere-lithosphere boundary during rifting. We use geodynamic models to show when gravitational instabilities form below the East Coast margin, and how they eventually delaminate mantle lithosphere and lower crust material. After foundering, the delaminated lithosphere undergoes metamorphism, heats up, and interacts with fluids and melts in the surrounding convecting mantle. Partial melting of this metamorphic lithology produces high-Si adakitic melts. These melts percolated upwards through the mantle and were partially injected into the Valley and Ridge province. Where melt-to-peridotite (asthenosphere) ratios were small, the melts and fluids leaving the sinking lithospheric block became fixed within the peridotites. Geochemical modeling suggests, that 5 to 10% melting degrees of such a metasomatically overprinted and fertile asthenosphere produced the low-Si adakitic rocks of the Virginia adakites.

  6. Estimation of Earthquake Source Properties Along the East African Rift Using Full Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, B.; Roecker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the Continental Rifting in Africa: Fluids-Tectonic Interaction (CRAFTI) experiment was conducted in northern Tanzania and southern Kenya as a means to better evaluate the effect of tectonic and magmatic strain along the east African rift. Towards this goal S. Roecker has computed a 3D structural model by joint inversion of gravity, local seismic body wave, and surface wave data. The joint inversion in turn produces a quality estimate of the compressional, shear, and density structure in the region. In the process of tomography of local body wave data it was observed that there exist some anomalously deep seismic events. To better quantify these events we look towards waveform modeling in this new and laterally heterogeneous structural model. It is thought that better quantification of later arriving direct and scattered phases will provide better resolved estimates of the event locations and lower the trade-off between source time and depth uncertainty inherent in travel time inversions. Since our main objective is testing the validity of seismic depths in the travel time inversion we will favor a grid search based approach around the current hypocenters using a method similar Zhao, 2006. To expedite processing, we make use of seismic reciprocity and save the strain wave fields produced by impulsive sources at receiver locations in the vicinity of the initial hypocenters. We then perform a moment tensor inversion at each location around the hypocenter, estimate the corresponding source time function, compute the resulting synthetics, and finally calculate a cumulative waveform misfit objective function for all stations. It is thought this procedure should well sample the objective function in the neighborhood of the initial hypocenters and thereby provide an avenue for resolution analysis of the event depths.

  7. Characterising East Antarctic Lithosphere and its Rift Systems using Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V. Sasha; Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that East Antarctica has a relatively homogeneous lithospheric structure, consisting of a craton-like mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago (e.g. Ferracioli et al. 2011). Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data by Golynsky & Golynsky (2009) indicates that further rift zones may form widely distributed extension zones within the continent. A pilot study (Vaughan et al. 2012), using a newly developed gravity inversion technique (Chappell & Kusznir 2008) with existing public domain satellite data, shows distinct crustal thickness provinces with overall high average thickness separated by thinner, possibly rifted, crust. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) this is poorly known along the ocean-continent transition, but is necessary to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana, which will also better define how and when these continents separated; 2) lateral variation in crustal thickness can be used to test supercontinent reconstructions and assess the effects of crystalline basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting; 3) rift zone trajectories through East Antarctica will define the geometry of zones of crustal and lithospheric thinning at plate-scale; 4) it is not clear why or when the crust of East Antarctica became so thick and elevated, but knowing this can be used to test models of

  8. Characterising Antarctic and Southern Ocean Lithosphere with Magnetic and Gravity Imaging of East Antarctic Rift Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that the lithospheric structure of East Antarctica is relatively homogeneous, forming a geological block of largely cratonic nature, consisting of a mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago. Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior indicates that this is incorrect, and has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications for tectonic reconstructions and controls on ice sheet formation and stability. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data pioneered by Golynsky & Golynsky indicates that further rift zones may extend the East Antarctic Rift System into widely distributed extension zones within the continent. We have carried out a pilot study, using a newly developed gravity inversion technique with existing public domain satellite data, which shows that East Antarctica consists of distinct crustal thickness provinces with anomalously thick areas separated by thin, possibly rifted crust and overall high average thickness. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) Better understanding of crustal thickness in Antarctica, especially along the ocean-continent transition (OCT), will make it possible to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana and also refine constraints on how and when these continents separated; 2) crustal thickness provinces can be used to aid supercontinent reconstructions and provide new assessments of the influence of basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting processes; 3) tracking rift zones through

  9. The role of inherited crustal structures and magmatism in the development of rift segments: Insights from the Kivu basin, western branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, Benoît; Delvaux, Damien; Ross, Kelly Ann; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François

    2016-06-01

    The study of rift basin's morphology can provide good insights into geological features influencing the development of rift valleys and the distribution of volcanism. The Kivu rift segment represents the central section of the western branch of the East African Rift and displays morphological characteristics contrasting with other rift segments. Differences and contradictions between several structural maps of the Kivu rift make it difficult to interpret the local geodynamic setting. In the present work, we use topographic and bathymetric data to map active fault networks and study the geomorphology of the Kivu basin. This relief-based fault lineament mapping appears as a good complement for field mapping or mapping using seismic reflection profiles. Results suggest that rifting reactivated NE-SW oriented structures probably related to the Precambrian basement, creating transfer zones and influencing the location and distribution of volcanism. Both volcanic provinces, north and south of the Kivu basin, extend into Lake Kivu and are connected to each other with a series of eruptive vents along the western rift escarpment. The complex morphology of this rift basin, characterized by a double synthetic half-graben structure, might result from the combined action of normal faulting, magmatic underplating, volcanism and erosion processes.

  10. Recent outbreaks of rift valley Fever in East Africa and the middle East.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mahgoub, Mostafa M; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006-2007), Kenya (2006-2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007-2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997-98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  11. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Mahgoub, Mostafa M.; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007), Kenya (2006–2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007–2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  12. Evolution of bimodal volcanism in Gona, Ethiopia: geochemical associations and geodynamic implications for the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, N.; Basu, A. R.; Gregory, R. T.; Richards, I.; Quade, J.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    rocks by a fluid derived from seawater or some crustal fluid not enriched in radiogenic Sr. The bimodality of the volcanic rocks may be genetically related by fractional crystallization or by partial melting of a hydrothermally altered mafic crust from earlier magma generation in the rift, without continental crustal assimilation. The geochemical data, along with geophysical and geodetic studies, assist our understanding of the tectonics of continental break up and plume magmatism in the Afar depression and the East African Rift system.

  13. The 12 September 1999 Upper East Rift Zone dike intrusion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cervelli, Peter; Segall, P.; Amelung, F.; Garbeil, H.; Meertens, C.; Owen, S.; Miklius, Asta; Lisowski, M.

    2002-01-01

    Deformation associated with an earthquake swarm on 12 September 1999 in the Upper East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano was recorded by continuous GPS receivers and by borehole tiltmeters. Analyses of campaign GPS, leveling data, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the ERS-2 satellite also reveal significant deformation from the swarm. We interpret the swarm as resulting from a dike intrusion and model the deformation field using a constant pressure dike source. Nonlinear inversion was used to find the model that best fits the data. The optimal dike is located beneath and slightly to the west of Mauna Ulu, dips steeply toward the south, and strikes nearly east-west. It is approximately 3 by 2 km across and was driven by a pressure of ??? 15 MPa. The total volume of the dike was 3.3 x 106 m3. Tilt data indicate a west to east propagation direction. Lack of premonitory inflation of Kilauea's summit suggests a passive intrusion; that is, the immediate cause of the intrusion was probably tensile failure in the shallow crust of the Upper East Rift Zone brought about by persistent deep rifting and by continued seaward sliding of Kilauea's south flank.

  14. Tracing mantle-reacted fluids in magma-poor rifted margins: The example of Alpine Tethyan rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Victor Hugo G.; Manatschal, Gianreto; Karpoff, Anne Marie; Viana, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    The thinning of the crust and the exhumation of subcontinental mantle in magma-poor rifted margins is accompanied by a series of extensional detachment faults. We show that exhumation along these detachments is intimately related to migration of fluids leading to changes in mineralogy and chemistry of the mantle, crustal, and sedimentary rocks. Using field observation and analytical methods, we investigate the role of fluids in the fossil distal margins of the Alpine Tethys. Using Cr-Ni-V, Fe, and Mn as tracers, we show that fluids used detachment faults as pathways and interacted with the overlying crust and sediments. These observations allow us to discuss when, where, and how this interaction happened during the formation of the rifted margin. The results show that: (i) serpentinization of mantle rocks during their exhumation results in the depletion of elements and migration of mantle-reacted fluids that are channeled along active detachment system; (ii) in earlier-stages, these fluids affected the overlying syntectonic sediments by direct migration from the underlying detachments;(iii) in later-stages, these fluids arrived at the seafloor, were introduced into, or "polluted" the seawater and were absorbed by post tectonic sediments. We conclude that a significant amount of serpentinization occurred underneath the hyperextended continental crust, and that the mantle-reacted fluids might have modified the chemical composition of the sediments and seawater. We propose that the chemical signature of serpentinization related to mantle exhumation is recorded in the sediments and may serve as a proxy to date serpentinization and mantle exhumation at present-day magma-poor rifted margins.

  15. Earthquakes along the East African Rift System: A multiscale, system-wide perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaohui; Chen, Wang-Ping

    2010-12-01

    On the basis of a comprehensive data set of precisely determined depths of 121 large to moderate-sized earthquakes along and near the entire East African Rift System (EARS), there are three distinct patterns in focal depths which seem to correlate with progressive stages in the development of the largest active rift in the world. First, away from both ends of the western, younger branch of the EARS, very large (Mw ≥ 7) earthquakes occurred in the top 15 km of the crust where surficial expressions of rifting are yet to appear. Curiously, there are unusually deep aftershocks reaching down to 35 ± 3 km. Second, under well-developed but amagmatic rift segments, focal depths show a bimodal distribution, with peaks centered near depths of about 15 ± 5 km and 35 ± 5 km. This pattern is present both under the main axis of the EARS, where rift zone have lengths approaching 1000 km, and beneath rift units 10 times shorter in length. Underside reflections off the Moho indicate that at least part of the second peak in seismicity is due to mantle earthquakes down to 44 ± 4 km, attesting to high differential stress in the mantle lithosphere which is capable of accumulating seismogenic, elastic strain (the "jelly sandwich" rheology). Third, beneath magmatic segments of well-developed rifts, seismicity is largely confined to the upper 15 km of the crust as observed previously, akin to the pattern along mid-ocean ridges where plastic flow due to high temperature inhibits accumulation of shear stress deep in the lithosphere.

  16. A new brachypterous scarab species, Orphnus longicornis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), from the East African Rift.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below. PMID:26624632

  17. Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zoneof Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Guoqing; Amelung, Falk; Lavallee, Yan; Okubo, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    An anomalous body with low Vp (compressional wave velocity), low Vs (shear wave velocity), and high Vp/Vs anomalies is observed at 8–11 km depth beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii by simultaneous inversion of seismic velocity structure and earthquake locations. We interpret this body to be a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcanic pile, similar to those widely recognized beneath mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. Combined seismic velocity and petrophysical models suggest the presence of 10% melt in a cumulate magma mush. This reservoir could have supplied the magma that intruded into the deep section of the east rift zone and caused its rapid expansion following the 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake.

  18. Volcanic Centers in the East African Rift: Imaging Volcanic Processes with Long-Period Event Identification and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patlan, E.; Wamalwa, A. M.; Hardy, S.; Kaip, G.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Kenya actively seeks to produce geothermal energy, and the country lies within the East African Rift System (EARS). The EARS, an active continental rift zone, appears to be a developing tectonic plate boundary and thus, has a number of active as well as dormant volcanoes through its extent. These volcanic centers can be used as potential sources for geothermal energy. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the Geothermal Development Company (GDC) began collaborating to monitor several volcanic centers, which have included passive seismic sensor deployments experiment. A number of seismological techniques will be applied to the data being collected at the four volcanic centers: Menengai, Silali, and Paka, and Korosi. In particular, we will identify long-period signals and tremor local using a time-reversal approach. Low-frequency earthquakes are interpreted as magma passing through conduits of the magma chamber and/or fluid being transported as a function of magma movement or hydrothermal activity. The time-reversal locations will help identify the margin of the volcano and caldera, and faults that could form conduits for fluids. We will also perform ambient noise tomography to image the magma chamber and the conduit feeding the volcanoes. The combination of the velocity snapshots of the magma chamber, low-frequency events, and long period events will help us interpret the activity of the calderas and volcanoes. Overall, all these techniques will help us understand magma movement and volcanic processes in the region.

  19. Cenozoic extension in the Kenya Rift from low-temperature thermochronology: Links to diachronous spatiotemporal evolution of rifting in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Acosta, Verónica; Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward R.; Parra, Mauricio; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Stuart, Finlay; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-12-01

    The cooling history of rift shoulders and the subsidence history of rift basins are cornerstones for reconstructing the morphotectonic evolution of extensional geodynamic provinces, assessing their role in paleoenvironmental changes and evaluating the resource potential of their basin fills. Our apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He data from the Samburu Hills and the Elgeyo Escarpment in the northern and central sectors of the Kenya Rift indicate a broadly consistent thermal evolution of both regions. Results of thermal modeling support a three-phased thermal history since the early Paleocene. The first phase (~65-50 Ma) was characterized by rapid cooling of the rift shoulders and may be coeval with faulting and sedimentation in the Anza Rift basin, now located in the subsurface of the Turkana depression and areas to the east in northern Kenya. In the second phase, very slow cooling or slight reheating occurred between ~45 and 15 Ma as a result of either stable surface conditions, very slow exhumation, or subsidence. The third phase comprised renewed rapid cooling starting at ~15 Ma. This final cooling represents the most recent stage of rifting, which followed widespread flood-phonolite emplacement and has shaped the present-day landscape through rift shoulder uplift, faulting, basin filling, protracted volcanism, and erosion. When compared with thermochronologic and geologic data from other sectors of the East African Rift System, extension appears to be diachronous, spatially disparate, and partly overlapping, likely driven by interactions between mantle-driven processes and crustal heterogeneities, rather than the previously suggested north-south migrating influence of a mantle plume.

  20. Seismicity Patterns and Magmatic Processes in the Rwenzori Region, East-African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rumpker, G.; Schmeling, H.; Wallner, H.

    2010-12-01

    The 5000m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block located within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During a recent seismological campaign we located more than 800 earthquakes per month with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Vertical sections across the northern parts of the Rwenzoris show, that west of the mountains (towards the rift valley) the focal depths range from 10 to 20 km, whereas the hypocentres go as deep as 30 km on the eastern side. This is in good agreement with Moho-depths derived from receiver functions and implies that all of these events are located within the crust. However, about 30 km east of the northern mountain ridge we located a cluster of 7 events that exhibit an anomalous depth of about 60 km. We can confidently locate these earthquakes within the mantle lithosphere beneath the rift. The existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material relatively close to the surface. We think that these events are possibly related to the evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere. Here we show that the RID-process is indeed capable of explaining the seismic energy release in the mantle. However, in view of the specific hypocentral location of the event cluster, magmatic impregnation processes associated with dyke propagation into the mantle lithosphere may be a more realistic cause for seismic radiation at the observed depth. Crustal earthquakes northeast of the Rwenzori area are relocated with a double-difference algorithm to improve the spatial resolution of seismicity pattern. Several event clusters in the vicinity of the Fort

  1. Littoral sedimentation of rift lakes: an illustrated overview from the modern to Pliocene Lake Turkana (East African Rift System, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Nutz, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Existing depositional models for rift lakes can be summarized as clastics transported by axial and lateral rivers, then distributed by fan-deltas and/or deltas into a standing water body which is dominated by settling of fine particles, and experiencing occasional coarser underflows. Even if known from paleolakes and modern lakes, reworking of clastics by alongshore drift, waves and storms are rarely considered in depositional models. However, if we consider the lake Turkana Basin (East African Rift System, Kenya) it is obvious that this vision is incomplete. Three representative time slices are considered here: the modern Lake Turkana, the Megalake Turkana which developed thanks to the African Humid Period (Holocene), and the Plio-Pleistocene highstand episodes of paleolake Turkana (Nachukui, Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations, Omo Group). First, remarkable clastic morphosedimentary structures such as beach ridges, spits, washover fans, lagoons, or wave-dominated deltas are very well developed along the shoreline of modern lake Turkana, suggesting strong hydrodynamics responsible for a major reworking of the fluvial-derived clastics all along the littoral zone (longshore and cross-shore transport) of the lake. Similarly, past hydrodynamics are recorded from prominent raised beach ridges and spits, well-preserved all around the lake, above its present water-level (~360 m asl) and up to ~455 m. These large-scale clastic morphosedimentary structures also record the maximum extent of Megalake Turkana during the African Humid Period, as well as its subsequent regression forced by the end of the Holocene climatic optimum. Several hundreds of meters of fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine deposits spanning the Pliocene-Pleistocene are exposed in the Turkana basin thanks to tectonic faulting. These deposits are world famous for their paleontological and archeological content that documents the very early story of Mankind. They also preserve several paleolake highstand episodes with

  2. Sismotectonics in the western branch of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François; Mulumba, Jean-Luc; Kipata, Louis; Sebagenzi, Stanislas; Mavonga, Georges; Macheyeki, Athanas; Temu, Elly Bryan

    2013-04-01

    The western branch of the East African rift system is known of its particular seismic activity with larger magnitude (up to Ms 7.3) and more frequent destructive earthquakes than in the eastern branch. As a contribution to the IGCP 601 project Seismotectonic Map of Africa, we compiled the known active faults, thermal springs and historical seismicity in Central Africa. Using the rich archives of the Royal Museum for Central Africa, publications and own field observations, we present a compilation of available data relative to the current seismotectonic activity along the western branch of the East African rift system, in DRC, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. Neotectonic activity related to the western rift branch is in general well expressed and relatively well studied in the eastern flank of this rift branch, in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. In contrast, the western flank of this rift branch, largely exposed in the DRC, has attracted less attention. However, data collected during the colonial times show significant sismotectonic activity in East DRC, not only in the western flank of the western rift branch, but extending far westwards up to the margin of the Congo basin. In particular, our predecessors paid a special attention to the mapping and description of thermal springs, noticing that they are often controlled by active faults. In addition, the operators of the relatively dense network of meteorological stations installed in the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi also recorded were with variable level of completeness and detail the earthquakes that they could felt. This provides a rich database that is used to complete the existing knowledge on historical seismicity. An important effort has still to be paid to identify and map potentially active fault due to poor field accessibility, tropical climate weathering and vegetation coverage. The main problem in the compilation of active fault data is that very few of them have been investigated by paleoseismic trenching

  3. Analogies Between the East African Rift Around the Tanzania Craton and the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesi, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    Continental rifts and oceanic spreading centers both accommodate plate divergence but their morphologies are often quite different. Yet, ultraslow spreading centers, especially the Southwest Indian ridge at the 9 to 16°E area (SWIR), present good analogies for the East African Rift (EAR), including localized volcanism, avolcanic segments, and a continuous but not straight rift axis. The archetypal oceanic spreading center features transform offsets. Volcanism is continuous along the ridge axis and is most vigorous at the center of spreading segments. By contrast, continental rifts do not feature transform offsets. The orientation of the rift can change along strike. Several rift segments are purely tectonic, with relatively isolated volcanic centers. The EAR around the Tanzania Craton clearly shows this kind of morphology. Ultraslow spreading centers share many of these features. The SWIR, in particular, displays dramatic changes in orientation, with volcanism localized at the junction between segments of different obliquity. Melt production and transport are controlled by the effective spreading rate, a combination of plate divergence velocity and rift obliquity. Ultraslow spreading center all have an effective spreading rate less than 13 mm/yr. At that speed the thickness of the thermal boundary layer is similar to the depth from which magma can be effectively extracted, opening the possibility for long-distance transport of magma along axis without extraction. Volcanic centers correspond to the location where the magma transport system first encounters a tectonically damaged zone that enables extraction to the surface. The effective velocity of the EAR in the Kenya dome is less than 4mm/yr firmly on par with ultraslow ridges. In fact, to generate magma by mantle upwelling at such a slow opening rate requires a higher mantle temperature or fertility than in the oceanic domain. Both opening rate and effective velocity increase northward along the Eastern branch

  4. Sedimentary budgets of the Tanzania coastal basin and implications for uplift history of the East African rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Aymen; Moder, Christoph; Clark, Stuart; Abdelmalak, Mohamed Mansour

    2015-11-01

    Data from 23 wells were used to quantify the sedimentary budgets in the Tanzania coastal basin in order to unravel the uplift chronology of the sourcing area located in the East African Rift System. We quantified the siliciclastic sedimentary volumes preserved in the Tanzania coastal basin corrected for compaction and in situ (e.g., carbonates) production. We found that the drainage areas, which supplied sediments to this basin, were eroded in four episodes: (1) during the middle Jurassic, (2) during the Campanian-Palaeocene, (3) during the middle Eocene and (4) during the Miocene. Three of these high erosion and sedimentation periods are more likely related to uplift events in the East African Rift System and earlier rift shoulders and plume uplifts. Indeed, rapid cooling in the rift system and high denudation rates in the sediment source area are coeval with these recorded pulses. However, the middle Eocene pulse was synchronous with a fall in the sea level, a climatic change and slow cooling of the rift flanks and thus seems more likely due to climatic and eustatic variations. We show that the rift shoulders of the East African rift system have inherited their present relief from at least three epeirogenic uplift pulses of middle Jurassic, Campanian-Palaeocene, and Miocene ages.

  5. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  6. The development of the East African Rift system in north-central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackman, B. D.; Charsley, T. J.; Key, R. M.; Wilkinson, A. F.

    1990-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1986 geological surveying to produce maps on a scale of 1:250,000 was completed over an area of over 100,000 km 2 in north-central Kenya, bounded by the Equator, the Ethiopian border and longitudes 36° and 38 °E. The Gregory Rift, much of which has the structure of an asymmetric half-graben, is the most prominent component of the Cenozoic multiple rift system which extends up to 200 km to the east and for about 100 km to the west, forming the Kenya dome. On the eastern shoulder and fringes two en echelon arrays of late Tertiary to Quaternary multicentre shields can be recognized: to the south is the Aberdares-Mount Kenya-Nyambeni Range chain and, to the north the clusters of Mount Kulal, Asie, Huri Hills and Marsabit, with plateau lavas and fissure vents south of Marsabit in the Laisamis area. The Gregory Rift terminates at the southern end of Lake Turkana. Further north the rift system splays: the arcuate Kinu Sogo fault zone forms an offset link with the central Ethiopian Rift system. In the rifts of north-central Kenya volcanism, sedimentation and extensional tectonics commenced and have been continuous since the late Oligocene. Throughout this period the Elgeyo Fault acted as a major bounding fault. A comparative study of the northern and eastern fringes of the Kenya dome with the axial graben reinforces the impression of regional E-W asymmetry. Deviations from the essential N-trend of the Gregory Rift reflect structural weaknesses in the underlying Proterozoic basement, the Mozambique Orogenic Belt: thus south of Lake Baringo the swing to the southeast parallels the axes of the ca. 620 Ma phase folds. Secondary faults associated with this flexure have created a "shark tooth" array, an expression of en echelon offsets of the eastern margin of the Gregory Rift in a transtensional stress regime: hinge zones where major faults intersect on the eastern shoulder feature intense box faulting and ramp structures which have counterparts in the rift

  7. Sediment infill within rift basins: Facies distribution and effects of deformation: Examples from the Kenya and Tanganyika Rifts, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Lezzar, K.E. ); Richert, J.P. )

    1994-07-01

    Oil is known from lacustrine basins of the east African rift. The geology of such basins is complex and different depending on location in the eastern and western branches. The western branch has little volcanism, leading to long-lived basins, such as Lake Tanganyika, whereas a large quantity of volcanics results in the eastern branch characterized by ephemeral basins, as the Baringo-Bogoria basin in Kenya. The Baringo-Bogoria basin is a north-south half graben formed in the middle Pleistocene and presently occupied by the hypersaline Lake Bogoria and the freshwater Lake Baringo. Lake Bogoria is fed by hot springs and ephemeral streams controlled by grid faults bounding the basin to the west. The sedimentary fill is formed by cycles of organic oozes having a good petroleum potential and evaporites. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the grid faults, Lake Baringo is fed by permanent streams bringing into the basin large quantities of terrigenous sediments. Lake Tanganyika is a meromictic lake 1470 m deep and 700 km long, of middle Miocene age. It is subdivided into seven asymmetric half grabens separated by transverse ridges. The sedimentary fill is thick and formed by organic oozes having a very good petroleum potential. In contrast to Bogoria, the lateral distribution of organic matter is characterized by considerable heterogeneity due to the existence of structural blocks or to redepositional processes.

  8. Structural evolution of the Rio Grande rift: Synchronous exhumation of rift flanks from 20-10 Ma, embryonic core complexes, and fluid-enhanced Quaternary extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Jason William

    The Rio Grande rift in Colorado and New Mexico is one of the well-exposed and well-studied continental rifts in the world. Interest in the rift is driven not only by pure scientific intrigue, but also by a desire and a necessity to quantify earthquake hazards in New Mexico as well as to assess various water related issues throughout the state. These motivating topics have thus far led to the publication of two Geological Society of America Special Publication volumes in 1994 and 2013. This dissertation aims at building on the wealth of previous knowledge about the rift, and is composed of three separate chapters that focus on the structural evolution of the Rio Grande rift at several different time and spatial scales. At the largest scale, apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronologic data suggest synchronous extension along the entire length of the Rio Grande rift in Colorado and New Mexico from 20-10 Ma, which is important for understanding and evaluating possible driving mechanisms which are responsible for the rift. Previous tectonic and magmatic events in western North America were highly influential in the formation of the Rio Grande rift, and the new thermochronologic data suggest that its formation may have been closely linked to foundering and removal of the underlying Farallon Plate. A fundamental result of rift development at these scales is a concentration of strain is some regions of the rift. In these regions of maximum extension, fault networks display a geometry involving both high- and low-angle fault networks. These geometries are similar to the early stages in the development of metamorphic core complexes, and thus these regions in the rift link incipient extensional environments to highly extended terranes. At shorter time scales, heterogeneous strain accumulation may be governed in part by fluids in fault zones. As an example, along the western edge of the Albuquerque basin, travertine deposits are cut by extensional veins that record anomalously high

  9. Do melt-rich shear zones lubricate rift flanks? 3-D spatial gradients in anisotropy beneath the East African Rift in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzman, B. K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Kendall, J.; Stuart, G.

    2006-12-01

    Melt-enhanced weakening of the mantle may be essential for a continent to break apart and rift. A primary means of understanding this aspect of the dynamics of rifting (and other geodynamic settings) is the interpretation of seismic anisotropy in terms of melt distribution and/or mantle flow direction. In recent rock- deformation experiments, the relationships between flow direction and seismic fast direction are complicated by the presence of water (e.g. Katayama et al., 2004) and segregated melt (Holtzman et al. 2003). In the latter, deviatoric stress drives melt to organize into networks of melt-rich shear zones. Scaling from laboratory to upper mantle conditions predicts characteristic network spacings of <1 km, less than wavelengths of measured seismic waves; thus they should cause significant seismic anisotropy. Measurable gradients in anisotropy may be diagnostic indicators of gradients in melt segregation. Because melt-rich shear zones will weaken the mantle on a large scale, the presence of such anisotropy gradients would map to gradients in viscosity. To map melt distribution beneath the rift and test for the presence or absence of this process, we combine measurements of seismic velocities beneath the East African Rift in Ethiopia with modeling of elastic properties of aligned, segregated melt and olivine fabric. Analysis of SKS phases has shown that fast directions parallel magmatic centers in the rift and splitting magnitudes are largest near the rift flanks, consistent with the hypothesis above (e.g. Kendall et al., 2006). Preliminary analysis of Love-Rayleigh differential times across the rift are consistent with a vertical fast axis, suggesting the presence of a vertically aligned, rift parallel melt phase down to the solidus (Pilidou et al., 2005). We expand on these results by applying a cross-correlation procedure to precisely estimate relative amplitude and phase of surface waves traversing the rift. Data are derived from the EAGLE and Ethiopia

  10. Kanda fault: A major seismogenic element west of the Rukwa Rift (Tanzania, East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori, Eutizio; Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François

    1997-09-01

    The NW-SE trending Rukwa Rift, part of the East African Rift System, links the approximately N-S oriented Tanganyika and Nyassa (Malawi) depressions. The rift has a complex half-graben structure, generally interpreted as the result of normal and strike-slip faulting. Morphological and structural data (e.g. fault scarps, faceted spurs, tilting of Quaternary continental deposits, volcanism, seismicity) indicate Late Quaternary activity within the rift. In 1910 an earthquake of M = 7.4 (historically the largest felt in Africa) struck the Rukwa region. The epicentre was located near the Kanda fault, which affects the Ufipa plateau, separating the Rukwa depression from the south-Tanganyika basin. The geomorphic expression of the Kanda fault is a prominent fresh-looking scarp more than 180 km long, from Tunduma to north of Sumbawanga, that strikes roughly NW-SE, and dips constantly northeast. No evidence for horizontal slip was observed. Generally, the active faulting affects a very narrow zone, and is only locally distributed over several subparallel scarps. The height of the scarp progressively decreases towards the northwest, from about 40-50 m to a few metres north of Sumbawanga. Faulted lacustrine deposits exposed in a road cut near Kaengesa were dated as 8340 ± 700 and 13 600 ± 1240 radiocarbon years. These low-energy deposits now hang more than 15 m above the present-day valley floor, suggesting rapid uplift during the Holocene. Due to its high rate of activity in very recent times, the Kanda Fault could have produced the 1910 earthquake. Detailed paleoseismological studies are used to characterize its recent history. In addition, the seismic hazard posed by this fault, which crosses the fast growing town of Sumbawanga, must be seriously considered in urban planning.

  11. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  12. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, lower east rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping and radiocarbon dating of tholeiitic basalts covering about 275 km2 on the lower east rift zone (LERZ) and adjoining flanks of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, show that at least 112 separate eruptions have occurred during the past 2360 years. Eruptive products include spatter ramparts and cones, a shield, two extensive lithic-rich tuff deposits, aa and pahoehoe flows, and three littoral cones. Areal coverage, number of eruptions and average dormant interval estimates in years for the five age groups assigned are: (I) historic, i.e. A D 1790 and younger: 25%, 5, 42.75; (II) 200-400 years old: 50%, 15, 14.3: (III) 400-750 years old: 20%, 54, 6.6; (IV) 750-1500 years old: 5%, 37, 20.8; (V) 1500-3000 years old: <1%, 1, unknown. At least 4.5-6 km3 of tholeiitic basalt have been erupted from the LERZ during the past 1500 years. Estimated volumes of the exposed products of individual eruptions range from a few tens of cubic meters for older units in small kipukas to as much as 0.4 km3 for the heiheiahulu shield. The average dormant interval has been about 13.6 years during the past 1500 years. The most recent eruption occurred in 1961, and the area may be overdue for its next eruption. However, eruptive activity will not resume on the LERZ until either the dike feeding the current eruption on the middle east rift zone extends farther down rift, or a new dike, unrelated to the current eruption, extends into the LERZ. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  13. 40Ar- 39Ar ages of intrusions in East Greenland: Rift-to-drift transition over the Iceland hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, C.; Brooks, C. K.; Duncan, R. A.; Heister, L. E.; Bernstein, S.

    2008-03-01

    Sixteen 40Ar- 39Ar ages are presented for alkaline intrusions to appraise prolonged post-breakup magmatism of the central East Greenland rifted margin, the chronology of rift-to-drift transition, and the asymmetry of magmatic activity in the Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province. The alkaline intrusions mainly crop out in tectonic and magmatic lineaments orthogonal to the rifted margin and occur up to 100 km inland. The area south of the Kangerlussuaq Fjord includes at least four tectonic lineaments and the intrusions are confined to three time windows at 56-54 Ma, 50-47 Ma and 37-35 Ma. In the Kangerlussuaq Fjord, which coincides with a major tectonic lineament possibly the failed arm of a triple junction, the alkaline plutons span from 56 to 40 Ma. To the north and within the continental flood basalt succession, alkaline intrusions of the north-south trending Wiedemann Fjord-Kronborg Gletscher lineament range from 52 to 36 Ma. We show that post-breakup magmatism of the East Greenland rifted margin can be linked to reconfiguration of spreading ridges in the Northeast Atlantic. Northwards propagation of the proto-Kolbeinsey ridge rifted the Jan Mayen micro-continent away from central East Greenland and resulted in protracted rift-to-drift transition. The intrusions of the Wiedemann Fjord-Kronborg Gletscher lineament are interpreted as a failed continental rift system and the intrusions of the Kangerlussuaq Fjord as off-axis magmatism. The post-breakup intrusions south of Kangerlussuaq Fjord occur landward of the Greenland-Iceland Rise and are explained by mantle melting caused first by the crossing of the central East Greenland rifted margin over the axis of the Iceland mantle plume (50-47 Ma) and later by uplift associated with regional plate-tectonic reorganization (37-35 Ma). The Iceland mantle plume was instrumental in causing protracted rift-to-drift transition and post-breakup tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism on the East Greenland rifted margin, and asymmetry

  14. Gas-oil fluids in the formation of travertines in the Baikal rift zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarinov, A. A.; Yalovik, L. I.; Shumilova, T. G.; Kanakin, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Active participation of gas-oil fluids in the processes of mineral formation and petrogenesis in travertines of the Arshan and Garga hot springs is substantiated. The parageneses of the products of pyrolytic decomposition and oxidation of the gas-oil components of hydrothermal fluids (amorphous bitumen, graphite-like CM, and graphite) with different genetic groups of minerals crystallized in a wide range of P-T conditions were established. Travertines of the Baikal rift zone were formed from multicomponent hydrous-gas-oil fluids by the following basic mechanisms of mineral formation: chemogenic, biogenic, cavitation, fluid pyrometamorphism, and pyrolysis.

  15. What the volcanism of the East African Rift tells us on its evolution and dynamics: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michon, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The East African Rift (EAR) is one of the most studied tectonic structures on Earth. Classically, it is described as extending from Afar in the North to the Malawi rift in the South, along the eastern and western branches, respectively. A widely accepted consensus also exists on two main points: 1- the rift initiated first with plume emplacement below the northern part of the eastern branch and 2- extension and volcanism subsequently migrated southward along the western branch (e.g., Ebinger, 1989). However, an increasing amount of new geochronological data on the volcanic activity in the southern part of the East African Rift tends to weaken these interpretations and imposes a reassessment of the rift dynamics. The volcanic activity being one of the main characteristics of this rift, I use it here to determine the lateral extension of the rift system and to assess the rift activity through times. First, the volcanism unambiguously indicates that the rift is not limited to the African continent but can be traced in the Mozambique Channel and in Madagascar where it is closely related to active tectonics (graben and transfer faults) initiated since at least the Miocene. Moreover, the synthesis of more than 800 published geochronological data of volcanic products distributed over the overal East African Rift allows the distinction of two parts. The first part, the Northern EAR, corresponds to the sole eastern branch, which is characterized by volcanic plateaus resulting from huge magma flux during three main periods (32-28, 18-12, 6-0 Ma). Provinces of the second part, the Southern EAR (the western branch, the Mozambique Channel and Madagascar), share rift-related scattered volcanic centres characterized by coeval periods of activity since the Oligocene (28-24, 20-16 and 12-0 Ma). This synthesis highlights the lack of southward migration of the volcanism during the evolution of the East African Rift and instead reveals the almost synchronous development of the

  16. Diachronous Growth of Normal Fault Systems in Multiphase Rift Basins: Structural Evolution of the East Shetland Basin, Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan S.; Bell, Rebecca E.; A-L. Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert L.; Odinsen, Tore

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to determine the structural evolution and interaction of fault systems (kinematically linked group of faults that are in the km to 10s of km scale) within a rift basin is typically limited by the spatial extent and temporal resolution of the available data and methods used. Physical and numerical models provide predictions on how fault systems nucleate, grow and interact, but these models need to be tested with natural examples. Although field studies and individual 3D seismic surveys can provide a detailed structural evolution of individual fault systems, they are often spatially limited and cannot be used examine the interaction of fault systems throughout the entire basin. In contrast, regional subsurface studies, commonly conducted on widely spaced 2D seismic surveys, are able to capture the general structural evolution of a rift basin, but lack the spatial and temporal detail. Moreover, these studies typically describe the structural evolution of rifts as comprising multiple discrete tectonic stages (i.e. pre-, syn- and post-rift). This simplified approach does not, however, consider that the timing of activity can be strongly diachronous along and between faults that form part of a kinematically linked system within a rift basin. This study focuses on the East Shetland Basin (ESB), a multiphase rift basin located on the western margin of the North Viking Graben, northern North Sea. Most previous studies suggest the basin evolved in response to two discrete phases of extension in the Permian-Triassic and Middle-Late Jurassic, with the overall geometry of the latter rift to be the result of selective reactivation of faults associated with the former rift. Gradually eastwards thickening intra-rift strata (deposited between two rift phases) that form wedges between and within fault blocks have led to two strongly contrasting tectonic interpretations: (i) Early-Middle Jurassic differential thermal subsidence after Permian-Triassic rifting; or (ii

  17. History of the development of the East African Rift System: A series of interpreted maps through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macgregor, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This review paper presents a series of time reconstruction maps of the 'East African Rift System' ('EARS'), illustrating the progressive development of fault trends, subsidence, volcanism and topography. These maps build on previous basin specific interpretations and integrate released data from recent petroleum drilling. N-S trending EARS rifting commenced in the petroliferous South Lokichar Basin of northern Kenya in the Late Eocene to Oligocene, though there seem to be few further deep rifts of this age other than those immediately adjoining it. At various times during the Mid-Late Miocene, a series of small rifts and depressions formed between Ethiopia and Malawi, heralding the main regional rift subsidence phase and further rift propagation in the Plio-Pleistocene. A wide variation is thus seen in the ages of initiation of EARS basins, though the majority of fault activity, structural growth, subsidence, and associated uplift of East Africa seem to have occurred in the last 5-9 Ma, and particularly in the last 1-2 Ma. These perceptions are key to our understanding of the influence of the diverse tectonic histories on the petroleum prospectivity of undrilled basins.

  18. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Virunga and Nyiragongo Volcanoes and the East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic, tectonic, erosional and sedimentary landforms are all evident in this comparison of two elevation models of a region along the East African Rift at Lake Kivu. The area shown covers parts of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda.

    These two images show exactly the same area. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision. Elevation is color coded, progressing from green at the lower elevations through yellow to brown at the higher elevations. A false sun in the northwest (upper left) creates topographic shading.

    Lake Kivu is shown as black in the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission version (southwest corner). It lies within the East African Rift, an elongated tectonic pull-apart depression in Earth's crust. The rift extends to the northeast as a smooth lava- and sediment-filled trough. Two volcanic complexes are seen in the rift. The one closer to the lake is the Nyiragongo volcano, which erupted in January 2002, sending lava toward the lake shore and through the city of Goma. East of the rift, even more volcanoes are seen. These are the Virunga volcano chain, which is the home of the endangered mountain gorillas. Note that the terrain surrounding the volcanoes is much smoother than the eroding mountains that cover most of this view, such that topography alone is a good indicator of the extent of the lava flows. But this clear only at the higher spatial resolution of the shuttle mission's data set.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments

  19. Latitudinal Hydrologic Variability Along the East African Rift, Over the Past 200 Kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Within the deep sediments of the large lakes of Africa's Great Rift Valley are continuous environmental records of remarkable antiquity and fidelity. Not only do stratigraphic sections from these basins extend back millions of years, many of the intervals represented contain high-resolution material of decadal resolution or better. East African lake basins remain sparsely sampled however, with only a few long and continuous records available. Our ability to image the lakes using seismic reflection methods greatly exceeds our opportunities for coring and drilling however; assessing stratal relationships observed in the geophysical data permits powerful inferences about past hydrologic changes. With intensive hydrocarbon exploration work underway in East Africa, industry well data can also help constrain and ground truth basin histories. Substantial spatio-temporal hydrologic variability is observed in East African basins over the past 200 kyr. Paleohydrological changes in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene are now well constrained in the northern hemisphere East African topics, with widespread aridity and in some cases lake desiccation observed during Heinrich Event 1. A climate recovery followed in the northern hemisphere East African tropics, with the early Holocene African Humid Period a time of positive water balance across most of the rift valley. The paleohydrology of southern hemisphere tropical East Africa is more equivocal, for instance with negligible draw-down of Lake Malawi at HE1. Whereas these late Pleistocene events represent substantial climate reorganizations, severe droughts during the middle-late Pleistocene (150-65 kyr BP) were far more intense, and produced much more severe drawdowns of Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Scientific drill cores, kullenberg cores, and extensive seismic reflection data sets from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika provide indisputable evidence for lowstands of -500m and -600 m respectively. Climate changes that lowered the

  20. Istopically Defined Source Reservoirs of Primitive Magmas in the East African Rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T. O.; Furman, T.; Hanan, B.

    2005-12-01

    Extension within the East African Rift is a function of the interaction between plume-driven uplift and far-field stresses associated with plate tectonic processes. Geochemical and isotopic investigation of primitive basalts from the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) reveals systematic spatial variations in the contributions from distinct and identifiable source reservoirs that, in turn help identify the mechanisms by which along-axis rifting has progressed. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of MER basalts can be described by a three-component mixing model involving the long-lived Afar plume, a depleted mantle component similar to the source region for Gulf of Aden MORB from east of 48° E and a reservoir that is likely lithospheric (sub-continental mantle lithosphere, magmatic underplate or lower crust). Quaternary basalts in the central MER exhibit a systematic decrease in plume influence southward from 9.5° N to 8° N, i.e., away from the modern surface expression of the Afar plume in Djibouti and Erta 'Ale. The composition of the Afar plume component is comparable to the "C" mantle reservoir. This southward decrease in plume influence is coupled with an increase in the influence of the lithospheric and depleted mantle components. Linear arrays observed within Pb-Pb isotopic space at each eruptive center require distinctive ratio of lithospheric + depleted mantle components mixing with variable amounts of the "C"-like plume component. This isotopic evidence suggests the depleted mantle and lithosphere mixed prior to the generation of the recent magmas. To the south, the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of Turkana (Kenya) rift basalts record a mix of a similar "C"-like plume component and a fourth HIMU-like source component. Low 3He/4He values observed in the HIMU-dominated lavas from Turkana contrast with the higher ratios found in basalts associated with the "C"-like Afar plume. Further analysis of "C"-HIMU lavas at Turkana is required to fully constrain the He

  1. Sedimentation History and Provenance Analysis of a Late Mesozoic Rifting Event at Tavan Har, East Gobi, Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Sarah Cain

    2005-01-01

    The East Gobi Basin (EGB), which covers over 1.5 million square kilometers in southeastern Mongolia, is one of several basins in eastern China and Mongolia that was formed by extension and intracontinental rifting during the late Mesozoic. For reasons that are poorly understood, the continental lithosphere covering areas that are now known as…

  2. Present-day strain rates and dynamics of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D. S.; Flesch, L. M.; Calais, E.

    2009-04-01

    The forces and physical processes at work during continental rifting remain to be fully understood and quantified. We investigate the balance of large-scale forces affecting present-day rifting in East Africa using a thin sheet approach to quantify strain rates and deviatoric stresses. We develop a strain rate model constrained by a combination of GPS-derived kinematic models and seismic moment tensors (CMT catalog) for our region of interest. We estimate a total deviatoric stress field by combining (1) stresses caused by gravitational potential energy (GPE) gradients within the crust and (2) a buoyancy signal present in the topography that we use to compute stresses. To estimate internal body forces, we assume crustal thicknesses and lateral density variations modeled in Crust 2.0 (G. Laske and G. Masters, http://mahi.ucsd.edu/Gabi/sediment.html, 2000). In our preferred model of deviatoric stresses, we estimate and remove the dynamic topography buoyancy signal by allowing the mantle lithosphere density to vary, compensating the lithosphere to a given reference depth. To test the reliability of our total deviatoric stress field, we compare tensor patterns of deviatoric stresses, with and without contributions from the mantle, to tensor patterns from kinematic deformation indicators. Our results to date suggest that horizontal buoyancy forces arising from variable crustal thicknesses and lateral density variations within the lithosphere contribute significantly to the diverging plate boundary forces of the EAR but do not account for the entire budget of force needed to produce present-day deformation.

  3. Deltas of the Lake Malawi rift, east Africa: Seismic expression and exploration implications

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    High-resolution, air-gun-sourced seismic reflection surveys over the offshore regions of five river deltas in Lake Malawi in the East African rift system reveal considerable variability in acoustic facies and stratigraphic architecture. This variability can largely be attributed to the influences of different structural settings, and to a lesser degree to high-amplitude (100-400 m) and high-frequency (1000 to 100,000 yr) fluctuations in lake level. Deltas on flexural and axial margins in the rift lake show well-developed progradational geometries. In contrast, a delta on a steep, accommodation zone margin distributes coarse sediments over a broad depositional apron, rather than concentrating sediment in discrete progradational lobes as on the other deltas. A large border fault margin river delta displays the most complex tectonic and stratigraphic architecture of all the deltas studied. It contains several delta-associated facies, including prograding clinoform packages, fan deltas stacked against a boundary fault, and extensive subaqueous fans. Flexural margin lowstand deltas may be the most prospective for hydrocarbon exploration due to their large, internally well-organized, progradational lobes and their close proximity to deep-water, high total organic carbon lacustrine source facies.

  4. Fault-related Soil Efflux of Mantle-derived CO2 in the Magadi and Natron Basins, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Muirhead, J.; Fischer, T. P.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Thomas, N.; Kianji, G.; Onguso, B.; Maqway, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Magadi (Kenya) and Natron (Tanzania) basins of the East African Rift are in an early stage (< 7 Ma) of continental rifting. The many normal faults observed in these areas create sediment-filled basins and a large number of alkaline springs feed water into two major lakes (Lake Magadi and Natron). Earthquake swarms reported in 1998 (Magadi) and 2007 (Natron) were accompanied by surface ruptures. Although CO2 is a major component of magmatic volatiles and fault-related fluids that may facilitate earthquakes and fault weakening, the soil CO2 efflux of continental rifts is poorly known. Here, we report soil CO2 flux rates measured in the Magadi and Natron basins, and carbon isotope values (δ13C, ‰ vs. PDB) to constrain CO2sources. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured at fault zones, horsts, grabens, and surface ruptures by EGM-4 (PP systems) with a gas accumulation chamber. A t-shaped connector with a needle was used for gas sampling into evacuated glass vials with a rubber septum. δ13C values were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer with a gas bench at the stable isotope laboratory, University of New Mexico. The fault zones in the Magadi basin have higher maximum CO2 flux rates (< 533.52 g m-2 d-1) and heavier δ13C values (< -3.8 ‰) than the Natron basin (< 147.12 g m-2 d-1 and < -6.2 ‰, respectively). In both areas, soil CO2 efflux is insignificant (< 10 g m-2 d-1) in both horsts and the middle of grabens with lighter δ 13C values (~ -10 ‰) likely resulting from significant air contribution. The highest CO2 flux rates (< 919.44 g m-2 d-1) were measured at recent surface ruptures, but they have lighter δ13C values (-10 to -15 ‰), implying significant air and biogenic C contributions. Our results indicate that (1) normal faults are pathways that deliver mantle-derived CO2 to the surface, (2) the Magadi basin exhibits greater mantle-derived CO2 than the Natron basin, and (3) recent ruptures are zones of shallow CO2 degassing.

  5. Discussion on final rifting evolution and breakup : insights from the Mid Norwegian - North East Greenland rifted system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2016-04-01

    In terms of rifted margin studies, the characteristics of the distal and outer domains are among the today's most debated questions. The architecture and composition of deep margins are rarely well constrained and hence little understood. Except from in a handful number of cases (eg. Iberia-Newfoundland, Southern Australia, Red Sea), basement samples are not available to decipher between the various interpretations allowed by geophysical models. No consensus has been reached on the basement composition, tectonic structures, sedimentary geometries or magmatic content. The result is that non-unique end-member interpretations and models are still proposed in the literature. So, although these domains mark the connection between continents and oceans, and thus correspond to unique stages in the Earth's lithospheric life cycle, their spatial and temporal evolution are still unresolved. The Norwegian-Greenland Sea rift system represents an exceptional laboratory to work on questions related to rifting, rifted margin formation and sedimentary basin evolution. It has been extensively studied for decades by both the academic and the industry communities. The proven and expected oil and gas potentials led to the methodical acquisition of world-class geophysical datasets, which permit the detailed research and thorough testing of concepts at local and regional scales. This contribution is issued from a three years project funded by ExxonMobil aiming at better understanding the crustal-scale nature and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The idea was to take advantage of the data availability on this specific rift system to investigate further the full crustal conjugate scale history of rifting, confronting the various available datasets. In this contribution, we will review the possible structural and sedimentary geometries of the distal margin, and their connection to the oceanic domain. We will discuss the definition of 'breakup' and introduce a first order conceptual

  6. Two Plumes Beneath the East African Rift System: a Geochemical Investigation into Possible Interactions in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, W. R.; Furman, T.; van Keken, P. E.; Lin, S.

    2007-12-01

    East African Rift System magmatism began over 40 my ago and has continued through the present. Numerical models have determined two plumes are necessary to create the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanism. Geochemical data support the presence of two chemically distinct plumes initially located beneath the Afar Depression (NE Ethiopia) and the Turkana Depression (SW Ethiopia/N Kenya). The timing and eruptive of the Afar and Kenya plumes are also distinct. While there is growing evidence to support the existence of two dynamically and chemically distinct plumes beneath the East African Rift System, the interactions between them remain unclear. Our study focuses on the geochemistry of mafic shield lavas from three locations on the eastern flank of the Ethiopian plateau. These lavas are spatially located between the surface manifestation of the Afar and Kenya plumes. The majority of the lava is alkaline and has experienced varying degrees of olivine and pyroxene fractionation. The northernmost lavas (9°10'N) are transitional and display the most fractionation. Primitive mantle melts were generated at depths near the fertile mantle garnet-spinel transition zone and deeper (80-100km) and are free of metasomatic influence. Minor HREE depletions also support derivation of melts from a garnet-bearing source. Lavas with lithospheric influence are generated from shallower depths and show minor amphibole influence. Overall, geochemical data show the lavas in this study closely resemble those from various episodes of Kenya plume magmatism with modifications attributed to lithospheric contamination. This interpretation is consistent with current numerical models suggesting episodic northward movement of Kenya plume magmas along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The data imply that the Kenya plume has a much larger spatial influence and therefore a larger geodynamic influence in the EARS than previously recognized.

  7. The role of fluids in lower-crustal earthquakes near continental rifts.

    PubMed

    Reyners, Martin; Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Stuart, Graham

    2007-04-26

    The occurrence of earthquakes in the lower crust near continental rifts has long been puzzling, as the lower crust is generally thought to be too hot for brittle failure to occur. Such anomalous events have usually been explained in terms of the lower crust being cooler than normal. But if the lower crust is indeed cold enough to produce earthquakes, then the uppermost mantle beneath it should also be cold enough, and yet uppermost mantle earthquakes are not observed. Numerous lower-crustal earthquakes occur near the southwestern termination of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), an active continental rift in New Zealand. Here we present three-dimensional tomographic imaging of seismic velocities and seismic attenuation in this region using data from a dense seismograph deployment. We find that crustal earthquakes accurately relocated with our three-dimensional seismic velocity model form a continuous band along the rift, deepening from mostly less than 10 km in the central TVZ to depths of 30-40 km in the lower crust, 30 km southwest of the termination of the volcanic zone. These earthquakes often occur in swarms, suggesting fluid movement in critically loaded fault zones. Seismic velocities within the band are also consistent with the presence of fluids, and the deepening seismicity parallels the boundary between high seismic attenuation (interpreted as partial melt) within the central TVZ and low seismic attenuation in the crust to the southwest. This linking of upper and lower-crustal seismicity and crustal structure allows us to propose a common explanation for all the seismicity, involving the weakening of faults on the periphery of an otherwise dry, mafic crust by hot fluids, including those exsolved from underlying melt. Such fluids may generally be an important driver of lower-crustal seismicity near continental rifts. PMID:17460671

  8. Extension and Basin Evolution of the East Kivu Graben, Rwanda, East African Rift: Results of New Multichannel Seismic Reflection Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Zhang, X.; Wood, D.; Mburu, D.

    2012-12-01

    The East Kivu Graben resides within the eastern part of Lake Kivu, the highest Great Lake in the western branch of the East African Rift. The lake is more than 440 m deep in the East Kivu Basin, with a catchment comprised of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks and late-Cenozoic volcanics. Lake Kivu is renowned for its uniquely stratified water column, which is charged with considerable quantities of dissolved CO2 and methane, the former due to magmatic degassing. In February and March 2012 514 km of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection data were acquired in the Rwandan waters of Lake Kivu. The 24-fold multichannel seismic data were acquired aboard a modular research vessel, using a 600 m-long hydrophone streamer and single 40 cubic inch airgun. Extension in the East Kivu basin is largely accommodated along a major N-S striking, east-dipping boundary fault observed along the eastern edge of Iwawa Island, and extending for ~40 km along the length of the basin. Numerous intrabasinal normal faults occur to the east of the boundary fault, commonly displacing the lake floor and controlling the location of modern sublacustrine channels. The deepest sedimentary reflections observed on the new MCS data are 1.2-1.5 km below lake floor, near the center of the basin and boundary fault. Crystalline basement is not observed in these deepest areas however, suggesting the presence of a substantial sedimentary section below the imaged strata. Stratal surfaces dip steeply to the west over large areas of the half-graben basin. An acoustically transparent seismic sequence up to ~25 m thick is observed at the lake floor, which overlies a pronounced erosional unconformity over much of the basin. Some intrabasinal normal faults are draped by and do not penetrate the upper sequences, indicating several generations of fault activity in the basin. The late-Pleistocene exposure surface likely correlates to the previous lake level low stage that persisted prior to volcanic damming by

  9. Giant seismites and megablock uplift in the East African Rift: evidence for Late Pleistocene large magnitude earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic 'megablock complex' that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions. PMID:26042601

  10. Giant Seismites and Megablock Uplift in the East African Rift: Evidence for Late Pleistocene Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic ‘megablock complex’ that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions. PMID:26042601

  11. The uppermost mantle beneath the Kenya dome and relation to melting, rifting and uplift in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul M.; Slack, Philip D.

    2002-04-01

    We compare new results on S-wave delays and P wave tomography to characterize the rising limb and melt zone of an inferred mantle convection cell beneath the Kenya dome. These results are extended to the Nyiragongo and Ethiopia domes using long wavelength gravity and topography. We suggest that the east African rift results from separation of deeper mantle upwelling into three currents that impinge on and erode the base of the lithosphere. Their thermal buoyancy drives the domal uplift, whereas brittle failure of the upper lithosphere forms the rift grabens.

  12. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    basement in the Nauru and East Mariana Basins is Jurassic in age, the geochemical and chronological results discussed here suggest that the basement formed during a Cretaceous rifting event within the Jurassic crust. This magmatic and tectonic event was created by the widespread volcanism responsible for the genesis of the large oceanic plateaus of the western Pacific. ?? 1994.

  13. Syntectonic fluid flux during rift faulting: Record from the MIS core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Paulsen, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    The McMurdo Ice Shelf project successfully recovered 1285 m of Neogene sedimentary core from the Victoria Land Basin, a large rift basin within the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) of Antarctica. The core contains 1475 natural fractures that were logged as faults, veins and clastic dikes, associated with the southern extension of the Neogene-active? Terror Rift fault zone. Veins constitute about 625 of this population. Most veins are filled with calcite, although zeolites and minor chlorite are common towards the bottom of the core. In the lower ~300 m of the core, veins contain opening-mode fiber fills and are wavy to tightly folded due to vertical shortening. Folded, opening-mode folded veins are filled by calcite fibers that grew normal to vein walls, indicating the host sediment was cohesive enough to fracture but was not fully lithified and accommodated vein buckling during compaction. Fold hinges are fractured and wedging of vein segments is marked by overlapping tips separated by zones with strong chlorite and clay fabrics, suggesting shearing during further vertical contraction of the host rock. Calcite veins are commonly strongly twinned. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows minor changes in color and intensity and minimal concentric or sectoral zoning, suggesting relatively rapid crystallization of fluids of similar chemistry. However, stable isotope analyses reveal large variations in values, with carbon values ranging from -21.91 to -7.15 (VPBD) and oxygen values ranging from -5.35 to -11.97 (VPBD). Further detailed investigation of the fracture fills using cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy combined with isotopic analysis of carbon and oxygen will document the generations of the filling material in more detail and will constrain the sources and evolution of the fluids. There has clearly been significant structural control on fluid pathways during lithification, compaction and diagenesis of strata deforming within the Terror Rift zone.

  14. Significant cenozoic faulting, east margin of the Espanola basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, J.H. ); Riecker, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    Tectonic interpretation of the east margin of the Espanola Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, has been controversial. Previous authors have disagreed as to whether significant faulting defines the boundary between the basin and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. A more recent geophysical basin transect that suggests no significant faulting and field observation of faceted spurs along the western Sangre de Cristo Mountain front indicating a faulted margin motivate our study. The east margin of the Espanola Basin for about 37 km north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, is marked by a complex array of significant, late Cenozoic high-angle faults. Locally, three parallel, north-trending, high-angle faults cut Precambrian basement and Tertiary basin-full rocks along the basin margin. Elsewhere along the margin, tilted fault blocks and intersecting faults occur. Fault area, fault attitude with depth, magnitude of fault motion, and timing of fault motion remain uncertain. However, faults studied in detail are 1-2 km long, have minimum dip-slip motion of 33-100 m, and underwent movement during the late Cenozoic. Potentially significant tectonic and seismic hazard implications arise from the possibility of post-150 ka fault motion.

  15. India-East Antarctica conjugate margins: rift-shear tectonic setting inferred from gravity and bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Shyam; Radhakrishna, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.

    2001-02-01

    The Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) has evolved as a consequence of breakup of India from East Antarctica during the Early Cretaceous (ca. 130 Ma). The conjugate margin of ECMI in East Antarctica is represented by the margin extending from Gunneris Ridge in the west to about 95°E in the east. To understand the isostatic compensation mechanism operating beneath these conjugate margins, we have examined the cross spectral correlation between gravity and bathymetry along 21 profiles across the ECMI and 16 profiles across the conjugate East Antarctica Margin using both ship and satellite-derived gravity data. The ECMI is considered as a composite of two segments, one north of 16°N extending beyond 20°N, which is based on its rifted margin character, and the other, south of 16°N extending up to Sri Lanka, which has a transform-rift character. Similarly, the conjugate margin of East Antarctica is also considered to be a composite of two segments, west and east of the central bulge at 50-55°E. Admittance analysis and comparison with various isostatic models suggest a flexural plate model with an elastic thickness of 10-25 km for the northern segment of ECMI and its conjugate segment which is the east Enderby land Margin, comparable to results obtained from the eastern North American Margin. For the southern segment of ECMI, low elastic plate thickness of less than 5 km or a local compensation is obtained with matching results for the west Enderby land Margin. These, in turn, appear comparable to the low Te values inferred for the Ghana transform margin of North Africa and Grand Banks Margin of eastern Canada, thereby indicating that the southern segment of ECMI and its conjugate in East Antarctica have developed as a consequence of shearing rather than rifting in the early stages of continental separation.

  16. Early-stage rifting in the southwest East African Rift: Insights from new reflection seismic data from Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi (Nyasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Wood, D. A.; Shillington, D. J.; McCartney, T.; Accardo, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    The western branch of the East African Rift is characterized by modest amounts of mainly amagmatic extension; deeply-subsided, fault-controlled basins; and large-magnitude, deep seismicity. Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi are two of the world's largest lakes, with maximum water depths of 1450 and 700 m respectively. Newly acquired seismic reflection data, along with newly reprocessed legacy data reveal thick sedimentary sections, in excess of 5 km in some localities. The 1980's vintage legacy data from Project PROBE have been reprocessed through pre-stack depth migration in Lake Tanganyika, and similar reprocessing of legacy data from Lake Malawi is forthcoming. New high-fold and large-source commercial and academic data have recently been collected in southern Lake Tanganyika, and in the northern and central basins of Lake Malawi as part of the 2015 SEGMeNT project. In the case of Lake Tanganyika, new data indicate the presence of older sediment packages that underlie previously identified "pre-rift" basement (the "Nyanja Event"). These episodes of sedimentation and extension may substantially predate the modern lake. These deep stratal reflections are absent in many localites, possibly on account of attenuation of the acoustic signal. However in one area of southern Lake Tanganyika, the newly-observed deep strata extend axially for ~70 km, likely representing deposits from a discrete paleolake. The high-amplitude Nyanja Event is interpreted as the onset of late-Cenozoic rifting, and the changing character of the overlying depositional sequences reflects increasing relief in the rift valley, as well as the variability of fluvial inputs, and the intermittent connectivity of upstream lake catchments. Earlier Tanganyika sequences are dominated by shallow lake and fluvial-lacustrine facies, whereas later sequences are characterized by extensive gravity flow deposition in deep water, and pronounced erosion and incision in shallow water depths and on littoral platforms. The

  17. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  18. Strain accommodation by slow slip and dyking in a youthful continental rift, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Calais, Eric; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Albaric, Julie; Deschamps, Anne; Delvaux, Damien; Déverchère, Jacques; Ebinger, Cynthia; Ferdinand, Richard W; Kervyn, François; Macheyeki, Athanas S; Oyen, Anneleen; Perrot, Julie; Saria, Elifuraha; Smets, Benoît; Stamps, D Sarah; Wauthier, Christelle

    2008-12-11

    Continental rifts begin and develop through repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism, but strain partitioning between faulting and magmatism during discrete rifting episodes remains poorly documented. In highly evolved rifts, tensile stresses from far-field plate motions accumulate over decades before being released during relatively short time intervals by faulting and magmatic intrusions. These rifting crises are rarely observed in thick lithosphere during the initial stages of rifting. Here we show that most of the strain during the July-August 2007 seismic crisis in the weakly extended Natron rift, Tanzania, was released aseismically. Deformation was achieved by slow slip on a normal fault that promoted subsequent dyke intrusion by stress unclamping. This event provides compelling evidence for strain accommodation by magma intrusion, in addition to slip along normal faults, during the initial stages of continental rifting and before significant crustal thinning. PMID:19079058

  19. Diachronous fault array growth within continental rift basins: Quantitative analyses from the East Shetland Basin, northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert; Odinsen, Tore

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of rift basins has been the subject of many studies, however, these studies have been mainly restricted to investigating the geometry of rift-related fault arrays. The relative timing of development of individual faults that make up the fault array is not yet well constrained. First-order tectono-stratigraphic models for rifts predict that normal faults develop broadly synchronously throughout the basin during a temporally distinct 'syn-rift' episode. However, largely due to the mechanical interaction between adjacent structures, distinctly diachronous activity is known to occur on the scale of individual fault segments and systems. Our limited understanding of how individual segments and systems contribute to array-scale strain largely reflects the limited dimension and resolution of the data available and methods applied. Here we utilize a regional extensive subsurface dataset comprising multiple 3D seismic MegaSurveys (10,000 km2), long (>75km) 2D seismic profiles, and exploration wells, to investigate the evolution of the fault array in the East Shetland Basin, North Viking Graben, northern North Sea. Previous studies propose this basin formed in response to multiphase rifting during two temporally distinct extensional phases in the Permian-Triassic and Middle-to-Late Jurassic, separated by a period of tectonic quiescence and thermal subsidence in the Early Jurassic. We document the timing of growth of individual structures within the rift-related fault array across the East Shetland Basin, constraining the progressive migration of strain from pre-Triassic-to-Late Jurassic. The methods used include (i) qualitative isochron map analysis, (ii) quantitative syn-kinematic deposit thickness difference across fault & expansion index calculations, and (iii) along fault throw-depth & backstripped displacement-length analyses. In contrast to established models, we demonstrate that the initiation, growth, and cessation of individual fault segments and

  20. Molecular genetic analyses of historical lake sediments from the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, L. S.; Stoof, K.; Trauth, M. H.; Tiedemann, R.

    2009-04-01

    Ancient DNA research, especially that of environmental samples, has to date focussed mainly on samples obtained from colder regions, owing to better DNA preservation. We explored the potential of using ancient DNA from sediments and sediment cores of shallow lakes in Kenya. These lakes, located in the eastern branch of the East African Rift Valley, are in close proximity, yet display strikingly different hydrological and geological features. Present day lakes range in alkalinity from pH 11 (Lake Elmenteita) to pH 8 (Lake Naivasha), and in depth from less than one meter to 15 meters. Historically they have undergone a number of drastic changes in lake level and environmental conditions, both on geological timescales and during the last centuries. Within this setting we employed molecular genetic methods to study DNA from recent and historic lake sediments, focussing on rotifers and diatoms. We analyzed population and species succession in the alkaline-saline crater lake Sonachi since the beginning of the 19th century, as well as distributions in recent and historic sediments of other lakes of the East African Rift System. To specifically detect diatoms, we developed a protocol using taxon-specific polymerase chain reactions and separation of products by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Employing this protocol we retrieved "ancient" DNA from a number of taxonomically diverse organisms, but found diatoms only in sediments younger than approximately 90 years. Using higly specific reactions for rotifers of the genus Brachionus, we tracked species and population succession in Lake Sonachi during the last 200 years. Populations were dominated by a single mitochondrial haplotype for a period of 150 years, and two putatively intraspecific turnovers in dominance occurred. They were both correlated to major environmental changes documented by profound visible changes in sediment composition of the core: the deposition of a volcanic ash and a

  1. Differentiation and magma mixing on Kilauea's east rift zone: A further look at the eruptions of 1955 and 1960. Part II. The 1960 lavas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Helz, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    New and detailed petrographic observations, mineral compositional data, and whole-rock vs glass compositional trends document magma mixing in lavas erupted from Kilauea's lower east rift zone in 1960. Evidence includes the occurrence of heterogeneous phenocryst assemblages, including resorbed and reversely zoned minerals in the lavas inferred to be hybrids. Calculations suggest that this mixing, which is shown to have taken place within magma reservoirs recharged at the end of the 1955 eruption, involved introduction of four different magmas. These magmas originated beneath Kilauea's summit and moved into the rift reservoirs beginning 10 days after the eruption began. We used microprobe analyses of glass to calculate temperatures of liquids erupted in 1955 and 1960. We then used the calculated proportions of stored and recharge components to estimate the temperature of the recharge components, and found those temperatures to be consistent with the temperature of the same magmas as they appeared at Kilauea's summit. Our studies reinforce conclusions reached in previous studies of Kilauea's magmatic plumbing. We infer that magma enters shallow storage beneath Kilauea's summit and also moves laterally into the fluid core of the East rift zone. During this process, if magmas of distinctive chemistry are present, they retain their chemical identity and the amount of cooling is comparable for magma transported either upward or laterally to eruption sites. Intrusions within a few kilometers of the surface cool and crystallize to produce fractionated magma. Magma mixing occurs both within bodies of previously fractionated magma and when new magma intersects a preexisting reservoir. Magma is otherwise prevented from mixing, either by wall-rock septa or by differing thermal and density characteristics of the successive magma batches.

  2. Kinematics and dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the East African rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, Dorothy Sarah

    Continental rifting is fundamental to the theory of plate tectonics, yet the force balance driving Earth's largest continental rift system, the East African Rift (EAR), remains debated. The EAR actively diverges the Nubian and Somalian plates spanning ˜5000 km N-S from the Red Sea to the Southwest Indian Ridge and ˜3000 km NW-SE from eastern Congo to eastern Madagascar. Previous studies suggest either lithospheric buoyancy forces or horizontal tractions dominate the force balance acting to rupture East Africa. In this work, we investigate the large-scale dynamics of Nubia-Somalia divergence along the EAR driving present-day kinematics. Because Africa is largely surrounded by spreading ridges, we assume plate-plate interactions are minimal and that the major driving forces are gradients in gravitational potential energy (GPE), which includes the effect of vertical mantle tractions, and horizontal basal tractions arising from viscous coupling to horizontal mantle flow. We quantify a continuous strain rate and velocity field based on kinematic models, an updated GPS velocity solution, and the style of earthquake focal mechanisms, which we use as an observational constraint on surface deformation. We solve the 3D force balance equations and calculate vertically averaged deviatoric stress for a 100 km thick lithosphere constrained by the CRUST2.0 crustal density and thickness model. By comparing vertically integrated deviatoric stress with integrated lithospheric strength we demonstrate forces arising from gradients in gravitational potential energy are insufficient to rupture strong lithosphere, hence weakening mechanisms are required to initiate continental rupture. The next step involves inverting for a stress field boundary condition that is the long-wavelength minimum energy deviatoric stress field required to best-fit the style of our continuous strain rate field in addition to deviatoric stress from gradients in GPE. We infer the stress field boundary condition

  3. Cenozoic Tectono-stratigraphic sequences of the Shelf Rift Basin, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.; Prebish, M.; Cunningham, A.C.; Echols, R.J.; Braithwaite, P.; Sarg, J.F. ); Norris, J.W.; Letsch, D.K.; Bracken, B.B.; Denison, C.N. )

    1994-07-01

    The Tertiary section of the Jiaojiang, Qiantang, and Fushi depressions of the East China Sea Basin consists of at least eight rift-related depositional sequences identified seismically by regional onlap and truncation surfaces. Delineation of these sequences is based on interpretation of multifold seismic reflection profile data calibrated with several wells, including the Wenzhou 6-1-1 well. Upper Cretaceous( ) to Eocene synrift graben-restricted strata consist of two tectonically enhanced unconformity bounded sequences as evidenced by large angular discontinuities between each sequence. Discontinuous inclined-reflection seismic facies adjacent to the hanging wall correlate with nonmarine conglomeratic sandstone and are interpreted as possible alluvial fan facies. High-amplitude parallel reflections within the graben axes correlate with coaly siltstone strata and are interpreted as coastal plain and possibly lacustrine facies with source rock potential. Clinoform seismic facies prograding from the northwest footwall correlate with nonmarine to marginal marine conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone, and are interpreted as possible delta or fan-delta facies with reservoir potential.

  4. Depth of alkalic magma reservoirs below Kolekole cinder cone, Southwest rift zone, East Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Bhattacharji, Somdev; Fein, Charles

    2005-07-01

    The Kolekole cinder cone is located on the southwest rift near the summit area of East Maui, adjacent to the Haleakala Crater. The erupted lavas consist of ankaramitic picro-basalts and basanites. The ankaramites contain 26 to 33 modal percent olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Athough the cores of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts are not in equilibrium with the bulk rock compositions, recovered matrix compositions through image analysis indicate that the rims of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts and plagioclase microphenocrysts are in equilibrium with the matrix in many samples. Equilibrium pressures calculated from clinopyroxene rim-liquid equilibrium, and from equilibrium compositions of multiple phase-saturated liquids, yield values between 4.4 and 11.2 kb. In addition, barometry based on clinopyroxene composition indicates that the cores of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts crystallized at approximately 2.5 kb higher pressures than the rims. Therefore, the alkalic magmas of Kolekole resided in reservoirs that extended well below the crust-mantle boundary. The low Mg-content of the calculated matrix compositions indicates that extensive high pressure fractional crystallization of parental magmas occurred in the lower crust and upper mantle magma chambers.

  5. Multiple mantle upwellings beneath the Northern East-African Rift System from relative P- and S-wave traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Mantle plumes have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism and extension. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume, the African Superplume, connected to the LLSVP beneath Southern Africa, to one or more distinct lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new relative travel-time tomography model that images detailed P- and S- wave velocities from P,S and SKS phases below the northern East-African, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rift. Data comes from stations that cover the area from Tanzania to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated dataset allows us to image for the first time structures of ~100 km length scale down to depths of 900 km beneath this region. Our images provide evidence of at least two low-velocity structures with a diameter of ~200 km that continue through the transition zone and into the lower mantle: the first extends to at least 900 km beneath Afar, and a second reaching at least 750 km depth just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Taking into account seismic sensitivity to temperature and thermally controlled phase boundary topography, we interpret these features as multiple focused upwellings from below the transition zone with excess temperatures of 100±50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than any of the previously proposed lower mantle plume sources. This suggests the ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning smaller upper-mantle upwellings.

  6. 13. Detail of hydraulic fluid piping, east wall of bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail of hydraulic fluid piping, east wall of bay - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  7. Giant seismites and megablock uplift in the East African Rift: Evidence for large magnitude Late Pleistocene earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Roberts, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Due to rapid population growth and urbanization of many parts of East Africa, it is increasingly important to quantify the risk and possible destruction from large-magnitude earthquakes along the tectonically active East African Rift System. However, because comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, historical records, and fault trench investigations are limited for this region, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved soft-sediment deformation features (seismites). Extensive, previously undescribed seismites of centimeter- to dekameter-scale were identified by our team in alluvial and lacustrine facies of the Late Quaternary-Recent Lake Beds Succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania, primarily exposed at two, correlative outcrop localities ~35 km apart. This includes a remarkable, clastic 'megablock complex' that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced breccia megablocks, some in excess of 20 m-wide. The megablock complex is comprised of (1) a 5m-tall by 20m-wide injected body of volcanic ash and silt that hydraulically displaced (2) an equally sized, semi-consolidated, volcaniclastic megablock; both of which are intruded by (3) a clastic injection dyke. Evidence for breaching at the surface and for the fluidization of cobbles demonstrates the susceptibility of the substrate in this region to significant deformation via seismicity. Thirty-five km to the north, dekameter-scale asymmetrical/recumbent folds occur in a 3 m-thick, flat lying lake floor unit of the Lake Beds Succession. In between and surrounding these two unique sites, smaller-scale seismites are expressed, including flame structures; cm- to m-scale folded beds; ball-and-pillow structures; syn-sedimentary faults; sand injection features; and m

  8. Paleogene Rift Basins along East China Sea: Tectonic Evolution of Penghu Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Yang, Kenn-Ming; Kuo, Yong-Chein; Lee, Chang-Ji

    2013-04-01

    Prior to the orogeny, Taiwan is located at the passive continental margin. Two extensional events in Tertiary resulted in Paleogene and Neogene basins. The Paleogene rift basins along East China Sea and Taiwan Straight - Tungyintao, Nanjihtao, Penghu basins, from north to south, respectively, comprise a left-lateral and en echelon array rift system. Previous wellbore data revealed that these basins are filled with Paleocene and Eocence sediments, which were controlled by the NE-SW trending growth normal faults. Moreover, Penghu basin is composed of two sub-basins separated by lateral fault which induced a regional volcanic uplift. The seismic profiles indicate that it represents a typical half-graben basin with wedge-shaped synrift deposits thickening toward the main boundary fault. Five wells in the Penghu basin show that Penghu basin began to form during the Late Pliocene with shallow marine deposition. The mid-Eocene shale sequences in northwestern side are interbedded with some layers of basic lava flow, which indicate that the normal faults induced the volcanism. Data used in this study consist of: (1) multi-channel seismic data, (2) seven wellbore data acquired by CPC, Taiwan (Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan). Seismic profiles were interpreted by Kingdom Suite. Afterwards, integrate synthetic seismogram to generate depth-converted profiles, and import them to 2Dmove for cross-section restoration. Three regional unconformities and four sequence units are delineated in this area. Seismic profile interpretations also infer that the main faults dominantly oriented NE-SW, and the formation of Penghu basin is mostly due to the normal fault in the southeastern side, which is NE-SW trending in the north, and gradually changes to nearly E-W trending. These normal faults are separated by some lateral faults. Restoration of representive cross sections suggest three phases of basin development in the Penghu basin. Regarding to the stratigraphy framework according

  9. A common mantle plume source beneath the entire East African Rift System revealed by coupled helium-neon systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Hilton, David R.; Scarsi, Paolo; Abebe, Tsegaye; Hopp, Jens

    2014-04-01

    We report combined He-Ne-Ar isotope data of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the East Africa Rift System (EARS). Plume-like helium isotope (3He/4He) ratios (i.e., greater than the depleted MORB mantle (DMM) range of 8 ± 1RA) are restricted to the Ethiopia Rift and Rungwe, the southernmost volcanic province of the Western Rift. In contrast, neon isotope trends reveal the presence of an ubiquitous solar (plume-like) Ne component throughout the EARS, with (21Ne/22Ne)EX values (where (21Ne/22Ne)EX is the air-corrected 21Ne/22Ne ratio extrapolated to Ne-B) as low as 0.034, close to that of solar Ne-B (0.031). Coupling (21Ne/22Ne)EX with 4He/3He ratios indicates that all samples can be explained by admixture between a single mantle plume source, common to the entire rift, and either a DMM or subcontinental lithospheric mantle source. Additionally, we show that the entire sample suite is characterized by low 3He/22NeS ratios (mostly < 0.2)—a feature characteristic of oceanic hot spots such as Iceland. We propose that the origin of these unique noble gas signatures is the deeply rooted African Superplume which influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa. We argue that the Ethiopia and Kenya domes represent two different heads of this common mantle plume source.

  10. Internal structure of Puna Ridge: evolution of the submarine East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai ̀i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stephen C.; Moore, Gregory F.; Morgan, Julia K.

    2004-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection, sonobuoy, gravity and magnetics data collected over the submarine length of the 75 km long Puna Ridge, Hawai ̀i, resolve the internal structure of the active rift zone. Laterally continuous reflections are imaged deep beneath the axis of the East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea Volcano. We interpret these reflections as a layer of abyssal sediments lying beneath the volcanic edifice of Kilauea. Early arrival times or 'pull-up' of sediment reflections on time sections imply a region of high P-wave velocity ( Vp) along the submarine ERZ. Refraction measurements along the axis of the ridge yield Vp values of 2.7-4.85 km/s within the upper 1 km of the volcanic pile and 6.5-7 km/s deeper within the edifice. Few coherent reflections are observed on seismic reflection sections within the high-velocity area, suggesting steeply dipping dikes and/or chaotic and fractured volcanic materials. Southeastward dipping reflections beneath the NW flank of Puna Ridge are interpreted as the buried flank of the older Hilo Ridge, indicating that these two ridges overlap at depth. Gravity measurements define a high-density anomaly coincident with the high-velocity region and support the existence of a complex of intrusive dikes associated with the ERZ. Gravity modeling shows that the intrusive core of the ERZ is offset to the southeast of the topographic axis of the rift zone, and that the surface of the core dips more steeply to the northwest than to the southeast, suggesting that the dike complex has been progressively displaced to the southeast by subsequent intrusions. The gravity signature of the dike complex decreases in width down-rift, and is absent in the distal portion of the rift zone. Based on these observations, and analysis of Puna Ridge bathymetry, we define three morphological and structural regimes of the submarine ERZ, that correlate to down-rift changes in rift zone dynamics and partitioning of intrusive materials. We propose that these

  11. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  12. Ambient Noise Tomography of the East African Rift System in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, A.; Chamussa, J.; Silveira, G. M.; Custodio, S.; Lebedev, S.; Chang, S.; Ferreira, A. M.; Fonseca, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    A wide range of studies has shown that the cross-correlation of ambient noise can provide an estimate of the Greens functions between pairs of stations. Project MOZART (funded by FCT, Lisbon, PI J. Fonseca) deployed 30 broadband (120s) seismic stations from the SEIS-UK Pool in Central Mozambique and NE South Africa, with the purpose of studying the East African Rift System (EARS) in Mozambique. We applied the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method to broadband seismic data recorded from March 2011 until July 2012. Cross-correlations were computed between all pairs of stations, and from these we obtained Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for all interstation paths, in the period range from 3 to 50 seconds. We tested various approaches for pre-processing the ambient noise data regarding time-domain and spectral normalisation, as well as the use of phase cross-correlations. Moreover, we examined the robustness of our dispersion maps by splitting our dataset into various sub-sets of Green's functions with similar paths and by quantifying the differences between the dispersion maps obtained from the various sub-sets of data. We find that while the geographical distribution of the group velocity anomalies is well constrained, the amplitudes of the anomalies are slightly less robust. We performed a three-dimensional inversion to obtain the S-wave velocity of the crust and upper mantle. In addition, our preliminary results show a good correlation between the Rayleigh wave group velocity and the geology of Mozambique. In order to extend the investigation to longer periods and, thus, to be able to look into the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range in the upper mantle, we apply a recent implementation of the surface-wave two-station method (teleseismic interferometry) and augment our dataset with Rayleigh wave phase velocities curves in broad period ranges.

  13. Puhimau thermal area: a window into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of two soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed chamber circulation method at the Puhimau thermal area in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of  volcano, Hawaii. The surveys were undertaken in 1996 and 1998 to constrain how much CO2 might be reaching the ERZ after degassing beneath the summit caldera and whether the Puhimau thermal area might be a significant contributor to the overall CO2 budget of  . The area was revisited in 2001 to determine the effects of surface disturbance on efflux values by the collar emplacement technique utilized in the earlier surveys. Utilizing a cutoff value of 50 g m−2 d−1 for the surrounding forest background efflux, the CO2 emission rates for the anomaly at Puhimau thermal area were 27 t d−1 in 1996 and 17 t d−1 in 1998. Water vapor was removed before analysis in all cases in order to obtain CO2 values on a dry air basis and mitigate the effect of water vapor dilution on the measurements. It is clear that Puhimau thermal area is not a significant contributor to  CO2 output and that most of  CO2 (8500 t d−1) is degassed at the summit, leaving only magma with its remaining stored volatiles, such as SO2, for injection down the ERZ. Because of the low CO2emission rate and the presence of a shallow water table in the upper ERZ that effectively scrubs SO2 and other acid gases, Puhimau thermal area currently does not appear to be generally well suited for observing temporal changes in degassing at  .

  14. The crust and upper mantle of central East Greenland - implications for continental accretion and rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, Niels; Ebbing, Jörg; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    The geological evolution of the North Atlantic Realm during the past 450 Myr, which has shaped the present-day topographic, crustal and upper mantle features, was dominated by the Caledonian orogeny and the formation of the North Atlantic and associated igneous activity. The distinct high altitude-low relief landscapes that accompany the North Atlantic rifted passive margins are the focus of a discussion of whether they are remnant and modified Caledonian features or, alternatively, recently uplifted peneplains. Teleseismic receiver function analysis of 11 broadband seismometers in the Central Fjord Region in East Greenland indicates the presence of a fossil subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of hydrated mantle peridotite. This model is generally consistent with gravity and topography. It is shown that the entire structure including crustal thickness variations and sub-Moho heterogeneity gives a superior gravity and isostatic topographic fit compared to a model with a homogeneous lithospheric layer (1). The high topography of >1000 m in the western part of the area is supported by the c. 40 km thick crust. The eastern part requires buoyancy from the low velocity/low density mantle wedge. The geometry, velocities and densities are consistent with structures associated with a fossil subduction zone. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere and that significant present-day dynamic topography seems not to be required. Further, this structure is suggested to be geophysically very similar to the Flannan reflector imaged north of Scotland, and that these are the remnants of the same fossil subduction zone, broken apart and separated during the formation of the North Atlantic in the early Cenozoic (2). 1) Schiffer, C., Jacobsen, B.H., Balling, N., Ebbing, J. and Nielsen, S

  15. Miocene Onset of Extension in the Turkana Depression, Kenya: Implications for the Geodynamic Evolution of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, S.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Kohn, B. P.; Seiler, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleogene-Recent East African Rift System (EARS) is the foremost modern example of continental rifting, providing much of our understanding of the early stages of continental breakup. The EARS traverses two regions of crustal uplift, the Ethiopian and East African Domes, separated by the Turkana Depression. This wide region of subdued topography coincides with the NW-SE trend of the Jurassic-Paleogene Anza Rift. Opinions on the fundamental geodynamic driver for EARS rifting are divided, however, principally between models involving migrating plume(s) and a single elongated 'superplume'. While competing models have similar topographic outcomes, they predict different morphotectonic evolutions for the Turkana Depression. Models inferring southward plume-migration imply that the plume must have passed below the Turkana Depression during the Paleogene, in order to have migrated to the East African Dome by the Miocene. The possible temporal denudational response to such plume activity is testable using low temperature thermochronology. We present apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe), and zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) data from the Lapurr Range, an uplifted Precambrian basement block in northern Turkana. Low radiation damage ZHe results displaying an age range of ~70-210 Ma, and combined with stratigraphic evidence, suggest ~4-6 km of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous denudation, probably associated with early Anza Rift tectonism. AFT ages of ~9-15 Ma imply subsequent burial beneath no more than ~4 km of overburden, thus preserving the Jurassic-Cretaceous ZHe ages. Together with AFT results, AHe data (~3-19 Ma) support ~2-4 km of Miocene-Pliocene uplift of the Lapurr Range in the footwall of the E-dipping Lapurr normal fault. Miocene AFT and AHe ages are interpreted to reflect the initiation of the EARS in the Turkana Depression. If extension is associated with plume activity, then upwelling in the Turkana region is unlikely to have started prior to the Miocene, much

  16. Crustal and mantle structure and anisotropy beneath the incipient segments of the East African Rift System: Preliminary results from the ongoing SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; moidaki, M.; Mutamina, D. M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ingate, S. F.; Reusch, A.; Barstow, N.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the vast wealth of research conducted toward understanding processes associated with continental rifting, the extent of our knowledge is derived primarily from studies focused on mature rift systems, such as the well-developed portions of the East African Rift System (EARS) north of Lake Malawi. To explore the dynamics of early rift evolution, the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) team deployed 50 PASSCAL broadband seismic stations across the Malawi, Luangwa, and Okavango rifts of the EARS during the summer of 2012. The cumulative length of the profiles is about 2500 km and the planned recording duration is 2 years. Here we present the preliminary results of systematic analyses of data obtained from the first year of acquisition for all 50 stations. A total of 446 high-quality shear-wave splitting measurements using PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases from 84 teleseismic events were used to constrain fast polarization directions and splitting times throughout the region. The Malawi and Okavango rifts are characterized by mostly NE trending fast directions with a mean splitting time of about 1 s. The fast directions on the west side of the Luangwa Rift Zone are parallel to the rift valley, and those on the east side are more N-S oriented. Stacking of approximately 1900 radial receiver functions reveals significant spatial variations of both crustal thickness and the ratio of crustal P and S wave velocities, as well as the thickness of the mantle transition zone. Stations situated within the Malawi rift demonstrate a southward increase in observed crustal thickness, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the Malawi rift originated at the northern end of the rift system and propagated southward. Both the Okavango and Luangwa rifts are associated with thinned crust and increased Vp/Vs, although additional data is required at some stations to enhance the reliability of the observations. Teleseismic P-wave travel-time residuals show a delay of about

  17. The Lithosphere of The East African Rift System: Insights From Three-Dimensional Density Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    We use the gravity data that cover the large part of the Afro-Arabian rift system, the eastern branch (Ethiopia-Afar and northern Kenya), in order to produce a regional density model. In an earlier work the new and old gravity data were compiled, evaluated and homogenised using a consistent data reduction procedures. Three basic constraints widely spaced over a 1500 km rift length have been generated between 1969 and 2003 by an international consortium with information from isostatic models, global tomography, geological, geochemical evidences, and petrological and experimental results. These are integrated and applied to the model to constrain upper and lower crustal structures underneath the Rift and Plateau areas. New crustal thickness estimations (Dugda et al., 2004 in press) and inferences from recent velocity models along the axis of the Main Ethiopian Rift (Keller et al., 2004) are added to the density model. Thirty parallel planes cutting across the entire plateau region and Rift system (Afar-Ethiopia-Kenya) are interactively modelled using a starting geometry that invoke asthenospheric upwelling. Densities for the upper crust are calculated using Nafe Drake method, averaged from earlier interpretation and measured ones from the Geological Survey of Ethiopia database (e.g. Geothermal project, GSE petrophysical laboratory, pers. communication). Densities for lower crust are estimated using the approach by Sobolov and Babyko (1994). We used also lower crustal densities calculated by (Simyu and Keller, 1997) for the northern part of Kenya rift. The preliminary model offers a possibility to quantify depth, thickness and volumes of different geological interfaces and bodies. As for example, the estimation of the volume of volcanic constructs on the western plateau of Ethiopia is relatively larger than the eastern plateau. The load map derived from the model indicated maximum crustal loads at the crust/mantle interface (ca. 40km) on the eastern and western flanks

  18. Magma Reservoir Processes Revealed by Geochemistry of the Ongoing East Rift Zone Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornber, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    Geochemical data were examined for a suite of 1,000 near-vent lava samples from the Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea, collected from January 1983 through October 2001. Bulk lava and glass compositions reveal short- and long-term changes in pre-eruptive magma conditions that can be correlated with changes in edifice deformation, shallow magma transfer and eruptive behavior. Two decades of eruption on Kilauea's east rift zone has yielded ~2 km3 of lava, 97% of which is sparsely olivine-phyric with an MgO range of 6.8 to 9.6 wt%. During separate brief intervals of low-volume, fissure eruption (episodes 1 to 3 and 54), isolated rift-zone reservoirs with lower-MgO and olv-cpx-plg-phryic magma were incorporated by more mafic magma immediately prior to eruption. During prolonged, near-continuous eruption(e.g.,episodes 48-53 and most of 55), steady-state effusion is marked by cyclic variations in olivine-saturated magma chemistry. Bulk lava MgO and eruption temperature vary in cycles of monthly to bi-annual frequency, while olivine-incompatible elements vary inversely to these cycles. However, MgO-normalized values and ratios of highly to moderately incompatible elements (HINCE/MINCE), which nullify olivine fractionation effects, reveal cycles in magma chemistry that occur prior to olivine crystallization over the magmatic temperature range that is tapped by this eruption (1205-1155°C). These short-term cycles are superimposed on a long-term decrease of HINCE/MINCE, which is widely thought to reflect a 20-year change in mantle-source conditions. While HINCE/MINCE variation in primitive recharge magma cannot be ruled out, the short-term fluctuations of this signature may require unreasonably complex mantle variations. Alternatively, the correspondence of HINCE/MINCE cycles with edifice deformation and eruptive behavior suggests that the long-term evolving magmatic condition is a result of prolonged succession of short-term shallow magmatic events. The consistent

  19. Selected time-lapse movies of the east rift zone eruption of KĪlauea Volcano, 2004–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Tim R.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has used mass-market digital time-lapse cameras and network-enabled Webcams for visual monitoring and research. The 26 time-lapse movies in this report were selected from the vast collection of images acquired by these camera systems during 2004–2008. Chosen for their content and broad aesthetic appeal, these image sequences document a variety of flow-field and vent processes from Kīlauea's east rift zone eruption, which began in 1983 and is still (as of 2011) ongoing.

  20. Constraining the Composition of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle Beneath the East African Rift: FTIR Analysis of Water in Spinel Peridotite Mantle Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Stephanie Gwen; Nelson, Wendy R.; Peslier, Anne H.; Snow, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift System was initiated by the impingement of the Afar mantle plume on the base of the non-cratonic continental lithosphere (assembled during the Pan-African Orogeny), producing over 300,000 kmof continental flood basalts approx.30 Ma ago. The contribution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to this voluminous period of volcanism is implied based on basaltic geochemical and isotopic data. However, the role of percolating melts on the SCLM composition is less clear. Metasomatism is capable of hybridizing or overprinting the geochemical signature of the SCLM. In addition, models suggest that adding fluids to lithospheric mantle affects its stability. We investigated the nature of the SCLM using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to measure water content in mantle xenoliths entrained in young (1 Ma) basaltic lavas from the Ethiopian volcanic province. The mantle xenoliths consist dominantly of spinel lherzolites and are composed of nominally anhydrous minerals, which can contain trace water as H in mineral defects. Eleven mantle xenoliths come from the Injibara-Gojam region and two from the Mega-Sidamo region. Water abundances of olivines in six samples are 1-5ppm H2O while the rest are below the limit of detection (<0.5 ppm H2O); orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene contain 80-238 and 111-340 ppm wt H2O, respectively. Two xenoliths have higher water contents - a websterite (470 ppm) and dunite (229 ppm), consistent with involvement of ascending melts. The low water content of the upper SCLM beneath Ethiopia is as dry as the oceanic mantle except for small domains represented by percolating melts. Consequently, rifting of the East African lithosphere may not have been facilitated by a hydrated upper mantle.

  1. Lithoprobe east: marine deep seismic reflection results across the Appalachians and the rifted continental margin northeast of Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.E.; Stockmal, G.S.; O'Brien, S.J.; Quinlan, G.

    1985-01-01

    Marine deep seismic reflection data have been collected across the Appalachian Orogen and the rifted continental margin northeast of Newfoundland. Results across the Appalachian Orogen show the extent of the ancient Grenvillian passive margin beneath the terranes to the east, the nature of terrane boundaries at depth, and the relationships between surface geological features and the seismically defined crustal geometry. The results across the rifted margin define a decollement zone below the faulted continental basement. These basement fault blocks do not exhibit a listric geometry. The continental crust thins beneath the sedimentary basins occupying the rifted margin, although there does not appear to be a simple relationship between crustal thickness and basin subsidence. The ocean-continent transition is marked by a landward dip of the oceanic crust which disappears below the thinned continental crust near the transition. The ocean-continent boundary is not a vertical boundary between crustal types, rather there appears to be continuity of oceanic-type crust below the continent, perhaps forming a high velocity lower crustal layer across the continental margin.

  2. Structural comparison of archetypal Atlantic rifted margins (Angola - Esperito Santo, Iberia - Newfoundland, mid.Norway - East Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Manatschal, Gianreto; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade, a number of new geological and numerical models have been proposed to explain intriguing observations from deep margin settings that were previously not well understood. These new models, together with the increasing amount of high-quality geophysical data, now allow to compare observations from different margins. Key areas are the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugates, the North-East and South Atlantic systems. A first-order structural similarity appears between the architectures of these rifted margins, including magma-poor as well as magma-rich ones. Typical is the seawards arrangement of characteristic entities such as platforms, necking zones, ocean-continent transitions and marginal/outer highs. The arrangement appears to reflect a commonality with respect to the tectonic processes involved in rifted margin formation. The study of magma-poor and magma-rich margins notably suggests that hyper-extension does not preclude a magmatic breakup. We propose to clarify the definition of a number of terms typically used in rifted margin studies. Then we will present a review of available information from the Angola-Gabon, Iberia-Newfoundland and Norway-Greenland margins, usually referred to as the archetypes of hyper-extended, magma-poor or volcanic margins. We will discuss their similarities and differences and review the related deformation modes.

  3. Transition From a Magmatic to a Tectonic Rift System : Seismotectonics of the Eyasi- Manyara Region, Northern Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaric, J.; Perrot, J.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Wambura, R. F.; Tiberi, C.; Petit, C.; Le Gall, B.; Sue, C.

    2008-12-01

    How a rift system propagates and breaks throughout a cold and thick continental crust remains poorly known. Only few places allow to address the question. In the East African Rift System (EARS), the eastern magma- rich branch abruptly splits into two amagmatic arms (the Eyasi and Manyara faulted systems), south of a E-W volcanic chain (the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic belt), as crossing the Archaean Tanzanian craton margin. We present the first detailed seismotectonic picture of the Eyasi-Manyara rifts where a network of ~25 seismometers was settled from June to November 2007 (SEISMO-TANZ'07 seismological experiment). From the seismicity recorded by the network, we identify active faults and discuss the stress field framework obtained from the inversion of focal mechanisms. We use the determined depth of earthquakes (1) to discuss the crustal structure of the transition zone from a magma-rich to a magma-starved section of the EARS and (2) to further emphasize the rheological control on depth distributions in the EARS (Albaric et al., Tectonophysics, 2008). The stress and strain directions deduced from our work are also used to question recently published kinematics and conceptual models of the EARS (Calais et al., Geol. Soc. London, 2006 ; Le Gall et al., Tectonophysics, 2008).

  4. Quantifying the morphometric variability of monogenetic cones in volcanic fields: the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Sam; Grosse, Pablo; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, François; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic cone fields are generally made up of tens to hundreds of monogenetic cones, sometimes related to larger polygenetic edifices, which can exhibit a wide range of morphologies and degrees of preservation. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) developed itself in a transfer zone which separates two rift segments (i.e. Edward and Kivu rift) within the western branch of the East-African Rift. As the result of volcanic activity related to this tectonic regime of continental extension, the VVP hosts eight large polygenetic volcanoes, surrounded by over 500 monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures, scattered over the vast VVP lava flow fields. Some cones lack any obvious geo-structural link to a specific Virunga volcano. Using recent high-resolution satellite images (SPOT, Pléiades) and a newly created 5-m-resolution digital elevation model (TanDEM-X), we have mapped and classified all monogenetic cones and eruptive fissures of the VVP. We analysed the orientation of all mapped eruptive fissures and, using the MORVOLC program, we calculated a set of morphometric parameters to highlight systematic spatial variations in size or morphometric ratios of the cones. Based upon morphological indicators, we classified the satellite cones into 4 categories: 1. Simple cones with one closed-rim crater; 2. Breached cones with one open-rim crater; 3. Complex cones with two or more interconnected craters and overlapping cones; 4. Other edifices without a distinguishable crater or cone shape (e.g. spatter mounds and levees along eruptive fissures). The results show that cones are distributed in clusters and along alignments, in some cases parallel with the regional tectonic orientations. Contrasts in the volumes of cones positioned on the rift shoulders compared to those located on the rift valley floor can possibly be attributed to contrasts in continental crust thickness. Furthermore, higher average cone slopes in the East-VVP (Bufumbira zone) and central-VVP cone clusters suggest

  5. An inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Joseph

    1991-03-01

    At the request of True Mid Pacific Geothermal, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii, Inc. has conducted an inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No.2, TMK: 1-2-10:3. The Principal Investigator was Joseph Kennedy M.A., assisted by Jacob Kaio, Field Supervisor and field crew Mark Borrello B.A., Michael O'Shaughnessy B.A., and Randy Adric. This report supercedes all previous reports submitted to the Historic Presentation Section of the Department of Land and Natural Resources. In addition to 100% surface coverage of the 400 x 400 foot well pad itself, 100% surface coverage of a substantial buffer zone was also completed. This buffer zone was established by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation personnel and extends 1000 feet east and west of the well site and 500 feet north and south of the well site.

  6. Exploring Crustal Structure and Mantle Seismic Anisotropy Associated with the Incipient Southern and Southwestern Branches of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Moidaki, M.; Mutamina, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    In spite of numerous geoscientific studies, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation and development of continental rifts are still poorly understood. The key information required to constrain various geodynamic models on rift initiation can be derived from the crust/mantle structure and anisotropy beneath incipient rifts such as the Southern and Southwestern branches of the East African Rift System. As part of a National Science Foundation funded interdisciplinary project, 50 PASSCAL broadband seismic stations were deployed across the Malawi, Luangwa, and Okavango rift zones from the summer of 2012 to the summer of 2014. Preliminary results from these 50 SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) and adjacent stations are presented utilizing shear-wave splitting (SWS) and P-S receiver function techniques. 1109 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements, consisting of fast polarization orientations and splitting times, have been obtained from a total of 361 seismic events. The results demonstrate dominantly NE-SW fast orientations throughout Botswana as well as along the northwestern flank of the Luangwa rift valley. Meanwhile, fast orientations beneath the eastern Luangwa rift flank rotate from NNW to NNE along the western border of the Malawi rift. Stations located alongside the western Malawi rift border faults yield ENE fast orientations, with stations situated in Mozambique exhibiting more E-W orientations. In the northern extent of the study region, fast orientations parallel the trend of the Rukwa and Usangu rift basins. Receiver function results reveal that, relative to the adjacent Pan-African mobile belts, the Luangwa rift zone has a thin (30 to 35 km) crust. The crustal thickness within the Okavango rift basin is highly variable. Preliminary findings indicate a northeastward thinning along the southeast Okavango border fault system congruent with decreasing extension toward the southwest. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Okavango basin are roughly

  7. Results From a Borehole Seismometer Array I: Microseismicity at a Productive Geothermal Field, Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone, Puna, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenedi, C. L.; Shalev, E.; Malin, P.; Kaleikini, M.; Dahl, G.

    2008-12-01

    Borehole seismometer arrays have proven successful in both the exploration and monitoring of geothermal fields. Because the seismometers are located at depth, they are isolated from human noise and record microearthquakes with clearly identifiable seismic phases that can be used for event location. Further analysis of these events can be used to resolve earthquake clouds into identifiable faults. The local fault and dike structures in Puna, in southeastern Hawaii, are of interest both in terms of electricity production and volcanic hazard monitoring. The geothermal power plant at Puna has a 30MW capacity and is built on a section of the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone where lava flows erupted as recently as 1955. In order to improve seismic monitoring in this area, we installed eight 3-component borehole seismometers. The instrument depths range from 24 to 210 m (80 to 690 ft); the shallower instruments have 2 Hz geophones and the deepest have 4.5 Hz geophones. The seismometers are located at the vertices of two rhombs, 2 km wide x 4 km long and 4 km wide x 8 km long, both centered at the power plant. Since June 2006, we have located >4500 earthquakes; P- and S-wave arrivals were hand picked and events located using Hypoinverse-2000. Most of the earthquakes occurred at depths between 2.5 and 3 km. The large majority of events were M-0.5 to M0.5; the Gutenberg-Richter b-value is 1.4, which is consistent with microearthquake swarms. Frequency analysis indicates a 7-day periodicity; a Schuster diagram confirms increased seismicity on a weekly cycle. The location, depth, and period of the microearthquakes suggest that power plant activity affects local seismicity. Southwest of the geothermal facility, up-rift towards the Kilauea summit, earthquakes were progressively deeper at greater distances. Depths also increased towards the south, which is consistent with the eastern extension of the south-dipping, east-striking Hilina fault system. To the northeast, down-rift of the

  8. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2016-04-01

    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  9. Multi-year monitoring of rift propagation on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, H. A.; Young, N. W.; Coleman, R.; Bassis, J. N.; Minster, J.-B.

    2005-01-01

    We use satellite imagery from four sensors (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), and RADARSAT and ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to monitor the lengths of two rifts on the Amery Ice Shelf, from 1996 to 2004. We find that the rifts have each been propagating at a steady annual rate for the past 5 years. Superimposed on this steady rate is a seasonal signal, where propagation rates are significantly higher in the summer period (i.e., September-April) than in the winter period (i.e., April-September). Possible causes of this summer-winter effect are changing properties of the ice mélange, which fills the rifts, and seasonal changes in ocean circulation beneath the ice shelf.

  10. The role of magmatic processes in strain localization from rift onset to rupture in East Africa and the Red Sea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Lindsey, N.; Cote, D. M.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Tiberi, C.

    2010-12-01

    The continental rift zones of East Africa, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden are sites of mechanical stretching and heating of the lithosphere in response to regional plate pulling forces and dynamic upwelling(s) within the underlying mantle. In the East African and the southern Red Sea rifts magmatism accompanied initial faulting and plateau uplift, and magma intrusion continues to accommodate deformation in many sectors, including the deeply rooted Tanzanian craton. The surface volcanism is often spectacularly evident, but the intrusion of magma in the form of dikes and sills that do not reach Earth’s surface is far more difficult to detect. The aims of our data synthesis and modeling studies are to recognize and quantify the contribution of magmatism to plate boundary deformation within one geodynamic province: the uplifted plateaux above the African superplume province. The intense and ongoing dike intrusions that commenced in 2005 in the southernmost Red Sea rift in Afar proved an eye-opener, and alerted geoscientists to the attendant seismic and volcanic hazards within active rift zones. Recent dike intrusions in the East African and Red Sea rifts provide some constraints on the time and length scales of diking processes. Current strain distributions estimated from cumulative seismic and geodetic moment release (Lindsey et al., this session) indicate predominantly aseismic deformation, even near small volume volcanoes. We compare and contrast observations of strain and volcanism with thermo-mechanical properties of the plate to predict zones of subsurface magma intrusion and possible metasomatic modification of the mantle lithosphere.

  11. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    PubMed

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. PMID:22404967

  12. Images of the East Africa Rift System from the Joint Inversion of Body Waves, Surface Waves, and Gravity: Investigating the Role of Magma in Early-Stage Continental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roecker, S. W.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Muzuka, A.; Khalfan, M.; Kianji, G.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.

    2015-12-01

    With several rift segments at different stages of the rifting cycle, and the last orogenic episode more than 500 Mya, the young (<7 My) Eastern rift system in northern Tanzania and southern Kenya offers an ideal venue to study the role of magma and other fluids in continental rifting. To estimate both the location and volume of magma beneath the rift system, we generated 3D elastic wave images of the crust and uppermost mantle of this region by analyzing data recorded by a local deployment of 40 broad band seismic stations over a period of two years. We jointly inverted P and S wave arrival times from locally recorded earthquakes with Rayleigh wave dispersion curves derived from cross correlating ambient noise. These results were combined with Bouguer gravity anomalies to increase resolution and add constraints. The ambient noise signal appears to be channeled along the axis of the rift system, suggesting a waveguide effect. Tests with synthetic data estimate a spatial resolution in our images on the order of a few km. Our results demonstrate fundamental modifications of continental crustal structure by magmatic processes during the first few My of rift basin development. To first order, our models are dominated by regions of exceptionally low (by 10-20%) shear wavespeed relative to that of average continental crust. To a large extent the wavespeeds mimic the topography, with the slowest shear wave speeds corresponding to the lowest elevations, and tracing out a NE-SW striking region about 20 km wide from the Natron basin in the north to a NW-SE region of similar width beneath the Manyara basin in the south. These low wavespeeds are likely to be a consequence of the presence of magma and other fluids from at least 30 km depth, the limit of depth resolution for this dataset and near the base of the crust (~35 km), and extending to upper crustal levels in some areas. Somewhat surprisingly, a second region of significant low wavespeed beneath the Ngorongoro caldera

  13. He-Ne-Ar isotope studies of mafic volcanic rocks and mantle xenoliths from the East African Rift System - contrasting isotope signals in different rift branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldorsson, S. A.; Hilton, D. R.; Scarsi, P.; Abebe, T.; Massi, K. M.; Barry, P. H.; Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, J.; Rudnick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Helium isotope studies of the East African Rift System (EARS) suggest the involvement of a deep mantle plume(s) beneath the northern (Ethiopian) segment [1-3]. The highest 3He/4He (RA) signatures found to date show a close association with the greatest magma volumes erupted since the Early Cenozoic in the region. While the helium isotope characteristics are well established in the Ethiopia-Afar region, Ne and Ar systematics remain poorly constrained. Using a combined He-Ne-Ar isotope approach, our aim is to determine the regional extent of the influence of the Afar plume and to distinguish between subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and/or a possible second mantle plume sources located to the south of the Turkana Depression. Xenoliths and mafic lavas from N-Tanzania display a limited range in He isotopes (5-7 RA) with exceptions at Arusha (7.8RA) and Labait (8.7RA), through 7.1-8.7 RA in N-Kenya and S-Ethiopia, to 14.3 RA in the Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar, spanning nearly the entire range of previously reported values. The mean 3He/4He ratio from of lavas and xenoliths from N-Tanzania is remarkably close to the global average of 6.1±0.9 (RA) for continental xenoliths and basalts, thought to represent the SCLM [4]. Thus far, only MORB-like values of 7.3-8.3 RA have been found in volcanics of the Western rift. Initial Ne isotope data reveal the presence of a solar-like Ne component in xenoliths from the Ethiopia-Afar region, with extrapolated 21Ne/22Neex ratios of 0.0365 (assuming Ne-B = 12.5). This trend overlaps that of the Loihi-Kilauea line (L-K). Interestingly, a xenolith from N-Tanzania has a 21Ne/22Neex ratio of 0.0415, falling on a trajectory intermediate between MORB and L-K. The highest 40Ar/36Ar ratio obtained on phenocrysts/xenoliths to date is 1510. The generally low 3He/4He ratios of N-Tanzania likely result from different mixing proportions of asthenospheric sources with lithospheric material, the latter having developed lower 3He/4He ratios

  14. Understanding Chad Basin Evolution Since Miocene: Climate and Vegetation Simulations, Roles of Orbital Parameters and East African Rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, P.; Ramstein, G.; Krinner, G.; Schuster, M.; Fluteau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Tiercelin, J.; Vignaud, P.; Brunet, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since the discovery of the earliest hominid known, Chad basin is a major place to study paleoclimates and hominid evolution. This discovery implies to re-evaluate the "East Side Story" paradigm for early hominids. To achieve this goal, we have performed numerical simulations to quantify the climatic and vegetation response of the Rift Uplift. We used a zoomed (144 X 108) AGCM (LMDz from IPSL). On the one hand, offline continental biosphere model (ORCHIDEE) has been used to simulate the vegetation response over western and eastern parts of the rift. On the other hand, since geomorphologic evidences have shown that from Upper Miocene to mid-Holocene Lake Chad had known several level oscillations leading to a huge lake known as Mega Lake Chad (MLC), we also ran atmospheric simulations to demonstrate, with boundary conditions at 6 000 BP, that orbital forcing allowed the existence of a MLC. Volume and surface of the lake have been calculated using an adapted lake model. These simulations have shown that the ITCZ shift induced by the mid-Holocene orbital parameters drives the existence of a MegaChad. Our model result having been tested successfully for the last occurrence of the MLC, we will apply it to Upper Miocene accounting for topographic changes, in order to reconstruct as accurately as possible the first hominids environments.

  15. Fluid-controlled faulting process in the Asal Rift, Djibouti, from 8 yr of radar interferometry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubre, Cécile; Peltzer, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The deformation in the Asal Rift (Djibouti) is characterized by magmatic inflation, diking, distributed extension, fissure opening, and normal faulting. An 8 yr time line of surface displacement maps covering the rift, constructed using radar interferometry data acquired by the Canadian satellite Radarsat between 1997 and 2005, reveals the aseismic behavior of faults and its relation with bursts of microseismicity. The observed ground movements show the asymmetric subsidence of the inner floor of the rift with respect to the bordering shoulders accommodated by slip on three of the main active faults. Fault slip occurs both as steady creep and during sudden slip events accompanied by an increase in the seismicity rate around the slipping fault and the Fieale volcanic center. Slip distribution along fault strike shows triangular sections, a pattern not explained by simple elastic dislocation theory. These observations suggest that the Asal Rift faults are in a critical failure state and respond instantly to small pressure changes in fluid-filled fractures connected to the faults, reducing the effective normal stress on their locked section at depth.

  16. The Thermal History of the East African Rift Lakes Region Since the Last Glacial Maximum Using TEX86 Paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a study using the TEX86 temperature proxy from sediments of East African Rift Lakes (including Lakes Turkana, Albert, and Malawi) to reconstruct the thermal history of tropical Africa for the last ~ 20,000 years at a subcentennial to multicentennial resolution. The TEX86 proxy, based on tetraether membrane lipids produced by lacustrine Crenarchaeota, has been shown to be successful at recording lake surface temperatures of some large lakes, including Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, while providing unreasonable surface temperatures for lakes that receive a large input of soil material. The East African Rift Lakes are climatically sensitive, with the majority of water loss due to evaporation rather than outflow. Thus, they are useful for paleoclimate studies, being sensitive to even small changes in aridity. Temperature records from the northern and central basins of Lake Malawi agree well and fall within modern surface lake temperatures. A 2.5°C cooling is evident during the Younger Dryas in the northern basin record, with no response seen in the central basin. We are currently investigating mechanisms to explain why both records show a gradual cooling of 3°C during the late Holocene. Lake Albert shows an intriguing two-step cooling during the Younger Dryas, reaching temperatures 2.5°C lower than temperatures preceding or following this interval. The temperature record of Lake Turkana shows an interesting ~ 500 year cyclicity of low temperatures punctuated by abrupt warming events. Lakes Turkana and Albert show TEX86 paleotemperatures considerably lower (8°C cooler in Lake Albert and ~ 4°C cooler in Lake Turkana) than modern surface water temperatures. Although these records appear to fall in the range of temporal variability, these temperature discrepancies may indicate varying Crenarcheotal populations between lakes or other influencing factors.

  17. Deriving spatial patterns from a novel database of volcanic rock geochemistry in the Virunga Volcanic Province, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Sam; Barette, Florian; Smets, Benoît; Benbakkar, Mhammed; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) is situated within the western branch of the East-African Rift. The geochemistry and petrology of its' volcanic products has been studied extensively in a fragmented manner. They represent a unique collection of silica-undersaturated, ultra-alkaline and ultra-potassic compositions, displaying marked geochemical variations over the area occupied by the VVP. We present a novel spatially-explicit database of existing whole-rock geochemical analyses of the VVP volcanics, compiled from international publications, (post-)colonial scientific reports and PhD theses. In the database, a total of 703 geochemical analyses of whole-rock samples collected from the 1950s until recently have been characterised with a geographical location, eruption source location, analytical results and uncertainty estimates for each of these categories. Comparative box plots and Kruskal-Wallis H tests on subsets of analyses with contrasting ages or analytical methods suggest that the overall database accuracy is consistent. We demonstrate how statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and subsequent cluster analysis allow the identification of clusters of samples with similar major-element compositions. The spatial patterns represented by the contrasting clusters show that both the historically active volcanoes represent compositional clusters which can be identified based on their contrasted silica and alkali contents. Furthermore, two sample clusters are interpreted to represent the most primitive, deep magma source within the VVP, different from the shallow magma reservoirs that feed the eight dominant large volcanoes. The samples from these two clusters systematically originate from locations which 1. are distal compared to the eight large volcanoes and 2. mostly coincide with the surface expressions of rift faults or NE-SW-oriented inherited Precambrian structures which were reactivated during rifting. The lava from the Mugogo

  18. The Triassic of the Thakkhola (Nepal). I: stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of a north-east Gondwanan rifted margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rad, U.; Dürr, S.; Ogg, J. G.

    1994-03-01

    The Mesozoic sediments of Thakkhola (central Nepal) were deposited on a broad eastern north Gondwanan passive margin at mid-latitudes (28 41 °S) facing the Southern Tethys ocean to the north. The facies is strikingly similar over a distance of several thousand kilometres from Ladakh in the west to Tibet and to the paleogeographically adjacent north-west Australian margin (Exmouth Plateau, ODP Legs 122/123) and Timor in the east. Late Paleozoic rifting led to the opening of the Neo-Tethys ocean in Early Triassic times. An almost uninterrupted about 2 km thick sequence of syn-rift sediments was deposited on a slowly subsiding shelf and slope from Early Triassic to late Valanginian times when break-up between Gondwana (north-west Australia) and Greater India formed the proto-Indian Ocean. The sedimentation is controlled by (1) global events (eustasy; climatic/oceanographic changes due to latitudinal drift; plate reorganization leading to rift-type block-faulting) and (2) local factors, such as varying fluvio-deltaic sediment input, especially during Permian and late Norian times. Sea level was extremely low in Permian, high in Carnian and low again during Rhaeto-Liassic times. Third-order sea-level cycles may have occurred in the Early Triassic and late Norian to Rhaeto-Liassic. During the Permian pure quartz sand and gravel were deposited as shallowing upward series of submarine channel or barrier island sands. The high compositional maturity is typical of a stable craton-type hinterland, uplifted during a major rifting episode. During the early Triassic a 20 30 m thick condensed sequence of nodular ‘ammonitico rosso’-type marlstone with a ‘pelagic’ fauna was deposited (Tamba Kurkur Formation). This indicates tectonic subsidence and sediment starvation during the transgression of the Neo-Tethys ocean. During Carnian times a 400 m thick sequence of fining upward, filament-rich wackestone/shale cycles was deposited in a bathyal environment (Mukut Formation

  19. Comparative sequence stratigraphy of low-latitude versus high-latitude lacustrine rift basins: Seismic data examples from the East African and Baikal rifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholz, C.A.; Moore, T.C., Jr.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Golmshtok, A. Ja; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kurotchkin, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Lakes Baikal, Malawi and Tanganyika are the world's three largest rift valley lakes and are the classic modem examples of lacustrine rift basins. All the rift lakes are segmented into half-graben basins, and seismic reflection datasets reveal how this segmentation controls the filling of the rift basins through time. In the early stages of rifting, basins are fed primarily by flexural margin and axial margin drainage systems. At the climax of syn-rift sedimentation, however, when the basins are deeply subsided, almost all the margins are walled off by rift shoulder uplifts, and sediment flux into the basins is concentrated at accommodation zone and axial margin river deltas. Flexural margin unconformities are commonplace in the tropical lakes but less so in high-latitude Lake Baikal. Lake levels are extremely dynamic in the tropical lakes and in low-latitude systems in general because of the predominance of evaporation in the hydrologic cycle in those systems. Evaporation is minimized in relation to inflow in the high-latitude Lake Baikal and in most high-latitude systems, and consequently, major sequence boundaries tend to be tectonically controlled in that type of system. The acoustic stratigraphies of the tropical lakes are dominated by high-frequency and high-amplitude lake level shifts, whereas in high-latitude Lake Baikal, stratigraphic cycles are dominated by tectonism and sediment-supply variations.

  20. Forecast and Validation of the Rift Valley fever outbreak in East Africa: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The instantaneous occurrence of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm events and anomalous warming of the equatorial western Indian Ocean (WIO) are associated with elevated and widespread rainfall over East Africa. Such, sustained, heavy rainfall in East is associated with the emerg...

  1. Neotectonic faults and stress field in the East African Rift System around the Tanzanian Craton - A contribution to the seismotectonic map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Macheyeki, Athanas Simon; Fernandes, Rui-Manuel; Ayele, Atalay; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    As a contribution to the UNESCO-IUGS IGCP 601 project "Seismotectonics and seismic hazards in Africa" and in preparation of the Seismotectonic Map of Africa, we compiled the neotectonic faults related to the East African Rift System around the Tanzanian craton. The initial aim was to identify and map the potentially active faults. Faults are usually defined as active when they show seismogenic displacement during the last 10,000 to 100,000 years, generally on the basis of paleoseismic investigation. In East Africa, however, very few faults have been studied by paleoseismic techniques and even fewer have known historical seismic activation. To address this issue, we mapped faults that show morphological indications of displacement. We used the SRTM DTM (90 and 30 m when available to us), with artificial shading as basis for identify neotectonic faults, in combination with existing data from geological maps, publications and reports, complemented by our own field observations. Thermal springs often occur along tectonically active faults. We use them to distinguish present-day faulting from other mapped faults as they are in most cases structurally controlled. In parallel, we used also the available focal mechanisms and geological fault-slip data to constrain the stress second-order stress field (at the scale of rift segments) and locally also the third-order stress field (at the local scale). All these elements are combined and compared with existing kinematic models for the East African Rift based on earthquake slip vectors, GPS measurements and geologic indicators. The comparison evidences some local discrepancies between the stress field and the direction of opening, probably due to the interactions between different rift segments, as in the Rukwa rift, Mbeya southern junction between the eastern and western rift branches, and in the Manyara-Natron area.

  2. Thick lithosphere, deep crustal earthquakes and no melt: a triple challenge to understanding extension in the western branch of the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Selway, K.; Nyblade, A. A.; Brazier, R. A.; Tahir, N. El; Durrheim, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    Geodynamic models predict that rifting of thick, ancient continental lithosphere should not occur unless it is weakened by heating and magmatic intrusion. Therefore, the processes occurring along sections of the western branch of the East African Rift, where ˜150 km thick, Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere is rifting with no surface expression of magmatism, are a significant challenge to understand. In an attempt to understand the apparently amagmatic extension we probed the regional uppermost mantle for signatures of thermal alteration using compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speeds derived from Pn and Sn tomography. Pervasive thermal alteration of the uppermost mantle and possibly the presence of melt can be inferred beneath the Rungwe volcanic centre, but no signatures on a similar scale were discerned beneath amagmatic portions of the western rift branch encompassing the southern half of the Lake Tanganyika rift and much of the Rukwa rift. In this region, Vp and Vs wave speeds indicate little, if any, heating of the uppermost mantle and no studies have reported dyking. Vp/Vs ratios are consistent with typical, melt-free, olivine-dominated upper mantle. Although our resolution limit precludes us from imaging potential localised magmatic intrusions with dimensions of tens of kilometres, the absence of surface volcanism, the amagmatic upper crustal rupture known to have occurred at disparate locations on the western branch, the presence of lower crustal seismicity and the low temperatures implied by the fast seismic wave speeds in the lower crust and uppermost mantle in this region suggests possible amagmatic extension. Most dynamic models predict that this should not happen. Indeed even with magmatic intrusion, rifting of continental lithosphere >100 km thick is considered improbable under conditions found on Earth. Yield strength envelopes confirm that currently modelled stresses are insufficient to produce the observed deformation along these portions of the

  3. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania: Implications for a superplume source for East Africa Rift magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Paterno; Hilton, David; Halldórsson, Sæmundur

    2014-09-01

    The recently discovered high, plume-like 3He/4He ratios at Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP) in southern Tanzania, similar to those at the Main Ethiopian Rift in Ethiopia, strongly suggest that magmatism associated with continental rifting along the entire East African Rift System (EARS) has a deep mantle contribution (Hilton et al., 2011). New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for high 3He/4He lavas and tephras from RVP can be explained by binary mixing relationships involving Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean) lithospheric mantle, present beneath the southern EARS, and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions and best represented by recent Nyiragongo lavas from the Virunga Volcanic Province also in the Western Rift. Other lavas from the Western Rift and from the southern Kenya Rift can also be explained through mixing between the same endmember components. In contrast, lavas from the northern Kenya and Main Ethiopian rifts can be explained through variable mixing between the same mantle plume material and the Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, present beneath the northern EARS. Thus, we propose that the bulk of EARS magmatism is sourced from mixing among three endmember sources: Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean) lithospheric mantle, Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions. We propose further that the African Superplume, a large, seismically anomalous feature originating in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa, influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa with magmatism at RVP and Main Ethiopian Rift representing two different heads of a single mantle plume source. This is consistent with a single mantle plume origin of the coupled He-Ne isotopic signatures of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the EARS (Halldorsson et al., 2014).

  4. Gas isotopic signatures (He, C, and Ar) in the Lake Kivu region (western branch of the East African rift system): Geodynamic and volcanological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, D.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Poreda, R. J.; Darrah, T.; Cuoco, E.; Yalire, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    On 17 January 2002, the city of Goma was partly destroyed by two of the several lava flows erupted from a roughly N-S oriented fracture system opened along the southern flank of Mount Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo), in the western branch of the East African rift system. A humanitarian and scientific response was promptly organized by international, governmental, and nongovernmental agencies coordinated by the United Nations and the European Union. Among the different scientific projects undertaken to study the mechanisms triggering this and possible future eruptions, we focused on the isotopic (He, C, and Ar) analysis of the magmatic-hydrothermal and cold gas discharges related to the Nyiragongo volcanic system, the Kivu and Virunga region. The studied area includes the Nyiragongo volcano, its surroundings, and peripheral areas inside and outside the rift. They have been subdivided into seven regions characterized by distinct 3He/4He (expressed as R/Rair) ratios and/or δ13C-CO2 values. The Nyiragongo summit crater fumaroles, whose R/Rair and δ13C-CO2 values are up to 8.73 and from -3.5‰ to -4.0‰ VPDB, respectively, show a clear mantle, mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like contribution. Similar mantle-like He isotopic values (6.5-8.3 R/Rair) are also found in CO2-rich gas emanations (mazukus) along the northern shoreline of Lake Kivu main basin, whereas the 13δC-CO2 values range from -5.3‰ to -6.8‰ VPDB. The mantle influence progressively decreases in (1) dissolved gases of Lake Kivu (2.6-5.5 R/Rair) and (2) the distal gas discharges within and outside the two sides of the rift (from 0.1 to 1.7 R/Rair). Similarly, δ13C-CO2 ratios of the peripheral gas emissions are lighter (from -5.9‰ to -11.6‰ VPDB) than those of the crater fumaroles. Therefore, the spatial distribution of He and C signatures in the Lake Kivu region is mainly produced by mixing of mantle-related (e.g., Nyiragongo crater fumaroles and/or mazukus gases) and crustal-related (e

  5. East African mid-Holocene wet-dry transition recorded in palaeo-shorelines of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Yannick; Melnick, Daniel; Strecker, Manfred R.; Olago, Daniel; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-05-01

    The 'wet' early to mid-Holocene of tropical Africa, with its enhanced monsoon, ended with an abrupt shift toward drier conditions and was ultimately replaced by a drier climate that has persisted until the present day. The forcing mechanisms, the timing, and the spatial extent of this major climatic transition are not well understood and remain the subject of ongoing research. We have used a detailed palaeo-shoreline record from Lake Turkana (Kenya) to decipher and characterise this marked climatic transition in East Africa. We present a high-precision survey of well-preserved palaeo-shorelines, new radiocarbon ages from shoreline deposits, and oxygen-isotope measurements on freshwater mollusk shells to elucidate the Holocene moisture history from former lake water-levels in this climatically sensitive region. In combination with previously published data our study shows that during the early Holocene the water-level in Lake Turkana was high and the lake overflowed temporarily into the White Nile drainage system. During the mid-Holocene (~ 5270 ± 300 cal. yr BP), however, the lake water-level fell by ~ 50 m, coeval with major episodes of aridity on the African continent. A comparison between palaeo-hydrological and archaeological data from the Turkana Basin suggests that the mid-Holocene climatic transition was associated with fundamental changes in prehistoric cultures, highlighting the significance of natural climate variability and associated periods of protracted drought as major environmental stress factors affecting human occupation in the East African Rift System.

  6. Mapping Mantle Mixing and the Extent of Superplume Influence Using He-Ne-Ar-CO2-N2 Isotopes: The Case of the East Africa Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, D. R.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Scarsi, P.; Castillo, P.; Abebe, T.; Kulongoski, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's mantle possesses distinct and variable volatile characteristics as sampled by magmatic activity in different tectonic environments. In general, trace element depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts, with low Sr and Pb isotope values (but high ɛNd and ɛHf), release mantle-derived noble gases characterised by 3He/4He ~8 ± 1RA, (21Ne/22Ne)ex ~0.06 and 40Ar/36Ar ≥ 10,000 with CO2 and N2 having δ13C~-5‰ and δ15N ~-5‰, respectively. In contrast, enriched intraplate lavas possess higher 3He/4He (up to 50RA), lower (21Ne/22Ne)ex ~0.035 and 40Ar/36Ar ≤ 10,000 with generally higher but variable δ13C and δ15N. These isotopic attributes of mantle-derived volatiles can be exploited to map the extent, and mixing characteristics, of enriched (plume) mantle with depleted asthenospheric mantle ± the effects of over-riding lithosphere and/or crust. The East African Rift System (EARS) is superimposed upon two massive plateaux - the Ethiopia and Kenya domes - regarded as geophysical manifestations of a superplume source, a huge thermochemical anomaly originated at the core-mantle boundary and providing dynamic support for the plateaux. We present new volatile isotopic and relative abundance data (on the same samples) for geothermal fluids (He-CO2-N2), lavas (He-Ne-Ar) and xenoliths (He-Ne-Ar-CO2-N2) which provide an unprecedented overview of the distribution of mantle volatiles of the Ethiopia Dome, from the Red Sea via the Afar region and Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) to the Turkana Depression. Notably, peaks in geothermal fluid 3He/4He (16RA) and δ15N (+6.5‰) are coincident within the MER but the maximum δ13C (-0.78‰) lies ~100 km to the south. Highs in 3He/4He (14RA), δ13C (~-1‰) and δ15N (+3.4‰) for mafic crystals occur in the Afar region ~ 500km to the north. We assess the significance of the off-set in these volatile isotope signals, for sampling volatile heterogeneity in the plume source and/or the relative sensitivity of different volatiles to

  7. Multiproxy Evidence for a Positive Hydrological Budget during the Little Ice Age in the East African Rift, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goman, M.; Ashley, G. M.; Hover, V. C.; Owen, R.

    2011-12-01

    Hominin evolution took place in Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene and climate change is thought to be a factor, with Africa experiencing a general cooling and increasing aridification over the last several million years. Today, the climate of the East African Rift Valley of Kenya is characterized as semi-arid with evapotranspiration four times precipitation. Water resources are a valuable commodity for the many millions of inhabitants of the Valley. The short instrumental record shows precipitation fluctuates at sub-decadal timeframes as a result of the ENSO cycle; while during prehistory variations in monsoonal precipitation occurred on Milankovitch timescales (i.e. African Humid Period). Both timescales exhibit significant impacts on the distribution of surface water. However, little is known regarding precipitation variability over sub-millennial timescales. Emerging paleoclimate data indicates that the near surface presence of water has also varied over century length timescales. We present paleoclimate data from multiple sites along a north-south 600 km transect of the Gregory Rift Valley (Kenya) that indicate the region experienced wetter conditions during the Little Ice Age (A.D. 1400-1850). Our reconstructions of landscape and climate during this time frame rely upon a multiproxy and interdisciplinary approach. We discuss data from a variety of environmental settings (e.g. lakes, wetlands, and springs) that indicate an overall increase in hydrologic balance. Evidence is derived from biologic microfossils such as pollen, diatom and testate amoebae assemblages as well as inorganic components of the sedimentary record and geomorphic changes. The data differs significantly from studies undertaken to the west in Uganda and the Congo, where negative hydrologic balances occurred during the Little Ice Age. While the atmospheric dynamics causing this disparity are not yet recognized, interactions between the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the Congo Air Boundary

  8. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R

    2016-01-01

    summit region and/or from deep beneath Kīlauea’s east rift zone. The deeply derived olivine crystals and their host magma mixed with stored, more evolved magma in the rift zone, and the mixture was later erupted at Kapoho.

  9. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea's east rift zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuohy, Robin M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Swanson, Donald A.; Kent, Adam J. R.

    2016-07-01

    region and/or from deep beneath Kīlauea's east rift zone. The deeply derived olivine crystals and their host magma mixed with stored, more evolved magma in the rift zone, and the mixture was later erupted at Kapoho.

  10. Aeromagnetic evidence for a major strike-slip fault zone along the boundary between the Weddell Sea Rift and East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Ross, N.; Siegert, M. J.; Corr, H.; Leat, P. T.; Bingham, R. G.; Rippin, D. M.; le Brocq, A.

    2012-04-01

    The >500 km wide Weddell Sea Rift was a major focus for Jurassic extension and magmatism during the early stages of Gondwana break-up, and underlies the Weddell Sea Embayment, which separates East Antarctica from a collage of crustal blocks in West Antarctica. Here we present new aeromagnetic data combined with airborne radar and gravity data collected during the 2010-11 field season over the Institute and Moeller ice stream in West Antarctica. Our interpretations identify the major tectonic boundaries between the Weddell Sea Rift, the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains block and East Antarctica. Digitally enhanced aeromagnetic data and gravity anomalies indicate the extent of Proterozoic basement, Middle Cambrian rift-related volcanic rocks, Jurassic granites, and post Jurassic sedimentary infill. Two new joint magnetic and gravity models were constructed, constrained by 2D and 3D magnetic depth-to-source estimates to assess the extent of Proterozoic basement and the thickness of major Jurassic intrusions and post-Jurassic sedimentary infill. The Jurassic granites are modelled as 5-8 km thick and emplaced at the transition between the thicker crust of the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains block and the thinner crust of the Weddell Sea Rift, and within the Pagano Fault Zone, a newly identified ~75 km wide left-lateral strike-slip fault system that we interpret as a major tectonic boundary between East and West Antarctica. We also suggest a possible analogy between the Pagano Fault Zone and the Dead Sea transform. In this scenario the Jurassic Pagano Fault Zone is the kinematic link between extension in the Weddell Sea Rift and convergence across the Pacific margin of West Antarctica, as the Dead Sea transform links Red Sea extension to compression within the Zagros Mountains.

  11. Distribution of fault activity in the early stages of continental breakup: an analysis of faults and volcanic products of the Natron Basin, East African Rift, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J. D.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent magmatic-tectonic crises in Ethiopia (e.g. 2005 Dabbahu rifting episode, Afar) have informed our understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of strain in magmatic rifts transitioning to sea-floor spreading. However, the evolving contributions of magmatic and tectonic processes during the initial stages of rifting, is a subject of ongoing debate. The <5 Ma northern Tanzania and southern Kenya sectors of the East Africa Rift provide ideal locations to address this problem. We present preliminary findings from an investigation of fault structures utilizing aerial photography and satellite imagery of the ~35 km wide Natron rift-basin in northern Tanzania. Broad-scale structural mapping will be supplemented by field observations and 40Ar-39Ar dating of lava flows cut by faults to address three major aspects of magma-assisted rifting: (1) the relative timing of activity between the border fault and smaller faults distributed across the width of the rift; (2) time-averaged slip rates along rift-zone faults; and (3) the spatial distribution of faults and volcanic products, and their relative contributions to strain accommodation. Preliminary field observations suggest that the ~500 m high border fault system along the western edge of the Natron basin is either inactive or has experienced a reduced slip rate and higher recurrence interval between surface-breaking events, as evidence by a lack of recent surface-rupture along the main fault escarpments. An exception is an isolated, ~2 km-long segment of the Natron border fault, which is located in close proximity (< 5km) to the active Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Here, ~10 m of seemingly recent throw is observed in volcaniclastic deposits. The proximity of the fault segment to Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the localized distribution of fault-slip are consistent with magma-assisted faulting. Faults observed within the Natron basin and on the flanks of Gelai volcano, located on the eastern side of the rift, have

  12. Anomalously high b-values in the South Flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: Evidence for the distribution of magma below Kilauea's East rift zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyss, M.; Klein, F.; Nagamine, K.; Wiemer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The pattern of b-value of the frequency-magnitude relation, or mean magnitude, varies little in the Kaoiki-Hilea area of Hawaii, and the b-values are normal, with b = 0.8 in the top 10 km and somewhat lower values below that depth. We interpret the Kaoiki-Hilea area as relatively stable, normal Hawaiian crust. In contrast, the b-values beneath Kilauea's South Flank are anomalously high (b = 1.3-1.7) at depths between 4 and 8 km, with the highest values near the East Rift zone, but extending 5-8 km away from the rift. Also, the anomalously high b-values vary along strike, parallel to the rift zone. The highest b-values are observed near Hiiaka and Pauahi craters at the bend in the rift, the next highest are near Makaopuhi and also near Puu Kaliu. The mildest anomalies occur adjacent to the central section of the rift. The locations of the three major and two minor b-value anomalies correspond to places where shallow magma reservoirs have been proposed based on analyses of seismicity, geodetic data and differentiated lava chemistry. The existence of the magma reservoirs is also supported by magnetic anomalies, which may be areas of dike concentration, and self-potential anomalies, which are areas of thermal upwelling above a hot source. The simplest explanation of these anomalously high b-values is that they are due to the presence of active magma bodies beneath the East Rift zone at depths down to 8 km. In other volcanoes, anomalously high b-values correlate with volumes adjacent to active magma chambers. This supports a model of a magma body beneath the East Rift zone, which may widen and thin along strike, and which may reach 8 km depth and extend from Kilauea's summit to a distance of at least 40 km down rift. The anomalously high b-values at the center of the South Flank, several kilometers away from the rift, may be explained by unusually high pore pressure throughout the South Flank, or by anomalously strong heterogeneity due to extensive cracking, or by both

  13. Fluid inclusion and stable isotopes studies of epithermal gold-bearing veins in the SE Afar Rift (Djibouti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, N.; Boiron, M. C.; Grassineau, N.; Fouquet, Y.; Le Gall, B.; Mohamed, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Afar rift results from the interaction of a number of actively-propagating tectono-magmatic axes. Recent field investigations in the SE Afar rift have emphasized the importance of hydrothermal system in rift-related volcanic complexes. Mineralization occur as gold-silver bearing veins and are associated with felsic volcanism. Late carbonate veins barren of sulfides and gold are common. The morphologies and textures of quartz show crustiform colloform banding, massive and breccias. Microthermometric measurements were made on quartz-hosted two phases (liquid + vapor) inclusions; mean homogenization temperature range from 150°C to 340°C and ice-melting temperatures range from -0.2° to 1.6°C indicating that inclusion solutions are dilute and contain 0.35 to 2.7 equivalent wt. % NaCl. Furthermore, δ18O and δ13C values from calcite range from 3.7 to 26.6 ‰ and -7.5 to 0.3‰, respectively. The presence of platy calcite and adularia indicate that boiling condition existed. This study shows that precious-metal deposition mainly occurred from hydrothermal fluids at 200°C at around 300 and 450 m below the present-day surface in a typical low-sulphidation epithermal environment.

  14. A methodology to track temporal dynamics and rainfall thresholds of landslide processes in the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Kervyn, François; Kirschbaum, Dalia; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Derauw, Dominique; Kervyn, Matthieu; Nobile, Adriano; Trefois, Philippe; Dewitte, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The East African rift valley is a major tectonic feature that shapes Central Africa and defines linear-shaped lowlands between highland ranges due to the action of geologic faults associated to earthquakes and volcanism. The region of interest, covering the Virunga Volcanic Province in eastern DRC, western Rwanda and Burundi, and southwest Uganda, is threatened by a rare combination of several types of geohazards, while it is also one of the most densely populated region of Africa. These geohazards can globally be classified as seismic, volcanic and landslide hazards. Landslides, include a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year and resulting in structural and functional damage to infrastructure and private properties, as well as serious disruptions of the organization of societies. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithologic and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. The source mechanisms underlying landslide triggering and dynamics in the region of interest are still poorly understood, even though in recent years, some progress has been made towards appropriate data collection. Taking into account difficulties of field accessibility, we present a methodology to study landslide processes by multi-scale and multi-sensor remote sensing data from very high to low resolution (Pléiades, TRMM, CosmoSkyMed, Sentinel). The research will address the evolution over time of such data combined with other earth observations (seismic ground based networks, catalogues, rain gauge networks, GPS surveying, field observations) to detect and study landslide occurrence, dynamics and evolution. This research aims to get insights into the rainfall

  15. Continental rift jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Charles A.

    1983-05-01

    Continental rift jumps, analogous to jumps of oceanic spreading ridges, are here proposed to be common. Good examples exist in Iceland and Afar (both transitional from ridge to rift jumps), West Africa (Benue Trough and Cameroon Volcanic Line), and Kenya. Indeed, the Kenya rift appears to have jumped c. 100 km eastward c. 10 m.y. ago and is currently jumping further to the east. Possible jumps exist in the Baikal rift, the Limagne-Bresse rift pair, and parallel to ancient continental margins (e.g., the Triassic basins of the eastern U.S. to Baltimore Canyon and Georges Bank). Continental rifts jump distances that are approximately equal to local lithosphere thickness, suggesting that jumped rifts are controlled by lithosphere fracturing, but there appears to be no reason for the fracturing except migration of hot spots.

  16. Has Rift Valley fever virus evolved with increasing severity in human populations in East Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Marycelin; Masiga, Daniel K; Sang, Rosemary; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred across eastern Africa from 1912 to 2010 approximately every 4–15 years, most of which have not been accompanied by significant epidemics in human populations. However, human epidemics during RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa have involved 478 deaths in 1998, 1107 reported cases with 350 deaths from 2006 to 2007 and 1174 cases with 241 deaths in 2008. We review the history of RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa to identify the epidemiological factors that could have influenced its increasing severity in humans. Diverse ecological factors influence outbreak frequency, whereas virus evolution has a greater impact on its virulence in hosts. Several factors could have influenced the lack of information on RVF in humans during earlier outbreaks, but the explosive nature of human RVF epidemics in recent years mirrors the evolutionary trend of the virus. Comparisons between isolates from different outbreaks have revealed an accumulation of genetic mutations and genomic reassortments that have diversified RVF virus genomes over several decades. The threat to humans posed by the diversified RVF virus strains increases the potential public health and socioeconomic impacts of future outbreaks. Understanding the shifting RVF epidemiology as determined by its evolution is key to developing new strategies for outbreak mitigation and prevention of future human RVF casualties. PMID:27329846

  17. Has Rift Valley fever virus evolved with increasing severity in human populations in East Africa?

    PubMed

    Baba, Marycelin; Masiga, Daniel K; Sang, Rosemary; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have occurred across eastern Africa from 1912 to 2010 approximately every 4-15 years, most of which have not been accompanied by significant epidemics in human populations. However, human epidemics during RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa have involved 478 deaths in 1998, 1107 reported cases with 350 deaths from 2006 to 2007 and 1174 cases with 241 deaths in 2008. We review the history of RVF outbreaks in eastern Africa to identify the epidemiological factors that could have influenced its increasing severity in humans. Diverse ecological factors influence outbreak frequency, whereas virus evolution has a greater impact on its virulence in hosts. Several factors could have influenced the lack of information on RVF in humans during earlier outbreaks, but the explosive nature of human RVF epidemics in recent years mirrors the evolutionary trend of the virus. Comparisons between isolates from different outbreaks have revealed an accumulation of genetic mutations and genomic reassortments that have diversified RVF virus genomes over several decades. The threat to humans posed by the diversified RVF virus strains increases the potential public health and socioeconomic impacts of future outbreaks. Understanding the shifting RVF epidemiology as determined by its evolution is key to developing new strategies for outbreak mitigation and prevention of future human RVF casualties. PMID:27329846

  18. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  19. How strong ist the impact of changing topography of the East African Rift System on regional climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prömmel, Kerstin; Kaspar, Frank; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of the East African Rift System (EARS) leads to a topography change at the surface and the impact of this change on climate in this region can easily be analysed with climate models. In the present study both global and regional climate models are applied. The global climate model is the coupled atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHO-G and the regional climate model is the non-hydrostatic CLM, which is the climate version of the numerical weather prediction model of the German Meterorological Service. At the lateral boundaries the regional model is driven by the simulations performed with the global model. Different topographical situations representing possible conditions in the past, are simulated with the global and the regional climate model. One assumption affects only the highest peaks of the EARS south of the Turkana Channel by reducing them to 1200 m. The other assumptions affect a much larger area covering the whole of Southern and Eastern Africa. Over this region topography is reduced by 25%, 50%, 75% and 95%. These different topography reductions have an impact on circulation and therefore also on moisture transport. This leads to changes in the precipitation patterns over Africa. One strong effect is the decrease in orographic precipitation windward of the mountains. Wetter conditions can be found over the east coast of Africa, where moisture is transported from the Indian Ocean farther into the continent due to the lower barrier. Both global and regional models show similar results on the continental scale, however the results of the regional model are much more detailed due to the higher horizontal resolution (50 km) compared to the global model (~350 km).

  20. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur dioxide plumes: A case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1997-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) and apply the procedure to TIMS data collected over the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, on September 30, 1988. These image data covered the Pu'u 'O'o and Kupaianaha vents and a skylight in the lava tube that was draining the Kupaianaha lava pond. Our estimate of the SO2 emission rate from Pu'u 'O'o (17 - 20 kg s-1) is roughly twice the average of estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected 10 days prior to the TIMS overflight (10 kg s-1). The agreement between the TIMS and COSPEC results improves when we compare SO2 burden estimates, which are relatively independent of wind speed. We demonstrate the feasibility of mapping Pu'u 'O'o - scale SO2 plumes from space in anticipation of the 1998 launch of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflectance radiometer (ASTER). Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Reconnaissance gas measurements on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson; Doukas, Michael P.; Zemek, Peter G.; Gerlach, Terrence M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a set of measurements of volcanic gases on two small ground level plumes in the vicinity of Pu`u `O`o cone on the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea volcano, Hawai`i on 15 June 2001 using open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The work was carried out as a reconnaissance survey to assess the monitoring and research value of FTIR measurements at this volcano. Despite representing emissions of residual volatiles from lava that has undergone prior degassing, the plumes contained detectable amounts of CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, HF and SiF4. Various processes, including subsurface cooling, condensation of water in the atmospheric plume, oxidation, dissolution in water, and reactions with wall rocks at plume vents affect the abundance of these gases. Low concentrations of volcanic CO2 measured against a high ambient background are not well constrained by FTIR spectroscopy. Although there appear to be some differences between these gases and Pu`u `O`o source gases, ratios of HCl/SO2, HF/SO2 and CO/SO2 determined by FTIR measurements of these two small plumes compare reasonably well with earlier published analyses of ERZ vent samples. The measurements yielded emission rate estimates of 4, 11 and 4 t d-1

  2. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Origin and Role of Recycled Crust in Flood Basalt Magmatism: Case Study of the Central East Greenland Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Continental flood basalts (CFB) are extreme manifestations of mantle melting derived from chemically/isotopically heterogeneous mantle. Much of this heterogeneity comes from lithospheric material recycled into the convecting mantle by a range of mechanisms (e.g. subduction, delamination). The abundance and petrogenetic origins of these lithologies thus provide important constraints on the geodynamical origins of CFB magmatism, and the timescales of lithospheric recycling in the mantle. Basalt geochemistry has long been used to constrain the compositions and mean ages of recycled lithologies in the mantle. Typically, this work assumes the isotopic compositions of the basalts are the same as their mantle source(s). However, because basalts are mixtures of melts derived from different sources (having different fusibilities) generated over ranges of P and T, their isotopic compositions only indirectly represent the isotopic compositions of their mantle sources[1]. Thus, relating basalts compositions to mantle source compositions requires information about the melting process itself. To investigate the nature of lithologic source heterogeneity while accounting for the effects of melting during CFB magmatism, we utilize the REEBOX PRO forward melting model[2], which simulates adiabatic decompression melting in lithologically heterogeneous mantle. We apply the model to constrain the origins and abundance of mantle heterogeneity associated with Paleogene flood basalts erupted during the rift-to-drift transition of Pangea breakup along the Central East Greenland rifted margin of the North Atlantic igneous province. We show that these basalts were derived by melting of a hot, lithologically heterogeneous source containing depleted, subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, and <10% recycled oceanic crust. The Paleozoic mean age we calculate for this recycled crust is consistent with an origin in the region's prior subduction history, and with estimates for the mean age of

  4. Distribution of incompatible trace elements between the constituents of spinel peridotite xenoliths: ICP-MS data from the East African rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedini, R. M.; Bodinier, J.-L.

    1999-11-01

    To constrain the geochemical models of the lithospheric mantle, we have carried out a detailed study of the distribution of incompatible trace elements between the various constituents of spinel peridotites. Predominant and accessory minerals were separated in 12 mantle xenoliths from Mega (East African Rift, Sidamo region, SE Ethiopia). The samples range in composition from cpx-rich lherzolites to refractory harzburgites and are devoid of modal metasomatism, except for minor amount of apatite in some of them. Their trace element concentration encompasses almost the whole range reported in the literature for basalt-born xenoliths. Mineral separates (ol, opx, cpx, spinel and apatite) and their leachates were analyzed by ICP-MS, for rare earth elements (REE) and several incompatible trace elements (Rb, Sr, Ba, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Th, U, and Ti). Spinel surfaces were investigated by SEM and EPMA to determine the composition of the attached micro-phases. Mass-balance inversion shows that the trace element composition of whole rocks is controlled by five distinct components: 1). the silicate minerals which account for the total HREE abundance, and 50-90% of LREE, Sr, and Zr-Hf, in the apatite-free peridotites; 2). the mineral-hosted fluid inclusions which play a significant role for Rb (20-25%), and to a lesser degree for the other LILEs; 3). a pervasive grain-boundary component selectively enriched in highly incompatible elements, which contributes 25-90% of the whole-rock budget for Ba, Th and U, and 10-50% for Nb and LREE, in the apatite-free samples; 4). thin reaction layers (<10 μm thick) coating the surfaces of spinel grains and mainly composed of Ti-oxides and phlogopite. They are the predominant repository of Nb-Ta (45-60%) and Rb-Ba (30-80%) in all the studied xenoliths; 5). apatite which largely predominates the budget of Th, U, Sr and LREE (25-75%) in the samples containing this mineral. Compared to the other peridotite constituents, fluid-derived inclusions in

  5. Inland termination of the Weddell Sea Rift against a major Jurassic strike-slip fault zone between East and West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Tom; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil; Ross, Neil; Bingham, Rob; Rippin, David; LeBrocq, Anne; Corr, Hugh; Siegert, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The Weddell Sea Embayment (WSE) lies in a key position to study the nature of the tectonic boundary between East and West Antarctica and the development of continental rifting processes and magmatism during the early stages of Gondwana break-up. Evidence for continental rifting within the WSE derives from previous reconnaissance geophysical investigations offshore and geological studies of the associated Jurassic magmatism onshore. Seismic data reveal high stretching factors beneath the Weddell Sea Rift (WSR) between 1.5 and 3.0, and gravity data suggest a crustal thickness of ca 27 km and an effective elastic thickness of ~35 km for the rifted region. Geochemical interpretations indicate that a Middle Jurassic LIP, including extensive mafic tholeiites and some Jurassic granitic intrusions may be related to a superplume that impinged beneath the WSE. Here we present results from a recent aerogeophysical investigation that sheds new light into the previously largely unknown inland extent of the WSR beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This includes new insights into its magmatic patterns, as well as the nature of its tectonic boundaries with the adjacent Ellsworth-Whitmore block (EWM) and the margin of East Antarctica. Aeromagnetic images were interpreted to reveal pre-rift rocks, including Proterozoic basement, Middle Cambrian rift-related volcanics and metasediments and rift-related Jurassic granitoids. Magnetic depth-to-source estimates were calculated and help constrain two joint magnetic and gravity forward models for the study region. These models were used to assess crustal thickness variations, the extent of Proterozoic basement, and the thickness of Jurassic intrusions and inferred post-Jurassic sedimentary infill. The Jurassic granitoids were modelled as 5-8 km thick. These intrusions include roughly circular plutons, emplaced at the transition between the thicker crust of the EWM block and the thinner crust of the WSR, and more elongated bodies emplaced

  6. Evolution of the Lake Victoria basin in the context of coeval rift initiation in East Africa: a 3D numerical model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic

  7. Volatile Chemistry of the 2007 to Present Explosive Eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moor, J.; Fischer, T. P.; King, P. L.; Sharp, Z.; Shaw, A. M.; Mangasini, F.

    2008-12-01

    We characterize the volatile chemistry of the ongoing explosive eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) in the Gregory Rift Valley of N Tanzania. Fieldwork was conducted from 4-8 April 2008, during which time OL exhibited Strombolian to ash plume-producing activity. Eight distinct ash lapilli layers were sampled 900m from the crater. Mini-DOAS SO2 flux measurements were conducted on 6, 7, and 8 April. Despite moderate eruptive activity, SO2 concentrations were very low, from ~ 20ppm.m to below detection. A low concentration plume was detected on 7 April, allowing a SO2 flux estimate of 0.2-0.4 tons/day. SIMS analyses of carbonatite lavas erupted in 2005 show very high S concentrations (0.62wt %), suggesting that the low SO2 flux is due to partitioning of S into the melt. Ash leachates were analyzed as a proxy for plume chemistry and to assess health risks associated with mobile elements in the ashes. The solutions had high pH of 10.6 to 11.1. This has implications for pH fluctuations of Lake Natron (pH ~10; located 20km N of the crater), which may correlate with lacustrine ash deposition during passed explosive activity at OL. In the uppermost ash layer (deposited on 4/5/2008; not influenced by rain) dominant mobile ions are Cl (18120mg/kg), SO4 (26616mg/kg), PO4 (2393mg/kg), and F (534mg/kg), Na (101679mg/kg), K (22544mg/kg), Ca (721mg/kg), and Si (189mg/kg). Leachate S/Cl from this pristine ash is 0.49, compared to 0.29 measured by SIMS in lavas from 2005. Using the SO2 flux and the S/Cl in the leachates, the Cl flux was 0.5-0.8 tons/day. High concentrations of leachable ions, particularly F, on ash presents health hazards (F poisoning; water source contamination) to local communities. Concentrations in the underlying ashes are lower (40-129 mg/kg Cl, 965-3223 mg/kg SO4 , 66-104 mg/kg F, 40-335 mg/kg PO4 ) than those in the upper deposit due to leaching by rain prior to deposition of the uppermost ash layer. FTIR spectroscopy of ashes shows at least two carbonate

  8. Rift initiation with volatiles and magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, Cynthia; Muirhead, James; Roecker, Steve; Tiberi, Christel; Muzuka, Alfred; Ferdinand, Rrichard; Mulibo, Gabrile; Kianji, Gladys

    2015-04-01

    Rift initiation in cratonic lithosphere remains an outstanding problem in continental tectonics, but strain and magmatism patterns in youthful sectors of the East African rift provide new insights. Few teleseisms occur in the Eastern rift arm of the East African rift system, except the southernmost sector in northern Tanzania where extension occurs in Archaean lithosphere. The change in seismic energy release occurs over a narrow along-axis zone, and between sectors with and without volcanoes in the central rift valley. Are these differences in strain behavior indicative of along-strike variations in a) rheology; b) strain transfer from border faults to magma intrusion zones; c) dike vs fault slip; and/or d) shallow vs deep magma chambers? We present time-space relations of seismicity recorded on a 38-station array spanning the Kenya-Tanzania border, focal mechanisms for the largest events during those time periods, and compare these to longer-term strain patterns. Lower crustal seismicity occurs along the rift length, including sectors on and off craton, and those with and without central rift valley volcanoes, and we see no clear along-strike variation in seismogenic layer thickness. One explanation for widespread lower crustal seismicity is high gas pressures and volatile migration from active metasomatism of upper mantle and magma degassing, consistent with very high volatile flux along fault zones, and widespread metasomatism of xenoliths. Volatile release and migration may be critical to strength reduction of initially cold, strong cratonic lithosphere. Seismicity patterns indicate strain (and fluid?) transfer from the Manyara border fault to Gelai shield volcano (faulting, diking) via Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Our focal mechanisms and Global CMTs from an intense fault-dike episode (2007) show a local, temporally stable, rotation from ~E-W extension to NE-SE extension in this linkage zone, consistent with longer term patterns recorded in vent and eruptive

  9. Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall

  10. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 1, Land-use model and research design, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea Geothermal Subzones, Puna District, Hawaii Island

    SciTech Connect

    Burtchard, G.C.; Moblo, P.

    1994-07-01

    The Puna Geothermal Resource Subzones (GRS) project area encompasses approximately 22,000 acres centered on the Kilauea East Rift Zone in Puna District, Hawaii Island. The area is divided into three subzones proposed for geothermal power development -- Kilauea Middle East Rift, Kamaili and Kapoho GRS. Throughout the time of human occupation, eruptive episodes along the rift have maintained a dynamic landscape. Periodic volcanic events, for example, have changed the coastline configuration, altered patterns of agriculturally suitable sediments, and created an assortment of periodically active, periodically quiescent, volcanic hazards. Because of the active character of the rift zone, then, the area`s occupants have always been obliged to organize their use of the landscape to accommodate a dynamic mosaic of lava flow types and ages. While the specific configuration of settlements and agricultural areas necessarily changed in response to volcanic events, it is possible to anticipate general patterns in the manner in which populations used the landscape through time. This research design offers a model that predicts the spatial results of long-term land-use patterns and relates them to the character of the archaeological record of that use. In essence, the environmental/land-use model developed here predicts that highest population levels, and hence the greatest abundance and complexity of identifiable prehistoric remains, tended to cluster near the coast at places that maximized access to productive fisheries and agricultural soils. With the possible exception of a few inland settlements, the density of archaeological remains expected to decrease with distance from the coastline. The pattern is generally supported in the regions existing ethnohistoric and archaeological record.

  11. Seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift segment based on a new sismo-tectonic zonation model (Western Branch of the East African Rift system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Delvaux, Damien

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the Belgian GeoRisCA multi-risk assessment project focused on the Kivu and Northern Tanganyika Region, a seismic hazard map has been produced for this area. It is based on a on a recently re-compiled catalogue using various local and global earthquake catalogues. The use of macroseismic epicenters determined from felt earthquakes allowed to extend the time-range back to the beginning of the 20th century, thus spanning about 100 years. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and the coherence of the catalogue has been checked and validated. The seismo-tectonic zonation includes 10 seismic source areas that have been defined on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of earthquake epicenters. The seismic catalogue was filtered by removing obvious aftershocks and Gutenberg-Richter Laws were determined for each zone. On the basis of this seismo-tectonic information and existing attenuation laws that had been established by Twesigomwe (1997) and Mavonga et al. (2007) for this area, seismic hazard has been computed with the Crisis 2012 (Ordaz et al., 2012) software. The outputs of this assessment clearly show higher PGA values (for 475 years return period) along the Rift than the previous estimates by Twesigomwe (1997) and Mavonga (2007) while the same attenuation laws had been used. The main reason for these higher PGA values is likely to be related to the more detailed zonation of the Rift structure marked by a strong gradient of the seismicity from outside the rift zone to the inside. Mavonga, T. (2007). An estimate of the attenuation relationship for the strong ground motion in the Kivu Province, Western Rift Valley of Africa. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 62, 13-21. Ordaz M, Martinelli F, Aguilar A, Arboleda J, Meletti C, D'Amico V. (2012). CRISIS 2012, Program for computing seismic hazard. Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de M

  12. From Rifting of a volcanic province to Oceanic Spreading in the Andaman Sea, South-East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, A.; Singh, S. C.; Klinger, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Andaman Sea is an enigmatic feature in the Indian Ocean region. It contains the volcanic provinces of Alcock and Sewell Rises and an active spreading center. The recent rifting in the Andaman Sea initiated 4.5 Ma ago, rifting the Alcock and Seawell Rises that were formed by extensive volcanism between 23-16 Ma. The spreading started with a full spreading rate of 1.6 cm/yr and increased to 3.8 cm/yr in the last 2.5 Ma. We have access to high-resolution deep seismic reflection data crossing the whole spreading center from the rifted volcanic provinces to the spreading center. The data show the whole oceanic crust up to the Moho. The Andaman Sea is covered with a thick pile of sediments that record the tectonic history of the rift system up to the spreading axis, allowing to decipher the whole process from rifting to spreading for the first time. We see a very rapid phase of transition from the rifting of the rises to the spreading in less than 20 km. Then a succession of at least 7 half-grabens is well recorded by the sediments on both sides of the spreading center. These half grabens are separated by outward tilted low angle detachment faults, which form the base of steeply dipping normal faults due to stretching. These low angle faults seem to connect with axial magma chambers that control evolution of the rift valley. We find that new detachment faults develop every 350,000 years, forming a new rift valley. The images of active normal faults within the central rift valley allow us to quantify the formation of oceanic crust by tectonic versus magmatic processes.

  13. The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation of the Tabas Block, east central Iran: Succesion of a failed-rift basin at the Paleotethys margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasemi, Y.; Ghomashi, M.; Amin-Rasouli, H.; Kheradmand, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation is a dominantly red colored marginal marine succession deposited in the north-south trending Tabas Basin of east central Iran. It is correlated with the unconformity-bounded lower limestone member of the Elika Formation of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The Sorkh Shale is bounded by the pre-Triassic and post-Lower Triassic interregional unconformities and consists mainly of carbonates, sandstones, and evaporites with shale being a minor constituent. Detailed facies analysis of the Sorkh Shale Formation resulted in recognition of several genetically linked peritidal facies that are grouped into restricted subtidal, carbonate tidal flat, siliciclastic tidal flat, coastal plain and continental evaporite facies associations. These were deposited in a low energy, storm-dominated inner-ramp setting with a very gentle slope that fringed the Tabas Block of east central Iran and passed northward (present-day coordinates) into deeper water facies of the Paleotethys passive margin of northern Cimmerian Continent. Numerous carbonate storm beds containing well-rounded intraclasts, ooids and bioclasts of mixed fauna are present in the Sorkh Shale Formation of the northern Tabas Basin. The constituents of the storm beds are absent in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, but are present throughout the lower limestone member of the Elika Formation. The Tabas Block, a part of the Cimmerian continent in east central Iran, is a rift basin that developed during Early Ordovician-Silurian Paleotethys rifting. Facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Sorkh Shale Formation has revealed additional evidence supporting the Tabas Block as a failed rift basin related to the Paleotethys passive margin. Absence of constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, presence of the constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather facies of the Elika Formation (the

  14. Post-rift uplift and focused fluid flow in the passive margin of northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiguo; Gao, Jinwei; Zhao, Shujuan; Lüdmann, Thomas; Chen, Duanxin; Spence, George

    2014-03-01

    An important post-rifting tectonic event with extensive uplift and fluid flow took place at the northern margin of the South China Sea (SCS) during the late Miocene. Based on an analysis of two- and three-dimensional seismic data plus drilling well data, the tectonic event mainly affected the Dongsha Rise and the adjacent depressions. Tectonic deformation likely occurred in the Dongsha Rise, the eastern part of the Panyu Swell and several depressions of the Zhu I Sag. The post-rifting deformation in the study area was characterized by faulting, erosion, igneous activity and hydrothermal fluid flow. The tectonic movement caused abundant secondary NW and WNW tensional and transtensional faults, with lengths of 1 to 10 km. It also created a clear angular unconformity which marks the time of the tectonic movement. Late Neogene igneous rocks are found in the strata in the Dongsha Rise only close to the continent-ocean transition zone. Geothermal activity occurred in the Liuhua carbonate platform and adjacent depressions. Deformation is more intense in the eastern area than in the western area. According to sequence stratigraphy, we infer that the tectonic event mainly occurred in the late period of Late Miocene and ended at the Mio/Pliocene boundary (5.5 Ma). The dynamic mechanism for tectonic movement could be associated with subduction of the South China Sea slab beneath the Philippine Sea Plate at the Manila trench. When subduction of lower density crust within the continental-ocean transition zone was initiated, large resistance stresses may have led to lithosphere bending and crustal uplift in the Dongsha area.

  15. Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system beneath the Rwenzori region of the East-African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, Benjamin; Löbl, Ulrike; Batte, Arthur; Link, Klemens; Kasereka, Celestine; Rümpker, Georg

    2014-05-01

    We present results from a temporary seismic network of 32 broad-band stations located around the Rwenzori region of the Albertine rift at the border between Uganda and DR Congo. The study aims to constrain seismic anisotropy and mantle deformation processes in relation to the formation of the rift zone. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local and teleseismic earthquakes are used to investigate the seismic anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Rwenzori region. At most stations, shear-wave splitting parameters obtained from individual earthquakes exhibit only minor variations with backazimuth. We therefore employ a joint inversion of SKS waveforms to derive hypothetical one-layer parameters. The corresponding fast polarizations are generally rift-parallel and the average delay time is about 1 s. On the other hand, shear phases from local events within the crust are characterized by a bimodal pattern of fast polarizations and an average delay time of 0.04 s. This observation suggests that the dominant source region for seismic anisotropy beneath the rift is located within the mantle. We use finite-frequency waveform modeling to test different models of anisotropy within the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the rift. The results show that the rift-parallel fast polarizations are consistent with HTI anisotropy caused by rift-parallel magmatic intrusions or lenses located within the lithospheric mantle - as it would be expected during the early stages of continental rifting. Furthermore, the short-scale spatial variations in the fast polarizations observed in the southern part of the study area can be explained by effects due to sedimentary basins of low isotropic velocity in combination with a shift in the orientation of anisotropic fabrics in the upper mantle. A uniform anisotropic layer in relation to large-scale asthenospheric mantle flow is less consistent with the observed splitting parameters.

  16. Pressurized magma reservoir within the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i: Evidence for relaxed stress changes from the 1975 Kalapana earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Scott; Amelung, Falk

    2015-03-01

    We use 2000-2012 InSAR data from multiple satellites to investigate magma storage in Kīlauea's east rift zone (ERZ). The study period includes a surge in magma supply rate and intrusion-eruptions in 2007 and 2011. The Kupaianaha area inflated by ~5 cm prior to the 2007 intrusion and the Nāpau Crater area by ~10 cm following the 2011 intrusion. For the Nāpau Crater area, elastic modeling suggests an inflation source at 5 ± 2 km depth or more below sea level. The reservoir is located in the deeper section of the rift zone for which secular magma intrusion was inferred for the period following the 1975 Mw7.7 décollement earthquake. Reservoir pressurization suggests that in this section of the ERZ, extensional stress changes due to the earthquake have largely been compensated for and that this section is approaching its pre-1975 state. Reservoir pressurization also puts the molten core model into question for this section of Kīlauea's rift zone.

  17. Tracking lava flow emplacement on the east rift zone of Kilauea, Hawai'i with InSAR coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietterich, H. R.; Schmidt, D. A.; Poland, M. P.; Cashman, K. V.

    2010-12-01

    Remote sensing of lava flows from the Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption on the east rift zone of Kilauea serves to document the ongoing eruption, while yielding insights into how lava flow fields develop. InSAR is widely used to measure deformation by detecting minute changes in ground surfaces that stay correlated during repeat observations. The eruption and emplacement of fresh lava on the surface, however, disrupts the coherence of the radar echoes, allowing the area of these flows to be mapped with InSAR coherence images. We use InSAR correlation to visualize surface flow activity from 2003-2010 in order to quantify eruption rates and explore lava flow behavior from emplacement onward. This method for mapping flows does not require daylight, cloudless skies, or access to the active flow fields that is necessary for traditional visual surveys. We produce coherence maps for hundreds of 35 to 105-day periods from twelve tracks of ENVISAT SAR data using the GAMMA software package. By combining these coherence maps we create a unique dataset with which to develop this technique and amass lava flow observations. Where correlation images overlap in time, they are summed and normalized to derive a time series of surface coherence with a spatial resolution of 20 meters and a temporal resolution of as little as a few days. We identify existing stable flows by their high radar coherence, and determine a coherence threshold that is applied to each correlation image. This threshold is calibrated so as to reduce the effects of varying baseline, time duration, and atmospheric effects between images, as well as decorrelation due to vegetation. The final images illustrate lava flow activity that corresponds well with surface flow outlines and tube locations recorded by the USGS mapping effort. The InSAR-derived results serve to enhance these traditional maps by documenting pixel-scale changes over time. When compared with forward looking infrared (FLIR) thermal imagery, pixel

  18. Seismic Anisotropy of the Lithosphere/Asthenosphere System Beneath the Rwenzori Region of the East-African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, B.; Löbl, U.; Batte, A.; Link, K.; Kasereka, C.; Rumpker, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a temporary seismic network of 32 broad-band stations located around the Rwenzori region of the Albertine rift at the border between Uganda and DR Congo. The study aims to constrain seismic anisotropy and mantle deformation processes in relation to the formation of the rift zone. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local and teleseismic earthquakes are used to investigate the seismic anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Rwenzori region. At most stations, shear-wave splitting parameters obtained from individual earthquakes exhibit only minor variations with backazimuth. We therefore employ a joint inversion of SKS waveforms to derive hypothetical one-layer parameters. The corresponding fast polarizations are generally rift-parallel and the average delay time is about 1 s. On the other hand, shear phases from local events within the crust are characterized by an average delay time of 0.04 s. This observation suggests that the dominant source region for seismic anisotropy beneath the rift is located within the mantle. We use finite-frequency waveform modeling to test different models of anisotropy within the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the rift. The results show that the rift-parallel fast polarizations are consistent with HTI anisotropy caused by magmatic intrusions or lenses located within the lithospheric mantle - as it would be expected during the early stages of continental rifting. Furthermore, the short-scale spatial variations in the fast polarizations observed in the southern part of the study area can be explained by effects due to sedimentary basins of low isotropic velocity in combination with a shift in the orientation of anisotropic fabrics in the upper mantle. A uniform anisotropic layer in relation to large-scale asthenospheric mantle flow is less consistent with the observed splitting parameters.

  19. Application of P- and S-receiver functions to investigate crustal and upper mantle structures beneath the Albertine branch of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gummert, Michael; Lindenfeld, Michael; Wölbern, Ingo; Rümpker, Georg; Kasereka, Celestin; Batte, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    The Rwenzori region at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo is part of the western (Albertine) branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). The region is characterized by a horst structure, the Rwenzori Mountains, reaching elevations of more than 5 km and covering an area of about 120 km by 50 km. The unusual location of the mountain range, between two segments of the Albertine rift, suggests complex structures of the crust and the upper mantle below. In our study, we employ P- and S-receiver functions in order to investigate the corresponding discontinuities of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The analyses are based on recordings from a dense network of 33 seismic broadband stations operating in the region for a period of nearly two years, from September 2009 until August 2011. The crustal thickness is analysed by using P-receiver functions and the grid search method of Zhu & Kanamori (2000) which involves the stacking of amplitudes of direct converted (Ps) and multiple phases (PpPs and PpSs) originating from the Moho. The method of S-receiver functions is more effective in analysing deeper discontinuities of the upper mantle, such as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The latter method also has the advantage that the interfering influence of multiple phases from shallower discontinuities is avoided. To simplify the analysis of the S-receiver functions, we use an automatic procedure to determine incidence angles used in the rotation from the ZNE system to the ray-centered LQT system. We apply this approach to confirm and significantly extend results from the study of Wölbern et al. (2012), which provided evidence for an intra-lithospheric discontinuity at depths between 54 km and 104 km and the LAB between 135 km and 210 km. Our results provide evidence for significant variations of crustal thickness beneath the region. The Moho depth varies between 20 km beneath the rift valley and 39 km beneath the adjacent rift

  20. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  1. Distribution of differentiated tholeiitic basalts on the lower east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: a possible guide to geothermal exploration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Geological mapping of the lower east rift zone indicates that >100 eruptions have extruded an estimated 10 km3 of basalt during the past 2000 yr; six eruptions in the past 200 yr have extruded approx 1 km3. The eruptive recurrence interval has ranged 1-115 yr since the middle of the 18th century and has averaged 20 yr or less over the past 2000 yr. New chemical analyses (100) indicate that the tholeiites erupted commonly differentiated beyond olivine control or are hybrid mixtures of differentiates with more mafic (olivine-controlled) summit magmas. The distribution of vents for differentiated lavas suggests that several large magma chambers underlie the lower east rift zone. Several workers have recognized that a chamber underlies the area near a producing geothermal well, HGP-A; petrological and 14C data indicate that it has existed for at least 1300 yr. Stratigraphy, petrology and surface-deformation patterns suggest that two other areas, Heiheiahulu and Kaliu, also overlie magma chambers and show favourable geothermal prospects.-A.P.

  2. The Eagle and East Eagle sulfide ore-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Midcontinent Rift System, upper Michigan: Geochronology and petrologic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xin; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Rossell, Dean; Kamo, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    The Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are small, subvertical dike-like mafic-ultramafic bodies that cut Proterozoic sedimentary strata in the Baraga Basin in northern Michigan. The Eagle intrusion hosts a newly discovered magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. The nearby East Eagle intrusion also contains sulfide mineralization, but the extent of this mineralization has yet to be determined by further drilling. Both intrusions contain olivine-bearing rocks such as feldspathic peridotite, melatroctolite, and olivine melagabbro. Sulfide accumulations range from disseminated at both Eagle and East Eagle to semimassive and massive at Eagle. U-Pb baddeleyite dating gives a crystallization age of 1107.2 ± 5.7 Ma for the Eagle intrusion, coeval with eruption of picritic basalts at the base of the volcanic succession in the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). The Fo contents of olivine cores in the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions vary between 75 and 85 mol %, higher than those of olivine in larger layered intrusions in the MRS such as the Duluth Complex. The FeO/MgO ratios and Al2O3 contents of the parental magmas for the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions inferred from olivine and spinel compositions are similar to those of picritic basalts in the base of the MRS volcanic succession. These petrochemical data suggest that the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are the intrusive equivalents of high-MgO basalts that erupted in the early stages of continental magmatism associated with the development of the rift. Variations in mineral compositions and incompatible trace element ratios suggest that at least three major pulses of magmas were involved in the formation of low-sulfide rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Lower Fo contents of olivine associated with semimassive sulfides as compared to that of olivine in low-sulfide rocks suggest that the magma associated with the semimassive sulfide was more fractionated than the parental magmas of the low-sulfide rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Accumulation of

  3. Crustal faults exposed in the Pito Deep Rift: Conduits for hydrothermal fluids on the southeast Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, Nicholas W.; Karson, Jeffrey A.

    2009-02-01

    The escarpments that bound the Pito Deep Rift (northeastern Easter microplate) expose in situ upper oceanic crust that was accreted ˜3 Ma ago at the superfast spreading (˜142 mm/a, full rate) southeast Pacific Rise (SEPR). Samples and images of these escarpments were taken during transects utilizing the human-occupied vehicle Alvin and remotely operated vehicle Jason II. The dive areas were mapped with a "deformation intensity scale" revealing that the sheeted dike complex and the base of the lavas contain approximately meter-wide fault zones surrounded by fractured "damage zones." Fault zones are spaced several hundred meters apart, in places offset the base of the lavas, separate areas with differently oriented dikes, and are locally crosscut by (younger) dikes. Fault rocks are rich in interstitial amphibole, matrix and vein chlorite, prominent veins of quartz, and accessory grains of sulfides, oxides, and sphene. These phases form the fine-grained matrix materials for cataclasites and cements for breccias where they completely surround angular to subangular clasts of variably altered and deformed basalt. Bulk rock geochemical compositions of the fault rocks are largely governed by the abundance of quartz veins. When compositions are normalized to compensate for the excess silica, the fault rocks exhibit evidence for additional geochemical changes via hydrothermal alteration, including the loss of mobile elements and gain of some trace metals and magnesium. Microstructures and compositions suggest that the fault rocks developed over multiple increments of deformation and hydrothermal fluid flow in the subaxial environment of the SEPR; faults related to the opening of the Pito Deep Rift can be distinguished by their orientation and fault rock microstructure. Some subaxial deformation increments were likely linked with violent discharge events associated with fluid pressure fluctuations and mineral sealing within the fault zones. Other increments were linked with

  4. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006 - 2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and ...

  5. Forecasting the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of a Rift Valley fever Outbreak in East Africa: 2006-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have a direct impact on Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease outbreaks. Knowledge of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and RVF can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. ...

  6. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006 - 2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical episodic outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns (El Niño and La Niña) of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite ...

  7. The Lava sequence of the East African Rift escarpment in the Oldoinyo Lengai - Lake Natron sector, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukirchen, Florian; Finkenbein, Thomas; Keller, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    A 500 m sequence of horizontal lava flows forms the Gregory rift escarpment of the western rift shoulder between Lake Natron and Oldoinyo Lengai. A detailed volcanic stratigraphy of this >1.2 Ma evolution of the EAR in Northern Tanzania is presented. The sequence is formed by several distinct rock suites, with increasing alkalinity from base to top. Alkali olivine basalts of the Waterfall Sequence at the base are followed by a basanite series, and by a range of evolved nephelinites forming the upper part of the escarpment. Numerous dykes and Strombolian scoria deposits indicate local fissure eruptions as opposed to or in addition to more distant sources. Primitive compositions within each of the series indicate variable candidates for primary magmas. The composition of the basanite suite ranges from primitive mantle melts (high Mg#, Cr, Ni) to more evolved rocks, in particular hawaiites, generated by fractionation of olivine, pyroxene and magnetite. Inter-bedded within the basanite suite, one single olivine melilitite flow with high Mg# and abundant olivine and pyroxene megacrysts is the only primitive candidate for the nephelinite suite. However, in view of the large compositional gap and marked differences in incompatible element ratios, a relation between this flow and the nephelinites remains hypothetical. The variation within the evolved nephelinite series can be partly explained by fractionation of pyroxene, apatite, perovskite (and some nepheline), while magma mixing is indicated by zonation patterns of pyroxene. The most evolved nephelinite, however, differs significantly from all other nephelinites in major and trace elements. Thus the entire sequence is petrologically not a coherent evolution, rather the result of different mantle melts fractionating under variable conditions. Carved into the rift scarp of the study area west of Engare Sero is a young explosion crater, the Sekenge Crater. Sekenge Tuffs are olivine melilitites, similar to other craters and

  8. Clinopyroxene-host disequilibrium (Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics) in ultra-potassic magmas from East-African Rift: Implications for magma mixing and source heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muravyeva, Natalya; Belyatsky, Boris; Senin, Valeriy

    2014-05-01

    Nd, Pb and Sr isotope ratios have been determined for kamafugite lava and clinopyroxene and phlogopite phenocrysts from Toro-Ankole and Virunga volcanic fields of the East African Rift. The whole rock Sr - Nd isotopic signatures of kamafugites (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70463 - 0.70536; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51249 - 0.51255) suggest derivation from an EM1-type mantle source. In contrast, Pb isotopic compositions of the same samples (206Pb/204Pb: 19.00 - 19.57; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.69 - 15.74; 208Pb/204Pb: 39.30 - 40.26) reveal a similarity to EM2-type mantle. New Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic data for clinopyroxene (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70473 - 0.70503; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51250 - 0.51254; 206Pb/204Pb: 18.04 - 18.17; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.58 - 15.60; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.09 - 38.23) suggest derivation from an EM1-like source, and indicate Sr and Pb isotope disequilibrium between clinopyroxene and corresponding host rock. Moreover, clinopyroxenes demonstrating a greater degree of isotopic disequilibrium with their host rock are more sodic in composition. The isotopic disequilibrium is corroborated by the presence of chemical zoning within clinopyroxene, which suggests rapid magma ascent rates preventing melt homogenization. The Pb isotopic ratios for both mineral and corresponding whole rock, together with published data on East African rift-related alkaline centers, define a trend interpreted to represent a mixing line for melts derived from sources such as EM1 and as HIMU. The similar isotopic compositions for clinopyroxene from the different volcanic rocks within the East African Rift suggest the existence of a common, older mantle source for their parental melts. The origin of these melts can be attributed to an enrichment event ~ 400-500 Ma, i.e., significantly prior the younger (Quaternary) ultrapotassic magmatism. Our preferred interpretation for the results reported here involves the mixing of the melts derived from EM1- and HIMU-like sources, which were rapidly transported to the Earth's surface. The primary

  9. Parameters influencing the location and characteristics of volcanic eruptions in a youthful extensional setting: Insights from the Virunga Volcanic Province, in the Western Branch of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, Benoît; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, Matthieu; Kervyn, François

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is often mentioned as the modern archetype for rifting and continental break-up (Calais et al., 2006, GSL Special Publication 259), showing the complex interaction between rift faults, magmatism and pre-existing structures of the basement. Volcanism in the EARS is characterized by very active volcanoes, several of them being among the most active on Earth (Wright et al., 2015, GRL 42). Such intense volcanic activity provides useful information to study the relationship between rifting, magmatism and volcanism. This is the case of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) located in the central part of the Western Branch of the EARS, which hosts two of the most active African volcanoes, namely Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. Despite the intense eruptive activity in the VVP, the spatial distribution of volcanism and its relationship with the extensional setting remain little known. Here we present a study of the interaction between tectonics, magmatism and volcanism at the scale of the Kivu rift section, where the VVP is located, and at the scale of a volcano, by studying the dense historical eruptive activity of Nyamulagira. Both the complex Precambrian basement and magmatism appear to contribute to the development of the Kivu rift. The presence of transfer zones north and south of the Lake Kivu rift basin favoured the development of volcanic provinces at these locations. Rift faults, including reactivated Precambrian structures influenced the location of volcanism within the volcanic provinces and the rift basin. At a more local scale, the historical eruptive activity of Nyamulagira highlights that, once a composite volcano developed, the gravitational stress field induced by edifice loading becomes the main parameter that influence the location, duration and lava volume of eruptions.

  10. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic

  11. Regional assessment of lake ecological states using Landsat: A classification scheme for alkaline-saline, flamingo lakes in the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbs, E. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Avery, S. T.; Rowland, C. S.; Harper, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    In situ reflectance measurements and Landsat satellite imagery were combined to develop an optical classification scheme for alkaline-saline lakes in the Eastern Rift Valley. The classification allows the ecological state and consequent value, in this case to Lesser Flamingos, to be determined using Landsat satellite imagery. Lesser Flamingos depend on a network of 15 alkaline-saline lakes in East African Rift Valley, where they feed by filtering cyanobacteria and benthic diatoms from the lakes' waters. The classification developed here was based on a decision tree which used the reflectance in Landsat ETM+ bands 2-4 to assign one of six classes: low phytoplankton biomass; suspended sediment-dominated; microphytobenthos; high cyanobacterial biomass; cyanobacterial scum and bleached cyanobacterial scum. The classification accuracy was 77% when verified against in situ measurements. Classified imagery and timeseries were produced for selected lakes, which show the different ecological behaviours of these complex systems. The results have highlighted the importance to flamingos of the food resources offered by the extremely remote Lake Logipi. This study has demonstrated the potential of high spatial resolution, low spectral resolution sensors for providing ecologically valuable information at a regional scale, for alkaline-saline lakes and similar hypereutrophic inland waters.

  12. Structural style of the Turkana Rift, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkelman, T.J.; Karson, J.A.; Rosendahl, B.R.

    1988-03-01

    Multifold seismic reflection and geologic mapping in part of the eastern branch of the East African Rift system of northern Kenya reveal a major rift structure containing at least 3 km of Neogene sediment fill beneath Lake Turkana. This includes a series of half-graben basins, with centrally located quaternary volcanic centers, which are linked end-to-end by structural accommodation zones. Whereas the geometry of rifting is similar to that of the nonvolcanic western branch of the East African Rift system, the Turkana half-grabens are much smaller and may reflect extension of a thinner lithosphere or development of more closely spaced fracture patterns during rift evolution, or both.

  13. A Review of New and Anticipated High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Hominin Evolution and Demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of Late Tertiary/Quaternary climate and environmental history in East Africa has, to date, largely been based on outcrop and marine drill core records. Although these records have proven extremely valuable both in reconstructing environmental change and placing human evolution in an environmental context, their quality is limited by resolution, continuity, uncertainties about superposition and outcrop weathering. To address this problem, long drill core records from extant ancient lakes and lake beds are being collected by several research groups. Long cores (up to 100s of m.) from basin depocenters in both the western and eastern rifts are now available spanning nearly the entire latitudinal range of the East Africa Rift. This network of core records, especially when coupled with outcrop data, is providing an opportunity to compare the nature of important global climate transitions (especially glacial/interglacial events and precessional cycles) across the continent, thereby documenting regional heterogeneity in African climate history. Understanding this heterogeneity is critical for realistically evaluating competing hypotheses of environmental forcing of human evolution, and especially ideas about the dispersal of anatomically modern humans out of Africa in the early Late Pleistocene. In particular, understanding the hydrological and paleoecological history of biogeographic corridors linking eastern Africa, the Nile River Valley and the Levant is likely to be vastly improved through comparative analysis of these new drill cores over the next few years. Because we do not a priori know the primary forcing factors affecting this environmental history, it will essential to develop the best possible age models, employing multiple and novel geochronometric tools to make these comparisons.

  14. How Closed are Closed Lakes in Rifts? Significance of Hydraulic Gradients for the Budgets of Paleo-Lakes in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaka, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrogeology of rift lakes is complex due to the potential influence of faults and porous volcanic and volcanoclastic media on groundwater flow. We conducted a comprehensive study that integrated geological and hydrogeological data as well as the application of a linear decay model to estimate the groundwater flow between the two of the best-studied lake systems in East Africa, the adjacent Lakes Naivasha and Nakuru- Elmenteita in the Central Kenya Rift. Whereas both lake basins host relatively shallow lakes today, paleo-shorelines and sediments suggest >100 m deep lakes during a wetter climate during the Early Holocene during the so-called African Humid Period. Stable isotope data show variations form highly depleted to more enriched d18O waters. The linear-reservoir depletion model simulates the decline of the Early Holocene lakes in both basins to the modern levels. The altitude difference of ca. 100 m of both paleo-lake levels enables us to estimate the duration of the groundwater decline and the connectivity of the two basins via the Eburru/Gilgil barrier. The results suggest a decline of the groundwater levels during ca. 5 kyrs if there is no recharge, and between 2-2.7 kyrs based on the modern recharge of 0.52 m/yr as the end members of the delay time introduced by subsurface water flow to the hydrology of the lake system. The latter value suggests that ca. 40.95 cubic kilometres of water flowed from Lake Naivasha to Nakuru- Elmenteita at maximum lake level in the Early Holocene following the hydraulic gradient concurrent to the topographic slope. The unexpectedly large volume, more than half of the volume of the paleo-Lake Naivasha during the Early Holocene, emphasizes the importance of groundwater in hydrological modelling of paleo-lakes in rifts. Moreover, the subsurface connectivity of rift lakes also causes a significant lag time to the system introducing a nonlinear component to the system that has to be considered while interpreting paleo

  15. Olivine-liquid relations of lava erupted by Kilauea volcano from 1994 to 1998: Implications for shallow magmatic processes associated with the ongoing east-rift-zone eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    From 1994 through 1998, the eruption of Ki??lauea, in Hawai'i, was dominated by steady-state effusion at Pu'u 'O??'??o that was briefly disrupted by an eruption 4 km uprift at Np??au Crater on January 30, 1997. In this paper, I describe the systematic relations of whole-rock, glass, olivine, and olivine-inclusion compositions of lava samples collected throughout this interval. This suite comprises vent samples and tube-contained flows collected at variable distances from the vent. The glass composition of tube lava varies systematically with distance and allows for the "vent-correction" of glass thermometry and olivine-liquid KD as a function of tube-transport distance. Combined olivine-liquid data for vent samples and "vent-corrected" lava-tube samples are used to document pre-eruptive magmatic conditions. KD values determined for matrix glasses and forsterite cores define three types of olivine phenocrysts: type A (in equilibrium with host glass), type B (Mg-rich relative to host glass) and type C (Mg-poor relative to host glass). All three types of olivine have a cognate association with melts that are present within the shallow magmatic plumbing system during this interval. During steady-state eruptive activity, the compositions of whole-rock, glass and most olivine phenocrysts (type A) all vary sympathetically over time and as influenced by changes of magmatic pressure within the summit-rift-zone plumbing system. Type-A olivine is interpreted as having grown during passage from the summit magmachamber along the east-rift-zone conduit. Type-B olivine (high Fo) is consistent with equilibrium crystallization from bulk-rock compositions and is likely to have grown within the summit magma-chamber. Lower-temperature, fractionated lava was erupted during non-steady state activity of the Na??pau Crater eruption. Type-A and type-B olivine-liquid relations indicate that this lava is a mixture of rift-stored and summit-derived magmas. Post-Na??pau lava (at Pu'u 'O?? 'o

  16. Mapping Extensional Structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana with remote sensing and aeromagnetic data: Implication for the continuation of the East African Rift System in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetkovich, E. J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Katumwehe, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data to map extensional structures in the Makgadikgadi Pans in northeastern Botswana. These pans are a major morphological feature in Southern Africa characterized by the presence of low lying and flat topography with the highest elevation of 945 m. This topography was a result of multiple filling and desiccation of paleo-lakes that accompanied alternation of wetter and dryer climate during the Late Quaternary period. The objective of our study was to map the extent and distribution of normal faults using their morphological expression and magnetic signature, and examine their relationship with paleo-shorelines of the pans. We: (1) Created a hill shade relief map from the SRTM DEM; (2) Extracted regional NW-SE trending topographic profiles across the pans; (3) Constructed displacement profiles for major normal faults; and (4) Created tilt derivative images from the aeromagnetic data. We found that: (1) The northeastern part of the pan is dissected by three morphologically-defined NE-trending normal faults. The along strike continuity of these faults is in the range of 75 and 170 km and they are spaced at ~30 km apart from each other. (2) The topographic profiles suggest that the exposed minimum vertical displacement (EMVD), defined by poorly developed escarpments, is in the range of 0 m and 49 m. (3) The displacement profiles of the faults is characterized by maximum EMVD in the middle of the faults and that it decays towards the fault tips. These faults are also apparent in the aeromagnetic maps where they seem to displace E-W trending Karoo-age dikes. (4) At least the outer paleo-shoreline of the pans is modified by the NE-trending faults. This suggests that the faults are younger than the paleo-shorelines, which is suggested to have been developed between 500 and 100 ka. Traditionally, the southwestern extension of the East African Rift System has been assigned to the

  17. Mid-lithospheric Discontinuity Beneath the Malawi Rift, Deduced from Gravity Studies and its Relation to the Rifting Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njinju, E. A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Mickus, K. L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The World Gravity Map satellite gravity data were used to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath the Cenozoic-age Malawi Rift which forms the southern extension of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. An analysis of the data using two-dimensional (2D) power spectrum methods indicates the two distinctive discontinuities at depths of 31‒44 km and 64‒124 km as defined by the two steepest slopes of the power spectrum curves. The shallower discontinuity corresponds to the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) and compares well with Moho depth determined from passive seismic studies. To understand the source of the deeper discontinuity, we applied the 2D power spectrum analysis to other rift segments of the Western Branch as well as regions with stable continental lithospheres where the lithospheric structure is well constrained through passive seismic studies. We found that the deeper discontinuity corresponds to a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), which is known to exist globally at depths between 60‒150 km and as determined by passive seismic studies. Our results show that beneath the Malawi Rift, there is no pattern of N-S elongated crustal thinning following the surface expression of the Malawi Rift. With the exception of a north-central region of crustal thinning (< 35 km), most of the southern part of the rift is underlain by thick crust (~40‒44 km). Different from the Moho, the MLD is shallower beneath the axis of the Malawi Rift forming a N-S trending zone with depths of 64‒80 km, showing a broad and gentle topography. We interpret the MLD as representing a sharp density contrast resulting from metasomatized lithosphere due to lateral migration along mobile belts of hot mantle melt or fluids from a distant plume and not from an ascending asthenosphere. These fluids weaken the lithosphere enhancing rift nucleation. The availability of satellite gravity worldwide makes gravity a promising technique for determining the MLD globally.

  18. InSAR and GPS measurements along the Kivu segment of the East African Rift System during the 2011-2012 Nyamulagira volcanic eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Adriano; Geirsson, Halldor; Smets, Benoît; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Kervyn, François

    2016-04-01

    Along the East African Rift System (EARS), magma intrusions represent a major component in continental rifting. When these intrusions reach the surface, they cause volcanic eruptions. This is the case of the last flank eruption of Nyamulagira, which occurred from November 6 2011 to April 2012. Nyamulagira is an active shield volcano with a central caldera, located in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, along the Kivu segment of the East African Rift System. From 1948 to 2012, Nyamulagira mostly showed a particular eruptive cycle with 1) classical short-lived (i.e., 20-30 days) flank eruptions, sometimes accompanied with intracrateral activity, which occurred every 1-4 years on average, and 2) less frequent long-lived (i.e., several months) eruptions usually emitting larger volumes of lava that take place at larger distance (>8 km) from the central caldera. The 2011-2012 Nyamulagira eruption is of that second type. Here we used InSAR data from different satellite (Envisat, Cosmo SkyMed, TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT) to measure pre-, co and post-eruptive ground displacement associated with the Nyamulagira 2011-2012 eruption. Results suggest that a magma intrusion preceded by two days the eruption. This intrusion corresponded to the migration of magma from a shallow reservoir (~3km) below the caldera to the two eruptive fissures located ~11 km ENE of the central edifice. Available seismic data are in agreement with InSAR results showing increased seismic activity since November 4 2011, with long- and short-period earthquakes swarms. Using analytical models we invert the measured ground displacements during the first co-eruptive month to evaluate the deformation source parameters and the mechanism of magma emplacement for this eruption. GPS data from permanent stations in the KivuGNet network are used to constrain the temporal evolution of the eruption and evaluate far-field deformation, while the InSAR data is more sensitive to the near-field deformation

  19. Geochemical characterization of fluids along the Dead Sea Rift: implications for fluids sources and regional geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault where a lateral displacement between the African and Arabian plates occurs is characterized by anomalous heat flux in the northern Israel area close to the border with Syria and Jordan (Shalev et al., 2012). The concentrations of He and CO2, and isotopic composition of He and total dissolved inorganic carbon were studied in cold and thermal waters collected along the Dead Sea Fault, in order to investigate the source of volatiles and their relationship with the tectonic framework of the Dead Sea Fault. The waters with higher temperature (up to 57.2 ° C) are characterized by higher amounts of CO2and helium (up to 55.72 and 1.91*10‑2 cc l‑1, respectively). Helium isotopic data (R/Ra from 0.11 to 2.14) and 4He/20Ne ratios (0.41 - 106.86) show the presence of deep-deriving fluids consisting of a variable mixture of mantle and crust end-members, with the former reaching up to 35%. Carbon isotope signature of total dissolved carbon from hot waters falls within the range of magmatic values, suggesting the delivery of deep-seated CO2. The geographical distribution of helium isotopic data and isotopic carbon (CO2) values coupled with (CO2/3He ratios) indicate a larger contribution of mantle-derived fluids affecting the northern part of the investigated area, where the waters reach the highest temperature and anomalous heat flux was recognized by Shalev et al. (2012). Such occurrence is probably favoured by the peculiar tectonic framework recognized in the northern part of Israel (Segev et al., 2006), including a Moho discontinuity up-rise and/or the presence of a deep fault system coupled with the recent magmatic activity. References: Segev, A., Rybakov, M., Lyakhovsky, V, Hofstetter, A, Tibor, G., Goldshmidt, V., 2006. The structure, isostasy and gravity field of the Levant continental margin and the southeast Mediterranean area. Tectonophysics 425, 137-157. Shalev, E., Lyakhosky, V., Weinstein, Y., Ben-Avraham, Z., 2013. The thermal structure of

  20. Rift basins - Origin, history, and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    Rifts are elongate depressions overlying places where the lithosphere has ruptured in extension. Where filled with sediment they may contain exploitable quantities of oil and gas. Because rits form in a variety of tectonic settings, it is helpful to define the particular tectonic environment in which a specific rift or set of rifts has developed. A useful approach has been to relate that environment to the Wilson Cycle of the opening and the closing of oceans. This appreciation of tectonic setting can help in better understanding of the depositional, structural and thermal history of individual rift systems. The global distribution of rifts can also be related to tectonic environment. For example, rifts associated with continental rupture at a temporary still-stand of a continent over the mantle convective system (rifts like those active in East Africa today) can be distinguished from those associated with continental collision (rifts like the Cenozoic rifts of China).

  1. Genetic Evidence for Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Madagascar Resulting from Virus Introductions from the East African Mainland rather than Enzootic Maintenance▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Serena A.; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L.; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006–2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006–2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland. PMID:21507967

  2. Drinking water quality in the Ethiopian section of the East African Rift Valley I--data and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Bjorvatn, Kjell; Frengstad, Bjørn; Melaku, Zenebe; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Siewers, Ulrich

    2003-07-20

    Drinking water samples were collected throughout the Ethiopian part of the Rift Valley, separated into water drawn from deep wells (deeper than 60 m), shallow wells (<60 m deep), hot springs (T>36 degrees C), springs (T<32 degrees C) and rivers. A total of 138 samples were analysed for 70 parameters (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, I, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, NO(2), NO(3), Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, SO(4), Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, temperature, pH, conductivity and alkalinity) with ion chromatography (anions), spectrometry (ICP-OES and ICP-MS, cations) and parameter-specific (e.g. titration) techniques. In terms of European water directives and WHO guidelines, 86% of all wells yield water that fails to pass the quality standards set for drinking water. The most problematic element is fluoride (F), for which 33% of all samples returned values above 1.5 mg/l and up to 11.6 mg/l. The incidence of dental and skeletal fluorosis is well documented in the Rift Valley. Another problematic element may be uranium (U)-47% of all wells yield water with concentrations above the newly suggested WHO maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 2 microg/l. Fortunately, only 7% of the collected samples are above the 10 microg/l EU-MAC for As in drinking water. PMID:12826384

  3. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  4. Composition of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift pillow lavas : interaction between adiabatic decompression mantle melting and ultra-shallow slab-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Ishizuka, O.; Ren, M.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Bloomer, S.; Anthony, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Mariana intraoceanic arc system is related to the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate. A northward-propagating forearc rift extending from the southernmost backarc basin spreading ridge to the trench, called the SE Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), has been inferred by regional HMR-1 bathymetric and backscatter mapping south of Guam (see Martinez & Stern abstract). SEMFR formed by lateral stretching as a result of slab rollback and collision of the Caroline ridge with the IBM arc. This forearc rift provides an unusual opportunity to study melts generated very shallow (~ 40 km deep) above a subduction zone. Forearc rifts are extensional zones occurring in subduction settings providing the opportunity to sample rocks produced by adiabatic asthenosphere decompression and fluid-metasomatized mantle melting. During YK08-08 in July 2008, manned submersible Shinkai 6500 Dive 1096 dived in SEMFR and sampled a 663 m thick section of fresh tholeiitic pillow lavas. These lavas are composed of upper primitive basalts (Mg# = 61 - 67) and lower basaltic andesites (Mg# = 49 - 51). The upper series phenocrysts are olivine (Fo85-87), diopside, and plagioclase (An80-83) with scattered olivine xenocrysts (3 mm, Fo92) hosting Cr-spinel (Cr# = 68 - 69). Lower series lavas contain phenocrysts of olivine (Fo76-79), augite and two plagioclases (An66-71 and An80-86), perhaps indicating magma mixing. Flat REE patterns, and high Mg# ( > 60) of the upper basalts indicate generation by fractional melting of spinel peridotite. LA-ICP-MS analysis show that lower series clinopyroxenes formed in equilibrium with more REE-enriched melts than their host rock, also supporting an interpretation of magma mixing. Discrimination diagrams using Th-Ba-Nb-Yb systematics (Pearce, 2008, Lithos, v. 100; Pearce and Stern, 2006, Geophysical Monograph Series 166, AGU) show that both series lavas have composition similar to that of Mariana backarc basin but with higher Ba/Nb content

  5. Complex seismicity patterns in the Rwenzori region: insights to rifting processes at the Albertine Rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rümpker, G.; Wölbern, I.; Batte, A. G.; Schumann, A.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous seismological studies in East Africa have focused on the northern and eastern branches of the East African Rift System (EARS). However, the seismic activity along the western branch is much more pronounced. Here, the Rwenzori Mountains are located within the Albertine rift valley, at the border between Uganda and D.R. Congo. During a seismic monitoring campaign between February 2006 and September 2007 we have recorded more than 800 earthquakes per month in the Rwenzori area. The earthquake distribution is highly heterogeneous. The majority of located events lie within faults zones to the East and West of the Rwenzoris with the highest seismic activity observed in the northeastern area, were the mountains are in contact with the rift shoulders. The hypocentral depth distribution peaks at 16 km depth and extends down to the Moho which was found at 20 - 32 km depths by teleseismic receiver functions. Local magnitudes range from -0.5 to 5.1 with a b-value of 1.1. Fault plane solutions of 304 events were derived from P-polarities and SV/P amplitude ratios. More than 70% of the source mechanisms exhibit normal faulting. T-axis trends are highly uniform and oriented WNW-ESE, which is perpendicular to the rift axis and in good agreement with kinematic rift models. The area of highest seismic activity NE of the Rwenzoris is characterized by the occurrence of several earthquake clusters in 5 -20 km depth. They have stable positions throughout time and form elongated pipes with 1-2 km diameter and vertical extensions of 3-5 km. From petrological considerations we presume that these earthquake swarms are triggered by fluids and gasses which originate from a magmatic source below the crust. The existence of a magmatic source within the lithosphere is supported by the detection of a shear-wave velocity reduction in 55-80 km depth from receiver-function analysis and the location of mantle earthquakes at about 60 km. We interpret these observations as indication for an

  6. Composition and spatial evolution of mantle and fluids released beneath the active Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift: do they have arc or backarc basin signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Ishizuka, O.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.; Manton, W. I.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Bloomer, S. H.

    2010-12-01

    Fluids of progressively changing composition are released from the subducting slab. Whereas the composition and effects of deep fluids are understood from studying arcs and backarc basin (BAB) lavas, those released at shallower depths beneath forearcs are less well known. Forearc rifts give us a unique opportunity to study the composition of ultra-shallow subduction-related fluids. At the southern end of the Mariana arc, the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), was discovered by HMR-1 sonar swath mapping (Martinez et al. 2000, JGR), and investigated in July 2008 by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. The rift extends from the trench to the BAB spreading axis, where a magma chamber was recently documented (Becker et al., 2010, G-cubed). SEMFR is opening due to continued widening of the Mariana Trough BAB. Two suites of tholeiitic pillow lavas were recovered from the N.E. flank of the rift (dive 1096; slab depth ~ 30 ± 5 km), indicating recent magmatic activity. Dive 1096 lavas consist of upper primitive basalts (Mg# ≥ 60) and lower fractionated, basaltic andesites (Mg# < 60), separated by a thin sediment layer. Geochemical and isotopic studies show that these lavas were produced by extensive hydrous melting (≥ 15%) of a common depleted MORB-like mantle (Nb/Yb ~ 1, ɛNd ~ 9.3), likely S. Mariana BAB mantle, that interacted with < 3% metasomatic fluids. Thermobarometry constraints (Lee et al., 2009, EPSL) suggest that the primary melts equilibrated with the mantle at ~ 28 km, just above the slab, with a mean temperature ~1230°C. The fluid was enriched in fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Ba, K, U, Sr, Pb, Cs), mobilized from the ultra-shallow slab at low temperature, as well as melt-mobile elements (e.g. Th, LREE), released deeper and hotter. These fluids contribute 100% Cs, 97% Rb, 99% Ba, 69% Th, 74% U, 80% K, 83% Pb, 71% Sr, 45% La, 33% Ce, 20% Nd and 11% Sm to the magma. SEMFR lavas acquired BAB-like deep subduction component as well as arc-like ultra

  7. Analysis of Marine Gravity Anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and Its Implications for the Architecture of Rift-Dominated Backarc Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Mook; Kim, Yoon-Mi

    2016-04-01

    Marginal basins locate between the continent and arc islands often exhibit diverse style of opening, from regions that appear to have formed by well-defined and localized spreading center (manifested by the presence of distinct seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns) to those with less obvious zones of extension and a broad magmatic emplacement most likely in the lower crust. Such difference in the style of back-arc basin formation may lead to marked difference in crustal structure in terms of its overall thickness and spatial variations. The Ulleung Basin, one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental rifting end-member of back-arc opening. Although a great deal of work has been conducted on the sedimentary sections in the last several decades, the deep crustal sections have not been systematically investigated for long time, and thus the structure and characteristics of the crust remain poorly understood. This study examines the marine gravity anomalies of the Ulleung Basin in order to understand the crustal structure using crucial sediment-thickness information. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth in general varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the margins. However, within the basin center, the inferred thickness of the crust is more or less the same (10-12 km), thus by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous impression. The almost-uniformly-thick crust that is thicker than a normal oceanic crust (~ 7 km) is consistent with previous observations using ocean bottom seismometers and recent deep seismic results from the nearby Yamato Basin. Another important finding is that small residual mantle gravity anomaly highs exist in the northern part of the basin. These highs are aligned in the NNE-SSW direction which correspond to the orientation of the major tectonic structures on the Korean Peninsula, raising the possibility that, though by a small degree, they are a

  8. 13C/Palynological evidence of differential residence times of organic carbon prior to its sedimentation in East African Rift Lakes and peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Aucour, Anne-Marie; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Riollet, Guy; Vincens, Annie; Williamson, David

    Most terrestrial plants producing large amounts of organic matter in the East African Rift follow the Calvin (C3) photosynthetic pathway. Their end products have δ13C values of ca. -27 ± 2‰ (vs. PDB). On the contrary, most Cyperaceae (notably Cyperus papyrus and C. latifolius) are characterized by higher 13C contents ° 13C = -10.5 ± 1‰ ) in relation to their Hatch and Slack (C4) photosynthetic cycle. In consequence, δ13C values in total organic matter (TOM) from peat bog or lake cores essentially responded to the proportion of detritus from C4-Cyperaceae. Immediate evidence of the development or disappearance of Cyperaceae around lake margins or in peat bogs can be found in pollen assemblages. Lag times between pollen signals and correlative ° 13C shifts in TOM from cores are therefore indicative of the residence time of organic matter prior to its sedimentation. Delayed sedimentation of TOM will result in 14C anomalies which depend on several parameters, most of them being site specific as shown by examples from a peat bog in Burundi and from southern Lake Tanganyika. An independent assessment of the chronology by high resolution paleomagnetic correlations indicates a ca. 1.5 ka apparent 14C age of TOM in Lake Tanganyika at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  9. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.

    2015-03-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to constrain the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any 3D geophysical model.

  10. Magmatic Processes Beneath the East African Rift System (EARS): Insights From Melt Inclusions in Lavas of Turkana, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, C. L.; Bryce, J. G.; Furman, T.

    2004-05-01

    The EARS is an ideal site to study the magmatic processes relevant to continental basaltic volcanism. Within the EARS, the Turkana Depression exhibits maximum extension and crustal thinning [1, 2]. Whole rock elemental and isotopic analyses of Turkana lavas demonstrate heterogeneity that is unlikely due to crustal assimilation during magma transport or storage and is instead attributed to mixing between mantle sources (plume and lithosphere) [3]. In other sites of continental basaltic volcanism, compositional studies of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) lend perspective on magma chamber processing and source diversity (e.g., [4,5]). MIs hosted in primitive olivine (ol) phenocrysts often sample numerous, discrete melts that existed prior to melt aggregation and homogenization within the continental lithosphere. Thus, ol-hosted MIs from Turkana may also provide insight into magmatic processes beneath continental rifts. Furthermore, Turkana lavas afford an unusual opportunity to study MIs that are likely unaffected by crustal assimilation and provide direct evidence of mantle heterogeneity. We present major element compositional data on ol-hosted MIs from a suite of lavas from the Turkana Depression. To test for geographical control on source heterogeneity beneath the Turkana Rift, analyses in progress encompass basaltic lavas that have been sampled from South and Central Islands and the Barrier. Olivine-hosted MIs in a South Island transitional basalt (MgO= 14.10 wt%, K2O/TiO2= 0.37, K2O/P2O5= 2.08; data from [3]) are dominantly alkaline in composition. Incompatible element ratios between MIs in separate, primitive ol grains (Fo= 83.8-86.7) display significant variability (K2O/TiO2= 0.32-0.63, K2O/P2O5= 1.02-4.36). Also, primitive ol grains (e.g., Fo= 86.2) host multiple MIs that consistently display similar incompatible element variability (e.g., K2O/TiO2= 0.33-0.59, K2O/P2O5=1.27-2.04). These data suggest that melt homogenization occurs at relatively shallow

  11. Geothermal fluids to irrigate energy crops on Imperial East Mesa Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, F.E.; Thomas, T.R.; Singh, K.

    1981-10-01

    Geothermal fluid at 2200 parts per million(ppM) total dissolved solids from the East Mesa, California was compared to 1400 ppM ground water from a 100 m well as irrigation sources for Beta vulgaris (L.) USH-11 sugar beet and Tamarix aphylla (L.) athel, a biomass and windbreak tree. In 1980 there was no significant difference between the yields from the two waters. In 1981, there was no significant difference between biomass production from the waters on the athel. The geothermal water produced a larger yield of sucrose than the ground water. The data suggest that raising sugar beets with either water is feasible on the East Mesa.

  12. Stable isotope-based Plio-Pleistocene ecosystem reconstruction of some of the earliest hominid fossil sites in the East African Rift System (Chiwondo Beds, N Malawi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdecke, Tina; Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Schrenk, Friedemann; Mulch, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The isotope geochemistry of pedogenic carbonate and fossil herbivore enamel is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in particular when climate change plays a key role in the evolution of ecosystems. Here, we present the first Plio-Pleistocene long-term carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) and clumped isotope (Δ47) records from pedogenic carbonate and herbivore teeth in the Malawi Rift. These data represent an important southern hemisphere record in the East African Rift System (EARS), a key region for reconstructing vegetation patterns in today's Zambezian Savanna and correlation with data on the evolution and migration of early hominids across the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. As our study site is situated between the well-known hominid-bearing sites of eastern and southern Africa in the Somali-Masai Endemic Zone and Highveld Grassland it fills an important geographical gap for early hominid research. 5.0 to 0.6 Ma fluviatile and lacustrine deposits of the Chiwondo Beds (NE shore of Lake Malawi) comprise abundant pedogenic carbonate and remains of a diverse fauna dominated by large terrestrial mammals. These sediments are also home to two hominid fossil remains, a mandible of Homo rudolfensis and a maxillary fragment of Paranthropus boisei, both dated around 2.4 Ma. The Chiwondo Beds therefore document early co-existence of these two species. We evaluate δ13C data from fossil enamel of different suid, bovid, and equid species and contrast these with δ13C and δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate. We complement the latter with clumped isotope soil temperature data. Results of almost 800 pedogenic carbonate samples from over 20 sections consistently average δ13C = -8.5 ‰ over the past 5 Ma with no significant short-term δ13C excursions or long-term trends. The data from molar tooth enamel of nine individual suids of the genera Metridiochoerus, Notochoerus and Nyanzachoerus support these findings with average δ13C = -10.0 ‰. The absence

  13. Melt inclusion evidence for CO2-rich melts beneath the western branch of the East African Rift: implications for long-term storage of volatiles in the deep lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, T. R.; Mukasa, S. B.; Simon, A. C.; Moore, G.; Barifaijo, E.

    2015-05-01

    We present new major element, trace element, and volatile (H2O, CO2, S, F, and Cl) concentrations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five high-K, low-silica basanites from the western branch of the East African Rift System and use these data to investigate the generation of H2O- and CO2-rich melts at up to ~150 km depth. Measured H2O and CO2 concentrations reach ~2.5 and ~1 wt%, respectively, representing some of the highest CO2 concentrations measured in a melt inclusion to date. These measurements represent direct evidence of the high CO2 and H2O concentrations required to generate high-K alkaline lavas, and the CO2 that has been previously inferred to be necessary for the low mantle potential temperatures in the area. Ratios of CO2/Nb, CO2/Ba, and CO2/Cl are used to estimate an initial melt CO2 concentration of 5-12 wt%. The measured CO2 concentrations are consistent with CO2 solubilities determined by molecular dynamics calculations and high-pressure experiments for melt generation at 3-6 GPa; the depth of melting suggested by previous studies in the area. These melt inclusions measurements represent direct evidence for the presence of H2O- and CO2-rich melts in the deep upper mantle that have been proposed based on experimental and seismic evidence. Primitive-mantle normalized trace element patterns more closely resemble those found in subduction settings rather than ocean island basalt, and ratios of slab fluid tracers such as Li/Dy and B/Be indicate that the measured volatile abundances may be related to Neoproterozoic subduction during the assembly of Gondwana, implying the storage of volatiles in the mantle by subduction-related metasomatism.

  14. Geochemistry of 24 Ma Basalts from Northeast Egypt: Implications for Small-Scale Convection Beneath the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endress, C. A.; Furman, T.; Ali Abu El-Rus, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basalts ~24 Ma in the Cairo-Suez and Fayyum districts of NE Egypt represent the youngest and northernmost lavas potentially associated with the initiation of rifting of the Red Sea. The age of these basalts corresponds to a time period of significant regional magmatism that occurred subsequent to emplacement of 30 Ma flood basalts attributed to the Afar Plume in Ethiopia and Yemen. Beginning ~28 Ma, widespread magmatism occurred across supra-equatorial Africa in Hoggar (Algeria), Tibesti (Chad), Darfur (Sudan), Turkana (Kenya) and Samalat, Bahariya, Quesir and the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) (e.g. Allegre et al., 1981; Meneisy, 1990; Baldridge et al., 1991; Wilson and Guiraud, 1992; Furman et al., 2006; Lucassen et al., 2008). Available geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Hoggar and Darfur basalts are similar to Turkana lavas, although no direct link between the N African lavas and the Kenya Plume has been made. New geochemical data on the NE Egyptian basalts provide insight into the thermochemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the mantle beneath the region in which they were emplaced. The basalts are subalkaline with OIB-like incompatible trace element abundances and homogeneous major element, trace element and isotopic geochemistry. They display relatively flat ITE patterns, with notable positive Pb and negative P anomalies. Isotopic (143Nd/144Nd = 0.51274-0.51285, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049-0.7050) and trace element signatures (Ce/Pb = 16-22, Ba/Nb = 9-14, and La/Nb = 0.9-1.0) are consistent with melting of a sub-lithospheric source that has been slightly contaminated by continental crust during ascent and emplacement. The Pb isotopic ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.53-18.62, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59-15.64, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.80-39.00) in the Egyptian basalts are close to the range of those found in the 30 Ma Ethiopian flood basalts, which are distinct from the more highly radiogenic, high-μ type signature seen in basalts from Turkana, Darfur, and Hoggar

  15. Kinematics of Rift-Parallel Deformation Along the Rukwa Rift, Western Branch, and Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, D.; Koehn, D.; Burke, K. C.; d'Oreye, N.; Saria, E.; Xu, R.

    2013-12-01

    The East African Rift System spans N-S ~5000 km and currently experiences E-W extension. Previous kinematic studies of the EARS delineated 3 relatively rigid sub-plates (Victoria, Rovuma, and Lwandle) between the Nubian and Somalian plates. GPS observations of these block interiors confirm the rigid plate model, but we also detect a systematic along-rift deformation pattern at GPS stations located within rift zones bounding the western Victoria block and continuing north between the Nubian and Somalian plates. Here we present a kinematic model of present-day rift-parallel deformation along the Western branch, Rukwa Rift, and Main Ethiopian Rift constrained by a new GPS solution, earthquake slip vectors, and mapped active fault structures. We test the roles of block rotation, elastic deformation, and anelastic deformation by varying block geometry, fault slip distribution parameters, estimating permanent strain rate, and scoring each model with GPS observations. We also explore how the present-day deformation patterns relate to longer-term paleostress indicators. Observations of slickensides and offsets in seismic reflection profiles in the northern Western branch (Albertine rift) indicate a change from ~NNE trending normal faulting to include strike-slip motion within the past 7 My that may be related to previously studied stress changes in the Turkana rift. Preliminary results from the kinematic modeling demonstrate simple elastic strain accumulation on major border faults cannot explain an observed systematic northward component in GPS velocities relative to the Victoria block and the Nubian plate.

  16. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  17. Extraordinary phase separation and segregation in vent fluids from the southern East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, K. L.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Brockington, M.; Bray, A.M.; O'Grady, K. M.; Olson, E.; Graham, A.; Proskurowski, G.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of Brandon vent on the southern East Pacific Rise is providing new insights into the controls on midocean ridge hydrothermal vent fluid chemistry. The physical conditions at the time ofsampling (287 bar and 405??C) place the Brandon fluids very close to the critical point of seawater (298 bar and 407??C). This permits in situ study of the effects of near criticalphenomena, which are interpreted to be the primary cause of enhanced transition metal transport in these fluids. Of the five orifices on Brandon sampled, three were venting fluids with less than seawater chlorinity, and two were venting fluids with greater than seawater chlorinity. The liquid phase orifices contain 1.6-1.9 times the chloride content of the vapors. Most other elements, excluding the gases, have this same ratio demonstrating the conservative nature of phase separation and the lack of subsequent water-rock interaction. The vapor and liquid phases vent at the same time from orifices within meters of each other on the Brandon structure. Variations in fluid compositions occur on a time scale of minutes. Our interpretation is that phase separation and segregation must be occurring 'real time' within the sulfide structure itself. Fluids from Brandon therefore provide an unique opportunity to understand in situ phase separation without the overprinting of continued water-rock interaction with the oceanic crust, as well as critical phenomena. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metasomatized lithospheric mantle beneath Turkana depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift): geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshesha, Daniel; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Matsumura, Risa; Chekol, Takele

    2011-11-01

    Mantle xenoliths entrained in Quaternary alkaline basalts from the Turkana Depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift) were studied for their geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions to constrain the evolution of the lithosphere. The investigated mantle xenoliths are spinel lherzolites in composition with a protogranular texture. They can be classified into two types: anhydrous and hydrous spinel lherzolites; the latter group characterized by the occurrences of pargasite and phlogopite. The compositions of whole-rock basaltic component (CaO = 3.8-5.6 wt%, Al2O3 = 2.5-4.1 wt%, and MgO = 34.7-38.1 wt%), spinel (Cr# = 0.062-0.117, Al2O3 = 59.0-64.4 wt%) and clinopyroxene (Mg# = 88.4-91.7, Al2O3 = 5.2-6.7 wt%) indicate that the lherzolites are fertile and have not experienced significant partial melting. Both types are characterized by depleted 87Sr/86Sr (0.70180-0.70295) and high 143Nd/144Nd (0.51299-0.51348) with wide ranges of 206Pb/204Pb (17.86-19.68) isotopic compositions. The variations of geochemical and isotopic compositions can be explained by silicate metasomatism induced by different degree of magma infiltrations from ascending mantle plume. The thermobarometric estimations suggest that the spinel lherzolites were derived from depths of 50-70 km (15.6-22.2 kb) and entrained in the alkaline magma at 847-1,052°C. Most of the spinel lherzolites from this study record an elevated geotherm (60-90 mW/m2) that is related to the presence of rising mantle plume in an active tectonic setting. Sm-Nd isotopic systematic gives a mean TDM model age of 0.95 Ga, interpreted as the minimum depletion age of the subcontinental lithosphere beneath the region.

  19. Puhimau Thermal Area: A Window into the Upper East Rift Zone of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] Volcano, Hawaii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, K. A.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Doukas, M. P.; Gerlach, T. M.

    2006-04-01

    We report the results of two soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed chamber circulation method at the Puhimau thermal area in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] volcano, Hawaii. The surveys were undertaken in 1996 and 1998 to constrain how much CO2 might be reaching the ERZ after degassing beneath the summit caldera and whether the Puhimau thermal area might be a significant contributor to the overall CO2 budget of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The area was revisited in 2001 to determine the effects of surface disturbance on efflux values by the collar emplacement technique utilized in the earlier surveys. Utilizing a cutoff value of 50 g m-2 d-1 for the surrounding forest background efflux, the CO2 emission rates for the anomaly at Puhimau thermal area were 27 t d-1 in 1996 and 17 t d-1 in 1998. Water vapor was removed before analysis in all cases in order to obtain CO2 values on a dry air basis and mitigate the effect of water vapor dilution on the measurements. It is clear that Puhimau thermal area is not a significant contributor to [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] CO2 output and that most of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] CO2 (8500 t d-1) is degassed at the summit, leaving only magma with its remaining stored volatiles, such as SO2, for injection down the ERZ. Because of the low CO2 emission rate and the presence of a shallow water table in the upper ERZ that effectively scrubs SO2 and other acid gases, Puhimau thermal area currently does not appear to be generally well suited for observing temporal changes in degassing at [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.].

  20. Hawaii Rifts

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Rifts mapped through reviewing the location of dikes and vents on the USGS 2007 Geologic Map of the State of Hawaii, as well as our assessment of topography, and, to a small extent, gravity data. Data is in shapefile format.

  1. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  2. Rift propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Schubert, G.

    1989-01-01

    A model for rift propagation which treats the rift as a crack in an elastic plate which is filled from beneath by upwelling viscous asthenosphere as it lengthens and opens. Growth of the crack is driven by either remotely applied forces or the pressure of buoyant asthenosphere in the crack and is resisted by viscous stresses associated with filling the crack. The model predicts a time for a rift to form which depends primarily on the driving stress and asthenosphere viscosity. For a driving stress on the order of 10 MPa, as expected from the topography of rifted swells, the development of rifts over times of a few Myr requires an asthenosphere viscosity of 10 to the 16th Pa s (10 to the 17th poise). This viscosity, which is several orders of magnitude less than values determined by postglacial rebound and at least one order of magnitude less than that inferred for spreading center propagation, may reflect a high temperature or large amount of partial melting in the mantle beneath a rifted swell.

  3. Geodetic Evidence of Magma Beneath the Puna Geothermal Ventures Power Plant, Lower East Rift Zone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Precise level surveys of the Puna Geothermal Ventures power plant site have been conducted at 2 to 3 year intervals over the past 16 years following an initial pre-production base-line survey in 1992. Pre-1992 USGS studies near the plant showed slow general subsidence and this pattern has continued since then. The average rate of subsidence for the first 11 years of the present survey series was 0.71 cm per year (1992- 2003). It was against this background of subsidence that small but significant upward movements were detected in 2005 in an area approximately 500 m wide directly under the power plant. This positive anomaly had an amplitude of only 0.5 cm but was clearly discernable because of the part-per-million resolution possible with traditional precise leveling. The 13-year (at that time) data set made it possible to interpret this event with confidence. The cause of the deformation was reported in 2005 to be shallow and localized in comparison to factors contributing to the subsidence of the surrounding area. Subsequent drilling activity penetrated magma beneath the anomaly, providing strong physical evidence that fluid pressure was the probable cause of the anomaly.

  4. Rio Grande rift: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kenneth H.; Scott Baldridge, W.; Callender, Jonathan F.

    1987-11-01

    The Rio Grande rift of the southwestern United States is one of the world's principal continental rift systems. It extends as a series of asymmetrical grabens from central Colorado, through New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, and Chihuahua, Mexico—a distance of more than 1000 km. Although the Rio Grande rift is closely related in timing and structural style to the contiguous Basin and Range extensional province, the two can be distinguished by a variety of geological and geophysical signatures. Rifts (both oceanic and continental) can be defined as elongate depressions overlying places where the entire lithosphere has ruptured in extension. The lithosphere of the Rio Grande rift conforms to this definition, in that: (1) the crust is moderately thinned—Moho depths range from about 45 km under the flanks to about 33 km beneath the rift axis. (2) anomalously low P n velocities (7.6-7.8 km s -1) beneath the rift and a long wavelength gravity low suggest that the asthenosphere is in contact with the base of the crust. The P-velocity is abnormally low (6.4-6.5 km s -1) in the lower half of the crust beneath the rift, suggesting high crustal temperatures. However, associated seismic and volcanologic data indicate the sub-rift lower crust is not dominated by a massive composite mafic intrusion such as is sometimes inferred for the East African rifts. Seismic and magnetotelluric data suggest the presence of a thin (< 1 km) sill-like contemporary midcrustal magma body which may perhaps extend intermittently along much of the length of the rift. Seismic and structural studies indicate a dominant horizontal fabric in the upper and middle crust. The brittle-ductile transition is at depths -15 km except for the major volcanic fields, where it rises to 2-3 km. Structural development of the rift occurred mainly during two time intervals: the early phase beginning at -30 Ma. and lasting 10-12 m.y., and the late phase extending from -10 to 3 Ma. The early phase involved extensive

  5. Drilling to Resolve the Evolution of the Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Lisa; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nixon, Casey

    2014-05-01

    The initiation and evolution of continental rifting, ultimately leading to rifted margin and ocean basin formation, are major unanswered questions in solid Earth-plate tectonics. Many previous insights have come from mature rifted margins where activity has ceased or from computer models. The Gulf of Corinth Rift in central Greece presents an ideal laboratory for the study of young, highly active rifting that complements other rift zones (e.g., the East African and Gulf of California rifts). Exposure and preservation of syn-rift stratigraphy, high rates of extension, and an existing network of offshore seismic data offer a unique opportunity to constrain the rift history and basin development at exceptionally high resolution in the Gulf of Corinth.

  6. Fluid Geochemistry of the Lusi Mud Volcano (east Java, Indonesia) and Implications for Eruption Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, H. E.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia, has been erupting mud and water since May 2006. It discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupting fluid is a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures that is accompanied by venting of hot gases, primarily H2O vapor, CO2, and CH4. The LUSI mud volcano has exhibited variations in flow rate and pulsating-to-cyclic activity since the beginning of the eruption; however, there are few published geochemical studies of the system and our knowlege of the evolution of the fluid and mud composition is poor. The solids in the mud can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the fluids are more difficult to interpret. An improved understanding of the fluid content and composition may provide insights that can help to constrain eruption mechanisms for this system. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and erpution behaviour at this complex and evolving mud volcano. We present geochemical results for dissolved (major ions, trace elements, water isotopes and Sr isotopes) and solid-phased (elemental and mineralogical composition) components of not only the LUSI fluids but also of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes). The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct from all the other sources we've measured to date, including some of the older mud volcanoes, suggesting either that the underlying water source for LUSI is different, or that it has changed over time. Our major and trace element data suggest the water and solids in the LUSI fluid may not originate from the same geologic formation, providing indirect evidence in support of

  7. Minerals as mantle fingerprints: Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf in clinopyroxene and He in olivine distinguish an unusual ancient mantle lithosphere beneath the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, W. R.; Shirey, S. B.; Graham, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    The East African Rift System is a complex region that holds keys to understanding the fundamental geodynamics of continental break-up. In this region, the volcanic record preserves over 30 Myrs of geochemical variability associated with the interplay between shallow and deep asthenospheric sources, continental lithospheric mantle, and continental crust. One fundamental question that is still subject to debate concerns the relationship between the lithospheric mantle and the voluminous flood basalt province that erupted at ~30 Ma in Ethiopia and Yemen. Whole-rock Re-Os isotopic data demonstrate the high-Ti (HT2) flood basalts (187Os/188Ost = 0.1247-0.1329) and peridotite xenoliths (187Os/188Ost = 0.1235-0.1377) from NW Ethiopia have similar isotopic compositions. However, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signatures from peridotite clinopyroxene grains are different from those of the flood basalts. The peridotite clinopyroxene separates bear isotopic affinities to anciently depleted mantle (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7019-0.7029; ɛNd = 12.6-18.5; ɛHf = 13.8-27.6) - more depleted than the MORB source - rather than to the OIB-like 30 Ma flood basalts (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.704; ɛNd = 4.7-6.7; ɛHf = 12.1-13.5). Peridotite clinopyroxenes display two groups of 206Pb/204Pb compositions: the higher 206Pb/204Pb group (18.7-19.3) is compositionally similar to the flood basalts (206Pb/204Pb = 18.97-19.02) whereas the lower 206Pb/204Pb group (17.1-17.9) overlaps with depleted mantle. This suggests that the Pb isotope systematics in some of the peridotites have been metasomatically perturbed. Helium isotopes were analyzed by crushing olivine separated from the peridotites and the flood basalts. Olivine in the peridotites has low He concentrations (0.78-4.7 ncc/g) and low 3He/4He (4.6-6.6 RA), demonstrating that they cannot be the petrogenetic precursor to the high 3He/4He (>12 RA) flood basalts. Notably, these peridotites have 3He/4He signatures consistent with a lithospheric mantle source. Therefore

  8. Geomorphometric reconstruction of post-eruptive surfaces of the Virunga Volcanic Province (East African Rift), constraint of erosion ratio and relative chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahitte, Pierre; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary volcanic landforms result from a complex evolution, involving volcanic constructional events and destructive ones by collapses and long-term erosion. Quantification, by morphometric approaches, of the evolution through time of the volcano shape allows the estimation of relative ages between volcanoes sharing the same climate and eruptive conditions. We apply such method to six volcanoes of the Virunga Volcanic Province in the western branch of the East African Rift Valley that still has rare geochronological constraints. As they have comparable sizes, volcanic history and erupted products, these edifices may have undergone comparable conditions of erosion which justify the deduction of relative chronology from their erosion pattern. Our GIS-based geomorphometric approach, the SHAPEVOLC algorithm, quantifies erupted or dismantled volumes by numerically modeling topographies resulting from the eruptive construction of each volcano. Constraining points are selected by analyses of morphometric properties of each cell of the current DEM, as the loci where the altitude is still representative of the un-eroded volcanic surfaces. A primary elevation surface is firstly adjusted to these constraining points by modeling a first-order pseudo-radial surface defined by: 1. the curve best fitting the concave-upwards volcano profile; 2. the location and elevation of the volcano summit; and 3. the possible eccentricity and azimuth parameters that allow to stretch and contract contours to adjust the shape of the model to the elliptically-shaped surface of the volcano. A second-order surface is next computed by local adjustment of the first-order surface to the constraining points to obtain the definitive primary elevation surface of the considered volcanic construct. Amount of erosion is obtained by summing the difference in elevation between reconstructed surfaces and current ones that allows to establish relative ages of volcanoes. For the 6 studied Virunga volcanoes

  9. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. Methods We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Results Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson’s r = 0.774, r = 0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r = 0.666,r = 0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of

  10. Differentiation and magma mixing on Kilauea's east rift zone - A further look at the eruptions of 1955 and 1960. Part I. The late 1955 lavas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, R.T.; Wright, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The lavas of the 1955 east rift eruption of Kilauea Volcano have been the object of considerable petrologic interest for two reasons. First, the early 1955 lavas are among the most differentiated ever erupted at Kilauea, and second, the petrographic character and chemical composition of the lava being erupted changed significantly during the eruption. This shift, from more differentiated (MgO=5.0-5.7%) to more magnesian (MgO=6.2-6.8%) lava, has been variously interpreted, as either due to systematic excavation of a zoned, differentiated magma body, or to invasion of the differentiated magma by more primitive magma, followed by rapid mixing and eruption of the resulting hybrid magmas. Petrologic examination of several nearvent spatter samples of the late 1955 lavas shows abundant evidence for magma mixing, including resorbed and/or reversely zoned crystals of olivine, augite and plagioclase. In addition, the compositional ranges of olivine, plagioclase and groundmass sulfide are very large, implying that the assemblages are hybrid. Core compositions of olivine phenocrysts range from Fo85 to Fo77. The most magnesian olivines in these samples must have originally crystallized from a melt containing 8.0-8.5% MgO, which is distinctly more magnesian than the bulk composition of the late 1955 lavas. The majorelement and trace-element data are either permissive or supportive of a hybrid origin for the late 1955 lavas. In particular, the compositional trends of the 1955 lavas on plots of CaO vs MgO, and the virtual invariance of Al2O3 and Sr in these plagioclase-phyric lavas are more easily explained by magma mixing than by fractionation. The pattern of internal disequilibrium/re-equilibration in the late 1955 spatter samples is consistent with reintrusion and mixing having occurred at least twice, during the latter part of the 1955 eruption. Plagioclase zonation preserves possible evidence for additional, earlier reintrusion events. Least-squares modelling the mixing of

  11. Occurrences of Orthopyroxene in the "Multi-textured" Layered Gabbros from the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise (the Site U1415P, IODP Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshide, T.; Machi, S.; Maeda, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Exp.345 drilled three main holes (Holes U1415 I, J & P) from the lowermost plutonic crust exposed at the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise and primitive layered gabbroic rocks were newly discovered from these holes (Gillis et al., 2014). One of the mysteries about the layered gabbros is the fact that Opx, which is considered to appear in the late stage of crystallization on the basis of crystallization experiments of MORB, occurs as a dominant phase in many of the layered gabbros. In this presentation, we report the occurrence of Opx from the Hole U1415P and consider the significance of Opx in the origin of the layered gabbros. Hole U1415P (about 100m in thickness) is divided into two units, the upper Multi-textured Layered Gabbro Series (MLGS) and lower Troctolite Series (TS). Gabbroic rocks from the MLGS contain Opx (< 4 vol%) and are macroscopically classified into Opx-bearing olivine gabbro. However, these rocks are mesoscopically (on cm scale) inhomogeneous and have a great variation of mode, grain size and texture. On the other hand, TS consists of homogeneous troctolites and Opx rarely occurs in the series. The occurrences of Opx from the MLGS are as follows: (i) coarse-grained Opx+Cpx+Pl vein parallel to the layered structure of the surrounding troctolite (ii) undeformed Opx+Pl veinlets in kinked Ol (iii) Opx in the concave of anhedral Ol (iv) Opx rimming Cr-spl crystals in contact with Ol. The occurrence of Opx like (ii) and (iii) resembles the texture which is considered to be formed by the reaction between mantle peridotite and a SiO2-saturated melt (e.g, Piccardo et al., 2007). The facts that Opx is often found in association with Cr-spl and Cr-spl lamellae occur in pyroxenes of the Opx+Cpx+Pl vein suggest that the SiO2-saturated melt which reacted with Ol was rich in chromium. In addition, Cr-spl crystals rimmed by Opx contain multiphase-solid inclusions. The inclusions should be key in understanding the chemical composition of the reacted melt.

  12. Geochemistry of Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust: Results from Drilling at the Hess Deep Rift (ODP Leg 147 and IODP Expedition 345; East Pacific Rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Falloon, T.; Gillis, K. M.; Akizawa, N.; de Brito Adriao, A.; Koepke, J.; Marks, N.; Meyer, R.; Saha, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Hess Deep Rift, where the Cocos Nazca Ridge propagates into the young, fast-spread East Pacific Rise crust, exposes a dismembered, but nearly complete, lower crustal section. The extensive exposures of the plutonic crust were drilled at 3 sites during ODP Leg 147 (Nov. 1992-Jan. 1993) and IODP Expedition 345 (Dec. 2012-Feb. 2013). We report preliminary results of a bulk rock geochemical study (major and trace elements) carried out on 109 samples representative of the different drilled lithologies. The shallowest gabbroic rocks were sampled at ODP Site 894. They comprise gabbronorite, gabbro, olivine gabbro and gabbronorite. They have evolved compositions with Mg# 39-55, Yb 4-8 x chondrite and Eu/Eu* 1-1.6. Olivine gabbro and troctolite were dominant at IODP Site U1415, with minor gabbro, gabbronorite and clinopyroxene oikocryst-bearing troctolite and gabbro. All U1415 gabbroic rocks have primitive compositions except for one gabbronorite rubble that is similar in composition to the shallow gabbros. Olivine gabbro, gabbro and gabbronorite overlap in composition: they have high Mg# (79-87) and Ni (130-570 ppm), low TiO2 (0.1-0.3 wt.%) and Yb (1.3-2.3 x chondrite) and positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=1.9-2.7). Troctolite has high Mg# (81-89), Ni (260-1500 ppm) and low TiO2 (<0.1 wt.%) and Yb (~0.5xchondrite) and large Eu/Eu* (>4). ODP Site 895 recovered sequences of highly depleted harzburgite, dunite and troctolite (Yb down to <0.1xchondrite) that are interpreted as a mantle-crust transition zone. Basalts were recovered at Sites 894 and U1415: they have low Yb (0.5-0.9xN6MORB) and are depleted in the most incompatible elements (Ce/Yb=0.6-0.9xN-MORB). The main geochemical characteristics of Site U1415 and 894 gabbroic rocks are consistent with formation as a cumulate sequence from a common parental MORB melt; troctolites are the most primitive end-member of this sequence. They overlap in composition with the most primitive of slow and fast spread crust gabbroic rocks.

  13. Cenozoic rifting in the West Antarctic Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. S.; Stock, J. M.; Clayton, R. W.; Davey, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) experienced two episodes of Cenozoic rifting. Seafloor spreading at the Adare spreading axis, north of the Ross Sea, from Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene time (43 - 26 Ma), was directly linked with motions within the WARS. For this time interval, marine magnetic anomalies within the Adare Basin and structural features within the Ross Sea constrain the motion between East and West Antarctica. During this episode, widespread intrusive activity took place in the continental part of the rift. Subsequent Late Oligocene until present-day (26 - 0 Ma) extension was characterized by a transition to volcanic activity. Yet, the details of extension during this episode have been poorly resolved. We present preliminary results of new seismic reflection and seafloor mapping data acquired on geophysical cruise 07-01 aboard the R/VIB Nathaniel Palmer in the northern part of the rift. Our results suggest that the style of deformation changed from spreading-related faulting into diffuse normal faulting (tilted blocks) that trend NE-SW with little resultant E-W extension. Recent volcanism is distributed throughout but tends to align with the NE-SW trend, into a localized zone. Formation of the Terror Rift, Ross Sea, within the same time frame suggests that the pole of rotation has changed its position, reflecting a change in the relative magnitudes of tensile stresses along the rift. Moreover, this change was accompanied with a sharp decrease of extension rates.

  14. Characterization of Microbial Communities Associated With Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Animals of the East Pacific Rise and the Galápagos Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N.; Page, S.; Heidelberg, J.; Eisen, J. A.; Fraser, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    The composition of microbial communities associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals is of interest because of the key role of bacterial symbionts in driving the chemosynthetic food chain of the vent system, and also because bacterial biofilms attached to animal exterior surfaces may play a part in settlement of larval forms. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from such communities provides a snapshot of community structure, as this gene is present in all Bacteria and Archaea, and a useful phylogenetic marker for both cultivated microbial species, and uncultivated species such as many of those found in the deep-sea environment. Specimens of giant tube worms (Riftia pachyptila), mussels (Bathymodiolus thermophilus), and clams (Calyptogena magnifica) were collected during the 2002 R/V Atlantis research cruises to the East Pacific Rise (9N) and Galápagos Rift. Microbial biofilms attached to the exterior surfaces of individual animals were sampled, as were tissues known to harbor chemosynthetic bacterial endosymbionts. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples using a commercially available kit, and 16S rRNA genes amplified from the mixed bacterial communities using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and oligonucleotide primers targeting conserved terminal regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR products obtained were cloned into a plasmid vector and the recombinant plasmids transformed into cells of Escherichia coli. Individual cloned 16S rRNA genes were sequenced at the 5' end of the gene (the most phylogenetically informative region in most taxa) and the sequence data compared to publicly available gene sequence databases, to allow a preliminary assignment of clones to taxonomic groups within the Bacteria and Archaea, and to determine the overall composition and phylogenetic diversity of the animal-associated microbial communities. Analysis of Riftia pachyptila exterior biofilm samples revealed the presence of members of the delta and

  15. Seismic imaging of the geodynamic activity at the western Eger rift in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, N.; Buske, S.; Hrubcova, P.; Ruzek, B.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.; Fischer, T.

    2015-04-01

    The western Eger rift at the Czech-German border in central Europe is an important geodynamically active area within the European Cenzoic rift system (ECRS) in the forelands of the Alps. Along with two other active areas of the ECRS, the French Massif Central and the east and west Eifel volcanic fields, it is characterized by numerous CO2-rich fluid emission points and frequent micro-seismicity. Existence of a plume(s) is indicated in the upper mantle which may be responsible for these observations. Here we reprocess a pre-existing deep seismic reflection profile '9HR' and interpret the subsurface structures as mapped by seismic reflectivity with previous findings, mainly from seismological and geochemical studies, to investigate the geodynamic activity in the subsurface. We find prominent hints of pathways which may allow magmatic fluids originating in the upper mantle to rise through the crust and cause the observed fluid emanations and earthquake activity.

  16. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics and clinopyroxene-host disequilibrium in ultra-potassic magmas from Toro-Ankole and Virunga, East-African Rift: Implications for magma mixing and source heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muravyeva, N. S.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Senin, V. G.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Nd, Pb and Sr isotope ratios have been determined for kamafugite lava and clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Bunyaruguru (Toro-Ankole) and Virunga volcanic fields of the East African Rift. The whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic signatures of kamafugites (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70463-0.70536; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51249-0.51255) suggest derivation from an EM1-type mantle source. In contrast, Pb isotopic compositions of the same samples (206Pb/204Pb: 19.00-19.57; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.69-15.74; 208Pb/204Pb: 39.30-40.26) reveal a similarity to EM2-type mantle. New Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic data for clinopyroxene (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70473-0.70503; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51250-0.51254; 206Pb/204Pb: 18.04-18.17; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.58-15.60; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.09-38.23) suggest derivation from an EM1-like source, and indicate Sr and Pb isotope disequilibrium between clinopyroxene and corresponding host rock. Moreover, clinopyroxenes exhibiting a greater degree of isotopic disequilibrium with their host rock are more sodic in composition. The isotopic disequilibrium is corroborated by the presence of chemical zoning within clinopyroxene, which suggests rapid magma ascent rates preventing melt homogenization. The Pb isotopic ratios for both mineral and corresponding whole rock, together with published data on East African rift-related alkaline centers, define a trend interpreted to represent a mixing line for melts derived from sources such as EM1 and as HIMU. The similar isotopic compositions for clinopyroxene from the different volcanic rocks within the East African Rift suggest the existence of a common, older mantle source for their parental melts. The origin of these melts can be attributed to an enrichment event ~ 400-500 Ma, i.e., significantly prior the younger ultrapotassic magmatism. Our preferred interpretation for the results reported here involves the mixing of melts derived from EM1- and HIMU-like sources, which were rapidly transported to the Earth's surface. The primary magmas formed as the result of melting of a

  17. Origin of fluids and eruption dynamics at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Hartnett, H. E.; Clarke, A. B.; Burton, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java (Indonesia) has been erupting mud, water and gases since May 2006. It is the most recent manifestation of mud volcanism in the Sunda back-arc region, part of a larger cluster of a dozen mud volcanoes scattered across East Java and Madura. LUSI discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters of mud per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupted fluids are a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures, accompanied by the bursting of gas bubbles on average every 1-3 minutes, which trigger mud fountains ~20 m in height. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and eruption behavior at this complex and evolving mud volcano, by using a combination of absorption infrared spectrometry of the gases, X-Ray diffraction of the solid fraction, major and trace element analyses of solids and dissolved ions in liquids, and isotopic analyses of separated water (D/H and 87Sr/86Sr). Similar analyses of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes) were also carried out for comparison. From open path FTIR measurements, we determine that the gases released during explosions at LUSI consist of 98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% methane, with corresponding fluxes of 2,300 t/yr of CH4, 30,000 t/yr of CO2 and 800,000 t/yr of water vapor. The methane flux is two orders of magnitude larger than estimates for any other single mud volcano on Earth. By comparing the mineral composition of solids present in the mud to rock outcrops of the local stratigraphy, the solids can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the liquid phase are more difficult to interpret. The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct

  18. The Timing of Early Magmatism and Extension in the Southern East African Rift: Tracking Geochemical Source Variability with 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology at the Rungwe Volcanic Province, SW Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesko, G. T.; Class, C.; Maqway, M. D.; Boniface, N.; Manya, S.; Hemming, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province is the southernmost expression of volcanism in the East African Rift System. Rungwe magmatism is focused in a transfer zone between two weakly extended rift segments, unlike more developed rifts where magmatism occurs along segment axes (e.g. mid-ocean ridges). Rungwe was selected as the site of the multinational SEGMeNT project, an integrated geophysical, geochronological and geochemical study to determine the role of magmatism during early stage continental rifting. Argon geochronology is underway for an extensive collection of Rungwe volcanic rocks to date the eruptive sequence with emphasis on the oldest events. The age and location of the earliest events remains contested, but is critical to evaluating the relationship between magmatism and extension. Dated samples are further analyzed to model the geochemistry and isotopic signature of each melt's source and define it as lithospheric, asthenospheric, or plume. Given the goals, the geochronology focuses on mafic lavas most likely to preserve the geochemical signature of the mantle source. Groundmass was prepared and analyzed at the LDEO AGES lab. Twelve preliminary dates yield ages from 8.5 to 5.7Ma, consistent with prior results, supporting an eruptive episode concurrent with tectonic activity on the Malawi and Rukwa border faults (Ebinger et al., JGR 1989; 1993). Three additional samples yield ages from 18.51 to 17.6 Ma, consistent with the 18.6 ±1.0 Ma age obtained by Rasskazov et al. (Russ. Geology & Geophys. 2003). This eruptive episode is spatially limited to phonolite domes in the Usangu Basin and a mafic lava flow on the uplifted Mbeya Block. These eruptions predate the current tectonic extensional structure, suggesting magmatism predates extension, or that the two are not highly interdependent. No Rungwe samples dated yet can be the source of the of 26Ma carbonatitic tuffs in the nearby Songwe River Basin sequence (Roberts et al., Nature Geoscience 2012). Isochron ages

  19. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: A model of continental disruption 1. The Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra Rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, S. E.; Fairhead, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A regional compilation of published and unpublished gravity data for Central Africa is presented and reveals the presence of a major rift system, called here, the Central African Rift System. It is proposed that the junction area between the Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra rift arms in Western Sudan forms an incipient intraplate, triple-junction with the as yet unfractured, but domally uplifted and volcanically active, Darfur swell. It is only the Darfur swell that shows any similarities to the uplift and rift history of East Africa. The other two rifts arms are considered to be structurally similar to the early stages of passive margin development and thus reflect more closely the initial processes of continental fragmentation than the structures associated with rifting in East Africa.

  20. Continental Rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  1. Fluid flow patterns in fast spreading East Pacific Rise crust exposed at Hess Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Kathryn M.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Stewart, Michael; Gleeson, Thomas; Karson, Jeffrey

    2001-11-01

    Tectonic exposures of a volcanic sequence and sheeted dike complex over a 4-km-wide region at Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific) reveal significant spatial heterogeneity (10-103 m) in the extent and nature of hydrothermal alteration in young, fast spreading East Pacific Rise crust. The volcanic sequence is fairly uniformly altered, with only minor oxidation and alteration to clay minerals. Sheeted dikes in the eastern part of the field area are highly fractured with narrow intervals of intact dikes that dip up to 60°. Their alteration characteristics show a simple depth trend such that with increasing depth the dominant secondary mafic mineral changes from chlorite to amphibole, clinopyroxene replacement increases (<20% to >40%), whole rock δ18O values decreases (4.4-5.5‰ to 3.5-4.5‰), and calculated peak metamorphic temperatures increase (˜250°C to 450°-700°C). Within the deepest dikes, localized zones up to 400-m-wide are chlorite-rich and have low-δ18O (2.9-4.1‰) and low peak metamorphic temperatures (˜345°C). These alteration patterns likely formed within broad recharge zones whereby the low-δ18O zones developed in the regions with the highest fluid flux. In the west, massive, slightly rotated sheeted dikes near the volcanic-sheeted dike transition are δ18O and Cu depleted and display higher peak temperatures (≥345°C) than elsewhere in the shallow dikes. These characteristics are consistent with formation within a high temperature, hydrothermal discharge zone. We propose that the spreading history of a fast spreading ridge segment can create significant spatial heterogeneity in fluid flow and alteration patterns within sheeted dike complexes, similar to those preserved in many ophiolites.

  2. Fault Growth and Propagation and its Effect on Surficial Processes within the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, Northwest Botswana, Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) is suggested to be a zone of incipient continental rifting occuring at the distal end of the southwestern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), therefore providing a unique opportunity to investigate neotectonic processes during the early stages of rifting. We used geophysical (aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric), Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission, Digital Elevation Model (SRTM-DEM), and sedimentological data to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with continental extension in the ORZ, and to elucidate the interplay between neotectonics and surficial processes. The results suggest that: (1) fault growth occurs by along axis linkage of fault segments, (2) an immature border fault is developing through the process of “Fault Piracy” by fault-linkages between major fault systems, (3) significant discrepancies exits between the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults compared to their lengths in the basement, (4) utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (> 25-100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift, (5) active faults are characterized by conductive anomalies resulting from fluids, whereas, inactive faults show no conductivity anomaly; and 6) sedimentlogical data reveal a major perturbation in lake sedimentation between 41 ka and 27 ka. The sedimentation perturbation is attributed to faulting associated with the rifting and may have resulted in the alteration of hydrology forming the modern day Okavango delta. We infer that this time period may represent the age of the latest rift reactivation and fault growth and propagation within the ORZ.

  3. 3D features of delayed thermal convection in fault zones: consequences for deep fluid processes in the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Möller, Sebastian; Inbar, Nimrod; Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that thermal convection in faults can also occur for subcritical Rayleigh conditions. This type of convection develops after a certain period and is referred to as "delayed convection" (Murphy, 1979). The delay in the onset is due to the heat exchange between the damage zone and the surrounding units that adds a thermal buffer along the fault walls. Few numerical studies investigated delayed thermal convection in fractured zones, despite it has the potential to transport energy and minerals over large spatial scales (Tournier, 2000). Here 3D numerical simulations of thermally driven flow in faults are presented in order to investigate the impact of delayed convection on deep fluid processes at basin-scale. The Tiberias Basin (TB), in the Jordan Rift Valley, serves as study area. The TB is characterized by upsurge of deep-seated hot waters along the faulted shores of Lake Tiberias and high temperature gradient that can locally reach 46 °C/km, as in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG). 3D simulations show that buoyant flow ascend in permeable faults which hydraulic conductivity is estimated to vary between 30 m/yr and 140 m/yr. Delayed convection starts respectively at 46 and 200 kyrs and generate temperature anomalies in agreement with observations. It turned out that delayed convective cells are transient. Cellular patterns that initially develop in permeable units surrounding the faults can trigger convection also within the fault plane. The combination of these two convective modes lead to helicoidal-like flow patterns. This complex flow can explain the location of springs along different fault traces of the TB. Besides being of importance for understanding the hydrogeological processes of the TB (Magri et al., 2015), the presented simulations provide a scenario illustrating fault-induced 3D cells that could develop in any geothermal system. References Magri, F., Inbar, N., Siebert, C., Rosenthal, E., Guttman, J., Möller, P., 2015. Transient

  4. Prediction, assessment of the Rift Valley fever activity in East and Southern Africa 2006-2008 and possible vector control strategies.

    PubMed

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth C; Pak, Edwin; de La Rocque, Stephane; Formenty, Pierre; Hightower, Allen W; Breiman, Robert F; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Tucker, Compton J; Schnabel, David; Sang, Rosemary; Haagsma, Karl; Latham, Mark; Lewandowski, Henry B; Magdi, Salih Osman; Mohamed, Mohamed Ally; Nguku, Patrick M; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and regional elevated sea surface temperatures, elevated rainfall, and satellite derived-normalized difference vegetation index data, we predicted with lead times of 2-4 months areas where outbreaks of RVF in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, and Southern Africa at different time periods from September 2006 to March 2008. Predictions were confirmed by entomological field investigations of virus activity and by reported cases of RVF in human and livestock populations. This represents the first series of prospective predictions of RVF outbreaks and provides a baseline for improved early warning, control, response planning, and mitigation into the future. PMID:20682905

  5. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006–2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth C.; Pak, Edwin; de La Rocque, Stephane; Formenty, Pierre; Hightower, Allen W.; Breiman, Robert F.; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Tucker, Compton J.; Schnabel, David; Sang, Rosemary; Haagsma, Karl; Latham, Mark; Lewandowski, Henry B.; Magdi, Salih Osman; Mohamed, Mohamed Ally; Nguku, Patrick M.; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and regional elevated sea surface temperatures, elevated rainfall, and satellite derived-normalized difference vegetation index data, we predicted with lead times of 2–4 months areas where outbreaks of RVF in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, and Southern Africa at different time periods from September 2006 to March 2008. Predictions were confirmed by entomological field investigations of virus activity and by reported cases of RVF in human and livestock populations. This represents the first series of prospective predictions of RVF outbreaks and provides a baseline for improved early warning, control, response planning, and mitigation into the future. PMID:20682905

  6. The Role of Rift Obliquity During Pangea Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, S.; Butterworth, N. P.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.

    2014-12-01

    Does supercontinent break-up follow specific laws? What parameters control the success and the failure of rift systems? Recent analytical and geodynamic modeling suggests that oblique rifting is energetically preferred over orthogonal rifting. This implies that during rift competition, highly oblique branches proceed to break-up while less oblique ones become inactive. These models predict that the relative motion of Earth's continents during supercontinent break-up is affected by the orientation and shape of individual rift systems. Here, we test this hypothesis based on latest plate tectonic reconstructions. Using PyGPlates, a recently developed Python library that allows script-based access to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, we quantify rift obliquity, extension velocity and their temporal evolution for continent-scale rift systems of the past 200 Myr. Indeed we find that many rift systems contributing to Pangea fragmentation involved strong rift obliquity. East and West Gondwana for instance split along the East African coast with a mean obliquity of 55° (measured as the angle between local rift trend normal and extension direction). While formation of the central and southern South Atlantic segment involved a low obliquity of 10°, the Equatorial Atlantic opened under a high angle of 60°. Rifting between Australia and Antarctica involved two stages with 25° prior to 100 Ma followed by 50° obliquity and distinct increase of extension velocity. Analyzing the entire passive margin system that formed during Pangea breakup, we find a mean obliquity of 40°, with a standard deviation of 20°. Hence 50% of these margins formed with an angle of 40° or more. Considering that many conceptual models of rifting and passive margin formation assume 2D deformation, our study quantifies the degree to which such 2D models are globally applicable, and highlights the importance of 3D models where oblique rifting is the dominant mode of deformation.

  7. Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ~ 30 000 people. Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the mechanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s). In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126) we use both analytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. The 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.

  8. Pre-rift basement structure and syn-rift faulting at the eastern onshore Gulf of Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranis, Haralambos; Skourtsos, Emmanuel; Gawthorpe, Robert; Leeder, Mike; Stamatakis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    %B We present results of recent field-based research with a view to providing information about and constraints on the initiation and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth (GoC) Rift. The onshore geology and structure of the GoC rift has been studied intensively and extensively; however most research efforts have focused on the western and partly the central parts. The last few years, efforts are being made to extend the scope of research in less-studied areas, such as the eastern southern onshore part of the GoC rift, trying to address two major issues in rift initiation and evolution, namely syn-rift faulting and pre-rift basement structure. While fault spacing and length appears to be well-constrained for the western and central parts of the GoC Rift, further east -and especially in the uplifted onshore southern part- this is thought to increase dramatically, as there are practically no mapped faults. We argue, however, that this may be a false image, owing to (i) the difficulty in identifying fault structures within a thick, fairly monotonous syn-rift sequence; (ii) the lesser attention this part has drawn; and (ii) the fact that the published summary geological and tectonic maps of the GoC area are based on the dated geological maps that cover the eastern and northern onshore shoulders of the Rift. Moreover, new field data provide new information on pre-rift structure: while only the topmost thrust sheet of the Hellenide nappe stack (Pindos Unit) was thought to crop out at the eastern southern onshore part, we mapped the underlying, non-metamorphic carbonate Unit (Tripolis Unit), which crops out within the footwall of a key intra-basin block (Xylokastro block). A minor outcrop further east, may also belong to this Unit, providing basement control, in connection with recently published offshore fault data. The mapping of these outcrops, combined with a revised stratigraphical framework for the early syn-rift deposits, allows the identification and mapping of faults

  9. Geothermal system at 21°N, East Pacific Rise: physical limits on geothermal fluid and role of adiabatic expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature relations for water at the depth of the magma chamber at 21°N on the East Pacific Rise suggest that the maximum subsurface temperature of the geothermal fluid is about 420°C. Both the chemistry of the discharging fluid and thermal balance considerations indicate that the effective water/rock ratios in the geothermal system are between 7 and 16. Such low ratios preclude effective metal transport at temperatures below 350°C, but metal solubilization at 400°C and above is effective even at such low ratios. It is proposed that the 420°C fluid ascends essentially adiabatically and in the process expands, cools, and precipitates metal sulfides within the upper few hundred meters of the sea floor and on the sea floor itself.

  10. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  11. Nature of local magma storage zones and geometry of conduit systems below balsatic eruption sites - Pu'u 'O'o, Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W., III

    1988-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of the well-documented eruptive episodes at Pu'u 'O'o, Kilauea are used to investigate quantitatively the size and shape of the shallow conduit system beneath the vent. The possible geometry of this region is considered. The dynamics of the eruptive episodes is used to place restrictions on the size and shape of the region and thermal calculations are used to show that the geometry is consistent with the region being the fluid residue of the partially cooled, major preepisode 1 dike. The Pu'u 'O'o example is used to illustrate some general properties of shallow magma storage zones.

  12. European and Middle-East ferroan hydrothermal dolomites: lessons learnt with respect to crustal dynamics, fluid circulations and rock-fluid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Fadi Henri; Gasparrini, Marta; Bachaud, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Classical case studies of hydrothermal dolostones, which are known worldwide to provide excellent reservoirs for ores and hydrocarbons, often illustrate the presence of iron-rich dolomite phases. The world-class hydrothermal dolostones from the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Northern Spain) exemplify the initiation of high temperature dolomitization (at about 200°C), with significant amount of ferroan dolomite phases (including up to 2% FeO). These dolomites are believed to be responsible for the pervasive replacement of the original limestone rocks - they are followed by non-ferroan dolomite phases. The associated fluids are supposed to have interacted with basement rocks, and travelled from deep-seated sources along major fault pathways. The geochemical traits of such fluids are also typically similar to, and probably associated with, mineralization fluids (e.g. Pb-Zn, MVT). In the Middle East, several observed dolostones show, on the contrary, a later phase of ferroan dolomite cements which occlude the inter-crystalline porosity of earlier non-ferroan matrix dolomites. Dolomitization occurred under increasingly higher temperatures (from 50 to 100°C) during burial. Here, the origin of iron-rich fluids and conditions of precipitation of associated dolomites do not necessarily involve interactions with basement rocks, but rather a relative Fe-enrichment with further reducing settings. Based on previous research projects concerning a variety of dolostones from Europe and the Middle-East, this contribution presents observational, analytical and computational results focused on ferroan dolomites. Recent numerical geochemical modelling emphasized the physico-chemical pre-requisites for crystallizing ferroan rather than non-ferroan dolomites (and vice-versa), allowing better understanding of related diagenetic processes. Besides, important larger-scale information on the crustal fluid circulations are demonstrated to be intimately associated to the parent-fluids sources and

  13. InSAR observations of post-rifting deformation around the Dabbahu rift segment, Afar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamling, Ian J.; Wright, Tim J.; Calais, Eric; Lewi, Elias; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2014-04-01

    Increased displacement rates have been observed following manylarge earthquakes and magmatic events. Although an order of magnitude smaller than the displacements associated with the main event, the post-seismic or post-rifting deformation may continue for years to decades after the initial earthquake or dyke intrusion. Due to the rare occurrence of subaerial rifting events, there are very few observations to constrain models of post-rifting deformation. In 2005 September, a 60-km-long dyke was intruded along the Dabbahu segment of the Nubia-Arabia Plate boundary (Afar, Ethiopia), marking the beginning of an ongoing rifting episode. Continued activity has been monitored using satellite radar interferometry and data from global positioning system instruments deployed around the rift in response to the initial intrusion. Using multiple satellite passes, we are able to separate the rift perpendicular and vertical displacement fields around the Dabbahu segment. Rift perpendicular and vertical rates of up to 180 and 240 mm yr-1, respectively. Here, we show that models of viscoelastic relaxation alone are insufficient to reproduce the observed deformation field and that a large portion of the observed signal is related to the movement of magma within the rift segment. Our models suggest upper mantle viscosities of 1018-19 Pa s overlain by an elastic crust of between 15 and 30 km. To fit the observations, inflation and deflation of magma chambers in the centre of the rift and to the south east of the rift axis is required at rates of ˜0.13 and -0.08 km3 yr-1.

  14. Tectono-Sedimentary Analysis of Rift Basins: Insights from the Corinth Rift, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawthorpe, Robert; Ford, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Existing models for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of rift basins are strongly linked the growth and linkage of normal fault segments and localization of fault activity. Early stages of faulting (rift initiation phase) are characterized by distributed, short, low displacement fault segments, subdued fault-related topography and small depocentres within which sedimentation keeps pace with subsidence. Following linkage and displacement localization (rift climax phase), deformation if focused onto major, crustal-scale fault zones with kilometre-scale displacement. These major faults generate pronounced tilted fault-block topography, with subsidence rates that outpace sedimentation causing a pronounced change to deep-water deposition. Such models have been successful in helping to understand the gross structural and sedimentary evolution of rift basins, but recent work has suggested that pre-existing structures, normal fault interaction with pre-rift salt and antecedent drainage systems significantly alter this initiation-to-climax perspective of rift basin development. The E-W-striking, Pliocene-Pleistocene Corinth rift, central Greece, is an excellent natural laboratory for studying the tectono-sedimentary evolution of rift basins due to its young age, excellent onshore exposure of syn-rift structure and stratigraphy and extensive offshore seismic data. The rift cuts across the NW-SE-striking Hellenide mountain belt and has migrated northward and westward during its evolution. The Hellenide mountain belt significantly influences topography and drainage in the west of the rift. High topography and large antecedent drainage systems, focused along palaeovalleys, provided high sediment flux to NE-flowing alluvial systems that overfilled early-rift depocentres. Further east, away from the main antecedent drainage networks, contemporaneous deposits comprise deep-lacustrine turbidite channel and lobe complexes and basinal marls. Thus the stratigraphic expression within

  15. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at [approximately]1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  16. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ?) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at {approximately}1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  17. Discussion of Continental Rifts and Their Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    When continental crust rifts, two chief modifications of that crust occur: 1)stretching of older, existing crust; 2)addition of new rift mass--sediments and mantle mafic units. However, paleorifts, such as the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen differ from neorifts, such as the East African. Much of this difference may be reflected in the nature of the lower rift crust. Stretching of the upper crust is accomplished primarily through faulting while the lower crust flows. Concurrently addition of sediments occurs in downdropped faulted blocks in the upper crust, and of mafic magmas risen and emplaced as intrusive layered complexes through the rift and as extrusive flows. All this happens in a regime of higher temperatures and higher heat flow. Consequences of this can include either melting of the stretched existing crust, or direct fractionation of rising mafic magma or melting of already crystallized mafic complexes, forming new silicic magmas. Geochemistry of these different magmatic bodies elucidates which of these possible processes seems dominant. Most geophysical studies of rifts have two results: 1)higher gravity anomalies indicating addition of new mafic masses, usually interpreted to be concentrated in the upper rift crust; and 2)seismic characteristics indicating crustal mottling and layering of the upper rift crust. What is not clearly indicated is nature of the lower crust, and of the mantle-crust contact (M discontinuity). Comparison of paleorifts and neorifts, and later geological history of paleorifts, suggests interesting interpretations of lower rift crust,especially in paleorifts, and some of the difficulties in sorting out answers.

  18. Stratigraphy and rifting history of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Anza rift, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.D. Jr.; Steinmetz, J.C. ); Kerekgyarto, W.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Lithological and compositional relationships, thicknesses, and palynological data from drilling cuttings from five wells in the Anza rift, Kenya, indicate active rifting during the Late Cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene. The earlier rifting possibly started in the Santonian-Coniacian, primarily occurred in the Campanian, and probably extended into the Maastrichtian. Anza rift sedimentation was in lacustrine, lacustrine-deltaic, fluvial, and flood-basin environments. Inferred synrift intervals in wells are shalier, thicker, more compositionally immature, and more poorly sorted than Lower Cretaceous ( )-lower Upper Cretaceous and upper Oligocene( )-Miocene interrift deposits. Synrift sandstone is mostly feldspathic or arkosic wacke. Sandstone deposited in the Anza basin during nonrift periods is mostly quartz arenite, and is coarser and has a high proportion of probable fluvial deposits relative to other facies. Volcanic debris is absent in sedimentary strata older than Pliocene-Holocene, although small Cretaceous intrusions are present in the basin. Cretaceous sandstone is cemented in places by laumontite, possibly recording Campanian extension. Early Cretaceous history of the Anza basin is poorly known because of the limited strata sampled; Jurassic units were not reached. Cretaceous rifting in the Anza basin was synchronous with rifting in Sudan and with the breakup and separation of South America and Africa; these events likely were related. Eocene-Oligocene extension in the Anza basin reflects different stresses. The transition from active rifting to passive subsidence in the Anza basin at the end of the Neogene, in turn, records a reconfigured response of east African plates to stresses and is correlated with formation of the East Africa rift.

  19. An updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions: reassessing the correlation with ancient rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Saskia M.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2005-06-01

    We present an updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions (SCRs; i.e. intraplate earthquakes) that is available on the Internet. Our database contains information on location, magnitude, seismic moment and focal mechanisms for over 1300 M (moment magnitude) >= 4.5 historic and instrumentally recorded crustal events. Using this updated earthquake database in combination with a recently published global catalogue of rifts, we assess the correlation of intraplate seismicity with ancient rifts on a global scale. Each tectonic event is put into one of five categories based on location: (i) interior rifts/taphrogens, (ii) rifted continental margins, (iii) non-rifted crust, (iv) possible interior rifts and (v) possible rifted margins. We find that approximately 27 per cent of all events are classified as interior rifts (i), 25 per cent are rifted continental margins (ii), 36 per cent are within non-rifted crust (iii) and 12 per cent (iv and v) remain uncertain. Thus, over half (52 per cent) of all events are associated with rifted crust, although within the continental interiors (i.e. away from continental margins), non-rifted crust has experienced more earthquakes than interior rifts. No major change in distribution is found if only large (M>= 6.0) earthquakes are considered. The largest events (M>= 7.0) however, have occurred predominantly within rifts (50 per cent) and continental margins (43 per cent). Intraplate seismicity is not distributed evenly. Instead several zones of concentrated seismicity seem to exist. This is especially true for interior rifts/taphrogens, where a total of only 12 regions are responsible for 74 per cent of all events and as much as 98 per cent of all seismic moment released in that category. Of the four rifts/taphrogens that have experienced the largest earthquakes, seismicity within the Kutch rift, India, and the East China rift system, may be controlled by diffuse plate boundary deformation more than by the presence

  20. An updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions: Reassessing the correlation with ancient rifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, S.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    2005-01-01

    We present an updated global earthquake catalogue for stable continental regions (SCRs; i.e. intraplate earthquakes) that is available on the Internet. Our database contains information on location, magnitude, seismic moment and focal mechanisms for over 1300 M (moment magnitude) ??? 4.5 historic and instrumentally recorded crustal events. Using this updated earthquake database in combination with a recently published global catalogue of rifts, we assess the correlation of intraplate seismicity with ancient rifts on a global scale. Each tectonic event is put into one of five categories based on location: (i) interior rifts/taphrogens, (ii) rifted continental margins, (iii) non-rifted crust, (iv) possible interior rifts and (v) possible rifted margins. We find that approximately 27 per cent of all events are classified as interior rifts (i), 25 per cent are rifted continental margins (ii), 36 per cent are within non-rifted crust (iii) and 12 per cent (iv and v) remain uncertain. Thus, over half (52 per cent) of all events are associated with rifted crust, although within the continental interiors (i.e. away from continental margins), non-rifted crust has experienced more earthquakes than interior rifts. No major change in distribution is found if only large (M ??? 6.0) earthquakes are considered. The largest events (M ??? 7.0) however, have occurred predominantly within rifts (50 per cent) and continental margins (43 per cent). Intraplate seismicity is not distributed evenly. Instead several zones of concentrated seismicity seem to exist. This is especially true for interior rifts/taphrogens, where a total of only 12 regions are responsible for 74 per cent of all events and as much as 98 per cent of all seismic moment released in that category. Of the four rifts/taphrogens that have experienced the largest earthquakes, seismicity within the Kutch rift, India, and the East China rift system, may be controlled by diffuse plate boundary deformation more than by the

  1. Petrofabrics of olivine in a rift axis and rift shoulder and their implications for seismic anisotropy beneath the Rio Grande rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Munjae; Jung, Haemyeong; Kil, Youngwoo

    2015-04-01

    Mantle-derived xenoliths associated with continental rifting can provide important information about the mantle structure and the physicochemical properties of deformation processes in the upper mantle. Metasomatized spinel peridotites from Adam's Diggings (AD) at a rift shoulder and Elephant Butte (EB) at a rift axis in the Rio Grande rift (RGR) were investigated to understand the deformation processes and seismic anisotropy occurring in the upper mantle. As determined through analysis of the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine by using a scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (SEM/EBSD), AD peridotites exhibited C-type LPO of olivine indicating a dominant slip system of (100)[001] at the rift shoulder, whereas EB peridotites exhibited A-type LPO indicating a dominant slip system of (010)[100] at the rift axis. Both geochemical data and microstructural observations indicate that the localized mantle enrichment processes, including melts with hydrous fluids, controlled multiple mantle metasomatisms and deformation of rocks under wet conditions (with olivine C-type LPO) at the rift shoulder (AD), whereas mantle depletion by decompression partial melting caused deformation of rocks under dry conditions (with olivine A-type LPO) at the rift axis (EB). These observations provide evidence for localized hydration and physicochemical heterogeneity of the upper mantle in the Rio Grande rift (RGR) zone. Seismic anisotropy observed beneath this zone can be attributed to the transtensional rupture, such as inhomogeneous stretching, and the petrofabrics of olivine beneath the study area.

  2. Evolution of a magma-driven earthquake swarm and triggering of the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai eruption, as resolved by InSAR, ground observations and elastic modeling, East African Rift, 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Hamiel, Y.; Shamir, G.; Nof, R.

    2008-07-01

    An earthquake swarm struck the North Tanzania Divergence, East African Rift over a 2 month period between July and September 2007. It produced approximately 70 M > 4 earthquakes (peak magnitude Mw 5.9), and extensive surface deformation, concurrent with eruptions at the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. The spatial and temporal evolution of the entire deformation event was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations, owing to a particularly favorable acquisition programming of the Envisat and ALOS satellites, and was verified by detailed ground observations. Elastic modeling based on the InSAR measurements clearly distinguishes between normal faulting, which dominated during the first week of the event, and intermittent episodes of dike propagation, oblique dike opening and dike-induced faulting during the following month. A gradual decline in the intensity of deformation occurred over the final weeks. Our observations and modeling suggest that the sequence of events was initiated by pressurization of a deep-seated magma chamber below Oldoinyo Lengai which opened the way to lateral dike injection, and dike-induced faulting and seismicity. As dike intrusion terminated, silicate magma ascended the volcano conduit, reacted with the carbonatitic magma, and set off a major episode of explosive ash eruptions producing mixed silicate-carbonatitic ejecta. The rise of the silicate magma within the volcano conduit is attributed to bubble growth and buoyancy increase in the magma chamber either due to a temporary pressure drop after the termination of the diking event, or due to the dynamic effects of seismic wave passage from the earthquake swarm. Similar temporal associations between earthquake swarms and major explosive ash eruptions were observed at Oldoinyo Lengai over the past half century.

  3. Depositional and tectonic framework of the rift basins of Lake Baikal from multichannel seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Golmshtok, A.J.; Zonenshain, L.P.; Moore, T.C.; Scholz, C.A.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1992-01-01

    Recent multichannel seismic reflection data from Lake Baikal, located in a large, active, continental rift in central Asia, image three major stratigraphic units totalling 3.5 to 7.5 km thick in four subbasins. A major change in rift deposition and faulting between the oldest and middle-rift units probably corresponds to the change from slow to fast rifting. A brief comparison of the basins of Lake Baikal with those of the East African rift system highlights differences in structural style that can be explained by differences in age and evolution of the surrounding basement rocks. -from Authors

  4. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed

  5. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flankhydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heatsource

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, B.W.; Kennedy, B.M.; Adams, M.C.; Bjornstad, S.C.; Buck, C.

    2007-01-08

    Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles fromthe East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view toidentifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heatsource inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminaryresults show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, mostprobably in response to production. Wells 38A-9, 51-16 and 83A-16 showthe highest CO2-CO-CH4-H2 chemical equilibration temperatures, rangingbetween 300-340oC, and apart from 38A-9, the values are generally inaccordance with the measured temperatures in the wells. Calculatedtemperatures for the fractionation of 13C between CO2 and CH4 are inexcess of 400oC in fluids from wells 38A-9, 64-16-RD2 and 51A-16,obviously pointing to equilibrium conditions from deeper portions of thereservoir. Given that the predominant reservoir rock lithologies in theCoso system are relatively silicic (granitic to dioritic), the isotopicsignatures appear to reflect convective circulation and equilibrationwithin rocks close to the plastic-brittle transition. 3He/4He signatures,in conjunction with relative volatile abundances in the Coso fluids,point to a possibly altered mantle source for the heat sourcefluids.

  6. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    The past 5 Ma were marked by systematic shifts towards colder climates and concomitant reorganizations in ocean circulation and marine heat transports. Some of the changes involved plate-tectonic shifts such as the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus and restructuring of the Indonesian archipelago that affected inter-ocean communications and altered the world ocean circulation. These changes induced ocean-atmosphere feedbacks with consequences for climates globally and locally. Two new ICDP and IODP drilling initiatives target these developments from the perspectives of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimatology and the human evolution. The ICDP drilling initiative HSPDP ("Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project"; ICDP ref. no. 10/07) targets lacustrine depocentres in Ethiopia (Hadar) and Kenya (West Turkana, Olorgesailie, Magadi) to retrieve sedimentary sequences close to the places and times where various species of hominins lived over currently available outcrop records. The records will provide a spatially resolved record of the East African environmental history in conjunction with climate variability at orbital (Milankovitch) and sub-orbital (ENSO decadal) time scales. HSPDP specifically aims at (1) compiling master chronologies for outcrops around each of the depocentres; (2) assessing which aspects of the paleoenvironmental records are a function of local origin (hydrology, hydrogeology) and which are linked with regional or larger-scale signals; (3) correlating broad-scale patterns of hominin phylogeny with the global beat of climate variability and (4) correlating regional shifts in the hominin fossil and archaeological record with more local patterns of paleoenvironmental change. Ultimately the aim is to test hypotheses that link physical and cultural adaptations in the course of the hominin evolution to local environmental change and variability. The IODP initiative SAFARI ("Southern African Climates, Agulhas Warm Water Transports and Retroflection

  7. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  8. Integrated Temporal and Spatial Studies of Biological Community Structure, Fluid Geochemistry, and Geological Perturbations on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Govenar, B.; Luther, G.; Lutz, R.; Vetriani, C.; Tolstoy, M.; Moore, T.; Nuzzio, D.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past 19 years, temporal and spatial changes in vent faunal community structure, fluid chemistry, and geological features have been tracked on the East Pacific Rise. Specifically, co-located studies of temporal and spatial changes within the Integrated Study Site region of the EPR have included the: 1) photographic documentation of more than 30 diffuse-flow habitats; 2) characterization of in situ fluid chemistry, temperature, and pH in these habitats; 3) characterization of basalts influenced by venting to enumerate microbial, meiofaunal, and metazoan colonists; 4) characterization of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids for microbial and chemical analyses; and 5) characterization of colonization substrates along with time-lapse camera systems and autonomous chemical and temperature sensors; and 6) characterization of seismic activity spatially targeted at these experimental locations. The goal of this work has been to address first order questions and the existence of correlative patterns among microbial communities, metazoan colonization, and fluid chemical composition- an essential prerequisite for further detailed studies of biological interactions and community dynamics at hydrothermal vents. These co-located activities, which now span a volcanic eruption, have yielded individual and interdependent datasets, which are currently at different stages of analyses and synthesis toward the examination of the interactions of subseafloor perturbations, fluid chemistry and microbes on faunal colonization. Ongoing analytical activities for integration and modeling include: 1) characterizing the composition of microbial colonizers; 2) assigning physiological and functional attributes of microbial colonizers; 3) comparing microbial community composition and physiology with patterns of metazoan colonization; 4) correlating relationships between microbial and metazoan colonization to relationships between fluid chemistry, pH, temperature; 5) relating results of

  9. Structural inheritance, segmentation, and rift localization in the Gulf of Aden oblique rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Autin, Julia; d'Acremont, Elia; Razin, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Pik, Raphael; Watremez, Louise; Baurion, Celine; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Khanbari, Khaled; Ahmed, Abdulhakim

    2013-04-01

    The structural evolution of the Gulf of Aden passive margins was controlled by its oblique divergence kinematics, inherited structures, and the Afar hot spot. The rifting between Arabia and Somalia started at 35 Ma just before the hot spot paroxysm (at 30Ma) and lasted until 18Ma, when oceanic spreading started. Fieldwork suggests that rift parallel normal faults initiated in the (future) distal margins, after a first stage of distributed rifting, and witness the rift localization, as confirmed by 4-layer analogue models. These faults arise either from crust or lithosphere scale buoyancy forces that are strongly controlled by the mantle temperature under the influence of the Afar hot spot. This implies a transition from a distributed mode to a localized one, sharper, both in space and time, in the West (close to the hot spot) than in the East (far away from the hot spot). In this framework, first order transform F.Z. are here (re-) defined by the fact that they deform continental crust. In the Gulf of Aden, as well as in other continental margins, it appears that these F.Z. are often, if not always, located at continental transfer or "transform" fault zones. Our detailed field-study of an offshore transfer fault zone in the southeastern Gulf of Aden (Socotra Island) shows that these structures are long-lived since early rifting until post rift times. During the early rifting, they are inherited structures reactivated as oblique normal faults before accommodating strike-slip motion. During the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) formation ("post syn-rift" times), a significant uplift occurred in the transfer fault zone footwall as shown by stratigraphic and LT thermochronology data. Second order transform F.Z. are defined as deforming only the OCT, thus initiated at the moment of its formation. In the western Gulf of Aden, the hot spot provoked a rift localization strongly oblique to the divergence and, as a consequence, several second order transform F.Z. formed (as

  10. Fault Orientations at Obliquely Rifted Margins: Where? When? Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Present-day knowledge of rifted margin formation is largely based on 2D seismic lines, 2D conceptual models, and corroborated by 2D numerical experiments. However, the 2D assumption that the extension direction is perpendicular to the rift trend is often invalid. In fact, worldwide more than 75% of all rifted margin segments have been formed under significant obliquity exceeding 20° (angle measured between extension direction and rift trend normal): During formation of the Atlantic Ocean, oblique rifting dominated at the sheared margins of South Africa and Patagonia, the Equatorial Atlantic margins, separation of Greenland and North America, and it played a major role in the protracted rift history of the North East Atlantic. Outside the Atlantic Ocean, oblique rifting occurred during the split between East and West Gondwana, the separation of India and Australia, India and Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica, as well as Arabia and Africa. It is presently observed in the Gulf of California, the Aegean and in the East African Rift. Despite its significance, the degree to which oblique lithospheric extension affects first-order rift and passive margin properties like surface stress pattern, fault azimuths, and basin geometry, is still not entirely clear. This contribution provides insight in crustal stress patterns and fault orientations by applying a 3D numerical rift model to oblique extensional settings. The presented forward experiments cover the whole spectrum of oblique extension (i.e. rift-orthogonal extension, low obliquity, high obliquity, strike-slip deformation) from initial deformation to breakup. They are conducted using an elasto-visco-plastic finite element model and involve crustal and mantle layers accounting for self-consistent necking of the lithosphere. Results are thoroughly compared to previous analogue experiments, which yields many similarities but also distinct differences for late rift stages and for high obliquity. Even though the model

  11. Structure and kinematics of the Taupo Rift, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seebeck, Hannu; Nicol, Andrew; Villamor, Pilar; Ristau, John; Pettinga, Jarg

    2014-06-01

    The structure and kinematics of the continental intra-arc Taupo Rift have been constrained by fault-trace mapping, a large catalogue of focal mechanisms (N = 202) and fault slip striations. The mean extension direction of ~137° is approximately orthogonal to the regional trend of the rift and arc front (α = 84° and 79°, respectively) and to the strike of the underlying subducting Pacific Plate. Bending and rollback of the subduction hinge strongly influence the location, orientation, and extension direction of intra-arc rifting in the North Island. In detail, orthogonal rifting (α = 85-90°) transitions northward to oblique rifting (α = 69-71°) across a paleovertical-axis rotation boundary where rift faults, extension directions, and basement fabric rotate by ~20-25°. Toward the south, extension is orthogonal to normal faults which are parallel to, and reactivate, steeply dipping basement fabric. Basement reactivation facilitates strain partitioning with a portion of margin-parallel motion in the overriding plate mainly accommodated east of the rift by strike-slip faults in the North Island Fault System (NIFS). Toward the north where the rift and NIFS intersect, ~4 mm/yr strike slip is transferred into the rift with net oblique extension accommodating a component of margin-parallel motion. The trend and kinematics of the Taupo Rift are comparable to late Miocene-Pliocene intra-arc rifting in the Taranaki Basin, indicating that the northeast strike of the subducting plate and the southeast extension direction have been uniform since at least 4 Ma.

  12. The mesoproterozoic midcontinent rift system, Lake Superior region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Green, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ??? 1109-1087 Ma, the age span of the most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent Rift System, Lake Superior Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojakangas, R. W.; Morey, G. B.; Green, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ∽1109-1087 Ma, the age span of most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance.

  14. Rifting of Continental Interiors: Some New Geophysical Data and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rifting is one of the major processes that affect the evolution of the continents. This process sometimes leads to continental breakup and the formation of new oceans, but more often does not. This is presumably due to extension not progressing sufficiently to form a new plate margin resulting in a structure, which remains isolated in an intra-plate environment. The Southern Oklahoma aulacogen is such a feature, and the continental portion of the East African rift system may be a modern example. As more detailed geophysical and geological studies of rifts have become available in recent years, a complex picture of rift structure and evolution has emerged. Global patterns that reveal the connections between lithospheric structure (deep and shallow), magmatism (amount and style), amount of extension, uplift, and older structures remain elusive. However, our geophysical studies of modern and paleo rifts in North America, East Africa, and Europe makes it possible to make some general observations: 1). Magmatism in rifts is modest without the presence of a (pre-existing?) thermal anomaly in the mantle. 2). Magmatic modification of the crust takes many forms which probably depend on the nature of older structures present and the state of the lithosphere when rifting is initiated (i.e. cold vs. hot; fertility), 3) There is no clear relation between amount of extension and the amount of magmatic modification of the crust. 4) Brittle deformation in the upper crustal is complex, often asymmetrical and older features often play important roles in focusing deformation. However on a lithospheric scale, rift structure is usually symmetrical. 5) A better understanding of rift processes is emerging as we achieve higher levels of integration of a wide variety of geoscience data.

  15. The South China sea margins: Implications for rifting contrasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, D.E.; Nissen, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Implications regarding spatially complex continental rifting, crustal extension, and the subsequent evolution to seafloor spreading are re-examined for the northern and southern-rifted margins of the South China Sea. Previous seismic studies have shown dramatic differences in the present-day crustal thicknesses as the manifestations of the strain experienced during the rifting of the margin of south China. Although the total crustal extension is presumed to be the same along the margin and adjacent ocean basin, the amount of continental crustal extension that occurred is much less along the east and central segments of the margin than along the western segment. This difference was accommodated by the early formation of oceanic crust (creating the present-day South China Sea basin) adjacent to the eastern margin segment while continued extension of continental crust was sustained to the west. Using the observed cross-sectional areas of extended continental crust derived from deep penetration seismics, two end-member models of varying rift zone widths and varying initial crustal thicknesses are qualitatively examined for three transects. Each model implies a time difference in the initiation of seafloor spreading inferred for different segments along the margin. The two models examined predict that the oceanic crust of the South China Sea basin toward the west did not begin forming until sometime between 6-12 my after its initial formation (???32 Ma) toward the east. These results are compatible with crustal age interpretations of marine magnetic anomalies. Assuming rifting symmetry with conjugate margin segments now residing along the southern portions of the South China Sea basin implies that the total width of the zone of rifting in the west was greater than in the east by about a factor of two. We suggest the most likely causes of the rifting differences were east-west variations in the rheology of the pre-rift crust and associated east-west variations in the

  16. Geophysical studies of the West Antarctic Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Lemasurier, W. E.; Cooper, A. K.; Tessensohn, F.; TréHu, A.; Damaske, D.

    1991-12-01

    The West Antarctic rift system extends over a 3000 × 750 km, largely ice covered area from the Ross Sea to the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, comparable in area to the Basin and Range and the East African rift system. A spectacular rift shoulder scarp along which peaks reach 4-5 km maximum elevation marks one flank and extends from northern Victoria Land-Queen Maud Mountains to the Ellsworth-Whitmore-Horlick Mountains. The rift shoulder has maximum present physiographic relief of 5 km in the Ross Embayment and 7 km in the Ellsworth Mountains-Byrd Subglacial Basin area. The Transantarctic Mountains part of the rift shoulder (and probably the entire shoulder) has been interpreted as rising since about 60 Ma, at episodic rates of ˜1 km/m.y., most recently since mid-Pliocene time, rather than continuously at the mean rate of 100 m/m.y. The rift system is characterized by bimodal alkaline volcanic rocks ranging from at least Oligocene to the present. These are exposed asymmetrically along the rift flanks and at the south end of the Antarctic Peninsula. The trend of the Jurassic tholeiites (Ferrar dolerites, Kirkpatric basalts) marking the Jurassic Transantarctic rift is coincident with exposures of the late Cenozoic volcanic rocks along the section of the Transantarctic Mountains from northern Victoria Land to the Horlick Mountains. The Cenozoic rift shoulder diverges here from the Jurassic tholeiite trend, and the tholeiites are exposed continuously (including the Dufek intrusion) along the lower- elevation (1-2 km) section of Transantarctic Mountains to the Weddell Sea. Widely spaced aeromagnetic profiles in West Antarctica indicate the absence of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the ice covered part of the Whitmore-Ellsworth-Mountain block and suggest their widespread occurrence beneath the western part of the ice sheet overlying the Byrd Subglacial Basin. A German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) aeromagnetic

  17. Low lower crustal velocity across Ethiopia: Is the Main Ethiopian Rift a narrow rift in a hot craton?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keranen, K.M.; Klemperer, S.L.; Julia, J.; Lawrence, J. F.; Nyblade, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) is a classic narrow rift that developed in hot, weak lithosphere, not in the initially cold, thick, and strong lithosphere that would be predicted by common models of rift mode formation. Our new 1-D seismic velocity profiles from Rayleigh wave/receiver function joint inversion across the MER and the Ethiopian Plateau indicate that hot lower crust and upper mantle are present throughout the broad region affected by Oligocene flood basalt volcanism, including both the present rift and the adjacent Ethiopian Plateau hundreds of kilometers from the rift valley. The region of hot lithosphere closely corresponds to the region of flood basalt volcanism, and we interpret that the volcanism and thermal perturbation were jointly caused by impingement of the Afar plume head. Across the affected region, Vs is 3.6-3.8 km/s in the lowermost crust and ???4.3 km/s in the uppermost mantle, both ??0.3 km/s lower than in the eastern and western branches of the East African Rift System to the south. We interpret the low Vs in the lower crust and upper mantle as indicative of hot lithosphere with partial melt. Our results lead to a hybrid rift mode, in which the brittle upper crust has developed as a narrow rift along the Neoproterozoic suture between East and West Gondwana, while at depth lithospheric deformation is distributed over the broad region (??400 km wide) thermally perturbed by the broad thermal upwelling associated with the Afar plume head. Development of both the East African Rift System to the south (in cold, strong lithosphere) and the MER to the north (in hot, weak lithosphere) as narrow rifts, despite their vastly different initial thermal states and depth-integrated lithospheric strength, indicates that common models of rift mode formation that focus only on temperature, thickness, and vertical strength profiles do not apply to these classic continental rifts. Instead, inherited structure and associated lithospheric weaknesses are

  18. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  19. Fluid pressure and flow at great depth in the continental crust. A discussion in relation to topography, temperature and salinity distribution using as an example the KTB Fault Zones in connection with the Eger Rift Hot Spot.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Kuhlmann, S.; Li, X.

    2006-12-01

    Hydraulic investigations in and between the two KTB boreholes have shown that groundwater flow is possible at great depth in the crystalline crust. Remarkable permeability was found particularly in the SE1 and SE2 fault zones. The results from a long term pump and injection test, and the related three-dimensional groundwater modelling (Graesle et al., 2006), document the existence of a large-scale (more than 10 km) hydraulic reservoir in the crystalline crust. According to this calculation, an overpressure of 0.4 MPa can be still be expected in KTB-HB in 2009, 4 years after the end of the injection. The good match with the measurement data confirms groundwater pathways at a scale of more than 10 km. The isotopic water composition recovered from the KTB pilot hole indicates a downward water flow along the SE2 fault zone, which is in contact with the Franconian Line. Moreover, there is a deep upward groundwater flow 60 km away in the western Eger Rift Valley as indicated e.g. by the temperature signature and gas flow observations. Therefore, the demand for fluid mass continuity means that water is being supplied by a downstream groundwater flow, probably from the Franconian Line. The question of potential driving processes must be answered to understand and quantify the flow in the deeper crust at a scale of 10 km to 100 km. The processes must result in a sufficient horizontal pressure gradient to allow groundwater flow at great depth. The density variations of groundwater with depth are highly relevant for the calculation of horizontal pressure differences. The two independent potential fields of gravity and pressure have to be considered. Differentiation into 4 relevant driving processes is required: \\bullet The groundwater surface topography related to the groundwater recharge and mean regional distance between neighbouring valleys \\bullet Geothermal gradient and water density depending on temperature and pressure \\bullet Different salt contents in adjacent

  20. Anatomy of a river drainage reversal in the Neogene Kivu Nile Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzförster, F.; Schmidt, U.

    2007-07-01

    The Neogene geological history of East Africa is characterised by the doming and extension in the course of development of the East African Rift System with its eastern and western branches. In the centre of the Western Rift Rise Rwanda is situated on Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the strongly uplifted eastern rift shoulder of the Kivu-Nile Rift segment, where clastic sedimentation is largely restricted to the rift axis itself. A small, volcanically and tectonically controlled depository in northwestern Rwanda preserved the only Neogene sediments known from the extremely uplifted rift shoulder. Those (?)Pliocene to Pleistocene/Holocene fluvio-lacustrine muds and sands of the Palaeo-Nyabarongo River record the influence of Virunga volcanism on the major drainage reversal that affected East Africa in the Plio-/Pleistocene, when the originally rift-parallel upper Nile drainage system became diverted to the East in order to enter the Nile system via Lake Victoria. Sedimentary facies development, heavy mineral distributions and palaeobiological controls, including hominid artefacts, signal a short time interval of <300-350 ka to complete this major event for the sediment supply system of the Kivu-Nile Rift segment.

  1. A network-based meta-population approach to model Rift Valley fever epidemics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been expanding its geographical distribution with important implications for both human and animal health. The emergence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the Middle East, and its continuing presence in many areas of Africa, has negatively impacted both medical and vet...

  2. Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

  3. Methane-bearing fluid inclusions as evidence of the collisional nature of high-alumina granites, northern Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, N.V.; Karsakov, L.P.

    1999-07-01

    The Khungariisk high-alumina S-type granites (northern Sikhote-Alin fold system, Russian Far East) have been formed as a result of anatectic melting during collision of the Anyuy sialic block with the continental margin in the Early Cretaceous. Methane-rich fluid inclusions are characteristic of these granites. The CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O fluid composition is explained by the release of water and methane from the sedimentary units residing on the oceanic plate, as it was subducted beneath sialic block. This fluid seeped into the heated and deformed metamorphic rocks of the overlying block and initiated partial fusion of the granites. A comparison of the new data with the results of fluid-inclusion studies of high-alumina collisional granites from the Pamir Mountains and Japan reveals similarities. Thus, methane-bearing fluid is probably one of the general features of this granite type, reflecting its anatectic origin.

  4. The 1973 Ethiopian-Rift geodimeter survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Remeasurement of the Adama, Lake Langana, and Arba Minch (Lake Margherita) geodimeter networks in 1973 has enabled Mohr's interpretation concerning possible surface ground deformation in the Ethiopian rift to be considerably developed. Extension appears to have occurred across the Mojjo-Adama horst at a rate of about 1 cm yr/1. The opposing rims of the Adama graben have not moved significantly relative to one another (between 1969 and 1973), but stations on the sliced graben floor show possible movement with a large rift-trend component. In the Wolenchiti quadrilateral, significant movement of station RABBIT is confirmed, but the radical change of vector (that of 1970-1971 to that of 1971-1973) casts doubt on a tectonic cause and seems to indicate that stations on steep hillslopes are liable to be unstable. South of the quadrilateral and east of the Adama graben, alternating rift-trend zones of extension and shortening appear to coexist. In the Lake Langana network, significant movements of the order of 0.5 cm yr/1 are directed perpendicular to the rift floor faulting.

  5. Correlation of Triassic advanced rifting-related Neotethyan submarine basaltic volcanism of the Darnó Unit (NE-Hungary) with some Dinaridic and Hellenidic occurrences on the basis of volcanological, fluid-rock interaction, and geochemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Gabriella; Molnár, Ferenc; Palinkaš, Ladislav A.; Kovács, Sándor; Horvatović, Hazim

    2012-09-01

    Comparative volcanological, mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of blocks of Triassic submarine basalt occurrences hosted by the Jurassic mélange have been carried out. The studied localities are located in displaced parts of the Dinarides in NE-Hungary (Darnó Unit), in the Dinarides (Kalnik Mts., Croatia and Vareš-Smreka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), and in the Hellenides (Stragopetra, Greece). The common characteristic of the studied occurrences is the well observable result of the lava-water-saturated sediment mingling, i.e., the presence of the so-called carbonate peperitic facies. Mixing of the basaltic lava with pelagic lime mud (representing the unconsolidated stage of the red, micritic limestone), as well as fluid inclusion and chlorite thermometry data support that the carbonate peperite was formed above CCD and at the Bosnian locality, a shallower water, about 1.4 km depth is proven. The igneous rocks show mainly within-plate basalt geochemical characteristics; MORB signatures are not common. Low temperature (<200°C) hydrothermal alteration is characteristic to the pillow basalt blocks with peperitic facies. The similarities in the volcanological, geochemical, and textural characteristics observed at the different localities support a strong genetic connection among them. The results of this study suggest to the advanced rifting stage origin of the Triassic basaltic suits and their distinction from the true oceanic basalt pillow units of the Dinarides can be based on the occurrences of the peperite facies.

  6. Hierarchical segmentation of the Malawi Rift: The influence of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity and kinematics in the evolution of continental rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Al-Salmi, Haifa S.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.

    2015-12-01

    We used detailed analysis of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-digital elevation model and observations from aeromagnetic data to examine the influence of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity and kinematics in the segmentation of largely amagmatic continental rifts. We focused on the Cenozoic Malawi Rift, which represents the southern extension of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. This north trending rift traverses Precambrian and Paleozoic-Mesozoic structures of different orientations. We found that the rift can be hierarchically divided into first-order and second-order segments. In the first-order segmentation, we divided the rift into Northern, Central, and Southern sections. In its Northern Section, the rift follows Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic terrains with structural grain that favored the localization of extension within well-developed border faults. The Central Section occurs within Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic terrain with regional structures oblique to the rift extent. We propose that the lack of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity favoring extension localization resulted in the development of the rift in this section as a shallow graben with undeveloped border faults. In the Southern Section, Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic rocks were reactivated and developed the border faults. In the second-order segmentation, only observed in the Northern Section, we divided the section into five segments that approximate four half-grabens/asymmetrical grabens with alternating polarities. The change of polarity coincides with flip-over full-grabens occurring within overlap zones associated with ~150 km long alternating border faults segments. The inherited lithospheric heterogeneity played the major role in facilitating the segmentation of the Malawi Rift during its opening resulting from extension.

  7. Insights into extensional processes during magma assisted rifting: Evidence from aligned scoria cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Tyrone O.; Bastow, Ian D.; Keir, Derek

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical and magmatic processes exert first-order control on the architecture and evolution of rifts. As a continental rift develops towards a new oceanic spreading centre, extension that is initially accommodated in a broad zone of faulting and ductile stretching must transition towards a narrow zone of focused magmatic intrusion. The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), part of the East African Rift System, is an ideal location to study this transition because it captures rifting processes during continental breakup. In this contribution we synthesise geochemical data from scoria cones in the Wonji Fault Belt (WFB) and Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone (SDFZ) in the MER to provide new constraints on the development of mantle melting columns and magmatic plumbing systems since the onset of rifting. We utilize the extensive geophysical and geochemical databases, collected in the Ethiopian Rift, to show that geochemical evidence of heterogeneity in the depth of the mantle melting column which produced Quaternary rift basalts correlates with lithospheric structure. When combined with existing observations of asymmetry across the rift in terms of depth of melting column and magmatic plumbing systems, it is evident that the mechanical structure of the rift, defined during the initial stages of breakup, has played a dominant role in the initial development of magma assisted rifting in the MER. Surface structures and crustal-scale geophysical studies have suggested the WFB is analogous to a sea-floor spreading centre. However, the geochemical characteristics of rift basalts are consistent with mantle tomography that shows no evidence beneath the MER for passive magmatic upwelling beneath discrete rift segments as is observed in the ocean basins. Collectively, the Ethiopian data show that the distribution of mantle melts during the initiation of magma assisted rifting is fundamentally influenced by lithospheric structures formed during earlier syn-rift stretching.

  8. Martian canyons and African rifts: Structural comparisons and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    1978-01-01

    The resistant parts of the canyon walls of the Martian rift complex Valled Marineris were used to infer an earlier, less eroded reconstruction of the major roughs. The individual canyons were then compared with individual rifts of East Africa. When measured in units of planetary radius, Martian canyons show a distribution of lengths nearly identical to those in Africa, both for individual rifts and for compound rift systems. A common mechanism which scales with planetary radius is suggested. Martian canyons are significantly wider than African rifts. The overall pattern of the rift systems of Africa and Mars are quite different in that the African systems are composed of numerous small faults with highly variable trend. On Mars the trends are less variable; individual scarps are straighter for longer than on earth. This is probably due to the difference in tectonic histories of the two planets: the complex history of the earth and the resulting complicated basement structures influence the development of new rifts. The basement and lithosphere of Mars are inferred to be simple, reflecting a relatively inactive tectonic history prior to the formation of the canyonlands.

  9. Seismic tomography of continental rifts revisited: from relative to absolute heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achauer, Ulrich; Masson, Frédéric

    2002-11-01

    Tomographic images for four major continental rift zones, namely the southern Rhine Graben (SRG, Germany/France), the Gregory rift (Kenya) which is the central part of the East African rift system, the Rio Grande rift (RGR) in the United States and the Lake Baikal rift zone (LBR) in Russia have been revisited by calculating and comparing absolute velocity models. The four rifts exhibit strong structural differences in the uppermost mantle down to more than 300-km depth, suggesting major differences in their geodynamic evolution albeit their similarity in age and similar surface expression. The comparative analysis suggests that tomographic images of rift zones can be used to characterize continental rifts, once the corrections to obtain absolute velocities have been carried out. Our results suggest that while the Kenya and the Rio Grande rift may be considered active with large upwelling plumes being the main controlling factor in the evolution, the southern Rhine Graben and the Lake Baikal rift are more likely passive rifts, where complex regional stress fields and inherited structures play the governing role in the evolution.

  10. Evidence of contemporary and ancient excess fluid pressure in the New Madrid seismic zone of the Reelfoot Rift, central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, F.A.; Diehl, S.

    1994-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This professional paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  11. Feedbacks between deformation and reactive melt transport in the mantle lithosphere during rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, A.; Baptiste, V.; Vauchez, A. R.; Fort, A.

    2014-12-01

    The East-African rift associates lithospheric thinning with extensive volcanism. Melts, even at low fractions, reduce the mantle viscosity. They also carry and exchange heat, mainly via reactions (latent heat), modifying the temperature and the rheology, which in turn controls their transport through the lithospheric mantle. Analysis of microstructures and crystal preferred orientations of mantle xenoliths from different localities along the East-African rift system highlights strong feedbacks between deformation, melt transport, and thermal evolution in the lithospheric mantle. Microstructures change markedly from south (young) to north (mature rift). In Tanzania, mylonitic to porphyroclastic peridotites predominate in on-axis localities, while off-axis ones are coarse-granular to porphyroclastic, pointing to heterogeneous deformation and variable annealing due to local interaction with fluids or to different time lags between deformation and extraction. Mylonites point to strain localization but there is no evidence for dominant grain boundary sliding: ubiquituous intracrystalline deformation in olivine and orthopyroxene and strong CPO record dislocation creep with dominant [100] glide in olivine. Synkinematic replacement of opx by olivine in both mylonitic and porphyroclastic peridotites suggests that deformation continued in the presence of melt under near-solidus conditions. This heating was transient: exsolutions in opx record cooling before extraction. Mega peridotites, which sample the southern border of the Ethiopian plateau, are coarse-porphyroclastic and show widespread metasomatism by basalts or by evolved volatile-rich low melt fractions. The former predated or was coeval to deformation, since olivine and pyroxene CPO are coherent. Exsolutions in opx imply that the high primary equilibration temperatures, which are consistent with the coarse-grained microstructures, are linked to transient heating. Finally, the fine-grained polygonal microstructures

  12. Continental rifting: a planetary perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlberger, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The only inner planet that has abundant evidence of regional extension, and the consequent generation of rifts in the earth. The absence of plate motion on the other inner planets limits their rifts to localized bulges or subsidence areas. The rifting of oceanic lithosphere is seldom preserved in the geological record. Thus, such rifting must be inferred via plate tectonic interpretation: if there is rifting, then there must be subduction whose results are commonly well preserved. Modern continental rifts are found in many tectonic settings: continental breakup, extension transverse to collisional stresses, or wide regions of nearly uniform extension. Recognition of these settings in older rocks becomes more difficult the farther back in geologic time you travel. Rift basin fillings typically show rapid lateral and vertical facies and thickness changes, bimodal volcanism, and distinctive rift-drift sequences. Proterozoic rifts and aulacogens are well-documented in North America; ex. Keweenawan, western margin of Labrador fold belt, Belt-Uinta and the Wopmay-Athapuscow regions. Documented Archean rifts are rare. In Quebec, the truncated margin of the Minto craton bounded on the south by a 2.8 Ga greenstone belt implies an earlier rift event. The oldest proposed rift dated at 3.0 Ga contains the Pongola Supergroup in southeastern Africa. The presence of Archean dikes demonstrates a rigid crust and andesites as old as 3.5 Ga imply plate tectonics and thus, at least, oceanic rifting.

  13. Magmatic expression of lithospheric thinning across continental rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. N.; Gibson, S. A.

    1994-05-01

    Studies of magmatism associated with continental rifting have traditionally focused only on volcanism within the downfaulted axial zone and along its immediate flanks. Teleseismic travel-time delay studies during the last decade have confirmed the results of earlier gravity surveys of rifted areas, showing that thinning at the base of the continental lithosphere occurs throughout a zone up to about 10 times wider than the physiographic expression of the rift. It is, therefore, logical to consider rifting-related magmatism on the same scale. Potential sources of mafic magmas in rift zones are the thinned subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), the convecting mantle beneath the continental plate and mixtures of the two. Detailed elemental and radiogenic isotope geochemical studies show that, during the initial extension of continental rifts, the associated mafic magmatism tends to be: (1) relatively sodic and from predominantly convecting mantle sources at the rift axis; (2) relatively potassic and from predominantly lithospheric mantle sources at the margins of the thinned-plate zone. This underlying geochemical pattern is obscured in many instances by such processes as crustal contamination and magma mixing within open-system reservoirs. The mafic ultrapotassic component that provides a distinctive input to SCLM-source magmas appears to be largely fusible at temperatures well below the dry solidus of SCLM; so that, in some cases, prolonged magmatism at a site causes removal of most or all of the potassic lithosphere-source melt (as mafic ultrapotassic magmas or as a contribution to mixed-source melts) without destruction of that lithosphere segment as a geophysically defined unit. Such a zone of refractory lithosphere permits subsequent, recognisable, convecting mantle source melts to penetrate it and reach the surface. These principles are illustrated by discussion of the Neogene-Quaternary magmatism of the Rio Grande, East African, Rhine and Baikal rifts, in

  14. 3D Chirp Sonar Images on Fluid Migration Pathways and Their Implications on Seafloor Stability East of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon Offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. W.; Liu, C. S.; Su, C. C.; Hsu, H. H.; Chen, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes both chirp sonar images and coring results to investigate the unstable seafloor strata east of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon offshore southwestern Taiwan. We have constructed 3D chirp sonar images from a densely surveyed block to trace the attitude of an acoustic transparent layer and features caused by fluid activities. Based on the distribution of this transparent layer and fluid-related features, we suggest that this transparent layer forms a pathway for fluid migration which induces fluid-related characters such as acoustic blanking and fluid chimneys in the 3D chirp sonar images. Cored seafloor samples are used in this study to investigate the sediment compositions. The 210Pb activity profiles of the cores show oscillating and unsteady values at about 20~25 cm from core top. The bulk densities of the core samples in the same section (about 20~25 cm from core top) give values lower than those at deeper parts of the cores. These results indicate that the water content is much higher in the shallow sediments than in the deeper strata. From core sample analyses, we deduce that the local sediments are disturbed by liquefaction. From the analyses of 3D chirp sonar images and core data, we suggest that the seafloor east of the Fangliao Submarine Canyon is in an unstable condition, if disturbed by earthquakes, submarine landslides and gravity flows could be easily triggered and cause some geohazards, like breaking submarine cables during the 2006 Pingtung earthquake event.

  15. An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, Nicolas O.; Keller, G. Randy

    2007-06-01

    The Kenyan part of the East African rift is among the most studied rift zones in the world. It is characterized by: (1) a classic rift valley, (2) sheer escarpments along the faulted borders of the rift valley, (3) voluminous volcanics that flowed from faults and fissures along the rift, and (4) axial and flank volcanoes where magma flow was most intense. In northern Kenya, the rift faults formed in an area where the lithosphere was weakened and stretched by Cretaceous-Paleogene extension, and in central and southern Kenya, it formed along old zones of weakness at the contact between the Archean Tanzania craton and the Proterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt. Recent geophysical investigations focused on the tectonic evolution of the East African rift and on exploration for geothermal energy in the southern portion of the Kenyan rift provide considerable information and insight on the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. In the north, a variety of other data exist. However, the lack of an integrated regional analysis of these data was the motivation for this study. Our study began with the collection and compilation of gravity data, and then we used the seismic refraction results from the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP), published seismic reflection data, aeromagnetic data, and geologic and drilling data as constraints in the construction of integrated gravity models. These models and gravity anomaly maps provide insight on spatial variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle structure. In addition, they show the distribution of basins and help characterize the distribution of magmatism along the axis of the northern sector of the rift. Our main observations are the following: (1) the region of thinning and anomalous mantle widens northward in agreement with previous studies showing that the crust thins from about 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; (2) as observed in the south, gravity highs observed along the axis are due to mafic

  16. Constraining diagenesis using fluid inclusions in cements from petroleum basins: examples from North Sea and Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, T.F.; Nishimori, R.K.; Koepnick, R.B.; Cocker, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Cements in petroleum reservoirs commonly contain inclusions filled with brine, hydrocarbon, or mixtures of both. The physicochemical conditions of cementation as well as the quality of the inclusion oil can be derived from microthermometric and fluorescence microspectrophotometric analysis of fluid inclusions. These data, when integrated with petrographic, geochemical, engineering, and burial history data, can constrain the timing and nature of both diagenetic events and oil migration. Brine and oil-bearing inclusions occur in quartz overgrowths from the Brent Sandstone, Northwest Hutton field, North Sea. Fluorescence analysis indicates that the inclusion oil is similar to the reservoired oil. Inclusion data define the reservoir conditions that existed during the initial stages of oil accumulation and concurrent quartz cementation. The abnormally high pressure of inclusion entrapment suggests that the reservoir was overpressured. Paleo-overpressuring probably helped preserve reservoir porosity by slowing compaction-related loss of porosity in coarse-grained reservoir sands. Brine, oil, and three-phase (brine, oil, and vapor) inclusions occur in burial-related calcite and dolomite cements from a Lower Cretaceous (Thamama) carbonate reservoir in the Middle East. Inclusion data indicate that these cements were precipitated from and simultaneously trapped an invading basinal brine that contained an immiscible component of hydrocarbon. The intersection of brine and oil isochores in pore-throat space allows a unique determination of the time and depth of initial reservoir fill-up. The fill-up appears to coincide with the onset of peak oil generation from the source rocks believed to have supplied these reservoirs.

  17. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  18. Next-generation Geotectonic Data Analysis: Using pyGPlates to quantify Rift Obliquity during Supercontinent Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Nathaniel; Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    Fragmentation of a supercontinent by rifting is an integral part of plate tectonics, yet the dynamics that govern the success or failure of individual rift systems are still unclear. Recently, analytical and thermo-mechanical modelling has suggested that obliquely activated rifts are mechanically favoured over orthogonal rift systems. Hence, where two rift zones compete, the more oblique rift proceeds to break-up while the less oblique one stalls and becomes an aulacogen. This implies that the orientation and shape of individual rift systems affects the relative motion of Earth's continents during supercontinent break-up. We test this hypothesis using the latest global plate tectonic reconstructions for the past 200 million years. The analysis is performed using pyGPlates, a recently developed Python library that allows script-based access to the plate reconstruction software GPlates. We quantify rift obliquity, extension velocity and their temporal evolution for all small-scale rift segments that constituted a major rift system during the last 200 million years. Boundaries between continental and oceanic crust (COBs) mark the end of rifting and the beginning of sea floor spreading, which is why we use a global set of updated COBs in order to pinpoint continental break-up and as a proxy for the local trend of former rift systems. Analysing the entire length of all rift systems during the last 200 My, we find a mean obliquity of ~40° (measured as the angle between extension direction and local rift trend normal), with a standard deviation of 25°. More than 75% of all rift segments exceeded an obliquity of 20° highlighting the fact that oblique rifting is the rule, not the exception. More specifically, East and West Gondwana split along the East African coast with a mean obliquity of 45°. While rifting of the central and southern South Atlantic segment involved a low obliquity of 10°, the Equatorial Atlantic opened under a high angle of 60°. The separation of

  19. Crustal Structure of the Ethiopian Rift and Adjacent Plateaus: Results of new integrated interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Ethiopian rift is the large part of the East African Rift system, which represents an incipient divergent plate boundary. This important structure provides excellent opportunities to study the transition from continental to oceanic. As a result, geophysical data are becoming increasingly available but some results are contradictory. We used a newly enhanced gravity database and seismic information to produce an integrated interpretation of the crustal structure beneath the Ethiopian rift and the adjacent plateaus. Wide regions have been covered to assess the regional structures including the Kenyan and Ethiopian rifts and the area covered by the Ethiopian flood basalt. Broad negative Bouguer gravity anomalies are delineated over the Ethiopian Plateaus and the Kenyan dome. Residual gravity anomalies, which parallel the major border faults clearly highlight the segregation between the plateaus and the rift valleys. Results of other filtering techniques have clearly revealed individual volcanic centers within the rift valleys. Positive gravity anomalies outside the rift valleys may be associated with older structures, shield volcanoes, or structures that are related to the initiation and propagation of rifting. A long axial profile from the central part of Kenya to the Afar triple junction has been modeled to investigate along-axis crustal variation of the East African rift system, with emphasis on the Ethiopian rift. This modeling has been constrained using seismic refraction data from the Ethiopian Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) and Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) results. We are able to see a thin crust (~26 km) in the Afar triangle with a gradual thickening (~40 km) southwards towards the Main Central Ethiopian rift (MER). The crust thickness decreases towards Turkana rift (~22 km), and increases again towards the central eastern rift section in Kenya. Our profile model across the MER has revealed that the eastern rift

  20. Continental rifting - Progress and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, B. H.; Morgan, P.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that in spite of the flood of new data on continental rifts in the last 15 years, there is little consensus about the basic mechanisms and causes of rifting. The remarkable similarities in rift cross sections (shown in a figure), are considered to suggest that the anomalous lithospheric structure of rifts is more dependent on lithosphere properties than the mode of rifting. It is thought that there is a spectrum of rifting processes for which two fundamental mechanisms can be postulated: an active mechanism, whereby thermal energy is transmitted into the lithosphere from the underlying asthenosphere, and a passive mechanism by which mechanical energy is transmitted laterally through the lithosphere as a consequence of plate interactions at a distance. In order to permit the concept of the two fundamentally different mechanisms to be tested, a tentative classification is proposed that divides rifts into two basic categories: active rifting and passive rifting. Here, the magnitude of active rifting will depend on the rate at which lithosphere moves over the thermal source, with rifts being restricted to stationary or slow-moving plates.

  1. Exploring the contrasts between fast and slow rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jason P.; de Monserrat, Albert; White, Lloyd; Hall, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Researchers are now finding that extension sometimes occurs at rates much faster than the mean rates observed in the development of passive margins. Examples of rapid and ultra-rapid extension are found in several locations in Eastern Indonesia. This includes in northern and central Sulawesi as well as in eastern- and westernmost New Guinea. The periods of extension are associated with sedimentary basin growth as well as phases of crustal melting and rapid uplift. This is recorded through seismic imagery of basins offshore Sulawesi and New Guinea as well as through new field studies of the onshore geology in these regions. A growing body of new geochronological and biostratigraphic data provide some control on the rates of processes, indicating that rates of extension are typically at least twice as fast and potentially an order of magnitude faster than the fastest rates applied for more commonly studied rift settings (e.g. Atlantic opening, East African Rift, Australia-Antarctica opening). Here we explore a suite of experiments more appropriate for rifting episodes in Eastern Indonesia, and compare the evolution of these 'fast' (20-100 mm/year full rate) rifting models to experiments with the same crustal geometries rifting at ~5-20 mm/year. In particular, we explore to what depths hot lower crust and mantle can be exhumed by fast rifting, and whether we can produce the p-T-t paths implied by recent onshore geological studies.

  2. P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Baikal Rift Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, R. A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Boman, E. C.

    2001-12-01

    Over 100 p wave travel times from the 1500 km en echelon Baikal Rift system are used in this study.The events range 3 to 13 degrees from Talaya, Russia (TLY) along the axis of southwest northeast trending rift in East Siberia. A Herglotz Wiechert inversion of these events resolved a crust of 6.4 km/s and a gradient in the mantle starting at 35 km depth and 7.7 km/s down to 200 km depth and 8.2 km/s. This is compatible with Gao et al,1994 cross sectional structure which cuts the rift at about 400km from TLY. The Baikal Rift hosts the deepest lake and is the most seismically active rift in the world. It is one of the few continental rifts, it separates the Siberian craton and the Syan-Baikal mobile fold belt. Two events, the March 21 1999 magnitude 5.7 earthquake 638 km from TLY and the November 13th 1995 magnitude 5.9 earthquake 863 km from TLY were modeled for there PnL wave structure using the discrete wavenumber method and the Harvard CMT solutions with adjusted depths from p-pP times. The PnL signals match well. A genetic algorithm will used to perturb the velocity structure and compare to a selection of the events between 3 and 13 degrees many will require moment tensor solutions.

  3. The effect of thermal weakening and buoyancy forces on rift localization: Field evidences from the Gulf of Aden oblique rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellahsen, N.; Husson, L.; Autin, J.; Leroy, S.; d'Acremont, E.

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of field and geophysical data, analog and numerical models, we here discuss the role of buoyancy forces arising from thickness variations in the lithosphere during rifting. In the Gulf of Aden, an oceanized Tertiary oblique rift, several successive directions of extension and associated normal faults suggest that transient stress rotations occurred during rifting. Especially, rift-parallel faults (070°E) overprinted the early divergence-perpendicular normal faults (110°E). Moreover, some first-order differences are noticeable between the western part of the Gulf, which deformed under the Afar hot spot influence, and the eastern part. In the western Gulf of Aden, the ocean-continent transition (OCT) and the oceanic ridge have cut obliquely through the inherited and reactivated Mesozoic basins (100°E to 140°E). The OCT trend is parallel to the overall Gulf trend (070°E). In the eastern part, the oceanization occurred within few syn-rift 110°E-trending basins and the OCT trends mostly perpendicular to the divergence direction. Here, we propose that this contrast is strongly controlled by the Afar hot spot: during rifting times, the hot spot likely induced a hot thermal anomaly in the western asthenosphere. This may have triggered both thermal buoyancy forces and thermal weakening of the lithosphere that helped localizing the rift obliquely. In such localized rift, rift-perpendicular trending crustal buoyancy forces (i.e. around 160°E) have enhanced rift-parallel normal faults (070°E) during final rift localization into a narrow zone strongly oblique to the early syn-rift basins. As a consequence of the Afar hot spot, in the west, the ridge is long and straight; in the east, the ridge segments are rather long too (although less than in the west) as the ridge initiated parallel to the OCT; in between, the ridge is more segmented as both the hot spot influence gradually decreases eastward and the ridge initiated obliquely to the OCT.

  4. Intracontinental rift comparisons: Baikal and Rio Grande Rift Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, P. W.; Logatchev, N. A.; Zorin, Y. A.; Chapman, C. E.; Kovalenko, V.; Morgan, P.

    Both the Baikal rift in Siberia and the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, Colorado and Texas are major intracontinental extensional structures of Cenozoic age that affect regions about 1500 km long and several hundred km wide (Figures 1, 2). In the summer of 1988 these rifts were visited by study groups of U.S. and Soviet geoscientists during cooperative field workshops sponsored by the Soviet Academy of Sciences, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Geological Survey.In the Rio Grande region, we spent 2 weeks examining rift features between El Paso, Tex., and Denver, Colo. Particular emphasis was on the sedimentary record of rift evolution, widespread volcanic activity from inception of rifting to the present, geophysical expression of rift features, and relations between rifting and the larger-scale evolution of the North American Cordillera. In the Baikal region, which presents formidable logistic problems for a workshop, we travelled by bus, truck, helicopter, and ship to examine young seismotectonic features, rift-related basalt, and bounding structures of the Siberian craton that influenced rift development (Figure 3).

  5. North America's Midcontinent Rift: when Rift MET Lip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R., Jr.; Bollmann, T. A.; Wolin, E.; Zhang, H.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Ola, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; Alequabi, G.; Waite, G. P.; Blavascunas, E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Flesch, L. M.; Rooney, T. O.; Moucha, R.; Brown, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rifts are segmented linear depressions, filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks, that form by extension and often evolve into plate boundaries. Flood basalts, a class of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), are broad regions of extensive volcanism due to sublithospheric processes. Typical rifts are not filled with flood basalts, and typical flood basalts are not associated with significant crustal extension and faulting. North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is an unusual combination. Its 3000-km length formed as part of the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian NE South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established, but contains an enormous volume of igneous rocks. MCR volcanics are significantly thicker than other flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift geometry but a LIP's magma volume. Structural modeling of seismic reflection data shows an initial rift phase where flood basalts filled a fault-controlled extending basin, and a postrift phase where volcanics and sediments were deposited in a thermally subsiding basin without associated faulting. The crust thinned during rifting and rethickened during the postrift phase and later compression, yielding the present thicker crust. The coincidence of a rift and LIP yielded the world's largest deposit of native copper. This combination arose when a new rift associated with continental breakup interacted with a mantle plume or anomalously hot or fertile upper mantle. Integration of diverse data types and models will give insight into questions including how the magma source was related to the rifting, how their interaction operated over a long period of rapid plate motion, why the lithospheric mantle below the MCR differs only slightly from its surroundings, how and why extension, volcanism, and compression varied along the rift arms, and how successful seafloor spreading ended the rift phase. Papers

  6. Westward drift, rift asymmetry and continental uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Bonatti, E.

    2003-04-01

    Although not predicted by classic plate tectonics theory, the topography of ocean ridges and rifts show a distinct asymmetry, when depth is plotted both vs. distance from the ridge and square root of the age of the oceanic crust. The eastern sides of the East Pacific Rise, of the mid Atlantic ridge, of the NW Indian ridge are in average more elevated than the conjugate flank to the west and eastern sides show slower subsidence rates. A similar asymmetry can be observed across the Red Sea and Baikal rifts. We suggest that depleted and lighter asthenosphere generated by partial melting below the ocean ridges shifts 'eastward' relative to the lithosphere, determining a density deficit below the eastern flank. The 'eastward' migration of the lighter Atlantic asthenosphere under the African continent, could eventually have contributed to the anomalous post-rift uplift of Africa and explain the anomalously higher topography of Africa with respect to other continents. This model suggests that the 'westward' drift of the lithosphere relative to the underlying mantle might be a global phenomenon and not just a mean delay.

  7. Continental rifting and the origin of Beta Regio, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, G. E.; Steenstrup, S. J.; Barton, C.; Ford, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Topographic maps based on Pioneer Venus altimetry suggest that Beta Regio, an elevated feature centered at 27 deg N, 282 deg E, is analogous to domes associated with continental rift systems on earth. This interpretation is consistent with the commonly quoted analogy between the East African rift system and the topography of the region from Beta Regio southward to Phoebe Regio. If Beta Regio is a dome, major structural uplift of the crust of Venus is implied, suggesting a more dynamic upper mantle than would be the case if Beta Regio were simply a large volcanic construct.

  8. Geoscience Methods Lead to Paleo-anthropological Discoveries in Afar Rift, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Renne, Paul R.; Hart, William K.; Ambrose, Stanley; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D.

    2004-07-01

    With few exceptions, most of the hominid evolutionary record in Africa is closely associated with the East African Rift System. The exceptions are the South African and Chadian hominids collected from the southern and west-central parts of the continent, respectively. The Middle Awash region stands alone as the most prolific paleoanthropological area ever discovered (Figure 1). Its paleontological record has yielded over 13,000 vertebrate fossils, including several hominid taxa, ranging in age from 5.8 Ma to the present. The uniqueness of the Middle Awash hominid sites lies in their occurrence within long, > 6 Ma volcanic and sedimentary stratigraphic records. The Middle Awash region has yielded the longest hominid record yet available. The region is characterized by distinct geologic features related to a volcanic and tectonic transition zone between the continental Main Ethiopian and the proto-oceanic Afar Rifts. The rift floor is wider-200 km-than other parts of the East African Rift (Figure 1). Moreover, its Quaternary axial rift zone is wide and asymetrically located close to the western margin. The fossil assemblages and the lithostratigraphic records suggest that volcanic and tectonic activities within the broad rift floor and the adjacent rift margins were intense and episodic during the late Neogene rift evolution.

  9. Comparing earthquake models for the Corinth rift for Mw>=5.5/6/6.5 (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiselet, Aurélien; Scotti, Oona; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Ford, Mary; Meyer, NIcolas; Bernard, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The Corinth rift (Greece) is identified as a site of major importance for earthquake studies in Europe, producing one of the highest seismic activity and strain in the Euro-Mediterranean region. It is characterized by an asymmetrical structure, with the most active normal faults dipping north and a north-south extension rate measured by GPS increasing from 0.6 mm/year in the eastern part of the rift to 15 mm/year in the western part. Frequent seismic swarms and destructive earthquakes are observed in this area. The Corinth rift Laboratory (CRL, http://crlab.eu) european project investigates fault mechanics, its relationship with earthquakes, fluid flow and the related hazards in the western part of the rift, covering an area about 50 km by 40 km, between the city of Patras to the west and the city of Aigion to the east. As part of this project, within the CRL-SISCOR group, we construct earthquake forecast models (EFM) for M>=5.5/6/6.5 events of the Corinth rift area based on the in-depth seismotectonic studies available for this region. We first present the methodology used to construct the earthquake and fault databases and to quantify the associated uncertainties. We then propose EFM following two approaches: one based on the definition of seimotectonic areas with similar geologic or strain characteristics, the second one based on the definition of fault sources mapped at the surface as well as blind ones. In order to compute the probability of occurrence for M>=5.5/6/6.5 for seismotectonic areas, we analyse two earthquake catalogues available for Greece (National Observatory of Athens, Thessaloniki), apply two declustering methods (Reasenberg and Gardner) to construct a Poissonian earthquake catalogue and test the influence of the minimal magnitude (3.5; 4.0). We compare the impact of maximum magnitude and corner magnitude (Kagan 1997, 2002) estimations. We then apply the Weichert method to estimate the probability of occurrence of M>=5.5/6/6.5 based on

  10. The Midcontinent rift system in Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Berendsen, P. . Kansas Geological Survey)

    1993-03-01

    A sequence of rift-related mafic volcanic rocks, volcanoclastic-, and clastic sedimentary rocks are recognized in cuttings and cores from about seventy wells in Kansas. The age (1,097.5 Ma) for gabbro in the Poersch [number sign]1 well in northern Kansas, as well as the general petrographic characteristics of the sedimentary rocks throughout the area favors a correlation with established Keweenawan stratigraphy in the Lake Superior region. Rift-related northeast-trending faults and older northwest-trending faults divide the area up into a number of orthogonal fault blocks or basins. Depending upon the tectonic history of the individual basin all or part of the Keweenawan section may be preserved. It is believed that large amounts of Keweenawan clastic sedimentary rock were eroded from the nemaha uplift east of the central graben of the rift and transported in an easterly direction. Prior to deposition of Paleozoic rocks the area was peneplaned. Correlation of various stratigraphic units over any distance is complicated by tectonic activity occurring at several times during the Precambrian and Paleozoic. Stratabound or stratiform deposits can occur both in the Precambrian as well as the overlying Paleozoic rocks. The possibility of massive sulfides to occur in the mafic intrusive rocks must not be excluded. In the core from the Poersch [number sign]1 well sulfides are recognized in gabbroic sills or dikes. Dark, fissile shale, similar to the Nonesuch Shale in the [number sign]1--4 Finn well averages 0.75% organic carbon. Thermal maturation within the rift probably ranges from within the oil window to over maturity.

  11. Geochemical evidence of mantle reservoir evolution during progressive rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T. O.; Mohr, P.; Dosso, L.; Hall, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Afar region in East Africa, which represents the triple junction of three well-exposed Cenozoic rift systems, is a pivotal domain in the study of rift evolution. The western margin of Afar, defined by a wide transitional region from plateau to rift floor, developed in response to the rifting of the Red Sea commencing shortly after the eruption of the ~31-29 Ma Ethiopian-Yemen flood basalts. The Oligocene lava sequence which covers this rift margin was fed from intensive diking. The dikes and the block-faulting and monoclinal warping that followed provide an opportunity to probe the geochemical reservoirs preserved in the magmatic record and the development of the rifting processes. Argon geochronology reveals that dikes along the western Afar margin span the entire history of rift evolution from the initial Oligocene flood basalt event to the development of focused zones of intrusion in rift marginal basins. Major and trace element, and isotopic results (Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf) from these dikes demonstrate temporal geochemical heterogeneity defined by variable contributions from the Afar plume, depleted mantle and African lithosphere, consistent with studies of Quaternary basalts from the Ethiopian Rift. On a broader scale our results show that as the western Afar margin matures, the initially significant contribution from the Afar plume wanes in favor of shallow asthenospheric and lithospheric reservoirs. The early dikes, which are coincident with the initial weakening of the lithosphere in a magma-assisted rifting model, geochemically resemble the widespread plume-derived flood basalts and shields that constitute the Ethiopian Plateau. Subsequent diking is characterized by a lesser role for the Afar plume and greater contributions from the African lithosphere and depleted mantle. During the terminal stage of dike emplacement, where focused magmatic intrusion accommodated extension, a more significant fraction is derived from the depleted mantle and less of a

  12. The Thinning of the lithosphere before Magmatic Spreading is Established at the Western End of the Cocos-Nazca Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Schouten, H.

    2015-12-01

    The transition from rifting of oceanic lithosphere to full magmatic spreading is examined at the Galapagos triple junction (GTJ) where the tip of the Cocos-Nazca spreading center (called C-N Rift) is propagating westward and breaking apart 0.5 Ma lithosphere formed at the East Pacific Rise near 2 15'N. Bathymetric mapping of the western section of the C-N Rift is limited, but sufficient to obtain a first-order understanding of how seafloor spreading is established. An initial rifting stage is followed by rifting with magma supply and lastly, full magmatic spreading is established. The flexural rotation of normal faults that border the rift basins is used to document thinning of the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere before magmatic spreading begins. The earliest faults show small outward rotation (1-5 degrees) for their offset suggesting that they cut thick lithosphere. Subsequent faults closer to the axis have larger outward rotations (up to 35-40 degrees) with larger offset indicating that the lithosphere was much thinner at the time of faulting and that low-angle detachment faults are forming. It is during late stage rifting and prior to full magmatic spreading that detachment faults such as the Intrarift ridge along Hess Deep rift are observed. Studies of low-angle detachment faulting during continental breakup at the Woodlark Basin suggest that their formation signals the input of magma beneath the rift. If this also is the case at the C-N Rift then magma is being supplied beneath Hess Deep rift. The axis of the segment immediately east of Hess Deep rift is characterized by a shallow graben with small seamounts scattered along it, typical of segments farther to the east, and we infer that full magmatic seafloor spreading has been established here. Our results provide new information on the formation of divergent boundaries in oceanic lithosphere, and place constraints on the supply of magma to a newly developing plate boundary.

  13. A model for Iapetan rifting of Laurentia based on Neoproterozoic dikes and related rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, William C.; Southworth, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Geologic evidence of the Neoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia during breakup of Rodinia is recorded in basement massifs of the cratonic margin by dike swarms, volcanic and plutonic rocks, and rift-related clastic sedimentary sequences. The spatial and temporal distribution of these geologic features varies both within and between the massifs but preserves evidence concerning the timing and nature of rifting. The most salient features include: (1) a rift-related magmatic event recorded in the French Broad massif and the southern and central Shenandoah massif that is distinctly older than that recorded in the northern Shenandoah massif and northward; (2) felsic volcanic centers at the north ends of both French Broad and Shenandoah massifs accompanied by dike swarms; (3) differences in volume between massifs of cover-sequence volcanic rocks and rift-related clastic rocks; and (4) WNW orientation of the Grenville dike swarm in contrast to the predominately NE orientation of other Neoproterozoic dikes. Previously proposed rifting mechanisms to explain these features include rift-transform and plume–triple-junction systems. The rift-transform system best explains features 1, 2, and 3, listed here, and we propose that it represents the dominant rifting mechanism for most of the Laurentian margin. To explain feature 4, as well as magmatic ages and geochemical trends in the Northern Appalachians, we propose that a plume–triple-junction system evolved into the rift-transform system. A ca. 600 Ma mantle plume centered east of the Sutton Mountains generated the radial dike swarm of the Adirondack massif and the Grenville dike swarm, and a collocated triple junction generated the northern part of the rift-transform system. An eastern branch of this system produced the Long Range dike swarm in Newfoundland, and a subsequent western branch produced the ca. 554 Ma Tibbit Hill volcanics and the ca. 550 Ma rift-related magmatism of Newfoundland.

  14. The role of inheritance in structuring hyperextended rift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatschal, Gianreto; Lavier, Luc; Chenin, Pauline

    2015-04-01

    -related mantle processes may control the rheology of the mantle, the magmatic budget, the thermal structure and the localization of final rifting Conversely, the deformation in hyperextended domains is strongly controlled by weak hydrated minerals (e.g. clay, serpentinite) that result form the breakdown of feldspar and olivine due to fluid and reaction assisted deformation and is consequently not inherited but the result of rift induced processes. These key observations show that both inheritance and rift-induced processes play a significant role in the development of magma-poor rift systems and that the role of inheritance may change as the physical conditions vary during the evolving rifting and as rift-induced processes (serpentinization; magma) become more important. Thus, it is not only important to determine the "genetic code" of a rift system, but also to understand how it interacts and evolves during rifting. Understand how far these new ideas and concepts derived from the southern North Atlantic and Alpine Tethys can be translated to other less explored hyperextended rift systems will be one of the challenges of the future research in rifted margins.

  15. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Graben is the southernmost expressions of the Mesozoic North Sea rift system that includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth-Witch Ground grabens and the Horda-Egersund half graben. In the southern North Sea the Central Graben extends across the Dutch and the German exclusive economic zones. The structure of the Central Graben in German territorial waters was mapped in great detail in 2D and 3D seismic data and the stratigraphy has been constraint by borehole data. We provide a detailed review of the rifting activity in the German North Sea sector both in time and space and the link between rifting and salt movement. Major rifting activity started in the Central Graben during the Late Triassic and peaked during the Late Jurassic when extensive rift grabens formed, further influenced by halokinetic movements. First subsidence in the Central Graben area appears in the Early Triassic. This is documented by thickness variations in the sedimentary strata from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Remarkably thick sediments were deposited during the Late Triassic along the eastern border fault of the Central Graben and in the Late Jurassic sediments accumulated along graben-wide extensional faults and in rim-synclines of salt-structures. A basin inversion commenced in the Late Cretaceous resulting in an erosion of wide portions of Lower Cretaceous rocks or even complete removal in some parts. The area to the east of the Central Graben faced a completely different evolution. In this area major rifting activity initiated already in the Early to Middle Triassic. This is evident from huge packages of Middle Buntsandstein to Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) sediments in the Horn Graben. Jurassic doming, forming the Mid-North Sea High, resulted in almost complete erosion of Lower and Middle Jurassic sediments in the central German North Sea. Sedimentation continued during the Early and Late Cretaceous. The Glückstadt Graben, which is a structure located farther east has a

  16. Rift basins of ocean-continent convergent margins

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, R.D.; Newcomb, K.R.

    1986-05-01

    Modern and ancient circum-Pacific convergent margins contain many examples of forearc basins where subsidence, occurring simultaneously with subduction of oceanic lithosphere, is controlled by rifting transverse to the margin. The elongate axes of these deep and narrow basins jut obliquely from the plate margin into the interior of the forearc. Similar to aulacogens, faulting and related subsidence appear greatest at their seaward limits and decreases inland. Examples from eastern Pacific forearcs suggest that localized rifting accommodates margin-parallel extension of forearc blocks that are kinetically linked to motions along major margin-parallel strike-slip fault systems. The most prominent examples of modern forearc rift basins are the Sanak and East Sanak basins of the western Alaska Peninsula subduction zone. In this region, the continental shelf is being rifted apart by a series of northwest- and northeast-trending faults. Basement-activated normal faults bounding the basins have listric geometries. Seismostratigraphic relationships within the basins indicate the protracted, synsedimentary, and active nature of faulting and basin subsidence. Along the Peru-Chile trench, two prominent rifted basins also occur: the Gulf of Guayaquil and the Gulf of Penas-Taitao basin of southern Chile. There, margin-parallel rifting controls subsidence in localized basins at the southern terminus to margin-parallel dextral fault systems. These and other examples suggest that strike-slip motion and transverse rifting of forearcs is a common phenomenon inadequately described by existing two-dimensional models of forearcs. Margin-parallel motions of forearc blocks can be related not only to oblique plate convergence, but also to the geometric and compositional nature of the overriding and subducted plates.

  17. Evolutionary model of the oblique rift basins- Central African Rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kenn-Ming; Cheng, I.-Wen; Wu, Jong-Chang

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of oblique-rifting basin is strongly related with the angle (α) between the trend of rift and that of regional major extensional stress. The main purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of geometry and kinematics of structure and tectono-stratigraphy during basin evolution of Central African Rifts (CAS). In this study, we simulated the formation of oblique-rifting basin with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D) and compared the simulation results with the tectonic settings of a series of basin in CAS. CAS started to develop in Early Cretaceous (130Ma) and lasted until the Late Cretaceous (85Ma-80Ma). The following collision between the African and Eurasian plates imposed compressional stress on CAS and folded the strata in the rift basins. Although the characteristics of rift basin formation remain controversial, palinspastic sections constructed in this study show that, in the Early Cretaceous, the rift basins are mainly characterized by normal faults and half-grabens. In the Late Cretaceous, the morphology of the rift basins was altered by large-scaled tectonic compression with the active Borogop Fault of regional scale. Also, en echelon trend of normal faults in the basins were measured and the angles between the trend with that of the rift axes of each basin were demonstrated, indicating that the development of CAS was affected by the regional extensional stress with a dextral component during the rifting process and, therefore, the rift basins were formed by oblique-rifting. In this study, we simulated the oblique-rifting basin model of various α with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D). The main theory of PFC 3D is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), in which parameters are applied to every particle in the models. We applied forces acting on both sides of rift axis, which α are 45°, 60°, 75° and 90° respectively, to simulate basin formation under oblique-rifting process. The study results of simulation

  18. Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System, an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.; Landon, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Middle and Late Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) extends across the middle US, from Lake Superior through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska into Kansas on the southwest limb and across upper and lower Michigan on the southeast limb. Exploration for oil and gas generated over 7,000 miles of seismic, a leasehold of near seven million acres, but only three test wells. The initial extension of the MRS was marked by filling with layered basalt. Thickness documented by GLIMPCE suggests crustal separation was nearly achieved. The thick dense basalts and thinned pre-rift crust provide high amplitude gravity anomalies which characterize the rift trend. Extension slowed and eventually ceased, creating a sag phase during which clastic sediments were deposited, including sapropelic shale and siltstone, fluvial sandstones and siltstones, and fluvial/alluvial conglomerates. Tectonic inversion to compressional and transpressional forces occurred late in rift history, possibly during part of the period of clastic fill. The MRS trend is highly segmented, with varied tectonic styles, suggesting complex stress systems in its development. The Nonesuch Formation is marine or lacustrine siltstone and shale containing sufficient organic matter to be an effective source rock for oil and gas. Similar facies have been identified along the extent of the western limb, in the subsurface in Minnesota, Iowa and Kansas. TOC values are as high as 3% and maturity ranges from peak oil to advanced. Surface seeps, fluid inclusions, mud log shows and modeling indicate the potential for multiple episodes of generation. Potential reservoir rocks have been identified and seals are present as lacustrine and fluvial shales and possible evaporites. The MRS remains a relatively unexplored frontier hydrocarbon province with giant field potential in the heart of North America.

  19. Masirah Graben, Oman: A hidden Cretaceous rift basin

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, W.H.; Ries, A.C.; Coward, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    Reflection seismic data, well data, geochemical data, and surface geology suggest that a Cretaceous rift basin exists beneath the thrusted allochthonous sedimentary sequence of the Masirah graben, Oman. The Masirah graben is located east of the Huqf uplift, parallel to the southern coast of Oman. The eastern side of the northeast-trending Huqf anticlinorium is bounded by an extensional fault system that is downthrown to the southeast, forming the western edge of the Masirah graben. This graben is limited to the east by a large wedge of sea floor sediments and oceanic crust, that is stacked as imbricate thrusts. These sediments/ophiolites were obducted onto the southern margin of the Arabian plate during the collision of the Indian/Afghan plates at the end of the Cretaceous. Most of the Masirah graben is covered by an allochthonous sedimentary sequence, which is complexly folded and deformed above a detachment. This complexly deformed sequence contrasts sharply with what is believed to be a rift sequence below the ophiolites. The sedimentary sequence in the Masirah graben was stable until further rifting of the Arabian Sea/Gulf of Aden in the late Tertiary, resulting in reactivation of earlier rift-associated faults. Wells drilled in the Masirah graben in the south penetrated reservoir quality rocks in the Lower Cretaceous Natih and Shuaiba carbonates. Analyses of oil extracted from Infracambrian sedimentary rocks penetrated by these wells suggest an origin from a Mesozoic source rock.

  20. Thermal perturbations beneath the incipient Okavango Rift Zone, northwest Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leseane, Khumo; Atekwana, Estella A.; Mickus, Kevin L.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Shemang, Elisha M.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2015-02-01

    We used aeromagnetic and gravity data to investigate the thermal structure beneath the incipient Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana in order to understand its role in strain localization during rift initiation. We used three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie Point Depth (CPD) and heat flow under the rift and surrounding basement. We also used two-dimensional (2-D) power-density spectrum analysis of gravity data to estimate the Moho depth. Our results reveal shallow CPD values (8-15 km) and high heat flow (60-90 mW m-2) beneath a ~60 km wide NE-trending zone coincident with major rift-related border faults and the boundary between Proterozoic orogenic belts. This is accompanied by thin crust (<30 km) in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the ORZ. Within the Precambrian basement areas, the CPD values are deeper (16-30 km) and the heat flow estimates are lower (30-50 mW m-2), corresponding to thicker crust (~40-50 km). We interpret the thermal structure under the ORZ as due to upward migration of hot mantle fluids through the lithospheric column that utilized the presence of Precambrian lithospheric shear zones as conduits. These fluids weaken the crust, enhancing rift nucleation. Our interpretation is supported by 2-D forward modeling of gravity data suggesting the presence of a wedge of altered lithospheric mantle centered beneath the ORZ. If our interpretation is correct, it may result in a potential paradigm shift in which strain localization at continental rift initiation could be achieved through fluid-assisted lithospheric weakening without asthenospheric involvement.

  1. Granular mechanics and rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reber, Jacqueline E.; Hayman, Nicholas W.; Lavier, Luc L.

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have proved useful in the interpretation of seismic-scale images of rifted margins. In an effort to both test and further illuminate predictions of numerical models, workers have made some strides using map-scale field relations, microstructures, and strain analyses. Yet, fundamental predictions of modeling and tectonic restorations are not able to capture critical observations. For example, many models and interpretations call on continuous faults with restorable kinematic histories. In contrast, s-reflectors and other interpreted shear fabrics in the middle crust tend to be discontinuous and non-planar across a margin. Additionally, most rift-evolution models and interpretations call on end-member ductile flow laws over a range of mechanical and thermal conditions. In contrast, field observations have found that a range of "brittle" fault rocks (e.g., cataclasites and breccias) form in the deeper crust. Similarly, upper crustal materials in deep basins and fault zones can deform through both distributed and localized deformation. Altogether, there appears to be reason to bring a new perspective to aspects of the structural evolution of rifted margins. A granular mechanics approach to crustal deformation studies has several important strengths. Granular materials efficiently localize shear and exhibit a range of stick-slip behaviors, including quasi-viscous rheological responses. These behaviors emerge in discrete element models, analog-materials experiments, and natural and engineered systems regardless of the specific micromechanical flow law. Yet, strictly speaking, granular deformation occurs via failure of frictional contacts between elastic grains. Here, we explore how to relate granular-mechanics models to mesoscale (outcrop) structural evolution, in turn providing insight into basin- and margin- scale evolution. At this stage we are focusing on analog-materials experiments and micro-to-mesoscale observations linking theoretical predictions

  2. Upper-mantle seismic structure in a region of incipient continental breakup: northern Ethiopian rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, Ian D.; Stuart, Graham W.; Kendall, J.-Michael; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2005-08-01

    The northern Ethiopian rift forms the third arm of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden triple junction, and marks the transition from continental rifting in the East African rift to incipient oceanic spreading in Afar. We determine the P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Ethiopian rift using independent tomographic inversion of P- and S-wave relative arrival-time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) passive experiment using the regularised non-linear least-squares inversion method of VanDecar. Our 79 broad-band instruments covered an area 250 × 350 km centred on the Boset magmatic segment ~70 km SE of Addis Ababa in the centre of the northern Ethiopian rift. The study area encompasses several rift segments showing increasing degrees of extension and magmatic intrusion moving from south to north into the Afar depression. Analysis of relative arrival-time residuals shows that the rift flanks are asymmetric with arrivals associated with the southeastern Somalian Plate faster (~0.65 s for the P waves; ~2 s for the S waves) than the northwestern Nubian Plate. Our tomographic inversions image a 75 km wide tabular low-velocity zone (δVP~-1.5 per cent, δVS~-4 per cent) beneath the less-evolved southern part of the rift in the uppermost 200-250 km of the mantle. At depths of >100 km, north of 8.5°N, this low-velocity anomaly broadens laterally and appears to be connected to deeper low-velocity structures under the Afar depression. An off-rift low-velocity structure extending perpendicular to the rift axis correlates with the eastern limit of the E-W trending reactivated Precambrian Ambo-Guder fault zone that is delineated by Quaternary eruptive centres. Along axis, the low-velocity upwelling beneath the rift is segmented, with low-velocity material in the uppermost 100 km often offset to the side of the rift with the highest rift flank topography. Our observations from this magmatic

  3. Stable isotopic evidence for fluid flow and fluid/rock interaction during thrust faulting in Pumpkin Valley shale and Rome Formation, east Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.K.; Haase, C.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The Pumpkin Valley Shale and the underlying Rome Formation form the lower portions of the Copper Creek and White Oak Mountain thrust sheets in east Tennessee. The Pumpkin Valley Shale consists of shale and mudstone with subordinate amounts of interbedded siltstone. The Rome Formation is composed predominantly of sandstone with interbedded shale and siltstone toward the base of the formation. The percentage of illite increases from 20% to over 80% of the bulk clay mineralogy toward the base of the section. Porosity is occluded by quartz, phyllosilicate, and calcite cements. Both formations contain calcite-filled and, less commonly, quartz-filled Alleghenian fractures and joints.

  4. Dykes and structures of the NE rift of Tenerife, Canary Islands: a record of stabilisation and destabilisation of ocean island rift zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcamp, A.; Troll, V. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Carracedo, J. C.; Petronis, M. S.; Pérez-Torrado, F. J.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-07-01

    Many oceanic island rift zones are associated with lateral sector collapses, and several models have been proposed to explain this link. The North-East Rift Zone (NERZ) of Tenerife Island, Spain offers an opportunity to explore this relationship, as three successive collapses are located on both sides of the rift. We have carried out a systematic and detailed mapping campaign on the rift zone, including analysis of about 400 dykes. We recorded dyke morphology, thickness, composition, internal textural features and orientation to provide a catalogue of the characteristics of rift zone dykes. Dykes were intruded along the rift, but also radiate from several nodes along the rift and form en échelon sets along the walls of collapse scars. A striking characteristic of the dykes along the collapse scars is that they dip away from rift or embayment axes and are oblique to the collapse walls. This dyke pattern is consistent with the lateral spreading of the sectors long before the collapse events. The slump sides would create the necessary strike-slip movement to promote en échelon dyke patterns. The spreading flank would probably involve a basal decollement. Lateral flank spreading could have been generated by the intense intrusive activity along the rift but sectorial spreading in turn focused intrusive activity and allowed the development of deep intra-volcanic intrusive complexes. With continued magma supply, spreading caused temporary stabilisation of the rift by reducing slopes and relaxing stress. However, as magmatic intrusion persisted, a critical point was reached, beyond which further intrusion led to large-scale flank failure and sector collapse. During the early stages of growth, the rift could have been influenced by regional stress/strain fields and by pre-existing oceanic structures, but its later and mature development probably depended largely on the local volcanic and magmatic stress/strain fields that are effectively controlled by the rift zone growth

  5. The life cycle of continental rifting as a focus for U.S.-African scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Keller, G. Randy; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2004-11-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) provides the unique opportunity found nowhere else on Earth, to investigate extensional processes from incipient rifting in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, to continental breakup and creation of proto-oceanic basins 3000 km to the north in the Afar Depression in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti.The study of continental rifts is of great interest because they represent the initial stages of continental breakup and passive margin development, they are sites for large-scale sediment accumulation, and their geomorphology may have controlled human evolution in the past and localizes geologic hazards in the present. But there is little research that provides insights into the linkage between broad geodynamic processes and the life cycle of continental rifts: We do not know why some rifts evolve into mid-ocean ridges whereas others abort their evolution to become aulacogens. Numerous studies of the EARS and other continental rifts have significantly increased our understanding of rifting processes, but we particularly lack studies of the embryonic stages of rift creation and the last stages of extension when continental breakup occurs.

  6. Reassessment of the rifting process in the Western Corinth Rift from relocated seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, S.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Bernard, P.; Deschamps, A.; Patau, G.; Nercessian, A.; Pacchiani, F.; Bourouis, S.; Drilleau, M.; Adamova, P.

    2014-06-01

    The seismic activity in the western part of the Corinth Rift (Greece) over the period 2000-2007, monitored by a dense network of three-component stations, is analysed in terms of multiplets and high precision relocation using double difference techniques. This detailed analysis provides new insights into the geometry of faults at depth, the nature and the structure of the active zone at 6-8 km depth previously interpreted as a possible detachment, and more generally into the rifting process. The seismicity exhibits a complex structure, strongly varying along the rift axis. The detailed picture of the seismic zone below the rift indicates that its shallower part (at depths of 6-8 km) is 1-1.5 km thick with a complex microstructure, and that its deeper part (at depths of 9-12 km) gently dipping to the north (10-20°) is 0.1-0.3 km thick with a microstructure consistent with the general slope of the structure. Although the nature of this seismic zone remains an open question, the presence of seismicity beneath the main active area, the strong variability of the structure along the rift over short distances and the complex microstructure of the shallower part revealed by the multiplet analysis are arguments against the hypothesis of a mature detachment under the rift: this active zone more likely represents a layer of diffuse deformation. The geometry of the mapped active faults is not well defined at depth, as no seismicity is observed between 0 and 4 km, except for the Aigion Fault rooting in the seismic layer at 6 km depth with a dip of 60°. A distinct cloud of seismicity may be associated with the antithetic Kalithea Fault, on which the 1909 Fokis earthquake (Ms = 6.3) may have occurred. The link between the 1995 rupture (Ms = 6.2) and the faults known at the surface has been better constrained, as the relocated seismicity favours a rupture on an offshore, blind fault dipping at 30°, rather than on the deeper part of the East Helike Fault. Consequently, the 1995

  7. Tectonic Framework of the Kachchh Rift Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwani, P.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of available geological data has allowed us to determine the tectonic framework of the Kachchh rift basin (KRB), the host to the 1819 Kachchh (MW 7.8), 1956 Anjar ( M 6.0) and the recent January 26, 2001 Bhachau (MW 7.6) earthquakes. The ~ 500 km x 200 km east-west trending KRB was formed during the Mesozoic following the break-up of Gondwanaland. It is bounded to the north and south by the Nagar Parkar and Kathiawar faults which separate it from the Precambrian granitic rocks of the Indian craton. The eastern border is the Radanpur-Barmer arch (defined by an elongate belt of gravity highs) which separates it from the early Cretaceous Cambay rift basin. KRB extends ~ 150 km offshore to its western boundary, the continental shelf. Following India's collision with Eurasia, starting ~ 50 MY ago, there was a stress reversal, from an extensional to the (currently N-S) compressional regime. Various geological observations attest to continuous tectonic activity within the KRB. Mesozoic sediments were uplifted and folded and then intruded by Deccan trap basalt flows in late Cretaceous. Other evidence of continuous tectonic activity include seismically induced soft sediment deformation features in the Upper Jurassic Katrol formation on the Kachchh Mainland and in the Holocene sequences in the Great Rann. Pleistocene faulting in the fluvial sequence along the Mahi River (in the bordering Cambay rift) and minor uplift during late Quaternary at Nal Sarovar, prehistoric and historic seismicity associated with surface deformation further attest to ongoing tectonic activity. KRB has responded to N-S compressional stress regime by the formation of east-west trending folds associated with Allah Bund, Kachchh Mainland, Banni, Vigodi, Katrol Hills and Wagad faults. The Allah Bund, Katrol Hill and Kachchh Mainland faults were associated with the 1819, 1956 and 2001 earthquakes. Northeast trending Median High, Bhuj fault and Rajkot-Lathi lineament cut across the east

  8. Along-axis transition between narrow and wide rifts: Insights from 3D numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptev, Alexander; Calais, Eric; Burov, Evgueni; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    Based on performed high-resolution rheologically consistent three-dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical models, we show that there is a significant difference in the influence of the rheological profile on rifting style in the case of dominant active (plume-activated) rifting compared to dominant passive (far-field tectonic stresses) rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to cold strong lithosphere in passive rifting mode, may develop in weak hot ultra-stretched lithosphere during active rifting, after plume impingement on a tectonically pre-stressed lithosphere. In that case, initially ultra-wide small-amplitude rift patterns focus, in a few Myr, in large-scale faults that form a narrow rift. Also, wide rifting may develop during ultra-slow spreading of strong lithosphere, and "switch" to the narrow rifting upon plume impingement. For further understanding the mechanisms behind the interactions between the mantle plume and far-field stresses in case of realistic horizontally heterogeneous lithosphere, we have tested our models on the case of the central East African Rift system (EARS). The EARS south of the Ethiopian Rift Valley bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding the strong Tanzanian craton. Broad zones of low seismic velocity observed throughout the upper mantle beneath the central part of the EARS are consistent with the spreading of a deep mantle plume. The extensional features and topographic expression of the Eastern rift varies significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the area of deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south this localized deformation widens again. Here we investigate this transition between localized and wide rifting using thermo-mechanical numerical modeling that couples, in a dynamic sense, the rise of the upper mantle material with the deformation of the African lithosphere below the

  9. Inversion tectonics during continental rifting: The Turkana Cenozoic rifted zone, northern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, B.; VéTel, W.; Morley, C. K.

    2005-04-01

    Remote sensing data and revised seismic reflection profiles provide new insights about the origin of inverted deformation within Miocene-Recent basins of the Turkana rift (northern Kenya) in the eastern branch of the East African rift system. Contractional structures are dominated by weakly inverted sets of fault blocks within <3.7 Myr old synrift series. Most of reverse extensional faults involve components of oblique-slip, whereas associated hanging wall folds are characterized by large wavelength upright folding. The area of basin inversion is restricted to a 40 × 100 km elongated zone overlying a first-order N140°E trending fault zone in the basement, referred to as the N'Doto transverse fault zone (NTFZ). In the proposed kinematic model, inversion tectonics is assigned to permutation of principal stress axes (σ1/σ2) in addition to the clockwise rotation of extension (from nearly N90°E to N130°E) during Pliocene. The transition from pure extension (Miocene) to a wrench faulting regime (Pliocene) first results in the development of T-type fault networks within a dextrally reactivated shear zone (NTFZ). Inversion tectonics occurred later (<3.7 Ma) in response to a still rotated (˜20°) shortening axis (σ1) oriented N40°E that caused the oblique compression of earlier (NS to N20°E) extensional structures within the NTFZ. The origin of basin inversion and strain concentration in the Turkana rift is thus directly linked to a crustal weakness zone, transverse to the rift axis, and involving steep prerift anisotropies.

  10. Introduction - Processes of continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Baker, B. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is thought likely that thermal thinning and/or diapirism can cause the extensional stress required for rifting. The rifting, however, will not occur unless the regional tectonic regime permits the sides of the rift to diverge. Whereas passive plate extension could cause rifting in isolation, the extension and rifting are likely to be localized where the lithosphere is weakest over an existing thermal anomaly. In those cases where asthenospheric diapirism occurs, which is essentially a response to thinning of the lithosphere by thermal thinning or plate extension, the effects of diapirism may completely mask the initiating mechanism. It is believed that anomalous heat transfer into the lithosphere, diapirism, and magmatism must all figure in rifting, along with a deviatoric stress field that will permit extension in a developing rift. Even though the models are useful in permitting idealized processes to be quantified and tested, better knowledge of lithosphere properties is considered necessary, in particular knowledge of mantle viscosity and its temperature dependence.

  11. Temporal trends in vent fluid iron and sulfide chemistry following the 2005/2006 eruption at East Pacific Rise, 9°50'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Luther, George W.

    2013-04-01

    The chemistry of vent fluids that emanate to the seafloor undergoes dramatic changes after volcanic eruptions. Data on these changes are still limited, but the best studied example is the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50'N, where the temporal evolution of the vent fluid chemistry after the 1991/1992 eruption was documented. The area underwent another eruption sequence during late 2005/early 2006, and here we show that a similar evolution is recurring in the iron and sulfide contents of the high-temperature fluids sampled in June 2006, January 2007, and June 2008. The vents have had increasing dissolved iron and decreasing acid-volatile sulfide (free sulfide plus FeS) concentrations with 1 order of magnitude variation. In addition, chromium reducible sulfide (mainly pyrite) also had fivefold decreasing concentrations over the 3 years. Our results confirm a pattern that was noted only once before for 9°50'N EPR and emphasize the dramatic yearly variability in the concentrations of iron-sulfur species emanating from vents.

  12. Decadal variability of rift propagation on the Amery Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. C.; Bassis, J. N.; Czerwinski, R. J.; Fricker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, features five prominent rifts within 30 km of its calving front. We produce a time series of changes in rift length for the period 2002-2012 using available MODIS and MISR data. We find that all five are actively propagating, but with a complex spatio-temporal pattern of variability in which some rifts propagate in tandem while others appear to tradeoff. Temporal variability in rift propagation is dominated by large episodic bursts. These bursts, analogous to the much smaller propagation events detected from field observations, are not synchronous across all five rifts nor do the timing of propagation events exhibit any correlation with observed proxies for environmental forcing (e.g., atmospheric temperatures, sea-ice extent). However, we find that several propagation events take place after the predicted arrival from tsunamis originating in the Indian Ocean. This is especially apparent following the December 2004 Sumatra earthquake and three other earthquakes in the Sumatra/W. Indonesia area. This connection is bolstered by the observation of similar effects at other ice shelves, e.g., a large iceberg calving after the sudden propagation of two front-initiated rifts at Larsen C after the December 2004 tsunami. In comparing rift propagation at Amery with 61 rifts on 10 other ice shelves, we find that with the exception of the occasional tsunami triggered propagation event, the extreme variability on the Amery Ice Shelf is highly atypical. We postulate that the pronounced activity on the Amery is due to the fact that it last had a large calving event in 1963/64, and is approaching its pre-calved position. This suggests that the AIS is poised for another major calving event and the highly dynamic propagation we observe is the precursor to such an event. That multiple rifts exist and propagate due to structural heterogeneity and shelf geometry also makes these observations relevant to the highly fractured shells of the icy moons

  13. Neogene Development of the Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Busetti, M.; De Santis, L.; Wardell, N.; Henrys, S. A.; Geletti, R.; Wilson, T. J.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Terror Rift is a >300 km-long, 50-70 km-wide, 14 km-deep sedimentary basin at the edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountains. It is cut into the broader Victoria Land Basin (VLB). The VLB experienced 100 km of mid-Cenozoic extension associated with larger sea floor spreading farther north. The post-spreading (Neogene) development of Terror Rift is not well understood, in part because of past use of different stratigraphic age models. We use the new Rossmap seismic stratigraphy correlated to Cape Roberts and Andrill cores in the west and to DSDP cores in the distant East. This stratigraphy, and new fault interpretations, was developed using different resolutions of seismic reflection data included those available from the Seismic Data Library System. Depth conversion used a new 3D velocity model. A 29 Ma horizon is as deep as 8 km in the south, and a 19 Ma horizon is >5 km deep there and 4 km-deep 100 km farther north. There is a shallower northern part of Terror Rift misaligned with the southern basin across a 50 km right double bend. It is bounded by steep N-S faults down-dropping towards the basin axis. Between Cape Roberts and Ross Island, the Oligocene section is also progressively-tilted. This Oligocene section is not imaged within northern Terror Rift, but the simplest hypothesis is that some of the Terror Rift-bounding faults were active at least during Oligocene through Quaternary time. Many faults are normal separation, but some are locally vertical or even reverse-separation in the upper couple of km. However, much of the vertical relief of the strata is due to progressive tilting (horizontal axis rotation) and not by shallow faulting. Along the trend of the basin, the relief alternates between tilting and faulting, with a tilting margin facing a faulted margin across the Rift, forming asymmetric basins. Connecting faults across the basin form an accommodation zone similar to other oblique rifts. The Neogene basin is

  14. Rifting to spreading in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S.; Razin, P.; Lucazeau, F.; D'Acremont, E.; Autin, J.; Watremez, L.; Robinet, J.; Baurion, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Gulf of Aden margins systems are volcanic to the West, where they are influenced by the Afar hotspot, and non-volcanic East of longitude 46°E. The combined use of magnetics, gravity, seismic reflection, field observations (tectonic and sedimentological) allowed us to obtain better constraints on the timing of continental rifting and seafloor spreading. From the Permo-Triassic to the Oligocene, the Arabian-African plate was subject to distributed extension, probably due, at least from the Cretaceous, to tensile stresses related to the subduction of the Tethysian slab in the north. In Late Eocene, 35 Ma ago, rifting started to localize along the future area of continental breakup. Initially guided by the inherited basins, continental rifting then occurred synchronously over the entire gulf before becoming localized on the northern and southern borders of the inherited grabens, in the direction of the Afar hot-spot. In the areas with non-volcanic margins (in the East), the faults marking the end of rifting trend parallel to the inherited grabens. Only the transfer faults cross-cut the inherited grabens, and some of these faults later developed into transform faults. The most important of these transform faults follow a Precambrian trend. Volcanic margins were formed in the West of the Gulf, up to the Guban graben in the south-east and as far as the southern boundary of the Bahlaf graben in the North-East. Seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) can be observed on many oil-industry seismic profiles. The influence of the hotspot during rifting was concentrated on the western part of the gulf. Therefore, it seems that the western domain was uplifted and eroded at the onset of rifting, while the eastern domain was characterized by more continuous sedimentation. The phase of distributed deformation was followed by a phase of strain localization during the final rifting stage, just before formation of the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT), in the most distal graben (DIM

  15. Rift to drift transition in Siberian Arctic and its impact on continental margin architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drachev, S. S.

    2003-04-01

    The East Siberian Arctic Continental Margin (ESAM) represents a rare case of rifting to spreading transition. Present-day geodynamics of this plate tectonic interplay is characterized by a very slow plate divergence in the Laptev Sea as this regions is located just landward of the slowest spreading center worldwide (the Gakkel Ridge), close to the pole of North American/Eurasian plate rotation. However the existing geological and geophysical data, mainly seismic reflection and potential field data, allow conclusion that this situation has been far different in the past. Just after its formation at the end of Late Cretaceous through a series of plate convergence and folding episodes the crust of the ESAM has been strongly modified by an intense rifting. The earliest rift episode took place eastward of the present Laptev Sea, in the East Siberian Sea and probably Chukchi seas, where presently abandoned rifts are stretched landward along the principal weakened zones in the ESAM basement. This rifting might have been related to a spreading episode in the Amerasia Basin and perhaps was triggered by a mantle plume ca. 120 mln. yr. ago (De Long and Franz Joseph Land basalts). Outer parts of the ERAM might have also been rifted away to create marginal blocks, as the Arlis and Chukchi plateau. Second rift event was clearly related to the opening of the Eurasia Basin, preceding it and remaining active through the Cenozoic. The rift to drift transition has been taking place in a huge, “dry” and still active Laptev Rift System, which is a landward projection of the Gakkel Ridge spreading axis. This extension had a major effect on the western ERAM causing strong normal faulting and crustal thinning, up to 70% in some places. However, total crustal extension in the Laptev Rift System is considerably smaller than a value of total opening of the Eurasia Basin, so the spreading is not completely accommodated by the rifting. It may be speculated that a major portion of this

  16. Diking-induced moderate-magnitude earthquakes on a youthful rift border fault: The 2002 Nyiragongo-Kalehe sequence, D.R. Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, C.; Smets, B.; Keir, D.

    2015-12-01

    On 24 October 2002, Mw 6.2 earthquake occurred in the central part of the Lake Kivu basin, Western Branch of the East African Rift. This is the largest event recorded in the Lake Kivu area since 1900. An integrated analysis of radar interferometry (InSAR), seismic and geological data, demonstrates that the earthquake occurred due to normal-slip motion on a major preexisting east-dipping rift border fault. A Coulomb stress analysis suggests that diking events, such as the January 2002 dike intrusion, could promote faulting on the western border faults of the rift in the central part of Lake Kivu. We thus interpret that dike-induced stress changes can cause moderate to large-magnitude earthquakes on major border faults during continental rifting. Continental extension processes appear complex in the Lake Kivu basin, requiring the use of a hybrid model of strain accommodation and partitioning in the East African Rift.

  17. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Kivu Rift System from Seismic Anisotropy, Seismicity, and Structural Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zal, H. J.; Wood, D. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Scholz, C. A.; d'Oreye, N.; Carn, S. A.; Rutagarama, U.

    2014-12-01

    The westward-tilted Kivu rift in East Africa is bounded by the ~100 km-long, seismically active West Kivu border fault, and dammed at its northern end by flows from the Virunga Volcanic Province. Earlier work delineated faults along the basin margins, but little was known of active faults beneath Lake Kivu, and the lithospheric structure was unexplored. The aims of this study are to determine the kinematics of normal faults and their relation to pre-existing basement structures; to examine the locations of earthquakes with respect to faults in order to delineate zones of active faulting; to evaluate models for the modification of lithosphere by extension and mantle plume processes using seismic shear wave splitting measurements; and to evaluate the role of volcanic loading within the Virunga volcanic province on the evolution of the Kivu basin. We determine rift fault and volcanic fissure locations and orientations using merged high-resolution CHIRP bathymetric and Space Radar Topography Mission data. The majority of faults in the northern sector strike NNE, whereas NE faults are equally important in the southern basin, marking the Kivu-Rusizi accommodation zone. Seismic data was acquired from an 8-station array deployed between March 2012 and April 2013. Although the majority of earthquakes beneath the rift (excluding the active volcanoes) occur at depths of 8-20 km, unusually shallow earthquakes (2-4 km) are located along submerged faults within the East Kivu basin and suggest high pore pressures within the upper crust. Using simple elastic plate flexure model calculations we estimate the maximum deflection of the plate to be ~7 km, using an effective elastic thickness of ~7.5 km. We propose that the rapid subsidence of the ~400 m deep northern Kivu basin occurred in response to volcanic construction. We evaluate models for the modification of lithosphere using shear wave splitting measurements. Splitting results with backazimuths ranging from 88˚ - 98˚ and 240

  18. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in Eastern China and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianye; Tamaki, Kensaku; Li, Sitian; Junxia, Zhang

    2002-02-01

    basin margins and were deposited in a broad downwarped lacustrine depression. At the same time, within plate rifting of the Lake Baikal and Shanxi graben climaxed and spreading of the Japan Sea and South China Sea occurred. Quaternary rifting was marked by basalt eruption and accelerated subsidence in the area of Tertiary rifting. The Okinawa Trough is an active rift involving back-arc extension. Continental rifting and marginal sea opening were clearly developed in various kind of tectonic settings. Three rifting styles, intracontinental rifting within fold belt, intracontinental rifting within craton and continental marginal rifting and spreading, are distinguished on the basis of nature of the basin basement, tectonic location of rifting and relations to large strike-slip faults. Changes of convergence rates of India-Eurasia and Pacific-Eurasia may have caused NW-SE-trending extensional stress field dominating the rifting. Asthenospheric upwelling may have well assisted the rifting process. In this paper, a combination model of interactions between plates and deep process of lithosphere has been proposed to explain the rifting process in East China and adjacent areas. The research on the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extensional tectonics of East China and adjacent areas is important because of its utility as an indicator of the dynamic setting and deformational mechanisms involved in stretching Lithosphere. The research also benefits the exploration and development of mineral and energy resources in this area.

  19. Rifting and Post-Rift Reactivation of The Eastern Sardinian Margin (Western Tyrrhenian Back-Arc Basin) Evidenced by the Messinian Salinity Crisis Markers and Salt Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaullier, V.; Chanier, F.; Vendeville, B.; Lymer, G.; Lofi, J.; Sage, F.; Maillard, A.; Thinon, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern Sardinian margin formed during the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea, a back-arc basin created by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system from middle Miocene to Pliocene times. We carried out the "METYSS" project aiming at better understanding the Miocene-Pliocene relationships between crustal tectonics and salt tectonics in this key-area, where rifting is pro parte coeval with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 Ma) and Messinian salt décollement creates thin-skinned tectonics. Thereby, we use the MSC seismic markers and the deformation of viscous salt and its brittle overburden as proxies to better delineate the timing of rifting and post-rift reactivation, and especially to quantifying vertical and horizontal movements. Our mapping of the Messinian Erosion Surface and of Messinian Upper and Mobile Units shows that a rifted basin already existed by the Messinian times, revealing a major pre-MSC rifting episode across the entire domain. Because salt tectonics can create fan-shaped geometries in sediments, syn-rift deposits have to be carefully re-examined in order to decipher the effects of crustal tectonics (rifting) and salt tectonics. Our data surprisingly showed that there are no clues for Messinian syn-rift sediments along the East-Sardinia Basin and Cornaglia Terrace, hence no evidence for rifting after Late Tortonian times. Nevertheless, widespread deformation occurred during the Pliocene and is attributed to post-rift reactivation. Some Pliocene vertical movements have been evidenced by discovering localized gravity gliding of the salt and its Late Messinian (UU) and Early Pliocene overburden. To the South, crustal-scale southward tilting triggered along-strike gravity gliding of salt and cover recorded by upslope extension and downslope shortening. To the North, East of the Baronie Ridge, there was some post-salt crustal activity along a narrow N-S basement trough, bounded

  20. Analysis of the 2003-2004 microseismic sequence in the western part of the Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bernard, Pascal; Dublanchet, Pierre; Canitano, Alexandre; Marsan, David

    2013-04-01

    The Corinth rift is one of the most seismically active zones in Europe. The seismic activity follows a swarm organization with alternation of intensive crisis and more quiescent periods. The seismicity mainly occurs under the Gulf of Corinth in a 3-4 km north-dipping layer between 5 and 12 km. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this seismic layer. Nevertheless, the relationships between seismicity, deep structures and faults mapped at the surface remain unclear. Moreover, fluids seem to play a key role in the occurrence of the seismic activity (Bourouis and Cornet 2009, Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen 2009). Recently, a detailed analysis of the microseismicity (multiplets identification, precise relocation, focal mechanisms determination) between 2000 and 2007 in the western part of the Corinth rift have highlighted north-dipping (and some south-dipping) planar active microstructures in the seismic layer with normal fault mechanisms (Lambotte et al., in preparation; Godano et al., in preparation). A multiplet (group of earthquakes with similar waveform) can be interpreted as repeated ruptures on the same asperity due to transient forcing as silent creep on fault segment or fluid circulation. The detailed analysis of the multiplets in the Corinth rift is an opportunity to better understand coupling between seismic and aseismic processes. In the present study we focus on the seismic crisis that occurred from October 2003 to July 2004 in the western part of the Corinth Gulf. This crisis consists in 2431 relocated events with magnitude ranging from 0.5 to 3.1 (b-value = 1.4). The joint analysis of (1) the position of the multiplets with respect to the faults mapped at the surface, (2) the geometry of the main multiplets and (3) the fault plane solutions shows that the seismic crisis is probably related to the activation in depth of the Fassouleika and Aigion faults. The spatio-temporal analysis of the microseismicity highlights an overall migration from south-east

  1. Massive and prolonged deep carbon emissions associated with continental rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Muirhead, James D.; Fischer, Tobias P.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Kianji, Gladys

    2016-02-01

    Carbon from Earth’s interior is thought to be released to the atmosphere mostly via degassing of CO2 from active volcanoes. CO2 can also escape along faults away from active volcanic centres, but such tectonic degassing is poorly constrained. Here we use measurements of diffuse soil CO2, combined with carbon isotopic analyses to quantify the flux of CO2 through fault systems away from active volcanoes in the East African Rift system. We find that about 4 Mt yr-1 of mantle-derived CO2 is released in the Magadi-Natron Basin, at the border between Kenya and Tanzania. Seismicity at depths of 15-30 km implies that extensional faults in this region may penetrate the lower crust. We therefore suggest that CO2 is transferred from upper-mantle or lower-crustal magma bodies along these deep faults. Extrapolation of our measurements to the entire Eastern rift of the rift system implies a CO2 flux on the order of tens of megatonnes per year, comparable to emissions from the entire mid-ocean ridge system of 53-97 Mt yr-1. We conclude that widespread continental rifting and super-continent breakup could produce massive, long-term CO2 emissions and contribute to prolonged greenhouse conditions like those of the Cretaceous.

  2. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  3. A continental rift model for the La Grande greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulski, T.; Hynes, A.; Liu, M.; Francis, D.; Rivard, B.; Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, K.

    1986-01-01

    Stratigraphic relationships and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks contrain the nature and timing of the tectonic and magmatic processes in the pre-deformational history of the La Grande greenstone belt in the Superior Province of north-central Quebec. The lowermost supracrustals in this belt are obscured by syntectonic granitoid intrusives. The supracrustal succession in the western part of the belt consists of a lower sequence of immature clastic sediments and mafic volcanoclastics, overlain by pillowed and massive basalts. Further east, along tectonic strike, a lower sequence of mafic volcanoclastics and immature clastic sediments is overlain by a thick sequence of pillowed and massive basalts, and resedimented coarse clastic sediments and banded iron formation. These are overlain by assive basaltic andesites, andesites and intermediate volcanoclastics intercalated with immature clastic sediments. In contrast, in the eastern part of the belt lenses of felsic volcanics and volcanoclastics occur at the base of the succession and pillowed and massive basalts are overlain by komatiites at the top. The La Grande greenstone belt can be explained as the product of continental rifting. The restricted occurence of komatiites, and eastwardly directed paleocurrents in clastic sediments in the central part of the belt are consistent with rifting commencing in the east and propagating westward with time. The increase in depth of emplacement and deposition with time of the lower three units in the central part of the belt reflects deposition in a subsiding basin. These supracrustal rocks are believed to represent the initial rift succession.

  4. Magnetotelluric pilot study in the Rio Grande Rift, southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A magnetotelluric (MT) pilot study consisting of approximately 25 stations distributed in and around the Rio Grande Rift of the southwest United States was carried out in the summer of 2012. Both broadband (100 Hz to 1000 s) and long-period (up to 10 000 s) MT data were collected across two profiles that run perpendicular to the rift axis near Denver, Colorado and Taos, New Mexico, respectively. Time-domain EM data was also collected at each site to account for galvanic distortion in the near-surface. The tectonic forces and rheologic properties behind the initiation and propagation of the rift are poorly understood. Surface mapping of volcanism, normal faulting and sedimentary basins reveals a narrow band of crustal deformation confined to a region in close proximity to the rift axis while geophysical results suggest that deformation is distributed across a much broader and deeper region of the lithosphere. In particular, seismic tomography shows low seismic wave speeds into the lower crust and upper mantle. The magnetotelluric technique is a well-proven passive electromagnetic method that allows for the detection of apparent resistivity at a wide range of depth scales. Complimenting the seismic results with MT data will provide important new information on the geologic and geophysical properties that control the rifting process in this low-strain rate environment. Properties to which the MT method is particular sensitive include temperature, fluid content, and mineral alteration. Preliminary results from this most recent survey are encouraging, showing good data quality up to 10 000 s. In an important precursor to full 2D modeling, the magnetotelluric phase tensor has been used to assess the dimensionality of the electrical resistivity structure at depth. This pilot study provides proof of concept for a much larger magnetotelluric experiment planned to take place in the Rio Grande Rift in 2013.

  5. Initiation and development of the Kivu rift segment in Central Africa by reactivating un-favorably oriented structural weaknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Smets, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    The Kivu rift region forms the central segment of the western branch of the East African rift system, between the northern termination of the Tanganyika rift and the southern extension of the Edward-George rift. Its structure and geological evolution has been revised in the light of a compilation of existing data on earthquake epicenters, focal depth, focal mechanisms, thermal springs and neotectonic faults. It has long been shown that the link between the Kivu rift basin and the Northern termination of the Tanganyika rift basin forms an accommodation zone in which the Rusizi tectonic depression occupies a central place (Ebinger, 1989). In addition, our compilation suggests that the NNE-trending Kivu rift basin and the N-S northern half of the Tanganyika rift basin initiated as separated, partly overlapping and differently oriented basins. The orientation and development of the Kivu rift basin was controlled by an inferred Mid-Proterozoic crustal shear zone and a Pan-African reverse fault front. It was not optimally oriented with the general (first-order) stress field characterized by roughly E-W extension. In a later stage, the more optimally N-S oriented North Tanganyika basin progressed towards the North and connected to Kivu rift in its middle in a region now occupied by the town of Bukavu. This accommodation zone is marked by Quaternary volcanism, warm thermal springs, frequent and relatively shallow seismicity. The southwestern part of the Kivu rift became progressively abandoned but it is still seismically active and hosts a number of warm thermal springs. This particular architecture influences the present-day stress field. This work is a contribution to the Belgian GeoRisCA project. Ebinger, C.J. 1989. Geometric and kinematic development of border faults and accommodation zones, Kivu-Rusizi Rift, Africa. Tectonics, 8, 117-133

  6. What created the Proterozoic Ladoga rift (SE Baltic shield): Testing rifting versus supercontinent reconfiguration origin by geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, I. M.; Shulgin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism at the southern part of the Baltic Shield (the Lake Ladoga region) is conventionally ascribed to epicratonic rifting. The region hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). We provide a complete list of tectonic, magmatic, and geophysical characteristics typical of continental rifts in general and demonstrate that, except for magmatic and, perhaps, some gravity signature, the Lake Ladoga region lacks any other rift features. We also compare the geophysical data from the Lake Ladoga region with a similar in age Midcontinent rift (USA) and the Valday rift (NW Russia), and provide alternative explanations for the Mesoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of the southern Baltic Shield. We propose that Mesoproterozoic mafic intrusions in southern Fennoscandia may be associated with a complex deformation pattern during reconfiguration of (a part of) Nuna (Columbia) supercontinent, which led to magma intrusions as a series of mafic dykes along lithosphere weakness zones and ponding of small magma pockets within the cratonic lithosphere. Consequent magma cooling and its partial transition to eclogite facies could have led to the formation of a series of basement depressions, similar to the intracratonic basins of North America, while spatially heterogeneous thermo-chemical subsidence, with phase transitions locally speeded by the presence of (subduction-related) fluids, could have produced a series of faults bounding graben-like structures.

  7. Tag team tectonics: mantle upwelling and lithospheric heterogeneity ally to rift continents (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, W. R.; Furman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The configuration of continents we know today is the result of several billion years of active Wilson Cycle tectonics. The rifting of continents and subsequent development of ocean basins is an integral part of long-term planetary-scale recycling processes. The products of this process can be seen globally, and the East African Rift System (EARS) provides a unique view of extensional processes that actively divide a continent. Taken together with the adjoining Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, the EARS has experienced over 40 Ma of volcanism and ~30 Ma of extension. While early (pre-rift) volcanism in the region is attributed to mantle plume activity, much of the subsequent volcanism occurs synchronously with continental rifting. Numerous studies indicate that extension and magmatism are correlated: extension leads to decompression melting while magmatism accommodates further extension (e.g. Stein et al., 1997; Buck 2004; Corti 2012). Evaluation of the entire EARS reveals significant geochemical patterns - both spatial and temporal - in the volcanic products. Compositional variations are tied directly to the melt source(s), which changes over time. These variations can be characterized broadly by region: the Ethiopian plateau and Turkana Depression, the Kenya Rift, and the Western Rift. In the Ethiopian plateau, early flood basalt volcanism is dominated by mantle plume contributions with variable input from lherzolitic mantle lithosphere. Subsequent alkaline shield volcanism flanking the juvenile Main Ethiopian Rift records the same plume component as well as contributions from a hydrous peridotitic lithosphere. The hydrous lithosphere does not contribute indefinitely. Instead, young (< 2 Ma) volcanism taps a combination of the mantle plume and anhydrous depleted lithospheric mantle. In contrast, volcanism in the Kenya Rift and the Western Rift are derived dominantly from metasomatized lithospheric mantle rather than mantle plume material. These rifts lie in the mobile

  8. The geometry of propagating rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Dan

    1986-03-01

    The kinematics of two different processes are investigated, both of which have been described as rift propagation. Courtillot uses this term to describe the change from distributed to localised extension which occurs during the early development of an ocean basin. The term localisation is instead used here to describe this process, to distinguish it from Hey's type of propagation. Localisation generally leads to rotation of the direction of magnetisation. To Hey propagation means the extension of a rift into the undeformed plate beyond a transform fault. Detail surveys of the Galapagos rift have shown that the propagating and failing rifts are not connected by a single transform fault, but by a zone which is undergoing shear. The principal deformation is simple shear, and the kinematics of this deformation are investigated in some detail. The strike of most of the lineations observed in the area can be produced by such deformation. The mode of extension on the propagating rift appears to be localised for some periods but to be distributed for others. Neither simple kinematic arguments nor stretching of the lithosphere with conservation of crust can account for the observed variations in water depth.

  9. Quantifying the Temporal and Spatial Response of Channel Steepness to Changes in Rift Basin Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Scott M.

    Quantifying the temporal and spatial evolution of active continental rifts contributes to our understanding of fault system evolution and seismic hazards. Rift systems also preserve robust paleoenvironmental records and are often characterized by strong climatic gradients that can be used to examine feedbacks between climate and tectonics. In this thesis, I quantify the spatial and temporal history of rift flank uplift by analyzing bedrock river channel profiles along footwall escarpments in the Malawi segment of the East Africa Rift. This work addresses questions that are widely applicable to continental rift settings: (1) Is rift-flank uplift sufficiently described by theoretical elliptical along-fault displacement patterns? (2) Do orographic climate patterns induced by rift topography affect rift-flank uplift or morphology? (3) How do uplift patterns along rift flanks vary over geologic timescales? In Malawi, 100-km-long border faults of alternating polarity bound half-graben sedimentary basins containing up to 4km of basin fill and water depths up to 700m. Orographically driven precipitation produces climatic gradients along footwall escarpments resulting in mean annual rainfall that varies spatially from 800 to 2500 mm. Temporal oscillations in climate have also resulted in lake lowstands 500 m below the modern shoreline. I examine bedrock river profiles crossing the Livingstone and Usisya Border Faults in northern Malawi using the channel steepness index (Ksn) to assess importance of these conditions on rift flank evolution. River profiles reveal a consistent transient pattern that likely preserves a temporal record of slip and erosion along the entire border fault system. These profiles and other topographic observations, along with known modern and paleoenvironmental conditions, can be used to interpret a complete history of rift flank development from the onset of rifting to present. I interpret the morphology of the upland landscape to preserve the onset

  10. Geodynamic models of the Wilson Cycle: From rifts to mountains to rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne; Tetreault, Joya; Torsvik, Trond

    2015-04-01

    The Wilson Cycle theory that oceans close and reopen along the former suture is a fundamental concept in plate tectonics. The theory suggests that subduction initiates at a passive margin, closing the ocean, and that future continental extension localises at the ensuing collision zone. Each stage of the Wilson Cycle will therefore be characterised by inherited structural and thermal heterogeneities. Here we investigate the role of Wilson Cycle inheritance by considering the influence of (1) passive margin structure on continental collision and (2) collision zones on passive margin formation. Passive margins may be preferred locations for subduction initiation because inherited faults and areas of exhumed serpentinized mantle may weaken a margin enough to localise shortening. If subduction initiates at a passive margin, the shape and structure of the passive margins will affect future continental collision. Our review of present-day passive margins along the Atlantic and Indian Oceans reveals that most passive margins are located on former collision zones. Continental break-up occurs on relatively young sutures, such as Morocco-Nova Scotia, and on very old sutures, such as the Greenland-Labrador and East Antarctica-Australia systems. This implies that it is not always post-collisional collapse that initiates the extensional phase of a Wilson Cycle. We highlight the impact of collision zone inheritance on continental extension and rifted margin architecture. We show numerical experiments of one Wilson Cycle of subduction, collision, and extension. Subduction initiates at a tapered passive margin. Closure of a 60 Ma ocean leads to continental collision and slab break-off, followed by some tens of kilometres of slab eduction. Mantle flow above the sinking detached slab enhances deformation in the rift area. The resulting rift exposes not only continental crust, but also subduction-related sediments and oceanic crust remnants. Renewed subduction in the post

  11. New Insight into Ice Shelf Rift Propagation from Geodetic and Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, J. N.; Fricker, H. A.; Coleman, R.; Minster, B.

    2005-12-01

    Rifts in Antarctic ice shelves are large through-cutting fractures that penetrate the entire ice thickness. These rifts can grow to be hundreds of kilometers long, eventually forming the boundary from which large tabular bergs detach. Despite the important role that iceberg calving plays in the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet (icebergs account for up to two thirds of the mass loss), very little is known about the forces involved in their initiation and subsequent propagation. During the 2002-2003 and 2004-2005 seasons we jointly deployed arrays of GPS and seismometers around the tip of an actively propagating rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Our observations show strong clustering of seismicity along the rift axis, extending far ahead of where the rift tip is visible on the surface. We also find episodic swarms of seismicity accompanied by rapid rift widening, which we interpret as bursts of rift propagation. The locations of events during the seismic swarm show that during each burst, the rift propagated approximately 100-200 meters. Previous studies have shown no direct triggering of bursts of propagation by tides or winds. Serendipitously, during the 2004-5 our instruments were deployed one week before the magnitude 9.3 Sumatra earthquake. Not only is the earthquake clearly visible in our seismic records, but we also see the arrival of T-waves (acoustic waves which propagate through the ocean) as well as the tsunami triggered by the earthquake. This presents us with a novel opportunity to study the influence of both the earthquake and the tsunami on rift propagation. We present preliminary results showing that neither the earthquake nor the T-waves had any effect on propagation. However, one of the bursts occurs several hours after the tsunami arrives at the ice shelf, suggesting a possible connection and raising questions about the potential influence of large storms and swell on propagation.

  12. Distributed deformation ahead of the Cocos-Nazca Rift at the Galapagos triple junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Schouten, Hans; Zhu, Wen-lu; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Cann, Johnson R.

    2011-11-01

    The Galapagos triple junction is not a simple ridge-ridge-ridge (RRR) triple junction. The Cocos-Nazca Rift (C-N Rift) tip does not meet the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Instead, two secondary rifts form the link: Incipient Rift at 2°40‧N and Dietz Deep volcanic ridge, the southern boundary of the Galapagos microplate (GMP), at 1°10‧N. Recently collected bathymetry data are used to investigate the regional tectonics prior to the establishment of the GMP (∼1.5 Ma). South of C-N Rift a band of northeast-trending cracks cuts EPR-generated abyssal hills. It is a mirror image of a band of cracks previously identified north of C-N Rift on the same age crust. In both areas, the western ends of the cracks terminate against intact abyssal hills suggesting that each crack initiated at the EPR spreading center and cut eastward into pre-existing topography. Each crack formed a short-lived triple junction until it was abandoned and a new crack and triple junction initiated nearby. Between 2.5 and 1.5 Ma, the pattern of cracking is remarkably symmetric about C-N Rift providing support for a crack interaction model in which crack initiation at the EPR axis is controlled by stresses associated with the tip of the westward-propagating C-N Rift. The model also shows that offsets of the EPR axis may explain times when cracking is not symmetric. South of C-N Rift, cracks are observed on seafloor as old as 10.5 Ma suggesting that this triple junction has not been a simple RRR triple junction during that time.

  13. SATELLITE-BASED RIFT VALLEY FEVER FORECASTS PREDICT A LARGE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC IN SUDAN, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained, heavy East African rainfall is associated with Aedes spp. breeding in Kenyan grasslands and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics. Validated RVF forecasts use satellite measurements of vegetation greenness (which increases after heavy rains) and other eco-climate indicators. These models may ...

  14. New Diagnostic Tools for Detecting Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and other Arboviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outbreak of West Nile virus in the United Sates and the recent outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in East Africa have highlighted the need for validated early detection tools for arthropod-borne animal diseases. The Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) has been inv...

  15. Evaluation of lamb and calf responses to Rift Valley fever MP-12 vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The disease is of concern to international agricultural and public health communities. The RVF MP-12 strain has been the most safety tested attenuated vaccine ...

  16. Propagated rifting in the Southwest Sub-basin, South China Sea: Insights from 3D analogue modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weiwei; Li, Jiabiao

    2015-04-01

    Most of earth scientists agree that the South China Sea is a rifted marginal sea in the western Pacific. How and when the South China Sea rifted has long been a puzzling question and still debated, especially in the Southwest Sub-basin (SWSB). Analog modeling remains one of the useful tools for testing rift model and process. Here we present and discuss a series of analog modeling experiments designed to investigate the rifting process of the SWSB. Convincing geophysical data were compiled to provide truthful constraints to test the experimental results and interpretations. The results show that rigid tectonic blocks existed in the continental margin, such as the Zhongsha Islands and the Reed Bank, and played an important role in shaping up the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and the coupling between the crust and mantle. Our data suggest that the initial thermal condition and rheologial stratification of the lithosphere under the South China Sea controlled the rifting process of the SWSB. The first-stage seafloor spreading has weakened the lithosphere surrounding the East Sub-basin, and the extension was centered on the deep troughs between the rigid blocks. Rifting bagan in these deep troughs in the east part of the SWSB, and the break-up occurred in localized areas between the rigid blocks. The V-shaped configuration of the SWSB also argues for a propagated rifting model.

  17. Structural inheritance during normal fault growth in multi-phase rifts; a case study from the Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazli Khani, Hamed; Bell, Rebecca E.; Fossen, Haakon; A-L. Jackson, Christopher; Rotevatn, Atle; Gawthorpe, Robert L.

    2015-04-01

    In multi-phase rift systems such as the northern North Sea rift, pre-existing basement structures influence the nucleation, growth and linkage of rift-related normal faults. However, our understanding of the degree of physical and kinematic linkage between basement and cover structures is limited, since deep structures are generally poorly imaged on seismic reflection data. In the North Sea Rift, two main phases of rifting are recognized in the Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous. Moreover, prior to rifting, the area underwent multiple episodes of deformation during the Ordovician-Devonian Caledonian orogeny and Devonian extension. In this study we investigate the influence of pre-existing structures on the i) evolution of Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous normal fault systems and ii) distribution of strain during reactivation of older structures in the northern North Sea rift. For this purpose we utilize 2D (-9 s TWT) and 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the North Viking Graben, covering the Horda Platform in the east and the East Shetland Basin in the west. We show that low-angle (< 30°) intrabasement reflections extend, in some areas, upward into the Triassic section. West-dipping and east-dipping intrabasement structures are identified in the Horda Platform and East Shetland Basin respectively, while in the Northern Viking Graben area both west and east-dipping structures are mapped. At depth, some of intrabasement structures terminate against high-amplitude reflections in the lower-crust. This study documents dissimilar development of Intrabasement structures in the Horda Platform, Viking Graben and East Shetland Basin. In the Viking Graben and Horda Platform these structures are more developed and in some places cross-cut each other, while in the East Shetland Basin, only two sets of structures have been mapped. We also show that intrabasement structures in the Horda Platform are generally lower angle than

  18. Neogene-Quaternary Volcanic Alignments in the Transantarctic Mountains and West Antarctic Rift System of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Wilson, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    Neogene-Quaternary volcanism in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, produced the Erebus Volcanic Province, a suite of alkaline volcanic rocks that extend from the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift to offshore localities within the West Antarctic rift system. We are mapping volcanic vent patterns in the province to detect alignments indicative of stress/strain patterns during rift evolution. In the southern sector of the Erebus Volcanic Province in the Royal Society Range Block of the Transantarctic Mountains, mapping shows that elliptical scoria cones, fissures, dikes, and linear vent arrays define volcanic alignments that have a dominant NNE trend, with subsidiary WNW trends. Age data for the alignments suggest that this pattern persisted from 14.6 to 0.25 Ma. We are currently completing mapping along an east-west transect crossing the rift margin, and results obtained so far within the rift region indicate a similar pattern of alignments. On the northern flank of Mount Morning, a large volcano just to the east of the Royal Society Range, elliptical scoria cones and linear vent arrays define volcanic alignments that have a dominant NE trend, with a subsidiary NNW trend. Available age data suggest that many of these cone alignments may be of Quaternary age. At Brown Peninsula, further east from the rift flank, cone alignments trend NNE and available ages range from 2 to 3 Ma. To the east of Brown Peninsula, cone alignments trend NW at Black Island, but are of uncertain age; age data on Black Island range from 11 to 3.4 Ma. At White Island, the farthest east into the rift, cone alignments trend NNE and available age data suggest volcanism as young as 0.2 Ma. Although some differences in cone alignment trends are apparent between the rift flank and the rift system across our transect, both regions appear to be dominated by NE trending alignments, which implies a WNW to NW minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) direction. This is oblique to the ENE Shmin Cape

  19. Failure was not an option- the Mid-Continent Rift system succeeded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Keller, G. R.; Flesch, L. M.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) in North America is often viewed as a failed rift formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension within the ~1.3-~0.98 Ga Grenville orogeny. An alternative view is suggested by analogy with younger and morphologically similar rift systems, whose plate tectonic settings are more easily understood because their surroundings - including seafloor with magnetic anomalies - have not been deformed or destroyed by subsequent collisions and rifting events. In this view, the MCR was part of a larger plate boundary rifting event that resulted in a successful episode of seafloor spreading. This view is motivated by various pieces of evidence. The MCR rifting looks much like rigid plate block motion, such as associated with the West Central African Rift systems formed during the Mesozoic breakup of Africa and South America and the ongoing rifting in the East African Rift region with seafloor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. This view explains the affinities of the Grenville-age rocks in the central and southern Appalachians to Amazonia rather than Canadian Grenville-age Appalachian rocks. The MCR extends farther to the south than traditionally assumed along the East Continental Gravity High (a buried feature from Ohio to Alabama). This failed portion of the rift system connected to the rift successfully separating Laurentia and Amazonia. The seafloor spreading separating Amazonia from Laurentia may explain the former's relative motion toward Greenland and Baltica. This model is consistent with some of the ~1.1 Ga geological events in Amazonia. A change in the apparent polar wander path for Laurentia during the period of volcanism of the MCR could be attributed to this plate reconfiguration. The extensional phase on the MCR may have ended because motion was taken up by seafloor spreading between Laurentia and Amazonia rather ending due to another continental collision. Later reverse faulting on the MCR normal faults due to

  20. How oblique extension and structural inheritance control rift segment linkage: Insights from 4D analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. A previous study of ours (Zwaan et al., in prep) investigated the influence of dextral oblique extension and rift offset on rift interaction. Here we elaborate upon our previous work by using analogue models to assess the added effects of 1) sinistral oblique extension as observed along the East African Rift and 2) the geometry of linked and non-linked inherited structures. METHODS Our set-up involves a base of foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying model materials: a sand layer for the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture for ductile lower crust. A mobile base plate allows lateral motion for oblique extension. We create inherited structures, along which rift segments develop, with right-stepping offset lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous layer. These seeds can be connected by an additional weak seed that represents a secondary inherited structural grain (model series 1) or disconnected and laterally discontinuous (over/underlap, model series 2). Selected models are run in an X-ray computer topographer (CT) to reveal the 3D evolution of internal structures with time that can be quantified with particle image velocitmetry (PIV) techniques. RESULTS Models in both series show that rift segments initially form along the main seeds and then generally propagate approximately perpendicular to the extension direction: with orthogonal extension they propagate in a parallel fashion, dextral oblique extension causes them to grow towards each other and connect, while with sinistral oblique extension they grow away from each other. However, sinistral oblique extension can also promote rift linkage through an oblique- or strike-slip zone oriented almost parallel to

  1. Structure of the Southern Keweenawan Rift from COCORP Surveys across the midcontinent geophysical anomaly in northeastern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Setzer, T.; Farmer, H.; Brown, L.; Oliver, J.; Kaufman, S.; Sharp, J.; Steeples, Don W.

    1984-06-01

    COCORP profiling across the midcontinent geophysical anomaly in northeastern Kansas reveals structural basins and other features of the Precambrian Keweenawan rift buried beneath the Phanerozoic cover. The 40-km-wide main basin is asymmetric, with a maximum depth of 3 km on the east and 8 km on the west. The basin fill is characterized by a lower layered sequence of strong continuous west dipping reflectors which may be correlated with Middle Keweenawan interbedded volcanic and clastic rocks exposed along the MGA in the Lake Superior region. Overlying this layered sequence is a zone of weak, discontinuous reflectors correlated here with the predominantly clastic rocks characteristic of the Upper Keweenawan sequence near Lake Superior. A second tilted but shallower basin lies to the east of the main basin and appears to be filled predominantly with clastic sedimentary rocks. The character of the seismic data, the seismic velocity distribution, and gravity modeling suggest that mafic intrusions lie beneath the main rift basin. Normal faults associated with the rift dip at moderate angles to the east. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the rift basin formed by the rotation of fault bounded blocks during crustal extension. Although reactivation of preexisting structures appears to have occurred in many other rifts profiled by COCORP, the evidence is inconclusive on this point in the case of the Kansas data. The structures mapped by COCORP surveys in Kansas and elsewhere suggest that asymmetric sequences of layered reflectors are characteristic, and perhaps diagnostic, of rift basin deposits in general.

  2. The 17 May 2012 M4.8 earthquake near Timpson, East Texas: An event possibly triggered by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff; Ellsworth, William; Brown, Wesley A.; Brunt, Michael; Luetgert, Jim; MacDonald, Tim; Walter, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes our investigation of the 17 May 2012 MW-RMT4.8 earthquake near Timpson, Texas, the largest earthquake recorded historically in eastern Texas. To identify preshocks and aftershocks of the 17 May event we examined the arrivals recorded at Nacogdoches (NATX) 30 km from the 17 May epicenter, at nearby USArray Transportable Array stations, and at eight temporary stations deployed between 26 May 2012 and mid-2013. At NATX we identified seven preshocks, the earliest occurring in April 2008. Reliably located aftershocks recorded by the temporary stations lie along a 6 km long NW-SE linear trend corresponding to a previously mapped basement fault that extends across the highest-intensity (MMI VII) region of the 17 May main shock. Earthquakes in this sequence are relatively shallow—with focal depths ranging from 1.6 to 4.6 km. Evidence supporting these depths include: hypocentral locations of exceptionally well-recorded aftershocks, S-P intervals at the nearest stations, and comparisons of synthetics and observed seismograms. Within 3 km of the linear trend of aftershock activity there are two Class II injection disposal wells injecting at 1.9 km depth beginning in August 2006 and February 2007, with injection rates averaging 42,750 m3/mo and 15,600 m3/mo, respectively. Several observations support the hypothesis that fluid injection triggered the Timpson sequence: well-located epicenters are situated near a mapped basement fault and near high-volume injection wells, focal depths are at or below the depths of injection, and the earliest preshock (April 2008) occurred after the onset of injection in 2006.

  3. Geochronology and fluid inclusion study of the Yinjiagou porphyry-skarn Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit in the East Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Chen, Yuchuan; Li, Zongyan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Xinsheng; Qiao, Cuijie

    2014-01-01

    The Yinjiagou Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit of Henan Province is located in the Huaxiong block on the southern margin of the North China craton. It differs from other Mo deposits in the East Qingling area because of its large pyrite resource and complex associated elements. The deposit's mineralization process can be divided into skarn, sulfide, and supergene episodes with five stages, marking formation of magnetite in the skarn episode, quartz-molybdenite, quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite, and calcite-galena-sphalerite in the sulfide episode, and chalcedony-limonite in the supergene episode. Re-Os and 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates that both the skarn-type and porphyry-type orebodies of the Yinjiagou deposit formed approximately 143 Ma ago during the Early Cretaceous. Four types of fluid inclusions (FIs) have been distinguished in quartz phenocryst, various quartz veins, and calcite vein. Based on petrographic observations and microthermometric criteria the FIs include liquid-rich, gas-rich, H2O-CO2, and daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz phenocrysts of K-feldspar granite porphyry ranges from 341 °C to >550 °C, and the salinity is 0.4-44.0 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite veins is 382-416 °C, and the salinity is 3.6-40.8 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite ranges from 318 °C to 436 °C, and the salinity is 5.6-42.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite stockworks is in a range of 321-411 °C, and the salinity is 6.3-16.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-sericite-pyrite is in a range of 326-419 °C, and the salinity is 4.7-49.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The ore-forming fluids of the Yinjiagou deposit are mainly high-temperature, high-salinity fluids, generally with affinities to an H2O-NaCl-KCl ± CO2 system. The δ18OH2O values of ore

  4. Chemical controls on the composition of vent fluids at 13°-11°N and 21°N, East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Teresa Suter; Campbell, Andrew C.; Measures, Chris I.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Khadem, Mitra; Edmond, John M.

    1988-05-01

    Six vent fields sampled at 13°-11°N, East Pacific Rise (EPR) in May 1984 exhibit large interfield variations and a much wider range of chemical compositions than previously observed at 21°N. Measured pH at 25°C are acidic, ranging from 3.1 to 3.7. Sodium and chloride vary from 40% lower to 30% higher than seawater. Iron concentrations range from 2 to 10 mmol/kg, compared with 0.7-2.5 mmol/kg at 21°N. Other sulfide-forming metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) are generally lower at 11°-13°N than at 21°N. Reliable temperature measurements were obtained at only two of the six vents and both were 350° ± 5°C. The vent fields at 21°N, EPR were resampled in August 1985, thus extending to almost 6 years the time period over which they have been monitored (previous expeditions were made in November 1979 and November 1981). Campbell et al. (this issue) have shown that the chemistry of the hydrothermal fluids from these fields has been very stable over the period of repeated observation. Equilibrium calculations for the fluids from the fields at 13°N and 21°N, using a greatly improved thermodynamic data base, are described in this report. They indicate that the chemistry is rock buffered and that the stability of these systems over time is a result of equilibrium control with respect to a greenschist-type mineral assemblage at depth. Calculated high-temperature pH of the fluids range from 4.1 to 4.7 with those from 13°-11°N at the more acidic end of the range. Calculated affinities show that the fluids are close to, or at, saturation with respect to quartz, albite, muscovite, smectite/chlorite, epidote, and pyrrhotite. The computations imply that lower-temperature vents such as National Geographic Smoker (NGS) (273°C) may have their silica concentrations controlled by equilibrium with respect to a phase other than quartz. A comparison of fluid chemistry between NGS and vent 5 at 11°N suggests that the latter vent may also have a temperature < 300°C. While the fluid

  5. Flank creeping, a mechanism of stabilisation and destabilisation: example of the Tenerife NE-Rift Zone, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcamp, A.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Troll, V.; Petronis, M. S.; Carracedo, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The volcanic evolution of Tenerife has been largely studied, and the eruptive story of the NE and NW rift zones is now well-constrained. A systematic and detailed mapping of dykes of the North East Rift Zone (NERZ) allows to go further and brings new highlights in the intrusive story related to the three successive collapses (1-Micheque, 2-Guïmar and 3-La Orotava) that are located on each side of the rift. Flank creeping seems to be the major mechanism that accommodates the emplacement of the intrusive complex and its associated dykes. Flank spreading allows the stabilisation of the rift until a critical point where further intrusion will generate collapse. The main features deduced from field observation are reproduced and confirmed using analogue models consisting in plaster-sand ridges intruded by golden syrup. The rift at its first stages of growth may be controlled by the regional stress field but its future development depends on the local stress field created by the rift zone evolution. Volcanic rift zones represent clearly a dynamic and changing geological and geographical environment. Keywords: rift zone, flank creeping, strike-slip, dyke intrusion, basal intrusive complex, collapse.

  6. Deformation signals in the currently-rifting Afar (Ethiopia) Rift measured with InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagli, C.; Wright, T. J.; Wang, H.; Hamling, I. J.; Kier, D.; Belachew, M.; Ebinger, C.

    2008-12-01

    A major rifting episode is currently occurring in the Dabbahu magmatic segment in the Afar region. The rifting episode began in September-October 2005, when continuous seismicity, a volcanic eruption and extensive diking occurred along the 60-km-long magmatic segment. Since then, nine additional dike intrusions occurred in the area and have been detected by radar interferometry (InSAR), with the most recent dike intrusion occurring between July 4-21, 2008 at the southern edge of the segment. We used radar images acquired by the European satellite, Envisat, in both descending and ascending orbits to form interferograms, spanning the time period from October 2005 to the present. The interferograms cover the main magmatic segments in the Afar region including Dabbahu, Hararo, Alayta and Erta Ale. The recorded interferograms were inverted using a least-squares method to obtain average deformation maps and a time series of incremental deformations. Preliminary results indicate that rapid deformation is currently confined to the Dabbahu region with no large deformation signals observed in the nearby magmatic segments. High rates of deformation are observed in the Dabbahu segment associated with shallow magma movements and possible visco-elastic relaxation. Outside the Dabbahu segment, the largest signal is a broad area subsiding at a steady rate of 10 cm/yr, located south east of the Dabbahu segment, and east of the Hararo segment. Our preliminary interpretation is that this represents deep flow of magma away from the Hararo segment and towards Dabbahu. The observed deformation patterns will also be compared to seismicity observed over the same time periods.

  7. Diversity of Meiofauna from the 9°50′N East Pacific Rise across a Gradient of Hydrothermal Fluid Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Gollner, Sabine; Riemer, Barbara; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro; Le Bris, Nadine; Bright, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background We studied the meiofauna community at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along a gradient of vent fluid emissions in the axial summit trought (AST) of the East Pacific Rise 9°50′N region. The gradient ranged from extreme high temperatures, high sulfide concentrations, and low pH at sulfide chimneys to ambient deep-sea water conditions on bare basalt. We explore meiofauna diversity and abundance, and discuss its possible underlying ecological and evolutionary processes. Methodology/Principal Findings After sampling in five physico-chemically different habitats, the meiofauna was sorted, counted and classified. Abundances were low at all sites. A total of 52 species were identified at vent habitats. The vent community was dominated by hard substrate generalists that also lived on bare basalt at ambient deep-sea temperature in the axial summit trough (AST generalists). Some vent species were restricted to a specific vent habitat (vent specialists), but others occurred over a wide range of physico-chemical conditions (vent generalists). Additionally, 35 species were only found on cold bare basalt (basalt specialists). At vent sites, species richness and diversity clearly increased with decreasing influence of vent fluid emissions from extreme flow sulfide chimney (no fauna), high flow pompei worm (S: 4–7, H'loge: 0.11–0.45), vigorous flow tubeworm (S: 8–23; H'loge: 0.44–2.00) to low flow mussel habitats (S: 28–31; H'loge: 2.34–2.60). Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that with increasing temperature and toxic hydrogen sulfide concentrations and increasing amplitude of variation of these factors, fewer species are able to cope with these extreme conditions. This results in less diverse communities in more extreme habitats. The finding of many species being present at sites with and without vent fluid emissions points to a non endemic deep-sea hydrothermal vent meiofaunal community. This is in contrast to a mostly endemic macrofauna but similar

  8. Inflation rates, rifts, and bands in a pāhoehoe sheet flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Heliker, Christina; Denlinger, Roger P.; Hon, Ken; Cervelli, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    The margins of sheet flows—pāhoehoe lavas emplaced on surfaces sloping Inflation and rift-band formation is probably cyclic, because the pattern we observed suggests episodic or crude cyclic behavior. Furthermore, some inflation rifts contain numerous bands whose spacing and general appearances are remarkably similar. We propose a conceptual model wherein the inferred cyclicity is due to the competition between the fluid pressure in the flow's liquid core and the tensile strength of the viscoelastic layer where it is weakest—in inflation rifts. The viscoelastic layer consists of lava that has cooled to temperatures between 800 and 1070 °C. This layer is the key parameter in our model because, in its absence, rift banding and stepwise changes in the flow height would not occur.

  9. North Sinai-Levant rift-transform continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Ressetar, R.; Schamel, S.; Travis, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The passive continental margin of northern Egypt and the Levant coast formed during the Early mesozoic as the relatively small Anatolia plate broke away from northern Africa. The oceanic basin of the eastern Mediterranean and the unusual right-angle bend in the North Sinai-Levant shelf margin are both products of plate separation along a rift-transform fracture system, the south arm of Tethys. The north-south trending Levant transform margin is considerably narrower than the east-west trending rift margin of northern Egypt. Both exhibit similar facies and depositional histories through the mid-Tertiary. Analysis of subsurface data and published reports of the regional stratigraphy point to a three-stage tectonic evolution of this passive margin. The Triassic through mid-Cretaceous was marked by crustal breakup followed by rapid rotational subsidence of the shelf margins about hinge lines located just south and east of the present shorelines. Reef carbonates localized on the shelf edge separated a deep marine basin to the north from a deltaic-shallow marine platform to the south and east. In the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, inversion of earlier formed half-grabens produced broad anticlinal upwarps of the Syrian Arc on the shelf margin that locally influenced facies patterns. The episode of inversion corresponds with the onset of northward subduction of the Africa plate beneath southern Asia. Beginning in the Oligocene and continuing to the present, there has been renewed subsidence of the North Sinai shelf margin beneath thick, outward building clastic wedges. The source of this large volume of sediment is the updomed and erosionally stripped margins of the Suez-Red Sea Rift and the redirected Nile River.

  10. Inland extent of the Weddell Sea Rift imaged by new aerogeophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Tom A.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Ross, Neil; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Leat, Philip T.; Bingham, Rob G.; Rippin, David M.; le Brocq, Anne; Siegert, Martin J.

    2013-02-01

    The Weddell Sea Rift was a major focus for Jurassic extension and magmatism during the early stages of Gondwana break-up and underlies the Weddell Sea Embayment, which separates East Antarctica from a collage of crustal blocks in West Antarctica. Newly-collected aerogeophysical data over the catchments of Institute and Möller ice streams reveal the inland extent of the Weddell Sea Rift against the Ellsworth-Whitmore block and a hitherto unknown major left-lateral strike slip boundary between East and West Antarctica. Aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies define the regional subglacial extent of Proterozoic basement, Middle Cambrian rift-related volcanic rocks, Jurassic intrusions and sedimentary rocks of inferred post-Jurassic age. 2D and 3D magnetic depth-to-source estimates were used to help constrain joint magnetic and gravity models for the region. The models reveal that Proterozoic crust similar to that exposed at Haag Nunataks, extends southeast of the Ellsworth Mountains to the margin of the Coastal Basins. Thick granitic Jurassic intrusions are modelled at the transition between the Ellsworth-Whitmore block and the thinner crust of the Weddell Sea Rift and within the Pagano Shear Zone. The crust beneath the inland extension of the Weddell Sea Rift is modelled as being either ~ 4 km thinner compared to the adjacent Ellsworth-Whitmore block or as underlain by an up to 8 km thick mafic underplate.

  11. Constraining the thermal and erosional evolution of the Rwenzori Mtns, Albertine Rift, by detrital thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, F. U.; Roller, S.; Grobe, R. W.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Hinderer, M.; Ring, U.; Mambo, V. S.

    2012-04-01

    In East Africa, the feedback between tectonic uplift, erosional denudation and associated possible climate changes is being studied by a multidisciplinary research group, 'RiftLink'. The group's focus is the Albertine Rift of the East African Rift System, and therein rising Rwenzori Mountains that stretch along the border of Uganda and Eastern D.R. Congo. Data from low-temperature thermochronology analysis of hardrocks comprising apatite fission-track (AFT), zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He dating (ZHe, AHe) and thermal modelling point to a prolonged cooling history with differentiated exhumation in Neogene times. The final rock uplift in Plio- to Pleistocene times, thereby, was very fast that the erosion could not keep pace [1]. In order to narrow the final exhumation stage detrital thermochronology has proven to be very useful. Therefore, sedimentary successions of the Albertine Rift valley in western Uganda and Eastern D.R. Congo were sampled to perform AFT, ZHe and AHe dating of detrital sediments. In the frame of the presentation we will present first results from the detrital thermochronology study of the Albertine Rift and will discuss its implications for the landscape evolution of this area.

  12. 3-D magnetotelluric image of offshore magmatism at the Walvis Ridge and rift basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegen, Marion; Avdeeva, Anna; Berndt, Christian; Franz, Gesa; Heincke, Björn; Hölz, Sebastian; Neska, Anne; Marti, Anna; Planert, Lars; Chen, J.; Kopp, Heidrun; Baba, Kiyoshi; Ritter, Oliver; Weckmann, Ute; Meqbel, Naser; Behrmann, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The Namibian continental margin marks the starting point of the Tristan da Cunha hotspot trail, the Walvis Ridge. This section of the volcanic southwestern African margin is therefore ideal to study the interaction of hotspot volcanism and rifting, which occurred in the late Jurassic/early Cretaceous. Offshore magnetotelluric data image electromagnetically the landfall of Walvis Ridge. Two large-scale high resistivity anomalies in the 3-D resistivity model indicate old magmatic intrusions related to hot-spot volcanism and rifting. The large-scale resistivity anomalies correlate with seismically identified lower crustal high velocity anomalies attributed to magmatic underplating along 2-D offshore seismic profiles. One of the high resistivity anomalies (above 500 Ωm) has three arms of approximately 100 km width and 300 km to 400 km length at 120° angles in the lower crust. One of the arms stretches underneath Walvis Ridge. The shape is suggestive of crustal extension due to local uplift. It might indicate the location where the hot-spot impinged on the crust prior to rifting. A second, smaller anomaly of 50 km width underneath the continent ocean boundary may be attributed to magma ascent during rifting. We attribute a low resistivity anomaly east of the continent ocean boundary and south of Walvis Ridge to the presence of a rift basin that formed prior to the rifting.

  13. Transient cracks and triple junctions induced by Cocos-Nazca propagating rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, H.; Smith, D. K.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L. G.; Mitchell, G. A.; Cann, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Galapagos triple junction is a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction where the Cocos, Nazca, and Pacific plates meet around the Galapagos microplate (GMP). On the Cocos plate, north of the large gore that marks the propagating Cocos-Nazca (C-N) Rift, a 250-km-long and 50-km-wide band of NW-SE-trending cracks crosscuts the N-S-trending abyssal hills of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These appear as a succession of minor rifts, accommodating some NE-SW extension of EPR-generated seafloor. The rifts successively intersected the EPR in triple junctions at distances of 50-100 km north of the tip of the C-N Rift. We proposed a simple crack interaction model to explain the location of the transient rifts and their junction with the EPR. The model predicts that crack locations are controlled by the stress perturbation along the EPR, induced by the dominant C-N Rift, and scaled by the distance of its tip to the EPR (Schouten et al., 2008). The model also predicts that tensile stresses are symmetric about the C-N Rift and thus, similar cracks should have occurred south of the C-N Rift prior to formation of the GMP about 1 Ma. There were no data at the time to test this prediction. In early 2009 (AT 15-41), we mapped an area on the Nazca plate south of the C-N rift out to 4 Ma. The new bathymetric data confirm the existence of a distinctive pattern of cracks south of the southern C-N gore that mirrors the pattern on the Cocos plate until about 1 Ma, and lends support to the crack interaction model. The envelope of the symmetric cracking pattern indicates that the distance between the C-N Rift tip and the EPR varied between 40 and 65 km during this time (1-4 Ma). The breakdown of the symmetry at 1 Ma accurately dates the onset of a southern plate boundary of the GMP, now Dietz Deep Rift. At present, the southern rift boundary of the GMP joins the EPR with a steep-sided, 80 km long ridge. This ridge releases the stress perturbation otherwise induced along the EPR by elastic

  14. Seismic experiment reveals rifting of craton in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Langston, Charles A.; Last, Robert J.; Birt, Christopher; Owens, Thomas J.

    A research project in Tanzania, East Africa, is being conducted to examine seismic velocities within the crust and upper mantle in an area where cratonic lithosphere is experiencing extensional tectonism. The results will be used to evaluate models of cratonic structure. Waveforms from several hundred teleseismic earthquakes and over 10,000 regional and local earthquakes recorded in 1994 and 1995 by the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment are not only yielding new insights into deep continental structure, but are also helping to determine the tectonic stability of cratons by identifying the locus of rifting within northeastern Tanzania.

  15. Rifting, Volcanism, and the Geochemical Character of the Mantle Beneath the West Antarctic Rift System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Aviado, K. B.; Rilling-Hall, S.; Bryce, J. G.; Cabato, J.

    2013-12-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest extensional alkali volcanic provinces on Earth, but the mechanisms responsible for generating the massive amounts of its associated magmatism remain controversial. The failure of both passive and active decompression melting models to adequately explain the observed lava volumes has prompted debate about the relative roles of thermal plume-related melting and ancient subduction-related flux melting. 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemical analyses of the lavas, as well as volatile and trace-element determinations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions shed light on the relationship between rifting and volcanism, and also improve our understanding of the geochemical character of the mantle beneath the WARS. Results show that the magmatism post-dates the main phase of extension along the Terror Rift within the WARS, which supports a decompression-melting model without the benefit of a significant thermal anomaly. However, the observed large magma volumes seem to require a volatile-fluxed mantle, a notion supported by a long history of subduction (>500 Myr) along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. In fact, the legacy of that subduction may manifest itself in the high H2O concentrations of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (up to 3 wt% in preliminary results from ion probe measurements). The major oxide compositions of lavas in the WARS are best matched to experimental melts of garnet pyroxenite and carbonated peridotite sources. The Pb and Nd isotopic systems are decoupled from each other, suggesting removal of fluid-mobile elements from the mantle source possibly during the long history of subduction along this Gondwana margin. Extremely unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ranging to as low as 0.1081 × 0.0001 hints at the involvement of lithospheric components in generation of magmas in the WARS.

  16. Rapid spatiotemporal variations in rift structure during development of the Corinth Rift, central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Casey W.; McNeill, Lisa C.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Gawthorpe, Robert L.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Ford, Mary; Taylor, Brian; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Ferentinos, George; Papatheodorou, George; Leeder, Mike R.; Collier, Richard E. LI.; Goodliffe, Andrew M.; Sachpazi, Maria; Kranis, Haralambos

    2016-05-01

    The Corinth Rift, central Greece, enables analysis of early rift development as it is young (<5 Ma) and highly active and its full history is recorded at high resolution by sedimentary systems. A complete compilation of marine geophysical data, complemented by onshore data, is used to develop a high-resolution chronostratigraphy and detailed fault history for the offshore Corinth Rift, integrating interpretations and reconciling previous discrepancies. Rift migration and localization of deformation have been significant within the rift since inception. Over the last circa 2 Myr the rift transitioned from a spatially complex rift to a uniform asymmetric rift, but this transition did not occur synchronously along strike. Isochore maps at circa 100 kyr intervals illustrate a change in fault polarity within the short interval circa 620-340 ka, characterized by progressive transfer of activity from major south dipping faults to north dipping faults and southward migration of discrete depocenters at ~30 m/kyr. Since circa 340 ka there has been localization and linkage of the dominant north dipping border fault system along the southern rift margin, demonstrated by lateral growth of discrete depocenters at ~40 m/kyr. A single central depocenter formed by circa 130 ka, indicating full fault linkage. These results indicate that rift localization is progressive (not instantaneous) and can be synchronous once a rift border fault system is established. This study illustrates that development processes within young rifts occur at 100 kyr timescales, including rapid changes in rift symmetry and growth and linkage of major rift faults.

  17. Normal faulting from simple shear rifting in South Tibet, using evidence from passive seismic profiling across the Yadong-Gulu Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Chen, Yun; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tian, Xiaobo; Klemperer, Simon L.; Xu, Tao; Bai, Zhiming; Zhang, Hongshuang; Wu, Jing; Teng, Jiwen

    2013-10-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is undergoing north-south shortening accompanied by west-east extension, as evidenced by the widespread development of north-south trending normal faults, grabens and rifts. While the mode of the north-south shortening has been the main focus of most international studies, knowledge of the deep structure beneath South Tibet is required for understanding the mechanism of the west-east extension. The onset of the north-south trending normal faulting is commonly taken as an indicator that the Tibetan Plateau was uplifted to a near-maximum elevation before entering a collapsing stage. Here we report on the receiver functions of a seismological experiment across the northern segment of the Yadong-Gulu Rift (YGR), one of the youngest rifts in South Tibet. The migrated receiver function images reveal that the YGR is a high-angle normal fault characterized by a 5-km Moho rise from its western to eastern flank, together with distinct differences in the crustal structure and intracrustal seismic conversion patterns between the two flanks. This highly asymmetric lithospheric structure suggests whole-crustal extension controlled by a simple/general shear rifting mechanism. This simple/general shear rifting in the YGR is attributed to an eastward (horizontal) shear at the base of the upper crust, as evidenced by the observed Tibetan GPS velocity field and our observation of shear wave splitting discrepancy among the upper crust, lower crust and lithospheric mantle. We propose that in the YGR, simple shear rifting accommodates the northward injection of the Indian lithosphere, which may suggest that the onset of the north-south normal faulting does not indicate gravitational collapse of the Tibetan lithosphere.

  18. Three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic field over the Easter-Nazca propagating rift near 25°S, 112°25‧W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere, Jean-Christophe; Gee, Jeff; Naar, David F.; Hey, Richard N.

    1989-12-01

    The Easter microplate boundary configuration is being reorganized by rift propagation. A Sea Beam survey of the Easter-Nazca spreading center, which forms the eastern boundary of the microplate, has revealed the presence of a young propagating rift growing northward (Naar and Hey, 1986). The tip of the propagating rift is associated with a high-amplitude positive magnetic anomaly. We have performed a three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic field over the propagating rift tip area. The magnetization solution suggests that the western and eastern pseudofaults strike 014° and 338°, respectively, and converge near the rift tip. These orientations yield a propagation to spreading rate ratio of 1.5, slightly higher than the estimate of Naar and Hey (1986). Using the revised estimate of the full spreading rate along the Easter-Nazca spreading center near 25°S (80 mm/yr) (D. F. Naar and R. N. Hey, unpublished manuscript, 1989), we obtain a propagation rate of 120 mm/yr. Within 27-30 km of the rift tip, the propagating rift curves by about 15° to the east toward the failing rift, probably as a result of the interaction between the two offset spreading centers. As at the Galapagos propagating rift, rift propagation appears to be a very orderly process along the Easter-Nazca spreading center. The magnetization distribution that we obtain exhibits a high at the propagating rift tip. At other large ridge axis discontinuities, similar magnetization highs have been interpreted as being the result of the eruption of highly differentiated basalts enriched in iron. The origin of the high magnetization zone in the case of the Easter-Nazca propagating rift near 25°S may be more complex. Preliminary rock magnetic measurements of basalts recovered in the vicinity of the propagating rift confirm the presence of highly magnetized basalts but suggest that the relationship between high magnetization intensities and high Fe content is not straightforward.

  19. Deformation during the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting crisis, NE Iceland, measured from historical optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, SéBastien; Ayoub, FrançOis; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2012-11-01

    We measure the displacement field resulting from the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting crisis, NE Iceland, using optical image correlation. Images are processed using the COSI-Corr software package. Surface extension is accommodated on normal faults and fissures which bound the rift zone, in response to dike injection at depth. Correlation of declassified KH-9 spy and SPOT5 satellite images reveals extension between 1977-2002 (2.5 m average opening over 80 km), while correlation of aerial photos between 1957-1990 provide measurements of the total extension (average 4.3 m opening over 80 km). Our results show ˜8 m of opening immediately north of Krafla caldera, decreasing to 3-4 m at the northern end of the rift. Correlation of aerial photos from 1957-1976 reveal a bi-modal pattern of opening along the rift during the early crisis, which may indicate either two different magma sources located at either end of the rift zone (a similar pattern of opening was observed in the 2005 Afar rift crisis in East Africa), or variations in rock strength along the rift. Our results provide new information on how past dike injection events accommodate long-term plate spreading, as well as providing more details on the Krafla rift crisis. This study also highlights the potential of optical image correlation using inexpensive declassified spy satellite and aerial photos to measure deformation of the Earth's surface going back many decades, thus providing a new tool for measuring Earth surface dynamics, e.g. glaciers, landsliding, coastal erosion, volcano monitoring and earthquake studies, when InSAR and GPS data are not available.

  20. The Sagatu Ridge dike swarm, Ethiopian rift margin. [tectonic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, P. A.; Potter, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    A swarm of dikes forms the core of the Sagatu Ridge, a 70-km-long topographic feature elevated to more than 4000 m above sea level and 1500 m above the level of the Eastern (Somalian) plateau. The ridge trends NNE and lies about 50 km east of the northeasterly trending rift-valley margin. Intrusion of the dikes and buildup of the flood-lava pile, largely hawaiitic but with trachyte preponderant in the final stages, occurred during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene and may have been contemporaneous with downwarping of the protorift trough to the west. The ensuing faulting that formed the present rift margin, however, bypassed the ridge. The peculiar situation and orientation of the Sagatu Ridge, and its temporary existence as a line of crustal extension and voluminous magmatism, are considered related to a powerful structural control by a major line of Precambrian crustal weakness, well exposed further south. Transverse rift structures of unknown type appear to have limited the development of the ridge to the north and south.

  1. Thermal variations in the gregory rift of southern Kenya (?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Kathleen

    1981-04-01

    A compilation of thermal and seismic data collected over the last sixty years allows one to infer that tectonic phenomena and heat emanation could be linked in an oscillatory mode up and down the Kenyan part of the East African Rift. The seismic period is approximately 20-30 years during which time the loci of maximum intensity earthquakes move in a rhythmic pattern from south to north and back to south. Temperatures measured from hot springs also fluctuate over this time span increasing or decreasing in different sections of the rift. Spatial variations were measured by infrared radiometers from low altitude aircraft or high-altitude satellites. These reveal that individual thermal springs ranging from 35°C to 80°C, warm up greater than 5 km2 of the lake bottom of Magadi (only a slightly active thermal region which, however, yields greater then 300 MW). The heated area is large enough to detect by satellite imagery, making it possible to monitor the heat budget and flux over time and relate it to tectonic activity in the rift.

  2. Ouachita trough: Part of a Cambrian failed rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Donald R.

    1985-11-01

    Pre-flysch (Cambrian-Mississippian) strata of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma include two main sandstone lithofacies: (1) a craton-derived lithofacies made up largely of mature medium- to coarse-grained quartzose and carbonate detritus and, in some units, sediment eroded from exposed basement rocks and (2) an orogen-derived facies made up mainly of fine-grained quartzose sedimentary and metasedimentary debris and possibly, in lower units, a volcaniclastic component. Paleocurrent and distribution patterns indicate that detritus of facies I in the Benton uplift was derived from north and detritus of facies II throughout the Ouachitas was derived from south and east of the depositional basin. Overall sedimentological results suggest that the Ouachita trough was a relatively narrow, two-sided basin throughout most and probably all of its existence and never formed the southern margin of the North American craton. Regional comparisons suggest that it was one of several basins, including the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, Reelfoot Rift, Illinois Basin, and Rome trough, that formed as a Cambrian failed rift system 150 to 250 m.y. after initial rifting along the Appalachian margin of the North American craton.

  3. Stable isotope variation in tooth enamel from Neogene hippopotamids: monitor of meso and global climate and rift dynamics on the Albertine Rift, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, Thomas Christian; Brügmann, Gerhard B.; Mertz, Dieter F.; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schrenk, Friedemann; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Ssemmanda, Immaculate; Taubald, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    The Neogene was a period of long-term global cooling and increasing climatic variability. Variations in African-Asian monsoon intensity over the last 7 Ma have been deduced from patterns of eolian dust export into the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea as well as from lake level records in the East African Rift System (EARS). However, lake systems not only depend on rainfall patterns, but also on the size and physiography of river catchment areas. This study is based on stable isotope proxy data (18O/16O, 13C/12C) from tooth enamel of hippopotamids (Mammalia) and aims in unravelling long-term climate and watershed dynamics that control the evolution of palaeolake systems in the western branch of the EARS (Lake Albert, Uganda) during the Late Neogene (7.5 Ma to recent). Having no dietary preferences with respect to wooded (C3) versus grassland (C4) vegetation, these territorial, water-dependant mammals are particularly useful for palaeoclimate analyses. As inhabitants of lakes and rivers, hippopotamid tooth enamel isotope data document mesoclimates of topographic depressions, such as the rift valleys and, therefore, changes in relative valley depth instead of exclusively global climate changes. Consequently, we ascribe a synchronous maximum in 18O/16O and 13C/12C composition of hippopotamid enamel centred around 1.5-2.5 Ma to maximum aridity and/or maximum hydrological isolation of the rift floor from rift-external river catchment areas in response to the combined effects of rift shoulder uplift and subsidence of the rift valley floor. Structural rearrangements by ~2.5 Ma within the northern segment of the Albertine Rift are well constrained by reversals in river flow, cannibalisation of catchments, biogeographic turnover and uplift of the Rwenzori horst. However, a growing rain shadow is not obvious in 18O/16O signatures of the hippopotamid teeth of the Albertine Rift. According to our interpretation, this is the result of the overriding effect of evaporation on 18

  4. Modelling of sea floor spreading initiation and rifted continental margin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymms, V. J.; Isimm Team

    2003-04-01

    Recent observations of depth dependent (heterogeneous) stretching where upper crustal extension is much less than that of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle at both non-volcanic and volcanic margins plus the discovery of broad domains of exhumed continental mantle at non-volcanic rifted margins are not predicted by existing quantitative models of rifted margin formation which are usually based on intra-continental rift models subjected to very large stretching factors. New conceptual and quantitative models of rifted margin formation are required. Observations and continuum mechanics suggest that the dominant process responsible for rifted continental margin formation is sea-floor spreading of the young ocean ridge, rather than pre-breakup intra-continental rifting. Simple fluid flow models of ocean ridge processes using analytical iso-viscous corner-flow demonstrate that the divergent motion of the upwelling mantle beneath the ocean ridge, when viewed in the reference frame of the young continental margin, shows oceanward flow of the lower continental crust and lithospheric mantle of the young rifted margin giving rise to depth dependent stretching as observed. Single-phase fluid-models have been developed to model the initiation of sea-floor spreading and the thermal, stretching and thinning evolution of the young rifted continental margin. Finite element fluid-flow modelling incorporating the evolving temperature dependent viscosity field on the fluid flow also show depth dependent stretching of the young continental margin. Two-phase flow models of ocean ridges incorporating the transport of both solid matrix and melt fluid (Spiegelman &Reynolds 1999) predict the divergent motion of the asthenosphere and lithosphere matrix, and the focusing of basaltic melt into the narrow axial zone spreading centre at ocean ridges. We are adapting two-phase flow models for application to the initiation of sea-floor spreading and rifted continental margin formation. i

  5. Magma paths at Piton de la Fournaise volcano: a synthesis of Hawaiian and Etnean rift zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michon, Laurent; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Chaput, Marie; Famin, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    On ocean basaltic volcanoes, magma transfer to the surface occurs along sub-vertical ascent from the mantle lithosphere through the oceanic crust and the volcanic edifice, eventually followed by lateral propagation along rift zones. We use a 17-years-long database of volcano-tectonic seismic events and a detailed mapping of the pyroclastic cones to determine the geometry and the dynamics of the magma paths intersecting the edifice of Piton de la Fournaise volcano. We show that the overall plumbing system, from about 30 km depth to the surface, is composed of two structural levels that feed distinct types of rift zones. The lower plumbing system has a southeastward (N120) orientation and permits magma transfer from the lithospheric mantle to the base of the La Réunion edifice (5 km bsl). The related rift zone is wide, linear, spotted by small to large pyroclastic cones and related lava flows and involving magma resulting from high-pressure fractionation of ol ± cpx and presents an eruption periodicity of around 200 years over the last 30 kyrs. Seismic data suggest that the long-lasting activity of this rift zone result from a regional NNE-SSW extension reactivating inherited lithospheric faults by the effect of underplating and/or thermal erosion of the mantle lithosphere. The upper plumbing system originates at the base of the edifice in the vertical continuity of the lower plumbing system. It feeds frequent (1 eruption every 9 months on average), short-lived summit and distal (flank) eruptions along summit and outer rift zones, respectively. Summit rift zones are short and present an orthogonal pattern restricted to the central active cone of Piton de la Fournaise whereas outer rift zones extend from inside the Enclos Fouqué caldera to the NE and SE volcano flanks. We show that the outer rift zones are genetically linked to the east flank seaward displacements, whose most recent events where detected in 2004 and 2007. The lateral movements are themselves

  6. Postspreading rifting in the Adare Basin, Antarctica: Regional tectonic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J. M.; Davey, F. J.; Clayton, R. W.

    2010-08-01

    Extension during the middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) in the north end of the West Antarctic rift system (WARS) is well constrained by seafloor magnetic anomalies formed at the extinct Adare spreading axis. Kinematic solutions for this time interval suggest a southward decrease in relative motion between East and West Antarctica. Here we present multichannel seismic reflection and seafloor mapping data acquired within and near the Adare Basin on a recent geophysical cruise. We have traced the ANTOSTRAT seismic stratigraphic framework from the northwest Ross Sea into the Adare Basin, verified and tied to DSDP drill sites 273 and 274. Our results reveal three distinct periods of tectonic activity. An early localized deformational event took place close to the cessation of seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin (˜24 Ma). It reactivated a few normal faults and initiated the formation of the Adare Trough. A prominent pulse of rifting in the early Miocene (˜17 Ma) resulted in normal faulting that initiated tilted blocks. The overall trend of structures was NE-SW, linking the event with the activity outside the basin. It resulted in major uplift of the Adare Trough and marks the last extensional phase of the Adare Basin. Recent volcanic vents (Pliocene to present day) tend to align with the early Miocene structures and the on-land Hallett volcanic province. This latest phase of tectonic activity also involves near-vertical normal faulting (still active in places) with negligible horizontal consequences. The early Miocene extensional event found within the Adare Basin does not require a change in the relative motion between East and West Antarctica. However, the lack of subsequent rifting within the Adare Basin coupled with the formation of the Terror Rift and an on-land and subice extension within the WARS require a pronounced change in the kinematics of the rift. These observations indicate that extension increased southward, therefore suggesting that a major change in

  7. The Chukchi Borderland: a Sediment-starved Rifted Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, D. R.; Houseknecht, D.; Mosher, D. C.; Hart, P. E.; Jackson, H. R.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.; Shimeld, J.; Chian, D.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and geologic structure of the Chukchi Borderland region, approximately 650 by 400 km in size, has been the subject of speculation since the earliest ice island research groups discovered its existence more than 60 years ago. Multichannel seismic reflection and refraction data acquired between 2007 and 2011, together with legacy seismic data show fragments of high-standing basement (continental) horsts. The structure is draped with less than a kilometer of sediment. Between the high-standing blocks are deep grabens with locally tilted but mostly flat-lying deposits generally only 1-2 km thick. Northwind Escarpment, along the eastern boundary of the Borderland, is a 600-km-long fault adjacent to the deeply subsided and hyper-extended crust of the Canada Basin to the east. The long, linear, sub-parallel orientation of the major structures (including Northwind Escarpment) is consistent with transtensional deformation of the Borderland. The general paucity of thick sediments indicates a sediment-starved environment. Both the North Chukchi Basin on the west and an unnamed deeply buried valley east on the Beaufort margin provide sediment-routing conduits through which sediment by-passed the Borderland throughout much of the Cretaceous history of the growing Brooks Range to the south. Canada Basin deposits also show strata thicken towards the southwest, suggesting sediment influx via the deeply buried valley on the Beaufort margin. On the northeastern side of the Canada Basin, the region is underlain by horst and graben structures with orientations similar to the Chukchi Borderland, but the intervening valleys are filled with as much as two km of sediment and the entire feature is buried beneath another 2 km of post-rift sediment. The similarity of structural styles on both sides of the Canada Basin suggests that this style of transtensional rifting could have been widespread during the early extension of this part of the Arctic and perhaps the Chukchi

  8. Parga Chasma: Coronae and Rifting on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.; Buck, W. R.; Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of coronae (quasicircular volcano-tectonic features) are found along rifts or fracture belts, and the majority of rifts have coronae [e.g. 1,2]. However, the relationship between coronae and rifts remains unclear [3-6]. There is evidence that coronae can form before, after, or synchronously with rifts [3,4]. The extensional fractures in the rift zones have been proposed to be a result of broad scale upwelling and traction on the lower lithosphere [7]. However, not all rift systems have a significant positive geoid anomaly, as would be expected for an upwelling site [8]. This could be explained if the rifts lacking anomalies are no longer active. Coronae are generally accepted to be sites of local upwelling [e.g. 1], but the observed rifting is frequently not radial to the coronae and extends well beyond the coronae into the surrounding plains. Thus the question remains as to whether the rifts represent regional extension, perhaps driven by mantle tractions, or if the coronae themselves create local thinning and extension of the lithosphere. In the first case, a regional extension model should be consistent with the observed characteristics of the rifts. In the latter case, a model of lithospheric loading and fracturing would be more appropriate. A good analogy may be the propagation of oceanic intraplate volcanoes [9].

  9. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thybo, H.

    2008-12-01

    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  10. Magmatism in a Cambrian Laurentian Plate Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Evidences of the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen extend over 1000km from about Dallas out to the Uncompahgre Plateau in SW Colorado. The signature of this originally extensional feature can be traced geophysically, and in some places at the present surface, petrologically and temporally, by the presence of mafic rock. It appears to have been the intracontinental third arm of a plume-generated? triple junction which helped to dismember the southern part of Laurentia on the final break-up of a Neoproterozoic supercontinent. Other parts of Laurentia rifted away and are now found in the Precordillera of Argentina. Rift magmatism appears to have been concentrated nearer the plate edge during the breakup. Perhaps as much as 40,000 km3 of mostly subaerial silicic volcanics and shallow-seated granites overlay and filled the top of the rift in the area of SW Oklahoma. The rift fill below the silicic rocks is large, layered mafic complexes and smaller, layered, hydrous gabbros, the whole set appearing as a shallow AMCG complex. Unusually, direct rift sediments are not obvious. Furthermore, silicic and mafic rocks have identical Nd signatures. Finally, about 20 Ma after rifting ceased and later into the Paleozoic during sea incursion, overlying sediments are thickened 4X compared to equivalent units 100's of kms to the rift sides. This rift appears distinct from most modern rifts. Conclusions are 1) This was a hot, narrow rift; 2) Basaltic magmatism , not sedimentation, filled the rift; 3) Magmatic intensity varied along the rift strike; 4) Silicic rocks were generated mostly directly from new mantle-derived basalt liquids through fractionation, not melting of older crustal rocks; 5) Laurentian lithosphere was weak allowing centering of the Early/Middle Paleozoic large "Oklahoma" basin (pre-Anadarko) over the rift.

  11. Albertine Rift, Uganda: Deformation-Sedimentation-Erosion relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Brendan; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dauteuil, Olivier; Nalpas, Thierry; Bourges, Philippe; Bez, Martine; Lays, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The Albertine Rift is the northern part of the western branch of the East African Rift that runs over a distance of around 2000 km from Lake Albert in the north to Lake Malawi in the south. Lake Albert Basin is assumed to be a classical half-graben initiated around 12 Ma and oriented NNW-SSW, with a major northwesterly bounding fault - the Bunia fault - located along the western Congolese shoreline (Ebinger, 1989; Pickford & al., 1993). The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between deformation, erosion, and sedimentation of the rift through time by restoring (1) the timing and amplitude of vertical movements (subsidence, uplift), (2) the geometry and paleo-environmental evolution (including climate) of the sedimentary infilling and (3) the geomorphological evolution of the surrounding area and associated erosion budget. Seismic data and outcrops studies suggest a much more complex history than previously described. (1) The age model, mainly based on mammal fossils (Pickford et al., 1993; Van Damme and Pickford, 2003), is debated, but the early stage of the rift is probably Middle Miocene. (2) No half-graben geometry has been characterized: the infilling consists of juxtaposed tabular compartments with sharp thicknesses variations along bounding faults, in response of either low rate extensional or combined strike-slip/extensional movements. The following onshore-offshore evolution is proposed: - Middle Miocene (~ 13 Ma) to Late Miocene (?): rifting 1 - differential subsidence along N60° faults - major deepening from fluvio-deltaic to deep lacustrine environments (maximum flooding at 8 Ma) - uplift, erosion and reworking of weathered profiles - first generation of pediments. - Late Miocene (?) to Late Pliocene (~ 3 Ma): quiescence phase - homogenous subsidence - lacustrine clays interbedded with sandy flood-lobes - uplift, erosion and reworking of ferruginous laterite (iron duricrusts) - second generation of pediments. - Late Pliocene (~ 3Ma) to

  12. Radial Anisotropy beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, N. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Jin, G.; Shillington, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Afar uniquely capture the final stages of transition from continental rifting in the broader East African Rift System to incipient seafloor spreading above a mantle hotspot. Studies of the region increasingly point to magmatism as a controlling factor on continental extension. However, the character and depth extent of these melt products remain contentious. Radial anisotropy derived from surface waves provides a unique diagnostic constraint on the presence of oriented melt pockets versus broader oriented anisotropic fabrics. This study investigates the thermal and radially anisotropic structure beneath the broader MER and Afar to resolve the magmatic character of the region and ultimately to understand the role of magmatism in present day rift development. We utilize 104 stations from 4 collocated arrays in the MER/Afar region to constrain radial anisotropy within the upper mantle via the inversion of Love- and Rayleigh-wave observations between 25 and 100 s period. We employ a multi-channel cross-correlation algorithm to obtain inter-station phase and amplitude information. The multi-channel phase observations are inverted for dynamic phase velocity across the array, which are then corrected for focusing and multipathing using the amplitude observations via Helmholtz tomography. We jointly invert Love- and Rayleigh-wave structural phase velocity measurements employing crustal constraints from co-located active source experiments to obtain estimates of Vsv and Vsh between 50 - 170 km depth. Preliminary results readily reveal the distinct shear velocity structure beneath the MER and Afar. Within the MER, shear velocity structure suggests pronounced low velocities accompanied by strong anisotropy between 80 - 140 km depth beneath the western Ethiopian plateau and rift valley. Within Afar, shear velocity structure is more varied with the slowest velocities found at shallow depths (less than 70 km depth), accompanied by weak

  13. Classification of the rift zones of venus: Rift valleys and graben belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of rift zones of Venus, their topographic configuration, morphometric parameters, and the type of volcanism associating with rifts were analyzed. This allowed the main characteristic features of rifts to be revealed and two different types of rift-forming structures, serving for classification of rift zones as rift valleys and graben belts, to be isolated. These structural types (facies) of rift zones are differently expressed in the relief: rift valleys are individual deep (several kilometers) W-shaped canyons, while graben belts are clusters of multiple V-shaped and rather shallow (hundreds of meters) depressions. Graben belts are longer and wider, as compared to rift valleys. Rift valleys are spatially associated with dome-shaped volcanic rises and large volcanos (concentrated volcanic sources), while graben belts do not exhibit such associations. Volcanic activity in the graben belts are presented by spacious lava fields with no apparent sources of volcanism. Graben belts and rift valleys were formed during the Atlian Period of geologic history of Venus, and they characterized the tectonic style of the planet at the late stages of its geologic evolution. Formation of this or that structural facies of the rift zones of Venus were probably governed by the thickness of the lithosphere, its rheological properties, and the development degree of the mantle diapirs associating with rift zones.

  14. Seismic anisotropy across the east African plateau from shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, B. C.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies of the east African plateau reveal complicated patterns of seismic anisotropy that are not easily explained by a single mechanism. The pattern is defined by rift-parallel fast directions for stations within or near Cenozoic rift valleys, and near-null results in Precambrian terrains away from the rift. Data from 65 temporary Africa Array stations deployed between 2007 and 2011 are being used to make new shear wave splitting measurements. The stations span the east African plateau and cover both the eastern and western branches of the east African rift system, as well as unrifted Proterozoic and Archean terrains in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia. Through analysis of shear wave splitting we will better constrain the distribution of seismic anisotropy, and and from it gain new insight into the tectonic evolution of east Africa.

  15. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.

    2011-12-01

    An integral part of plate tectonic theory is that the fate of rifted margins is to be accreted into mountain belts. Thus, rift-related inheritance is an essential parameter controlling the evolution and architecture of collisional orogens. Although this link is well accepted, rift inheritance is often ignored. The Pyrenees, located along the Iberian and European plate boundary, can be considered as one of the best places to study the reactivation of former rift structures. In this orogen the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary convergence overprints a Late Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous complex intracontinental rift system related to the opening of the North Atlantic. During the rifting, several strongly subsiding basins developed in the axis of the Pyrenees showing evidence of extreme crustal extension and even locale mantle exhumation to the seafloor. Although the exact age and kinematics of rifting is still debated, these structures have an important impact in the subsequent orogenic overprint. In our presentation we discuss the example of the Mauléon basin, which escaped from the most pervasive deformations because of its specific location at the interface between the western termination of the chain and the Bay of Biscay oceanic realm. Detailed mapping combined with seismic reflection, gravity data and industry wells enabled to determine the 3D rift architecture of the Mauléon basin. Two major diachronous detachment systems can be mapped and followed through space. The Southern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) develops first, starts to thin the crust and floors the Southern Mauléon sub-Basin (SMB). The second, the Northern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) is younger and controls the final crustal thinning and mantle exhumation to the north. Both constitute the whole Mauléon basin. Like at the scale of the overall Pyrenees, the reactivation of the Mauléon Basin increases progressively from west to east, which enables to document the progressive reactivation of an aborted hyper

  16. New data on seismic wave attenuation in the lithosphere and upper mantle of the northeastern flank of the Baikal rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, A. A.; Sankov, V. A.; Chechelnitsky, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    The investigation data on seismic wave attenuation in the lithosphere and upper mantle of the northeastern flank of the Baikal rift system obtained with a seismic coda envelope and sliding window are considered. Eleven local districts were described by one-dimensional attenuation models characterized by alternation of high and low attenuation layers, which are consistent with the results obtained previously by Yu.F. Kopnichev for the southwestern flank of the Baikal rift system [9]. The subcrust of the lithosphere contains a thin layer with high attenuation of seismic waves likely related to higher heterogeneity (fragmentation) and occurrence of fluids. The lithosphere basement depth varies from 100-120 km in the west within the Baikal folded area to 120-140 km in the east within the Siberian Platform. It is concluded that there are two asthenosphere layers. Based on specific features of the lithosphere and upper mantle structure, it can be assumed that they were subject to gradual modification involving fluidization processes and partial melting in the Late Cenozoic extension under the influence of distant tectogenesis sources.

  17. Interaction between an incipient rift and a cratonic lithosphere : The North Tanzania Rift seen from some seismic tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Stéphanie; Plasman, Matthieu; Tiberi, Christel; Lopez, Marie; Peyrat, Sophie; Perrot, Julie; Albaric, Julie; Déverchère, Jacques; Deschamps, Anne; Ebinger, Cindy; Roecker, Steven; Mulibo, Gabriel; Wambura, Richard Ferdinand; Muzuka, Alfred; Msabi, Michael; Gama, Remigius

    2016-04-01

    The North Tanzania part of the East African Rift is the place of an incipient break up of the lithosphere. This continental rifting happens on the edge of the Tanzanian craton, and their interaction leads to major changes in the surface deformation. The evolution of the rift and its morphology is strongly linked to the inherited structures, particularly the Proterozoic belts and the craton itself. It is thus of prime interest to image the structure of the craton edges to fully understand its impact on the localisation of the current deformation at the surface. Since 2007 different multidisciplinary projects have taken place in this area to address this question. We present here a work based on a collaborative work between French, American and Tanzanian institutes that started in 2013. About 35 seismological stations were installed for 2 years in the Natron lake region, and 10 short period instruments were added for 9 months in the Manyara area to record local and telesismic events. We have analysed more than a hundred teleseismic events to compute the receiver function, and we finally obtain a Moho map of the region as well as azimuthal distribution of converted phases. The stations located on the edge of the rift and near the craton present a continuous evolution of their crustal pattern in the RF signal. Especially, we identify a clear phase at about 7s for those stations that corresponds to an interface separating a normal upper mantle from a very slow mantle at about 70 km depth. We first model those receiver functions to perfectly fit the signal, and more precisely the transverse component, which shows a strong and coherent pattern. Second, the local seismic network we have installed for 9 months in Manyara region advantageously completed the 2007 SEISMOTANZ network. In this part of the rift the seismicity is deep (20-30 km) and clustered without any magmatism record at the surface, opposite to Natron area. We could then relocalize the deep seismicity observed

  18. A Model For The Development Of The Porcupine Basin West Of Ireland: Evidence For Regional Syn-rift Tectonic Linkages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, B. M.; Readman, P. W.

    The Porcupine Basin developed during the Mesozoic Era and is sited between the highly stretched crust of the Rockall Basin (where beta = 5 to 6) and the Protero- zoic crust of the Irish mainland, where the crust thickens to 30 km. Marine gravity sur- veys around Ireland together with satellite gravity data from the deeper ocean are used to investigate the larger-scale crustal structure of these two basins. Crustal structure derived from wide-angle and vertical incidence seismic data controls the interpretation and modeling of gravity data. An axial NE-trending gravity low caused by seismically defined crustal thickening towards the centre of the Rockall Basin is also present in the South Porcupine Basin where the crust has been extended by similar amounts. In contrast the amount of extension is less across the narrower North Porcupine Basin, where a N-trending axial gravity high is present due to poorly understood anoma- lous density variations in the crust/upper mantle. The change in crustal geometry and gravity properties occurs across a distinctive set of NW trending gravity lineaments. These are interpreted as a set of cross-basin syn-rift faults which control large-scale segmentation of extensional deformation at mid to upper crustal levels. Lithospheric stretching in the South Porcupine Basin involved a large anticlockwise rotation of the South Porcupine High, while to the north the stretching involved a smaller antipathetic clockwise rotation of the North Porcupine High. Restoration of the pre-rift crustal ge- ometry requires that a large amount (10's of km) of cumulative sinistral motion on NW-trending cross-basin faults accompanied these rotations, causing the southward broadening of the Rockall Basin. A tectonic linkage between the syn-rift development of the two basins and the smaller more numerous inboard basins in the Celtic area to the east is also required in this model. The NW-trending fault systems may have been important in focusing fluid flow in

  19. Identifying deformation styles and causes at two deforming volcanoes of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift with seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, Andy; Wilks, Matthew; Kendall, J.-Michael; Biggs, Juliet; Ayele, Atalay; Tulu, Beshahe; James, Wookey

    2016-04-01

    shown. Little evidence for a 'mushy', aseismic zone is found where geodetic studies have suggested a magma chamber is present. Hydrothermal processes may be responsible for much of the edifice loading, and we observe a positive correlation between rainfall and seismicity. At Corbetti, a completely different pattern emerges. Anisotropy is largest (up to 0.3 s) within the caldera, and weak outside. Fast shear waves are oriented northwest (NW), strongly oblique to Wonji or border faults, but parallel to a cross-rift structure, the Wendo Genet scarp, whose surface expression ends east of the caldera. Deep (20 km) earthquakes are located on this feature using the Corbetti and Aluto seismic arrays alongside Addis Ababa University stations. Intriguingly, shear wave splitting patterns are totally different for a few ray paths which avoid the Wendo Genet fault, indicating that away from this zone of deformation, the usual, rift-parallel faulting behaviour again holds sway. In this instance, the presence of anisotropy strong enough to overprint the background trend may require the alignment of fluids, and possibly melt. We suggest that this is evidence of a nascent transform zone within the rift.

  20. Geophysical investigations of the tectonic boundary between East and West Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Bannister, S.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Stern, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM), which separate the West Antarctic rift system from the stable shield of East Antarctica, are the largest mountains developed adjacent to a rift. The cause of uplift of mountains bordering rifts is poorly understood. One notion based on observations of troughs next to many uplifted blocks is that isostatic rebound produces a coeval uplift and subsidence. The results of an over-snow seismic experiment in Antarctica do not show evidence for a trough next to the TAM but indicate the extension of rifted mantle lithosphere under the TAM. Furthermore, stretching preceded the initiation of uplift, which suggests thermal buoyancy as the cause for uplift.

  1. Mechanical response of the south flank of kilauea volcano, hawaii, to intrusive events along the rift systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.J.; Okamura, A.T.; English, T.T.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Nakata, J.S.; Sako, M.K.; Tanigawa, W.T.; Yamashita, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Increased earthquake activity and compression of the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, have been recognized by previous investigators to accompany rift intrusions. We further detail the temporal and spatial changes in earthquake rates and ground strain along the south flank induced by six major rift intrusions which occurred between December 1971 and January 1981. The seismic response of the south flank to individual rift intrusions is immediate; the increased rate of earthquake activity lasts from 1 to 4 weeks. Horizontal strain measurements indicate that compression of the south flank usually accompanies rift intrusions and eruptions. Emplacement of an intrusion at a depth greater than about 4 km, such as the June 1982 southwest rift intrusion, however, results in a slight extension of the subaerial portion of the south flank. Horizontal strain measurements along the south flank are used to locate the January 1983 east-rift intrusion, which resulted in eruptive activity. The intrusion is modeled as a vertical rectangular sheet with constant displacement perpendicular to the plane of the sheet. This model suggests that the intrusive body that compressed the south flank in January 1983 extended from the surface to about 2.4 km depth, and was aligned along a strike of N66??E. The intrusion is approximately 11 km in length, extended beyond the January 1983 eruptive fissures, which are 8 km in length and is contained within the 14-km-long region of shallow rift earthquakes. ?? 1986.

  2. Shear-wave splitting in Ethiopia: Precambrian mantle anisotropy locally modified by Neogene rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashawbeza, Ewenet M.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Walker, Kristoffer T.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2004-09-01

    Twenty-six broadband seismic stations in an areal array spanning 500 × 500 km across Ethiopia were used for shear-wave splitting studies. Our results show small-to-moderate delay times (0.5-1.7s) with fast-polarization azimuths sub-parallel to the orientation of the East African Rift (NNE-SSW) and also to the Proterozoic tectonic fabric across the entire studied area. Our results imply Ethiopian upper-mantle anisotropy is controlled largely by the Proterozoic accretion of the Mozambique belt, with possible minor effects within the rift due to aligned cracks or melt pockets parallel to the rift axis. Our observations are not consistent with anisotropy created by asthenospheric flow parallel either to the Cenozoic extension direction (NW-SE) or to the modern absolute plate motion direction (NNW-SSE), or to asthenospheric radial flow from the ``Afar'' plume.

  3. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  4. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    PubMed

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time. PMID:27437571

  5. Investigating the Influence of Pre-Existing Basement Structures on the Propagation of the Malawi Rift using SRTM, RADARSAT, and Aeromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, K.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Malawi rift is a Neogene, amagmatic rift located where the Western Branch of the East Africa Rift System (EARS) terminates. In more mature rifts, magmatism is frequently recognized as a driving factor in rift propagation; however, the amagmatic nature of the Malawi rift permits investigation into the relationship between pre-existing structures and current rift propagation, without the influence of magmatism. To map surface structures, we used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and RADARSAT imagery over southern Malawi. To process the SRTM data, we applied edge enhancing filters and derivatives, and extracted topographic profiles to examine scarp height and minimum vertical exposed displacement. We mapped morphologically-defined structures by filtering the RADARSAT imagery using an enhanced lee filter to reduce noise and a Laplacian filter for edge enhancement. To examine Precambrian basement structures, we filtered aeromagnetic data using vertical and horizontal derivatives, tilt derivative, and analytic signal to create magnetic anomaly maps. Surface mapping indicated three primary trends in the southern Malawi rift: NW-SE (dominant), NE-SW, both of which are most likely the remnants of Mesozoic Karoo rifting, and a NNE-SSW trend seen in Neogene rifting. The Precambrian basement structural mapping also reveals three primary trends: WNW-ESE, NE-SW, and NW-SE. Ductile deformation causes the dominant basement fabric to change, switching polarity as the rift propagated southward from NE-SW orientation to NW-SE and WNW-ESE orientations, and back to a NE-SW orientation. In general, the surficial structures follow this trend. In some areas, however, the more recent rifting cut across pre-existing basement structures, possibly due to rheological heterogeneities or selective strain partitioning. Nonetheless, pre-existing basement structures played a critical role in strain localization and fault propagation in Malawi. However

  6. Transfer zones and fault reactivation in inverted rift basins: Insights from physical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinovskaya, Elena A.; Harris, Lyal B.; Poulin, Jimmy; Ivanov, Gennady M.

    2007-08-01

    Lateral transfer zones of deformation and fault reactivation were investigated in multilayered silicone-sand models during extension and subsequent co-axial shortening. Model materials were selected to meet similarity criteria and to be distinguished on CT scans; this approach permitted non-destructive visualisation of the progressive evolution of structures. Transfer zones were initiated by an orthogonal offset in the geometry of a basal mobile aluminium sheet and/or by variations of layer thickness or material rheology in basal layers. Transfer zones affected rift propagation and fault kinematics in models. Propagation and overlapping rift culminations occurred in transfer zones during extension. During shortening, deviation in the orientation of frontal thrusts and fold axes occurred within transfer zones in brittle and ductile layers, respectively. CT scans showed that steep (58-67°) rift-margin normal faults were reactivated as reverse faults. The reactivated faults rotated to shallower dips (19-38°) with continuing shortening after 100% inversion. Rotation of rift phase faults appears to be due to deep level folding and uplift during the inversion phase. New thrust faults with shallow dips (20-34°) formed outside the inverted graben at late stages of shortening. Frontal ramps propagated laterally past the transfer structure during shortening. During inversion, the layers filling the rift structures underwent lateral compression at the depth, the graben fill was pushed up and outwards creating local extension near the surface. Sand marker layers in inverted graben have showed fold-like structures or rotation and tilting in the rifts and on the rift margins. The results of our experiments conform well to natural examples of inverted graben. Inverted rift basins are structurally complex and often difficult to interpret in seismic data. The models may help to unravel the structure and evolution of these systems, leading to improved hydrocarbon exploration

  7. Lithospheric thinning associated with rifting in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Morgan, R.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of ascent of the thermal perturbation of eruptive rock types in the Kenya Dome region can be calculated for depths of origin ranging from greater than 170 km to the lower crust (25-30 km) as combined with dated occurrences. An equation is derived and solved iteratively for ascent velocity at 10 km depth intervals from 150-30 km, assuming a thermal diffusivity of 1 sq mm/sec. For radii of 50 and 100 km and constant gradient increases within the range 55-60 C/km over the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) ascent depth range, the calculated rate of upwelling corresponds well with the results of a simple thermal model of lithospheric thinning. A 1 C/km change in gradient results approximately in a 0.55 Myr change in ascent time from 150 to 30 km, due to the increasing differential between the geotherm and the solidus with decreasing depths and the increasing rate of heat loss to the surface. It is suggested by the temporal-spatial-compositional relations of eruptives in the Kenya Dome region that there is a shallowing of magma source regions with time, implying encroachment of a thermal anomaly.

  8. Basalt volatile fluctuations during continental rifting: An example from the Rio Grande Rift, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Michael C.; Lassiter, John C.; Goff, Kathleen

    2015-05-01

    Hydration and metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle potentially influences both the magmatic and tectonic evolution of southwestern North America. Prior studies have suggested that volatile enrichments to the mantle underlying western North America resulted from shallow subduction of the Farallon Plate during the Laramide (˜74-40 Ma). This study examines temporal and spatial variations in volatile elements (H2O, Cl, F, and S) determined from olivine and orthopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions along and across the Rio Grande Rift, the easternmost extent of Laramide shallow subduction. Maximum chlorine enrichments are observed in the southern rift with a Cl/Nb of ˜210 and reduce with time to MORB-OIB levels (˜5-17). Measured water abundances are <0.8 wt % in rehomogenized inclusions; however, calculated H2O, based on Cl/Nb systematics, primarily varies from 0.5 to 2 wt % H2O. Sulfur abundances (<0.61 wt %), and calculated sulfide saturation, indicate magmas with high Cl/Nb also contain oxidized sulfur. The abundance of fluorine in melt inclusions (up to 0.2 wt %) is not correlated to other volatile elements. Temporal variations in melt inclusion volatile abundances coupled with varying isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) whole-rock systematics suggest a transition from lithospheric to asthenospheric melt generation in the southern RGR and potential lithosphere-asthenosphere melt mixing in the central RGR. East to west decrease in volatile enrichment likely reflects a combination of varying mantle sources and early removal of metasomatized lithospheric mantle underlying regional extension. Results indicate, from multiple causes, subduction-related volatile enrichment to the lithospheric mantle is ephemeral, and strong enrichments in volatiles are not preserved in active magmatic-tectonic provenances.

  9. Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

  10. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  11. Seismic Analysis of Magmatism in the Galapagos Archipelago and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepp, Gabrielle

    Magmatism and deformation are consequences of fundamental processes shaping Earth's ˜150 km-thick continental and <125 km-thick oceanic plates. Earthquake seismology encompasses many methods to detect compositional and thermal boundaries from Earth's surface to the dynamic mantle driving plate tectonics. This work uses three different seismic methods to probe magma migration and storage and tectonism in two intraplate hotspot provinces: the Galapagos and East Africa. First, seismic body-wave tomography is used to image magma within oceanic crust of the largest Galapagos volcano, Sierra Negra. A laterally large, low-velocity region with many smaller, high-magnitude velocity anomalies is imaged at 8--15.5 km depths. No sharp seismic velocity increase is imaged within the resolvable depths, indicating that the thickened crust is at least 16 km deep. The second study involves a spectral analysis of earthquakes induced by the intrusion of thin sheets of magma rising beneath the Afar rift, East Africa. Earthquakes have varying spectral content, some with unusually large amplitude low-frequency content and enhanced surface waves. The analysis showed no clear boundaries between spectral types, suggesting that they are all primarily the result of brittle failure. Deep dike segments (tops > 3 km) induce only high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes, while shallower dike segments induce the full range of spectral types. This suggests that low-frequency content is a result of shallow hypocenters, with path and site effects, surface ruptures, and dike fluid interactions all possible secondary causes. In the final study, shear-wave splitting analysis of teleseismic body-wave phases is conducted to evaluate strain and crack fabrics at the base of the continental plate as a consequence of magmatism, mantle flow, and plate stretching in the Western rift, East Africa. On average, fast directions are northeast, consistent with geodynamic models of mantle flow from the African

  12. Hydrothermal mineral deposits and fossil biota from a young (0.1 Ma) abyssal hill on the flank of the fast spreading East Pacific Rise: Evidence for pulsed hydrothermal flow and tectonic tapping of axial heat and fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Sara B.; Haymon, Rachel M.

    2006-05-01

    Heat flow data indicate that most hydrothermal heat loss from ocean lithosphere occurs on the flanks of the mid-ocean ridge, but few ridge flank hydrothermal sites are known. We describe the first nonseamount, abyssal hill hydrothermal mineral deposits to be recovered from the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) flanks. Deposits were sampled at two sites on an abyssal hill ˜5 km east of the EPR axis, just north of Clipperton Fracture Zone at 10°20'N, on ˜0.1 Ma lithosphere. "Tevnia Site" is on the axis-facing fault scarp of the hill, and "Ochre Site" is located ˜950 m farther east near the base of the outward-facing slope. Clusters of fragile, biodegradable Tevnia worm tubes at both sites indicate that hydrothermal fluids carried sufficient H2S to sustain Tevnia worms, and that fluid flow waned too recently to allow time for tube destruction. Presence of microbial mats and other biota also are consistent with recent waning of flow. The deposits are mineralogically zoned, from nontronite-celadonite to hydrous Fe-oxide+opaline silica to Mn-oxide (birnessite and todorokite). This places them into a distinctive class of Fe-Si-Mn hydrothermal deposits found along tectonic cracks and faults in young oceanic crust, and suggests that (1) deposits precipitated along an O2 gradient between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid; (2) fluid temperatures were <150°C and (3) undiluted fluids were Mg-depleted, and Fe-, K-, Si- and Mn-enriched. These fluids may derive from high temperature seawater-basalt interaction ± phase separation proximal to the axial melt zone, and lose Cu and Zn before venting due to conductive cooling and/or pH increase. Ochre Site samples are purely hydrothermal; however, Tevnia Site samples incorporate volcanic, sedimentary, and fossil components, and exhibit at least three generations of fracturing and hydrothermal cementation. The Tevnia Site breccias accumulated on the exposed fault scarp, possibly during multiple slip events and

  13. Hydrologic Windows and the Formation of Low-Temperature Geothermal Anomalies along the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, J.; Person, M. A.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.; Owens, L.; Witcher, J. C.; Phillips, F. M.; Gable, C. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Campbell, A.

    2013-12-01

    Within the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico, gaps in Mesozoic and Tertiary confining units are common geologic features. They are created as a result of fault block rotation, erosion, lithological variations and emplacement of magmatic intrusions. These hydrologic windows were first proposed by Witcher (1988, Geothermal resources of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona: New Mexico Geological Society 39th Field Conference Guidebook, p. 191-197) as a mechanism to permit relatively hot geothermal fluids to discharge at the surface within the Rio Grande Rift. To explore the role of hydrologic windows in these occurrences, we have developed two-dimensional and three-dimensional hydrothermal models of both the Socorro and the Truth or Consequences geothermal resource areas. These finite-element models simulate groundwater flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and residence times. The 2D cross-sectional models help establish the depth of geothermal fluid circulation and crystalline-basement permeability structure required to account for hot-spring temperature conditions near the surface. The three-dimensional models help to assess the effects of water-table configuration and east-west oriented accommodation zones on shallow heat-flow patterns. We utilized carbon-14 groundwater age dating, salinity, and silica concentrations collected from wells and warm springs to calibrate these models. Apparent carbon-14 ages of groundwater samples collected from the 300-meter deep Woods Tunnel geothermal slim hole near Socorro and a 15-meter deep alluvial well from the Riverbend Spa in Truth or Consequences were 20,000 and 6,000 years old, respectively. Maximum geothermal temperatures based on silica concentrations at these two sites are estimated to range from 60 to 87 degrees Celsius. In order to reproduce observed temperature anomalies and groundwater residence times, groundwater circulation must have been within the crystalline basement, two to six kilometers beneath

  14. Lower Crustal Seismicity, Volatiles, and Evolving Strain Fields During the Initial Stages of Cratonic Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, C.; Muirhead, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Tiberi, C.; Roecker,