Science.gov

Sample records for fluorescence in situ hybridization

  1. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization on Rice Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafei; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important technologies applied in plant molecular cytogenetic research. FISH technique has been not only well applied in physical mapping and genomic studies, but also served as an indispensable tool in tracing the individual chromosome during cell division. This chapter provides protocols for basic FISH analysis using rice as a model, which can also be adapted to other model plant species. PMID:26659957

  2. Autofluorescence correction for fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Szoelloesi, J.; Balazs, M.; Waldman, F.C.

    1995-08-01

    Optimal sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) requires bright signals and low background fluorescence. Use of locus-specific probes is especially dependent on high sensitivity. Some tissue preparations show high autofluorescence, masking small or dim signals. We have developed a new method for subtracting autofluorescence from digital images on a pixel-by-pixel basis. It is based on the observation that fluorescent labels for FISH have narrower excitation and emission spectra than the chemical components responsible for autofluorescence. Our new approach uses calculation of the ratio of autofluorescence between multiple color images for correction of autofluorescence in each individual image. By subtracting autofluorescence components, we were able to enhance centromeric signals and make previously indistiguishable cosmid signals clearly visible. This image-processing approach to autofluorescence correction may widen the applicability of gene-specific probes in FISH analysis of tumor material. 15 refs., 3 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

    1990-12-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Fluorescent in situ hybridization protocols in Drosophila embryos and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lécuyer, Eric; Parthasarathy, Neela; Krause, Henry M

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization is the standard method for visualizing the spatial distribution of RNA. Although traditional histochemical RNA detection methods suffered from limitations in resolution or sensitivity, the recent development of peroxidase-mediated tyramide signal amplification provides strikingly enhanced sensitivity and subcellular resolution. In this chapter, we describe optimized fluorescent in situ hybridization protocols for Drosophila embryos and tissues utilizing tyramide signal amplification, either for single genes or in a high-throughput format, which greatly increases the sensitivity, consistency, economy, and throughput of the procedure. We also describe variations of the method for RNA-RNA and RNA-protein codetection. PMID:18641955

  5. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  6. Supernumerary ring chromosome 17 identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, K.; Edwards, M.

    1997-04-14

    We present a patient with multiple anomalies and severe developmental delay. A small supernumerary ring chromosome was found in 40% of her lymphocyte cells at birth. The origin of the marker chromosome could not be determined by GTG banding, but fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) later identified the marker as deriving from chromosome 17. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Microscopic detection of yeasts using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Inácio, João; da Luz Martins, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been widely used for the detection and identification of microorganisms in their natural environments. In this chapter we describe the use of a simple FISH-based protocol to detect and identify clinically relevant yeast species in culture and biological samples using Cryptococcus neoformans as a model. After fixation of cells with paraformaldehyde, the same are embedded in hybridization buffer containing specific fluorochrome-labeled oligonucleotide probes. After incubation and a subsequent washing step for removing unbound probes, samples are analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy. PMID:23296886

  8. Quantification of fluorescence in situ hybridization signals by image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, P M; van der Flier, S; Verwoerd, N P; Vrolijk, J; Raap, A K; Tanke, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this study we aimed at the development of a cytometric system for quantification of specific DNA sequences using fluorescence in situ hybridization (ISH) and digital imaging microscopy. The cytochemical and cytometric aspects of a quantitative ISH procedure were investigated, using human peripheral blood lymphocyte interphase nuclei and probes detecting high copy number target sequences as a model system. These chromosome-specific probes were labeled with biotin, digoxigenin, or fluorescein. The instrumentation requirements are evaluated. Quantification of the fluorescence ISH signals was performed using an epi-fluorescence microscope with a multi-wavelength illuminator, equipped with a cooled charge couple device (CCD) camera. The performance of the system was evaluated using fluorescing beads and a homogeneously fluorescing specimen. Specific image analysis programs were developed for the automated segmentation and analysis of the images provided by ISH. Non-uniform background fluorescence of the nuclei introduces problems in the image analysis segmentation procedures. Different procedures were tested. Up to 95% of the hybridization signals could be correctly segmented using digital filtering techniques (min-max filter) to estimate local background intensities. The choice of the objective lens used for the collection of images was found to be extremely important. High magnification objectives with high numerical aperture, which are frequently used for visualization of fluorescence, are not optimal, since they do not have a sufficient depth of field. The system described was used for quantification of ISH signals and allowed accurate measurement of fluorescence spot intensities, as well as of fluorescence ratios obtained with double-labeled probes. PMID:1459002

  9. Analysis of DNA replication by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Boggs, B A; Chinault, A C

    1997-11-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown to discriminate between unreplicated and replicated regions of the genome in interphase nuclei, based on the number of specific fluorescent signals that can be detected. By examining the replication status of hybridizing sequences in large numbers of individual cells from an asynchronously growing population, it is possible to deduce a relative order of replication of different sequences. The availability of well-mapped genomic probes and the ability to compare results from different cell lines make this a convenient approach with which to map domains of replication timing control at any chromosomal position and to relate this to various patterns of gene expression. Since there appear to be important but poorly understood correlations among replication timing, chromatin structure, and transcriptional competence in mammalian cells, this provides a valuable approach to understanding these interrelationships at the molecular level. The procedures for using FISH to examine replication timing in mammalian nuclei are described here in detail, and the advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed. Some other strategies for using high-resolution FISH on chromatin fibers to examine replication properties of specific sequences in situ are also described. PMID:9441852

  10. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  11. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analysis of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Ge, Shundi; Crooks, Gay M

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the immunological reaction of antibodies with antigens in fixed tissues, it is necessary to unmask or retrieve the antigens through pretreatment of the specimens. However, adjustment of heat-induced antigen retrieval is always required for different tissues and antigens. Using a low-power antigen retrieval technique, with appropriate dilution of antibodies, we successfully immunostained key antigens in the pancreas such as insulin, PDX-1, glucagon, cytokeratin, and CD31, which have presented a particular challenge for investigators in the past, because of the rapid autodigestion and high nonspecific antibody binding in the tissue. Satisfactory results were obtained when immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were combined in the same slides. PMID:19504251

  12. Sexing of Dog Sperm by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    OI, Maya; YAMADA, Keisuke; HAYAKAWA, Hiroyuki; SUZUKI, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Effective preselection of sex has been accomplished in several species of livestock and also in humans using the flow cytometric sperm sorting method. A guaranteed high sorting accuracy is a key prerequisite for the widespread use of sperm sexing. The standard validation method is flow cytometric remeasurement of the DNA content of the sexed sperm. Since this method relies on the same instrument that produced the original sperm separation, it is not truly independent. Therefore, to be able to specifically produce either male or female offspring in the dog, we developed a method of direct visualization of sex chromosomes in a single sperm using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as a validation method. Denaturation of canine spermatozoa by immersion in 1 M NaOH for 4 min yielded consistent hybridization results with over 97% hybridization efficiency and a good preservation of sperm morphology. There was no significant difference between the theoretical ratio (50:50) and the observed ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in any of the three dogs. In addition, the mean purities of flow-sorted sex chromosomes in spermatozoa of the three dogs were 90.8% for the X chromosome fraction and 89.6% for the Y chromosome fraction. This sorting was evaluated by using the dual color FISH protocol. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the FISH protocol worked reliably for both unsorted and sexed sperm samples. PMID:23059640

  13. Sexing of dog sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Oi, Maya; Yamada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Effective preselection of sex has been accomplished in several species of livestock and also in humans using the flow cytometric sperm sorting method. A guaranteed high sorting accuracy is a key prerequisite for the widespread use of sperm sexing. The standard validation method is flow cytometric remeasurement of the DNA content of the sexed sperm. Since this method relies on the same instrument that produced the original sperm separation, it is not truly independent. Therefore, to be able to specifically produce either male or female offspring in the dog, we developed a method of direct visualization of sex chromosomes in a single sperm using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as a validation method. Denaturation of canine spermatozoa by immersion in 1 M NaOH for 4 min yielded consistent hybridization results with over 97% hybridization efficiency and a good preservation of sperm morphology. There was no significant difference between the theoretical ratio (50:50) and the observed ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in any of the three dogs. In addition, the mean purities of flow-sorted sex chromosomes in spermatozoa of the three dogs were 90.8% for the X chromosome fraction and 89.6% for the Y chromosome fraction. This sorting was evaluated by using the dual color FISH protocol. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the FISH protocol worked reliably for both unsorted and sexed sperm samples. PMID:23059640

  14. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification. An automated FISH enumeration system is a device that consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification. An automated FISH enumeration system is a device that consists of...

  16. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification. An automated FISH enumeration system is a device that consists of...

  17. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification. An automated FISH enumeration system is a device that consists of...

  18. Pallister-Killian syndrome detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Dev, V.G.

    1995-07-03

    The Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare cytogenetic condition first described in 1977 by Pallister et al. in 3 adults; the first affected child was reported in 1981. This syndrome (also known as Pallister mosaic aneuploidy syndrome or isochromosome 12p mosaicism) is characterized by postnatal growth retardation, seizures, hypotonia, deafness, profound mental retardation, minimal speech development, and a distinctive facial appearance (high prominent forehead, ocular hypertelorism, sparse anterior scalp hair, prominent lower lip, large ears with thick protruding lobules, cupid-bow shaped upper lip, and a long philtrum). A chromosome 12 abnormality (tetrasomy 12p) has been reported in skin biopsies from these patients but this chromosome anomaly is usually not found (or in only a small proportion, e.g., <0.5%, of blood cells) in peripheral blood. We report on an additional patient with Pallister-Killian syndrome confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using an alpha satellite DNA probe for chromosome 12. This report further illustrates the application of FISH in identifying the source of chromosomal markers of unknown origin in infants with multiple congenital anomalies specifically before the natural history of a condition allows for definitive diagnosis based on clinical findings. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Geigl, Jochen B; Uhrig, Sabine; Speicher, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) was initially developed to stain human chromosomes--the 22 autosomes and X and Y sex chromosomes--with uniquely distinctive colors to facilitate karyotyping. The characteristic spectral signatures of all different combinations of fluorochromes are determined by multichannel image-analysis methods. Advantages of M-FISH include rapid analysis of metaphase spreads, even in complex cases with multiple chromosomal rearrangements, and identification of marker chromosomes. The M-FISH technology has been extended to other species, such as the mouse. Furthermore, in addition to painting probes, the method has been used with a variety of region-specific probes. M-FISH has even recently been used for 3D studies to analyze the distribution of human chromosomes in intact and preserved interphase nuclei. Hence, M-FISH has evolved into an essential tool for both clinical diagnostics and basic research. In this protocol, we describe how to use M-FISH to karyotype chromosomes, a procedure that takes approximately 14 d if new M-FISH probes have to be generated and 3 d if the M-FISH probes are ready to use. PMID:17406400

  20. Mapping neurofibromatosis 1 homologous loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Viskochil, D.; Breidenbach, H.H.; Cawthon, R.

    1994-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 maps to chromosome band 17q11.2 and the NF1 gene is comprised of 59 exons that span approximately 335 kb of genomic DNA. In order to further analyze the structure of NF1 from exons 2 through 27b, we isolated a number of cosmid and bacteriophage P-1 genomic clones using NF1-exon probes under high-stringency hybridization conditions. Using tagged, intron-based primers and DNA from various clones as a template, we PCR-amplified and sequenced individual NF1 exons. The exon sequences in PCR products from several genomic clones differed from the exon sequence derived from cloned NF1 cDNAs. Clones with variant sequences were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization under high-stringency conditions. Three clones mapped to chromosome band 15q11.2, one mapped to 14q11.2, one mapped to both 2q14.1-14.3 and 14q11.2, one mapped to 2q33-34, and one mapped to both 18q11.2 and 21q21. Even though some PCR-product sequences retained proper splice junctions and open reading frames, we have yet to identify cDNAs that correspond to the variant exon sequences. We are now sequencing clones that map to NF1-homologous loci in order to develop discriminating primer pairs for the exclusive amplification of NF1-specific sequences in our efforts to develop a comprehensive NF1 mutation screen using genomic DNA as template. The role of NF1-homologous sequences may play in neurofibromatosis 1 is not clear.

  1. Characterization of Robertsonian translocations by using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, D.J.; Schwartz, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with five biotin-labeled probes (three alphoid probes, a probe specific for beta-satellite sequences in all acrocentric chromosomes, and an rDNA probe) was used to characterize 30 different Robertsonian translocations, including three t(13;13); one t(15;15), four t(21;21), three t(13;14), two t(13;15), two (13;21), two t(13;22), one t(14;15), eight t(14;21), two t(14;22), two t(21;22). Of 8 de novo homologous translocations, only one t(13;13) chromosome was interpreted as dicentric, while 19 of 22 nonhomologous Robertsonian translocations were dicentric. The three monocentric nonhomologous translocations included both of the t(13;21) and one t(21;22). Two of 26 translocations studied using the beta-satellite probe showed a positive signal, while rDNA was undetectable in 10 cases studied. These results indicate that most homologous Robertsonian translocations appear monocentric, while the bulk of nonhomologous translocations show two alphoid signals. A majority of the breakpoints localized using this analysis seem to be distal to the centromere and just proximal to the beta-satellite and nuclear-organizing regions.

  2. Detection of dengue group viruses by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) represent a global challenge in public health. It is estimated that 50 to 100 million infections occur each year causing approximately 20,000 deaths that are usually linked to severe cases like DHF and dengue shock syndrome. The causative agent of DF is dengue virus (genus Flavivirus) that comprises four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used successfully to detect pathogenic agents, but has not been implemented in detecting DENV. To improve our understanding of DENV infection and dissemination in host tissues, we designed specific probes to detect DENV in FISH assays. Methods Oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize with RNA from the broadest range of DENV isolates belonging to the four serotypes, but not to the closest Flavivirus genomes. Three probes that fit the criteria defined for FISH experiments were selected, targeting both coding and non-coding regions of the DENV genome. These probes were tested in FISH assays against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). The FISH experiments were led in vitro using the C6/36 cell line, and in vivo against dissected salivary glands, with epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results The three 60-nt oligonucleotides probes DENV-Probe A, B and C cover a broad range of DENV isolates from the four serotypes. When the three probes were used together, specific fluorescent signals were observed in C6/36 infected with each DENV serotypes. No signal was detected in either cells infected with close Flavivirus members West Nile virus or yellow fever virus. The same protocol was used on salivary glands of Ae. albopictus fed with a DENV-2 infectious blood-meal which showed positive signals in the lateral lobes of infected samples, with no significant signal in uninfected mosquitoes. Conclusion Based on the FISH technique, we propose a way to design and use oligonucleotide probes to detect arboviruses. Results showed that this method was successfully implemented to specifically detect DENV in a mosquito cell line, as well as in mosquito salivary glands for the DENV-2 serotype. In addition, we emphasize that FISH could be an alternative method to detect arboviruses in host tissues, also offering to circumvent the discontinuity of antibodies used in immunofluorescent assays. PMID:23110979

  3. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in different ploidy levels cross-breeding of lily.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Jingmao; Zhang, Yiying; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Shunchao; Lu, Yingmin

    2015-01-01

    21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids) hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid 'Freya' had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true. PMID:26010356

  4. Chromosome replicating timing combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times during S phase, following a temporal replication program. The specification of replication timing is thought to be a dynamic process regulated by tissue-specific and developmental cues that are responsive to epigenetic modifications. However, the mechanisms regulating where and when DNA replication initiates along chromosomes remains poorly understood. Homologous chromosomes usually replicate synchronously, however there are notable exceptions to this rule. For example, in female mammalian cells one of the two X chromosomes becomes late replicating through a process known as X inactivation(1). Along with this delay in replication timing, estimated to be 2-3 hr, the majority of genes become transcriptionally silenced on one X chromosome. In addition, a discrete cis-acting locus, known as the X inactivation center, regulates this X inactivation process, including the induction of delayed replication timing on the entire inactive X chromosome. In addition, certain chromosome rearrangements found in cancer cells and in cells exposed to ionizing radiation display a significant delay in replication timing of >3 hours that affects the entire chromosome(2,3). Recent work from our lab indicates that disruption of discrete cis-acting autosomal loci result in an extremely late replicating phenotype that affects the entire chromosome(4). Additional 'chromosome engineering' studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes result in this abnormal replication-timing phenotype, suggesting that all mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control proper replication timing of individual chromosomes(5). Here, we present a method for the quantitative analysis of chromosome replication timing combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization. This method allows for a direct comparison of replication timing between homologous chromosomes within the same cell, and was adapted from(6). In addition, this method allows for the unambiguous identification of chromosomal rearrangements that correlate with changes in replication timing that affect the entire chromosome. This method has advantages over recently developed high throughput micro-array or sequencing protocols that cannot distinguish between homologous alleles present on rearranged and un-rearranged chromosomes. In addition, because the method described here evaluates single cells, it can detect changes in chromosome replication timing on chromosomal rearrangements that are present in only a fraction of the cells in a population. PMID:23271586

  5. Fluorescent in situ hybridization on mitotic chromosomes of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Sharma, Atashi; Sharakhov, Igor V; Sharakhova, Maria V

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique routinely used by many laboratories to determine the chromosomal position of DNA and RNA probes. One important application of this method is the development of high-quality physical maps useful for improving the genome assemblies for various organisms. The natural banding pattern of polytene and mitotic chromosomes provides guidance for the precise ordering and orientation of the genomic supercontigs. Among the three mosquito genera, namely Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex, a well-established chromosome-based mapping technique has been developed only for Anopheles, whose members possess readable polytene chromosomes. As a result of genome mapping efforts, 88% of the An. gambiae genome has been placed to precise chromosome positions. Two other mosquito genera, Aedes and Culex, have poorly polytenized chromosomes because of significant overrepresentation of transposable elements in their genomes. Only 31 and 9% of the genomic supercontings have been assigned without order or orientation to chromosomes of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Mitotic chromosome preparation for these two species had previously been limited to brain ganglia and cell lines. However, chromosome slides prepared from the brain ganglia of mosquitoes usually contain low numbers of metaphase plates. Also, although a FISH technique has been developed for mitotic chromosomes from a cell line of Ae. aegypti, the accumulation of multiple chromosomal rearrangements in cell line chromosomes makes them useless for genome mapping. Here we describe a simple, robust technique for obtaining high-quality mitotic chromosome preparations from imaginal discs (IDs) of 4th instar larvae which can be used for all three genera of mosquitoes. A standard FISH protocol is optimized for using BAC clones of genomic DNA as a probe on mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and for utilizing an intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as a probe on An. gambiae chromosomes. In addition to physical mapping, the developed technique can be applied to population cytogenetics and chromosome taxonomy/systematics of mosquitoes and other insect groups. PMID:23007640

  6. Role of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in sequencing the tomato genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosomes at various stages of the cell cycle can be used for localization of DNA probes via Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While mitotic metaphase chromosomes are demonstrably too short and compact for this purpose, long pachytene chromosomes are ideal. BACs that hybridize to euchrom...

  7. Image analysis of cells stained by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.; Wiegant, J.; Vrolijk, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Specific nucleic acid sequences of about 1 kb can be detected on a routine basis using FISH methods. This is achieved by indirect techniques and conventional microscopy, or with fluorescent probes (direct methods) and integrating detection devices (e.g. CCD cameras). Labeling of probes with defined ratios of two or three fluorophores allows localization of multiple targets, especially when the signals are quantified by image analysis. This requires fluoroescence microscopes equipped with multi band pass filters and computer controlled filter wheels for sequential recording of red, green and blue images using a B/W CCD camera, and correction of occurring image shifts. This combined approach was applied to localize and map genes on chromosomes. In case of nuclei with long extentions of almost linear DNA molecules, (so-called halo preparations), single hybridization sides could be shown.

  8. Fluorescent in situ hybridization in plant polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, M

    2001-01-01

    Polytene chromosomes are found in specialized tissues, with high metabolic activity, of a few angiosperm genera. They differ from Diptera polytenics in several aspects, mainly because their chromatids on each chromosome are not tightly paired, nor are they so highly endoreplicated as those of Diptera. In situ hybridization with isotopic and non-isotopic probes has been successfully used in plant polytene chromosomes, mainly in Phaseolus coccineus and Vigna unguiculata, where they have been best investigated. The results reported for mitotic and polytene chromosomes of these species, and a few others, are compared aiming to ascertain the efficiency and limitations of FISH in plant polytenics. In general, polytene chromosomes either from embryo suspensor cells of P. coccineus or from anther tapetal cells of V. unguiculata proved to be quite a suitable system for localizing DNA sequences by FISH. The partially unsynapsed chromatids, typically found in plant polytenics, seem to be the most important hindrance for a precise chromosome mapping. On the other hand, the interphase polytene nucleus is a valuable system for localizing FISH signals since they conserve a spatial organization similar to that of mitotic interphase and produce much amplified signals. PMID:11741150

  9. Sperm Identification in Maize by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, L.; Zhu, T.; Mogensen, H. L.; Keim, P.

    1996-01-01

    The two sperm cells of common origin within the pollen tube of flowering plants are each involved in a fertilization event. It has long been recognized that preferential fusion of one sperm with the egg can occur in B chromosome-containing lines of maize. If the second pollen mitosis begins with a single B chromosome, nondisjunction will result in one sperm possessing two B chromosomes and the other containing no B chromosomes. The B chromosome-containing sperm most often fertilizes the egg, whereas the sperm nucleus with no B chromosomes fuses with the polar nuclei. Despite the obvious advantages of being able to recognize and then track, separate, and analyze one sperm type from the other, it has not been possible because of the lack of sufficient detectable differences between the two types of sperms. In this study, we used a B chromosome-specific DNA sequence (pZmBs) and in situ hybridization to identify and track the B chromosome-containing sperm cell within mature pollen and pollen tubes. Our results are consistent with conclusions from previous genetic studies related to B chromosome behavior during pollen formation. Within pollen tubes, the position in which the B chromosome-containing sperm travels (leading or trailing) in relation to the sperm cell lacking B chromosomes appears to be random. PMID:12239402

  10. A simple protocol for attenuating the auto-fluorescence of cyanobacteria for optimized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Perrine; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria contain pigments, which generate auto-fluorescence that interferes with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging of cyanobacteria. We describe simple chemical treatments using CuSO4 or H2O2 that significantly reduce the auto-fluorescence of Microcystis strains. These protocols were successfully applied in FISH experiments using 16S rRNA specific probes and filamentous cyanobacteria. PMID:26780689

  11. The Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Different Ploidy Levels Cross-Breeding of Lily

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Jingmao; Zhang, Yiying; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Shunchao; Lu, Yingmin

    2015-01-01

    21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids) hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid ‘Freya’ had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true. PMID:26010356

  12. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPERM-DERIVED CHROMATIN IN ZYGOTES DETERMINED BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the spatial distribution of chromatin in zygote pronuclei. ybrid system involving golden hamster eggs and individual human sperm permitted use of DNA probes specific for the entire human chromosome 4, for the heterochromati...

  13. Subsurface methanogenic activity in the Iberian Pyrite Belt detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oggerin, M.; Escudero, C.; Rodriguez, N.; Amils, R.

    2014-04-01

    The IPBSL is a drilling project designed to investigate the subsurface geomicrobiology of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Southwestern, Spain), a geological and mineralogical terrestrial analogue of Mars. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARDFISH) has been used to detect the presence of methanogenic archaea in samples from uncontaminated cores of the IPBSL.

  14. Assignment of the REST gene to 4q12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.M.; Powers, J.; Tischler, A.S.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the localization of the REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor) gene to human chromosome 14q12 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This gene plays a role in the regulation of certain genes exclusively in neurons. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Evolution of Chromosome 6 of Solanum Species Revealed by Comparative Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genome mapping is an important tool in evolutionary research. Here we demonstrate a comparative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping strategy. A set of 13 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones derived from potato chromosome 6 was used for FISH mapping in seven differen...

  16. Isolation and fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of 60 cosmid clones on human chromosome 18

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Sakai, Masako; Inaba, Rie; Imamura, Takashi )

    1994-02-01

    The authors have mapped 60 new cosmids on the short and long arms of chromosome 18 either by R- or by DAPI-banding and simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization. These markers were isolated from hybrid MS126-21 made from a human-rodent hybrid cell line that retained human chromosome 18. Twenty-two of the cosmid probes map on the short arm, and 31 probes cluster in the distal half of the long arm between bands 18q21.1 and 18q23, while 7 other probes are mapped more proximal to the centromere around bands 18q1.1-q12.3. The technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization has proven to be a very efficient methodology for gene mapping. These 60 probes will be useful in the elucidation of genetic alterations associated with diseases such as tetrasomy 18p syndrome, 18q- syndromes, and colorectal cancer. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging of coral-associated bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, T D; Fine, M; Blackall, L L; Hoegh-Guldberg, O

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities play important roles in the functioning of coral reef communities. However, extensive autofluorescence of coral tissues and endosymbionts limits the application of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for the identification of the coral-associated bacterial communities. This study overcomes these limitations by combining FISH and spectral imaging. PMID:16598010

  18. De Novo nonreciprocal translocation 1;8 confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.E.; Stout, C.; Palmer, S.M.

    1995-07-17

    Constitutional nonreciprocal translocations are extremely rare, and even their existence is controversial. We report on a newborn infant with a de novo nonreciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1 and 8 resulting in 1q42.3 deletion syndrome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints confirmed the conventional cytogenetic diagnosis. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Mapping pachytene chromosomes of coffee using a modified protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Iacia, Ana Amélia Sanchez; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most direct method for physically mapping DNA sequences on chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of meiotic chromosomes during the pachytene stage is an important tool in plant cytogenetics, because it provides high-resolution measurements of physical distances. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of coffee pachytene chromosomes offers significant advantages compared with FISH mapping of somatic chromosomes, because pachytene chromosomes are 30 times longer and provide additional cytological markers. However, the application of this technique to pachytene chromosomes has been complicated by problems in making preparations of meiotic chromosomes and by difficulties in the application of standard FISH protocols. We have been able to overcome most of these obstacles in applying the FISH technique to the pachytene chromosomes of coffee plants. Digesting the external callose layer surrounding the pollen mother cells (PMCs) in conjunction with other procedures permitted suitable pachytene chromosomes to be obtained by increasing cell permeability, which allowed the probe sequences to enter the cells. For the first time, hybridization signals were registered on coffee pachytene chromosomes using the FISH technique with a repetitive sequence as a probe. We obtained slides on which 80 % of the PMCs had hybridization signals, resulting in FISH labelling with high efficiency. The procedure does not seem to be dependent on the genotype, because hybridization signals were detected in genetically different coffee plants. These findings enhance the possibilities for high-resolution physical mapping of coffee chromosomes. PMID:24244840

  20. Identification of mosaicism in Prader-Willi syndrome using fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U.; Hanchett, J.M.

    1996-12-30

    We report on our findings of 4 patients with mosaicism for a deletion of chromosome 15, most commonly associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We examined a series of typical and atypical PWS patients in order to identify cytogenetically undetected deletions, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 4 of the patients analyzed we detected a deletion in 14-60% of peripheral blood leukocytes, using four commercially available probes. Our results indicate that mosaicism may play a role in the etiology of some PWS cases. These findings may be especially useful in patients who display discrepancies between clinical phenotype and established diagnostic criteria. Methylation and microsatellite polymorphism analyses of 2 patients with low-level mosaicism failed to identify the deletion. We propose that fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most effective method for detecting somatic mosaicism, since a large number of cells can be individually examined for the presence or absence of a specific deletion. 47 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Detection of recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Vance, Gail H

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic identification of clonal abnormalities present in leukemia is critical for accurate diagnosis of the disease and determination of specific therapeutic interventions for the patient. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies complement the diagnostic karyotype by providing a higher resolution of analysis with clarification of rearrangements observed by G-banding and identification of cryptic abnormalities not observed by the light microscope. This chapter will discuss FISH methodology as practiced in the cancer cytogenetic laboratory. PMID:23666691

  2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for evaluation of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Cummins, J.H.

    1995-07-17

    We have found fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results more reliavle than high resolution chromosome analysis for the diagnosis of Prader-Willi (PWS) or Angelman syndromes (AS). Specifically, we have found success in the detection of 15q11q13 deletions among 55 cases. Our study suggests that FISH analysis using PWS/AS probes can facilitate diagnostic evaluation of these cases for deletions. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  3. A supersandwich fluorescence in situ hybridization strategy for highly sensitive and selective mRNA imaging in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Wang, He; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Quan, Ke; Ying, Le; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    We report a supersandwich fluorescence in situ hybridization (SFISH) strategy for highly sensitive and selective in situ visualization of mRNA expression patterns at the single-cell level. This strategy uses two fluorophore-labeled signal probes to generate a supersandwich product, which in turn generates numerous signal probes located at the target mRNA position, resulting in the in situ fluorescence signal amplification. PMID:26523451

  4. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization to Detect Transgene Integration into Plant Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzacher, Trude

    Fluorescent chromosome analysis technologies have advanced our understanding of genome organization during the last 30 years and have enabled the investigation of DNA organization and structure as well as the evolution of chromosomes. Fluorescent chromosome staining allows even small chromosomes to be visualized, characterized by their composition and morphology, and counted. Aneuploidies and polyploidies can be established for species, breeding lines, and individuals, including changes occurring during hybridization or tissue culture and transformation protocols. Fluorescent in situ hybridization correlates molecular information of a DNA sequence with its physical location on chromosomes and genomes. It thus allows determination of the physical position of sequences and often is the only means to determine the abundance and distribution of DNA sequences that are difficult to map with any other molecular method or would require segregation analysis, in particular multicopy or repetitive DNA. Equally, it is often the best way to establish the incorporation of transgenes, their numbers, and physical organization along chromosomes. This chapter presents protocols for probe and chromosome preparation, fluorescent in situ hybridization, chromosome staining, and the analysis of results.

  5. Microbial Community Composition of Wadden Sea Sediments as Revealed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Llobet-Brossa, Enric; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Amann, Rudolf

    1998-01-01

    The microbial community composition of Wadden Sea sediments of the German North Sea coast was investigated by in situ hybridization with group-specific fluorescently labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides. A large fraction (up to 73%) of the DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)-stained cells hybridized with the bacterial probes. Nearly 45% of the total cells could be further identified as belonging to known phyla. Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster were most abundant in all layers, followed by the sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:9647850

  6. Technical review: In situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    In situ hybridization is a technique that is used to detect nucleotide sequences in cells, tissue sections, and even whole tissue. This method is based on the complementary binding of a nucleotide probe to a specific target sequence of DNA or RNA. These probes can be labeled with either radio-, fluorescent-, or antigen-labeled bases. Depending on the probe used, autoradiography, fluorescence microscopy, or immunohistochemistry, respectively, are used for visualization. In situ hybridization is extensively used in research, as well as clinical applications, especially for diagnostic purposes. This review discusses the basic technique of in situ hybridization. The standard in situ hybridization process is reviewed, and different types of in situ hybridization, their applications, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:24810158

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on single cells. (Sex determination and chromosome rearrangements).

    PubMed

    Scriven, Paul N; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the technique of choice for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) selection of female embryos in families with X-linked disease, for which there is no mutation-specific test. FISH with target-specific DNA probes is also the primary technique used for PGD detection of chromosome imbalance associated with Robertsonian translocations, reciprocal translocations, inversions, and other chromosome rearrangements, because the DNA probes, labeled with different fluorochromes or haptens, detect the copy number of their target loci. The methods described outline strategies for PGD for sex determination and chromosome rearrangements. These methods are assessment of reproductive risks, the selection of suitable probes for interphase FISH, spreading techniques for blastomere nuclei, and in situ hybridization and signal scoring using directly labeled and indirectly labeled probes. PMID:17876073

  8. Identification of two Skeletonema costatum-like diatoms by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoyu; Chen, Guofu; Wang, Guangce; Lu, Douding

    2010-03-01

    A harmful algae bloom (HAB) is a dense aggregation of algae in a marine or aquatic environment that can result in significant environmental problems. To forecast the occurrence of HAB, development of a rapid and precise detection method is urgently required. In this study, two Skeletonema costatum-like diatoms (SK-1 and SK-2), were identified morphologically under a light microscope, and detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Strain SK-1 was isolated from a frequently HAB affected area of the East China Sea, and strain SK-2 from an aquatic farm in Qingdao, China. Fluorescent DNA probes were designed that were complementary to the ITS sequence (including 5.8S rDNA) of strain SK-1. After hybridization, strong green fluorescence was observed in cells of strain SK-1 under an epifluorescence microscope; however, no such fluorescence was observed with strain SK-2, which indicates that probes hybridized only the DNA of the target strain, SK-1, in species-specific manner, and that the two strains do not belong to a same species. This finding was confirmed by ITS sequence analysis. The FISH technique used in this study was sensitive, simple, and rapid, and is a promising tool for detecting target HAB species in natural environments.

  9. Direct counting of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts using fluorescence in situ hybridization on a membrane filter.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Shinozaki, Youhei; Takeyama, Haruko; Haraguchi, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masato; Kaneko, Masao; Ishimori, Yoshio; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the development of a direct and rapid detection method for the pathogenic protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum, from environmental water samples using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on a membrane filter. The hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane filter with FISH-stained oocysts yielded the highest signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the different membrane filters tested. PTFE membranes retained 98.8+/-0.4% of the concentrated oocysts after washing, simultaneous permeabilization and fixation with a hot ethanol solution, and hybridization with a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe. This procedure eliminates subsequent time-consuming recovery steps that often result in a loss of the actual oocysts in a given environmental water sample. Furthermore, C. parvum was successfully distinguished from Cryptosporidium muris and other species in environmental water samples with the addition of formamide into the hybridization solution. In tap water samples, the S/N ratio was heightened by washing the membrane filter prior to FISH with a 1 M HCl solution in order to reduce the large amounts of impurities and background fluorescence from the non-specific adsorption of the fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe. PMID:16793153

  10. Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Minna; Gancberg, David; Di Leo, Angelo; Larsimont, Denis; Rouas, Ghizlane; Piccart, Martine J.; Isola, Jorma

    2000-01-01

    Determination of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification has become necessary for selection of breast cancer patients for trastuzumab (Herceptin) therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is currently regarded as a gold standard method for detecting HER-2/neu amplification, but it is not very practical for routine histopathological laboratories. We evaluated a new modification of in situ hybridization, the chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which enables detection of HER-2/neu gene copies with conventional peroxidase reaction. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections were pretreated (by heating in a microwave oven and using enzyme digestion) and hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe. The probe was detected with anti-digoxigenin fluorescein, anti-fluorescein peroxidase, and diaminobenzidine. Gene copies visualized by CISH could be easily distinguished with a ×40 objective in hematoxylin-stained tissue sections. HER-2/neu amplification typically appeared as large peroxidase-positive intranuclear gene copy clusters. CISH and FISH (according to Vysis, made from frozen pulverized tumor samples) correlated well in a series of 157 breast cancers (kappa coefficient, 0.81). The few different classifications were mostly because of low-level amplifications by FISH that were negative by CISH and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody CB-11. We conclude that CISH, using conventional bright-field microscopy in evaluation, is a useful alternative for determination of HER-2/neu amplification in paraffin-embedded tumor samples, especially for confirming the immunohistochemical staining results. PMID:11073807

  11. Two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization using chromogenic substrates in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jennifer A; Zhao, Emma J; Kofron, Matthew J; Sumanas, Saulius

    2014-11-01

    Two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a widely used technique for comparing relative gene expression patterns. Current two-color FISH protocols are not ideal for detecting weakly expressed transcripts or monitoring signal strength and background levels during the course of the reaction. Here we describe an improved FISH protocol using the conventional highly sensitive chromogenic substrates nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT)/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) and Vector Red in zebrafish embryos. This protocol substantially improves on existing FISH techniques by combining the advantages of long reactivity of alkaline phosphatase, chromogenic monitoring of both developing reactions, and the ability to perform subsequent high-resolution fluorescent imaging. Although tested in zebrafish, a similar approach is expected to be applicable to ISH in any model organism. PMID:25391914

  12. Multiplexed miRNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Bognanni, Claudia; Tuschl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Multiplexed miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (miRNA FISH) is an advanced method for visualizing differentially expressed miRNAs, together with other reference RNAs, in archival tissues. Some miRNAs are excellent disease biomarkers due to their abundance and cell-type specificity. However, these short RNA molecules are difficult to visualize due to loss by diffusion, probe mishybridization, and signal detection and signal amplification issues. Here, we describe a reliable and adjustable method for visualizing and normalizing miRNA signals in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. PMID:25218385

  13. Rapid detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Katherine; Landes, Greg; Shook, Donna; Harvey, Robert; Lopez, Linda; Locke, Pat; Lerner, Terry; Osathanondh, Rapin; Leverone, Benjamin; Houseal, Timothy; Pavelka, Karen; Dackowski, William

    1992-01-01

    Herein we report the results of the first major prospective study directly comparing aneuploidy detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization of interphase nuclei with the results obtained by cytogenetic analysis. We constructed probes derived from specific subregions of human chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and Y that give a single copy–like signal when used in conjunction with suppression hybridization. A total of 526 independent amniotic fluid samples were analyzed in a blind fashion. All five probes were analyzed on 117 samples, while subsets of these five probes were used on the remaining samples (because of insufficient sample size), for a total of over 900 autosomal hybridization reactions and over 400 sex chromosome hybridization reactions. In this blind series, 21 of 21 abnormal samples were correctly identified. The remaining samples were correctly classified as disomic for these five chromosomes. The combination of chromosome-specific probe sets composed primarily of cosmid contigs and optimized hybridization/detection allowed accurate chromosome enumeration in uncultured human amniotic fluid cells, consistent with the results obtained by traditional cytogenetic analysis. Imagesp[60]-aFigure 1 PMID:1609805

  14. Mismatch discrimination in fluorescent in situ hybridization using different types of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fontenete, Silvia; Silvia, Fontenete; Barros, Joana; Joana, Barros; Madureira, Pedro; Pedro, Madureira; Figueiredo, Céu; Céu, Figueiredo; Wengel, Jesper; Jesper, Wengel; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Filipe, Azevedo Nuno

    2015-05-01

    In the past few years, several researchers have focused their attention on nucleic acid mimics due to the increasing necessity of developing a more robust recognition of DNA or RNA sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an example of a method where the use of these novel nucleic acid monomers might be crucial to the success of the analysis. To achieve the expected accuracy in detection, FISH probes should have high binding affinity towards their complementary strands and discriminate effectively the noncomplementary strands. In this study, we investigate the effect of different chemical modifications in fluorescent probes on their ability to successfully detect the complementary target and discriminate the mismatched base pairs by FISH. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first study where this analysis is performed with different types of FISH probes directly in biological targets, Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter acinonychis. This is also the first study where unlocked nucleic acids (UNA) were used as chemistry modification in oligonucleotides for FISH methodologies. The effectiveness in detecting the specific target and in mismatch discrimination appears to be improved using locked nucleic acids (LNA)/2'-O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) or peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in comparison to LNA/DNA, LNA/UNA, or DNA probes. Further, the use of LNA modifications together with 2'OMe monomers allowed the use of shorter fluorescent probes and increased the range of hybridization temperatures at which FISH would work. PMID:25840566

  15. Simultaneous specific in planta visualization of root-colonizing fungi using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Vági, Pál; Knapp, Dániel G; Kósa, Annamária; Seress, Diána; Horváth, Áron N; Kovács, Gábor M

    2014-05-01

    In planta detection of mutualistic, endophytic, and pathogenic fungi commonly colonizing roots and other plant organs is not a routine task. We aimed to use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for simultaneous specific detection of different fungi colonizing the same tissue. We have adapted ribosomal RNA (rRNA) FISH for visualization of common mycorrhizal (arbuscular- and ectomycorrhiza) and endophytic fungi within roots of different plant species. Beside general probes, we designed and used specific ones hybridizing to the large subunit of rRNA with fluorescent dyes chosen to avoid or reduce the interference with the autofluorescence of plant tissues. We report here an optimized efficient protocol of rRNA FISH and the use of both epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for simultaneous specific differential detection of those fungi colonizing the same root. The method could be applied for the characterization of other plant-fungal interactions, too. In planta FISH with specific probes labeled with appropriate fluorescent dyes could be used not only in basic research but to detect plant colonizing pathogenic fungi in their latent life-period. PMID:24221902

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization evaluation of chromosome deletion patterns in prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. F.; Xiao, S.; Renshaw, A. A.; Loughlin, K. R.; Hudson, T. J.; Fletcher, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Various nonrandom chromosomal aberrations have been identified in prostate carcinoma. These aberrations include deletions of several chromosome regions, particularly the chromosome 8 short arm. Large-scale numerical aberrations, reflected in aberrant DNA ploidy, are also found in a minority of cases. However, it is unclear whether prostate carcinomas contain aberrations of certain chromosome regions that are deleted frequently in other common types of cancer. In this study, we performed dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on intact nuclei from touch preparations of 16 prostate cancers. Chromosome copy number was determined using pericentromeric probes, whereas potential chromosome arm deletions were evaluated using yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and P1 probes. Two YAC probes targeted chromosome 8 short arm regions known to be deleted frequently in prostate cancer. Other YACs and P1s were for chromosome regions, including 1p22, 3p14, 6q21, 9p21, and 22q12, that are deletion targets in a variety of cancers although not extensively studied in prostate cancer. Hybridization efficiencies and signal intensities were excellent for both repeat sequence (alpha-satellite) and single, copy (YAC and P1) fluorescence in situ hybridization probes. Of 16 prostate cancers, 11 had clonal aberrations of 1 or more of the 13 chromosome regions evaluated, and 10 cases (62.5%) had 8p deletions, including 4 cases with 8p deletion in virtually all cells and aneuploidy in only a subset of those deleted cells. Deletions at 3p14, 6q21, and 22q12 were identified in 2, 1, and 1 case, respectively, and each of those cases had a similarly sized cell population with 8p deletion. These studies confirm 8p deletion in the majority of prostate carcinomas. 8p deletions appear to be early events in prostate tumorigenesis, often antedating aneuploidy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization strategies incorporating pericentromeric and single-copy regional chromosome probes offer a powerful and efficient means for determining frequency and progression of oncogenetic events in prostate cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8909246

  17. Detection of a complex translocation using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, B.A.; Abuelo, D.N.; Mark, H.F.

    1994-09-01

    The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the detection of a complex 3-way translocation in a patient with multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The patient was a 10-year-old girl with mental retardation, seizures, repaired cleft palate, esotropia, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, upward slanting palpebral fissures, single transverse palmar crease, brachydactyly, hypoplastic nails, ectrodactyly between the third and fourth right toes, and hypoplasia of the left third toe. Chromosome analysis performed at birth was reported as normal. We performed high resolution banding analysis which revealed an apparently balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 9. However, because of her multiple abnormalities, further studies were ordered. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome painting probes revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(2;8;9) (2pter{yields}q31::8q21.2{yields}8qter; 8pter{yields}q21.2::2q31{yields}q34::9q34{yields}qter; 9pter{yields}q34::2q34{yields}qter). The 3-way translocation appears to be de novo, as neither parent is a translocation carrier. This case illustrates the importance of using FISH to further investigate cases of apparently balanced translocations in the presence of phenotypic abnormalities and/or mental retardation.

  18. Protecting Quantum Dot Fluorescence from Quenching to Achieve a Reliable Automated Multiplex Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Pang, Lizhen; Parkinson, Leslie Baca; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Quantum dots (QD) are novel inorganic fluorochromes that are ultra-bright, photo-stable, and available in multiple, highly-resolvable colors. QDs represent an ideal detection material for in situ hybridization (ISH) because they may provide unprecedented resolution and strong signal intensities that are not attainable with traditional fluorophores. Unfortunately, lack of reliability has been an impediment to widespread adoption of QD-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (QD FISH) technology. By optimizing QD-to-target accessibility, we have developed a QD FISH staining procedure that dramatically improves the reliability of an automated ERG/PTEN QD FISH assay (91% 1st pass rate). Here, we report improvements to the assay that protects QD fluorescence from quenching due to trace amounts of heavy metals and minimizes QD background signals. When using this method, highly-consistent staining was observed with the ERG/PTEN QD FISH assay in prostate tissue. Successful staining of several other clinically-relevant genetic markers was also possible. We further demonstrated improved reliability for determining HER2 gene status in breast cancer, identifying anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene break-apart in non-small cell lung cancer, and detecting human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The enhanced QD FISH assay allows for examining complicated genetic aberrances without use of enzymatic amplification. Our optimized methods now demonstrate reliability sufficient for QD FISH technology to be a diagnostic tool in a clinical setting. PMID:26485928

  19. Whole-slide imaging is a robust alternative to traditional fluorescent microscopy for fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging using break-apart DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Camille; Guérin, Maxime; Frenois, François-Xavier; Thuries, Valérie; Jalabert, Laurence; Brousset, Pierre; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2013-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization is an indispensable technique used in routine pathology and for theranostic purposes. Because fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques require sophisticated microscopic workstations and long procedures of image acquisition with sometimes subjective and poorly reproducible results, we decided to test a whole-slide imaging system as an alternative approach. In this study, we used the latest generation of Pannoramic 250 Flash digital microscopes (P250 Flash digital microscopes; 3DHISTECH, Budapest, Hungary) to digitize fluorescence in situ hybridization slides of diffuse large B cells lymphoma cases for detecting MYC rearrangement. The P250 Flash digital microscope was found to be precise with better definition of split signals in cells containing MYC rearrangement with fewer truncated signals as compared to traditional fluorescence microscopy. This digital technique is easier thanks to the preview function, which allows almost immediate identification of the tumor area, and the panning and zooming functionalities as well as a shorter acquisition time. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using the digital technique appeared to be more reproducible between pathologists. Finally, the digital technique also allowed prolonged conservation of photos. In conclusion, whole-slide imaging technologies represent rapid, robust, and highly sensitive methods for interpreting fluorescence in situ hybridization slides with break-apart probes. In addition, these techniques offer an easier way to interpret the signals and allow definitive storage of the images for pathology expert networks or e-learning databases. PMID:23517924

  20. PNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for rapid microbiology and cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Stender, Henrik; Williams, Brett; Coull, James

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization-based assays for the detection of nucleic acids including in situ hybridization are increasingly being utilized in a wide variety of disciplines such as cytogenetics, microbiology, and histology. Generally in situ hybridization assays utilize either cloned genomic probes for the detection of DNA sequences or oligonucleotide probes for the detection of DNA or RNA sequences. Alternately, PNA probes are increasingly being utilized in a variety of in situ hybridization assays. The neutral backbone of the PNA molecule allows for the PNA probes to bind to DNA or RNA under low ionic strength conditions that will either disfavor reannealing of complimentary genomic sequences or are denaturing for RNA secondary structure but are favorable for PNA/DNA or PNA/RNA hybridization. For in situ hybridization assays these unique properties of PNA probes offer significant advantages that allow for the development of fast, simple, and robust assays (Figs. 14.1 and 14.2). PMID:24297359

  1. Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization of Microbial Communities in the Rumens of Cattle Fed Different Dietsâ–¿

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yunhong; He, Maolong; McAlister, Tim; Seviour, Robert; Forster, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At present there is little quantitative information on the identity and composition of bacterial populations in the rumen microbial community. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization using newly designed oligonucleotide probes was applied to identify the microbial populations in liquid and solid fractions of rumen digesta from cows fed barley silage or grass hay diets with or without flaxseed. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were abundant in both fractions, constituting 31.8 to 87.3% of the total cell numbers. They belong mainly to the order Bacteroidales (0.1 to 19.2%), hybridizing with probe BAC1080; the families Lachnospiraceae (9.3 to 25.5%) and Ruminococcaceae (5.5 to 23.8%), hybridizing with LAC435 and RUM831, respectively; and the classes Deltaproteobacteria (5.8 to 28.3%) and Gammaproteobacteria (1.2 to 8.2%). All were more abundant in the rumen communities of cows fed diets containing silage (75.2 to 87.3%) than in those of cows fed diets containing hay (31.8 to 49.5%). The addition of flaxseed reduced their abundance in the rumens of cows fed silage-based diets (to 45.2 to 58.7%) but did not change markedly their abundance in the rumens of cows fed hay-based diets (31.8 to 49.5%). Fibrolytic species, including Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus spp., and archaeal methanogens accounted for only a small proportion (0.4 to 2.1% and 0.2 to 0.6%, respectively) of total cell numbers. Depending on diet, between 37.0 and 91.6% of microbial cells specifically hybridized with the probes used in this study, allowing them to be identified in situ. The identities of other microbial populations (8.4 to 63.0%) remain unknown. PMID:20802069

  2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses of human oocytes in trisomy 18 and 21

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.Y.; Chen, Y.J.; Gartler, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    The commonly accepted view of synapsis is that only 2 homologues can synapse at any one site and that this restriction applies to polyploids as well. However, triple synapsis has been observed is some triploid plants and in triploid chicken. In humans, triple synapsis of the long arm of chromosome 21 was detected in sperm of a trisomic 21 individual. More recently, studies of oocytes from trisomic 21 and 18 fetuses also indicated extensive triple synapsis along the entire length of the chromosomes. To further investigate this question, we undertook an evaluation of trivalent synapsis in fetal oocytes from 2 trisomic 21 and 2 trisomic 18 fetuses using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome probes. Oocytes were hybridized with whole chromosome probes obtained from ONCOR, Inc. after fixation with methanol and acetic acid. Slides were scored for the distribution of prophase stages, hybridization efficiency, and hybridization characteristics of chromosomes 18 and 21 in the trisomic 18 and 21 fetuses respectively. Fifty-eight per cent (379/650) of pachytenes analyzed for chromosome 18 contained a conspicous trivalent and 319 (48%) of these nuclei contained a single, thick, continuous fluorescent signal consistent with complete triple synapsis along the entire length of all 3 chromosomes. Sixteen per cent (104/650) of pachytene contained 2 signals consistent with a bivalent and a univalent, and 9 cells contained 3 thin signals consistent with asynapsis of all 3 chromosomes. The remaining 158 pachytenes had unusual pairing configurations that we could not classify, but they most likely represent trivalents with partial pairing between different homologues. In the 2 trisomic 21 fetuses, the majority (143/232) of pachytenes also contained one signal while only 52 cells contained a bivalent and univalent. Five cells contained 3 separate signals. These results confirm the existence of triple synapsis in human meiosis.

  3. Recent advances in rice genome and chromosome structure research by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Ohmido, Nobuko; Fukui, Kiichi; Kinoshita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an effective method for the physical mapping of genes and repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes. Physical mapping of unique nucleotide sequences on specific rice chromosome regions was performed using a combination of chromosome identification and highly sensitive FISH. Increases in the detection sensitivity of smaller DNA sequences and improvements in spatial resolution have ushered in a new phase in FISH technology. Thus, it is now possible to perform in situ hybridization on somatic chromosomes, pachytene chromosomes, and even on extended DNA fibers (EDFs). Pachytene-FISH allows the integration of genetic linkage maps and quantitative chromosome maps. Visualization methods using FISH can reveal the spatial organization of the centromere, heterochromatin/euchromatin, and the terminal structures of rice chromosomes. Furthermore, EDF-FISH and the DNA combing technique can resolve a spatial distance of 1 kb between adjacent DNA sequences, and the detection of even a 300-bp target is now feasible. The copy numbers of various repetitive sequences and the sizes of various DNA molecules were quantitatively measured using the molecular combing technique. This review describes the significance of these advances in molecular cytology in rice and discusses future applications in plant studies using visualization techniques. PMID:20154468

  4. Use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in third trimester fetuses with anomalies and growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Aviram-Goldring, A; Daniely, M; Dorf, H; Chaki, R; Goldman, B; Barkai, G

    1999-11-26

    In the last few years, attention has been focused on the use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for prenatal diagnosis with chromosome-specific DNA probes in the second trimester. This technique is accurate, rapid, and detects the most common aneuploidies. We present a preliminary study using FISH technique on uncultured amniotic cells derived from 30 fetuses with ultrasonographic evidence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in the third trimester. Fifteen fetuses were males and 15 were females. Seven fetuses (23.3%) had abnormal chromosomal constitution: five (18.6%) had trisomy 21, one (2.35%) had trisomy 18, and one (2.35%) showed a mosaic trisomy 18. No abnormalities were detected in the other 23 fetuses. Amniocentesis combined with FISH appears to be a safe, rapid, and accurate alternative to blood sampling in the third trimester, reducing the clinical and emotional stress of the time required to complete chromosome analysis by routine cytogenetics. PMID:10564871

  5. Chromosome-Specific DNA Repeats: Rapid Identification in Silico and Validation Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Joanne H.; Zeng, Hui; Lemke, Kalistyn H.; Polyzos, Aris A.; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Lawin-O’Brien, Anna R.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; O’Brien, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome enumeration in interphase and metaphase cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an established procedure for the rapid and accurate cytogenetic analysis of cell nuclei and polar bodies, the unambiguous gender determination, as well as the definition of tumor-specific signatures. Present bottlenecks in the procedure are a limited number of commercial, non-isotopically labeled probes that can be combined in multiplex FISH assays and the relatively high price and effort to develop additional probes. We describe a streamlined approach for rapid probe definition, synthesis and validation, which is based on the analysis of publicly available DNA sequence information, also known as “database mining”. Examples of probe preparation for the human gonosomes and chromosome 16 as a selected autosome outline the probe selection strategy, define a timeline for expedited probe production and compare this novel selection strategy to more conventional probe cloning protocols. PMID:23344021

  6. Chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) to study sister chromatid segregation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ester; Chavez, Elizabeth; Henderson, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, assays for sister chromatid segregation patterns relied on incorporation of BrdU and indirect methods to infer segregation patterns after two cell divisions. Here we describe a method to differentially label sister chromatids of murine cells and directly assay sister chromatid segregation patterns following one cell division in vitro and in vivo by adaptation of the well-established CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization) technique. 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into newly-formed DNA strands, followed by photolysis and exonuclease digestion to create single-stranded sister chromatids containing parental template DNA only. Such single-stranded sister chromatids are differentially labeled using unidirectional probes to major satellite sequences coupled to fluorescent markers. Differentially-labeled sister chromatids in post-mitotic cells are visualized using fluorescence microscopy and sister chromatid segregation patterns can be directly assayed after one cell division. This procedure requires four days for in vivo mouse tissues, and two days for in vitro cultured cells. PMID:20595964

  7. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict the melting temperature for rRNA targets, for DNA oligonucleotides and for nucleic acid mimics (chemically modified oligonucleotides), will be addressed in detail, together with a critical assessment of how this information should be used in FISH. PMID:25586037

  8. Methods for meiotic chromosome preparation, immunofluorescence, and fluorescence in situ hybridization in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Dai; Eads, Brian D; Zolan, Miriam E

    2009-01-01

    The genus Daphnia has an intriguing reproductive mode of cyclical parthenogenesis. This reproductive mode has been studied for centuries, but cytogenetic information is lacking due to technical limitations of classical methods. We have developed methods for the preparation and examination of meiotic chromosomes of Daphnia pulex from oocytes and spermatocytes. Oocyte chromosome preparations are obtained by isolating individual oocytes after the release of yolk granules from the ovary using pressure and capillary action. Spermatocyte chromosomes are prepared using a conventional squash method. Cryosectioning is an easy and fast way to prepare sections. We also illustrate the application of immunofluorescence staining against alpha tubulin, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA or single-copy cosmid clones. PMID:19685328

  9. Detection of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in acid mine drainage environments using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K K; Leduc, L G; Ferroni, G D

    2005-04-01

    An important microorganism of acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching environments is Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans which oxidizes ferrous iron and generates ferric iron, an oxidant. Most investigations to understand microbial aspects of sulfide mineral dissolution have focused on understanding physiological, metabolic, and genetic characteristics of A. ferrooxidans. In this study, a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe designated S-S-T.ferr-0584-a-A-18, and labeled at the 5'-end with indocarbocyanine dye (CY3), was used in a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure on pure cultures of nine isolates of A. ferrooxidans. These isolates were recovered from acid mine drainage and mining environments. The probe was also used to detect cells of A. ferrooxidans, recovered from AMD samples, growing on FeTSB and FeSo solid media in a FISH procedure. In addition, the presence of cells of A. ferrooxidans in an environmental water sample from an AMD site in Copper Cliff, Ontario, Canada was analyzed using the FISH technique. Probe specificity was first confirmed with A. ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 (positive control) and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19377, Acidiphilium acidophilum ATCC 27807, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 (negative controls). Positive and negative control cells were also used to determine optimal stringency conditions for hybridizations with the probe. Cells of the nine isolates of A. ferrooxidans stained positive, although the fluorescent signal varied in intensity from isolate to isolate. Colonies of A. ferrooxidans from the environmental water sample of the AMD site were recovered only on FeTSB solid medium after 22 days of incubation. The probe was able to detect cells of A. ferrooxidans in a FISH procedure. However, no cells of A. ferrooxidans were detected in the AMD water sample without cultivation. Thus, probe S-S-T.ferr-0584-a-A-18 hybridized effectively with cells of A. ferrooxidans recovered from pure cultures but failed to directly detect cells of A. ferrooxidans in the AMD site. PMID:15676194

  10. Identification of supernumerary ring chromosome 1 mosaicism using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.; Wertelecki, W.

    1995-03-27

    We report on a 15-year-old black boy with severe mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, and a supernumerary ring chromosome mosaicism. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 1 painting probe (pBS1) identified the ring as derived from chromosome 1. The karyotype was 46,XY/47,XY,+r(1)(p13q23). A review showed 8 reports of ring chromosome 1. In 5 cases, the patients had a non-supernumerary ring chromosome 1 resulting in partial monosomies of the short and/or long arm of chromosome 1. In 3 cases, the presence of a supernumerary ring resulted in partial trisomy of different segments of chromosome 1. In one of these cases of the supernumerary ring was composed primarily of the centromere and the heterochromatic region of chromosome 1, resulting in normal phenotype. Our patient represents the third report of a supernumerary ring chromosome 1 resulting in abnormal phenotype. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A New Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probe Set Directed Against Human Heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bucksch, Maria; Ziegler, Monika; Kosayakova, Nadezda; Mulatinho, Milene V.; Llerena, Juan C.; Morlot, Susanne; Fischer, Wolfgang; Polityko, Anna D.; Kulpanovich, Anna I.; Petersen, Michael B.; Belitz, Britta; Trifonov, Vladimir; Weise, Anja; Hamid, Ahmed B.

    2012-01-01

    A new multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) probe set is presented, and its possible applications are highlighted in 25 clinical cases. The so-called heterochromatin-M-FISH (HCM-FISH) probe set enables a one-step characterization of the large heterochromatic regions within the human genome. HCM-FISH closes a gap in the now available mFISH probe sets, as those do not normally cover the acrocentric short arms; the large pericentric regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16; as well as the band Yq12. Still, these regions can be involved in different kinds of chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, insertions, inversions, amplifications, and marker chromosome formations. Here, examples are given for all these kinds of chromosomal aberrations, detected as constitutional rearrangements in clinical cases. Application perspectives of the probe set in tumors as well as in evolutionary cytogenetic studies are given. PMID:22511603

  12. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) as a tool for visualization and enumeration of Campylobacter in broiler ceca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-borne human pathogens are typically detected and enumerated by either cultural methods or PCR-based approaches. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) is a standard microscopy tool for microbial ecology but has not been widely used for food safety applications despite important advantages o...

  13. Analyzing mRNA Expression Using Single mRNA Resolution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Zenklusen, Daniel; Singer, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    As the product of transcription and the blueprint for translation, mRNA is the main intermediate product of the gene expression pathway. The ability to accurately determine mRNA levels is, therefore, a major requirement when studying gene expression. mRNA is also a target of different regulatory steps, occurring in different subcellular compartments. To understand the different steps of gene expression regulation, it is therefore essential to analyze mRNA in the context of a single cell, maintaining spatial information. Here, we describe a stepwise protocol for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) that allows detection of individual mRNAs in single yeast cells. This method allows quantitative analysis of mRNA expression in single cells, permitting “absolute” quantification by simply counting mRNAs. It further allows us to study many aspects of mRNA metabolism, from transcription to processing, localization, and mRNA degradation. PMID:20946829

  14. Chromosome translocations measured by fluorescence in-situ hybridization: A promising biomarker

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.

    1995-10-01

    A biomarker for exposure and risk assessment would be most useful if it employs an endpoint that is highly quantitative, is stable with time, and is relevant to human risk. Recent advances in chromosome staining using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) facilitate fast and reliable measurement of reciprocal translocations, a kind of DNA damage linked to both prior exposure and risk. In contrast to other biomarkers available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time post exposure, has a rather small inter-individual variability, and can be measured accurately at the low levels. Here, the authors discuss results from their studies demonstrating that chromosome painting can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for workers exposed within the dose limits, for individuals exposed a long time ago, and even for those who have been diagnosed with leukemia but not yet undergone therapy.

  15. Nasopharyngeal hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma with EWSR1 rearrangements diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Tagami, Yohei; Takasawa, Akira; Sugita, Shintaro; Kuramoto, Rinnosuke; Imai, Suguru; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Iizuka, Keiji

    2015-10-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare, low-grade salivary gland neoplasm with a predilection for the palate and tongue. A 63-year-old woman presented a 14×14×17-mm mass at the roof of the nasopharynx. Endoscopic resection was performed via a transnasal approach. Histopathological findings of the salivary gland tumor indicated hyalinization of the stroma and neoplastic cells with clear cytoplasm without mucin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the tumor cells were positive for EWSR1 rearrangement. We finally diagnosed this case as HCCC of the nasopharynx. EWSR1 rearrangements are non-existent in other salivary gland tumors with clear cell change; thus, the identification of this rearrangement was very useful in accurately diagnosing HCCC. PMID:25805066

  16. Prenatal diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization on chorionic villus cells: nonsignificance of maternal cell contamination.

    PubMed

    Bryndorf, T; Christensen, B; Xiang, Y; Philip, J

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the effect of maternal cell contamination on the sensitivity of prenatal diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on overnight attached mesenchymal chorionic villus cells. Double targets FISHs with X and Y chromosome-specific probes were performed on parallel samples from the same pregnancies: (1) samples of assumed fetal tissue retained during dissection, and (2) samples of suspected maternal tissue discarded during dissection. In the karyotypically male samples the tissue retained during dissection contained 0-3% nuclei with two X-specific signals each. In the tissue discarded from the karyotypically male samples 0-50% of the nuclei had two X-specific signals each. We conclude that given thorough dissection of chorionic villi, the sensitivity of prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies by FISH on overnight attached samples of this tissue is not critically affected by maternal cell contamination. PMID:8185841

  17. The design of a microscopic system for typical fluorescent in-situ hybridization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Xie, Shaochuan

    2013-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a modern molecular biology technique used for the detection of genetic abnormalities in terms of the number and structure of chromosomes and genes. The FISH technique is typically employed for prenatal diagnosis of congenital dementia in the Obstetrics and Genecology department. It is also routinely used to pick up qualifying breast cancer patients that are known to be highly curable by the prescription of Her2 targeted therapy. During the microscopic observation phase, the technician needs to count typically green probe dots and red probe dots contained in a single nucleus and calculate their ratio. This procedure need to be done to over hundreds of nuclei. Successful implementation of FISH tests critically depends on a suitable fluorescent microscope which is primarily imported from overseas due to the complexity of such a system beyond the maturity of the domestic optoelectrical industry. In this paper, the typical requirements of a fluorescent microscope that is suitable for FISH applications are first reviewed. The focus of this paper is on the system design and computational methods of an automatic florescent microscopy with high magnification APO objectives, a fast spinning automatic filter wheel, an automatic shutter, a cooled CCD camera used as a photo-detector, and a software platform for image acquisition, registration, pseudo-color generation, multi-channel fusing and multi-focus fusion. Preliminary results from FISH experiments indicate that this system satisfies routine FISH microscopic observation tasks.

  18. Development of single-cell array for large-scale DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingru; Kirkland, Brett; Shirley, James; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Peipei; Stembridge, Jacquelyn; Wong, Wilson; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Gilbert, David M.; Lenhert, Steven

    2013-01-01

    DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic assay, but conventional sample-preparation methods for FISH do not support large-scale high-throughput data acquisition and analysis, which are potentially useful for several biomedical applications. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel FISH sample-preparation method based on generating a centimetre-sized cell array, in which all cells are precisely positioned and separated from their neighbours. This method is simple and easy and capable of patterning nonadherent human cells. We have successfully performed DNA FISH on the single-cell arrays, which facilitate analysis of FISH results with the FISH-FINDER computer program. PMID:23370691

  19. Partial trisomy 13q identified by sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Carpenter, N.J.; Gucsavas, M.

    1995-07-31

    We report on a 19-month-old boy with partial trisomy 13q resulting from a probable balanced translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 13. The infant presented with omphalocele, malrotation, microcephaly with overriding skull bones, micrognathia, apparently low-set ears, rocker-bottom feet, and congenital heart disease, findings suggestive of trisomy 13. Karyotypic studies from peripheral blood lymphocytes documented an unbalanced karyotype 46,XY,-1,+der. The mother`s chromosomes were normal, and the father was not available. Conventional cytogenetic techniques were unable to identify the extra material on the terminal 1q. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the GTL-banded metaphases, the extra material on 1q was identified as the terminal long arm of 13, thus resulting in partial trisomy 13 (q32-qter). 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. In Situ Detection of Freshwater Fungi in an Alpine Stream by New Taxon-Specific Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probes?

    PubMed Central

    Baschien, Christiane; Manz, Werner; Neu, Thomas R.; Marvanová, Ludmila; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    New rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes permitted the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identification of freshwater fungi in an Austrian second-order alpine stream. Based on computer-assisted comparative sequence analysis, nine taxon-specific probes were designed and evaluated by whole-fungus hybridizations. Oligonucleotide probe MY1574, specific for a wide range of Eumycota, and the genus (Tetracladium)-specific probe TCLAD1395, as well as the species-specific probes ALacumi1698 (Alatospora acuminata), TRIang322 (Tricladium angulatum), and Alongi340 (Anguillospora longissima), are targeted against 18S rRNA, whereas probes TmarchB10, TmarchC1_1, TmarchC1_2, and AlongiB16 are targeted against the 28S rRNA of Tetracladium marchalianum and Anguillospora longissima, respectively. After 2 weeks and 3 months of exposure of polyethylene slides in the stream, attached germinating conidia and growing hyphae of freshwater fungi were accessible for FISH. Growing hyphae and germinating conidia on leaves and in membrane cages were also visualized by the new FISH probes. PMID:18776035

  1. Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization for retrospective detection of aneuploidy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Han, K; Drut, R M; Harris, C P; Meisner, L F

    1993-07-01

    In malignancies with a low mitotic index such as multiple myeloma (MM), conventional cytogenetic studies may not be informative. This study's purpose was to assess specific numerical chromosomal aberrations in non-dividing MM cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of DNA chromosome probes on bone marrow smears. Old air-dried bone marrow smears from 18 MM patients were probed with alpha satellite DNA sequences for chromosomes 7, X, and Y, and a whole painting probe for chromosome 11. Plasma cells were identified by their morphologic characteristics so that counts of fluorescent signals in the nuclei of MM cells could be differentiated from those of normal marrow cells. Numerical chromosome aberrations were found in 66.7% of the cases (12 of 18), including 5 cases of trisomy 7, 2 cases of tetraploidy, 2 cases of monosomy X in females, 2 cases of disomy X in males, and 1 case of nullisomy Y. In addition, 2 of the 7 cases probed with chromosome 11 paint demonstrated 3 signals in about 15% of the cells. This study illustrates the advantages of FISH for interphase analysis of chromosome aberrations in slowly dividing cells, as well as the ability to use old slides for retrospective studies. PMID:7687866

  2. Chromosomal loci of 50 human keratinocyte cDNAs assigned by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morishima, Yohich; Ariyama, Takeshi; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    1995-07-20

    The chromosomal loci of expressed genes provide useful information for a candidate gene approach to the genes responsible for genetic diseases. A large set of randomly isolated cDNAs catalogued by partial sequencing can serve as a resource for accessing and isolating these disease genes. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we examined the chromosomal loci of 217 human keratinocyte-derived cDNAs, with independent novel sequence tags at the 3{prime} end region. Among them, we determined the loci of 50 cDNAs. Single-pass sequencing of these from the 5{prime} ends indicated that 39 cDNAs still can be produced for new genes. These cDNAs with identified chromosomal loci are powerful tools that can be used to help elucidate the genes responsible for hereditary skin disorders. 42 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Determination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Lecrenier, M C; Ledoux, Q; Berben, G; Fumière, O; Saegerman, C; Baeten, V; Veys, P

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as "mad cow disease"), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. PMID:25034259

  4. Determination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Lecrenier, M. C.; Ledoux, Q.; Berben, G.; Fumière, O.; Saegerman, C.; Baeten, V.; Veys, P.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as “mad cow disease”), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. PMID:25034259

  5. Genotyping the factor VIII intron 22 inversion locus using fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Campbell R; McDonald, Margaret A; George, Peter M; Smith, Mark P; Morris, Christine M

    2011-02-15

    The factor VIII intron 22 inversion is the most common cause of hemophilia A, accounting for approximately 40% of all severe cases of the disease. Southern hybridization and multiplex long distance PCR are the most commonly used techniques to detect the inversion in a diagnostic setting, although both have significant limitations. Here we describe our experience establishing a multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) based assay as an alternative to existing methods for genetic diagnosis of the inversion. Our assay was designed to apply three differentially labelled BAC DNA probes that when hybridized to interphase nuclei would exhibit signal patterns that are consistent with the normal or the inversion locus. When the FISH assay was applied to five normal and five inversion male samples, the correct genotype was assignable with p<0.001 for all samples. When applied to carrier female samples the assay could not assign a genotype to all female samples, probably due to a lower proportion of informative nuclei in female samples caused by the added complexity of a second X chromosome. Despite this complication, these pilot findings show that the assay performs favourably compared to the commonly used methods. PMID:21212008

  6. Three dimensional dual labelled DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis in fixed tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Kernohan, Kristin D; Bérubé, Nathalie G

    2014-01-01

    Emerging studies demonstrate that three-dimensional organization of chromatin in the nucleus plays a vital role in regulating the genome. DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a common molecular technique used to visualize the location of DNA sequences. The vast majority of DNA FISH studies are conducted on cultured cells due to the technical difficulties encountered using fixed tissue sections. However, the use of cultured cells poses important limitations that could yield misleading results, making in vivo analysis a far superior approach. Here we present a protocol for multiplexed three dimensional DNA FISH in mouse brain sections, which is also applicable to other tissues. Paraffin-embedded tissues could be used but the embedding and preparation of the samples is time-consuming and often associated with poor antigenicity. To overcome this problem we:•developed a FISH technique using fixed, frozen cryosections;•provide specific instructions for tissue processing for proper fixation and freezing, including equilibration in sucrose gradients to maintain proper cellular structure;•include optimized permeabilization and washing steps to achieve specific signal and to limit background fluorescence in tissue sections. PMID:26150931

  7. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors. PMID:26231788

  8. X chromosome aneuploidy in infertile women: Analysis by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.A.; Moix, I.; Mermillod, B.

    1994-09-01

    Up to 1 in 3 couples have a problem of infertility at some time in their lives. Sex chromosome anomalies are found in 5-10% of couples, with mosaic aneuploidy being a common finding in primary infertility. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), in contrast, is frequently associated with autosomal structural anomalies. We hypothesized that low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy was associated with primary infertility but not with RSA. Three groups were studied: women from couples with primary infertillity (n=26); women with three or more spontaneous abortions (n=22); and age-matched normally fertile women (at least two pregnancies; n=28). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine X chromosome ploidy in 100 nuclei per patient, using a contig of three cosmids from MAO locus (kindly donated by W. Berger, Nijmegen). A control probe (chr. 15 centromere) was simultaneously hybridized, and only nuclei containing two control signals were scored for the X chromosome. The mean numbers of nuclei with two X chromosome signals were the same in all groups (Welch equality of means test: p>0.97). However, there is a significant difference between the variances of the primary infertile and RSA groups (Levene`s test: p=0.025 after Bonferrone correction for multiple testing). This provides preliminary support for the hypothesis of an association between primary infertility and low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy.

  9. Simple Method for Fluorescence DNA In Situ Hybridization to Squashed Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Larracuente, Amanda M.; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA in situ hybridization (DNA ISH) is a commonly used method for mapping sequences to specific chromosome regions. This approach is particularly effective at mapping highly repetitive sequences to heterochromatic regions, where computational approaches face prohibitive challenges. Here we describe a streamlined protocol for DNA ISH that circumvents formamide washes that are standard steps in other DNA ISH protocols. Our protocol is optimized for hybridization with short single strand DNA probes that carry fluorescent dyes, which effectively mark repetitive DNA sequences within heterochromatic chromosomal regions across a number of different insect tissue types. However, applications may be extended to use with larger probes and visualization of single copy (non-repetitive) DNA sequences. We demonstrate this method by mapping several different repetitive sequences to squashed chromosomes from Drosophila melanogaster neural cells and Nasonia vitripennis spermatocytes. We show hybridization patterns for both small, commercially synthesized probes and for a larger probe for comparison. This procedure uses simple laboratory supplies and reagents, and is ideal for investigators who have little experience with performing DNA ISH. PMID:25591075

  10. Investigation of telomere length dynamics in induced pluripotent stem cells using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Terai, Masanori; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Kuroiwa, Mie; Poon, Steven S S; Arai, Tomio; Toyoda, Masashi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Umezawa, Akihiro; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2013-12-01

    Here we attempted to clarify telomere metabolism in parental cells and their derived clonal human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) at different passages using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). Our methodology involved estimation of the individual telomere lengths of chromosomal arms in individual cells within each clone in relation to telomere fluorescence units (TFUs) determined by Q-FISH. TFUs were very variable within the same metaphase spread and within the same cell. TFUs of the established iPSCs derived from human amnion (hAM933 iPSCs), expressed as mean values of the median TFUs of 20 karyotypes, were significantly longer than those of the parental cells, although the telomere extension rates varied quite significantly among the clones. Twenty metaphase spreads from hAM933 iPSCs demonstrated no chromosomal instability. The iPSCs established from fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) did not exhibit telomere shortening and chromosomal instability as the number of passages increased. However, the telomeres of other iPSCs derived from MRC-5 became shorter as the number of passages increased, and one (5%) of 20 metaphase spreads showed chromosomal abnormalities including X trisomy at an early stage and all 20 showed abnormalities including X and 12 trisomies at the late stage. PMID:23928219

  11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment of chromosome copy number in sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, M.; Sigman, M.; Mark, H.F.L.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 15% of all recognized pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in spontaneous abortions is approximately 50%. Thus aneuploidy is a significant cause of fetal wastage. In addition, structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes can also lead to birth defects, developmental delay, mental retardation and infertility. Conventional cytogenetic analysis via GTG- and other banding techniques is a powerful tool in the elucidation of the nature of chromosomal abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) enables detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomies, in intact cells. Using FISH and commercially available biotin-labeled probes, we have initiated a prospective study to assess specific chromosome copy number of preparations of unstained smears from men referred for a male infertility evaluation as well as smears from normal control males chosen randomly from the sample of sperm donors. A total of approximately 19,000 sperm nuclei have been examined thus far. Of those suitable for analysis, 7382 (38.75%) were normal possessing one copy of chromosome 8, 155 (0.81%) were disomic, and 15 (0.079%) had more than two copies of chromosome 8. Comparisons with data available in the literature will be discussed. Work is ongoing to increase the efficiency of hybridization using both reported and previously untried pretreatment and fixation protocols. We have also initiated studies using multicolor FISH with various chromosome enumeration probes. The assay described here is a potentially powerful tool for detecting rare events such as spontaneous germ cell aneuploidy, aneuploidy detected in semen from men with carcinoma in situ of the testis and aneuploidy induced by potential environmental genotoxicants. It can also be utilized for segregation analysis and for correlating chromosome copy number with germ cell morphology.

  12. FISHIS: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Suspension and Chromosome Flow Sorting Made Easy

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Debora; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Gennaro, Andrea; Ceoloni, Carla; Lucretti, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The large size and complex polyploid nature of many genomes has often hampered genomics development, as is the case for several plants of high agronomic value. Isolating single chromosomes or chromosome arms via flow sorting offers a clue to resolve such complexity by focusing sequencing to a discrete and self-consistent part of the whole genome. The occurrence of sufficient differences in the size and or base-pair composition of the individual chromosomes, which is uncommon in plants, is critical for the success of flow sorting. We overcome this limitation by developing a robust method for labeling isolated chromosomes, named Fluorescent In situ Hybridization In suspension (FISHIS). FISHIS employs fluorescently labeled synthetic repetitive DNA probes, which are hybridized, in a wash-less procedure, to chromosomes in suspension following DNA alkaline denaturation. All typical A, B and D genomes of wheat, as well as individual chromosomes from pasta (T. durum L.) and bread (T. aestivum L.) wheat, were flow-sorted, after FISHIS, at high purity. For the first time in eukaryotes, each individual chromosome of a diploid organism, Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, was flow-sorted regardless of its size or base-pair related content. FISHIS-based chromosome sorting is a powerful and innovative flow cytogenetic tool which can develop new genomic resources from each plant species, where microsatellite DNA probes are available and high quality chromosome suspensions could be produced. The joining of FISHIS labeling and flow sorting with the Next Generation Sequencing methodology will enforce genomics for more species, and by this mightier chromosome approach it will be possible to increase our knowledge about structure, evolution and function of plant genome to be used for crop improvement. It is also anticipated that this technique could contribute to analyze and sort animal chromosomes with peculiar cytogenetic abnormalities, such as copy number variations or cytogenetic aberrations. PMID:23469124

  13. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for sex chromosome determination before and after fertilization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, R.M.; Rosenfeld, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    In mice, the relative numbers of male and female pups per litter not only can vary but can probably change over the course of pregnancy in response to numerous environmental and physiological factors. As such, a technique is required to determine gender at several developmental stages. Here we describe a robust and accurate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for determining chromosomal sex that can be applied with minimal modification to sperm, pre-and post-implantation conceptuses and recovered dead post-natal pups. Sperm was prepared for FISH analysis y using a modified microwave decondensation–denaturation technique. Preimplantation conceptuses (0.5 dpc) were cultured to the morula stage before sexing. They were then acid-treated to remove the zona pellucida. Tissue homogenates from postimplantational conceptuses (8.5 dpc) and stillborn pups were fixed to pre-etched slides. Specimens were hybridized with identical, commercially available DNA probes for the X (FITC) and Y (Cy3) chromosomes. Sperm ratios met the expected value of 0.5 when determined by using XY FISH. Preimplantation conceptuses pre-treated with pepsin yielded distinct fluorescence of X and Y chromosomes in morulae, whereas microwave decondensation resulted in loss of conceptuses from the slide. Both 4.0 and 8.5 dpc conceptuses displayed mean sex ratios of 0.5. Post-natal FISH analysis allowed gender identification of pups that could not be sexed due to developmental abnormalities or partial cannibalism. FISH analysis of sperm and of multiple conceptuses or post-natal tissue provided a cost-effective, accurate alternative to PCR-based sex determination. PMID:17215034

  14. RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS DIRECTLY FROM YEAST POSITIVE BLOOD CULTURE BOTTLES BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION USING PNA PROBES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Candida albicans directly from yeast-positive blood culture bottles is described. The test (C. albicans PNA FISH) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe targeting C. albicans 26...

  15. Diagnosis of Hydatidiform Moles by Polymorphic Deletion Probe Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Sarah; Fazlollahi, Ladan; Nguyen, Anhthu; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Roberts, Drucilla J.; Iafrate, A. John

    2011-01-01

    Because products of conception often contain maternal and villous tissues, the determination of maternal and villous genotypes based on genetic polymorphisms can help discern maternal and paternal chromosomal contribution and aid in the diagnosis of hydatidiform moles. Polymorphic deletion probe (PDP) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes based on copy number variants are highly polymorphic and allow in situ determination of genetic identity. By using three informative PDPs on chromosomes 2p, 4q, and 8p, we compared maternal with villous genotypes and determined the ploidy of villous tissue. PDP FISH was performed on 13 complete moles, 13 partial moles, 13 nonmolar abortions, and an equivocal hydropic abortion. PDP FISH permitted definitive diagnosis of complete moles in five of 13 cases for which maternal and villous genotypes were mutually exclusive. A complete mole was highly suspected when all three PDP loci showed homozygous villous genotypes. The diagnosis of a complete mole by PDP FISH yielded a theoretical test sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 91.8%, an observed test sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 92.3%. Triploidy was observed in all partial moles, in which diandric triploidy was confirmed in six cases. In the equivocal hydropic abortion, PDP FISH combined with p57 immunofluorescence revealed placental androgenetic/biparental mosaicism. PDP FISH can be used in clinical practice and research studies to subclassify hydatidiform moles and evaluate unusual products of conception. PMID:21704275

  16. DNA Mimics for the Rapid Identification of Microorganisms by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Laura; Azevedo, Nuno F.; Almeida, Carina; Jardim, Tatiana; Keevil, Charles William; Vieira, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique that is used for a variety of purposes, ranging from pathogen detection in clinical diagnostics to the determination of chromosomal stability in stem cell research. The key step of FISH involves the detection of a nucleic acid region and as such, DNA molecules have typically been used to probe for the sequences of interest. However, since the turn of the century, an increasing number of laboratories have started to move on to the more robust DNA mimics methods, most notably peptide and locked nucleic acids (PNA and LNA). In this review, we will cover the state-of-the-art of the different DNA mimics in regard to their application as efficient markers for the presence of individual microbial cells, and consider their potential advantages and pitfalls. Available PNA probes are then reassessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity using rRNA databases. In addition, we also attempt to predict the applicability of DNA mimics in well-known techniques attempting to detect in situ low number of copies of specific nucleic acid sequences such as catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) and recognition of individual genes (RING) FISH. PMID:19325728

  17. Increase in Fluorescence Intensity of 16S rRNA In Situ Hybridization in Natural Samples Treated with Chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Ouverney, C C; Fuhrman, J A

    1997-07-01

    Despite the numerous advantages of fluorescent in situ hybridization for the identification of single prokaryotic cells with 16S rRNA probes, use of the technique with natural samples, especially those from the marine environment, is still problematic. The low percentage of fluorescently labeled cells constitutes the primary problem for in situ hybridization of natural samples, probably due to low cellular rRNA content. This study represents an attempt to improve detection of marine prokaryotes by increasing cellular rRNA content without changing the species composition. Cells from three California coastal sites were treated with chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis and rRNA degradation, at 100 (mu)g/ml and then were probed with a "universal" 16S rRNA fluorescent probe and viewed by image-intensified video microscopy. Counts of fluorescent cells increased from ca. 75% for untreated samples to ca. 93 to 99% for chloramphenicol-treated samples, compared to counts produced by DAPI (4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, after at least 45 min of exposure to the drug (these percentages include autofluorescent cells, which averaged 6%). This suggests that most cells in these samples were active. We hypothesize that the low fluorescent-cell counts previously reported were probably often due to the fluorescence intensity of labeled cells being below the detection level rather than to high levels of dead cells in marine environments. This method may aid in the characterization of bacterioplankton with fluorescent probes. PMID:16535648

  18. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology. PMID:20840797

  19. FISH glossary: an overview of the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Emanuela V; Bridger, Joanna M

    2008-10-01

    The introduction of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) marked the beginning of a new era for the study of chromosome structure and function. As a combined molecular and cytological approach, the major advantage of this visually appealing technique resides in its unique ability to provide an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations while retaining information at the single-cell level. Used to support large-scale mapping and sequencing efforts related to the human genome project, FISH accuracy and versatility were subsequently capitalized on in biological and medical research, providing a wealth of diverse applications and FISH-based diagnostic assays. The diversification of the original FISH protocol into the impressive number of procedures available these days has been promoted throughout the years by a number of interconnected factors: the improvement in sensitivity, specificity and resolution, together with the advances in the fields of fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging, and the growing availability of genomic and bioinformatic resources. By assembling in a glossary format many of the "acronymed" FISH applications published so far, this review intends to celebrate the ability of FISH to re-invent itself and thus remain at the forefront of biomedical research. PMID:18855767

  20. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of synaptic proteins imaged with super-resolution STED microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William I; Röhse, Heiko; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Opazo, Felipe

    2014-07-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is still a developing field. One of the limitations has been that standard labeling assays, which had been developed for conventional imaging, must be adjusted and optimized for each super-resolution method. These methods are more sensitive to noise, and require more intense labeling than conventional microscopy, which is not always trivial to achieve. Here, we describe the use of stimulation-emission depletion (STED) microscopy to locate messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in single neurons with high spatial precision. We address several technical difficulties we encountered in using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for STED imaging. We optimized the experimental protocol to detect mRNAs and proteins simultaneously, by performing FISH and immunostaining on the same samples. We tested our imaging approach in primary hippocampal neurons, studying the mRNAs of three important presynaptic proteins (synaptobrevin, synaptotagmin, and synaptophysin). Our approach allowed us to relate changes in mRNA levels and localization to neuronal physiology, under different activity regimes and also during neuronal development. We conclude that FISH can be performed efficiently using super-resolution techniques. This should contribute significantly to the clarification of the molecular mechanisms that govern mRNA distribution and dynamics within cells. PMID:24723361

  1. Mapping of 13 horse genes by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and somatic cell hybrid analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, G; Breen, M; Godard, S; Bowling, A; Murray, J; Scavone, M; Skow, L; Sandberg, K; Guérin, G; Binns, M; Ellegren, H

    2001-01-01

    We report fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and somatic cell hybrid mapping data for 13 different horse genes (ANP, CD2, CLU, CRISP3, CYP17, FGG, IL1RN, IL10, MMP13, PRM1, PTGS2, TNFA and TP53). Primers for PCR amplification of intronic or untranslated regions were designed from horse-specific DNA or mRNA sequences in GenBank. Two different horse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were screened with PCR for clones containing these 13 Type I loci, nine of which were found in the libraries. BAC clones were used as probes in dual colour FISH to confirm their precise chromosomal origin. The remaining four genes were mapped in a somatic cell hybrid panel. All chromosomal assignments except one were in agreement with human-horse ZOO-FISH data and revealed new and more detailed information on the equine comparative map. CLU was mapped by synteny to ECA2 while human-horse ZOO-FISH data predicted that CLU would be located on ECA9. The assignment of IL1RN permitted analysis of gene order conservation between HSA2 and ECA15, which identified that an event of inversion had occurred during the evolution of these two homologous chromosomes. PMID:11272792

  2. In situ hybridization of phytoplankton using fluorescently labeled rRNA probes.

    PubMed

    Groben, René; Medlin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton are one of the major components of ecosystem processes and play an important role in many biogeochemical cycles in the marine and freshwater environment. Despite their importance, many microalgae are poorly described and little is known of broad spatial and temporal scale trends in their abundance and distribution. Reasons for this are that microalgae are often small, lack distinct morphological features, and are unculturable, which make analyses difficult. It is now possible by using molecular biological techniques to advance our knowledge of aquatic biodiversity and to understand how biodiversity supports ecosystem structure, dynamics, and resilience. We present in this chapter a brief review of the progress that has been made in analyzing microalgae from populations to the species level. The described methods range from DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), to microsatellites, which are used in population studies, to sequence analysis, which help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms and to examine relationships at various taxonomic levels. Special emphasis is given to the application of molecular probes for the identification and characterization of microalgal taxa. The fast and secure identification of phytoplankton, especially of toxic species, is important from an ecological and economical point of view and whole-cell hybridization with specific fluorochrome-labeled probes followed by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry offers a fast method for this purpose. In this context, we present a detailed protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) probes that can be applied to many algal cell types and discuss practical considerations of its use. PMID:15865974

  3. Development of a PNA Probe for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Detection of Prorocentrum donghaiense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guofu; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Baoyu; Wang, Guangce; Lu, Douding; Xu, Zhong; Yan, Peishen

    2011-01-01

    Prorocentrum donghaiense is a common but dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, which is widely distributed along the China Sea coast. Development of methods for rapid and precise identification and quantification is prerequisite for early-stage warning and monitoring of blooms due to P. donghaiense. In this study, sequences representing the partial large subunit rDNA (D1–D2), small subunit rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of P. donghaiense were firstly obtained, and then seven candidate DNA probes were designed for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests on P. donghaiense. Based on the fluorescent intensity of P. donghaiense cells labeled by the DNA probes, the probe DP0443A displayed the best hybridization performance. Therefore, a PNA probe (PP0443A) analogous to DP0443A was used in the further study. The cells labeled with the PNA probe displayed more intensive green fluorescence than that labeled with its DNA analog. The PNA probe was used to hybridize with thirteen microalgae belonging to five families, i.e., Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Raphidophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae, and showed no visible cross-reaction. Finally, FISH with the probes PP0443A and DP0443A and light microscopy (LM) analysis aiming at enumerating P. donghaiense cells were performed on the field samples. Statistical comparisons of the cell densities (cells/L) of P. donghaiense in the natural samples determined by FISH and LM were performed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparisons of the means. The P. donghaiense cell densities determined by LM and the PNA probe are remarkably higher than (p<0.05) that determined by the DNA probe, while no significant difference is observed between LM and the PNA probe. All results suggest that the PNA probe is more sensitive that its DNA analog, and therefore is promising for the monitoring of harmful algal blooms of P. donghaiense in the future. PMID:22022408

  4. [Detection of chromosome abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes with interval fluorescence in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Ru, Xiao; Li, Qing; Fang, Xiao-Sheng; Li, Ying; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ling-Yan

    2013-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the value of interval fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in detection of abnormal karyotypes of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Conventional cytogenetics (CC) and interval FISH methods were carried out to analyze the bone marrow cells in 80 cases of MDS and 20 normal people. The results showed that using FISH, 53.8% cases of MDS (43/80) were found with abnormal karyotypes which was higher than 21.3% detected by CC method. There was significant difference between the 2 methods in detecting abnormal karyotypes in MDS (P < 0.05). Among all World Health Organization (WHO) subtypes, more chromosome abnormal were detected by FISH than by CC, especially for refractory anemia (RA) and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) groups. The detecting rate in patients with intermediate risk of International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) also had a statistical difference between FISH and CC methods. It is concluded that the FISH is more sensitive than CC in detection of abnormal karyotypes in MDS and is informative for the cases with karyotype failure or normal karyotype tested by CC. It is mainly embodied in the intermediate risk cases of IPSS. In addition, patients with RA and RCMD may benefit more from FISH for diagnosis compared with other WHO subtypes. PMID:23484703

  5. Identification of pathogens in mastitis milk samples with fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Gey, Annerose; Werckenthin, Christiane; Poppert, Sven; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, the bacteriological examination of mastitis milk samples is performed by culture followed by biochemical tests on the cultured bacteria to allow identification of the causative pathogen. Depending on the species involved, this classic identification is time-consuming compared to other techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), a culture-independent method that utilizes oligonucleotides (labeled with a fluorophore) that are specific to a string of target DNA/RNA. In the current study, the applicability of FISH was evaluated for the detection of mastitis pathogens directly in milk samples. To remove interfering lipids and proteins from mastitis milk samples prior to FISH, a previously published enzymatic treatment with savinase was evaluated. FISH was performed using oligonucleotides specific for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, and Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes. The enzymatic pretreatment and the sensitivity of FISH were evaluated using spiked whole milk samples and mastitis milk samples with bacterial loads of less than 10(3) up to 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. Bacteria were reliably detected in milk samples with bacterial numbers of 10(6) CFU/ml or higher. However, bacteria present in numbers below 10(6) CFU/ml were not detectable in all cases. The ability of FISH to identify mastitis-causing pathogens directly in milk samples, and therefore earlier than classical culture methods, can supplement the classic diagnostic procedures for mastitis milk samples. PMID:23632662

  6. Detection of TET2 abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 41 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dambruoso, Irene; Boni, Marina; Rossi, Marianna; Zappasodi, Patrizia; Calvello, Celeste; Zappatore, Rita; Cavigliano, Paola Maria; Giardini, Ilaria; Rocca, Barbara; Caresana, Marilena; Astori, Cesare; Cazzola, Mario; Castagnola, Carlo; Bernasconi, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    TET2 haplo-insufficiency occurs through different molecular mechanisms and is promptly revealed by array comparative genomic hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can effectively demonstrate TET2 deletions and is often used to validate molecular results. In the present study 41 MDS patients with and without 4q abnormalities were analyzed with a series of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes spanning the 4q22.3-q25 region. On conventional cytogenetic (CC) studies, a structural defect of the long arm of chromosome 4 (4q) was observed in seven patients. In three, one each with a t(1;4)(p21;q24), an ins(5;4)(q23;q24qter), and a t(4;17)(q31;p13) as the sole chromosomal abnormality, FISH with the RP11-356L5 and RP11-16G16 probes, which cover the TET2 locus, produced one signal only. Unexpectedly, this same result was achieved in 3 of the remaining 34 patients. Thus, a TET2 deletion was observed in a total of six patients (14.6%). TET2 deletion was not correlated with any particular clinical findings or outcome. These findings demonstrate that 1) FISH is an effective and economical method to reveal cryptic abnormalities of band 4q22-q24 resulting in TET2 deletions; 2) in these patients, TET2 deletion is the unifying genetic event; and 3) the different breakpoints within the 4q22-q25 region suggest that deletions are not mediated by repetitive sequences. PMID:22749034

  7. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jyotsna; Mark, Olivia; Weltman, Helena; Barcelo, Nicolas; Lo, Wai; Wronska, Danuta; Kakkilaya, Srinivas; Rao, Aravinda; Bhat, Shalia T.; Sinha, Ruchi; Omar, Sabah; Moro, Manuel; Gilman, Robert H.; Harris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3% and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively. PMID:26333092

  8. MiL-FISH: Multilabeled Oligonucleotides for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Improve Visualization of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wetzel, Silke; Liebeke, Manuel; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a vital tool for environmental and medical microbiology and is commonly used for the identification, localization, and isolation of defined microbial taxa. However, fluorescence signal strength is often a limiting factor for targeting all members in a microbial community. Here, we present the application of a multilabeled FISH approach (MiL-FISH) that (i) enables the simultaneous targeting of up to seven microbial groups using combinatorial labeling of a single oligonucleotide probe, (ii) is applicable for the isolation of unfixed environmental microorganisms via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and (iii) improves signal and imaging quality of tissue sections in acrylic resin for precise localization of individual microbial cells. We show the ability of MiL-FISH to distinguish between seven microbial groups using a mock community of marine organisms and its applicability for the localization of bacteria associated with animal tissue and their isolation from host tissues using FACS. To further increase the number of potential target organisms, a streamlined combinatorial labeling and spectral imaging-FISH (CLASI-FISH) concept with MiL-FISH probes is presented here. Through the combination of increased probe signal, the possibility of targeting hard-to-detect taxa and isolating these from an environmental sample, the identification and precise localization of microbiota in host tissues, and the simultaneous multilabeling of up to seven microbial groups, we show here that MiL-FISH is a multifaceted alternative to standard monolabeled FISH that can be used for a wide range of biological and medical applications. PMID:26475101

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) of microorganisms in hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Karolin; Zeder, Michael; Klug, Rebecca; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schattenhofer, Martha; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are the most important sources of drinking water worldwide but they are threatened by contamination and overexploitation. Petroleum spills account for the most common source of contamination and the high carbon load results in anoxia and steep geochemical gradients. Microbes play a major role in the transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons into less toxic substances. To investigate microbial populations at the single cell level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is now a well-established technique. Recently, however, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH has been introduced for the detection of microbes from oligotrophic environments. Nevertheless, petroleum contaminated aquifers present a worst case scenario for FISH techniques due to the combination of high background fluorescence of hydrocarbons and the presence of small microbial cells caused by the low turnover rates characteristic of groundwater ecosystems. It is therefore not surprising that studies of microorganisms from such sites are mostly based on cultivation techniques, fingerprinting, and amplicon sequencing. However, to reveal the population dynamics and interspecies relationships of the key participants of contaminant degradation, FISH is an indispensable tool. In this study, a protocol for FISH was developed in combination with cell quantification using an automated counting microscope. The protocol includes the separation and purification of microbial cells from sediment particles, cell permeabilization and, finally, CARD-FISH in a microwave oven. As a proof of principle, the distribution of Archaea and Bacteria was shown in 60 sediment samples taken across the contaminant plume of an aquifer (Leuna, Germany), which has been heavily contaminated with several ten-thousand tonnes of petroleum hydrocarbons since World War II. PMID:22425347

  10. Investigation of chromosomal aberrations in hepatocellular carcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Huang, S F; Hsu, H C; Fletcher, J A

    1999-05-01

    Molecular cytogenetic approaches have been applied only rarely in the characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim in this study was to evaluate aberrations, particularly deletions, of specific chromosomal regions in HCC. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on intact nuclei from touch preparations of 17 HCCs and 1 hepatic adenoma. Each touch preparation was hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled centromere probe and a biotin-labeled unique sequence probe from the same chromosome. This approach permitted the simultaneous evaluation of ploidy changes and chromosome arm deletions. Eight noncentromeric chromosome regions, 3p14, 4q21, 6q14, 6q21, 8p12, 8p22, 9p21, and 9p24 were selected for study on the basis of their having been implicated as tumor suppressor regions in HCC or other common types of carcinoma. Together with the 5 corresponding centromeric probes on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9, a total of 13 chromosome loci were evaluated. All cases of hepatocellular carcinoma showed at least one deletion or aneuploidy. The hepatic adenoma was all diploid. Chromosome 4q21 showed the highest rate of deletion (76.5%) and aneusomy (88%). The second and the third were chromosome 8p22 and 6q14, which showed 59% and 47% of deletion, respectively. A 4q21 deletion is also the most frequent single chromosome aberration. Prominent tumor heterogeneity and variable deletion patterns were noted. Interphase FISH was an efficient means for evaluating numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in HCCs. Most HCCs contained deletions of known tumor suppressor regions (4q and 8p), and a novel deletion hotspot was demonstrated on chromosome band 6q14. PMID:10326586

  11. Molecular characterization of the breakpoints in rob(13q14q) by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, J.Y.; Shaffer, L.G.; Choo, K.H.A.

    1994-09-01

    Robertsonian translocations are the most common rearrangements in humans with rob(13q14q) contributing to the majority of all ascertained rearrangements. Studying the sequences around the breakpoint regions of Robertsonian translocations may enable us to understand the underlying mechanisms of translocation formation and the molecular organization of the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of the acrocentric chromosomes. We have characterized 17 rob(13q14q), including 6 de novo rearrangements, 5 maternally and 3 paternally inherited rearrangements, and 3 of undetermined origin, by dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 6 molecular probes which are specific for the repetitive sequences in the centromeric and short arm regions of acrocentric chromosomes. The centromeric alpha satellite DNA probes D21Z1/D13Z1 and D14Z1/D22Z1 showed all rob(13q14q) chromosomes to be dicentric. The rDNA probe did not hybridize to the 17 translocations studied. The pTRS-47 satellite III DNA probe specific for chromosomes 14 and 22 indicated the retention of pTRS-47 sequences around the breakpoints in all cases studied. However, pTRS-63 satellite III probe specific for chromosome 14 did not show any signals on the translocation chromosomes. In 16 of 17 translocations, strong hybridization signals were detected with pTRI-6 satellite I DNA probe specific for chromosome 13. All parental chromosomes 13 and 14 for 6 de novo rob(13q14q), including one whose pTRI-6 sequence was lost, showed strong hybridization signals with pTRS-47 and pTRS-63, and pTRI-6 probes, respectively. These results demonstrate that the breakpoints fall between the pTRS-47 and pTRS-63 sequences in the p11 region of chromosome 14 and between the pTRI-6 and rDNA sequences within the p11 region of chromosome 13 further narrowing the region containing the rob(13q14q) breakpoints.

  12. Clinical Follow-up of Atypical Spitzoid Tumors Analyzed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Egnatios, Genevieve L; Ferringer, Tammie C

    2016-04-01

    Many neoplasms with spitzoid features remain enigmatic, especially those with intermediate grade features or "atypical spitzoid tumors" (ASTs). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has emerged as a complementary technique to conventional microscopy, with certain chromosomal patterns conveying diagnostic information. In this study, we examined 36 ASTs analyzed by FISH for specific abnormalities in chromosomes 6, 9, and 11. Aberrations were detected in 11 cases, 7 of which met FISH criteria for spitzoid melanoma. These had homozygous deletion of 9p21, partial deletion of 11q13, gain of 6p25, and gain of 11q13. All 3 patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, including one with progression beyond the sentinel lymph node, had homozygous deletion of chromosome 9p21, but there were no deaths in an average of 28 months of follow-up of these cases. Other aberrations in the chromosomal pattern of ASTs were heterozygous deletion of 9p21, partial deletion of 6p23, and tetraploidy. We found that ASTs, including those eventually diagnosed as spitzoid melanoma, had a more indolent course in our cohort than conventional malignant melanoma. Moreover, the addition of FISH results led to a more definitive diagnosis in 7 cases, 4 of which had abnormalities on FISH consistent with spitzoid melanoma. PMID:26999339

  13. The importance of using fluorescence in situ hybridization for the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Juyal, R.C.; Greenberg, F.; Lupski, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Quality metaphase preparations are required for unambiguous detection of the deletion. We and others have reported cases of SMS due to mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). Examination of peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of a patient with the SMS phenotype at 850 band level of resolution revealed a low level mosaicism (11%) for the deletion. Examination of fibroblasts at relatively low resolution revealed the deletion in all cells. In a second study, we reported molecular evidence for mosaicism in the unaffected mother of an SMS patient who demonstrated mosaicism (55%) for the deletion at a resolution level of < 500 bands. We now report a different SMS patient who was initially diagnosed as mosaic del(17)(p11.2) in two different cytogenetic laboratories. A third blinded cytogenetic study yielded a questionable diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) conducted in two different laboratories with two different markers shown to be within the deletion region and a control marker from chromosome 17 demonstrated a deletion in 20/20 and 25/25 metaphases scored, respectively. It appears the latter patient may harbor a very small deletion and that FISH is a more reliable test for the Smith-Magenis deletion. Furthermore, FISH should be used to confirm or refute mosaicism seen in routine cytogenetics studies.

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): an increasingly demanded tool for biomarker research and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Extensive studies of the genetic aberrations related to human diseases conducted over the last two decades have identified recurrent genomic abnormalities as potential driving factors underlying a variety of cancers. Over the time, a series of cutting-edge high-throughput genetic tests, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing, have been developed and incorporated into routine clinical practice. Although it is a classical low-throughput cytogenetic test, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) does not show signs of fading; on the contrary, it plays an increasingly important role in detecting specific biomarkers in solid and hematologic neoplasms and has therefore become an indispensable part of the rapidly developing field of personalized medicine. In this article, we have summarized the recent advances in FISH application for both de novo discovery and routine detection of chromosomal rearrangements, amplifications, and deletions that are associated with the pathogenesis of various hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic malignancies. In addition, we have reviewed the recent developments in FISH methodology as well. PMID:24499728

  15. Potential clinical impact of three-dimensional visualization for fluorescent in situ hybridization image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Shibo; Bin, Zheng; Zhang, Roy; Li, Yuhua; Tian, Huimin; Chen, Wei; Liu, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Chromosomal translocation is strong indication of cancers. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can effectively detect this translocation and achieve high accuracy in disease diagnosis and prognosis assessment. For this purpose, whole chromosome paint probes are utilized to image the configuration of DNA fragments. Although two-dimensional (2-D) microscopic images are typically used in FISH signal analysis, we present a case where the translocation occurs in the depth direction where two probed FISH signals are overlapped in the projected image plane. Thus, the translocation cannot be identified. However, when imaging the whole specimen with a confocal microscope at 27 focal planes with 0.5-μm step interval, the translocation can be clearly identified due to the free rotation capability by the three-dimensional (3-D) visualization. Such a translocation detection error of using 2-D images might be critical in detecting and diagnosing early or subtle disease cases where detecting a small number of abnormal cells can make diagnostic difference. Hence, the underlying implication of this report suggests that utilizing 3-D visualization may improve the overall accuracy of FISH analysis for some clinical cases. However, the clinical efficiency and cost of using 3-D versus 2-D imaging methods are also to be assessed carefully.

  16. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of human sperm – diagnostics, indications, and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Besada, Stefan; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    Male factor infertility is a relatively common condition, affecting at least 6% of men of reproductive age. Typically men with unknown genetic abnormalities resort to using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to achieve their reproductive goals. Infertile men who father biological children using ART could have a higher incidence of aneuploidy, which is a deviation from the normal haploid or diploid chromosomal state. Aneuploidy can be evaluated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), a cytogenetic assay that gives an estimate of the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities. The chromosomes that are generally analyzed in FISH are associated with aneuploidies that are compatible with life, that is, chr.13, 18, 21, X, and Y. The technique is indicated for a variety of reasons, but most importantly in the following: 1) men who despite normal semen parameters suffer recurrent pregnancy loss and 2) men with normal semen parameters, undergoing IVF, but still experiencing recurrent implantation failure. It may be used as a screening tool to help in reproductive and genetic counseling of affected couples, or those who have previously experienced failure of ART. A qualitative analysis of FISH study results allows them to make informed reproductive choices. Given its increasing clinical use in various infertility diagnoses and the development of novel adjunct technologies, one can expect much progress in the areas of preimplantation genetic screening, diagnostics, and therapeutics. PMID:25439797

  17. A new approach to screen transgenic offspring using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Swiger, R.R.; Tucker, J.D.; Heddle, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    In order to identify the presence of vector, specifically Lacl or LacZ, in putative transgenic mice rapidly and reliably, we developed a new method which utilizes fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Transgenic mouse models are being used with increasing frequency for mutational and toxicological studies. By applying our method, an investigator can reliably determine the presence and the number of integration sites of a transgenic vector in numerous samples with less effort compared to conventional methods. This approach involves gazing a tail with a scalpel to obtain a blood smear on a microscope slide. After fixing the slide in 3:1 methanol: acetic acid, typical FISH analysis using biotinylated lambda DNA as the probe in performed. Our method eliminates the need for DNA extraction, blotting, and PCR, and yields results from a large number of individually identifiable cells from each animal. This assay is more accurate, reliable and easier to perform than conventional schemes presently used for screening transgenic animals. A particular advantage of this assay is the ability to discriminate between animals that are heterozygous and homozygous, something that eludes the PCR-based methods and Southern blotting. We have successfully analyzed over 95 samples with this method. Based on these results, we believe our system is more sensitive and accurate than conventional means of screening.

  18. Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

  19. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization signal detection by computing intensity variance along the optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bin; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization technology is a commonly used tool to detect chromosome aberrations, which are often pathologically significant. Since manual FISH analysis is a tedious and time-consuming procedure, reliable and robust automated image acquisition and analysis are in demand. Under high magnification objective lenses such as 60x and 100x, the depth of field will often be too small and the FISH probes may not always lie in the same focal plane. A statistical variance based automated FISH analysis method is developed in order to address this problem. On a stack of slices at consecutive image planes with a step size d, the statistical variance alone the z-axis is calculated to form a 2-D matrix. Since pixels shift dramatically to high intensity at FISH probe location, the probes will manifest high peak values in the matrix. A computer-aided detection scheme based on top-hat transform is applied to the matrix to detect FISH probe signals. This study demonstrates a simple and robust method for FISH probe detection as well as a way of 2- D representation of 3-D data.

  20. Spatial genome organization: contrasting views from chromosome conformation capture and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Iain; Berlivet, Soizik; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Boyle, Shelagh; Illingworth, Robert S.; Paquette, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Although important for gene regulation, most studies of genome organization use either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods. FISH directly visualizes the spatial relationship of sequences but is usually applied to a few loci at a time. The frequency at which sequences are ligated together by formaldehyde cross-linking can be measured genome-wide by 3C methods, with higher frequencies thought to reflect shorter distances. FISH and 3C should therefore give the same views of genome organization, but this has not been tested extensively. We investigated the murine HoxD locus with 3C carbon copy (5C) and FISH in different developmental and activity states and in the presence or absence of epigenetic regulators. We identified situations in which the two data sets are concordant but found other conditions under which chromatin topographies extrapolated from 5C or FISH data are not compatible. We suggest that products captured by 3C do not always reflect spatial proximity, with ligation occurring between sequences located hundreds of nanometers apart, influenced by nuclear environment and chromatin composition. We conclude that results obtained at high resolution with either 3C methods or FISH alone must be interpreted with caution and that views about genome organization should be validated by independent methods. PMID:25512564

  1. Does polyomavirus infection interfere with bladder cancer fluorescence in situ hybridization?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Deloar; Hull, David; Kalantarpour, Fatemeh; Maitlen, Rebecca; Qian, Junqi; Bostwick, David G

    2014-03-01

    Urine cytology is a proven and widely used screening tool for the detection of urothelial carcinoma. However, morphologic features of polyomavirus infected cells, characterized by nuclear inclusions (decoy cells) are a known source of diagnostic confusion with malignancy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is now routinely used to support the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma and monitor for recurrence. We sought to determine whether polyomavirus infection could result in positive FISH results (aneuploidy). This study deals with retrospective study of 100 polyomavirus-infected urine samples from patients with no history of urothelial carcinoma or organ transplantation. All cases were stained with Papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stain. One slide from each sample was de-stained and FISH was performed using chromosome enumeration probes 3, 7, 17, and locus-specific probe 9p21. Adequate cells for FISH analysis (25 cells) were present in 81 cases; 19 cases were insufficient due to loss of cells during de-staining and FISH preparation process. All polyomavirus-infected cells (decoy cells) exhibited a normal chromosome pattern. Four cases were FISH positive, but there were no positive decoy cells. Decoy cells did not exhibit aneuploidy by FISH. The presence of decoy cells does not exclude the possibility of concurrent urothelial carcinoma. Acid hematoxylin stain appeared to supplement the Papanicolou stain in identifying and confirming the presence of polyomavirus infection. PMID:24006232

  2. Spatial genome organization: contrasting views from chromosome conformation capture and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Iain; Berlivet, Soizik; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Boyle, Shelagh; Illingworth, Robert S; Paquette, Denis; Dostie, Josée; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2014-12-15

    Although important for gene regulation, most studies of genome organization use either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods. FISH directly visualizes the spatial relationship of sequences but is usually applied to a few loci at a time. The frequency at which sequences are ligated together by formaldehyde cross-linking can be measured genome-wide by 3C methods, with higher frequencies thought to reflect shorter distances. FISH and 3C should therefore give the same views of genome organization, but this has not been tested extensively. We investigated the murine HoxD locus with 3C carbon copy (5C) and FISH in different developmental and activity states and in the presence or absence of epigenetic regulators. We identified situations in which the two data sets are concordant but found other conditions under which chromatin topographies extrapolated from 5C or FISH data are not compatible. We suggest that products captured by 3C do not always reflect spatial proximity, with ligation occurring between sequences located hundreds of nanometers apart, influenced by nuclear environment and chromatin composition. We conclude that results obtained at high resolution with either 3C methods or FISH alone must be interpreted with caution and that views about genome organization should be validated by independent methods. PMID:25512564

  3. Screening for DMD/BMD deletion carriers by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiurong; Wang, Renli

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) serves as an excellent alternative for direct detection of heterozygous deletions. Using a set of exon-specific cosmid DNA probes representing 18 exons, one-color FISH on metaphase and interphase preparations was performed to identify Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) deletion carriers. The peripheral blood samples from 9 normal male or female controls and 5 females of independent DMD/BMD families, as well as 2 amniotic fluid specimens and 2 chorionic villus samples (CVS) from normal pregnant females, were analyzed. Expected signals were displayed in 72-100% of peripheral blood lymphocyte metaphases or interphases, 60-70% of amniocyte interphases, and 95-99% of chorionic villus cell interphases. One suspected female was identified as a deletion carrier and two were excluded. The results indicated that metaphase and interphase FISH were both useful for detection of heterozygous deletions. FISH, in combination with other available techniques, allowed efficient screening of DMD/BMD deletion carriers. The study also offered preliminary results in support of an approach to prenatal diagnosis of potential fetal carriers. PMID:14641995

  4. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by a new multiplex peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization method

    PubMed Central

    Machado, António; Castro, Joana; Cereija, Tatiana; Almeida, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of most common vaginal infections. However, its diagnosis by classical methods reveals low specificity. Our goal was to evaluate the accuracy diagnosis of 150 vaginal samples with research gold standard methods and our Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. Also, we described the first PNA-FISH methodology for BV diagnosis, which provides results in approximately 3 h. The results showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 64.3 to 95.0%) and a specificity of 97.6% (95% CI [92.6–99.4%]), demonstrating the higher specificity of the PNA-FISH method and showing false positive results in BV diagnosis commonly obtained by the classical methods. This methodology combines the specificity of PNA probes for Lactobacillus species and G. vaginalis visualization and the calculation of the microscopic field by Nugent score, allowing a trustful evaluation of the bacteria present in vaginal microflora and avoiding the occurrence of misleading diagnostics. Therefore, the PNA-FISH methodology represents a valuable alternative for BV diagnosis. PMID:25737820

  5. Microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry (µFlowFISH)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Meagher, Robert J.; Light, Yooli Kim; Yilmaz, Suzan; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an integrated microfluidic device (µFlowFISH) capable of performing 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) followed by flow cytometric detection for identifying bacteria in natural microbial communities. The device was used for detection of species involved in bioremediation of Cr(VI) and other metals in groundwater samples from a highly-contaminated environmental site (Hanford, WA, USA). The µFlowFISH seamlessly integrates two components: a hybridization chamber formed between two photopolymerized membranes, where cells and probes are electrophoretically loaded, incubated and washed; and a downstream cross structure for electrokinetically focusing cells into a single-file flow for flow cytometry analysis. The device is capable of analyzing a wide variety of bacteria including aerobic, facultative and anaerobic bacteria and was initially tested and validated using cultured microbes, including Escherichia coli, as well as two strains isolated from Hanford site: Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain RCH1, and Pseudomonas sp. strain RCH2 that are involved in Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. Combined labeling and detection efficiencies of 74–97% were observed in experiments with simple mixtures of cultured cells confirmed specific labeling. Results obtained were in excellent agreement with those obtained by conventional flow cytometry confirming the accuracy of µFlowFISH. Finally, the device was used for analyzing water samples collected on different dates from the Hanford Site. We were able to monitor the numbers of Pseudomonas sp. with only 100–200 cells loaded into the microchip. The µFlowFISH approach provides an automated platform for quantitative detection of microbial cells from complex samples, and is ideally suited for analysis of precious samples with low cell numbers such as those found at extreme environmental niches, bioremediation sites, and the human microbiome. PMID:21755095

  6. Discrimination of bacteriophage infected cells using locked nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (LNA-FISH).

    PubMed

    Vilas Boas, Diana; Almeida, Carina; Sillankorva, Sanna; Nicolau, Ana; Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-02-01

    Bacteriophage-host interaction studies in biofilm structures are still challenging due to the technical limitations of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to provide a direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method based on locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, which targets the phage replication phase, allowing the study of population dynamics during infection. Bacteriophages specific for two biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter, were selected. Four LNA probes were designed and optimized for phage-specific detection and for bacterial counterstaining. To validate the method, LNA-FISH counts were compared with the traditional plaque forming unit (PFU) technique. To visualize the progression of phage infection within a biofilm, colony-biofilms were formed and infected with bacteriophages. A good correlation (r = 0.707) was observed between LNA-FISH and PFU techniques. In biofilm structures, LNA-FISH provided a good discrimination of the infected cells and also allowed the assessment of the spatial distribution of infected and non-infected populations. PMID:26813295

  7. Characterization by fluorescence and electron microscopy in situ hybridization of a double Y isochromosome.

    PubMed

    Fetni, R; Krabchi, K; Messier, P E; Richer, C L; Lemieux, N

    1996-06-14

    A patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and Y isochromosomes i(Y) is described. Lymphocyte cultures from peripheral blood contained a high proportion of 45,X cells and several other cell lines with two different marker chromosomes (mars). These markers had either a monocentric (mar1) or a dicentric appearance (mar2). Following high-resolution GTG, RBG, QFQ, and CBG bandings, five cell lines were identified; 45,X/46,X,+mar1/46,X,+mar2/47,X,+mar1x2/47,X,+mar2x 2. The percentages were 66/6/26/1/1%, respectively. Chromosome banding analyses were insufficient for characterization of the markers. In situ hybridization of specific probes for the Y centromere and its short arm showed, both in fluorescence and electron microscopy (EM), two different Y rearrangements. Mar1 is an isochromosome for the short arm i(Yp) and mar2 is a dicentric which was shown by EM to be a double isochromosome Yp, inv dup i(Yp). The breakpoint producing mar1 is within the centromere and the one producing mar2 is within one of the short arms of the Y isochromosome. The findings of different cell populations in peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate the postzygotic instability of this i(Yp). PMID:8737651

  8. Selective termination of aneuploidy utilizing rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization detection techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; Chen, C I; Chang, H C; Liu, C H; Lee, M S

    2001-10-01

    Twin pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology with a euploid fetus and a coexisting aneuploid co-twin constitutes a conflicting situation; therefore, it is important for the genetic constitution of each co-twin to be diagnosed accurately and promptly for parental genetic counseling and subsequent aggressive management. A 35-year-old woman, gravida 1, with a 2-year history of infertility, presented bilateral fallopian tubal obstruction at her infertility workups, for which she received in vitro fertilization; subsequently she conceived a twin pregnancy. She underwent genetic amniocentesis at 16 weeks' gestation, as indicated by an advanced maternal age. Presented with the diagnosis of twin pregnancy with discordancy for trisomy 21, a rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for aneuploidy mapping was applied for subsequent abdominal selective fetal reduction. The FISH technique facilitates the rapid analysis of uncultured amniocytes. Normal (disomic) and trisomic samples can be distinguished clearly and rapidly for subsequent selective fetocide. The FISH technique is an important tool in prenatal diagnosis and clinical applications. PMID:11771188

  9. Comparative cytogenetic characterization of primary canine melanocytic lesions using array CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Poorman, Kelsey; Borst, Luke; Moroff, Scott; Roy, Siddharth; Labelle, Philippe; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Breen, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Melanocytic lesions originating from the oral mucosa or cutaneous epithelium are common in the general dog population, with up to 100,000 diagnoses each year in the USA. Oral melanoma is the most frequent canine neoplasm of the oral cavity, exhibiting a highly aggressive course. Cutaneous melanocytomas occur frequently, but rarely develop into a malignant form. Despite the differential prognosis, it has been assumed that subtypes of melanocytic lesions represent the same disease. To address the relative paucity of information about their genomic status, molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed on the three recognized subtypes of canine melanocytic lesions. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis, highly aberrant distinct copy number status across the tumor genome for both of the malignant melanoma subtypes was revealed. The most frequent aberrations included gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 17 and loss of CFA 22. Melanocytomas possessed fewer genome wide aberrations, yet showed a recurrent gain of CFA 20q15.3-17. A distinctive copy number profile, evident only in oral melanomas, displayed a sigmoidal pattern of copy number loss followed immediately by a gain, around CFA 30q14. Moreover, when assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), copy number aberrations of targeted genes, such as gain of c-MYC (80 % of cases) and loss of CDKN2A (68 % of cases), were observed. This study suggests that in concordance with what is known for human melanomas, canine melanomas of the oral mucosa and cutaneous epithelium are discrete and initiated by different molecular pathways. PMID:25511566

  10. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M.

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Simultaneous determination of bacterial viability and identity in biofilms using ethidium monoazide and fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Regan, J M; Oldenburg, P S; Park, H D; Harrington, G W; Noguera, D R

    2003-01-01

    A protocol for simultaneously interrogating bacterial viability and identity using in situ, culture-independent methods is described. Viability is assayed using ethidium monoazide (EMA) staining of cells with compromised membranes, and identity is determined using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Experiments with planktonic cultures were used to demonstrate the compatibility of EMA staining and FISH after covalently bonding EMA to nucleic acids by photoreaction. Applications to biofilm samples showed that diffusion limitations in the biofilm matrix were not problematic and that effective discrimination of viable target cells within a mixed microbial community was possible. PMID:12701916

  12. Analysis of replication timing properties of human X-chromosomal loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, B A; Chinault, A C

    1994-01-01

    We have used fluorescence in situ hybridization on interphase nuclei of normal female cells to compare the replication timing patterns of genes on the human X chromosome that are known to escape X inactivation with those that are inactivated. By this procedure it was possible not only to determine the relative time of replication of the earlier-replicating allele for different loci but also to estimate the degree of asynchrony of replication of the two alleles for each individual locus. Loci such as HPRT and FRAXA, which are normally inactivated, displayed a high degree of replication asynchrony, whereas loci that are not inactivated (ZFX and RPS4X) were found to replicate very synchronously. Interestingly, examination of XIST, which is expressed only from the inactive X chromosome, by this procedure revealed that it also replicated asynchronously, with the expressed copy apparently replicating first. Therefore, by examining different loci from the X chromosome it was determined that there is a strict correlation between the expression and relative time of replication of individual genes. Images PMID:8016119

  13. Automated analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) labeled genetic biomarkers in assisting cervical cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Roy R; Li, Shibo; Chen, Xiaodong; Mulvihill, John J; Lu, Xianglan; Pang, Hui; Liu, Hong

    2010-06-01

    The numerical and/or structural deviation of some chromosomes (i.e., monosomy and _polysomy of chromosomes 3 and X) are routinely used as positive genetic biomarkers to diagnose cervical cancer and predict the disease progression. Among the available diagnostic methods to analyze the aneusomy of chromosomes 3 and X, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has demonstrated significant advantages in assisting clinicians to more accurately detect and diagnose cervical carcinoma at an early stage, in particular for the women at a high risk for progression of low-grade and high-grade squamous intra-epithelium lesions (LSIL and HSIL). In order to increase the diagnostic accuracy, consistency, and efficiency from that of manual FISH analysis, this study aims to develop and test an automated FISH analysis method that includes a two-stage scheme. In the first stage, an interactive multiple-threshold algorithm is utilized to segment potential interphase nuclei candidates distributed in different intensity levels and a rule-based classifier is implemented to identify analyzable interphase cells. In the second stage, FISH labeled biomarker spots of chromosomes 3 and X are segmented by a top-hat transform. The independent FISH spots are then detected by a knowledge-based classifier, which enables recognition of the splitting and stringy FISH signals. Finally, the ratio of abnormal interphase cells with numerical changes of chromosomes 3 and X is calculated to detect positive cases. The experimental results of four test cases showed high agreement of FISH analysis results between the automated scheme and the cytogeneticist's analysis including 92.7% to 98.7% agreement in cell segmentation and 4.4% to 11.0% difference in cell classification. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of potentially applying the automatic FISH analysis method to expedite the screening and detecting cervical cancer at an early stage. PMID:20441233

  14. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Optical Mapping to Correct Scaffold Arrangement in the Tomato Genome

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Lindsay A.; Anderson, Lorinda K.; de Jong, Hans; Smit, Sandra; Goicoechea, José Luis; Roe, Bruce A.; Hua, Axin; Giovannoni, James J.; Stack, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The order and orientation (arrangement) of all 91 sequenced scaffolds in the 12 pseudomolecules of the recently published tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, 2n = 2x = 24) genome sequence were positioned based on marker order in a high-density linkage map. Here, we report the arrangement of these scaffolds determined by two independent physical methods, bacterial artificial chromosome–fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) and optical mapping. By localizing BACs at the ends of scaffolds to spreads of tomato synaptonemal complexes (pachytene chromosomes), we showed that 45 scaffolds, representing one-third of the tomato genome, were arranged differently than predicted by the linkage map. These scaffolds occur mostly in pericentric heterochromatin where 77% of the tomato genome is located and where linkage mapping is less accurate due to reduced crossing over. Although useful for only part of the genome, optical mapping results were in complete agreement with scaffold arrangement by FISH but often disagreed with scaffold arrangement based on the linkage map. The scaffold arrangement based on FISH and optical mapping changes the positions of hundreds of markers in the linkage map, especially in heterochromatin. These results suggest that similar errors exist in pseudomolecules from other large genomes that have been assembled using only linkage maps to predict scaffold arrangement, and these errors can be corrected using FISH and/or optical mapping. Of note, BAC-FISH also permits estimates of the sizes of gaps between scaffolds, and unanchored BACs are often visualized by FISH in gaps between scaffolds and thus represent starting points for filling these gaps. PMID:24879607

  15. Mapping of a human LIM protein (CLP) to human chromosome 11p15.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Y.W.; Wang, R.X.; Heng, H.H.Q.; Liew, C.C.

    1995-08-10

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have localized the gene for cardiac LIM protein to human chromosome 11, between regions p14.3 and p15.2, most likely on 11p15.1. It is likely that CLP plays a regulatory role in muscle-specific gene expression in cardiac and skeletal muscles. The FISH data of human CLP provide a gene-associated marker for genetic mapping. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The role of fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene expression profiling in myeloma risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Jauch, Anna; Rème, Thierry; Moreaux, Jérôme; Bertsch, Uta; Neben, Kai; Klein, Bernard; Goldschmidt, Hartmut

    2011-12-01

    Multiple myeloma patients' survival under treatment varies from a few months to more than 15 years. Clinical prognostic factors, especially beta2-microglobulin (B2M) and the international staging system (ISS), allow risk assessment to a certain extent, but do not identify patients at very high risk. As malignant plasma cells are characterized by a variety of chromosomal aberrations and changes in gene expression, a molecular characterization ofCD138-purified myeloma cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) and gene expression profiling (GEP) can be used for improved risk assessment, iFISH allows a risk stratification with presence of a translocation t(4;14) and/or deletion of 17p13 being the best documented adverse prognostic factors. A deletion of 13q14 is no longer considered to define adverse risk. Patients harbouring a t(4;14) seems to benefit from a bortezomib- or lenalidomide containing regimen, whereas patients with deletion 17p13 seem only to benefit from a high dose therapy approach using long term bortezomib (in induction and maintenance) and autologous tandem-transplantation as used in the GMMG-HD4 trial, or the total therapy 3 concept. Gene expression profiling allows the assessment of high risk scores (IFM, UAMS), remaining prognostic despite treatment with novel agents, and prognostic surrogates of biological factors (e.g. proliferation) and (prognostic) target gene expression (e.g. Aurora-kinase A). Thus, assessment of B2M and ISS-stage, iFISH, and GEP is considered extended routine diagnostics in therapy requiring multiple myeloma patients for risk assessment and, even now, to a certain extent selection of treatment. PMID:22352188

  17. Assignment of the developmentally regulated gene NEDD1 to human chromosome 12q22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Takai, S; Yoshida, Y; Noda, M; Yamada, K; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    The developmentally regulated mouse gene Nedd 1 encodes a protein showing similarities with the beta-subunit of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins and has growth suppressing activity when overexpressed in various cultured cell types. We have mapped the human homolog (NEDD1) of the mouse gene to chromosome 12q22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization using R-banded human (pro)metaphase chromosomes. PMID:7814034

  18. Six antimicrobial peptide genes of the cathelicidin family map to bovine chromosome 22q24 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, B; Scocchi, M; Zanetti, M; Ferretti, L

    1996-01-01

    Six phage clones containing gene members of the family of antimicrobial peptides named cathelicidins, were mapped to bovine chromosome 22q24, by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. The mapping data suggest the clustering of cathelicidins into a CATHL@ locus, in a similar manner as for beta-defensins, another family of antimicrobial peptides, defining the locus DEFB@ mapped to 27q13-->q14. PMID:9067433

  19. AB201. Sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of AZF cmicrodeletion in severe oligozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Bin; Zhu, Zi-Jue; Zhi, Er-Lei; Li, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Microdeletions of azoospermia factor (AZF) regions in Y chromosome were a genetic risk factor of spermatogenic failure and male infertility. Most laboratories carried out the AZF microdeletion testing by using peripheral intravenous blood, and AZF microdeletion in spermatozoa of infertile patients was sometimes not identical to that of peripheral intravenous blood due to the existence of mosaicism. The aim of this study was to summarize the data of sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of AZF microdeletion in patients with severe oligospermia. Materials and methods The experiment included 16 patients with severe oligospermia which didn’t find AZF microdeletions in peripheral intravenous blood. Additionally, 2 normozoospermic cases and 2 oligozoospermiccases with AZF microdeletion were recruited as positive controls and as negative controls respectively. Frequency of AZF microdeletion in spermatozoa was detected by FISH with probes for chromosomes Y and chromosome 18, SRY gene was selected as the Y chromosome-specific signal, DAZ gene as AZFc-specific signal. A total of 100 spermatozoa were observed in each group. Results A total of 2,000 spermatozoa were counted from the semen samples in three groups. The hybridization rate was 97.2%, 95.3% and 96.4% in experiment group, positive group and negative group respectively. five out of 16 patients with severe oligospermia was found to bear DAZ gene signal missing in sperms with SRY signal, and the average missing rate was 8.7%. The positive control group was not found signal missing of DAZ gene in sperms with SRY signal, and DAZ gene signal was not found in the negative control group Conclusions AZF microdeletions were not found in some patients with severe oligospermia via testing the peripheral intravenous blood, but sperm analysis by FISH revealed the presence of 8.7% abnormal spermatozoa with Y chromosome signal, in which DAZ gene signal were not found. This study is important to explain the mechanism of non-vertical transmission in patients with Y chromosome microdeletions, and can help to assess the genetic risk of Y chromosome microdeletions for male offspring and can be used for appropriate genetic counseling before the employment of assisted reproduction techniques.

  20. Simple Adhesive-Tape-Based Sampling of Tomato Surfaces Combined with Rapid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Salmonella Detectionâ–¿

    PubMed Central

    Bisha, Bledar; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F.

    2009-01-01

    A simple adhesive-tape-based method for sampling of tomato surfaces was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid culture-independent detection of Salmonella strains. Tapes could also be placed face-down on selective agar for on-tape enrichment of captured Salmonella cells. Overlay of cell-charged tapes with small volumes of liquid enrichment media enabled subsequent detection of tape-captured Salmonella via flow cytometry. PMID:19124588

  1. Identification of autosomal supernumerary chromosome markers (SMCs) by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Kolialexi, A; Kitsiou, S; Fryssira, H; Sofocleous, C; Kouvidi, E; Tsangaris, G Th; Salavoura, K; Mavrou, A

    2006-01-01

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) are rare chromosomal abnormalities resulting in partial trisomy of specific genomic regions with characteristic phenotypic effects. Twenty six cases with autosomal SMCs are reported. Four were identified prenatally and 22 postnatally in children, aged from 8 days to 15 years, who were referred for genetic evaluation because of various congenital anomalies and developmental delay. In 22 of the 26 cases, the SMCs were de novo, in two they were familial and in another two a 11;22 reciprocal translocation was revealed in the mothers. In only one patient was the SMC present in a mosaic form. Sequential fluorescent in situ hybridization studies (FISH) using Whole Chromosome Paint (WCP) probes were performed in order to determine the chromosomal origin of the SMCs. Sixteen of them originated from chromosome 15, five were shown to be an isochromosome 18p and one was derived from chromosome 22, but did not contain the DiGeorge/ VCFS critical region. In two instances, the SMCs were derivatives of chromosome 13 and in two the SMCs resulted from a 11;22 maternal translocation and contained material from both chromosomes 11 and 22. Molecular investigation of two of the patients with an SMC[15] revealed three copies of the SNRPN gene, but the diagnosis of PW/AS due to possible imprinting was excluded in both patients by a methylation-specific PCR. FISH and molecular studies have greatly facilitated the characterization of marker chromosomes. As more SMCs are classified, better genetic counseling and risk evaluation can be achieved. PMID:16900777

  2. Identification of Dekkera bruxellensis (Brettanomyces) from Wine by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes

    PubMed Central

    Stender, Henrik; Kurtzman, Cletus; Hyldig-Nielsen, Jens J.; Sørensen, Ditte; Broomer, Adam; Oliveira, Kenneth; Perry-O'Keefe, Heather; Sage, Andrew; Young, Barbara; Coull, James

    2001-01-01

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Brettanomyces is described. The test is based on fluorescein-labeled PNA probes targeting a species-specific sequence of the rRNA of Dekkera bruxellensis. The PNA probes were applied to smears of colonies, and results were interpreted by fluorescence microscopy. The results obtained from testing 127 different yeast strains, including 78 Brettanomyces isolates from wine, show that the spoilage organism Brettanomyces belongs to the species D. bruxellensis and that the new method is able to identify Brettanomyces (D. bruxellensis) with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. PMID:11157265

  3. RNAs radiate from gene to cytoplasm as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Dirks, R W; Daniël, K C; Raap, A K

    1995-07-01

    Genes for Epstein-Barr virus, human cytomegalovirus immediate early antigen and luciferase are abundantly transcribed in Namalwa, rat 9G and X1 cells, respectively. The EBV transcripts and HCMV-IE transcripts are extensively spliced, while in the luciferase transcript only a small intron sequence has to be spliced out. EBV transcripts are hardly localized in the cytoplasm while the luciferase and HCMV-IE transcripts are present in the cytoplasm and translated into proteins. We have correlated these characteristics with nuclear RNA distribution patterns as seen by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Transcripts of the HCMV-IE transcription unit were shown to be present in a main nuclear signal in the form of a track or elongated dot and as small nuclear RNA signals that radiate from this site towards the cytoplasm. A similar distribution pattern of small RNA signals was observed for transcripts of the luciferase gene, whereas the main nuclear signal was always observed as a dot and never as a track or elongated dot. In Namalwa cells, EBV transcripts were only present as track-like signals. The results suggest that when the extent for splicing is high, unspliced or partially spliced mRNAs begin to occupy elongated dot or track-like domains in the vicinity of the gene. When the extent of splicing is low, splicing is completed co-transcriptionally, leading to a bright dot-like signal. The presence of small nuclear spots in addition to the main signal correlates with cytoplasmic mRNA expression. The small spots most likely represent, therefore, mRNAs in transport to the cytoplasm. PMID:7593297

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis is a helpful test for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

    PubMed

    Karanian, Marie; Pérot, Gaëlle; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Chibon, Frédéric; Pedeutour, Florence; Neuville, Agnès

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetically, most dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the collagen type-1 alpha 1 (COL1A1)-platelet-derived growth factor ? (PDGFB) fusion gene. This abnormality can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in routine practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the FISH analysis in the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. A FISH analysis was prospectively and systematically performed on a series of 448 consecutive tumor specimens. All cases were reviewed by two independent pathologists and classified in three categories according to the probability of a DFSP diagnosis before molecular analyses. Cases were classified as certain when dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans was the only possible diagnosis. Those cases for which dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans remained the first diagnosis, but other differential diagnosis existed, were regarded as probable. When dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans was considered a differential diagnosis, they were labeled as possible. The final diagnosis was supported by clinicopathological findings and results of FISH analyses. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD34 was systematically performed, and additional markers when necessary. The cases (n=37) with a non-interpretable FISH were excluded. For the 185 certain tumors specimens: 178 (96%) FISH analyses showed a PDGFB/COL1A1 rearrangement, 7 (4%) were negative. For the 114 probable tumors specimens: 104 (91%) FISH analyses were positive and 10 (9%) were negative leading to a new diagnosis in 8 cases. For the 112 possible cases: 91 (81%) FISH analyses were negative and 21 (19%) were positive. Of the 21 cases, initial diagnoses included unclassified sarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, dermatofibroma, reactive lesion, solitary fibrous tumor, perineurioma, benign nerve sheath tumor, and undifferentiated spindle cell tumor without malignant evidence. FISH analysis has been helpful for confirming the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in 25% (104/411) of cases and necessary for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in 5% (21/411) of cases. PMID:25081750

  5. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Melanoma Diagnosis: A Review and a Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; De Vanna, Anna Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Although conventional histopathological examination is the undisputable mainstay for the diagnosis of melanocytic skin neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has the potential to provide important information to morphologically challenging cases. The standard melanoma FISH test targeting RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23), CCND1 (11q13), and centromere 6 is an effective compromise between cost, technical complexity, and sensitivity. The authors use the standard FISH-positivity as a tie-breaker for challenging melanocytic neoplasms mainly in a non-Spitzoid morphologic context because the currently available test leaves several unresolved issues: namely, a relatively low diagnostic accuracy in morphologically ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms; a relatively low sensitivity and specificity in Spitzoid neoplasms; and the occurrence of false positives due to tetraploidy in Spitz nevi and in nevi with an atypical epithelioid component. Under investigation is currently a new melanoma probe cocktail targeting RREB1 (6p25), C-MYC (8q24), CDKN2A (9p21), and CCND1 (11q13). However, CDKN2A is a significant parameter only if lost in homozygosis, and this complicates the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the new melanoma probe cocktail has been tested on cases of atypical Spitzoid proliferations with fatal outcomes which at present are too few to allow definite conclusions. The authors propose the implementation of a FISH algorithm (standard 4-probe test followed by either C-MYC or CDKN2A/centromere 9) to assist the histopathological diagnosis and minimize the technical problems. Nevertheless, because the diagnostic accuracy of the FISH technique is far from being absolute, the overall clinicopathological context must always guide the decision-making process about the management of morphobiologically ambiguous melanocytic proliferations. PMID:26999337

  6. LINE-1 elements: analysis by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Waters, Paul D; Dobigny, Gauthier; Waddell, Peter J; Robinson, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Long-interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) is a non-terminal repeat transposon that constitutes a major component of the mammalian genome. LINE-1 has a dynamic evolutionary history characterized by the rise, fall, and replacement of subfamilies. The distribution of LINE-1 elements can be viewed from a chromosomal perspective using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), as well as at the sequence level. We have designed LINE-1 primers from regions conserved among mouse, rat, rabbit, and human L1, which were able to amplify part of ORF2 from all eutherian (placental) mammals tested thus far. The product generated can be used as a FISH painting probe to examine the genomic distribution of L1 in different species. It can also be cloned and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Although FISH patterns resulting from LINE-1 chromosome painting and bioinformatic analyses have shown that this element accumulates in AT-rich regions of the genomes of mouse and human, our PCR amplified LINE-1 probe suggests that this is not a universal phenomenon, and that the patterns displayed in laurasiatherian, afrotherian and xenarthran species are less prominent. The "banding" like distribution of LINE-1 observed in human and mouse, therefore, appears to reflect aspects of genome architecture unique to Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates), the superordinal clade to which they belong. By sequencing the cloned amplicons used for FISH experiments and supplementing these with L1 sequences obtained from public databases, analysis by parsimony, distance-based, maximum likelihood, and "hierarchical Bayesian" or "marginal likelihood" methods provides a powerful adjunct to the FISH data. Using this approach, relatively intact LINE-1 from most placental orders tend to reflect accepted eutherian evolutionary relationships. This suggests that there were often only closely related copies active near branch points in the tree, that inactive copies tended to become extinct quite readily, and that for many orders recently active copies belong to a single lineage of this LINE. PMID:18629670

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for detecting urothelial carcinoma: A clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Caraway, Nancy P.; Khanna, Abha; Fernandez, Ricardo L.; Payne, Linda; Bassett, Roland L.; Zhang, Hua-Zhong; Kamat, Ashish; Katz, Ruth L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because urothelial carcinoma (UC) is associated with a significant high risk of recurrence and progression, patients with UC require long-term surveillance. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown to be more sensitive than cytology in the detection of UC. This study evaluated the use of FISH for detecting UC. METHODS We used a pathology database to identify patients who had urine cytology and FISH performed at our institution between 2004 and 2006. Urinary specimens were analyzed using UroVysion FISH probes for abnormalities in centromeric chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and locus specific 9p21. FISH results were correlated with cytologic findings and a minimal clinical follow-up of 24 months. RESULTS We identified 1006 consecutive urinary specimens from 600 patients (448 men and 152 women) who were monitored for recurrent UC (915 specimens) or evaluated for urinary symptoms (91 specimens). On FISH analysis, 669 specimens were negative for UC and 272 specimens were positive for UC. Sixty-five (6%) specimens were insufficient for FISH analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of FISH for UC were 58% and 66%, respectively, and 59% and 63% when FISH and cytology results were combined. Factors contributing to decreased FISH sensitivity included the paucity or absence of tumor cells, low-grade tumors, degenerated cells, method of specimen collection, type of specimen, and obscuring inflammatory cells or lubricant. CONCLUSIONS We found UroVysion FISH had good sensitivity and specificity for detecting UC in urinary specimens. It is important to correlate the FISH results with the cytologic findings. PMID:20665656

  8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization improves the detection of monosomy 7 in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Flactif, M; Lai, J L; Preudhomme, C; Fenaux, P

    1994-06-01

    We performed conventional cytogenetic (CC) and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with an alpha satellite chromosome 7 specific DNA centromeric probe (p alpha 7t1) on bone marrow material prepared for CC in 11 controls and 80 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In controls, a mean of 4.3 +/- 1% of the 700 cells examined showed only one FISH signal for chromosome 7, and the finding of > 6.3% (mean +2 standard deviations) of cells with one FISH signal was considered to indicate the presence of a clone with -7. By CC, clonal -7 was found in 11 patients, whereas two patients had -7 in only one mitose (non-clonal -7). In eight of the 11 cases of clonal -7 by CC, interphase FISH confirmed -7. In the remaining three patients, 5.1%, 6.3% and 18.4% respectively of the cells had one signal. Those three patients had, in addition to -7 by CC, a marker chromosome which was shown to be constituted of chromosome 7 pericentromeric material by FISH analysis on metaphase spreads (metaphase FISH). Of the two patients with non-clonal -7 by CC, one had a -7 clone by interphase FISH whereas the other patient had normal FISH results. Five of the 67 patients with no -7 mitose by CC had clonal -7 by interphase FISH, with one chromosome 7 signal in 14.4 to 39% of the cells examined. At least three mitoses with -7 were found in two of them by metaphase FISH. Three of the five patients were reexamined 12 to 17 months later: CC and metaphase FISH found no -7, whereas interphase FISH still showed a -7 clone. Three of the patients with clonal -7 by CC and by FISH were reexamined in complete hematological remission after intensive therapy. CC found no -7 and interphase FISH was normal in all three patients. Our findings suggest that interphase FISH may improve the detection of -7 in MDS. Conventional cytogenetics should still be performed in parallel to FISH, however, because of possible false negative FISH results when a pericentromeric chromosome 7 marker is present in patients with -7. Larger numbers of cases with minor -7 clones, detectable by FISH only, and longer follow-up in those cases will be necessary to determine the significance of this finding, the evolution of this minor clone, and the outcome of the patients. PMID:8207974

  9. Assignment of the human ubiquitous receptor gene (UNR) to 19q13.3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beau, M.M.; Song, C.; Davis, E.M.

    1995-03-01

    Human UNR cDNAs were used to screen a Lambda FIX II human male placenta genomic library. Phage DNA from clones hybridizing to UNR cDNA was characterized by Southern hybridization and restriction mapping, and two different clones (hG10 and hG12) with inserts of 15-20 kb were chosen for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Biotin-labeled probes were prepared from phage DNA by nick-translation using Bio-11-dUTP. FISH was performed as described previously. Hybridization was detected with fluorescien-conjugated avidin, and chromosomes were identified by staining with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-dihydrochloride (DAPI).

  10. Direct visualization of the novel pathogen, Spiroplasma eriocheiris, in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z F; Xia, S Y; Xue, H; Tang, J Q; Ren, Q; Gu, W; Meng, Q G; Wang, W

    2015-09-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is the first spiroplasma strain known to be pathogenic to freshwater crustaceans. It has caused considerable economic losses both in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) and in some other crustaceans. The monitoring of the pathogen in crustacean populations and study of its behaviour in the laboratory require the development of reliable diagnostic tools. In this article, we improved microscopic identification of S. eriocheiris by combining in situ hybridization with specific fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes. The established fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed simultaneous visualization, identification and localization of S. eriocheiris in the tissues of diseased crayfish P. clarkii and exhibited low background autofluorescence and ideal signal-to-noise ratio. With the advantages of better tissue penetration, potentially more specific and stable, we designed three species-specific oligonucleotide probes utilizing the sequences of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) of S. eriocheiris. Positive hybridization signals were visualized in haemocytes and connective tissues of hepatopancreas, cardiac muscle and gill from diseased crayfish. This unique distribution pattern matched the pathological changes when diagnosed by H&E staining and indicated that S. eriocheiris probably spread throughout the tissues in P. clarkii by hemokinesis. This assay will facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of S. eriocheiris and enhance the early diagnosis of the novel pathogen. PMID:25167936

  11. Differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis by fluorescent in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, K; Haase, G; Kurtzman, C; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Stender, H

    2001-11-01

    The recent discovery of Candida dubliniensis as a separate species that traditionally has been identified as Candida albicans has led to the development of a variety of biochemical and molecular methods for the differentiation of these two pathogenic yeasts. rRNA sequences are well-established phylogenetic markers, and probes targeting species-specific rRNA sequences have been used in diagnostic assays for the detection and identification of microorganisms. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA mimic with improved hybridization characteristics, and the neutral backbone of PNA probes offers significant advantages in whole-cell in situ hybridization assays. In this study, we developed PNA probes targeting the rRNAs of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and applied them to a fluorescence in situ hybridization method (PNA FISH) for differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Liquid cultures were smeared onto microscope slides, heat fixed, and then hybridized for 30 min. Unhybridized PNA probe was removed by washing, and smears were examined by fluorescence microscopy. Evaluation of the PNA FISH method using smears of 79 C. dubliniensis and 70 C. albicans strains showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for both PNA probes. We concluded that PNA FISH is a powerful tool for the differentiation of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. PMID:11682542

  12. Preparation of cells from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments.

    PubMed

    Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Schofield, Deborah E

    2007-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities can be accurately detected in cells from archived tissues using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This unit describes two common approaches to performing FISH in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The first approach utilizes 4 to 6 microm tissue sections in cases for which preserving tissue morphology is necessary, and the second involves extraction of intact nuclei from 50 microm tissue sections. To interpret FISH results using 4 to 6 microm sections, an adequate number of nuclei must be evaluated to perform statistical analysis. Evaluation of 30 to 50 nuclei from the single cell suspension generally gives an interpretable result. PMID:18428417

  13. Enumeration of Respiring Pseudomonas spp. in Milk within 6 Hours by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization following Formazan Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Respiring Pseudomonas spp. in milk were quantified within 6 h by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with vital staining. FISH with an oligonucleotide probe based on 16S rRNA sequences was used for the specific detection of Pseudomonas spp. at the single cell level. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) was used to estimate bacterial respiratory activity. The numbers of respiring Pseudomonas cells as determined by FISH with CTC staining (CTC-FISH) were almost the same or higher than the numbers of CFU as determined by the conventional culture method. PMID:15870367

  14. Whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization staining of the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri

    PubMed Central

    Langenbacher, Adam D.; Rodriguez, Delany; Di Maio, Alessandro; De Tomaso, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial ascidian with characteristics that make it an attractive model for studying immunology, stem cell biology, evolutionary biology, and regeneration. Transcriptome sequencing and the recent completion of a draft genome sequence for B. schlosseri have revealed a large number of genes, both with and without vertebrate homologs, but analyzing the spatial and temporal expression of these genes in situ has remained a challenge. Here we report a robust protocol for in situ hybridization that enables the simultaneous detection of multiple transcripts in whole adult B. schlosseri using Tyramide Signal Amplification in conjunction with digoxigenin- and dinitrophenol-labeled RNA probes. Using this protocol we have identified a number of genes that can serve as markers for developing and mature structures in B. schlosseri, permitting analysis of phenotypes induced in loss-of-function experiments. PMID:25179474

  15. Breakpoints in Robertsonian translocations are localized to satellite III DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gravholt, C.H.; Friedrich, U.; Caprani, M.; Jorgensen, A.L. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors characterized 21 t(13;14) and 3 t(14;21) Robertsonian translocations for the presence of DNA derived from the short arms of the translocated acrocentric chromosomes and identified their centromeres. Nineteen of these 24 translocation carriers were unrelated. Using centromeric [alpha]-repeat DNA as chromosome-specific probe, they found by in situ hybridization that all 24 translocation chromosomes were dicentric. The chromatin between the two centromeres did not stain with silver, and no hybridization signal was detected with probes for rDNA or [beta]-satellite DNA that flank the distal and proximal ends of the rDNA region on the short arm of the acrocentrics. By contrast, all 24 translocation chromosomes gave a distinct hybridization signal when satellite III DNA was used as probe. This result strongly suggests that the chromosomal rearrangements leading to Robertsonian translocations occur preferentially in satellite III DNA. The authors hypothesize that guanine-rich satellite III repeats may promote chromosomal recombination by formation of tetraplex structures. The findings localize satellite III DNA to the short arm of the acrocentric chromosomes distal to centromeric [alpha]-repeat DNA and proximal to [beta]-satellite DNA. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. High resolution multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using cyanine and fluorescein dyes: rapid chromosome identification by directly fluorescently labeled alphoid DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Yurov, Y B; Soloviev, I V; Vorsanova, S G; Marcais, B; Roizes, G; Lewis, R

    1996-03-01

    We tested DNA probes directly labeled by fluorescently labeled nucleotides (Cy3-dCTP, Cy5-dCTP, FluorX-dCTP) for high resolution uni- and multicolor detection of human chromosomes and analysis of centromeric DNA organization by in situ hybridization. Alpha-satellite DNA probes specific to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4 + 9, 5 + 19, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13 + 21, 14 + 22, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, X and Y were suitable for the accurate identification of human chromosomes in metaphase and interphase cells. Cy3-labeled probes had several advantages: (1) a high level of fluorescence (5-10 times more compared with fluorescein-labeled probes); (2) a low level of fluorescence in solution, allowing the detection of target chromosomes in situ during hybridization without the washing of slides; and (3) high resistance to photobleaching during prolonged (1-2 h) exposure to strong light, thus allowing the use of a high energy mercury lamp or a long integration time during image acquisition in digital imaging microscopy for the determination of weak signals. For di- and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we successfully used different combinations of directly fluorophorated probes with preservation of images by conventional microscopy or by digital imaging microscopy. FluorX and Cy3 dyes allowed the use of cosmid probes for mapping in a one-step hybridization experiment. Cyanine-labeled fluorophorated DNA probes offer additional possibilities for rapid chromosome detection during a simple 15-min FISH procedure, and can be recommended for basic research and clinical studies, utilizing FISH. PMID:8786090

  17. [Interphasic in situ fluorescent hybridization (FISH) in 4 cases of myeloid neoplasias with chromosome 7 changes].

    PubMed

    Arranz, E; Renedo, M; Ramos, C; Martínez, B; Prieto, E; Benítez, J

    1994-12-01

    The use of FISH as a complement to the conventional cytogenetic studies is of great help in attaining a better characterisation of the chromosome anomalies present in haematological malignancies, such as chromosome 7 monosomy. A study was carried out in three cases of acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia and a myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 7 involvement, as shown by conventional cytogenetic studies. The Cocktail probe for chromosome 7 (DZ1, DZ2) was used (Oncor) in performing in situ hybridation. A monosomic cell line for chromosome 7, undetected by conventional techniques, was disclosed with this procedure in two of the cases. In the remaining two patients the monosomy of chromosome 7 was confirmed, although at percentages different from those attained with the conventional methods. PMID:7855698

  18. Combined interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization elucidates the genetic heterogeneity of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Gorello, Paolo; La Starza, Roberta; Varasano, Emanuela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Elia, Loredana; Pierini, Valentina; Barba, Gianluca; Brandimarte, Lucia; Crescenzi, Barbara; Vitale, Antonella; Messina, Monica; Grammatico, Sara; Mancini, Marco; Matteucci, Caterina; Bardi, Antonella; Guarini, Anna; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio; Foà, Robin; Mecucci, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular lesions in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias affect regulators of cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in multi-step pathogenic pathways. Full genetic characterization is needed to identify events concurring in the development of these leukemias. Design and Methods We designed a combined interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization strategy to study 25 oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and applied it in 23 adult patients for whom immunophenotyping, karyotyping, molecular studies, and gene expression profiling data were available. The results were confirmed and integrated with those of multiplex-polymerase chain reaction analysis and gene expression profiling in another 129 adults with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Results The combined hybridization was abnormal in 21/23 patients (91%), and revealed multiple genomic changes in 13 (56%). It found abnormalities known to be associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, i.e. CDKN2A-B/9p21 and GRIK2/6q16 deletions, TCR and TLX3 rearrangements, SIL-TAL1, CALM-AF10, MLL-translocations, del(17)(q12)/NF1 and other cryptic genomic imbalances, i.e. 9q34, 11p, 12p, and 17q11 duplication, del(5)(q35), del(7)(q34), del(9)(q34), del(12)(p13), and del(14)(q11). It revealed new cytogenetic mechanisms for TCRB-driven oncogene activation and C-MYB duplication. In two cases with cryptic del(9)(q34), fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction detected the TAF_INUP214 fusion and gene expression profiling identified a signature characterized by HOXA and NUP214 upregulation and TAF_I, FNBP1, C9orf78, and USP20 down-regulation. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction analysis and gene expression profiling of 129 further cases found five additional cases of TAF_I-NUP214-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Conclusions Our combined interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization strategy greatly improved the detection of genetic abnormalities in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. It identified new tumor suppressor genes/oncogenes involved in leukemogenesis and highlighted concurrent involvement of genes. The estimated incidence of TAF_I-NUP214, a new recurrent fusion in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, was 4.6% (7/152). PMID:20065082

  19. QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS. (R823845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Image and multifactorial statistical analyses were used to evaluate the intensity of fluorescence signal from cells of three strains of A. pullulans and one strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides, as an outgroup, hybridized with either a universal o...

  20. Improved signal recognition for interphase fluorescent in-situ hybridization using a non-ionic detergent (NP-40) pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.M.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.; Sciorra, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    We have reported that the non-ionic detergent ethylphenolpoly (ethyleneglycolether)x known as Noniet-P40 (Shell International Petroleum) can gently disrupt cell membranes, resulting in cells with varying degrees of free chromatin release. The extent of this phenomena is dependent upon the concentration of NP-40 and the detergent`s exposure time to the cells. Treated cells can range from halos of DNA around the cells to fully extended free chromatin configurations. We have demonstrated that these treated cells are excellent targets for many different fluorescently labelled probes used for in situ hybridization studies. Recently, we have compared NP-40 harvested lymphocytes with normally harvested cells to see if we could improve upon the number of cells showing discreet signals in interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization. Preliminary work has shown that using a trisomy 21 cell line, one can get a statistically significant improvement with NP-40 pretreatment cells over control levels, in the number of cells having three discreet signals in interphase {open_quotes}FISH{close_quotes}. Such a pretreatment is simple to perform and may be of value when the number of cells available for analysis is low, as in the search for fetal cells from maternal circulation.

  1. The human tissue transglutaminase gene maps on chromosome 20q12 by in situ fluorescence hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, V.; Davies, P.J.A. ); Baldini, A. )

    1994-03-15

    A cDNA encoding for the human tissue transglutaminase gene has been used to identify the chromosomal localization of the corresponding structural gene. The precise chromosomal and subregional localizations have been established by using in situ fluorescence mapping with a recombinant [lambda]-Zap phage containing the full cDNA coding sequence. The study showed that the human tissue transglutaminase gene is localized on chromosome 20 and, more precisely, within the band 20q12. To date, this is the third member of the transglutaminase gene family to be mapped. Human factor XIIIa (plasma transglutaminase), human keratinocyte transglutaminase (type I), and human tissue transglutaminase (type II) genes, although codifying for homologous enzymes, are localized on three different chromosomes. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P. Hecker, Markus

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 {mu}g/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells.

  3. Rapid identification of the animal pathogens Streptococcus uberis and Arcanobacterium pyogenes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Werckenthin, Christiane; Gey, Annerose; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Poppert, Sven

    2012-05-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been reported to be an easy and rapid identification method for many human pathogens, but applications for common veterinary pathogens are lacking. Gene probes for FISH of the animal pathogens Streptococcus uberis and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were designed to provide probes for a specific identification of these bacteria from cultures. Specific FISH probes for these species have so far not been published. Both probes recognized all isolates of the target species correctly. With the S. uberis probe SUB 196 no false-positive results were obtained for reference strains as well as for clinical isolates. Probe APYO 183 for A. pyogenes produced false-positive reactions with so far rarely described Arcanobacterium species from animals at standard hybridization conditions. In order to avoid any incorrect classifications of microorganisms as A. pyogenes, two non-labelled competitor probes were designed and successfully evaluated. PMID:22033042

  4. Simultaneous detection of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA variants utilizing Stellaris® RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization in adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Coassin, Sally R; Orjalo, Arturo V; Semaan, Sheila J; Johansson, Hans E

    2014-01-01

    RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has long been an indispensable tool for the detection and localization of RNA and is increasingly becoming an important complement to other gene expression analysis methods. We detail a streamlined RNA FISH protocol for the simultaneous imaging of multiple RNA gene products and RNA variants in fixed mammalian cells. The technique utilizes fluorescently pre-labeled, short DNA oligonucleotides (20 nucleotides in length), pooled into sets of up to 48 individual probes. The overall binding of multiple oligonucleotides to the same RNA target results in punctate fluorescent signals representing individual RNA molecules without the need for enzymatic signal amplification. Visualization of these punctate signals, through the use of wide-field fluorescence microscopy, enables the quantification of single RNA transcripts. Additionally, by utilizing probe sets with spectrally distinct fluorophores, multiplex analysis of specific RNAs, or RNA variants, can be achieved. We focus on the detection of a cytoplasmic mRNA and a nuclear long noncoding RNA to illustrate the benefits of this method for cell-specific detection and subcellular localization. Post-processing of images and spot counting is briefly discussed to demonstrate the capabilities of this method for the statistical analysis of RNA molecule number per cell, which is information that can be utilized to determine overall gene expression levels and cell-to-cell gene expression variation. PMID:25218386

  5. Fluorescence in situ Hybridizations (FISH) for the Localization of Viruses and Endosymbiotic Bacteria in Plant and Insect Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kliot, Adi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Brumin, Marina; Cathrin, Pakkianathan Britto; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Skaljac, Marisa; Belausov, Eduard; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells and can be further modified to visualize other components in the cell such as infection with viruses and bacteria. Spatial localization and visualization of viruses and bacteria during the infection process is an essential step that complements expression profiling experiments such as microarrays and RNAseq in response to different stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal infections with these agents complements biological experiments aimed at understanding their interaction with cellular components. Several techniques for visualizing viruses and bacteria such as reporter gene systems or immunohistochemical methods are time-consuming, and some are limited to work with model organisms and involve complex methodologies. FISH that targets RNA or DNA species in the cell is a relatively easy and fast method for studying spatiotemporal localization of genes and for diagnostic purposes. This method can be robust and relatively easy to implement when the protocols employ short hybridizing, commercially-purchased probes, which are not expensive. This is particularly robust when sample preparation, fixation, hybridization, and microscopic visualization do not involve complex steps. Here we describe a protocol for localization of bacteria and viruses in insect and plant tissues. The method is based on simple preparation, fixation, and hybridization of insect whole mounts and dissected organs or hand-made plant sections, with 20 base pairs short DNA probes conjugated to fluorescent dyes on their 5' or 3' ends. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of insect and plant tissues, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs or other RNA or DNA species in the cell. PMID:24637389

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) for the localization of viruses and endosymbiotic bacteria in plant and insect tissues.

    PubMed

    Kliot, Adi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Brumin, Marina; Cathrin, Pakkianathan Britto; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Skaljac, Marisa; Belausov, Eduard; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells and can be further modified to visualize other components in the cell such as infection with viruses and bacteria. Spatial localization and visualization of viruses and bacteria during the infection process is an essential step that complements expression profiling experiments such as microarrays and RNAseq in response to different stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal infections with these agents complements biological experiments aimed at understanding their interaction with cellular components. Several techniques for visualizing viruses and bacteria such as reporter gene systems or immunohistochemical methods are time-consuming, and some are limited to work with model organisms and involve complex methodologies. FISH that targets RNA or DNA species in the cell is a relatively easy and fast method for studying spatiotemporal localization of genes and for diagnostic purposes. This method can be robust and relatively easy to implement when the protocols employ short hybridizing, commercially-purchased probes, which are not expensive. This is particularly robust when sample preparation, fixation, hybridization, and microscopic visualization do not involve complex steps. Here we describe a protocol for localization of bacteria and viruses in insect and plant tissues. The method is based on simple preparation, fixation, and hybridization of insect whole mounts and dissected organs or hand-made plant sections, with 20 base pairs short DNA probes conjugated to fluorescent dyes on their 5' or 3' ends. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of insect and plant tissues, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs or other RNA or DNA species in the cell. PMID:24637389

  7. Distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Inamori, Ryuhei; Gui, Ping; Xu, Kai-qin; Kong, Hai-nan; Matsumura, Masatoshi; Inamori, Yuhei

    2005-01-01

    A molecular biology method, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in which the pre-treatment was improved in allusion to the media of the constructed wetlands (CW), e.g. the soil and the grit, was used to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) quantity and the relation with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands under three different loadings in summer from May to September. Results showed that the quantity of the AOB decreased in the Typha latifolia CW with the increase of vertical depth. However, the AOB quantity was 2-4 times the quantity of the control in the root area. Additionally, ORP in the rhizosphere was found to be higher than other areas, which showed that Typha latifolia CW was in an aerobic state in summer when using simulated non-point sewage at the rural area of Taihu Lake in China and small town combined sewage. PMID:16465894

  8. Fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) in plant germ cells and the fertilized ovule.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    First evidence on gene function and regulation is provided by the cellular expression pattern in complex tissues. However, to understand the activity of a specific gene, it is essential to analyze the regulatory network, which controls the spatio-temporal translation pattern during the entire life span of the transcribed mRNA. To explore mechanisms which control mRNA abundance and localization in space and time, it is necessary to visualize mRNAs quantitatively with a subcellular resolution, without sectioning the tissues. We have adapted and optimized a protocol for colorimetric whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (WISH) using egg cell-specific digoxigenin (DIG) labeled probes (Hejátko et al., 2006) [1] on ovules and early seeds of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we established a fluorescent whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization (F-WISH) protocol, which allows mRNA visualization on a subcellular level. The polar localized mRNA of SBT4.13, encoding a subtilase, was identified using this protocol. Both methods are described and discussed in detail. Additionally a (F)-WISH flow-chart is provided along with a troubleshooting table. PMID:26521978

  9. Detection of aneuploidy in sperm of an ataxia telangiectasia patient using three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.R.; Baulch, J.E.; Arnheim, N.

    1994-09-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an inherited, recessive, cancer-prone disorder. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes specific for three chromosomes was applied to sperm of an A-T patient to determine if there may be an increased germinal risk for aneuploidy. Air-dried sperm smears were treated with proteinase K and were decondensed with DTT and LIS. The slides were then hybridized with fluorescently labeled repetitive DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, and a total of 11,825 sperm cells were scored. The ratio of sperm bearing X-8 and Y-8 was 1:1, as predicted. The frequencies of hyperhaploidy were 3.9, 1.0, 17.6 and 7.8 per 10,000 cells for categories X-X-8, Y-Y-8, X-Y-8 and 8-8-(X or Y), respectively, In addition, the frequency of diploidy (X-Y-8-8) was 18.6 and auto-diploidies (X-X-8-8 and Y-Y-8-8) were 1.0 and 2.0, respectively. These frequencies were not significantly different when compared with levels in healthy men (p > 0.1). Our finding suggests that chromosome X, Y and 8 aneuploidies are not elevated in the sperm of A-T patients, but studies with additional patients and chromosomes are needed.

  10. Preparation of Cells from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for Use in Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Experiments.

    PubMed

    Weremowicz, Stanislawa

    2015-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities can be accurately detected in cells from archived tissues using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This unit describes two common approaches to performing FISH in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The first approach utilizes 4 to 6 μm tissue sections in cases for which preserving tissue morphology is necessary, and the second involves extraction of intact nuclei from 50-μm tissue sections. To interpret FISH results using 4 to 6 μm sections, an adequate number of nuclei must be evaluated to perform statistical analysis. Evaluation of 30 to 50 nuclei from the single-cell suspension generally gives an interpretable result. PMID:25599671

  11. Specific Detection of Arcobacter and Campylobacter Strains in Water and Sewage by PCR and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Yolanda; Botella, Salut; Alonso, José Luis; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Manuel; Hernández, Javier

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for detecting Arcobacter and Campylobacter strains in river water and wastewater samples. Both 16S and 23S rRNA sequence data were used to design specific primers and oligonucleotide probes for PCR and FISH analyses, respectively. In order to assess the suitability of the methods, the assays were performed on naturally and artificially contaminated samples and compared with the isolation of cells on selective media. The detection range of PCR and FISH assays varied between 1 cell/ml (after enrichment) to 103 cells/ml (without enrichment). According to our results, both rRNA-based techniques have the potential to be used as quick and sensitive methods for detection of campylobacters in environmental samples. PMID:12571045

  12. Identification and characterization of marker chromosomes, de novo rearrangements and microdeletions in 100 cases with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Papenhausen, P.R.

    1994-09-01

    Results of molecular cytogenetic analysis are presented for 100 cases in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used as an adjunct to standard cytogenetics. Commercially available centromeric, telomeric, chromosome painting and unique sequence probes were used. Cases were from a 12-month period (June 1993-May 1994) and included examples of sex chromosome abnormalities (8), duplications (5), de novo translocations (6), satellited (12) and non-satellited (7) markers, and microdeletion syndromes (62). Satellited marker chromosomes were evaluated using a combination of DAPI/Distamycin A staining, hybridization with a classical satellite probe for chromosome 15 and hybridization with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 13, 14, 21 and 22. Markers positive for the chromosome 15 probe were further evaluated using unique sequence probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Microdeletion analysis was performed for Prader-Willi/Angelman (49) and DiGeorge/VCF (13) syndromes. Seven cases evaluated for Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome demonstrated evidence of a deletion within this region. Uniparental disomy analysis was available in cases where a deletion was not detected by FISH, yet follow-up was clinically indicated. Two cases evaluated for DiGeorge/VCF syndrome demonstrated molecular evidence of a deletion. Included in our analysis is an example of familial DiGeorge syndrome.

  13. Rapid sex determination on buccal smears using DNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldez, R.A.; Harris, C.

    1994-09-01

    Hybridization of dual-labeled DNA probes for the repetitive sequences on the X and Y chromosomes allows a fast, non-invasive, more reliable method for sex determination that current cytogenetic Barr body and Y chromatin assays. Scrapes of squamous epithelial cells were collected from the oral cavity of 14 subjects (5{male}, 9{female}) and smeared onto silanized slides. The smears were allowed to air dry. Samples were blinded and then fixed in 50% methanol/50% glacial acetic acid for 10 minutes, and allowed to dry. The slides were incubated in a pretreatment solution containing 30% sodium bisulfite at 45{degrees}C for 10 minutes. They were rinsed in 2XSSC pH 7.0 and then dehydrated through a series of 70%, 85%, and 100% ethanols at room temperature and allowed to air dry. A probe mixture (30 {mu}L containing 10 ng/{mu}L biotin-labeled DXZ1 and digoxigenin-labeled DYZ1/DYZ3 in 70% Formamide/2XSSC) was aliquoted onto each slide, coverslipped, and sealed with rubber cement. Probe and target DNA were simultaneously denatured at 72{degrees}C on a slide warmer for 6 minutes. Probe was allowed to hybridize overnight in a humidified chamber at 37{degrees}C. Slides were postwashed at 72{degrees}C in 0.5xSSC pH 7.0 for 5 minutes, then soaked at room temperature 1XPBD for 2 minutes, and detected with rhodamine/anti-digoxigenin-FITC/avidin for 15 minutes at 37{degrees}C. Slides were soaked 3X in 1XPBD and then counterstained with 15 {mu}L 0.05 {mu}g/mL DAP1/Antifade. 200 nuclei were scored for the presence of one green (X), two green (XX), one green and one red (XY), or a single red (Y) signal, using a fluorescent microscope equipped with a triple band pass filter. Greater than 90% of the hybridized nuclei from each of the 14 cases studied conformed to the sex chromosome pattern. The modal number in 9 cases showed two green signals (XX), and a green and a red signal (XY) in the other 5 cases; this was in complete agreement with the cytogenetic results.

  14. Visualization and quantification of archaeal and bacterial metabolically active cells in soil using fluorescence in situ hybridization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Manucharova, Natalia; Stepanov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The method of in situ hybridization using fluorescent labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH - fluorescence in situ hybridization) combines identification and quantification of groups of microorganisms at different phylogenetic levels, from domain to species. The FISH method enables to study the soil microbial community in situ, avoiding plating on nutrient media, and allows to identify and quantify living, metabolically active cells of Bacteria and Archaea. The full procedure consists of the following steps: desorption of the cells from the soil particles, fixation of cells, coating a fixed sample on the glass slide, hybridization with the specific probes and, finally, microscopic observation and cell counting. For the FISH analysis of Bacteria and Archaea, the paraformaldehyde-fixed samples were hybridized with Cy3-labeled Archaea-specific probe(Arc915) and 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled Bacteria-specific probe(EUB338). When a molecular probe is incorporated into a cell, it can hybridize solely with a complementary rRNA sequence. The hybridization can be visualized under the fluorescent microscope and counted. The application of FISH will be demonstrated by the abundance of metabolically active cells of Archaea and Bacteria depending on soil properties, depth and land use. The research was carried out at field and natural ecosystems of European part of Russia. Samples were collected within the soil profiles (3-6 horizons) of Chernozem and Kastanozem with distinct land use. Quantification of metabolically active cells in virgin and arable Chernozem revealed that the abundance of Archaea in topsoil of virgin Chernozem was doubled as compared with arable soil, but it leveled off in the deeper horizons. Plowing of Chernozem decreased an amount of archaeal and bacterial active cells simultaneously, however, Bacteria were more resistant to agrogenic impact than Archaea. In Kastanozem, a significant change in the abundance of metabolically active cells due to plowing was detected only within 40 cm soil layer, and this effect disappeared in lower horizons. The abundance of Archaea was higher in the upper horizons of arable soil as compared to virgin. Conversely, the abundance of Bacteria in the upper layers of arable Kastanozem decreased versus virgin soil. A relationship between soil organic carbon and the amount of soil metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea cells revealed that distribution of both Bacteria and Archaea throughout the soil profile was governed mostly by the organic matter content. Thus, the organic matter was a main factor of declining the Bacteria:Archaea ratio with the soil depth (from 7.1 to 4.2 for virgin soil and from 5 to 3.9 for arable soil). As a result, Archaea out-compete Bacteria under conditions of reduced energy supply. Thus, the FISH method combines classical microscopic and modern phylogenetic microbiological approaches and can be considered as an effective tool for ecological, diagnostic and environmental research in microbiology.

  15. Directly incorporating fluorochromes into DNA probes by PCR increases the efficience of fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmer, Joy

    1996-05-01

    The object of this study was to produce a directly labeled whole chromosome probe in a Degenerative Oligonucleotide Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP-PCR) that will identify chromosome breaks, deletions, inversions and translocations caused by radiation damage. In this study we amplified flow sorted chromosome 19 using DOP-PCR. The product was then subjected to a secondary DOP PCR amplification, After the secondary amplification the DOP-PCR product was directly labeled in a tertiary PCR reaction with rhodamine conjugated with dUTP (FluoroRed) to produce a DNA fluorescent probe. The probe was then hybridized to human metaphase lymphocytes on slides, washed and counterstained with 4{prime},6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The signal of the FluoroRed probe was then compared to a signal of a probe labeled with biotin and stained with avidin fluorescein isothio cynate (FITC) and anti-avidin FITC. The results show that the probe labeled with FluoroRed gave signals as bright as the probe with biotin labeling. The FluoroRed probe had less noise than the biotin labeled probe. Therefore, a directly labeled probe has been successfully produced in a DOP-PCR reaction. In future a probe labeled with FluoroRed will be produced instead of a probe labeled with biotin to increase efficiency.

  16. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies by fluorescence in situ hybridization: clinical experience with 4,500 specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, B E; Gersen, S L; Carelli, M P; McGuire, N M; Dackowski, W R; Weinstein, M; Sandlin, C; Warren, R; Klinger, K W

    1993-01-01

    Detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes is possible using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We herein describe the results of the first clinical program which utilized FISH for the rapid detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes. FISH was performed on physician request, as an adjunct to cytogenetics in 4,500 patients. Region-specific DNA probes to chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be euploid when all autosomal probes generated two hybridization signals and when a normal sex chromosome pattern was observed in greater than or equal to 80% of hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be aneuploid when greater than or equal to 70% of hybridized nuclei displayed the same abnormal hybridization pattern for a specific probe. Of the attempted analyses, 90.2% met these criteria and were reported as informative to referring physicians within 2 d of receipt. Based on these reporting parameters, the overall detection rate for aneuploidies was 73.3% (107/146), with an accuracy of informative results for aneuploidies of 93.9% (107/114). Compared to cytogenetics, the accuracy of all informative FISH results, euploid and aneuploid, was 99.8%, and the specificity was 99.9%. In those pregnancies where fetal abnormalities had been observed by ultrasound, referring physicians requested FISH plus cytogenetics at a significantly higher rate than they requested cytogenetics alone. The current prenatal FISH protocol is not designed to detect all chromosome abnormalities and should only be utilized as an adjunctive test to cytogenetics. This experience demonstrates that FISH can provide a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies. PMID:8488836

  17. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Clinical experience with 4,500 specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.E.; Gersen, S.L.; Carelli, M.P.; McGuire, N.M.; Dackowski, W.R.; Klinger, K.W. ); Weinstein, M. ); Sandlin, C. ); Klinger, K.W. )

    1993-05-01

    Detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes is possible using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The authors herein describe the results of the first clinical program which utilized FISH for the rapid detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured amniocytes. FISH was performed on physician request, as an adjunct to cytogenetics in 4,500 patients. Region-specific DNA probes to chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be euploid when all autosomal probes generated two hybridization signals and when a normal sex chromosome pattern was observed in greater than or equal to 80% of hybridized nuclei. A sample was considered to be aneuploid when greater than or equal to 70% of hybridized nuclei displayed the same abnormal hybridization pattern for a specific probe. Of the attempted analyses, 90.2% met these criteria and were reported as informative to referring physicians within 2 d of receipt. Based on these reporting parameters, the overall detection rate for aneuploidies was 73.3% (107/146), with an accuracy of informative results for aneuploidies of 93.9% (107/114). Compared to cytogenetics, the accuracy of all informative FISH results, euploid and aneuploid, was 99.8%, and the specificity was 99.9%. In those pregnancies where fetal abnormalities had been observed by ultrasound, referring physicians requested FISH plus cytogenetics at a significantly higher rate than they requested cytogenetics alone. The current prenatal FISH protocol is not designed to detect all chromosome abnormalities and should only be utilized as an adjunctive test to cytogenetics. This experience demonstrates that FISH can provide a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.,

  18. Visualization and Enumeration of Marine Planktonic Archaea and Bacteria by Using Polyribonucleotide Probes and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Edward F.; Taylor, Lance Trent; Marsh, Terence L.; Preston, Christina M.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes has emerged as a popular technique for identifying individual microbial cells. In natural samples, however, the signal derived from fluor-labeled oligonucleotide probes often is undetectable above background fluorescence in many cells. To circumvent this difficulty, we applied fluorochrome-labeled polyribonucleotide probes to identify and enumerate marine planktonic archaea and bacteria. The approach greatly enhanced the sensitivity and applicability of FISH with seawater samples, allowing confident identification and enumeration of planktonic cells to ocean depths of 3,400 m. Quantitative whole-cell hybridization experiments using these probes accounted for 90 to 100% of the total 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells in most samples. As predicted in a previous study (R. Massana, A. E. Murray, C. M. Preston, and E. F. DeLong, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:50–56, 1997), group I and II marine archaea predominate in different zones in the water column, with maximal cell densities of 105/ml. The high cell densities of archaea, extending from surface waters to abyssal depths, suggest that they represent a large and significant fraction of the total picoplankton biomass in coastal ocean waters. The data also show that the vast majority of planktonic prokaryotes contain significant numbers of ribosomes, rendering them easily detectable with polyribonucleotide probes. These results imply that the majority of planktonic cells visualized by DAPI do not represent lysed cells or “ghosts,” as was suggested in a previous report. PMID:10584017

  19. Detection of aneuploidy involving chromosomes 13, 18, or 21, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to interphase and metaphase amniocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, W L; Tenjin, H; Segraves, R; Pinkel, D; Golbus, M S; Gray, J

    1991-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes has been applied to detection of numerical aberrations involving chromosomes 13, 18, and 21 in metaphase and interphase amniocytes. High-complexity, composite probes for chromosomes 13, 18, and 21 were used as hybridization probes for this study. These probes were constructed as chromosome-specific libraries in Bluescribe plasmids and are designated pBS-13, pBS-18, and pBS-21. Elements of these probes bind at numerous sites along the target chromosome and, when detected fluorescently, stain essentially the entire long arm of the target chromosome. The target chromosome number (i.e., the number of chromosomes of the type for which the probe was specific) was correctly determined in 20 of 20 samples in which metaphase spreads were analyzed and in 43 of 43 samples in which interphase nuclei were analyzed; all of these studies were conducted in blind fashion. These results suggest the utility of FISH with composite probes for rapid detection of numerical aberrations in metaphase and interphase amniotic cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2063863

  20. Visualization of sporopollenin-containing pathogenic green micro-alga Prototheca wickerhamii by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryohei

    2009-04-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using taxon-specific, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes is one of the most powerful tools for the rapid identification of harmful microorganisms. However, eukaryotic algal cells do not always allow FISH probes to permeate over their cell walls. Members of the pathogenic micro-algal genus Prototheca are characterized by their distinctive cell-wall component, sporopollenin, an extremely tough biopolymer that resists acid and alkaline hydrolysis, enzyme attack, and acetolysis. To our knowledge, there has been no report of the successful permeation by the oligonucleotide probes over the cell walls of unicellular green micro-algae, which contain sporopollenin. The DNA probes passed through the cell wall of Prototheca wickerhamii after treating the algal cells with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Most cells in the middle logarithmic growth phase culture fluoresced when hybridized with the rRNA-targeted universal probe for eukaryotes, though individual cells included in this culture differed in the level of cell-wall vulnerability to attack by the polysaccharide-degrading enzyme, thus reflecting the different stages of the life cycle. This is the first report regarding the visualization of sporopollenin-containing, green micro-algal cells by FISH. PMID:19396247

  1. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Progress report, April 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  2. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analysis of mouse pancreas using low-power antigen-retrieval technique.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shundi; Crooks, Gay M; McNamara, George; Wang, Xiuli

    2006-07-01

    To facilitate the immunological reaction of antibodies with antigens in fixed tissues, it is necessary to unmask or retrieve the antigens through pretreatment of the specimens. However, adjustment of heating-induced antigen retrieval is always required for different tissues and antigens. In this study, by using a low-power antigen-retrieval technique with appropriate dilution of antibodies, we successfully immunostained key antigens in pancreas such as insulin, PDX-1, glucagon, cytokeratin, and CD31, which have previously presented a particular challenge for investigators because of the rapid autodigestion and high nonspecific antibody binding in this tissue. Satisfactory results were obtained when immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were combined in the same slides. PMID:16549508

  3. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Identification of Candida albicans Directly from Blood Culture Bottles

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Susan; Procop, Gary W.; Haase, Gerhard; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine; Kurtzman, Cletus; Oliveira, Kenneth; Von Oy, Sabina; Hyldig-Nielsen, Jens J.; Coull, James; Stender, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method that uses peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Candida albicans directly from positive-blood-culture bottles in which yeast was observed by Gram staining (herein referred to as yeast-positive blood culture bottles) is described. The test (the C. albicans PNA FISH method) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets C. albicans 26S rRNA. The PNA probe is added to smears made directly from the contents of the blood culture bottle and hybridized for 90 min at 55°C. Unhybridized PNA probe is removed by washing of the mixture (30 min), and the smears are examined by fluorescence microscopy. The specificity of the method was confirmed with 23 reference strains representing phylogenetically related yeast species and 148 clinical isolates covering the clinically most significant yeast species, including C. albicans (n = 72), C. dubliniensis (n = 58), C. glabrata (n = 5), C. krusei (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 4), and C. tropicalis (n = 3). The performance of the C. albicans PNA FISH method as a diagnostic test was evaluated with 33 routine and 25 simulated yeast-positive blood culture bottles and showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It is concluded that this 2.5-h method for the definitive identification of C. albicans directly from yeast-positive blood culture bottles provides important information for optimal antifungal therapy and patient management. PMID:12037084

  4. Cellular localization of oriC during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli as analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Roos, M; van Geel, A B; Aarsman, M E; Veuskens, J T; Woldringh, C L; Nanninga, N

    1999-01-01

    The origin of replication of Escherichia coli, oriC, has been labeled by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The E. coli K12 strain was grown under steady state conditions with a doubling time of 79 min at 28 degrees C. Under these growth conditions DNA replication starts in the previous cell cycle at -33 min. At birth cells possess two origins which are visible as two separated foci in fully labeled cells. The number of foci increased with cell length. The distance of foci from the nearest cell pole has been measured in various length classes. The data suggest: i) that the two most outwardly located foci keep a constant distance to the cell pole and they therefore move apart gradually in line with cell elongation; and ii) that at the initiation of DNA replication the labeled origins occur near the center of prospective daughter cells. PMID:10572291

  5. Prenatal detection of structural abnormalities of chromosome 18: associations with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and maternal serum screening.

    PubMed

    Graf, Michael D; Gill, Prabhcharan; Krew, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart

    2002-08-01

    We describe two cases of prenatally ascertained isochromosome 18. Case 1 included both an isochromosome 18p and an isochromosome 18q, while Case 2 involved only an isochromosome 18q. Both of these cases were associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen trisomy 18 risk (greater than 1 in 100 risk). In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on uncultured amniotic fluid interphase cells in both cases looking for aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. The results of the interphase analyses support the common knowledge that careful interpretation of interphase FISH analysis is necessary and that results should be followed by full cytogenetic analysis. To our knowledge these are the first reported cases of structurally abnormal chromosomes 18 being associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen for trisomy 18. PMID:12210569

  6. Localization of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in dissected organs of its psyllid vector Diaphorina citri using fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vector interactions of huanglongbing (HLB) disease with its psyllid vectors, particularly at the organ and cellular levels, are poorly understood. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) for the localization of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), associat...

  7. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

  8. Genotype-phenotype correlation in satellited 1p chromosome: Importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) applications

    SciTech Connect

    Habibian, R.; Hajianpour, M.J.; Hajianpour, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to delineate the structural rearrangement of two satellited 1p chromosomes identified in a prenatal and in a postnatal case. Prenatal case: chromosome analysis of amniotic cells on a 37-year-old G2, PO, SAb1 woman, referred for advanced maternal age, revealed a 46,XX,1ps karyotype. Parental chromosome analyses showed that the satellited chromosome was paternal in origin. The satellited 1p did not stain with NOR and DA-DAPI. FISH using a probe specific for the rDNA, 18S and 28S genes also showed no hybridization to the satellited 1p. Using two different probes specific for 1p36.3 showed hybridization to both chromosomes 1p. This indicated that the terminal band was most likely present in the fetus and chromosomally balanced like the father. The pregnancy was continued and a phenotypically normal female was born. Postnatal case: Chromosome analysis of peripheral lymphocytes was performed on a 3 1/2-year old female with multiple congenital anomalies including growth retardation, developmental delay, upslanted palpebral fissures, thick eyebrows, esotropia, seizures, and mental retardation. She was born to a 14-year old, G1, PO mother, after a full-term pregnancy, by cesarian-section due to breech presentation. Her one-year-old brother is reportedly in good health. Chromosome analysis revealed a de novo 46,XX,lps. NOR and DA-DAPI stains were positive indicating the satellites are most likely chromosome 15 in origin. FISH using the rDNA probes also showed a hybridization to the 1ps. The two 1p36.3 probes showed only one signal to the normal chromosome 1, indicating a deletion which resulted in monosomy of 1p36.3. The clinical features of the child correlates with published cases of the terminal deletions of 1p.

  9. Technical Note: Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Luna, G. M.; Nardelli, M. P.; Sbaffi, T.; Morigi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A.

    2011-08-01

    Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically, these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but does not allow discrimination between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a new and useful approach to identify living cells possessing an active metabolism. Our work is the first test of the suitability of the FISH technique, based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect live benthic foraminifera. The protocol was applied on Ammonia group and Miliolids, as well as on agglutinated polythalamous (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra) and soft-shelled monothalamous (i.e., Psammophaga sp. and saccamminid morphotypes) taxa. The results from FISH analyses were compared with those obtained, on the same specimens assayed with FISH, from microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and pseudopodial activity. Our results indicate that FISH targets only metabolically active foraminifera, and allows discerning from low to high cellular activity, validating the hypothesis that the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the probe is dependent upon the physiological status of cells. These findings support the usefulness of this molecular approach as a key tool for obtaining information on the physiology of living foraminifera, both in field and experimental settings.

  10. Pre-implantation genetic screening using fluorescence in situ hybridization in couples of Indian ethnicity: Is there a scope?

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shailaja Gada; Desai, Kundanbala; Shewale, Lata; Ranjan, Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: There is a high incidence of numerical chromosomal aberration in couples with repeated in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure, advanced maternal age, repeated unexplained abortions, severe male factor infertility and unexplained infertility. Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS), a variant of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, screens numerical chromosomal aberrations in couples with normal karyotype, experiencing poor reproductive outcome. The present study includes the results of the initial pilot study on 9 couples who underwent 10 PGS cycles. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of PGS in couples with poor reproductive outcome. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Data of initial 9 couples who underwent 10 PGS for various indications was evaluated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Blastomere biopsy was performed on cleavage stage embryos and subjected to two round fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y as a two-step procedure. RESULTS: Six of the 9 couples (10 PGS cycles) conceived, including a twin pregnancy in a couple with male factor infertility, singleton pregnancies in a couple with secondary infertility, in three couples with adverse obstetric outcome in earlier pregnancies and in one couple with repeated IVF failure. CONCLUSION: In the absence of availability of array-comparative genomic hybridization in diagnostic clinical scenario for PGS and promising results with FISH based PGS as evident from the current pilot study, it is imperative to offer the best available services in the present scenario for better pregnancy outcome for patients. PMID:24829527

  11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes in the interphase and metaphase stages of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Linda A

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used routinely in detecting molecular abnormalities in the interphase and metaphase stages of the cell cycle. Many of the molecular anomalies which are detected in this manner are diagnostic of a prenatal, postnatal, or neoplastic genetic disorder. With the continuous isolation of commercially available DNA probes specific to a particular chromosome region, FISH analysis has become standardized in its ability to detect characteristic chromosomal anomalies in association with genetic and neoplastic diseases. In recent years, FISH has also become automated to accommodate the increased volume of slide preparations necessary for the number of DNA probes needed to detect characteristic molecular anomalies in cancer tissues and bone marrow samples. FISH technology provides essential information to the physician regarding the diagnosis, response to treatment, and ultimately the prognosis of their patients' disorder. It has become an important source of information routinely used in conjunction with chromosome analyses, and presently to confirm molecular alterations detected by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses. In this chapter we describe the methods for performing FISH analyses in order to determine the presence or the absence of genetic abnormalities which define whether the patient has either a genetic syndrome or malignant disease. PMID:23179826

  12. Cultivation-Independent, Semiautomatic Determination of Absolute Bacterial Cell Numbers in Environmental Samples by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Daims, Holger; Ramsing, Niels B.; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes has found widespread application for analyzing the composition of microbial communities in complex environmental samples. Although bacteria can quickly be detected by FISH, a reliable method to determine absolute numbers of FISH-stained cells in aggregates or biofilms has, to our knowledge, never been published. In this study we developed a semiautomated protocol to measure the concentration of bacteria (in cells per volume) in environmental samples by a combination of FISH, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and digital image analysis. The quantification is based on an internal standard, which is introduced by spiking the samples with known amounts of Escherichia coli cells. This method was initially tested with artificial mixtures of bacterial cultures and subsequently used to determine the concentration of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a municipal nitrifying activated sludge. The total number of ammonia oxidizers was found to be 9.8 × 107 ± 1.9 × 107 cells ml?1. Based on this value, the average in situ activity was calculated to be 2.3 fmol of ammonia converted to nitrite per ammonia oxidizer cell per h. This activity is within the previously determined range of activities measured with ammonia oxidizer pure cultures, demonstrating the utility of this quantification method for enumerating bacteria in samples in which cells are not homogeneously distributed. PMID:11722938

  13. Direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Escherichia coli with a target-specific quantum dot-based molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Mei; Tian, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Huang, Bi-Hai; Jiang, Peng; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2010-10-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals with excellent properties such as tunable emission spectra and photo-bleaching resistance compared with organic dyes, which make them appropriate for applications in molecular beacons. In this work, quantum dot-based molecular beacons (QD-based MBs) were fabricated to specifically detect ?-lactamase genes located in pUC18 which were responsible for antibiotic resistance in bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5?. QD-based MBs were constructed by conjugating mercaptoacetic acid-quantum dots (MAA-QDs) with black hole quencher 2 (BHQ2) labeled thiol DNA vial metal-thiol bonds. Two types of molecular beacons, double-strands beacons and hairpin beacons, were observed in product characterization by gel electrophoresis. Using QD-based MBs, one-step FISH in tiny bacteria DH5? was realized for the first time. QD-based MBs retained their bioactivity when hybridizing with complementary target DNA, which showed excellent advantages of eliminating background noise caused by adsorption of non-specific bioprobes and achieving clearer focus of genes in plasmids pUC18, and capability of bacterial cell penetration and signal specificity in one-step in situ hybridization. PMID:20729070

  14. Use of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Track Gene Expression by Both Partners during Initiation of Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, K; Lehnert, E; McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2015-07-01

    The establishment of a productive symbiosis between Euprymna scolopes, the Hawaiian bobtail squid, and its luminous bacterial symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, is mediated by transcriptional changes in both partners. A key challenge to unraveling the steps required to successfully initiate this and many other symbiotic associations is characterization of the timing and location of these changes. We report on the adaptation of hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) to simultaneously probe the spatiotemporal regulation of targeted genes in both E. scolopes and V. fischeri. This method revealed localized, transcriptionally coregulated epithelial cells within the light organ that responded directly to the presence of bacterial cells while, at the same time, provided a sensitive means to directly show regulated gene expression within the symbiont population. Thus, HCR-FISH provides a new approach for characterizing habitat transition in bacteria and for discovering host tissue responses to colonization. PMID:25956763

  15. Use of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Track Gene Expression by Both Partners during Initiation of Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakakis, K.; Lehnert, E.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of a productive symbiosis between Euprymna scolopes, the Hawaiian bobtail squid, and its luminous bacterial symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, is mediated by transcriptional changes in both partners. A key challenge to unraveling the steps required to successfully initiate this and many other symbiotic associations is characterization of the timing and location of these changes. We report on the adaptation of hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) to simultaneously probe the spatiotemporal regulation of targeted genes in both E. scolopes and V. fischeri. This method revealed localized, transcriptionally coregulated epithelial cells within the light organ that responded directly to the presence of bacterial cells while, at the same time, provided a sensitive means to directly show regulated gene expression within the symbiont population. Thus, HCR-FISH provides a new approach for characterizing habitat transition in bacteria and for discovering host tissue responses to colonization. PMID:25956763

  16. Cytogenetic follow-up by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization: implications for monitoring patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion 5q treated with lenalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Gudrun; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Büsche, Guntram; Hofmann, Winfried; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Fenaux, Pierre; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Schlegelberger, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    In patients with low and intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion 5q (del(5q)) treated with lenalidomide, monitoring of cytogenetic response is mandatory, since patients without cytogenetic response have a significantly increased risk of progression. Therefore, we have reviewed cytogenetic data of 302 patients. Patients were analyzed by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 85 patients, del(5q) was only detected by karyotyping. In 8 patients undergoing karyotypic evolution, the del(5q) and additional chromosomal aberrations were only detected by karyotyping. In 3 patients, del(5q) was only detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but not by karyotyping due to a low number of metaphases. Karyotyping was significantly more sensitive than fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting the del(5q) clone. In conclusion, to optimize therapy control of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with del(5q) treated with lenalidomide and to identify cytogenetic non-response or progression as early as possible, fluorescence in situ hybridization alone is inadequate for evaluation. Karyotyping must be performed to optimally evaluate response. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01099267 and NCT00179621) PMID:21109690

  17. Localization of the human kinesin light chain gene (KNS2) to chromosome 14q32.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Goedert, M.; Marsh, S.; Carter, N.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of human kinesin light chain gene (KNS2) to human chromosome 14q32.3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Further studies will need to be conducted to see whether mutations in the KNS2 gene are associated with hereditary diseases. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Assignment of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene (GIPR) to chromosome bands 19q13.2-q13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, M.; Fernald, A.A.; Bell, G.I.; Le Beau, M.M.

    1995-08-10

    The gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene (GIPR) was localized, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to human chromosome bands 19q13.2-q13.3. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a potent stimulator of insulin secretion and mutations in the GIPR gene may be related to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). 13 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Reliability of aneuploidy estimates in human sperm: Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using two different scoring criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H. |; Rademaker, A.

    1994-09-01

    Aneuploidy estimates for individual chromosomes in human sperm have varied more than 10-fold in different laboratories using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These laboratories use different scoring criteria in the assessment of a disomic sperm. In order to determine reliable estimates of aneuploidy, we have investigated whether scoring criteria affect the aneuploidy frequency in human sperm. Aneuploidy estimates for chromosomes 1(pUC1.77), 12(pBR12), X(XC) and Y(DYZ3Z) were obtained in human sperm from five donors using multicolor FISH analysis to provide an internal control to differentiate between nullisomy and lack of hybridization and between disomy and diploidy. Disomy frequencies were obtained by scoring a minimum of 10,000 sperm for each chromosome probe per donor. This analysis was replicated for two scoring criteria: one scoring criterion used one-half a signal domain as the minimum distance between two signals to be counted as two and thus disomic; the other scoring criterion set one signal domain as the minimum distance between two signals. A total of 120,870 sperm were assessed using one half domain as the scoring criterion and 113,478 were scored using one domain as the criterion. The mean percent disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, X, Y and XY was .18, .16, .15, .19, .25 respectively using the one-half domain criterion and .08, .17, .07, .12, .16 respectively using the one domain criterion. The percent disomy decreased significantly with use of one domain as the minimum distance for signal separation for all chromosomes except chromosome number 12. These lower disomy frequencies correlated well with frequencies derived from human sperm karyotypes analyzed in our laboratory. This suggests that the fluorescent signals for chromosomes 1, X and Y split into more than one domain in decondensed interphase sperm and use of the one-half domain criterion leads to an overestimate of aneuploidy frequencies.

  20. Combined capillary electrophoresis and DNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid molecular identification of Salmonella Typhimurium in mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Andrew W; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2008-06-01

    CE, long a staple in analytical chemistry for molecular separations, has recently been adapted for separating heterogeneous mixtures of microbial cells based on intrinsic differences in cell morphology and surface charge. In this application, CE enables effective separations of both relatively broad categories of cells, as well as of more similar cell types. As a phenotypic approach, CE may be less applicable to certain populations, including those comprised of pleiomorphic cells or chain-forming cells, where differences in cell size, shape, or chain length may lead to broad, "unfocusable" distributions in cell surface charge. At the other end of the spectrum, closely related species having similar surface charge profiles may not be separable via CE alone. Successful combination of microbial CE with a compatible method for generating cell-specific signals could address these limitations, increasing the diagnostic power of this approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a rapid molecular technique for fluorescence-based labeling of whole target cells. In this work, we combined a simple CE-based presence/absence test with FISH to develop a bacterial detection assay having an additional "layer" of molecular specificity. Using this approach, we were able to differentiate Salmonella Typhimurium from Escherichia coli in mixed populations via CE. Both hybridizations and CE run times were short (10-15 min), bacterial populations were highly focused ( approximately 2-3 s peak width) and there was no need for a posthybridization wash step. As few as three injected cells of S. Typhimurium were detected against a background of approximately 300 injected E. coli cells, suggesting the possibility for single-cell detection of pathogens using this technique. This proof of concept study highlights the potential of CE-FISH as a promising new tool for molecular detection of specific bacterial cells within mixtures of closely related, physiologically inseparable populations. PMID:18494031

  1. Midkine gene (MDK), a gene for prenatal differentiation and neuroregulation, maps to band 11p11. 2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaname, Tadashi; Uehara, Kazuyoshi; Muramatsu, Taskashi ); Kuwano, Akira; Murano, Ichiro; Kajii, Tadashi )

    1993-08-01

    Midkine (MDK) is a retinoic acid-responsive gene concerned with prenatal development and neurite growth. The authors mapped the gene to band p11.2 of chromosome 11 through fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and using a 4.5-kb fragment of its human genomic DNA. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Chromosomal localization of the human natural killer cell class I receptor family genes to 19q13.4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Suto, Yumiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; yabe, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the localization of the human natural killer cell I receptor family genes to human chromosome 19q13.4 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. These genes mediate the inhibition of the cytotoxicity of subsets of natural killer cells. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Luna, G. M.; Morigi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A.

    2010-10-01

    Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine living biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but this approach does not allow discriminating between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a potentially useful approach identifying living cells with active metabolism cells. In this work, we tested for the first time the suitability of the FISH technique based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect these live benthic protists. The protocol was applied on the genus Ammonia, on the Miliolidae group and an attempt was made also with agglutinated species (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra). In addition microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and, sometimes, those of pseudopodial activity where conducted. The results of the present study indicate that FISH targeted only live and metabolically active foraminifera. These results allowed to identify as "live", cells improperly classified as "dead" by means of the classical technique (Type I error) and vice versa to identify as dead the foraminifera without rRNA, but stained using Rose Bengal (Type II error). In addition, the comparative FISH analysis of starved and actively growing cells demonstrated that individuals with active metabolism were stained more intensively than starved cells. This finding supports the hypothesis that the physiological status of cells can be directly related with the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the fluorescent probe. We conclude that the use of molecular approaches could represent a key tool for acquiring crucial information on living foraminifera specimens and for investigating their ecological role in marine sediments.

  4. Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Results Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. Conclusions The approach described in this study enables for the first time the analysis of the metabolically active fraction of the microbial communities within biogas reactors by Flow-FISH. PMID:24304697

  5. Detection of the AML translocation (8;21) by two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchi, N.; Magnani, I.; Kearney, L.

    1994-09-01

    In the translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), part of the long arm of chromosome 8 is reciprocally translocated onto chromosome 21. At the molecular level the translocation results in the fusion of the 5{prime} region of the AML1 gene on chromosome 21 and almost the entire CDR gene (also ETO or MTG8) on chromosome 8. To detection the translocation at the single cell level, we used two probes, a cosmid clone containing the first five exons of AML1 and a P1 clone containing the entire CDR gene. Hybridization of the two probes to the distal and proximal sides of the translocation breakpoint was expected to highlight the derivative 8q-chromosome in an interphase cell. To demonstrate the ability to identify the translocation in interphase cells using two-color FISH, these two probes were hybridized simultaneously to a cell line containing the 8;21 translocation, Kasumi-1. Each probe was detected with a different color so that their relationship in the sample could be determined within the same interphase cell. Simultaneous hybridization of the CDR and AML1 probes to interphase Kasumi-1 cells resulted in one orange and one green hybridization signal randomly located in the cell, from the hybridization to the normal 8 and 21 chromosomes, and one orange-green pair of signals from the close hybridization of the two probes to the fusion gene on the derivative 8q-chromosome, indicating the translocation. The translocation was identified by an abnormal pairing of the two differently colored signals in the same interphase cell. This technique allows for the detection of the translocation in all cells, not just those arrested in metaphase, and also permits the analysis of a small number of cells. Therefore, useful information can still be obtained from samples not suited for RT-PCR analysis and conventional cytogenetic techniques.

  6. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Fresco, Jacques R. (Princeton, NJ); Johnson, Marion D. (East Windsor, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  7. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of pre-incubated blood culture material for the rapid diagnosis of histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto Moreira; da Silva Neto, João Ricardo; Santos, Carla Silvana; Cruz, Kátia Santana; Frickmann, Hagen; Poppert, Sven; Koshikene, Daniela; de Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown to be useful for the detection of Candida and Cryptococcus species in blood culture materials. FISH procedures for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum have not been reported so far. This study describes the development and evaluation of fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeting FISH probes to detect and identify H. capsulatum in blood cultures. All three analyzed H. capsulatum reference strains and clinical isolates showed positive signals with the newly designed specific oligonucleotide probes for H. capsulatum, whereas negative reactions were observed for all three nontarget yeast species and the two nontarget bacteria. The assay was also successfully applied for detections of H. capsulatum cells in pre-incubated blood culture samples of patients with clinical suspicion of histoplasmosis (n = 33). The described FISH-based assay was shown to be easy to apply, sensitive, and specific (compared to polymerase chain reaction) for the detection and identification of H. capsulatum in this proof-of-principle analysis. Larger multicentric assessments are recommended for a thorough diagnostic evaluation of the procedure. PMID:25537280

  8. Detection of sex chromosomal aneuploidies X-X, Y-Y, and X-Y in human sperm using two-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Robbins, W.A. |; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H.U.; Mehraein, Y. |

    1994-10-15

    Sex chromosome aneuploidy is the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality in humans at birth and a substantial portion of these abnormalities involve paternal chromosomes. An efficient method is presented for using air-dried smears of human semen to detect the number of X and Y chromosomes in sperm chromatin using two-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization. Air-dried semen smears were pre-treated with dithiothreitol and 3,4-diiodosalicylate salt to decondense the sperm chromatin and then were hybridized with repetitive sequence DNA probes that had been generated by PCR and differentially labeled. Hybridizations with X and Y specific probes showed the expected ratio of 50%X:50%Y bearing sperm. Sperm carrying extra fluorescence domains representing disomy for the X or Y chromosomes occurred at frequencies of {approximately} 4 per 10,000 sperm each. Cells carrying both X and Y fluorescence domains occurred at a frequency of {approximately} 6/10,000. Thus, the overall frequency of sperm that carried an extra sex chromosome was 1.4/1,000. The frequencies of sperm carrying sex chromosome aneuploidies determined by hybridization did not differ statistically from those reported from the same laboratory using the human-sperm/hamster-egg cytogenetic technique. Multi-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization to sperm is a promising method for assessing sex-ratio alterations in human semen and for determining the fraction of sperm carrying sex or other chromosome aneuploidies which may be transmissible to offspring. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Combination of Adhesive-tape-based Sampling and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization for Rapid Detection of Salmonella on Fresh Produce

    PubMed Central

    Bisha, Bledar; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple approach for adhesive-tape-based sampling of tomato and other fresh produce surfaces, followed by on-tape fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for rapid culture-independent detection of Salmonella spp. Cell-charged tapes can also be placed face-down on selective agar for solid-phase enrichment prior to detection. Alternatively, low-volume liquid enrichments (liquid surface miniculture) can be performed on the surface of the tape in non-selective broth, followed by FISH and analysis via flow cytometry. To begin, sterile adhesive tape is brought into contact with fresh produce, gentle pressure is applied, and the tape is removed, physically extracting microbes present on these surfaces. Tapes are mounted sticky-side up onto glass microscope slides and the sampled cells are fixed with 10% formalin (30 min) and dehydrated using a graded ethanol series (50, 80, and 95%; 3 min each concentration). Next, cell-charged tapes are spotted with buffer containing a Salmonella-targeted DNA probe cocktail and hybridized for 15 - 30 min at 55°C, followed by a brief rinse in a washing buffer to remove unbound probe. Adherent, FISH-labeled cells are then counterstained with the DNA dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and results are viewed using fluorescence microscopy. For solid-phase enrichment, cell-charged tapes are placed face-down on a suitable selective agar surface and incubated to allow in situ growth of Salmonella microcolonies, followed by FISH and microscopy as described above. For liquid surface miniculture, cell-charged tapes are placed sticky side up and a silicone perfusion chamber is applied so that the tape and microscope slide form the bottom of a water-tight chamber into which a small volume (≤ 500 μL) of Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) is introduced. The inlet ports are sealed and the chambers are incubated at 35 - 37°C, allowing growth-based amplification of tape-extracted microbes. Following incubation, inlet ports are unsealed, cells are detached and mixed with vigorous back and forth pipetting, harvested via centrifugation and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Finally, samples are hybridized and examined via flow cytometry to reveal the presence of Salmonella spp. As described here, our "tape-FISH" approach can provide simple and rapid sampling and detection of Salmonella on tomato surfaces. We have also used this approach for sampling other types of fresh produce, including spinach and jalapeño peppers. PMID:21048665

  10. Combination of adhesive-tape-based sampling and fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid detection of Salmonella on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Bisha, Bledar; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple approach for adhesive-tape-based sampling of tomato and other fresh produce surfaces, followed by on-tape fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for rapid culture-independent detection of Salmonella spp. Cell-charged tapes can also be placed face-down on selective agar for solid-phase enrichment prior to detection. Alternatively, low-volume liquid enrichments (liquid surface miniculture) can be performed on the surface of the tape in non-selective broth, followed by FISH and analysis via flow cytometry. To begin, sterile adhesive tape is brought into contact with fresh produce, gentle pressure is applied, and the tape is removed, physically extracting microbes present on these surfaces. Tapes are mounted sticky-side up onto glass microscope slides and the sampled cells are fixed with 10% formalin (30 min) and dehydrated using a graded ethanol series (50, 80, and 95%; 3 min each concentration). Next, cell-charged tapes are spotted with buffer containing a Salmonella-targeted DNA probe cocktail and hybridized for 15 - 30 min at 55°C, followed by a brief rinse in a washing buffer to remove unbound probe. Adherent, FISH-labeled cells are then counterstained with the DNA dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and results are viewed using fluorescence microscopy. For solid-phase enrichment, cell-charged tapes are placed face-down on a suitable selective agar surface and incubated to allow in situ growth of Salmonella microcolonies, followed by FISH and microscopy as described above. For liquid surface miniculture, cell-charged tapes are placed sticky side up and a silicone perfusion chamber is applied so that the tape and microscope slide form the bottom of a water-tight chamber into which a small volume (≤ 500 μL) of Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) is introduced. The inlet ports are sealed and the chambers are incubated at 35 - 37°C, allowing growth-based amplification of tape-extracted microbes. Following incubation, inlet ports are unsealed, cells are detached and mixed with vigorous back and forth pipetting, harvested via centrifugation and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Finally, samples are hybridized and examined via flow cytometry to reveal the presence of Salmonella spp. As described here, our "tape-FISH" approach can provide simple and rapid sampling and detection of Salmonella on tomato surfaces. We have also used this approach for sampling other types of fresh produce, including spinach and jalapeño peppers. PMID:21048665

  11. Assignment of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) to 15q26 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.; Chen, X.N.; Doege, K.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    The large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Recent cDNA cloning of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) reveals a core protein of at least 2316 amino acids characterized by several distinct structural domains. Two globular domains, termed G1 and G2, are present at the amino terminus of the molecule and a third, termed G3, is present at the carboxy terminus. The G1 domain is homologous in structure to the cartilage link protein and accounts for the aggregating potential of aggrecan through its ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. The aggrecan gene is known to consist of 15 exons, with each exon encoding a distinct functional region of the mature protein. However, while the link protein gene is known to reside on chromosome 5 in the human, the location of the aggrecan gene is currently undetermined in any species. The probe (pAGG2) for the aggrecan gene was mapped on chromosome band 15q26, most likely in the subregion of 15q26.1, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clear signals were noted on both chromatids of chromosome band 15q26 in over 80% of the 300 metaphase cells examined in three independent experiments using pAGG2. No other sites of hybridization were noted on both chromatids of any other chromosome band. The precise band location was identified by using chromsomes of about 650 bands and employing fluorescence reverse banding with chromomycin A3 and distamycin. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Aneuploidy detection for chromosomes 1, X and Y by fluorescence in situ hybridization in human sperm from oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, M.G.; Zackowski, J.L.; Acosta, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    Oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males (n=15) were investigated for infertility as compared with proven fertile donors. The oligoasthenoteratozoospermic population showed a mean sperm concentration of 9.7 x 10{sup 6}/ml (Range 4.2-19.7), mean motility of 38.5% (Range 10.6-76.8) and morphology (measured by the percentage of normal forms evaluated by strict criteria) with a mean of 3.49% (Range 1.5-5.0). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using satellite DNA probes specific for chromosomes 1 (puc 1.77), X (alpha satellite), and Y (satellite-III at Yqh) was performed on human interphase sperm nuclei. DNA probes were either directly labelled with rhodamine-dUTP, FITC-dUTP, or biotinylated by nick translation. Hybridization and signal detection were done by routine laboratory protocols. Microscopic analysis was performed using a cooled CCD camera attached to an epi-fluorescent microscope. After hybridization, fertile donors yielded a frequency of 0.96% (n=12) nullisomic, 98.5% (n=1231) monosomic and 0.96% (n=12) disomic for chromosome 1, whereas oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males yielded a frequency of 16% (n=600) nullisomic, 74.5% (n=2792) monosomic and 9.9% (n=370) disomic. In addition, fertile donors yielded a frequency of 45.7% (n=633) monosomic and 0.7% (n=11) disomic for chromosome X, whereas oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males yielded a frequency of 38.7% (n=760) monosomic and 0.8% (n=13) disomic. Chromosome Y frequencies for fertile donors showed 44.6% (n=614) monosomic and 0.6% (n=2) disomic, whereas oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males yielded a frequency of 33.2% (n=701) monosomic and 0.8% (n=15) disomic. This suggests that the frequency of nullisomy for chromosome 1 is significantly higher (p<0.001) in sperm from oligoasthenoteratozoospermic makes versus sperm from our fertile donors. We conclude that FISH is a powerful tool to determine the frequency of aneuploidy in sperm from oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients.

  13. Paternal-age effects on sperm aneuploidy investigated in mice and humans by three-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Lowe, X.; Holland, N.T.

    1994-09-01

    We conducted a cross-species comparison of the effects of paternal age on sperm aneuploidy in mice and humans. A new murine assay was developed to detect sperm hyperhaploidy and polyploidy for chromosomes X, Y, and 8 using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, to serve as a direct corollate to the three-chromosome method developed early for human sperm. Sperm aneuploidy was evaluated in eight male B6C3F1 male mice (aged 22.5-30.5 mo) and compared to young controls (2.4 mo). The aged group showed significant ({approximately}2.0-fold) increases in hyperhaploidies involving chromosomes X, Y and 8, with the greatest effects seen in the oldest animals. Sperm aneuploidy was also evaluated in two groups of healthy men who differed in mean age [46.8{plus_minus}3.1 (n=4) vs. 28.5{plus_minus}5.0 (n=10) yrs], using the three-chromosome method. The older group showed a statistically significant increase in hyperhaploid sperm for both sex chromosomes. Additional controlled human studies are planned. Taken together, the murine and human data are consistent with a positive effect of paternal age on sperm aneuploidy. In both species, the strongest age effect was observed for hyperhaploidies of chromosome Y. Future studies are needed to investigate the shape of the age-effect curve and to evaluate chromosomal differences, especially for humans in their late reproductive years.

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of TP53 for the detection of chromosome 17 abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castro, Judit; Marco-Betés, Víctor; Gómez-Arbonés, Xavier; García-Cerecedo, Tomás; López, Ricard; Talavera, Elisabeth; Fernández-Ruiz, Sara; Ademà, Vera; Marugan, Isabel; Luño, Elisa; Sanzo, Carmen; Vallespí, Teresa; Arenillas, Leonor; Marco Buades, Josefa; Batlle, Ana; Buño, Ismael; Martín Ramos, María Luisa; Blázquez Rios, Beatriz; Collado Nieto, Rosa; Vargas, Ma Teresa; González Martínez, Teresa; Sanz, Guillermo; Solé, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Conventional G-banding cytogenetics (CC) detects chromosome 17 (chr17) abnormalities in 2% of patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We used CC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (LSI p53/17p13.1) to assess deletion of 17p in 531 patients with de novo MDS from the Spanish Group of Hematological Cytogenetics. FISH detected - 17 or 17p abnormalities in 13 cases (2.6%) in whom no 17p abnormalities were revealed by CC: 0.9% of patients with a normal karyotype, 0% in non-informative cytogenetics, 50% of patients with a chr17 abnormality without loss of 17p and 4.7% of cases with an abnormal karyotype not involving chr17. Our results suggest that applying FISH of 17p13 to identify the number of copies of the TP53 gene could be beneficial in patients with a complex karyotype. We recommend using FISH of 17p13 in young patients with a normal karyotype or non-informative cytogenetics, and always in isolated del(17p). PMID:25754580

  15. Microbial populations identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a constructed wetland treating acid coal mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    2006-07-15

    Microorganisms are an integral part of the biogeochemical processes in wetlands, yet microbial communities in sediments within constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) are only poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity and abundance in a wetland receiving AMD using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Seasonal samples of oxic surface sediments, comprised of Fe(III) precipitates, were collected from two treatment cells of the constructed wetland system. The pH of the bulk samples ranged between pH 2.1 and 3.9. Viable counts of acidophilic Fe and S oxidizers and heterotrophs were determined with a most probable number (MPN) method. The MPN counts were only a fraction of the corresponding FISH counts. The sediment samples contained microorganisms in the Bacteria (including the subgroups of acidophilic Fe- and S-oxidizing bacteria and Acidiphilium spp.) and Eukarya domains. Archaea were present in the sediment surface samples at < 0.01% of the total microbial community. The most numerous bacterial species in this wetland system was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, comprising up to 37% of the bacterial population. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was also abundant.

  16. Monitoring of chimerism using fluorescence in situ hybridization in a child with severe combined immune deficiency following bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Chen, X.O.; Katz, A.J. |

    1994-09-01

    A boy with severe combined immunodeficiency received a bone marrow transplant from his sister when he was approximately 3 years of age. His peripheral blood karyotype at age 3 and 4 years was 46,XX (20 cells analyzed). Because of a decline in antibody production at 19 years of age, the patient`s peripheral blood was analyzed again for suspected chimerism. His karyotype in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated culture was 46,XX in 49 cells and 46,XY in one cell. Both metaphase and interphase cells were examined for sex chromosome constitution using X and Y dual-color alpha-satellite probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results for metaphase cells showed 1/50 XY cells, but 38% of interphase cells showed the presence of both X and Y centromere. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated cultures grew poorly and were therefore analyzed using FISH only: 81% of interphase cells were 46,XX. The discrepancy between metaphase and interphase in the PHA-stimulated cultures most likely represents a failure of this boy`s own XY T-cells to be stimulated.

  17. Testing for ALK rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma: a multicenter comparison of immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Christina I; Rogers, Toni-Maree; Russell, Prudence A; O'Toole, Sandra; Yip, Poyee; Wright, Gavin M; Wainer, Zoe; Horvath, Lisa G; Boyer, Michael; McCaughan, Brian; Kohonen-Corish, Maija Rj; Fox, Stephen; Cooper, Wendy A; Solomon, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    Rearrangements of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) define a molecular subgroup of tumors characterized clinically by sensitivity to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. Although ALK rearrangements may be detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the optimal clinical strategy for identifying ALK rearrangements in clinical samples remains to be determined. We evaluated immunohistochemistry using three different antibodies (ALK1, 5A4 and D5F3 clones) to detect ALK rearrangements and compared those with FISH. We report the frequency and clinicopathologic features of lung cancers harboring ALK translocations in 594 resected NSCLCs (470 adenocarcinomas; 83 squamous carcinomas, 26 large cell carcinomas and 15 other histological subtypes) using a tissue microarray approach. We identified an ALK gene rearrangement in 7/594 cases (1%) by FISH and all anti-ALK antibodies correctly identified the seven ALK-positive cases (100% sensitivity), although the intensity of staining was weak in some cases. These data indicate that the use of antibodies with high sensitivity and avidity to ALK may provide an effective pre-screening technique to complement the more expensive and labor-intensive approach of ALK FISH testing. PMID:23743928

  18. Microbial populations identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a constructed wetland treating acid coal mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Nicomrat, Duongruitai; Dick, Warren A; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms are an integral part of the biogeochemical processes in wetlands, yet microbial communities in sediments within constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) are only poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity and abundance in a wetland receiving AMD using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Seasonal samples of oxic surface sediments, comprised of Fe(III) precipitates, were collected from two treatment cells of the constructed wetland system. The pH of the bulk samples ranged between pH 2.1 and 3.9. Viable counts of acidophilic Fe and S oxidizers and heterotrophs were determined with a most probable number (MPN) method. The MPN counts were only a fraction of the corresponding FISH counts. The sediment samples contained microorganisms in the Bacteria (including the subgroups of acidophilic Fe- and S-oxidizing bacteria and Acidiphilium spp.) and Eukarya domains. Archaea were present in the sediment surface samples at < 0.01% of the total microbial community. The most numerous bacterial species in this wetland system was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, comprising up to 37% of the bacterial population. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was also abundant. Heterotrophs in the Acidiphilium genus totaled 20% of the bacterial population. Leptospirillum ferrooxidans was below the level of detection in the bacterial community. The results from the FISH technique from this field study are consistent with results from other experiments involving enumeration by most probable number, dot-blot hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses and with the geochemistry of the site. PMID:16825452

  19. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ashutosh; Jain, Manish; Chaudhary, Isha; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Microdeletion syndromes are characterized by small (<5 Mb) chromosomal deletions in which one or more genes are involved. These are frequently associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The phenotype is the result of haploinsufficiency of genes in the critical interval. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is commonly used for precise genetic diagnosis of microdeletion syndromes. This study was conducted to assess the role of FISH in the diagnosis of suspected microdeletion syndrome. Methods: FISH was carried out on 301 clinically suspected microdeletion syndrome cases for the confirmation of clinical diagnosis using non-commercial probes. Of these, 177 cases were referred for 22q11.2 microdeletion, 42 cases were referred for William syndrome, 38 cases were referred for Prader Willi/Angelman and 44 cases were referred for other suspected microdeletion syndromes. Results: FISH was confirmatory in 23 cases only (7.6%). There were 17 cases of 22q11.2 microdeletion, four cases of Prader Willi syndrome and two cases of William syndrome. Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach). Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24056568

  20. Grazing of a Tetrahymena sp. on Adhered Bacteria in Percolated Columns Monitored by In Situ Hybridization with Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Heinrich; Harms, Hauke; Meckenstock, Rainer; Meyer, Elisabeth I.; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Predation of attached Pseudomonas putida mt2 by the small ciliate Tetrahymena sp. was investigated with a percolated column system. Grazing rates were examined under static and dynamic conditions and were compared to grazing rates in batch systems containing suspended prey. The prey densities were 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of pore space and 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of suspension, respectively. Postingestion in situ hybridization of bacteria with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes was used to quantify ingestion. During 30 min, a grazing rate of 1,382 ± 1,029 bacteria individual−1 h−1 was obtained with suspended prey; this was twice the grazing rate observed with attached bacteria under static conditions. Continuous percolation at a flow rate of 73 cm h−1 further decreased the grazing rate to about 25% of the grazing rate observed with suspended prey. A considerable proportion of the protozoans fed on neither suspended bacteria nor attached bacteria. The transport of ciliates through the columns was monitored at the same time that predation was monitored. Less than 20% of the protozoans passed through the columns without being retained. Most of these organisms ingested no bacteria, whereas the retained protozoans grazed more efficiently. Retardation of ciliate transport was greater in columns containing attached bacteria than in bacterium-free columns. We propose that the correlation between grazing activity and retardation of transport is a consequence of the interaction between active predators and attached bacteria. PMID:9546161

  1. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of microbial consortia from a biogenic gas field in Alaska's Cook Inlet basin.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Katherine S; Str?po?, Dariusz; Huizinga, Brad; Lidstrom, Ulrika; Ashby, Matt; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2012-05-01

    Filter-collected production water samples from a methane-rich gas field in the Cook Inlet basin of Alaska were investigated using whole-cell rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing. Both techniques were consistent in determining the microbial community composition, including the archaeal or bacterial dominance of samples. The archaeal community is dominated by the obligate methylotrophic methanogen genus Methanolobus as well as the nutritional generalist methanogen genus Methanosarcina, which is capable of utilizing acetate, CO(2), and methyl-bearing compounds. The most-abundant bacterial groups are Firmicutes, notably of the Acetobacterium genus, and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides species (CFBs) affiliated with the order Bacteroidales. We observed spatial variation among samples in both the percentage of members of Archaea compared to that of members of Bacteria and the dominant members of the bacterial community, differences which could not be explained with the available geochemical data. Based upon the microbial community composition and the isotopic signature of methane associated with the Cook Inlet basin site, we propose a simplified reaction network beginning with the breakdown of coal macromolecules, followed by fermentation and methylotrophic and acetoclastic methane production. PMID:22427501

  2. Analysis of methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor: Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, B.

    2009-03-15

    Methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor was determined by comparing the amount of methane generated for each of the organic loading rates with the size of the total and specific methanogenic population, as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. A high correlation was evident between the total methanogenic activity and retention time [-0.6988Ln(x) + 2.667] (R{sup 2} 0.8866). The total methanogenic activity increased from 0.04 x 10{sup -8} mLCH{sub 4} cell{sup -1}day{sup -1} to 0.38 x 10{sup -8} mLCH{sub 4} cell{sup -1}day{sup -1} while the retention time decreased, augmenting the organic loading rates. The specific methanogenic activities of H{sub 2}-utilizing methanogens and acetate-utilizing methanogens increased until they stabilised at 0.64 x 10{sup -8} mLCH{sub 4} cell{sup -1}day{sup -1} and 0.33 x 10{sup -8} mLCH{sub 4} cell{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. The methanogenic activity of H{sub 2}-utilizing methanogens was higher than acetate-utilizing methanogens, indicating that maintaining a low partial pressure of hydrogen does not inhibit the acetoclastic methanogenesis or the anaerobic process.

  3. Fully Automated Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Staining and Digital Analysis of HER2 in Breast Cancer: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Kuperus, Deborah A. J.; van Setten, Jan W.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boers, James. E.; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E.

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with supervised automated analysis with the Visia imaging D-Sight digital imaging platform. HER2 assessment was performed on 328 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tumors on tissue microarrays (TMA) and 100 (50 selected IHC 2+ and 50 random IHC scores) full-sized slides of resections/biopsies obtained for diagnostic purposes previously. For digital analysis slides were pre-screened at 20x and 100x magnification for all fluorescent signals and supervised-automated scoring was performed on at least two pictures (in total at least 20 nuclei were counted) with the D-Sight HER2 FISH analysis module by two observers independently. Results were compared to data obtained previously with the manual Abbott FISH test. The overall agreement with Abbott FISH data among TMA samples and 50 selected IHC 2+ cases was 98.8% (? = 0.94) and 93.8% (? = 0.88), respectively. The results of 50 additionally tested unselected IHC cases were concordant with previously obtained IHC and/or FISH data. The combination of the Leica FISH system with the D-Sight digital imaging platform is a feasible method for HER2 assessment in routine clinical practice for patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:25844540

  4. Detection of aneuploid human sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization: evidence for a donor difference in frequency of sperm disomic for chromosomes 1 and Y.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, W A; Segraves, R; Pinkel, D; Wyrobek, A J

    1993-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with repetitive-sequence DNA probes was used to detect human sperm disomic for chromosomes 1 and Y in three healthy men. Data on these same men had been obtained previously, using the human-sperm/hamster-egg cytogenetic technique, providing a cytogenetic reference for validating sperm hybridization measurements. Air-dried smears were prepared from semen samples and treated with DTT and lithium diiodosalicylate to expand sperm chromatin. Hybridization with fluorescently tagged DNA probes for chromosomes 1 (pUC177) or Y (pY3.4) yielded average frequencies of sperm with two fluorescent domains of 14.2 +/- 2.4/10,000 and 5.6 +/- 1.6/10,000 sperm, respectively. These frequencies did not differ statistically from frequencies of hyperploidy observed for these chromosomes with the hamster technique. In addition, frequencies of disomic sperm from one donor were elevated approximately 2.5-fold above those of other donors, for both chromosomes 1 (P = .045) and Y (P = .01), consistent with a trend found with the hamster technique. We conclude that fluorescence in situ hybridization to sperm chromosomes provides a valid and promising measure of the frequency of disomic human sperm. Images Figure 1 PMID:8460647

  5. Detection of aneuploid human sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Evidence for a donor difference in frequency of sperm disomic for chromosomes 1 and Y

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, W.A. Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Segraves, R.; Pinkel, D. ); Wyrobek, A.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with repetitive-sequence DNA probes was used to detect human sperm disomic for chromosomes 1 and Y in three healthy men. Data on these same men had been obtained previously, using the human-sperm/hamster-egg cytogenetic technique, providing a cytogenetic reference for validating sperm hybridization measurements. Air-dried smears were prepared from semen samples and treated with DTT and lithium diiodosalicylate to expand sperm chromatin. Hybridization with fluorescently tagged DNA probes for chromosomes 1 (pUC177) or Y (pY3.4) yielded average frequencies of sperm with two fluorescent domains of 14.2[+-]2.4/10,000 and 5.6[+-]1.6/10,000 sperm, respectively. These frequencies did not differ statistically from frequencies of hyperploidy observed for these chromosomes with the hamster technique. In addition, frequencies of disomic sperm from one donor were elevated [approximately]2.5-fold above those of other donors, for both chromosomes 1 (P = .045) and Y (P = .01), consistent with a trend found with the hamster technique. The authors conclude that fluorescence in situ hybridization to sperm chromosomes provides a valid and promising measure of the frequency of disomic human sperm. 43 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) microfluidic platform for detection of HER2 amplification in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Kai-Jie; Tai, Chien-Hsuan; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2015-07-15

    Over-expression/amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) is a verified therapeutic biomarker for breast and gastric cancers. HER2 is also served as prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer because HER2 over-expression is associated with a 5-10% increase in cancer related death of gastric cancer. Cancer patients exhibiting HER2 over-expression can significantly improve their overall survival rates by taking the targeting drug Herceptin, which directly targets HER2. However, Herceptin has limited functions toward patients without HER2 over-expression and therefore it needs a highly specific and accurate detection method for diagnosis of HER2 over-expression. Currently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is routinely employed to detect HER2 amplification. However, it is a labor-intensive, time-consuming hybridization process and is relatively costly. Furthermore, well-trained personnel are required to operate the delicate and complicate process. More importantly, it may take 1-2 days for well-trained personnel to perform a whole FISH assay. Given these limitations, we developed a new, integrated microfluidic FISH system capable of automating the entire FISH protocol which could be performed within a shorter period of time when compared to traditional methods. The microfluidic FISH chip consisted of a microfluidic control module for transportation of small amounts of fluids and a hybridization module to perform the hybridization of DNA probes and cells/tissue samples. With this approach, the new microfluidic chip was capable of performing the whole FISH assay within 20h. Four cell lines, two for non-HER2 amplification and two for HER2 amplification, and two clinical tissue samples, one for non-HER2 amplification and another for HER2 amplification, were used for verifications of the developed chip. Experimental data showed that there was no significant difference between the benchtop protocol and the chip-based protocol. Furthermore, the reagent consumption was greatly reduced (∼70% reduction). Especially, only 2-μl usage for FISH deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe was used, which is five-fold reduction when compared with the traditional method. It is the first time that the entire FISH assay could be automated on a single chip by using tissue samples. The microfluidic system developed herein is therefore promising for rapid, automatic diagnosis of HER2-related diseases by detecting the HER2 gene with minimal consumption of samples and reagents and has a great potential for future pharmacogenetic diagnostics and therapy. PMID:25770459

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of human oocytes and isolated polar bodies by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Freidine, M.; Dyban, A.; Cieslak, J.

    1994-09-01

    Three hundred eighty six human oocytes that had remained unfertilized 1-2 days after insemination, 78 isolated 1st polar bodies (PB) and 26 isolated 2nd PB were fixed and analyzed by FISH technique with probes which hybridized specifically to definite regions of X chromosome, autosomes 18 and 13/21. In 133 secondary oocytes it was possible to count accurately the number of signals specific for X and 18 chromosomes in MII and in the corresponding 1st PB. In two cases, three X chromatids in MII and one X chromatid in the 1st PB were found. In one oocyte the 1st PB was without chromosome 18 and an extra 18 chromosome was located in MII. In two oocytes, extra chromatids 18 segregated to MII and in the 1st PB, only one chromatid was left. FISH analysis was informative in eleven isolated 1st PB which contained a normal number of X and 18 chromosomes. Hybridization was also informative for chromosomes X and 18 in 26 isolated 2nd PB and revealed one case of extra X and one case of extra 18. From 39 isolated 1st PB which were successfully hybridized with a probe for chromosome 13/21, six were abnormal. In four of them one signal was missing and in two, an extra signal was present. The efficiency of FISH strongly depended on the quality and age of chromosomal preparations, the structure of chromatin, the age of PB and oocytes, the DNA probes used. Directly labelled alpha-satellite probes to the centromeric region of chromosomes X and 18 were much more reliable than probes for chromosomes 13/21.

  8. Comparative cytogenetics of six Indo-Pacific moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) by chromosomal banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, E; Deidda, F; Cannas, R; Lobina, C; Cuccu, D; Deiana, A M; Salvadori, S

    2015-09-01

    A comparative cytogenetic analysis, using both conventional staining techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization, of six Indo-Pacific moray eels from three different genera (Gymnothorax fimbriatus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, Gymnothorax javanicus, Gymnothorax undulatus, Echidna nebulosa and Gymnomuraena zebra), was carried out to investigate the chromosomal differentiation in the family Muraenidae. Four species displayed a diploid chromosome number 2n = 42, which is common among the Muraenidae. Two other species, G. javanicus and G. flavimarginatus, were characterized by different chromosome numbers (2n = 40 and 2n = 36). For most species, a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin was detected in the chromosomes, with species-specific C-banding patterns that enabled pairing of the homologous chromosomes. In all species, the major ribosomal genes were localized in the guanine-cytosine-rich region of one chromosome pair, but in different chromosomal locations. The (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences were mapped onto chromosomal ends in all muraenid species studied. The comparison of the results derived from this study with those available in the literature confirms a substantial conservation of the diploid chromosome number in the Muraenidae and supports the hypothesis that rearrangements have occurred that have diversified their karyotypes. Furthermore, the finding of two species with different diploid chromosome numbers suggests that additional chromosomal rearrangements, such as Robertsonian fusions, have occurred in the karyotype evolution of the Muraenidae. PMID:26242690

  9. Cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and genomic array characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia with cryptic BCR-ABL1 fusions.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lina; Miller, Sue; Keller-Ramey, Jennifer; Zhang, Yang; Roulston, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia (ABL1) fusion gene. In approximately 1% of CML cases, the Philadelphia chromosome associated with the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene is not present, and the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene is generated by cryptic insertion or sequential translocations. In this study, we describe the cytogenetic and molecular features of five CML patients with cryptic BCR-ABL1 fusion genes using karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism array techniques. Two cases of CML in the chronic phase (CP) had a normal karyotype, and three cases of CML in the blast phase (BP) had an abnormal karyotype with neither a typical nor variant t(9;22). By BCR-ABL1 metaphase FISH analysis, we found that fusion signals were localized on chromosomes 9 (3 cases), 22 (1 case), and both 9 and 22 (1 case). In two cases of CML-BP, duplication of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene occurred as a result of mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes. Copy number losses involving the IKZF1 gene were observed in two patients with CML-BP. This study demonstrates for the first time the acquisition of additional BCR-ABL1 fusion genes through mitotic recombination in CML with cryptic BCR-ABL1. PMID:26186983

  10. Animal-type melanoma: report of five cases with sentinel node biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Urso, Carmelo; Ginanneschi, Chiara; Anichini, Chiara; Paglierani, Milena; Saieva, Calogero; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Borgognoni, Lorenzo

    2014-02-01

    Animal-type melanoma (ATM) is a rare tumor, characterized histologically by a predominantly dermal proliferation of heavily pigmented epithelioid and spindle dendritic melanocytes. Five patients with ATM, who had undergone sentinel node biopsy, were studied: three male and two female, between 4 and 62 years of age (mean, 28.0). Lesion size ranged from 4 to 18 mm and thickness from 0.7 to 5.1 mm. Nodal deposits were found in three patients. Of the patients with positive sentinel nodes, the first showed a minimal nodal involvement in one node, the second multiple deposits in one node, and the third multiple deposits in one sentinel node and a single deposit in another; this last patient also had additional tumor deposits in a nonsentinel regional node. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization tumor analysis proved negative in all cases. All patients are alive and free of disease at 36-95-month follow-up (mean, 53 months). Results showed ATM as a neoplasm characterized by a somewhat high rate of lymph node involvement but relatively low rate of visceral metastases and mortality, appearing as a low-grade malignant tumor. PMID:24241685

  11. Rapid molecular cytogenetic analysis of X-chromosomal microdeletions: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for complex glycerol kinase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, K.C.; Lindsay, E.A.; McCabe, E.R.B.

    1995-07-17

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosome deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Progress report, April 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    The ultimate goal of this proposal is to create a cDNA map of the human genome. Mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach will generate 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  13. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic aid for synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, J.; Crew, J.; Birdsall, S.; Gill, S.; Clark, J.; Fisher, C.; Kelsey, A.; Nojima, T.; Sonobe, H.; Cooper, C.; Gusterson, B.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) that is associated with a high proportion of synovial sarcoma can be a useful diagnostic aid. The translocation results in fusion of the SYT gene on chromosome 18 to either the SSX1 or the SSX2 gene, two homologous genes within Xp11.2. Two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were assessed as approaches to identify the rearrangement in well characterized cases. The presence of the translocation, and the specific chromosome X gene disrupted, were inferred from the configuration of signals from chromosome-specific centromere probes, paints, and markers flanking each gene in preparations of interphase nuclei. Rearrangement was found in two cell lines and eight of nine tumor samples, including analysis of five touch imprints. This was consistent with cytogenetic data in four cases and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis using primers known to amplify both SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2 transcripts. The transcripts were distinguished by restriction with LspI and SmaI. Contrary to previous suggestions, there was no obvious correlation between histological subtype and involvement of the SSX1 or SSX2 gene. These approaches could also be applied to the identification of tumor-free margins and metastatic disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8579118

  14. Application of rRNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianghai; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang; Yu, Zhigang

    2012-03-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is often associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). This species consists of many strains that differ in their ability to produce toxins but have similar morphology, making identification difficult. In this study, species-specific rRNA probes were designed for whole-cell fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to distinguish A. minutum from two phylogenetic clades. We acquired the complete SSU to LSU rDNA sequences (GenBank accession numbers JF906989-JF906999) of 11 Alexandrium strains and used these to design rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Three ribotype-specific probes, M-GC-1, M-PC-2, and M-PC-3, were designed. The former is specific for the GC clade ("Global clade") of A. minutum, the majority of which have been found non-toxic, and the latter two are specific for the PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning)-producing PC clade ("Pacific clade"). The specificity of these three probes was confirmed by FISH. All cells in observed fields of view were fluorescently labeled when probes and target species were incubated under optimized FISH conditions. However, the accessibility of rRNA molecules in ribosomes varied among the probe binding positions. Thus, there was variation in the distribution of positive signals in labeled cells within nucleolus and cytosol (M-GC-1, M-PC-3), or just nucleolus (M-PC-2). Our results provide a methodological basis for studying the biogeography and population dynamics of A. minutum, and providing an early warning of toxic HABs.

  15. Discriminating Multi-Species Populations in Biofilms with Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (PNA FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, Nuno F.; Santos, Sílvio; Keevil, Charles W.; Vieira, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of biofilms indicates that these structures are typically composed of many different microbial species. However, the lack of reliable techniques for the discrimination of each population has meant that studies focusing on multi-species biofilms are scarce and typically generate qualitative rather than quantitative data. Methodology/Principal Findings We employ peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) methods to quantify and visualize mixed biofilm populations. As a case study, we present the characterization of Salmonella enterica/Listeria monocytogenes/Escherichia coli single, dual and tri-species biofilms in seven different support materials. Ex-situ, we were able to monitor quantitatively the populations of ∼56 mixed species biofilms up to 48 h, regardless of the support material. In situ, a correct quantification remained more elusive, but a qualitative understanding of biofilm structure and composition is clearly possible by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at least up to 192 h. Combining the data obtained from PNA FISH/CLSM with data from other established techniques and from calculated microbial parameters, we were able to develop a model for this tri-species biofilm. The higher growth rate and exopolymer production ability of E. coli probably led this microorganism to outcompete the other two [average cell numbers (cells/cm2) for 48 h biofilm: E. coli 2,1×108 (±2,4×107); L. monocytogenes 6,8×107 (±9,4×106); and S. enterica 1,4×106 (±4,1×105)]. This overgrowth was confirmed by CSLM, with two well-defined layers being easily identified: the top one with E. coli, and the bottom one with mixed regions of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica. Significance While PNA FISH has been described previously for the qualitative study of biofilm populations, the present investigation demonstrates that it can also be used for the accurate quantification and spatial distribution of species in polymicrobial communities. Thus, it facilitates the understanding of interspecies interactions and how these are affected by changes in the surrounding environment. PMID:21479268

  16. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and high resolution karyotype analysis reveal a novel inversion duplication of 10q

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, P.; Dyke, D.L. Van; Dowling, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    A white male born with dysmorphic features, including upslanting palpebral fissures, bilateral simian creases, posteriorly rotated ears, bitemporal narrowing, frontal bossing, camptodactyly and head circumference and weight less than the 5th percentile was found to have a de novo add(10)(q26.1). High resolution karyotype analysis revealed a novel chromosomal abnormality: 46,XY,inv dup(10)(q26.3-q25.1). Fluorescent in situ hybridization using a chromosome 10-specific painting probe (Oncor, Inc.) confirmed that the extra material was derived from chromosome 10. Duplication of 10q24 or 10q25 is associated with characteristic craniofacial malformations, minor malformations of the hands and feet, major malformations of the heart, skeleton, and kidneys and severe mental retardation. Our patient, currently 7 months old, has many of the skeletal and craniofacial manifestations of other patients, but is developmentally normal at this early age. This is the first FISH confirmation of a 10q duplication and demonstrates the utility of this technology in addition to karyotype analysis. Molecular studies to determine the parental origin and extent of the duplication are in progress, since the apparent lack of developmental delay was unexpected. Identification of the origin of duplicated material will help assist in genetic counseling by further delineating new genetic syndromes.

  17. Characterization of an unbalanced de novo rearrangement by microsatellite polymorphism typing and by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Gordon, P.L.; Wilroy, R.S. Jr.

    1995-05-08

    Unbalanced de novo rearrangements, difficult to characterize by conventional cytogenetic techniques, may be elucidated by molecular approaches. By dinucleotide repeat polymorphism typing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have defined the composition of an unbalanced de novo translocation (46,XX,15p+) in a child with multiple congenital anomalies. Use of a microsatellite repeat D5S208 (localized to 5p15) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis confirmed that the extra segment originated from the short arm of chromosome 5. Amplification of the patient`s DNA with primers for dinucleotide repeats D5S350 and D5S118 showed that the entire 5p (from 5pter to 5q11) was present in 3 copies. FISH confirmed the trisomic status of 5p, and further revealed the presence of centromeres of both chromosomes 5 and 15 on the rearranged chromosome thus delineating its dicentric nature. This information allowed us to redefine the de novo rearrangement in this patient as 46,XX,dic der(15)t(5;15)(q11;p11). 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Use of microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine dimethylsulfoniopropionate incorporation by marine bacterioplankton taxa.

    PubMed

    Vila, Maria; Simó, Rafel; Kiene, Ronald P; Pinhassi, Jarone; González, José M; Moran, Mary Ann; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2004-08-01

    The fraction of planktonic heterotrophic bacteria capable of incorporating dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and leucine was determined at two coastal sites by microautoradioagraphy (AU). In Gulf of Mexico seawater microcosm experiments, the proportion of prokaryotes that incorporated sulfur from [(35)S]DMSP ranged between 27 and 51% of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-positive cells, similar to or slightly lower than the proportion incorporating [(3)H]leucine. In the northwest Mediterranean coast, the proportion of cells incorporating sulfur from [(35)S]DMSP increased from 5 to 42% from January to March, coinciding with the development of a phytoplankton bloom. At the same time, the proportion of cells incorporating [(3)H]leucine increased from 21 to 40%. The combination of AU and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the Roseobacter clade (alpha-proteobacteria) accounted for 13 to 43% of the microorganisms incorporating [(35)S]DMSP at both sampling sites. Significant uptake of sulfur from DMSP was also found among members of the gamma-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium groups. Roseobacter and gamma-proteobacteria exhibited the highest percentage of DAPI-positive cells incorporating (35)S from DMSP (around 50%). Altogether, the application of AU with [(35)S]DMSP combined with FISH indicated that utilization of S from DMSP is a widespread feature among active marine bacteria, comparable to leucine utilization. These results point toward DMSP as an important substrate for a broad and diverse fraction of marine bacterioplankton. PMID:15294798

  19. Oligonucleotide Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization Approach in Hematologic Malignancies With Normal/Failed Conventional Cytogenetics and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Spina, Paolo; Coro, Ilaria; De Donno, Alessia; Vidali, Matteo; Morani, Federica; Cavaliere, Cristina; Galetto, Alessandra S; Kerim, Simonetta; Valente, Guido

    2016-02-01

    Oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH) was used to investigate 60 cases of hematologic malignancies, mainly acute myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes, in order to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity and to search for genomic alterations undetected by previous investigation with conventional cytogenetics (CC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). On the basis of CC and FISH results, we subdivided the series into group A (36 cases with a normal karyotype after CC and/or FISH testing) and group B (24 cases with anomalies detected by CC and/or FISH). oaCGH did not show alterations in 21 cases of the group A (58.3%); in the remaining 15 cases (41.7%), it detected 19 new abnormalities (14 amplifications and 5 deletions). In the group B, oaCGH confirmed 32/55 aneuploidies detected by FISH (58.1%). The sensitivity increased at 27/33 confirmed aneuploidies (81.8%) by placing as a cutoff a mosaic of 50%. Moreover, in the cases of this group oaCGH revealed 36 new alterations (15 amplifications and 21 deletions). From these results it is possible to assess a strong overlap between results obtained by FISH and oaCGH. However, oaCGH is a reliable alternative where CC and FISH are not feasible and is able to identify new alterations unexplored by FISH. PMID:25710586

  20. Nitrification of high-strength ammonium landfill leachate with microbial community analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Yusof, Norjan; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Yee, Phang Lai; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Mori, Masatsugu; Wakisaka, Minato; Sakai, Kenji; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2011-06-01

    Nitrification of mature sanitary landfill leachate with high-strength of N-NH(4) + (1080-2350 mg L(-1)) was performed in a 10 L continuous nitrification activated sludge reactor. The nitrification system was acclimatized with synthetic leachate during feed batch operation to avoid substrate inhibition before being fed with actual mature leachate. Successful nitrification was achieved with an approximately complete ammonium removal (99%) and 96% of N-NH(4) + conversion to N-NO(-) (3) . The maximum volumetric and specific nitrification rates obtained were 2.56 kg N-NH(4) (+) m(-3) day(-1) and 0.23 g N-NH(4) ( +) g(-1) volatile suspended solid (VSS) day(-1), respectively, at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.7 h and solid retention time of 50 days. Incomplete nitrification was encountered when operating at a higher nitrogen loading rate of 3.14 kg N-NH(4) (+) m(-3) day(-1). The substrate overloading and nitrifiers competition with heterotrophs were believed to trigger the incomplete nitrification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results supported the syntrophic association between the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. FISH results also revealed the heterotrophs as the dominant and disintegration of some AOB cell aggregates into single cells which further supported the incomplete nitrification phenomenon. PMID:21447612

  1. Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion: A case with equivocal cytogenetic findings resolved by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Juyal, R.C.; Patel, P.I.; Greenberg, F.

    1995-09-11

    The availability of markers for the 17p11.2 region has enabled the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SMS is typically associated with a discernible deletion of band 17p11.2 upon cytogenetic analysis at a resolution of 400-550 bands. We present a case that illustrates the importance of using FISH to confirm a cytogenetic diagnosis of del(17)(p11.2). Four independent cytogenetic analyses were performed with different conclusions. Results of low resolution analyses of amniocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were apparently normal, while high resolution analyses of peripheral blood samples in two laboratories indicated mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). FISH clearly demonstrated a 17p deletion on one chromosome of all peripheral blood cells analyzed and ruled out mosaicism unambiguously. The deletion was undetectable by flow cytometric quantitation of chromosomal DNA content, suggesting that it is less than 2 Mb. We conclude that FISH should be used to detect the SMS deletion when routine chromosome analysis fails to detect it and to verify mosaicism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Rapid Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Blood Cultures by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Kenneth; Procop, Gary W.; Wilson, Deborah; Coull, James; Stender, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method with peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from positive blood culture bottles that contain gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) is described. The test (the S. aureus PNA FISH assay) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets a species-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA of S. aureus. Evaluations with 17 reference strains and 48 clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus species, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and other clinically relevant and phylogenetically related bacteria and yeast species, showed that the assay had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Clinical trials with 87 blood cultures positive for GPCC correctly identified 36 of 37 (97%) of the S. aureus-positive cultures identified by standard microbiological methods. The positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 98%, respectively. It is concluded that this rapid method (2.5 h) for identification of S. aureus directly from blood culture bottles that contain GPCC offers important information for optimal antibiotic therapy. PMID:11773123

  3. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the study and characterization of nitrifying bacteria in nitrifying/denitrifying wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Benakova, A; Wanner, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of nitrifying bacteria in activated sludge and biofilms, and to determine the distribution of nitrifiers in selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Both Czech and foreign WWTPs with intensification of nitrification (for example, in situ bioaugmentation of nitrification or biofilms) and without intensification were studied. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses of microscopic images were focused on quantifying the parameters and their differences with regard to the arrangement, capacity and sludge age of the WWTPs. This is the first time such a study has been performed in the Czech Republic. PMID:24350498

  4. MYC Analysis by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry in Primary Adrenal Angiosarcoma (PAA): a Series of Four Cases.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Cyr, Maryann St; Nose, Vania; McLaughlin, Patrick J; Iafrate, A John; Sadow, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Primary adrenal angiosarcomas (PAA) are rare with 36 cases reported in the English literature. MYC protein expression and gene amplification have been detected in secondary angiosarcoma (AS), and a subset of primary AS. The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathologic features of PAA and examine these tumors for MYC amplification and protein expression in a small series of four cases (resection, n?=?4). Three had available material for ancillary studies and were investigated for MYC gene abnormalities and protein expression using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Tumors occurred in three females and one male with a mean age of 69 (53-75) years. The sizes ranged from 8.5 to 15 (mean 11.5) cm and were epithelioid in morphology. All tumors had prominent necrosis, and the mitotic count ranged from 4 to 41/10 high-power fields (HPFs) (mean 20/10 HPFs, ×400). Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD31 in 4/4 cases, CD34 in 1/4 cases, and cytokeratin in 4/4 cases. The mean follow-up period was 10.8 (3-19) months, of which three patients died of disease with distant metastases, and one patient was alive with disease. MYC nuclear staining was identified in the three cases tested. Two cases showed polysomy of chromosome 8 without MYC amplification or rearrangement. Two MYC-positive cases by IHC demonstrated copy number gain in chromosome 8, and one MYC-positive case was not associated with a chromosome 8/MYC gene abnormality. In the context of new targeted therapies, MYC positivity in PAA may be clinically valuable in treating patients with these aggressive neoplasms. PMID:26223194

  5. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet. PMID:25576649

  6. 6q deletion detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dalsass, Alessia; Mestichelli, Francesca; Ruggieri, Miriana; Gaspari, Paola; Pezzoni, Valerio; Vagnoni, Davide; Angelini, Mario; Angelini, Stefano; Bigazzi, Catia; Falcioni, Sadia; Troiani, Emanuela; Alesiani, Francesco; Catarini, Massimo; Attolico, Immacolata; Scortechini, Ilaria; Discepoli, Giancarlo; Galieni, Piero

    2013-07-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are known to occur at relatively low frequency (3-6%) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and they are more frequently observed in 6q21. Few data have been reported regarding other bands on 6q involved by cytogenetic alterations in CLL. The cytogenetic study was performed in nuclei and metaphases obtained after stimulation with a combination of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin-2. Four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones mapping regions in bands 6q16, 6q23, 6q25, 6q27 were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization in 107 CLL cases in order to analyze the occurrence and localization of 6q aberrations. We identified 11 cases (10.2%) with 6q deletion of 107 patients studied with CLL. The trends of survival curves and the treatment-free intervals (TFI) of patients with deletion suggest a better outcome than the other cytogenetic risk groups. We observed two subgroups with 6q deletion as the sole anomaly: two cases with 6q16 deletion, and three cases with 6q25.2-27 deletion. There were differences of age, stage, and TFI between both subgroups. By using BAC probes, we observed that 6q deletion has a higher frequency in CLL and is linked with a good prognosis. In addition, it was observed that the deletion in 6q16 appears to be the most frequent and, if present as the only abnormality, it could be associated with a most widespread disease. PMID:23560441

  7. FISH in chips: turning microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization into a quantitative and clinically reliable molecular diagnosis tool.

    PubMed

    Perez-Toralla, Karla; Mottet, Guillaume; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Champ, Jérôme; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Draskovic, Irena; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stéphanie

    2015-02-01

    Microfluidic systems bear promise to provide new powerful tools for the molecular characterization of cancer cells, in particular for the routine detection of multiple cancer biomarkers using a minute amount of the sample. However, taking miniaturized cell-based assays into the clinics requires the implementation and validation of complex biological protocols on chip, as well as the development of disposable microdevices produced at a low cost. Based on a recently developed microfluidic chip made of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer for cell immobilization with minimal dead volume and controlled shear stress, we developed a protocol performed entirely in the liquid phase, allowing the immobilization and fixation of cells and their quantitative characterization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrated first in cell lines and then in two clinical case studies the potential of this method to perform quantitative copy number measurement and clinical scoring of the amplification of the ERBB2 gene, a decisive biomarker for the prescription of HER2+ related targeted therapies. This validation was performed in a blind protocol in two clinical case studies, in reference to the gold standard and clinically used method based on glass slides. We obtained a comparable reproducibility and a minor difference in apparent amplification, which can be corrected by internal calibration. The method thus reaches the standard of robustness needed for clinical use. The protocol can be fully automated, and its consumption of samples and DNA probes is reduced as compared to glass slide protocols by a factor of at least 10. The total duration of the assay is divided by two. PMID:25474258

  8. Chromosome 3 Status in Uveal Melanoma: A Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Array

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun D.; Aronow, Mary E.; Sun, Yang; Bebek, Gurkan; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Schoenfield, Lynn R.; Biscotti, Charles V.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Triozzi, Pierre L.; Eng, Charis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a centromeric probe for chromosome 3 (CEP3) and 3p26 locus-specific probe with single-nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) analysis in the detection of high-risk uveal melanoma. Methods. Fifty cases of uveal melanoma (28 males, 22 females) treated by enucleation between 2004 and 2010 were analyzed. Fresh tissue was used for FISH and SNP-A analysis. FISH was performed using a CEP3 and a 3p26 locus-specific probe. Tumor size, location, and clinical outcome were recorded during the 7-year study period (median follow-up: 35.5 months; mean: 38.5 months). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Results. Monosomy 3 was detected by FISH-CEP3 in 27 tumors (54%), FISH-3p26 deletion was found in 30 (60%), and SNP-A analysis identified 31 (62%) of the tumors with monosomy 3. Due to technical failures, FISH and SNP-A were noninterpretable in one case (2%) and two cases (4%), respectively. In both cases of SNP-A failure, tumors were positive for FISH 3p26 deletion and in a single case of FISH failure, monosomy 3 was found using SNP-A. No statistically significant differences were observed in any of the sensitivity or specificity measures. Conclusions. For prediction of survival at 36 months, FISH CEP3, FISH 3p26, and SNP-A were comparable. A combination of prognostication techniques should be used in an unlikely event of technical failure (2%–4%). PMID:22511634

  9. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  10. Reflex fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for suspicious urinary cytology in bladder cancer patients with negative surveillance cystoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Philip H.; Sukhu, Ranjit; Cordon, Billy H.; Sfakianos, John P.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Dalbagni, Guido; Lin, Oscar; Herr, Harry W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of reflex UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing to predict recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients with suspicious cytology but negative cystoscopy. Patients and methods Patients on NMIBC surveillance were followed with office cystoscopy and urinary cytology every three-to-six months. Between March 2007 and February 2012, 500 consecutive patients with suspicious cytology underwent reflexive FISH analysis. Clinical and pathologic data were reviewed retrospectively. Predictors for recurrence, progression, and findings on subsequent cystoscopy (within two-to-six months after FISH) were evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results 243 patients with suspicious cytology also had negative surveillance cystoscopy. Positive FISH was a significant predictor for recurrence (hazard ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42, 3.90, p=0.001) in multivariate analysis and for progression (hazard ratio 3.01, 95% CI 1.10, 8.21, p=0.03) in univariate analysis, compared to negative FISH. However, positive FISH was not significantly associated with evidence of tumor on subsequent surveillance cystoscopy compared to negative FISH (odds ratio 0.8, 95% CI 0.26, 2.74, p=1). Conclusion Positive FISH predicts for recurrence and progression in NMIBC surveillance patients with suspicious cytology but negative cystoscopy. However, an association was not found between FISH result and tumor recurrence in the immediate follow-up period. Reflex FISH testing for suspicious cytology may have limited ability to modify surveillance strategies in NMIBC. PMID:24128299

  11. Localization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene (INDO) to chromosome 8p12-->p11 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Najfeld, V; Menninger, J; Muhleman, D; Comings, D E; Gupta, S L

    1993-01-01

    Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase are two enzymes that degrade tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine. The gene (TDO2) for tryptophane 2,3-dioxygenase has been localized to 4q31-->32. We now report localization of INDO (the gene encoding indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase) by fluorescent in situ hybridization to 8p12-->p11. PMID:8404046

  12. Comparison of comparative genomic hybridization with conventional karyotype and classical fluorescence in situ hybridization for prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of unbalanced chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, J M; Cacheux, V; Collot, N; Da Silva, F; Hervy, N; Rivet, D; Romana, S; Wiss, J; Benzaken, B; Aurias, A; Tachdjian, G

    1998-01-01

    The comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique was initially used for detection of chromosomal imbalances in tumor cells. CGH can also be used as a supplementary method to karyotypic analysis in clinical cytogenetic cases. In order to evaluate CGH usefulness in prenatal and postnatal analysis of whole chromosome and segmental aneusomies, we investigated 13 clinical samples from blood, cultured chorionic villi, cultured amniotic fluids and uncultured amniotic fluids. These specimens, initially analyzed by conventional cytogenetics, included 5p monosomy, 9p duplication, add 6p, unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 5 and 10, mosaic tetrasomy 12p (50%), unbalanced (X;X) translocation and Prader-Willi deletion (15q11-13). In addition, six numerical chromosome aberrations (tetrasomy X, trisomies 13, 18, 21 and monosomy X) were analysed. All the chromosomal abnormalities, except the Prader-Willi deletion, were correctly detected by CGH. Here, we have demonstrated that the CGH technique is an alternative to classical fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific probes for detection of the unbalanced chromosomal aberrations in prenatal and postnatal diagnosis and could be used for rapid prenatal screening for unbalanced aberrations. PMID:9833066

  13. Identification of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) homologous loci by direct sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, S.M.; Neil, S.M.; Brothman, A.

    1995-12-10

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have identified seven NF1-related loci, two separate loci on chromosome 2, at bands 2q21 and 2q33-q34, and one locus each on five other chromosomes at bands 14q11.2, 15q11.2, 18p11.2, 21q11.2-q21, and 22q11.2. Application of PCR using NF1 primer pairs and genomic DNA from somatic cell hybrids confirmed the above loci, identified additional loci on chromosomes 12 and 15, and showed that the various loci do not share homology beyond NF1 exon 27b. Sequenced PCR products representing segments corresponding to NF1 exons from these loci demonstrated greater than 95% sequence identity with the NF1 locus. We used sequence differences between bona fide NF1 and NF1-homologous loci to strategically design primer sets to specifically amplify 30 of 36 exons within the 5{prime} end of the NF1 gene. These developments have facilitated mutation analysis at the NF1 locus using genomic DNA as template. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A combination of micronucleus assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to evaluate the genotoxicity of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Bouraoui, Sana; Mougou, Soumaya; Brahem, Aicha; Tabka, Faten; Ben Khelifa, Hela; Harrabi, Imed; Mrizek, Najib; Elghezal, Hatem; Saad, Ali

    2013-02-01

    A genotoxic effect of formaldehyde (FA), particularly micronucleus (MN) induction, has been shown in several previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of micronuclei and to identify the type of chromosomal damage in Tunisian staff members working in the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory of Farhat Hached hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) who were exposed to FA. Assessment of chromosomal damage was performed in peripheral lymphocytes of 31 FA-exposed employees compared with 31 control employees working in the administrative department of the same hospital. The clastogenic/aneugenic effect of FA was evaluated using the standard MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using pan-centromeric probes. The mean level of exposure to FA was 3.4 ppm. The results showed a significant increase of MN frequency in lymphocytes of exposed workers compared with the control group (25.35 ± 6.28 ‰ vs. 7.08  ± 4.62 ‰, p < 0.05). As assessed by FISH, the frequency of centromeric micronuclei (C+MN) was greater in exposed subjects than in controls (18.38 ± 5.94 ‰ vs. 5.03 ± 3.64 ‰). Among the C+MN, the frequency of MN containing one centromere (C1+MN) was significantly greater in pathologists and anatomists than in controls (15.35 ± 6.0 ‰ vs. 3.33 ± 2.74 ‰, p < 0.05). The results showed an effect of sex and time of FA exposure with significantly increased frequencies of all end points measuring aneuploidy (C+MN, C1+MN, and Cx+MN [more then one MN]). The increased frequency of C1+MN observed in the exposed group may suggest a slight aneugenic effect of FA exposure. PMID:23132144

  15. Preparations of Meiotic Pachytene Chromosomes and Extended DNA Fibers from Cotton Suitable for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs) instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH was established. PMID:22442728

  16. Diagnosis of bladder cancer from the voided urine specimens using multi-target fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ke, Zunfu; Lai, Yuanhua; Ma, Xudong; Lil, Shuhua; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of chromosomal analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for bladder cancer in light of the histological diagnosis. Several valuable observations using FISH technologies in voided urine cells were also reported. The multi-target FISH-containing probes for the centromeres of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and the 9p21 locus were applied to cytospin specimens prepared from voided urine. Urine samples from 53 bladder cancer patients and 30 patients with benign alterations were used for this study. The histological observations of surgical resection specimens showed that the specificity and sensitivity for the technique were 100.0 and 88.0%, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that there was no significant correlation between FISH-positive rate and the tumor stage/grade (P<0.05). However, the proportion of tumor cells with genetic abnormalities positively correlated with the tumor stage (P<0.01). Furthermore, the number of abnormal cells in muscle-invasive pT2 was significantly higher than that in non-muscle-invasive pTa, pT1 (P<0.01). Of 50 patients with bladder cancer, polysomies of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 were detected in 84.0, 48.0 and 78.0% of cases, respectively, and loss of the 9p21 gene was detected in 80.0% of cases. In addition, the detailed results from different urine specimens showed that FISH assay was required. FISH assay for chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and 9p21 has a high specificity and sensitivity in the detection of bladder cancer and may reduce the necessity for cytoscopy treatment. PMID:24396440

  17. Diagnosis of bladder cancer from the voided urine specimens using multi-target fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    KE, ZUNFU; LAI, YUANHUA; MA, XUDONG; LIL, SHUHUA; HUANG, WENHUA

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of chromosomal analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for bladder cancer in light of the histological diagnosis. Several valuable observations using FISH technologies in voided urine cells were also reported. The multi-target FISH-containing probes for the centromeres of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and the 9p21 locus were applied to cytospin specimens prepared from voided urine. Urine samples from 53 bladder cancer patients and 30 patients with benign alterations were used for this study. The histological observations of surgical resection specimens showed that the specificity and sensitivity for the technique were 100.0 and 88.0%, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that there was no significant correlation between FISH-positive rate and the tumor stage/grade (P<0.05). However, the proportion of tumor cells with genetic abnormalities positively correlated with the tumor stage (P<0.01). Furthermore, the number of abnormal cells in muscle-invasive pT2 was significantly higher than that in non-muscle-invasive pTa, pT1 (P<0.01). Of 50 patients with bladder cancer, polysomies of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 were detected in 84.0, 48.0 and 78.0% of cases, respectively, and loss of the 9p21 gene was detected in 80.0% of cases. In addition, the detailed results from different urine specimens showed that FISH assay was required. FISH assay for chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and 9p21 has a high specificity and sensitivity in the detection of bladder cancer and may reduce the necessity for cytoscopy treatment. PMID:24396440

  18. Localization of single- and low-copy sequences on tomato synaptonemal complex spreads using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, D G; Lapitan, N L; Stack, S M

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful means by which single- and low-copy DNA sequences can be localized on chromosomes. Compared to the mitotic metaphase chromosomes that are normally used in FISH, synaptonemal complex (SC) spreads (hypotonically spread pachytene chromosomes) have several advantages. SC spreads (1) are comparatively free of debris that can interfere with probe penetration, (2) have relatively decondensed chromatin that is highly accessible to probes, and (3) are about ten times longer than their metaphase counterparts, which permits FISH mapping at higher resolution. To investigate the use of plant SC spreads as substrates for single-copy FISH, we probed spreads of tomato SCs with two single-copy sequences and one low-copy sequence (ca. 14 kb each) that are associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers on SC 11. Individual SCs were identified on the basis of relative length, arm ratio, and differential staining patterns after combined propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In this first report of single-copy FISH to SC spreads, the probe sequences were unambiguously mapped on the long arm of tomato SC 11. Coupled with data from earlier studies, we determined the distance in micrometers, the number of base pairs, and the rates of crossing over between these three FISH markers. We also observed that the order of two of the FISH markers is reversed in relation to their order on the molecular linkage map. SC-FISH mapping permits superimposition of markers from molecular linkage maps directly on pachytene chromosomes and thereby contributes to our understanding of the relationship between chromosome structure, gene activity, and recombination. PMID:10224272

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF SEX CHROMOSOME MOLECULAR MARKERS USING RAPDS AND FLUORESCENT IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this work is to identify molecular markers associated with the sex chromosomes in rainbow trout to study the mode of sex determination mechanisms in this species. Using the RAPD assay and bulked segregant analysis, two markers were identified that generated polymorphi...

  20. [Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the diagnosis of acute childhood lymphatic leukemia (ALL)].

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Z; Michalová, K; Brezinová, J; Sindelárová, L; Kurková, S; Smísek, P; Zuna, J; Trka, J; Starý, J

    2001-08-30

    Classical cytogenetic analysis plays an important role in the diagnosis, classification, therapy monitoring and prognosis of patients with leukemia. Many recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities with major prognostic values have been described in childhood ALL. Hyperdiploidy and/or t(12;21) are associated with good prognosis, whereas t(9;22) and/or rearrangements of MLL gene correlate with poor outcome and therefore early detection of these abnormalities is very important. FISH can overcome some limitations of conventional cytogenetic and molecular-genetic analyses and due to high sensitivity specific chromosomal aberrations in mitoses and/or interphase nuclei can be detected. In the Center of Oncocytogenetics of the 3rd Medical Department for assessment of hyperdiploidy and structural rearrangements we use double-color FISH with centromeric and/or locus-specific probes and complex aberrations are ascertained by whole chromosome painting probes and multicolor FISH. Among 275 children with ALL examined during the last 8 years by different FISH methods we found seven patients with translocation t(9;22) and 14 patients with MLL rearrangements in bone marrow cells. Since 1988 we focus on detection of hyperdiploidy and/or t(12;21). High hyperdiploidy was found in 35 children, 10 of them had further complex rearrangements. Translocation t(12;21) was proved in 37 patients and complex rearrangements were found in 22 of them. FISH, cytogenetic and molecular-genetic analyses become obligatory for the first diagnostic examination as well as for monitoring of treatment effect in children with ALL. PMID:11702476

  1. Prenatal aneuploidy detection in interphase cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Bryndorf, T; Christensen, B

    1994-12-01

    FISH is a quick, inexpensive, accurate, sensitive and relatively specific method for aneuploidy detection in samples of uncultured chorionic villus cells and amniotic fluid cells. FISH allows detection of the autosomal trisomies 13, 18 and 21 and X and Y abnormalities and any other chromosome abnormality for which a specific probe is available. The detection rate of these abnormalities is high in informative samples which have a concordance of > 99.5% with cytogenetic results. A relatively high number of abnormal cases are found in uninformative samples. However, such samples should be regarded as samples to be investigated further. Clinical experience with the use of FISH for prenatal diagnosis is now beyond 10,000 cases; a number of clinical protocols and smaller trials have also been carried out, resulting in 90% of attempted analyses giving informative results with a high detection rate and extraordinarily low false-positive and false-negative rates. Unsolved problems remain, such as occasional technical failures, admixtures of maternal blood and up to 20% uninformative scoring results, especially for abnormal specimens. FISH is at present used as an adjunct to classical cytogenetic analysis. However, this should not be interpreted as meaning that FISH could not be used as a methodology in its own right. If FISH were to be considered a diagnostic test then this might be the case, due to the risk of false-negative and false-positive results and the fact that FISH does not allow a diagnosis of certain structural abnormalities. If, on the other hand, FISH is considered a screening test, which means that in all abnormal (or indeterminate) cases, classical cytogenetic analysis would follow the abnormal screening test, the accuracy which is potentially higher than for other screening methods, for example in cases of trisomy 21, justifies FISH as a prenatal screening test in its own right. PMID:7617567

  2. Spot counting on fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension images using Gaussian mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sijia; Sa, Ruhan; Maguire, Orla; Minderman, Hans; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2015-03-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A flow cytometry-based imaging approach for FISH in suspension (FISH-IS) was established that enables the automated analysis of several log-magnitude higher number of cells compared to the microscopy-based approaches. The rotational positioning can occur leading to discordance between spot count. As a solution of counting error from overlapping spots, in this study, a Gaussian Mixture Model based classification method is proposed. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of GMM are used as global image features of this classification method. Via Random Forest classifier, the result shows that the proposed method is able to detect closely overlapping spots which cannot be separated by existing image segmentation based spot detection methods. The experiment results show that by the proposed method we can obtain a significant improvement in spot counting accuracy.

  3. Trisomy 10p resulting from an inv dup of 10p defined by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, S.J.; Easterling, T.R.; Leppig, K.A.

    1994-09-01

    De novo cases of trisomy for the entire short arm of chromosome 10 are infrequently reported and are most commonly the result of translocation of 10p to an acrocentric chromosome. Most reported cases of trisomy 10p are not trisomy for the complete short arm of chromosome 10, but are duplication, deficiency syndromes that result from either inheritance of an unbalanced translocation from a parent possessing a balanced reciprocal translocation, or from a recombinant chromosome derived from a parental pericentric inversion of chromosome 10. Here, we report a case of a de novo trisomy 10p that resulted from an inverted duplication of the entire short arm of chromosome 10. A 42 year old G7,P5,SAB1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age. Ultrasound examination at 17 weeks demonstrated a fetus of normal size with no apparent anatomic abnormalities. Cytogenetic evaluation demonstrated one homologue of chromosome 10 had a tandem inverted duplication of the short arm. The fetal karyotype was interpreted to be 46,XX,inv dup (10) (peter-cen::cen-p15::q11-pter). Parental karyotype are normal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a chromosome 10 paint, chromosome 10 centromere, and all telomere probe, confirmed the inverted duplication involved the entire short arm of chromosome 10. Termination of pregnancy was performed at 20 weeks gestation. Autopsy revealed multiple anomalies including low-set posteriorly rotated ears, cleft of the soft palate, ocular hypertelorism, small upturned nose, agenesis of the gallbladder, sacral hemivertebrae, and abnormal flexion of the thumbs. The fetal karyotype was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis in lung and kidney. This is the second reported case of a de novo tandem duplication of 10p of which we are aware, and the first using FISH technology to characterize the abnormality.

  4. Asymmetric Aneuploidy in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Detected by In Situ Karyotyping and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: Suggestions for Reference Values for Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Young; Im, Kyongok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Jiseok; Kim, Jung-Ah; Choi, Qute; Hwang, Sang Mee; Han, Sung-Hee; Kwon, Sunghoon; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic testing is important to ensure patient safety before therapeutic application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the standardized methods and criteria for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities of MSCs have not yet been determined. We investigated the frequency of cytogenetic aberrations in MSCs using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and suggest reference values for aneuploidy in MSCs. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 103 consecutive cultures from 68 MSCs (25 adipose-origin, 20 bone marrow-origin, 18 cord blood-origin, and 5 neural stem cells; 8 from adipose tissue of patients with breast cancer and 60 from healthy donors). We compared the MSC aneuploidy patterns with those of hematological malignancies and benign hematological diseases. Interphase FISH showed variable aneuploid clone proportions (1%–20%) in 68 MSCs. The aneuploidy patterns were asymmetric, and aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X occurred most frequently. Clones with polysomy were significantly more abundant than those with monosomy. The cutoff value of maximum polysomy rates (upper 95th percentile value) was 13.0%. By G-banding, 5 of the 61 MSCs presented clonal chromosomal aberrations. Aneuploidy was asymmetric in the malignant hematological diseases, while it was symmetric in the benign hematological diseases. We suggest an aneuploidy cutoff value of 13%, and FISH for aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X would be informative to evaluate the genetic stability of MSCs. Although it is unclear whether the aneuploid clones might represent the senescent cell population or transformed cells, more attention should be focused on the safety of MSCs, and G-banding combined with FISH should be performed. PMID:25019198

  5. Localization of a candidate colon tumor-suppressor gene (DRA) to 7q22-q31. 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, T.; Testa, J.R. ); Papas, T.S.; Schweinfest, C. )

    1994-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that the DRA gene is located on chromosome 7. This assignment was based on Southern blot hybridization of a DRA cDNA to genomic DNA from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. In this report, they localize the DRA gene to chromosome band 7q22-q31.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a full-length (2.9 kb) cDNA as probe. Metaphase spreads from normal human lymphocytes were prepared according to the method of Fan et al. The cDNA clone 611C was labeled with biotin-11-dUTP using a nick-translation kit (Oncor) followed by purification on a Sephadex G50-fine column. FISH and detection of immunofluorescence were performed according to the technique of Pinkel et al. with minor modifications. The chromosome preparations were stained with both diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide (Oncor) and observed with a Zeiss Axiophot fluorescence microscope. Hybridization was detected on chromosome 7 in 22 of 47 spreads examined. Of 89 fluorescent signals on all chromosomes, 44 (49%) were located on 7q. All signals on chromosome 7 appeared to be located at 7q22-q31.1. Hybridization is in the vicinity of the met protooncogene locus at 7q31.

  6. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... automated scanning microscope, image analysis system, and customized software applications for FISH assays. This device is intended for in vitro diagnostic use with FISH assays as an aid in the...

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization-based karyotyping of soybean translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a major crop species and a target of a substantial investment of genomic and genetic studies; yet, in contrast to other plant species, relatively few chromosomal aberrations have been identified and characterized in soybean. This is due in part to the difficulty ...

  8. QUANTITATIVE FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS ON MICROSCOPE SLIDES AND LEAF SURFACES. (R823845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Rapid method for measuring clastogenic fingerprints using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.N.

    2000-03-28

    A method is provided for determining a clastogenic signature of a sample of chromosomes by quantifying a frequency of a first type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; quantifying a frequency of a second, different type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; and comparing the frequency of the first type of chromosome aberration to the frequency of the second type of chromosome aberration. A method is also provided for using that clastogenic signature to identify a clastogenic agent or dosage to which the cells were exposed.

  10. Rapid method for measuring clastogenic fingerprints using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for determining a clastogenic signature of a sample of chromosomes by quantifying a frequency of a first type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; quantifying a frequency of a second, different type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; and comparing the frequency of the first type of chromosome aberration to the frequency of the second type of chromosome aberration. A method is also provided for using that clastogenic signature to identify a clastogenic agent or dosage to which the cells were exposed.

  11. Identification of Prader-Willi Syndrome mosaicism by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U.; Hanchett, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a microdeletion syndrome involving an interstitial deletion of region q11-q13 on the paternal chromosome 15. We report 2 cases of PWS that were analyzed using FISH and were found to be mosaic for a normal cell line and a deleted cell line. Case 1 was diagnosed as an atypical PWS who was cytogenetically normal. She is a 38 y.o. white female displaying some but not all of the features of PWS. Case 2 is a 23 y.o. white male with a classical deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13. He displays very typical features of PWS. He was also noted to be albino. FISH analysis was performed on PHA stimulated lymphocytes. We examined four loci: D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3. The number of cells examined for each locus ranged from 46 to 75. Case 1 was deleted at 3 of the 4 loci (D15S11, SNRPN and GABRB3) in 30% of her cells. The D15S10 locus was not deleted. This may account for the atypical features displayed by this patient. It also suggests that this chromosome is rearranged resulting in the retention of the interstitial locus. The exact nature of the rearrangement needs to be determined. Case 2 was deleted at all four loci in 60% of the cells analyzed. This result was unexpected because his deletion was identified cytogenetically, but mosaicism was not detected. These are the first reported cases of mosaic PWS diagnosed using FISH. The use of cytogenetics alone requires high resolution banding to accurately identify the deletion. This makes the detection of small deletions in every cell difficult and the determination of mosaicism almost impossible. Our results suggest that mosaicism may be occurring more frequently than previously thought and may account for some of the atypical cases. Studies are in progress to determine the effect of mosaicism on methylation at genes located within this region which are imprinted and are thought to be involved in the etiology of Prader-Willi Syndroms.

  12. Diagnosis of a constitutional five-chromosome rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsien, F.; Shapira, E.; Carvalho, T.

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes and three or more chromosome breakpoints. Such karyotypes are often acquired during cancer multi-step development and in chromosome instability syndromes. However, extremely rare constitutional forms have been reported, most of which are incompatible with life. We present a 2-year-old female with de novo complex rearrangement consisting of five chromosomes and nine breakpoints. Clinical evaluation at two years of age revealed a weight of 5 kg, length of 66 cm, and had circumference of 38 cm, all below the 5th percentile, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, epicanthal folds, inguinal hernia, left clubfoot, hypertonicity, and developmental delay. The neurological examination revealed chorea-acanthocytosis and psychomotor delay. Cultured lymphocytes and fibroblasts revealed a karyotype consisting of five derivative chromosomes. The metaphases were further analyzed by FISH using chromosome-specific libraries and telomeric probes in order to delineate the composition of the rearranged chromosomes; FISH results demonstrated a karyotype of: 46,XX,1pter{r_arrow}1q25::1q42.1{r_arrow}1qter, 2pter{r_arrow}q32.3::1q32.3{r_arrow}2q41::2q37.3{r_arrow}2qter, 7qter{r_arrow}7q21.2::6q22.3{r_arrow}6qter::1q31{r_arrow}1q32.3::6p23{r_arrow}6q22.3, 7pter{r_arrow}7q21.1::6p23{r_arrow}6pter, 2q33{r_arrow}2q37, 1::9p21{r_arrow}9qter. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of FISH in characterizing complex chromosome rearrangements otherwise difficult to correctly interpret using classical cytogenetics alone.

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging analysisof human oocytes and first polar bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Weier, Jingly F.; Oter Renom, Maria; Zheng,Xuezhong; Colls, Pere; Nureddin, Aida; Pham, Chau D.; Chu, Lisa W.; Racowsky, Catherine; Munne, Santiago

    2004-10-06

    We investigated the frequencies of abnormalities involving either chromosome 1, 16, 18 or 21 in failed-fertilized human oocytes.While abnormalities involving chromosome 16 showed an age-dependant increase, results for the other chromosomes did not show statistically significant differences between the three age groups <35 yrs, 35-39 yrs, and >39 yrs. The scoring of four chromosomes is likely to underestimate the true rate of aneuploid cells. Thus, for a pilot study investigating a more comprehensive analysis of oocytes and their corresponding first polar bodies (1PBs), we developed a novel 8-probe chromosome enumeration scheme using FISH and SIm.

  14. Partial trisomy 11q involving chromosome 1 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.; McCorquodale, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 11q was detected in an infant delivered 3-4 weeks prematurely. The phenotype included slanted palpebral fissures, high arched palate, developmental delay, microcephaly, and cardiac defects, all of which occur in the majority of cases with this syndrome. Other features included a column-shaped skull, preauricular pit, single palmar crease, short, broad great toes, flat occiput, unilateral kidney agenesis, and strabismus. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed the presence of extra material on the long arm of chromosome 1. The G-banding pattern of this extra material indicated that it might be derived from chromosome 1 or 11. Chromosomal {open_quotes}paints{close_quotes} showed that it was not chromosome 1 material, but was chromosome 11 material extending from band q21 to qter. Partial trisomy 11q arising from translocation of the 11q material to chromosome 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 17, 21, 22, and X has been reported previously, whereas translocation to chromosome 1 has not. The chromosome to which the 11q material is translocated does not alter the most frequent features of the partial trisomy 11q syndrome, but may influence other less common features.

  15. Interphase study by fluorescence in situ hybridization of spermatozoa of a paracentric inversion heterozygote

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, J.K.; Best, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes were initiated on a couple with a history of three spontaneous 1st trimester losses and oligospermia. The results revealed the woman to have a normal female karyotype. The man had a karyotype of 46,XY,inv(2)(q14.2q24.3). Interphase sperm studies were offered as an attempt to quantify the relative proportion of sperm with acentric and dicentric chromosome No. 2 in response to the couple`s concern that chromosomally unbalanced sperm resulting from recombination of the inversion was the primary cause of pregnancy losses. Slides were prepared and processed as previously described. A two-color probe cocktail consisting of a biotinylated {alpha}-satellite probe for No. 2 and a digoxigenin-labeled probe for {alpha}-satellite No. 17 as an internal control was employed. Among 496 cells with a single signal for chromosome No. 17, we observed 2 with no signal for chromsome No. 2, 492 with a single signal for No. 2, and 2 cells with 2 signals for No. 2. These findings indicate that the proportion of unbalanced recombinant sperm is probably under 1%, and that other factors are likely to be involved in the etiology of this couple`s pregnancy losses.

  16. Identification of a ring chromosome as a ring 8 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in a child with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Roback, E.W.; Allen, G.A.

    1995-07-03

    We read with interest the report by Melnyk and Dewald of a small supernumerary ring chromosome 8 identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a child with developmental delay and minor anomalies. Although ring chromosomes resulting in loss of parts of chromosome 8 have been reported, Melnyk and Dewald reported the first small ring chromosome 8 diagnosed by FISH. Previously nonsatellited markers derived from chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 11, 13-16, 18, 20, 21, and X have been identified using FISH. Their study illustrated the value of FISH techniques in identifying the chromosomal source of markers or rings.

  17. Use of Combined Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization To Determine Carbon Metabolism in Mixed Natural Communities of Uncultured Bacteria from the Genus Achromatium

    PubMed Central

    Gray, N. D.; Howarth, R.; Pickup, R. W.; Jones, J. Gwyn; Head, I. M.

    2000-01-01

    Combined microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to investigate carbon metabolism in uncultured bacteria from the genus Achromatium. All of the Achromatium species identified in a freshwater sediment from Rydal Water, Cumbria, United Kingdom, which were distinguishable only by FISH, assimilated both [14C]bicarbonate and [14C]acetate. This extends previous findings that Achromatium spp. present at another location could only utilize organic carbon sources. Achromatium spp., therefore, probably exhibit a range of physiologies, i.e., facultative chemolithoautotrophy, mixotrophy, and chemoorganoheterotrophy, similar to other large sulfur bacteria (e.g., Beggiatoa spp.). PMID:11010908

  18. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and quantitative microscopy with a charge coupled device camera improve detection of human papillomavirus DNA revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Chignol, M C; Souchier, C; Schmitt, D; Chardonnet, Y

    1994-04-01

    Epithelial cervical CaSki, SiHa and HeLa cells containing respectively 600 copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA type 16, 1-2 copies of HPV DNA type 16 and 10-50 copies of HPV DNA type 18 were used as model to detect different quantities of integrated HPV genome. The HPV DNA was identified on cell deposits with specific biotinylated DNA probes either by enzymatic in situ hybridization (EISH) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) involving successively a rabbit anti-biotin antibody, a biotinylated goat anti-rabbit antibody and streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase complex or streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate complex. With brightfield microscopy and EISH, hybridization spots were observed in CaSki and HeLa cells but hardly any in SiHa cells. With fluorescence microscopy and FISH, hybridization spots were clearly seen only on CaSki cell nuclei. In an attempt to improve the detection of low quantities of HPV DNA signals revealed by FISH, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and quantitative microscopy with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) camera were used. With both LSCM and quantitative microscopy, as few as 1-2 copies of HPV DNA were detected and found to be confined to cell nuclei counterstained with propidium iodide. Under Nomarski phase contrast, a good preservation of the cell structure was observed. With quantitative microscopy, differences in the number, size, total area and integrated fluorescence intensity of hybridization spots per nucleus were revealed between CaSki, SiHa and HeLa cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7928414

  19. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization-Based Investigations of Individual Doses for Persons Living at Metlino in the Upper Reaches of the Techa River

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Akleyev, A V.; Jacob, Peter; Ivanov, Denis V.; Wieser, Albrecht; Vorobiova, M I.; Shishkina, Elena A.; Shved, Valentina A.; Vozilova, Alexandra; Bayankin, Sergey N.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2005-02-01

    Waterborne releases to the Techa River from the Mayak Production Association in Russia during 1949-1956 resulted in significant doses to persons living downstream; the most contaminated village was Metlino, about 7 km from the site of release. Internal and external doses have been estimated for these residents using the Techa River Dosimetry System-2000 (TRDS-2000); the primary purpose is to support epidemiological studies of the members of the Extended Techa River Cohort. Efforts to validate the calculations of external and internal dose are considered essential. One validation study of the TRDS-2000 system has been performed by the comparison of calculated doses to quartz from bricks in old buildings at Metlino with those measured by luminescence dosimetry. Two additional methods of validation considered here are electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of teeth and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) measurements of chromosome translocations in circulating lymphocytes. For electron paramagnetic resonance, 36 measurements on 26 teeth from 16 donors from Metlino were made at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health (16 measurements) and the Institute of Metal Physics (20 measurements); the correlation among measurements made at the two laboratories has been found to be 0.99. Background measurements were also made on 218 teeth (63 molars, 128 premolars, and 27 incisors). Fluorescence in situ hybridization measurements were made for 31 residents of Metlino. These measurements were handicapped by the analysis of a limited number of cells; for several individuals no stable translocations were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization measurements were also made for 39 individuals believed to be unexposed. The EPR- and FISH-based estimates agreed well for permanent residents of Metlino: 0.67 +/- 0.21 Gy and 0.48 +/- 0.18 Gy (mean +/- standard error of the mean), respectively. Results of the two experimental methods also agreed well with the estimates derived from the use of the TRDS-2000. For all persons investigated according to each technique, the EPR-measured dose to enamel was 0.55 +/- 0.17 Gy, and the TRDS-2000 prediction for the dose to enamel for these individuals is 0.55 +/- 0.07 Gy. The fluorescence in situ hybridization-based dose, 0.38 +/- 0.10 Gy, compared well to the TRDS-2000 prediction of external dose, 0.31 +/- 0.03 Gy, to red bone marrow for these persons. Validation of external doses at the remaining villages is an active area of investigation.

  20. A molecular cytogenetic map of sorghum chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Islam-Faridi, M N; Childs, K L; Klein, P E; Hodnett, G; Menz, M A; Klein, R R; Rooney, W L; Mullet, J E; Stelly, D M; Price, H J

    2002-01-01

    We used structural genomic resources for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench to target and develop multiple molecular cytogenetic probes that would provide extensive coverage for a specific chromosome of sorghum. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing molecular markers mapped across sorghum linkage group A were labeled as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Signals from single-, dual-, and multiprobe BAC-FISH to spreads of mitotic chromosomes and pachytene bivalents were associated with the largest sorghum chromosome, which bears the nucleolus organizing region (NOR). The order of individual BAC-FISH loci along the chromosome was fully concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. In addition, the order of several tightly linked molecular markers was clarified by FISH analysis. The FISH results indicate that markers from the linkage map positions 0.0-81.8 cM reside in the short arm of chromosome 1 whereas markers from 81.8-242.9 cM are located in the long arm of chromosome 1. The centromere and NOR were located in a large heterochromatic region that spans approximately 60% of chromosome 1. In contrast, this region represents only 0.7% of the total genetic map distance of this chromosome. Variation in recombination frequency among euchromatic chromosomal regions also was apparent. The integrated data underscore the value of cytological data, because minor errors and uncertainties in linkage maps can involve huge physical regions. The successful development of multiprobe FISH cocktails suggests that it is feasible to develop chromosome-specific "paints" from genomic resources rather than flow sorting or microdissection and that when applied to pachytene chromatin, such cocktails provide an especially powerful framework for mapping. Such a molecular cytogenetic infrastructure would be inherently cross-linked with other genomic tools and thereby establish a cytogenomics system with extensive utility in development and application of genomic resources, cloning, transgene localization, development of plant "chromonomics," germplasm introgression, and marker-assisted breeding. In combination with previously reported work, the results indicate that a sorghum cytogenomics system would be partially applicable to other gramineous genera. PMID:12019248

  1. Warthin-like Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Combined Study of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Whole-slide Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Ito, Yohei; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Beppu, Shintaro; Sakakibara, Takeo; Takino, Hisashi; Takase, Hiroshi; Ijichi, Kei; Shimozato, Kazuo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    There has been some debate as to whether a subset of metaplastic Warthin tumors (mWTs) harbor the mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC)-associated CRTC1-MAML2 fusion. We analyzed 15 tumors originally diagnosed as mWT (mWT-like tumors), 2 of which had concurrent MECs. We looked for the CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusion transcripts and performed immunohistochemistry for p63 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the MAML2 split. To localize MAML2 split-positive cells at the cellular level, whole tumor tissue sections were digitalized (whole-slide imaging [WSI]). The CRTC1-MAML2, but not CRTC3-MAML2 was detected in 5/15 mWT-like tumors. FISH-WSI results showed that all epithelial cells harbored the MAML2 split in fusion-positive mWT-like tumors and were totally negative in fusion-negative mWT-like tumors. A review of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides showed that morphology of the "metaplastic" epithelium was virtually indistinguishable between fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors. However, oncocytic bilayered tumor epithelium, characteristic to typical WT, was always found somewhere in the fusion-negative tumors but not in the fusion-positive tumors. This distinguishing histologic finding enabled 5 pathologists to easily differentiate the 2 tumor groups with 100% accuracy. The age and sex distribution of fusion-positive mWT-like tumor cases was similar to that of fusion-positive MEC cases and significantly different from those of fusion-negative mWT-like tumor and typical WT cases. In addition, only fusion-positive mWT-like tumors possessed concurrent low-grade MECs. In conclusion, a subset of mWT-like tumors were positive for the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion and had many features that are more in accord with MEC than with WT. The term Warthin-like MEC should be considered for fusion-positive mWT-like tumors. PMID:26457352

  2. Novel karyotype in the Ullrich-Turner syndrome - 45,X/46,X,r(X)/46,X,dic(X) - investigated with fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, L.; Jackson, J.; Cowell, C.; Sillence, D.; Smith, A.

    1994-04-15

    A 10-year-old girl with Ullrich-Turner syndrome was found to have the novel karyotype 45,X/46,X,r(X)(p11q11)/46,X,dic(X)(p11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the {alpha} satellite X centromere probe established the origin of the small ring chromosome. Scanning a large number of cells by interphase FISH showed that the dicentric (X) was the least prevalent cell line. The common breakpoint of Xp11 suggests a sequence of errors as the mechanism whereby these 3 distinct cell lines have arisen. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Lu, Xue; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Feng, Jiang-Bin; Lü, Yu-Min; Jiang, En-Hai; Zhang, Shu-Lan; Chen, De-Qing; Jia, Ting-Zhen; Liang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 0-5Gy (60)Co ?-rays in vitro, and dose-effect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the dose-effect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that dose-effect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two dose-effect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in underestimation of the biological doses compared with values obtained through analysis of di-centrics and tooth-enamel EPR. PMID:24246721

  4. Chromosome in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed mammary tissue using non-isotopic, non-fluorescent probes: technical considerations and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, K; Sahin, A; Supak, J; Kim, S Y; Hortobagyi, G; Hittelman, W N

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques have provided an important tool for interphase cytogenetic studies of human neoplasms. However, these techniques are difficult to use on formalin-fixed archival tissue sections. We describe here a non-fluorescent, non-isotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) approach that is easily applicable to paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections. The technical steps that must be monitored and individualized to optimize signal generation and detection are discussed. This ISH technique has several advantages over fluorescent detection methods. The signal obtained can be viewed using an ordinary light microscope and does not fade with time. More importantly, the signal is observed and analyzed in the context of tissue morphology. The technique permits detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities not only in malignant but also in apparently normal and potentially premalignant mammary tissue. This may allow identification of focal genetic abnormalities as well as field-defects and enable analysis of their evolution during the multistep transformation to mammary neoplasm. This technique is also suitable for analysis of tumor heterogeneity and the correlation of numerical chromosomal aberrations with histologic, immunocytochemical, and clinical features of breast tumors. PMID:1463859

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of classical propionibacteria with specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application to enumeration in Gruyère cheese.

    PubMed

    Babot, Jaime D; Hidalgo, Maximiliano; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2011-01-31

    The classical or dairy propionibacteria have well-documented industrial applications and have been proposed for probiotic applications. Given their industrial importance it is necessary to employ fast and reliable techniques to monitor the growth during products elaboration, industrial fermentations or the intestinal transit. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to design oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S rRNA of dairy propionibacteria and optimise the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol to detect these bacteria. Two specific probes were in silico designed to detect Propionibacterium freudenreichii and P. jensenii, named Pfr435 and Pj446 respectively. The FISH protocol was optimised for the hybridisation of propionibacteria cells with the universal probe Eub338 and the designed probes. These probes were assayed in situ for their specificity to hybridise species of propionibacteria by observation using fluorescence microscopy and results were compared with the probe Pap446 previously designed for P. acidipropionici. Probes Pap446, Pfr435 and Pj446 were also evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry to assess the influence of cells physiological state during growth in batch culture in the fluorescence intensity. The maximum fluorescence intensity was observed at the onset of the stationary phase of growth and was then reduced. However, changes on the cells permeability did not reduce the efficiency of 16S rRNA hybridisation with the fluorescence-labelled probes. Propionibacteria counts obtained by FISH and plate count methods were compared in a commercial Gruyère cheese. The results showed that this method can be used as a rapid technique for the enumeration of these bacteria in cheese samples. PMID:21276635

  6. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Potable-Water Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Lehtola, Markku J.; Torvinen, Eila; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Keevil, C. William

    2006-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time a high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting Mycobacterium avium bacteria, including the opportunistically pathogenic subspecies M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and M. avium subsp. silvaticum, by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. There is evidence that M. avium subsp. avium especially is able to survive and grow in drinking-water biofilms and possibly transmit via drinking water. The designed PNA probe (MAV148) specificity was tested with several bacterial species, including other mycobacteria and mycolic acid-containing bacteria. From the range of bacterial strains tested, only M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were hybridized. The PNA FISH method was applied successfully to detect M. avium subsp. avium spiked in water samples and biofilm established within a Propella biofilm reactor fed with potable water from a distribution supply. PMID:16391126

  7. Chromosomal translocation t(X;18) in human synovial sarcomas analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, K.; Ito, H.; Yoshida, H.

    1996-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is characterized cytogenetically by translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2). In this study, 28 cases that had been diagnosed initially as synovial sarcoma, including 2 fibrosarcomas, and 1 leiomyosarcoma were collected and examined for translocation t(X;18) on paraffin-embedded tissues by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Of the synovial sarcomas, 25 showed findings consistent with translocation t(X;18) with an additional copy signal for the total probe of X and 18 chromosomes. The other three cases, as well as the two fibrosarcomas and the leiomyosarcoma, did not show this translocation. One (case 26) of three negative cases was diagnosed finally as leiomyosarcoma and another (case 27) as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor from histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, in all, 25 (96%) of 26 synovial sarcomas showed findings consistent with translocation t(X;18). In summary, translocation t(X;18) is a chromosomal aberration specific for synovial sarcoma. The fluorescence in situ hybridization technique can be used even on cells from paraffin-embedded tissues, and is a useful diagnostic aid for synovial sarcoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8579122

  8. Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Conner, Joann A; Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a hemizygous genomic region and to determine its chromosomal position with respect to rDNA loci and centromere repeats. We also documented chromosome transmission from P. squamulatum in several backcrosses (BCs) with P. glaucum using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One to three complete P. squamulatum chromosomes were detected in BC(6), but only one of the three hybridized with the ASGR-linked markers. In P. squamulatum and in all BCs examined, the apospory-linked markers were located in the distal region of the short arm of a single chromosome. All alien chromosomes behaved as univalents during meiosis and segregated randomly in BC(3) and later BC generations, but presence of the ASGR-carrier chromosome alone was sufficient to confer apospory. FISH results support our hypotheses that hemizygosity, proximity to centromeric sequences, and chromosome structure may all play a role in low recombination in the ASGR. PMID:12663545

  9. Prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidies by fluorescence in situ hybridization: experience with 2000 uncultured amniotic fluid samples in a prospective preclinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bryndorf, T; Christensen, B; Vad, M; Parner, J; Brocks, V; Philip, J

    1997-04-01

    Successful rapid prenatal detection of selected numerical chromosome abnormalities by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniotic fluid samples has been described by Klinger et al. (1992) and Ward et al. (1993, 1997). Using essentially the same FISH protocol and identical probes specific for chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and Y, we prospectively compared the results of FISH and conventional cytogenetics on 2000 amniotic fluid cell samples. The 1-day FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically disomic, i.e., normal, and trisomic samples. Due to intermittent absent Y-signals, the assay differentiated less well between samples with cytogenetically normal and abnormal sex chromosome complements. The assay efficiency, and thus the clinical utility, was affected by (1) unsuccessful hybridizations (7 per cent of all hybridizations), (2) hybridizations with less than 50 scorable nuclei (19 per cent of all hybridizations), and (3) visibly contaminated samples with possible maternal cell contamination (14 per cent of all samples). As a result, we were not able to reproduce the results of Klinger et al. (1992) and Ward et al. (1993, 1997). PMID:9160386

  10. A high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 5: Localization of 206 new cosmid markers by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ei-Ichi; Hitomi, Akitsu ); Nakamura, Yusuke )

    1993-07-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 5 with 206 new cosmid clones by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization. The fluorescent signals of 206 clones were evenly distributed throughout chromosome 5, although they were sublocalized preferentially to R-positive bands. This high-resolution cytogenetic map with an average distance of nearly 1 Mb will serve as an important resource for construction of a genetic linkage map, which is essential for positional cloning of responsible genes. Moreover, these mapping data provide many useful landmarks for the construction of contig maps of chromosome 5, as required in the Human Genome Project. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Double and triple in situ hybridization for coexpression studies: combined fluorescent and chromogenic detection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and serotonin receptor subtype mRNAs expressed at different abundance levels.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Maria; Schmitt, Angelika; Asan, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization is the method of choice for studies aimed at determining simultaneous production of signal transduction molecules and neuromodulators in neurons. In our analyses of the monoamine receptor mRNA expression of peptidergic neurons in the rat telencephalon, double tyramide-signal-amplified fluorescence in situ hybridization delivered satisfactory results for coexpression analysis of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and serotonin receptor 2C (5-HT2C) mRNA, a receptor subtype expressed at high-to-moderate abundance in the regions analyzed. However, expression of 5-HT1A mRNA, which is expressed at comparatively low abundance in many telencephalic areas, could not be unequivocally identified in NPY mRNA-reactive neurons due to high background and poor signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescent receptor mRNA detections. Parallel chromogenic in situ hybridization provided clear labeling for 5-HT1A mRNA and additionally offered the possibility to monitor the chromogen deposition at regular time intervals to determine the optimal signal-to-noise ratio. We first developed a double labeling protocol combining fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization and subsequently expanded this variation to combine double fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization for triple labelings. With this method, we documented expression of 5-HT2C and/or 5-HT1A in subpopulations of telencephalic NPY-producing neurons. The method developed in the present study appears suitable for conventional light and fluorescence microscopy, combines advantages of fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization protocols and thus provides a reliable non-radioactive alternative to previously published multiple labeling methods for coexpression analyses in which one mRNA species requires highly sensitive detection. PMID:22075564

  12. Bacterioplankton community structure in a maritime antarctic oligotrophic lake during a period of holomixis, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Pearce, D A

    2003-07-01

    The bacterioplankton community structure in Moss Lake, a maritime Antarctic oligotrophic lake, was determined with vertical depth in the water column, during the ice-free period on Signy Island in the South Orkney Islands. Bacterioplankton community structure was determined using a combination of direct counting of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and in situ hybridization with group-specific, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. Using PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE, the bacterioplankton community composition was shown to be constant with vertical depth in the water column. Specific bacterioplankton species identified through cloning and sequencing the DGGE products obtained were Flavobacterium xinjiangensis (a Flavobacterium), Leptothrix discophora (a beta-Proteobacterium), and a number of uncultured groups: two beta-Proteobacteria, an unclassified Proteobacterium, three sequences from Actinobacteria, and a Cyanobacterium. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), however, demonstrated that there were minor but significant fluctuations in different groups of bacteria with vertical depth in the water column. It showed that the beta-Proteobacteria accounted for between 26.4 and 71.5%, the alpha-Proteobacteria 2.3-10.6%, the gamma-Proteobacteria 0-29.6%, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group 1.8-23.5% of cells hybridizing to a universal probe. This study reports the first description of the community structure of an oligotrophic Antarctic freshwater lake as determined by PCR-dependent and PCR-independent molecular techniques. It also suggests that the bacterioplankton community of Moss Lake contains classes of bacteria known to be important in freshwater systems elsewhere in the world. PMID:12739078

  13. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization: a hypothesized competition mode between two dominant bacteria groups in hydrogen-producing anaerobic sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-L; Chen, C-C; Lin, C-Y; Liu, W-T

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen-producing continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed respectively with glucose and sucrose were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The substrate was fed in a continuous mode decreased from hydraulic retention time (HRT) 10 hours to 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 hours. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) observations further demonstrated that two morphotypes of bacteria dominated both microbial communities. One was long rod bacteria which can be targeted either by Chis150 probe designed to hybridize the gram positive low G + C bacteria or the specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6. The probe Lg10-6, affiliated with Clostridium pasteurianum, was designed and then checked with other reference organisms. The other type, unknown group, which cannot be detected by Chis150 was curved rod bacteria. Notably, the population ratios of the two predominant groups reflected the different operational performance of the two reactors, such as hydrogen producing rates, substrate turnover rates and metabolites compositions. Therefore, a competition mode of the two dominant bacteria groups was hypothesized. In the study, 16S rRNA-based gene library of hydrogen-producing microbial communities was established. The efficiency of hydrogen yields was correlated with substrates (glucose or sucrose), HRT, metabolites compositions (acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol), thermal pre-treatment (seed biomass was heated at 100 degrees C for 45 minutes), and microbial communities in the bioreactor, not sludge sources (municipal sewage sludge, alcohol-processing sludge, or bean-processing sludge). The designed specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6 also provides us a useful and fast molecular tool to screen hydrogen-producing microbial communities in the future research. PMID:19474483

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequential catalyzed reporter deposition (2C-FISH) for the flow cytometric sorting of freshwater ultramicrobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Stefan M.; Salcher, Michaela M.; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometric sorting is a powerful tool to physically separate cells within mixed microbial communities. If combined with phylogenetic staining (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH) it allows to specifically sort defined genotypic microbial populations from complex natural samples. However, the targeted enrichment of freshwater ultramicrobacteria, such as members of the LD12 clade of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11-IIIb), is still challenging. Current FISH protocols, even in combination with signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD), are not sufficiently sensitive for the distinction of these bacteria from background noise by flow cytometry, presumably due to their low ribosome content and small cell sizes. We, therefore, modified a CARD based flow sorting protocol with the aim of increasing its sensitivity to a level sufficient for ultramicrobacteria. This was achieved by a second signal amplification step mediated by horseradish peroxidase labeled antibodies targeted to the fluorophores that were previously deposited by CARD-FISH staining. The protocol was tested on samples from an oligo-mesotrophic lake. Ultramicrobacteria affiliated with LD12 Alphaproteobacteria could be successfully sorted to high purity by flow cytometry. The ratios of median fluorescence signal to background ranged around 20, and hybridization rates determined by flow cytometry were comparable to those obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Potential downstream applications of our modified cell staining approach range from the analysis of microdiversity within 16S rRNA-defined populations to that of functional properties, such as the taxon-specific incorporation rates of organic substrates. PMID:25873914

  15. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric DNA probes as a new approach to distinguish chromosome breakage from aneuploidy in interphase cells and micronuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Eastmond, D.A.; Rupa, D.S.; Chen, H.W.; Hasegawa, L.

    1993-12-31

    Chromosomal abnormalities are believed to contribute significantly to human reproductive failure, carcinogenesis and other pathophysiological conditions. For example, approximately 15% of recognized pregnancies terminate in spontaneous abortion, and of these approximately 30% have been shown to be chromosomally abnormal. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to early embryonic and fetal death appears to decrease with gestational age, suggesting that as many as 67% of the aborted embryos in early embryonic deaths are chromosomally abnormal. Furthermore, clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities can also be found to be present in approximately 0.58 to 0.67% of live births. These figures indicate that within a given year, hundreds of thousands of chromosomally abnormal babies will be born throughout the world and additional millions of chromosomally abnormal embryos will have been spontaneously aborted. For the past several years, our research has focused on utilizing new molecular cytogenetic techniques to develop assays for detecting aneuploidy-inducing agents in mammalian cells. One approach that we have sucessfully employed involves the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes to determine the number of copies of a representative chromosome present within the nucleus following chemical exposure. DNA sequences (probes) which hybridize to blocks of repetitive centromeric DNA on specific chromosomes have been developed for most of the human chromosomes. In situ hybridization with these probes results in the staining of a compact chromosomal region which can be easily detected in interphase nuclei. The presence of 3 (or more) hybridization domains in an interphase nucleus indicates the presence of three centromeric regions and has been presumed to indicate that three copies of the entire chromosome were present in the nucleus.

  16. In situ preparation and fluorescence quenching properties of polythiophene/ZnO nanocrystals hybrids through atom-transfer radical polymerization and hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yiwang; Li, Fan; Zhou, Weihua

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a new approach for in situ preparing nanocomposites of conjugated polymers (CPs) and semiconductor nanocrystals was developed. Polythiophene grafted poly(zinc methacrylate) (PTh-g-PZMA) copolymer was synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of zinc methacrylate (ZMA) initiated from the macroinitiator poly(2,5-(3-(bromoisopropyl-carbonyl-oxymethylene) thiophene)) (PTh-Br) with pendant initiator groups. Subsequently, the polythiophene grafted poly(methacrylate)/ZnO (PTh-g-PMA/ZnO) hybrid heterojunction nanocomposites were successfully prepared by in situ hydrolysis of PTh-g-PZMA casting films in alkaline aqueous solution. The structures of PTh-Br, PTh-g-PZMA and PTh-g-PMA/ZnO were confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphologies of PTh-g-PMA/ZnO films prepared for different hydrolysis time were observed in the cross-sections by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM images revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were uniformly dispersed in polymers without any aggregation and the appearances of ZnO nanocrystals changed from nanoparticles to nanorods with the hydrolysis treatment time increasing. The optical properties of these nanocomposites were studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy showed that the adsorption band of PTh-g-PMA/ZnO hybrids was broader than that of PTh-Br, implying that the existence of ZnO nanocrystals increased the optical absorption region of hybrids. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrids showed that fluorescence quenching occurred in PTh-g-PMA/ZnO blends and a maximum of 85% of the fluorescence intensity quenched in the PTh-g-PMA/ZnO obtained from treatment in NaOH aqueous solution for 2 h, which revealed the existence of photo-induced charge transfer between the polythiophene chains and ZnO. These results indicated that the hybrid heterojunction nanocomposites could be promising candidates for photovoltaic applications.

  17. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 21-specific cosmid contig: 1-day detection of trisomy 21 in uncultured mesenchymal chorionic villus cells.

    PubMed

    Bryndorf, T; Christensen, B; Xiang, Y; Philip, J; Yokobata, K; Bui, N; Gaiser, C

    1994-02-01

    We present a modified, fast trisomy 21 detection assay using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured mesenchymal chorionic villus cells. The whole test takes about 24 h. We used a cosmid contig as a probe and modified an in situ sample preparation method first described by Klinger et al. (1992). The assays saves time and cost of culture in comparison with a previously described trisomy 21 detection FISH assay (Bryndorf et al., 1993). A small blind clinical study comparing the modified and the previously described FISH assays using mesenchymal chorionic villus cells showed comparable results and concordance with conventional cytogenetic analysis. The frequency of nuclei with three hybridization signals from samples disomic for chromosome 21 ranged from 0 to 8 per cent with both assays, while trisomic samples had 60-80 and 54-90 per cent of the mesenchymal nuclei with three signals in the modified and previously described assays, respectively. Normal (disomic) and trisomic mesenchymal chorionic villus samples can be distinguished clearly and rapidly without culture in the modified assay. PMID:8183854

  18. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K.

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Dicentric chromosome aberration analysis using giemsa and centromere specific fluorescence in-situ hybridization for biological dosimetry: An inter- and intra-laboratory comparison in Indian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Bhavani, M; Tamizh Selvan, G; Kaur, Harpreet; Adhikari, J S; Vijayalakshmi, J; Venkatachalam, P; Chaudhury, N K

    2014-09-01

    To facilitate efficient handling of large samples, an attempt towards networking of laboratories in India for biological dosimetry was carried out. Human peripheral blood samples were exposed to (60)Co ?-radiation for ten different doses (0-5Gy) at a dose rate of 0.7 and 2Gy/min. The chromosomal aberrations (CA) were scored in Giemsa-stained and fluorescence in-situ hybridization with centromere-specific probes. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the CA yield for given doses except 4 and 5Gy, between the laboratories, among the scorers and also staining methods adapted suggest the reliability and validates the inter-lab comparisons exercise for triage applications. PMID:25014548

  20. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with chromosome duplications detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in urine exfoliated cells: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YANG, CHUNGUANG; LIU, ZHENG; LAN, RUZHU; WANG, ZHIHUA; HU, ZHIQUAN; CHEN, ZHIQIANG; YE, ZHANGQUN

    2016-01-01

    Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder are rare neoplasms derived from chromaffin tissue with a chromosomal imbalance. Their preoperative diagnosis and assessment of malignant potential remain significant challenges for urologists. The current report presents the case of a 34-year-old male who presented with a history of paroxysmal gross hematuria lasting for 7 months. Chromosome duplications were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in urine exfoliated cells, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology following a transurethral resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of urinary bladder paraganglioma in which chromosomal duplications were detected by FISH in urine exfoliated cells. This may be helpful to its differential diagnosis and malignant potential determination. PMID:26870286

  1. Identification of the origin of marker chromosomes by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in azoospermic patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, C L; Cheng, J L; Yang, W C; Li, L Y; Cheng, H C; Fu, J J

    2015-01-01

    Y chromosomal microdeletions at the azoospermia factor locus and chromosome abnormalities have been implicated as the major causes of idiopathic male infertility. A marker chromosome is a structurally abnormal chromosome in which no part can be identified by cytogenetics. In this study, to identify the origin of the marker chromosomes and to perform a genetic diagnosis of patients with azoospermia, two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were carried out. The marker chromosomes for the two patients with azoospermia originated in the Y chromosome; it was ascertained that the karyotype of both patients was 46,X, ish del(Y)(q11)(DYZ3+, DXZ1-). The combination of two-color FISH and PCR techniques is an important method for the identification of the origin of marker chromosomes. Thus, genetic counseling and a clear genetic diagnosis of patients with azoospermia before intracytoplasmic sperm injection or other clinical managements are important. PMID:26600507

  2. Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 in EBV-infected cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Cubbage, M. L.; Sams, C. F.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was developed to detect Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in peripheral blood. Multiple fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize to the EBER1 transcript, which is highly expressed in latently infected cells. After a rapid (30 min) hybridization, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. EBER1 was detected in several positive control cell lines that have variable numbers of EBV genome copies. No EBER1 was detected in two known EBV-negative cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence and quantity of EBER1 transcripts in each cell line. This method was used to quantify the number of EBV-infected cells in peripheral blood from a patient with chronic mononucleosis. These results indicate that EBV-infected cells can be detected at the single cell level, and that this assay can be used to quantify the number of EBV-infected cells in clinical samples.

  3. Clinical and cytogenetic findings in seven cases of inverted duplication of 8p with evidence of a telomeric deletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Wen-Jun; Callif-Daley, F.; Zapata, M.C.; Miller, M.E.

    1995-09-11

    We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in 7 cases of inverted duplication of region 8p11.2-p23. The phenotype of inv dup (8p) compiled from this series and the literature (N = 29) consists of severe mental retardation (100%), minor facial alterations (97%), agenesis of the corpus callosum (80%), hypotonia (66%), orthopedic abnormalities (58%), scoliosis/kyphosis (40%), and congenital heart defect (26%). A telomeric deletion of region 8p23.3-pter was confirmed in 3 of our cases studied using fluorescent in situ hybridization with a telomeric probe for 8p. Thus, these karyotypes are inv dup del(8) (qter{r_arrow} p23.1::p23.1{r_arrow}p11.2:). Our findings suggest that most cases of inv dup(8p) probably have a telomeric deletion. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Differentiation of Methanosaeta concilii and Methanocarcina barkeri in anaerobic mesophilic granular sludge by fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal scanning laser microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, S.; Greer, C.W.; Cantin, C.; Laramee, L.; Guiot, S.R.; Lawrence, J.R.

    1999-05-01

    Oligonucleotide probes, designed from genes coding for 16S rRNA, were developed to differentiate Methanosaeta concilii, Methanosarcina barkeri, and mesophilic methanogens. All M. concilii oligonucleotide probes (designated MS1, MS2, and MS5) hybridized specifically with the target DNA, but MS5 was the most specific M. concilii oligonucleotide probe. Methanosarcina barkeri oligonucleotide probes (designated MB1, MB3, and MB4) hybridized with different Methanosarcina species. The MB4 probe specifically detected Methanosarcina barkeri, and the MB3 probe detected the presence of al mesophilic Methanosarcina species. These new oligonucleotide probes facilitated the identification, localization, and quantification of the specific relative abundance of M. concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri, which play important roles in methanogenesis. The combined use of fluorescent in situ hybridization with confocal scanning laser microscopy demonstrated that anaerobic granule topography depends on granule origin and feeding. Protein-fed granules showed no layered structure with a random distribution of M. concilii. In contrast, a layered structure developed in methanol-enriched granules, where M. barkeri growth was induced in an outer layer. This outer layer was followed by a layer composed of M. concilii, with an inner core of M. concilii and other bacteria.

  5. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes brown rot of potato, by fluorescent in situ hybridization with 23S rRNA-targeted probes.

    PubMed

    Wullings, B A; Van Beuningen, A R; Janse, J D; Akkermans, A D

    1998-11-01

    During the past few years, Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, was repeatedly found in potatoes in Western Europe. To detect this bacterium in potato tissue samples, we developed a method based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The nearly complete genes encoding 23S rRNA of five R. solanacearum strains and one Ralstonia pickettii strain were PCR amplified, sequenced, and analyzed by sequence alignment. This resulted in the construction of an unrooted tree and supported previous conclusions based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison in which R. solanacearum strains are subdivided into two clusters. Based on the alignments, two specific probes, RSOLA and RSOLB, were designed for R. solanacearum and the closely related Ralstonia syzygii and blood disease bacterium. The specificity of the probes was demonstrated by dot blot hybridization with RNA extracted from 88 bacterial strains. Probe RSOLB was successfully applied in FISH detection with pure cultures and potato tissue samples, showing a strong fluorescent signal. Unexpectedly, probe RSOLA gave a less intense signal with target cells. Potato samples are currently screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). By simultaneously applying IIF and the developed specific FISH, two independent targets for identification of R. solanacearum are combined, resulting in a rapid (1-day), accurate identification of the undesired pathogen. The significance of the method was validated by detecting the pathogen in soil and water samples and root tissue of the weed host Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet) in contaminated areas. PMID:9797321

  6. Diagnostic Examination of Human Intestinal Spirochetosis by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for Brachyspira aalborgi, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Other Species of the Genus Brachyspira (Serpulina)

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, T. K.; Boye, M.; Ahrens, P.; Korsager, B.; Teglbjærg, P. S.; Lindboe, C. F.; Møller, K.

    2001-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis, characterized by end-on attachment of densely packed spirochetes to the epithelial surface of the large intestines as a fringe has been associated with the weakly beta-hemolytic spirochetes Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli. In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S or 23S rRNA of B. aalborgi, B. pilosicoli, and the genus Brachyspira was applied to 40 sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded intestinal biopsy specimens from 23 Danish and 15 Norwegian patients with histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis. Five biopsy specimens from patients without intestinal spirochetosis and three samples from pigs with experimental B. pilosicoli colitis were examined as well. In addition, the 16S ribosomal DNAs of two clinical isolates of B. aalborgi were sequenced, and a PCR procedure was developed for the identification of B. aalborgi in cultures. The genotypic characteristics of the two clinical isolates showed very high (99.5%) similarity with two existing isolates, the type strain of B. aalborgi and a Swedish isolate. Hybridization with the Brachyspira genus-specific probe revealed a brightly fluorescing fringe of spirochetes on the epithelia of 39 biopsy specimens, whereas 1 biopsy specimen was hybridization negative. The spirochetes in biopsy specimens from 13 Danish and 8 Norwegian patients (55.3%) were identified as B. aalborgi. The spirochetes in the biopsy specimens from the other 17 patients hybridized only with the Brachyspira probe, possibly demonstrating the involvement of as-yet-uncharacterized Brachyspira spirochetes in human intestinal spirochetosis. PMID:11682538

  7. Impact of updated HER2 testing guidelines in breast cancer-re-evaluation of HERA trial fluorescence in situ hybridization data.

    PubMed

    Stoss, Oliver C; Scheel, Andreas; Nagelmeier, Iris; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Henkel, Thomas; Viale, Giuseppe; Jasani, Bharat; Untch, Michael; Rüschoff, Josef

    2015-12-01

    Recently the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists have updated their clinical practice guidelines for HER2 testing in breast cancer. In order to evaluate these new recommendations, we have re-assessed the HER2 status of 6018 breast cancer cases of the screening population for the HERceptin adjuvant (HERA) trial that were originally centrally tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization based on the FDA-released test guidelines. According to the most recent 2013 ASCO/CAP recommendations, 3380 (56.2%) cases were classified as HER2 positive compared with 3359 (55.8%) applying the HERA/FDA scheme and 3339 (55.5%) applying the 2007 ASCO/CAP guidelines. Twenty-one cases switched from negative (HERA/FDA scheme) to positive (2013 ASCO/CAP guidelines). This group is characterized by a mean HER2 gene copy number of ?6.0, polysomy or co-amplification of CEP17 with an average CEP17 count of 5, and with HER2 receptor overexpression in 75% of cases. On the basis of the HER2 gene copy number alone, we observe 494 cases (8.2%) that are in the equivocal range. Most of these cases (>80%) were also nondecisive by immunohistochemistry (score 2+) irrespective of whether ratio was <2.0>. The number of equivocal cases that would require HER2 reflex testing decreases to 113 (1.9%) if in addition to the HER2 gene copy number also the ratio of HER2 and CEP17 copy numbers is considered via dual-color in situ hybridization. The combination of applying the HER2 mean gene copy number as well as the HER2/CEP17 ratio to define equivocal test decisions by fluorescence in situ hybridization as proposed by the current ASCO/CAP guidelines appears to be a more optimum approach to adopt in order to avoid or minimize reporting of false negative results. Using the mean HER2 gene copy number alone for decision making results in a significant increase of equivocal cases. PMID:26403781

  8. Mapping of the human thromboxane synthase gene (TBXAS1) to chromosome 7q34-q35 by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, M.B.; Baek, Seung Joon; Purtell, D.C.; Schwartz, S. ); Shen, Rong Fong Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1993-06-01

    Thromboxane synthase (TS) catalyzes the conversion of the prostaglandin endoperoxide into thromboxane A[sub 2] (TxA[sub 2]), a potent vasoconstrictor and inducer of platelet aggregation. In concert with prostacyclin, TxA[sub 2] plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of hemostasis. Deficiency of platelet TS activity has been shown to result in bleeding disorders. The potent effect of TxA[sub 2] on platelet function and vascular activity suggests a possible involvement of TS in normal and pathophysiological conditions such as cardiovascular disease. To aid in establishing the correlation of TS to disease states, the authors localized the human TS gene (TBXAS1) to chromosome 7q34-q35 using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the interactions between honeybee larvae and Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Yue, Dominique; Nordhoff, Marcel; Wieler, Lothar H; Genersch, Elke

    2008-06-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease of honeybee larvae caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Although AFB and its aetiological agent are described now for more than a century, the general and molecular pathogenesis of this notifiable disease is poorly understood. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with P. larvae-specific, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to analyse the early steps in the pathogenesis of American foulbrood. The following chain of events could be demonstrated: (i) the spores germinate in the midgut lumen, (ii) the vegetative bacteria massively proliferate within the midgut before, and (iii) they start to locally breach the epithelium and invade the haemocoel. The paracellular route was shown to be the main mechanism for invasion contrasting earlier hypotheses of phagocytosis of P. larvae. Invasion coincided with the death of the host implicating that the penetration of the midgut epithelium is a critical step determining the time of death. PMID:18331334

  10. Mosaic vs. nonmosaic trisomy 9: Report of a liveborn infant evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, E.S.; Eicher, D.J.; Shashidhar Pai, G.; Donahue, C.J.; Harley, R.A.

    1996-04-24

    We report on a newborn infant with multiple congenital anomalies and apparent nonmosaic trisomy 9 in the blood (by conventional cytogenetic studies) who died shortly after birth. Clinical observations at birth and autopsy are compared with phenotypes of mosaic and nonmosaic trisomy 9 cases reported previously. Unlike the initial cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies of metaphase and interphase blood cells and skin fibroblasts detected the presence of euploid and trisomy 9 cells. These results suggest that earlier reports of trisomy 9, which relied on conventional chromosome analysis of a few metaphase cells and/or only one tissue type, may not have excluded mosaicism, and that trisomy 9 may be viable only in the mosaic state. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cross-Species Bacterial Artificial Chromosome–Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Painting of the Tomato and Potato Chromosome 6 Reveals Undescribed Chromosomal Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaomin; Szinay, Dóra; Lang, Chunting; Ramanna, Munikote S.; van der Vossen, Edwin A. G.; Datema, Erwin; Lankhorst, René Klein; de Boer, Jan; Peters, Sander A.; Bachem, Christian; Stiekema, Willem; Visser, Richard G. F.; de Jong, Hans; Bai, Yuling

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing genomics projects of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato (S. tuberosum) are providing unique tools for comparative mapping studies in Solanaceae. At the chromosomal level, bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) can be positioned on pachytene complements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on homeologous chromosomes of related species. Here we present results of such a cross-species multicolor cytogenetic mapping of tomato BACs on potato chromosomes 6 and vice versa. The experiments were performed under low hybridization stringency, while blocking with Cot-100 was essential in suppressing excessive hybridization of repeat signals in both within-species FISH and cross-species FISH of tomato BACs. In the short arm we detected a large paracentric inversion that covers the whole euchromatin part with breakpoints close to the telomeric heterochromatin and at the border of the short arm pericentromere. The long arm BACs revealed no deviation in the colinearity between tomato and potato. Further comparison between tomato cultivars Cherry VFNT and Heinz 1706 revealed colinearity of the tested tomato BACs, whereas one of the six potato clones (RH98-856-18) showed minor putative rearrangements within the inversion. Our results present cross-species multicolor BAC–FISH as a unique tool for comparative genetic studies across Solanum species. PMID:18791231

  12. Microfluidic-Based Amplification-Free Bacterial DNA Detection by Dielectrophoretic Concentration and Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer Assisted in Situ Hybridization (FRET-ISH) †,‡

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Michelle M.; Shusteff, Maxim; Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Although real-time PCR (RT-PCR) has become a diagnostic standard for rapid identification of bacterial species, typical methods remain time-intensive due to sample preparation and amplification cycle times. The assay described in this work incorporates on-chip dielectrophoretic capture and concentration of bacterial cells, thermal lysis, cell permeabilization, and nucleic acid denaturation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assisted in situ hybridization (FRET-ISH) species identification. Combining these techniques leverages the benefits of all of them, allowing identification to be accomplished completely on chip less than thirty minutes after receipt of sample, compared to multiple hours required by traditional RT-PCR and its requisite sample preparation. PMID:25586031

  13. Reliable protocols for whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: a comprehensive survey and analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chen-yo; Cook, Charles E; Lin, Gee-way; Huang, Ting-Yu; Chang, Chun-che

    2014-06-01

    RNA in situ hybridization (ISH), including chromogenic ISH (CISH) and fluorescent ISH (FISH), has become a powerful tool for revealing the spatial distribution of gene transcripts in model organisms. Previously, we developed a robust protocol for whole-mount RNA CISH in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an emerging insect genomic model. In order to improve the resolving capacity of gene detection, we comprehensively surveyed current protocols of whole-mount RNA-FISH and developed protocols that allow, using confocal microscopy, clearer visualization of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) - including those subcellularly localized and those with spatially overlapping expression. We find that Fast dye-based substrate fluorescence (SF), tyramide signal amplification (TSA), and TSA Plus all enable identifying gene expression thanks to multiplex amplification of fluorescent signals. By contrast, methods of direct fluorescence (DF) do not allow visualizing signals. Detection of a single gene target was achieved with SF and TSA Plus for most mRNAs, whereas TSA only allowed visualization of abundant transcripts such as Apvas1 and Appiwi2 in the germ cells. For detection of multiple gene targets using double FISH, we recommend: (i) TSA/TSA, rather than TSA Plus/TSA Plus for colocalized mRNAs abundantly expressed in germ cells, as proteinase K treatment can be omitted; and (ii) SF/TSA Plus for other gene targets such as Apen1 and Apen2 as inactivation of enzyme conjugates is not required. SF/SF is not ideal for double FISH experiments due to signal blurring. Based on these new conditions for RNA-FISH, we have obtained a better understanding of germline specification and embryonic segmentation in the pea aphid. We anticipate that the RNA-FISH protocols for the pea aphid may also be used for other aphids and possibly other insect species, thus expanding the range of species from which useful insights into development and evolution may be obtained. PMID:24850784

  14. Visual demonstration of the organization of the human complement C4 and 21-hydroxylase genes by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Suto, Yumiko; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Hirai, Momoki

    1996-04-15

    We analyzed the gene organization in the complement component C4 and 21-hydroxylase (21OH) gene region of the human major histocompatibility complex using visual mapping of stretched DNA by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Normally, this region contains a duplicated 21OH-C4 gene unit are known to occur frequently. Biotin-labeled cDNA of the C4 gene and digoxigenin-labeled cDNA of the 21OH gene were hybridized to decondensed nuclei of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from individuals with various 21OH-C4 haplotypes. Hybridization signals of the C4 and 21OH probes were detected with fluorescein isothiocyanate (green) and rhodamine (red), respectively. Two linear green and red signal clusters were observed in each nucleus showing the normal haplotype. Gene duplication and deletion were visualized as addition and deletion of the signal cluster, respectively. The DNA types of the 21OH-C4 region determined by FISH were concordant with the results previously obtained by conventional molecular studies. Our high-resolution FISH technique is found to be useful for screening gene duplications and deletions. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Comparison of conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for detection of Listeria spp. in ground beef, turkey, and chicken breast fillets in ?zmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of Listeria species in refrigerated fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef was evaluated, comparing the conventional culture method and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH uses hybridization of a nucleic acid sequence target of a microorganism with a specific DNA probe labeled with a fluorochrome and imaging by a fluorescence microscope. First, Listeria was inoculated in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, or ground beef, and the applicability of the FISH method was evaluated. Second, Listeria was detected in fresh chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef by culture and FISH methods. Listeria was isolated from 27 (37.4%) of 216 samples by the standard culture method, whereas FISH detected 25 (24.7%) preenriched samples. Of these isolates, 17 (63%) were L. innocua, 6 (22%) L. welshimeri, and 4 (14.8%) L. seeligeri. Overall, the prevalences of Listeria spp. found with the conventional culture method in chicken breast fillet, turkey breast fillet, and ground beef were 9.7, 6.9, and 20.8%, whereas with the FISH technique these values were 11.1, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. The molecular FISH technique appears to be a cheap, sensitive, and time-efficient procedure that could be used for routine detection of Listeria spp. in meat. This study showed that retail raw meats are potentially contaminated with Listeria spp. and are, thus, vehicles for transmitting diseases caused by foodborne pathogens, underlining the need for increased precautions, such as implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points and consumer food safety education. PMID:25474046

  16. Stellaris(®) RNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for the Simultaneous Detection of Immature and Mature Long Noncoding RNAs in Adherent Cells.

    PubMed

    Orjalo, Arturo V; Johansson, Hans E

    2016-01-01

    RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), long an indispensable tool for the detection and localization of RNA, is becoming an increasingly important complement to other gene expression analysis methods. Especially important for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), RNA FISH adds the ability to distinguish between primary and mature lncRNA transcripts and thus to segregate the site of synthesis from the site of action.We detail a streamlined RNA FISH protocol for the simultaneous imaging of multiple primary and mature mRNA and lncRNA gene products and RNA variants in fixed mammalian cells. The technique makes use of fluorescently pre-labeled, short DNA oligonucleotides (circa 20 nucleotides in length), pooled into sets of up to 48 individual probes. The overall binding of multiple oligonucleotides to the same RNA target results in fluorescent signals that reveal clusters of RNAs or single RNA molecules as punctate spots without the need for enzymatic signal amplification. Visualization of these punctate signals, through the use of wide-field fluorescence microscopy, enables the counting of single transcripts down to one copy per cell. Additionally, by using probe sets with spectrally distinct fluorophores, multiplex analysis of gene-specific RNAs, or RNA variants, can be achieved. The presented examples illustrate how this method can add temporospatial information between the transcription event and both the location and the endurance of the mature lncRNA. We also briefly discuss post-processing of images and spot counting to demonstrate the capabilities of this method for the statistical analysis of RNA molecules per cell. This information can be utilized to determine both overall gene expression levels and cell-to-cell gene expression variation. PMID:26721487

  17. Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Horn, Heike; Bausinger, Julia; Staiger, Annette M; Sohn, Maximilian; Schmelter, Christopher; Gruber, Kim; Kalla, Claudia; Ott, M Michaela; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches. PMID:24733537

  18. Numerical and Structural Genomic Aberrations Are Reliably Detectable in Tissue Microarrays of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples by Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Heike; Bausinger, Julia; Staiger, Annette M.; Sohn, Maximilian; Schmelter, Christopher; Gruber, Kim; Kalla, Claudia; Ott, M. Michaela; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches. PMID:24733537

  19. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows DIPLOSPOROUS located on one of the NOR chromosomes in apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum) in the absence of a large hemizygous chromosomal region.

    PubMed

    Vašut, Radim J; Vijverberg, Kitty; van Dijk, Peter J; de Jong, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Apomixis in dandelions (Taraxacum: Asteraceae) is encoded by two unlinked dominant loci and a third yet undefined genetic factor: diplosporous omission of meiosis (DIPLOSPOROUS, DIP), parthenogenetic embryo development (PARTHENOGENESIS, PAR), and autonomous endosperm formation, respectively. In this study, we determined the chromosomal position of the DIP locus in Taraxacum by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that genetically map within 1.2-0.2 cM of DIP. The BACs showed dispersed fluorescent signals, except for S4-BAC 83 that displayed strong unique signals as well. Under stringent blocking of repeats by C0t-DNA fragments, only a few fluorescent foci restricted to defined chromosome regions remained, including one on the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) chromosomes that contains the 45S rDNAs. FISH with S4-BAC 83 alone and optimal blocking showed discrete foci in the middle of the long arm of one of the NOR chromosomes only in triploid and tetraploid diplosporous dandelions, while signals in sexual diploids were lacking. This agrees with the genetic model of a single dose, dominant DIP allele, absent in sexuals. The length of the DIP region is estimated to cover a region of 1-10 Mb. FISH in various accessions of Taraxacum and the apomictic sister species Chondrilla juncea, confirmed the chromosomal position of DIP within Taraxacum but not outside the genus. Our results endorse that, compared to other model apomictic species, expressing either diplospory or apospory, the genome of Taraxacum shows a more similar and less diverged chromosome structure at the DIP locus. The different levels of allele sequence divergence at apomeiosis loci may reflect different terms of asexual reproduction. The association of apomeiosis loci with repetitiveness, dispersed repeats, and retrotransposons commonly observed in apomictic species may imply a functional role of these shared features in apomictic reproduction, as is discussed. PMID:25760668

  20. Arm-specific telomere dynamics of each individual chromosome in induced pluripotent stem cells revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Terai, Masanori; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Kuroiwa, Mie; Arai, Tomio; Toyoda, Masashi; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2014-12-01

    We have reported that telomere fluorescence units (TFUs) of established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human amnion (hAM933) and fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were significantly longer than those of the parental cells, and that the telomere extension rates varied quite significantly among clones without chromosomal instability, although the telomeres of other iPSCs derived from MRC-5 became shorter as the number of passages increased along with chromosomal abnormalities from an early stage. In the present study we attempted to clarify telomere dynamics in each individual chromosomal arm of parental cells and their derived clonal human iPSCs at different numbers of passages using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). Although no speci?c arm of any particular chromosome appeared to be consistently shorter or longer than most of the other chromosomes in any of the cell strains, telomere elongation in each chromosome of an iPSC appeared to be random and stochastic. However, in terms of the whole genome of any specific cell, the telomeres showed overall elongation associated with iPSC generation. We have thus demonstrated the specific telomere dynamics of each individual chromosomal arm in iPSCs derived from parental cells, and in the parental cells themselves, using Q-FISH. PMID:25217290

  1. Groping for Quantitative Digital 3-D Image Analysis: An Approach to Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Thick Tissue Sections of Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodenacker, Karsten; Aubele, Michaela; Hutzler, Peter; Umesh Adiga, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular pathology numerical chromosome aberrations have been found to be decisive for the prognosis of malignancy in tumours. The existence of such aberrations can be detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The gain or loss of certain base sequences in the desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can be estimated by counting the number of FISH signals per cell nucleus. The quantitative evaluation of such events is a necessary condition for a prospective use in diagnostic pathology. To avoid occlusions of signals, the cell nucleus has to be analyzed in three dimensions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is the means to obtain series of optical thin sections from fluorescence stained or marked material to fulfill the conditions mentioned above. A graphical user interface (GUI) to a software package for display, inspection, count and (semi?)automatic analysis of 3?D images for pathologists is outlined including the underlying methods of 3?D image interaction and segmentation developed. The preparative methods are briefly described. Main emphasis is given to the methodical questions of computer?aided analysis of large 3?D image data sets for pathologists. Several automated analysis steps can be performed for segmentation and succeeding quantification. However tumour material is in contrast to isolated or cultured cells even for visual inspection, a difficult material. For the present a fully automated digital image analysis of 3?D data is not in sight. A semi?automatic segmentation method is thus presented here. PMID:9373710

  2. Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

    PubMed Central

    Catez, Frédéric; Rousseau, Antoine; Labetoulle, Marc; Lomonte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Single cell codetection of a gene, its RNA product and cellular regulatory proteins is critical to study gene expression regulation. This is a challenge in the field of virology; in particular for nuclear-replicating persistent DNA viruses that involve animal models for their study. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. Latent virus serves as reservoir, from which it reactivates and induces a new herpetic episode. The cell biology of HSV-1 latency remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of methods to detect HSV-1 genomes in situ in animal models. We describe a DNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach efficiently detecting low-copy viral genomes within sections of neuronal tissues from infected animal models. The method relies on heat-based antigen unmasking, and directly labeled home-made DNA probes, or commercially available probes. We developed a triple staining approach, combining DNA-FISH with RNA-FISH and immunofluorescence, using peroxidase based signal amplification to accommodate each staining requirement. A major improvement is the ability to obtain, within 10 µm tissue sections, low-background signals that can be imaged at high resolution by confocal microscopy and wide-field conventional epifluorescence. Additionally, the triple staining worked with a wide range of antibodies directed against cellular and viral proteins. The complete protocol takes 2.5 days to accommodate antibody and probe penetration within the tissue. PMID:24514006

  3. Mapping of low-frequency chimeric yeast artificial chromosome libraries from human chromosomes 16 and 21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, B.L.; Campbell, E.W.; Anzick, S.L.; Shera, K.; Campbell, M.; Yoshida, T.M.; McCormick, M.K.; Deaven, L. )

    1994-05-01

    Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones from low-frequency chimeric libraries of human chromosomes 16 and 21 were mapped onto human diploid fibroblast metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital imaging microscopy. YACs mapped onto chromosome 21 were selected to provide subregional location and ordering of known and unknown markers on the long arm of chromosome 21, particularly in the Down syndrome region (q22). YACs mapped onto chromosome 16 were selected to overlap regions spanning chromosome 16 cosmid maps. YAC clones were indirectly labeled with fluorescein, and the total DNA of the chromosome was counterstained with propidium iodide. A single image containing both the FISH signal and the whole chromosome was acquired for each chromosome of interest containing the fluorescent probe signal in a metaphase spread. From the digitized image, the fluorescence intensity profile through the long axis of the chromosome gave the total chromosome length and the probe position. The map position of the probe was expressed as the fractional length (FL) of the total chromosome relative to the end of the short arm (Flpter). From each clone hybridized, 20-40 chromosome images were analyzed. Thirty-eight YACs were mapped onto chromosome 16, and their FLs were distributed along the short and long arms. On chromosome 21, 47 YACs were mapped, including 12 containing known markers. To confirm the order of a dense population of YACs within the Down syndrome region, a two-color mapping strategy was used in which an anonymous YAC was located relative to one or two known markers on the metaphase chromosome. The chromosome FL maps have a 1- to 2-Mb resolution, and the FL measurement of each probe has a typical standard error of 0.5-1 Mb. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Re-appraisal of the phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the analysis of the Competibacteraceae in wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon J; Nittami, Tadashi; Kanai, Eri; Fukuda, Junji; Saunders, Aaron M; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2015-04-01

    Members of the family Competibacteraceae are common in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) designed for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and are putatively deleterious to the process of P removal. Their ability to accumulate large amounts of polyhydroxyalkanoates is also suggested to be of potential commercial interest for bioplastic production. In this study we have updated the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny of the Competibacter and the Plasticicumulans lineages. The former is delineated by 13 clades including two described genera; 'Ca.?Competibacter' and 'Ca.?Contendobacter'. The oligonucleotide probes used for detection of the family by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were re-evaluated and designed for coverage of these clades. Surveys of full-scale WWTPs based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and FISH analysis indicate that a number of member clades always coexist, with their relative abundances varying substantially between and temporally within plants. The hypothesis that these differences are based on niche partitioning is supported by marked phenotypic differences between clades. An in-depth understanding of the ecology of the family requires further studies of the metabolism of individual clades in situ. The proposed phylogeny and FISH probes will provide the foundation for such studies. PMID:25224028

  5. Rapid detection of rRNA group I pseudomonads in contaminated metalworking fluids and biofilm formation by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ratul; Donofrio, Robert S; Goeres, Darla M; Bagley, Susan T

    2012-05-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs), used in different machining operations, are highly prone to microbial degradation. Microbial communities present in MWFs lead to biofilm formation in the MWF systems, which act as a continuous source of contamination. Species of rRNA group I Pseudomonas dominate in contaminated MWFs. However, their actual distribution is typically underestimated when using standard culturing techniques as most fail to grow on the commonly used Pseudomonas Isolation Agar. To overcome this, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to study their abundance along with biofilm formation by two species recovered from MWFs, Pseudomonas fluorescens MWF-1 and the newly described Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis. Based on 16S rRNA sequences, a unique fluorescent molecular probe (Pseudo120) was designed targeting a conserved signature sequence common to all rRNA group I Pseudomonas. The specificity of the probe was evaluated using hybridization experiments with whole cells of different Pseudomonas species. The probe's sensitivity was determined to be 10(3) cells/ml. It successfully detected and enumerated the abundance and distribution of Pseudomonas indicating levels between 3.2 (± 1.1) × 10(6) and 5.0 (± 2.3) × 10(6) cells/ml in four different industrial MWF samples collected from three different locations. Biofilm formation was visualized under stagnant conditions using high and low concentrations of cells for both P. fluorescens MWF-1 and P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis stained with methylene blue and Pseudo120. On the basis of these observations, this molecular probe can be successfully be used in the management of MWF systems to monitor the levels and biofilm formation of rRNA group I pseudomonads. PMID:22042232

  6. Whole-mount in situ hybridization using DIG-labeled probes in planarian.

    PubMed

    Rybak-Wolf, Agnieszka; Solana, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years freshwater flatworms (planarian) have become a powerful model for studies of regeneration and stem cell biology. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are key and most commonly used techniques to determine and visualize gene expression patterns in planaria. Here, we present the established version of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (WFISH) protocol optimized over the last years by several labs from the rapidly growing planaria field and give an overview of recently introduced modifications which can be critical in the study of low abundant transcripts. PMID:25218375

  7. mRNA-targeted Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) of Gram-negative Bacteria Without Template Amplification or Tyramide Signal Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, James R.; Culley, David E.; Chrisler, William B.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2007-12-01

    Technologies are needed to study gene expression at the level of individual cells within a population or microbial community. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) supplies high-resolution spatial information and has been widely applied to study microbial communities at the rRNA level. While mRNA-targeted FISH has been popular for studying gene expression in eukaryotic cells, very little success has been achieved with prokaryotes. At present, detection of specific mRNAs in individual prokaryotic cells requires the use of in situ-RT-PCR or tyramide signal amplification (TSA). In this study we used DNA oligonucleotide probes labeled with a single near-infrared dye in FISH assays to detect multicopy plasmid-based and endogenous mRNA molecules in Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We took advantage of the fact there is much less background signal produced by biological materials and support matrices in the near-infrared spectrum and thus long camera exposure times could be used. In addition, we demonstrate that a combination of probes targeting both rRNA and mRNA could be successfully employed within the same FISH assay. These results, as well as ongoing R&D improvements in NIR and infrared dyes, indicate the FISH approach we demonstrated could be applied in certain environmental settings to monitor gene expression in mixed populations.

  8. Does chromosome 17 centromere copy number predict polysomy in breast cancer? A fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarray-based CGH analysis.

    PubMed

    Marchiò, Caterina; Lambros, Maryou B; Gugliotta, Patrizia; Di Cantogno, Ludovica Verdun; Botta, Cristina; Pasini, Barbara; Tan, David S P; Mackay, Alan; Fenwick, Kerry; Tamber, Narinder; Bussolati, Gianni; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Sapino, Anna

    2009-09-01

    Approximately 8% of breast cancers show increased copy numbers of chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (ie average CEP17 >3.0 per nucleus). Currently, this pattern is believed to represent polysomy of chromosome 17. HER2-amplified cancers have been shown to harbour complex patterns of genetic aberrations of chromosome 17, in particular involving its long arm. We hypothesized that aberrant copy numbers of CEP17 in FISH assays may not necessarily represent true chromosome 17 polysomy. Eighteen randomly selected CEP17 polysomic cases and a control group of ten CEP17 disomic cases, as defined by dual-colour FISH, were studied by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), which was performed on microdissected samples using a 32K tiling-path bacterial artificial chromosome microarray platform. Additional FISH probes were employed for SMS (17p11.2) and RARA (17q21.2) genes, as references for chromosome 17 copy number. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that 11 out of the 18 polysomic cases harboured gains of 17q with involvement of the centromere, one displayed 17q gain sparing the centromeric region, and only one could be defined as polysomic. The remaining five cases displayed amplification of the centromeric region. Among these, one case, showing score 2+ by immunohistochemistry and 8.5 HER2 mean copy number, was classified as not amplified by HER2/CEP17 ratio and as amplified by HER2/SMS ratio. Our results suggest that true chromosome 17 polysomy is likely to be a rare event in breast cancer and that CEP17 copy number greater than 3.0 in FISH analysis is frequently related to gain or amplification of the centromeric region. Larger studies investigating the genetic profiles of CEP17 polysomic cases are warranted. PMID:19670217

  9. Validation of a new catalysed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization probe for the accurate quantification of marine Bacteroidetes populations.

    PubMed

    Acinas, Silvia G; Ferrera, Isabel; Sarmento, Hugo; Díez-Vives, Cristina; Forn, Irene; Ruiz-González, Clara; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Salazar, Guillem; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-10-01

    Catalysed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) is a powerful approach to quantify bacterial taxa. In this study, we compare the performance of the widely used Bacteroidetes CF319a probe with the new CF968 probe. In silico analyses and tests with isolates demonstrate that CF319a hybridizes with non-Bacteroidetes sequences from the Rhodobacteraceae and Alteromonadaceae families. We test the probes' accuracy in 37 globally distributed marine samples and over two consecutive years at the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (NW Mediterranean). We also compared the CARD-FISH data with the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from 27 marine metagenomes from the TARA Oceans expedition. We find no significant differences in abundances between both approaches, although CF319a targeted some unspecific sequences and both probes displayed different abundances of specific Bacteroidetes phylotypes. Our results demonstrate that quantitative estimations by using both probes are significantly different in certain oceanographic regions (Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and Arabian Sea) and that CF968 shows seasonality within marine Bacteroidetes, notably large differences between summer and winter that is overlooked by CF319a. We propose CF968 as an alternative to CF319a for targeting the whole Bacteroidetes phylum since it has better coverage, greater specificity and overall better quantifies marine Bacteroidetes. PMID:24890225

  10. Localization of Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria on Plant Fibrous Materials as Determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Real-Time PCRâ–¿

    PubMed Central

    Shinkai, Takumi; Kobayashi, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    To visualize and localize specific bacteria associated with plant materials, a new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was established. By using this protocol, we successfully minimized the autofluorescence of orchard grass hay and detected rumen bacteria attached to the hay under a fluorescence microscope. Real-time PCR assays were also employed to quantitatively monitor the representative fibrolytic species Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens and also total bacteria attached to the hay. F. succinogenes was found firmly attached to not only the cut edges but also undamaged inner surfaces of the hay. Cells of phylogenetic group 1 of F. succinogenes were detected on many stem and leaf sheath fragments of the hay, even on fragments on which few other bacteria were seen. Cells of phylogenetic group 2 of F. succinogenes were often detected on hay fragments coexisting with many other bacteria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene copy number analysis, the numbers of bacteria attached to the leaf sheaths were higher than those attached to the stems (P < 0.05). In addition, R. flavefaciens had a greater tendency than F. succinogenes to be found on the leaf sheath (P < 0.01) with formation of many pits. F. succinogenes, particularly phylogenetic group 1, is suggested to possibly play an important role in fiber digestion, because it is clearly detectable by FISH and is the bacterium with the largest population size in the less easily degradable hay stem. PMID:17209077

  11. Simultaneous quantification of active carbon- and nitrogen-fixing communities and estimation of fixation rates using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Allison S; Shepard, Alicia K; Raes, Eric J; Waite, Anya M; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and (14)C/(15)N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. PMID:25172848

  12. Simultaneous Quantification of Active Carbon- and Nitrogen-Fixing Communities and Estimation of Fixation Rates Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Alicia K.; Raes, Eric J.; Waite, Anya M.; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and 14C/15N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. PMID:25172848

  13. Assignment of the human diacylglycerol kinase gene (DAGK) to 12q13.3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Champagne, C.

    1994-07-01

    A 1-kb cDNA probe specific for the human DAGK gene was prepared by polymerase chain reaction and used to assign it to human chromosome 12 using a human x hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel. To determine the chromosomal sublocalization of DAGK, used the 1-kg DAGK cDNA probe to isolate a DAGK-specific phage clone from a human chromosome 12 library by Southern blot techniques. This clone (phEDCDAGK) contained a 17-kb human genomic insert in the phage Charon 40 that hybridized to the 1-kb DAGK cDNA previously characterized.

  14. A physical map of 15 loci on human chromosome 5q23-q33 by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Saltman, D.L.; Dolganov, G.M. ); Warrington, J.A.; Wasmuth, J.J. ); Lovett, M. )

    1993-06-01

    The q23-q33 region of human chromosome 5 encodes a large number of growth factors, growth factor receptors, and hormone/neurotransmitter receptors. This is also the general region into which several disease genes have been mapped, including diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, hereditary startle disease, the myeloid disorders that are associated with the 5q-syndrome, autosomal-dominant forms of hereditary deafness, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The authors have developed a framework physical map of this region using cosmid clones isolated from the Los Alamos arrayed chromosome 5-specific library. Entry points into this library included 14 probes to genes within this interval and one anonymous polymorphic marker locus. A physical map has been constructed using fluorescence in situ hybridization of these cosmids on metaphase and interphase chromosomes, and this is in good agreement with the radiation hybrid map of the region. The derived order of loci across the region is cen-IL4-IL5-IRF1-IL3-IL9-EGR1-CD14-FGFA-GRL-D5S207-ADRB2-SPARC-RPS14-CSF1R-ADRA1, and the total distance spanned by these loci is approximately 15 Mb. The framework map, genomic clones, and contig expansion within 5q23-q33 should provide valuable resources for the eventual isolation of the clinically relevant loci that reside in this region. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of 342 new cosmid markers including 43 RFLP markers on human chromosome 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Inazawa, Johji; Ariyama, Takeshi; Abe, Tatsuo ); Saito, Hiroko; Nakamura, Yusuke )

    1993-07-01

    The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 17 with 342 cosmid markers, each newly isolated from a cosmid library constructed from a human-mouse hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 17. Direct mapping on R- and/or G-banded (pro)metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized these markers throughout the chromosome, although density was highest in the R-band-dominant regions of 17p13, 17p11.2, 17q11.2-q12, 17q21.3, 17q23, and 17q25. By screening some of the cosmid clones, they identified 71 polymorphic systems with 43 markers; 11 of these are VNTRs. As the high-resolution cytogenetic map contains a large number of markers, it can provide useful landmarks for a contig map of chromosome 17. Furthermore, the map will contribute to positional cloning of aberrant genes responsible for inherited diseases such as Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), and familial early-onset breast cancer, as well as putative tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome. 47 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Agreement between amoA Gene-Specific Quantitative PCR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in the Measurement of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, M.; Davenport, R. J.; Swan, D. L.; Read, L. F.; Brown, M. R.; Morais, C.; Curtis, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial abundance is central to most investigations in microbial ecology, and its accurate measurement is a challenging task that has been significantly facilitated by the advent of molecular techniques over the last 20 years. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered the gold standard of quantification techniques; however, it is expensive and offers low sample throughput, both of which limit its wider application. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is an alternative that offers significantly higher throughput, and it is used extensively in molecular biology. The accuracy of qPCR can be compromised by biases in the DNA extraction and amplification steps. In this study, we compared the accuracy of these two established quantification techniques to measure the abundance of a key functional group in biological wastewater treatment systems, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), in samples from a time-series experiment monitoring a set of laboratory-scale reactors and a full-scale plant. For the qPCR analysis, we tested two different sets of AOB-specific primers, one targeting the 16SrRNA gene and one targeting the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene. We found that there was a positive linear logarithmic relationship between FISH and the amoA gene-specific qPCR, where the data obtained from both techniques was equivalent at the order of magnitude level. The 16S rRNA gene-specific qPCR assay consistently underestimated AOB numbers. PMID:25002435

  17. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Özlem; Demiray, Ebru

    2007-01-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods, the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult. Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro. PMID:17278188

  18. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Demiray, Ebru

    2007-02-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods, the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult. Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro. PMID:17278188

  19. Automated design of probes for rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals the advantages of using dual probes for accurate identification.

    PubMed

    Wright, Erik S; Yilmaz, L Safak; Corcoran, Andrew M; Ökten, Hatice E; Noguera, Daniel R

    2014-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a common technique for identifying cells in their natural environment and is often used to complement next-generation sequencing approaches as an integral part of the full-cycle rRNA approach. A major challenge in FISH is the design of oligonucleotide probes with high sensitivity and specificity to their target group. The rapidly expanding number of rRNA sequences has increased awareness of the number of potential nontargets for every FISH probe, making the design of new FISH probes challenging using traditional methods. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of published probes that revealed that many have insufficient coverage or specificity for their intended target group. Therefore, we developed an improved thermodynamic model of FISH that can be applied at any taxonomic level, used the model to systematically design probes for all recognized genera of bacteria and archaea, and identified potential cross-hybridizations for the selected probes. This analysis resulted in high-specificity probes for 35.6% of the genera when a single probe was used in the absence of competitor probes and for 60.9% when up to two competitor probes were used. Requiring the hybridization of two independent probes for positive identification further increased specificity. In this case, we could design highly specific probe sets for up to 68.5% of the genera without the use of competitor probes and 87.7% when up to two competitor probes were used. The probes designed in this study, as well as tools for designing new probes, are available online (http://DECIPHER.cee.wisc.edu). PMID:24928876

  20. Chromosomal Composition of Aneuploid Clones with Different DNA Contents in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas as Determined by Combined Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Hemmer, Joerg; Hauser, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Studies with DNA flow cytometry (FCM) have shown that DNA contents of aneuploid tumour clones vary in a wide range. The aim of this study was to analyse whether homologous chromosomal changes exist despite the individual differences that may be of general relevance for the development of gross aneuploidy in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 13 centromere?specific DNA probes was applied to 3 diploid and 11 aneuploid tumours with DNA indices ranging between 0.8 and 2.2. Disomic and monosomic cell populations were prevalent findings in DNA?diploid tumours. Polysomies were common in aneuploid tumours. Different degrees of aneusomy for identical chromosomes were recurrent features in aneuploid tumours. FISH signal heterogeneity was identified for all chromosomes. The mean number of aneusomic cell populations identified for DNA?aneuploid tumours ranged between 1.6 for chromosome 17 and 3.1 for chromosome 3. Inconsistencies between FISH and FCM data may indicate that centromere?specific DNA probes identify gains and losses of marker DNA due to complex karyotypic rearrangements rather than absolute changes in chromosome numbers. Overall, there was no evidence of the critical involvement of particular chromosomes in the development of different DNA contents. PMID:11205322

  1. Incidence of TCR and TCL1 Gene Translocations and Isochromosome 7q in Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Andrew L.; Law, Mark; Grogg, Karen L.; Thorland, Erik C.; Fink, Stephanie; Kurtin, Paul J.; Macon, William R.; Remstein, Ellen D.; Dogan, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Translocations involving the T-cell receptor (TCR) and TCL1 genes occur in T-precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and prolymphocytic leukemia; isochromosome 7q has been associated with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. However, the incidence of these abnormalities in PTCLs as a whole has not been well defined. We studied genetic abnormalities in 124 PTCLs seen at Mayo Clinic between 1987 and 2007. Tissue microarrays were screened using two-color breakapart fluorescence in situ hybridization probes flanking the TCR alpha (A, 14q11), beta (B, 7q35), and gamma (G, 7p15) genes and the TCL1 gene (14q32). Isochromosome 7q was analyzed using a two-color probe to 7p and 7q32.1. Translocations involved TCRA in 2.9% of cases and TCRB in 1.1%. Isochromosome 7q was detected in 2 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and 2 cases of ALK-negative ALCL. One of the latter cases also had a translocation of TCRA, and further studies confirm a novel t(5;14) translocation. PMID:18628085

  2. Detection of numerical and structural alterations and fusion of chromosomes 16 and 1 in low-grade papillary breast carcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, H.; Takarabe, T.; Susumu, N.; Inazawa, J.; Okada, S.; Hirohashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Intracystic papillary breast tumors, including intraductal papilloma and low-grade intracystic papillary carcinoma, constitute a group for which differential diagnosis is frequently difficult. We examined the status of chromosomes 16 and 1 by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses and the DNA ploidy patterns by flow cytometry in 26 intracystic papillary tumors. Alterations of chromosomes 16 and 1 were detected by FISH in 93 and 85%, respectively, of 14 low-grade papillary carcinomas, and the latter alterations always concurred with the former. Two-color FISH using probes for the D1Z1 (1q12) and D16Z2 (16cen) loci or the D1Z1 and D16Z3 (16q11) loci showed that fusion of chromosomes 16 and 1, mostly with breakpoints distal to 16q11.2 and proximal to 1q12, occurred in 77% of the papillary carcinomas. DNA aneuploidy was detected in 6% of these carcinomas. No papilloma showed these chromosome alterations or DNA aneuploidy. Chromosome 16 and 1 fusions appeared to occur frequently in diploid breast carcinomas and to be involved in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype by duct epithelial cells. We suggest that two-color FISH methods for detecting 1;16 fusions might be applicable as supportive methods for the differential diagnosis of intracystic papillary breast tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9327736

  3. Effects of compost on colonization of roots of plants grown in metalliferous mine tailings, as examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Sadie L; Maier, Raina M

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between compost amendment, plant biomass produced, and bacterial root colonization as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization was examined following plant growth in mine tailings. Mine tailings can remain devoid of vegetation for decades after deposition due to a combination of factors that include heavy metal toxicity, low pH, poor substrate structure and water-holding capacity, and a severely impacted heterotrophic microbial community. Research has shown that plant establishment, a desired remedial objective to reduce eolian and water erosion of such tailings, is enhanced by organic matter amendment and is correlated with significant increases in rhizosphere populations of neutrophilic heterotrophic bacteria. Results show that for the acidic metalliferous tailings tested in this study, compost amendment was associated with significantly increased bacterial colonization of roots and increased production of plant biomass. In contrast, for a Vinton control soil, increased compost had no effect on root colonization and resulted only in increased plant biomass at high levels of compost amendment. These data suggest that the positive association between compost amendment and root colonization is important in the stressed mine tailings environment where root colonization may enhance both microbial and plant survival and growth. PMID:19047384

  4. High prognostic value of minimal residual disease detected by flow-cytometry-enhanced fluorescence in situ hybridization in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML).

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Xu, Sheng; Gong, Shenglan; Liu, Min; Qiu, Huiying; Xu, Xiaoqian; Ni, Xiong; Chen, Li; Lu, Shuqing; Chen, Jie; Song, Xianmin; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2014-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is generally regarded as a disorder of stem cells, known as leukemic initiating cells (LICs), which initiate the disease and contribute to relapses. Although the phenotype of these cells remains unclear in most patients, they are enriched within the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. In core-binding factor (CBF) AML, the cytogenetic abnormalities also exist in LIC. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic power of minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells sorted by flow cytometry at different periods during therapy. Thirty-six patients under 65 years of age with de novo CBF-AML treated with intensive chemotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. FISH efficiently identified LICs in the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. The presence of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation was negatively associated with cumulative incidence of relapse (64 vs 18 %, P = .012), which showed prognostic value for RFS (12 vs 68 %, P = .008) and OS (11 vs 75 %, P = .0005), and retained prognostic significance for RFS in multivariate analysis. The detection of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation therapy significantly correlated with long-term survival. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-FISH could be potentially adopted as a MRD monitor approach in clinical practice to identify CBF-AML patients at risk of treatment failure during therapy. PMID:24844781

  5. Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and cross species color banding of a case of chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic crisis with a complex Philadelphia translocation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C J; Gibbons, B; Yang, F; Butler, T; Cheung, K L; Kearney, L; Dirscherl, L; Bray-Ward, P; Gregson, M; Ferguson-Smith, M

    2000-01-15

    Exciting new techniques in molecular cytogenetics--namely, spectral karyotyping, multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), and cross species color banding--have been recently developed. An increasing number of reports demonstrate the success of these procedures in providing additional cytogenetic information--identifying marker chromosomes and revealing the presence of previously undetected chromosomal changes. However, these procedures have their limitations, and their absolute sensitivity in the accurate identification of subtle chromosomal abnormalities remains to be established. M-FISH and color banding have been applied to a case of chronic myeloid leukemia with a complex Philadelphia translocation involving chromosomes 9, 17, and 22, which had initially been identified from G-banded chromosome analysis. The abnormalities were confirmed by chromosome "painting" and specific probes. Although M-FISH and color banding revealed no additional cryptic chromosomal changes, this study has clearly demonstrated the success of these multiple color FISH approaches in the accurate characterization of a complex rearrangement with subtle abnormalities. PMID:10640141

  6. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells: high frequency of deletions and misrejoining detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Uno, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the hyper-radiosensitivity of AT cells were investigated by analyzing chromosome aberrations in the G(2) and M phases of the cell cycle using a combination of chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome painting probes. Confluent cultures of normal fibroblast cells (AG1522) and fibroblast cells derived from an individual with AT (GM02052) were exposed to gamma rays and allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h. At doses that resulted in 10% survival, GM02052 cells were approximately five times more sensitive to gamma rays than AG1522 cells. For a given dose, GM02052 cells contained a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. For both cell types, a good correlation was found between the percentage of aberrant cells and cell survival. The average number of color junctions, which represent the frequency of chromosome misrejoining, was also found to correlate well with survival. However, in a similar surviving population of GM02052 and AG1522 cells, induced by 1 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, AG1522 cells contained four times more color junctions and half as many deletions as GM02052 cells. These results indicate that both repair deficiency and misrepair may be involved in the hyper-radiosensitivity of AT cells.

  7. Genomic arrays in chronic lymphocytic leukemia routine clinical practice: are we ready to substitute conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques?

    PubMed

    Puiggros, Anna; Puigdecanet, Eulàlia; Salido, Marta; Ferrer, Ana; Abella, Eugènia; Gimeno, Eva; Nonell, Lara; Herranz, María José; Galván, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Rivera, María; Melero, Carme; Pairet, Silvia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Serrano, Sergi; Florensa, Lourdes; Solé, Francesc; Espinet, Blanca

    2013-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a highly variable clinical course. Del(11q) and del(17p), routinely studied by conventional G-banding cytogenetics (CGC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), have been related to progression and shorter overall survival. Recently, array-based karyotyping has gained acceptance as a high-resolution new tool for detecting genomic imbalances. The aim of the present study was to compare genomic arrays with CGC and FISH to ascertain whether the current techniques could be substituted in routine procedures. We analyzed 70 patients with CLL using the Cytogenetics Whole-Genome 2.7M Array and CytoScan HD Array (Affymetrix), CGC and FISH with the classical CLL panel. Whereas 31.4% and 68.6% of patients presented abnormalities when studied by CGC and FISH, respectively, these rates increased when arrays were also analyzed (78.6% and 80%). Although abnormality detection is higher when arrays are applied, one case with del(11q) and three with del(17p) were missed by genomic arrays due to their limited sensitivity. We consider that the complete substitution of CGC and FISH by genomic arrays in routine laboratories could negatively affect the management of some patients harboring 11q or 17p deletions. In conclusion, genomic arrays are valid to detect known and novel genomic imbalances in CLL, but should be maintained as a complementary tool to the current techniques. PMID:22994157

  8. The origin of in situ hybridization - A personal history.

    PubMed

    Gall, Joseph G

    2016-04-01

    In situ hybridization is the technique by which specific RNA or DNA molecules are detected in cytological preparations. Basically it involves formation of a hybrid molecule between an endogenous single-stranded RNA or DNA in the cell and a complementary single-stranded RNA or DNA probe. In its original form the probe was labeled with (3)H and the hybrid was detected by autoradiography. The first successful experiments in 1968 involved detection of the highly amplified ribosomal DNA in oocytes of the frog Xenopus, followed soon after by the reiterated "satellite DNA" in mouse and Drosophila chromosomes. Fluorescent probes were developed about ten years later. PMID:26655524

  9. Retrospective species identification of microsporidian spores in diarrheic fecal samples from human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients by multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Johansson, Michael A; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Moura, Laci S; DaSilva, Alexandre J; Girouard, Autumn S; Matos, Olga

    2007-04-01

    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, 2 (2.1%) were positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 9 samples (9.6%) contained both E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis spores. Quantitative spore counts per ml of stool yielded concentration values from 3.5 x 10(3) to 4.4 x 10(5) for E. bieneusi (mean, 8.8 x 10(4)/ml), 2.3 x 10(2) to 7.8 x 10(4) (mean, 1.5 x 10(4)/ml) for E. intestinalis, and 1.8 x 10(2) to 3.6 x 10(2) for E. hellem (mean, 2.7 x 10(2)/ml). Identification of microsporidian spores by multiplex FISH assay was more sensitive than both Chromotrope-2R and CalcoFluor White M2R stains; 85.5% versus 72.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The study demonstrated that microsporidian coinfection in HIV/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis is not uncommon and that formalin-stored fecal samples older than 10 years may not be suitable for retrospective analysis by techniques targeting rRNA. Multiplexed FISH assay is a reliable, quantitative fluorescence microscopy method for the simultaneous identification of E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis, and E. hellem, as well as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, spores in fecal samples and is a useful tool for assessing spore shedding intensity in intestinal microsporidiosis. The method can be used for epidemiological investigations and applied in clinical settings. PMID:17287331

  10. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry as tools to evaluate the treatments for the control of slime-forming enterobacteria in paper mills.

    PubMed

    Torres, C Esperanza; Gibello, Alicia; Nande, Mar; Martin, Margarita; Blanco, Angeles

    2008-04-01

    Slime formation is a serious problem nowadays in the paper industry. Some enterobacteria are associated with the formation of slime deposits in paper and board mills. Detection and characterization of slime forming bacteria, belonging to the genus Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella have been achieved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using one probe based on the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence and other two rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. The effects of three kinds of antimicrobiological products (biocides, dispersants, and enzymes) on these enterobacterial cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FC). Biocides B: utrol 1009 and 1072 were the most effective microbiocides against all enterobacterial cells analyzed, reaching 90% of dead bacteria after 24 h. However, the enzymatic treatment (Buzyme) was not equally efficient on enterobacteria and its microbiocide capacity varied depending on the type of microorganism. FISH and FC were effective tools to detect important slime forming enterobacteria and to select specific treatments to control microbial problems in the paper industry. PMID:18247026

  11. Patterns of BCR/ABL Gene Rearrangements in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Complex t(9;22) Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Esan, Olukemi A; Senft, Jamie R; Wenger, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) which fuses the ABL1 oncogene on chromosome 9 with the BCR gene on chromosome 22. It is the BCR/ABL protein that drives the neoplasm and the ABL/BCR is not necessary for the disease. In the majority of CML cases, the BCR/ABL fusion gene is cytogenetically recognizable as a small derivative chromosome 22(der 22), which is known as the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. However, approximately 2-10% of patients with CML involve cryptic or complex variant translocations with deletions on the der(9) and/or der(22) occuring in roughly 10-15% of CML cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis can help identify deletions and complex or cryptic rearrangements. Various BCR/ABL FISH probes are available, which include dual color single fusion, dual color extra signal (ES), dual color dual fusion and tri color dual fusion probes. To test the utility of these probes, six patients diagnosed with CML carrying different complex variant Ph translocations were studied by G-banding and FISH analysis using the BCR/ABL ES, BCR/ABL dual color dual fusion, and BCR/ABL tricolor probes. There are differences among the probes in their ability to detect variant rearrangements, with or without accompanying chromoso me 9 and/or 22 deletions, and low level disease. PMID:22421568

  12. Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Barranger, Audrey; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida

    2015-02-01

    Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment. PMID:25498420

  13. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  14. HER2 amplification in gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: correlation of two antibodies using gastric cancer scoring criteria, H score, and digital image analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Radu, Oana M; Foxwell, Tyler; Cieply, Kathleen; Navina, Sarah; Dacic, Sanja; Nason, Katie S; Davison, Jon M

    2012-04-01

    We assessed 103 resected gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas for HER2 amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 2 commercial immunohistochemical assays. Of 103, 30 (29%) were FISH-amplified. Both immunohistochemical assays had greater than 95% concordance with FISH. However, as a screening test for FISH amplification, the Ventana Medical Systems (Tucson, AZ) 4B5 antibody demonstrated superior sensitivity (87%) compared with the DAKO (Carpinteria, CA) A0485 (70%). Of the cases, 28 were immunohistochemically 3+ or immunohistochemically 2+/FISH-amplified with the 4B5 assay compared with only 22 cases with the A0485 assay, representing a large potential difference in patient eligibility for anti-HER2 therapy. Cases with low-level FISH amplification (HER2/CEP17, 2.2-4.0) express lower levels of HER2 protein compared with cases with high-level amplification (HER2/CEP17, ?4.0), raising the possibility of a differential response to anti-HER2 therapy. The H score and digital image analysis may have a limited role in improving HER2 test performance. PMID:22431535

  15. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Abzazou, Tarik; Araujo, Rosa M; Auset, María; Salvadó, Humbert

    2016-01-15

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L(-1)), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH4(+) removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. PMID:26473713

  16. Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, N. ); Malfoy, B. ); Forrest, G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Aneuploidy in 165,330 human sperm; results of two- and three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, 18, X, and Y

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, E.L.; Martin, R.H. |

    1994-09-01

    To understand the mechanisms that affect aneuploidy, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using chromosome-specific centromeric probes, was employed to screen a large population of human sperm for numerical errors. To determine the true rate of disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, 15, 18, two-color FISH was performed, and for the gonosomes, three-color FISH. The use of multiple, differently-colored probes allows one to distingish a true disomic sperm from a diploid cell. For each centromeric probe, a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each of five donors was scored, giving a total count of 165,330 sperm nuclei. The incidence of disomic sperm for the sex chromosomes was significantly increased as compared to the frequency for the autosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=232.3, p<0.001), confirming the results observed in studies of sperm karyotypes and spontaneous abortions. The disomy frequencies for autosomes 1, 12, 15, and 18 were found to be uniform. Inter-donor heterogeneity for disomy frequencies was found to exist for the sex chromosomes and for chromosomes 1 and 15, suggesting significant variation among normal men.

  18. Variations of Bacterial Populations in Human Feces Measured by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization with Group-Specific 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Alison H.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Jansen, Gijsbert J.; Schut, Frits; Welling, Gjalt W.

    1998-01-01

    Six 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed, validated, and used to quantify predominant groups of anaerobic bacteria in human fecal samples. A set of two probes was specific for species of the Bacteroides fragilis group and the species Bacteroides distasonis. Two others were designed to detect species of the Clostridium histolyticum and the Clostridium lituseburense groups. Another probe was designed for the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus, and the final probe was designed for the species of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group. The temperature of dissociation of each of the probes was determined. The specificities of the probes for a collection of target and reference organisms were tested by dot blot hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The new probes were used in initial FISH experiments to enumerate human fecal bacteria. The combination of the two Bacteroides-specific probes detected a mean of 5.4 × 1010 cells per g (dry weight) of feces; the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group-specific probe detected a mean of 7.2 × 1010 cells per g (dry weight) of feces. The Clostridium histolyticum, Clostridium lituseburense, and Streptococcus-Lactococcus group-specific probes detected only numbers of cells ranging from 1 × 107 to 7 × 108 per g (dry weight) of feces. Three of the newly designed probes and three additional probes were used in further FISH experiments to study the fecal flora composition of nine volunteers over a period of 8 months. The combination of probes was able to detect at least two-thirds of the fecal flora. The normal biological variations within the fecal populations of the volunteers were determined and indicated that these variations should be considered when evaluating the effects of agents modulating the flora. PMID:9726880

  19. Vertical distribution of Archaea and Bacteria in a meromictic lake as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Valeria; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Maugeri, Teresa L

    2012-01-01

    The prokaryotic cells distribution in the water column of the coastal saline meromictic Lake Faro (Messina, Italy) was investigated by microscopic counting techniques. Water samples were collected at a central station from the surface to the bottom, when waters were characterized by a marked stratification. A "red-water" layer, caused by a dense growth of photosynthetic sulfur bacteria, was present at a depth of 15 m, defining a transition area between oxic (mixolimnion) and anoxic (monimolimnion) layers. Fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA oligonucleotide, group-specific probes were used to determine the abundance of Bacteria and Archaea, and their subgroups, Green Sulfur Bacteria (GSB), Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB), Cyanobacteria and Chromatium okenii, and Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, as key elements of the microbial community. Bacteria decreased from surface to bottom, while Archaea increased with depth and reached the maximum value at 30 m, where they outnumbered the Bacteria. Bacteria and picophytoplankton prevailed in the mixolimnion. At the chemocline high numbers of prokaryotic cells were present, mainly represented by Cyanobacteria, Chromatium okenii and Euryarchaeota. GSB, SRB, and Crenarchaeota prevailed below the chemocline. Although Archaea constitute a minor fraction of microbial community, they could represent active contributors to the meromictic Lake Faro ecosystem. PMID:22006072

  20. Improvements in visualisation and localisation of human papillomavirus DNA in CaSki cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization, laser scanning confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Usson, Y; Chignol, M C; Chardonnet, Y

    1994-07-01

    The visual interpretation and localisation of specific DNA sequences in three dimensions in cell nuclei was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) using CaSki cells containing 600 copies per cell of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA type 16 integrated in cellular DNA. Biotinylated DNA probes were used and DNA-DNA hybrids were revealed by a three-step reaction involving a rabbit anti-biotin antibody, a biotinylated goat anti-rabbit antibody and a streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate complex. The DNA from cell nuclei was counterstained with propidium iodide. With standard fluorescence microscopy, some dense fluorescent spots were seen in the cell nuclei. Similarly, with LSCM, some hybridization spots were observed in the cell nuclei but they were at different levels of the nuclei as shown by successive nuclear sections taken along the z axis. The visualisation of multiple hybridization spots confirmed the presence of multiple integration sites of HPV 16 DNA in CaSki cells. Association of LSCM with three-dimensional reconstructions lead to spatial images of hybridization spots obtained by stacking (x,y) images from consecutive confocal planes. Rotation of the reconstructed cell nuclei around the y axis makes it possible to distinguish closely adjacent spots. The combination of these techniques improves the detection of hybridization spots and may be of interest to further determine whether the HPV DNA is episomal or integrated in infected cells. PMID:7981136

  1. Assignment of the human homologue of the mTRiC-P5 gene (TRIC5) to band 1q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.; Joly, E.C.; Bibor-Hardy, V.

    1994-08-01

    The TCP1 ring complex (TRiC) is a molecular chaperone involved in actin and tubulin folding. Little is known about the components of this complex. The first component identified was TCP1, a protein coded by a gene in the t-complex locus on mouse chromosome 17. This locus is involved in several embryonic defects, male sterility, and the transmission ratio distortion. In humans, the t-complex genes map to chromosome 6. Other components of TRiC are thought to be TCP1-related proteins. Recently, a mouse cDNA coding for one of these proteins has been cloned and named mTRiC-P5. Here we report the cloning of a partial human cDNA clone, homologous to mTRiC-P5, and its chromosome localization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The human TRiC-P5 gene (TRIC5) maps to human chromosome 1q23, a region known to be a preferential chromosomal breakpoint involved in leukemia. Therefore, even if TCP1 and TRiC-P5 are related proteins and are found in the same protein complex, they are not coded by syntenic genes in humans. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Improved fluorescent in situ hybridization method for detection of bacteria from activated sludge and river water by using DNA molecular beacons and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Jeremy; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Porter, Jonathan

    2007-03-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) remains a key technique in microbial ecology. Molecular beacons (MBs) are self-reporting probes that have potential advantages over linear probes for FISH. MB-FISH strategies have been described using both DNA-based and peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based approaches. Although recent reports have suggested that PNA MBs are superior, DNA MBs have some advantages, most notably cost. The data presented here demonstrate that DNA MBs are suitable for at least some FISH applications in complex samples, providing superior discriminatory power compared to that of corresponding linear DNA-FISH probes. The use of DNA MBs for flow cytometric detection of Pseudomonas putida resulted in approximately double the signal-to-noise ratio of standard linear DNA probes when using laboratory-grown cultures and yielded improved discrimination of target cells in spiked environmental samples, without a need for separate washing steps. DNA MBs were also effective for the detection and cell sorting of both spiked and indigenous P. putida from activated sludge and river water samples. The use of DNA MB-FISH presents another increase in sensitivity, allowing the detection of bacteria in environmental samples without the expense of PNA MBs or multilaser flow cytometry. PMID:17277208

  3. Immunohistochemistry and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Can Inform the Differential Diagnosis of Low-Grade Noninvasive Urothelial Carcinoma with an Inverted Growth Pattern and Inverted Urothelial Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Hui-Zhi; Wang, Tao; Yang, Xiao-Qun; Sun, Meng-Hong; Wang, Chao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) comprises a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms with diverse biological behaviors and variable clinical outcomes. Distinguishing UC histological subtypes has become increasingly important because prognoses and therapy can dramatically differ among subtypes. In clinical work, overlapping morphological findings between low-grade noninvasive UC (LGNUC), which exhibits an inverted growth pattern, and inverted urothelial papilloma (IUP) can make subclassification difficult. We propose a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular cytogenetics for subtyping these clinical entities. In our study, tissue microarray immunohistochemical profiles of Ki-67, p53, cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and cyclinD1 were assessed. Molecular genetic alterations such as the gain of chromosomes 3, 7 or 17 or the homozygous loss of 9p21 were also assessed for their usefulness in differentiating these conditions. Based on our analysis, Ki-67 and CK20 may be useful for the differential diagnosis of these two tumor types. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can also provide important data in cases in which the malignant nature of an inverted urothelial neoplasm is unclear. LGNUC with an inverted growth pattern that is negative for both Ki-67 and CK20 can be positively detected using FISH. PMID:26208279

  4. Institutional quality assurance for breast cancer HER2 immunohistochemical testing: identification of outlier results and impact of simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization cotesting.

    PubMed

    Green, Ian F; Zynger, Debra L

    2015-12-01

    The College of American Pathologists Accreditation Checklist requires comparison of laboratory predictive results with published benchmarks but does not require analysis of individual pathologists. With the availability of targeted human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein therapy, uniform reporting of HER2 protein status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is essential. Our aim was to compare HER2 IHC results among pathologists in routine clinical practice within a single institution and assess the impact of simultaneous IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ordering. We reviewed reports from 928 consecutive breast needle biopsies from 2008 to 2012 at a tertiary academic medical center in which HER2 IHC and HER2 FISH were ordered. There was a significant association between breast pathologist and IHC result (negative, 49.8%-83.2%; positive, 8.7%-14.1%; equivocal, 5.2%-41.5%; P < .0001) but not breast pathologist and FISH result (P = .69). For 1 pathologist, IHC signed out with FISH had an equivocal rate nearly 2-fold lower than IHC results that were reported first (10.5% versus 20.9%) (P = .04). Institutions should be aware that although overall HER2 IHC reporting may be consistent with guidelines, there can be significant variation among practitioners. In addition to aggregate data, we recommend comparing the rates from individual pathologists to standards. Furthermore, routine simultaneous ordering of both IHC and FISH could impact interpretation of test results and may inappropriately encourage less confidence in IHC results among pathologists. PMID:26412217

  5. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. International, collaborative assessment of 146,000 prenatal karyotypes: expected limitations if only chromosome-specific probes and fluorescent in-situ hybridization are used.

    PubMed

    Evans, M I; Henry, G P; Miller, W A; Bui, T H; Snidjers, R J; Wapner, R J; Miny, P; Johnson, M P; Peakman, D; Johnson, A; Nicolaides, K; Holzgreve, W; Ebrahim, S A; Babu, R; Jackson, L

    1999-05-01

    The development of chromosome-specific probes (CSP) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) has allowed for very rapid identification of selected numerical abnormalities. We attempt here to determine, in principle, what percentage of abnormalities would be detectable if only CSP-FISH were performed without karyotype for prenatal diagnosis. A total of 146 128 consecutive karyotypes for prenatal diagnosis from eight centres in four countries for 5 years were compared with predicted detection if probes for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were used, and assuming 100% detection efficiency. A total of 4163 abnormalities (2.85%) were found including 2889 (69. 4%) (trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, numerical sex chromosome abnormalities, and triploidies) which were considered detectable by FISH. Of these, 1274 were mosaics, translocations, deletions, inversions, rings, and markers which would not be considered detectable. CSP-FISH is a useful adjunct to karyotype for high risk situations, and may be appropriate in low risk screening, but should not be seen as a replacement for karyotype as too many structural chromosome abnormalities will be missed. PMID:10325263

  7. Clonal profiling of mixed lobular and ductal carcinoma revealed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Ryosuke; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Sawada-Kitamura, Seiko; Kawashima, Hiroko; Nakamura, Ritsuko; Oyama, Takeru; Dobashi, Yoh; Ooi, Akishi

    2014-05-01

    A needle biopsy of a mass in the right breast of a 36-year-old woman revealed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and approximately 20% of cancer cells showed unequivocal membranous staining with the HercepTest. After systemic therapy with trastuzumab and paclitaxel followed by FEC (fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide), a right mastectomy was performed. By histological and immunohistochemical examinations, the resected tumor consisted mainly of E-cadherin-negative invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), and the rest was ERBB2-positive IDC; thus, the diagnosis was mixed ductal and lobular carcinoma. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that ILC and IDC shared high-level amplification of CCND1 in homogeneously staining regions (HSR) and that IDC had an additional HSR-type amplicon of ERBB2. These findings strongly indicate that IDC and ILC had a common precursor cell with CCND1 amplification. Review of the biopsy specimen with FISH showed IDC with gene amplifications of CCND1 and ERBB2 as a minor component, IDC without amplification of CCND1 or ERBB2 as a major component, and a minute portion of ILC with CCND1 amplification. We speculate that chemotherapy and trastuzumab caused a marked reduction in IDC; however, ILC with CCND1 amplification was resistant to chemotherapy and grew. PMID:24888777

  8. Application of ELN cosmid probes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) towards a clinical diagnostic test for Williams syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.; Brothman, L.; Leonard, C.

    1994-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by mental deficiency, gregarious personalities, dysmorphic facies, supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), and idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Expression of the phenotype is variable. Deletions including an elastin allele (ELN) are thought to be the basis of the connective tissue and vascular abnormalities in WS patients. Patients with WS are hemizygous for ELN, exhibiting a submicroscopic deletion at 7q11.23 detected by FISH. To substantiate the hemizygosity hypothesis and define molecular cytogenetics in patients with familial and sporadic WS, a series of 71 patients were evaluated. EBV-transformed lymphocytes from 48 selected patients were cultured and harvested according to cytogenetic protocol. Cosmids containing ELN were biotinylated and hybridized to metaphase cells by routine procedures. In addition, an alpha-satellite probe for chromosome 7 was included in hybridizations as an internal control. Thirty-one of these 48 patients (65%) showed a deletion in one ELN allele by FISH. Negative patients were shown to be non-affected family members or patients in the {open_quotes}uncertain{close_quotes} category (expressing some, but not all features characteristic of WS). The FISH data were consistent with molecular analyses of ELN deletions. Twenty-three additional patients were referred to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of WS. Nine patients (39%) showed a deletion of ELN by FISH. Correlations between phenotype and FISH results are in progress. These results suggest that a rapid, accurate diagnostic technique for WS using FISH can be implemented in the cytogenetics laboratory as a routine clinical service. Identification of the deletion in patients suspected of having WS will facilitate classification of these patients and improve clinical management.

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide rRNA probes distinguishes the sibling species Stylonychia lemnae and Stylonychia mytilus (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephanie L; Bernhard, Detlef; Schlegel, Martin; Fried, Johannes

    2006-02-01

    Based on morphological and morphogenetic characters alone, the sibling species Stylonychia lemnae and Stylonychia mytilus, members of the Stylonychia mytilus complex, can hardly be distinguished. However, biochemical investigations of the isoenzyme pattern of different enzymes showed a distinct differentiation between these two species. In the last few years, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques have become a suitable and reliable tool for identification and differentiation of closely related species of protozoa, such as ciliates. To distinguish the sibling species, a set of specific oligonucleotide probes were developed. In the present study, the SSU rDNA of 7 clones of Stylonychia lemnae and 13 clones of Stylonychia mytilus, isolated from different geographic regions, were sequenced. Comparing all SSU rDNA sequences of both species, only one single difference within the whole gene was detected. Based on this difference, a set of two oligonucleotide probes, targeting the SSU rRNA of each species (Stylonychia mytilus and Stylonychia lemnae) was designed. These probes were successfully tested by applying the FISH techniques on preserved cells of different clones of both species. PMID:16427805

  10. Assignment of the gene encoding the human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor to 8q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Morrison, N; Duthie, S M; Boyd, E; Eidne, K A; Connor, J M

    1994-06-01

    A cDNA for human thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor has been isolated from a human pituitary cDNA library. By using this cDNA as a biotinylated probe, the gene encoding the TRH receptor has been localized to chromosome 8q23 by in situ hybridization. PMID:8005602

  11. High concordance between HercepTest immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 fluorescence in situ hybridization before and after implementation of American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathology 2007 guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lluri, Maria E; Moatamed, Neda A; Hong, Elizabeth; Apple, Sophia K

    2012-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, ERBB2) is an important critical predictive marker in patients with invasive breast cancer. It is thus imperative to ensure accuracy and precision in HER2 and ERBB2 testing. In 2007, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) proposed new guidelines for immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization scoring in an effort to improve accuracy and utility of these companion diagnostic tests. The goal of the 2007 guidelines was to improve concordance rates between the diagnostic tests and decrease the number of inconclusive cases. This study examines the impact in concordance rates and number of inconclusive cases based on the recent change in guidelines in a large study cohort. HER2 immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 fluorescence in-situ hybridization were performed on all specimens from our facility from years 2003 through 2010 (n=1437). Cases from 2003-2007 (n=1016) were scored using Food and Drug Administration guidelines, with immunohistochemical 3+ cases staining >10% of tumor cells and fluorescence in-situ hybridization amplification cutoff value of 2.0. The 2007 guidelines were implemented and scored accordingly for cases from 2008-2010 (n=421), with immunohistochemical 3+ cases staining >30% of tumor cells and fluorescence in-situ hybridization amplification cutoff value of 2.2. We compared concordance rates before and after 2007 guidelines. For the 2003-2007 study population, the concordance rate between the assays was 97.6% with a corresponding kappa coefficient (k) of 0.90. For the 2008-2010 study population, concordance rate was 97.6% with a corresponding k of 0.89. There was no significant difference in number of inconclusive rates before and after 2007 guidelines. In our study, implementation of the new ASCO/CAP 2007 HER2 guidelines did not show a significant difference in concordance rates and did not decrease the number of inconclusive cases. PMID:22699517

  12. Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Curtis T.

    2000-04-01

    Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

  13. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues. PMID:26121314

  14. Sensitive detection of numerical and structural aberrations of chromosome 1 in neuroblastoma by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Comparison with restriction fragment length polymorphism and conventional cytogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Combaret, V; Turc-Carel, C; Thiesse, P; Rebillard, A C; Frappaz, D; Haus, O; Philip, T; Favrot, M C

    1995-04-10

    Chromosome I abnormalities are indicators of prognosis in neuroblastoma (NB) but are not yet routinely exploited because conventional methods are technically demanding. We evaluated the pertinence of interphase cytogenetics fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the analysis of chromosome I in NB, compared with conventional methods. Deletion of Ip was detected in 8 of 9 cell lines analyzed by both FISH and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), but was evidenced in only 2 cases by conventional cytogenetics, painting analysis being required to reveal the other cases. The chromosome I number evaluated by FISH reflected the total chromosome modal number obtained by cytogenetics. Twenty-eight specimens obtained from ultrasound-guided punctures, surgical biopsies of the primary tumor and bone-marrow aspirates were studied by FISH on frozen cytocentrifuged smears; 12 had a chromosome I trisomy and 16 a disomy. Requirements for a reliable control analysis of Ip deletion by RFLP were met in only 23 cases. The retention of 2 alleles was observed in 15 cases and Ip deletion in 7, by both techniques. In one case, an interstitial deletion of Ip was evidenced only by RFLP, and one of 5 cases analyzed only by FISH had a Ip deletion. Although FISH might be improved by using additional probes, it presents major advantages for routine exploitation. Determining Ip deletion in individual cells makes it possible to analyze small and heterogeneous tumoral specimens; the technique requires only a few hours and can easily be standardized in non-specialized laboratories. The number of chromosome I homologues per cell might serve as a rapid screening for ploidy. PMID:7705946

  15. The human gene for xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G (XPG) maps to 13q33 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, S.; Corlet, J.; Scherly, D.; Clarkson, S.G. ); Jones, T.A.; Sheer, D. ); Wood, R.D. )

    1994-05-01

    Recently, a human cDNA was isolated that restores normal levels of UV resistance and DNA repair synthesis when expressed in vivo in a lymphoblastoid cell line representing XP group G. The XP-G complementing gene (XPG) generates an mRNA of [approximately]4 kb and encodes a protein (XPGC) with homology to the RAD2 DNA repair protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One hundred twenty nanograms of labeled probe was mixed with 2 [mu]g of human C[sub 0]t-1 DNA as a competitor for repetitive elements. Denaturation, dehydration, hybridization, and washing were performed as described. Probe detection was achieved by incubating metaphase spreads sequentially with 2 [mu]g/ml avidin-Texas Red, 5 [mu]g/ml biotinylated goat anti-avidin antibody, and 2 [mu]g/ml avidin-Texas Red. R-banding was revealed after incubation with fluorescein-labeled anti-BrdU mouse monoclonal antibody. Chromosomes were counter-stained with 0.06 [mu]g/ml DAPI in Citifluor. Analysis of 40 metaphase spreads showed paired signals on both copies of chromosome 13 at band 13q33. No other paired signals were seen consistently on any other chromosome. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Hiroto; Le Beau, M.M.; Fernald, A.A.

    1996-08-15

    Complementary DNA clones encoding human hexokinase III were isolated from a liver cDNA library. There was 84.7% identity between the amino acid sequences of human and rat hexokinase III. RNA blotting showed the presence of hexokinase III mRNA in liver and lung. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome 5, band q35.2. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Gene amplification of ESR1 in breast cancers--fact or fiction? A fluorescence in situ hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification study.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Akishi; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Harada, Shinichi; Inazawa, Johji; Tajiri, Ryousuke; Kitamura, Seiko Sawada-; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kawashima, Hiroko; Dobashi, Yoh

    2012-05-01

    Oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), encoded by the ESR1 gene located on 6q25, is a nuclear transcription factor. Since it was reported in 2007 that more than 20% of breast cancers show ESR1 gene amplification, there has been considerable controversy about its frequency and clinical significance. We set out to assess the frequency and levels of ESR1 amplification in breast cancers. In a total of 106 breast needle biopsy specimens examined by immunohistochemistry, 78 tumours contained more than 10% ERα-positive cancer cells. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with an ESR1-specific probe, variously extended ESR1 signals were found in ERα-expressing cells. Some of these were indistinguishable from large clustered signals generally accepted to mean high-level gene amplification in homogeneously staining regions (HSRs), and could be considered to represent gene amplification. However, with RNase treatment, the 'HSR-like' signals changed to small compact signals, and are thus thought to represent concentrated RNA. FISH using two differently labelled probes corresponding to the non-overlapping 5'- and 3'-end portions of the ESR1 gene on touch smears showed a preserved spatial relationship of the 3' to 5' sequence of ESR1, therefore strongly suggesting that the RNA consisted of primary transcripts. Using touch smears obtained from 51 fresh tumours, precise enumeration of ESR1 signals with a correction by the number of centromere 6 on FISH after RNase A treatment revealed that three tumours (5.9%) had tumour cells with one to three additional copies of ESR1 as predominant subpopulations. This infrequent and low level of gene amplification of ESR1 was also detected as a 'gain' of the gene by analysis with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The consistent results from immunohistochemistry, FISH, and MLPA in the present study settle the long-standing debate concerning gene amplification of ESR1 in breast carcinoma. PMID:22170254

  18. Evidence of Multiple Treponema Phylotypes Involved in Bovine Digital Dermatitis as Shown by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization?

    PubMed Central

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Boye, Mette; Capion, Nynne; Jensen, Tim K.

    2008-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of the skin disease digital dermatitis (DD), an important cause of lameness in cattle, remains uncertain. Microscopically, the disease appears to be polymicrobial, with spirochetes as the predominant bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify the main part of the bacteria involved in DD lesions of cattle by using culture-independent molecular methods. Ten different phylotypes of Treponema were identified either by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria from DD lesions or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using phylotype-specific 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes. Two phylotypes, phylotype 1 (PT1) and PT2, were not closely related to any characterized treponemal species. PT7 was 99.3% identical to Treponema denticola, while PT9 resembled T. vincentii by 96%. The remaining phylotypes, PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT8, and Treponema brennaborense had previously been isolated from DD lesions. Forty DD biopsy specimens were examined for Treponema by FISH. With one exception, all of the biopsy specimens revealed epidermotropic, intermingled infection with three or more different phylotypes (mean, 4.7). The most prevalent species were PT1 (95%), PT6 (93%), and PT3 (85%). While colonization by PT3 was confined to the surface of the epidermis, both PT1 and PT6 invaded deep into the stratum spinosum and were seen in ulcerated dermal papillae. In two cases, all 10 phylotypes were demonstrated. Furthermore, FISH with a Treponema group-specific probe showed that Treponema accounted for more than 90% of the total bacterial population in the biopsy specimens. These data strongly suggest that a group of apparently symbiotic Treponema species are involved as primary bacterial pathogens in DD. PMID:18562583

  19. Validation of a Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Method Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Clarithromycin Resistance in Gastric Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Laura; Fernandes, Ricardo M.; Ferreira, Rui M.; Oleastro, Mónica; Carneiro, Fátima; Brandão, Catarina; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Figueiredo, Céu; Keevil, Charles W.; Vieira, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we evaluated a previously established peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method as a new diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance detection in paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens. Both a retrospective study and a prospective cohort study were conducted to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of a PNA-FISH method to determine H. pylori clarithromycin resistance. In the retrospective study (n = 30 patients), full agreement between PNA-FISH and PCR-sequencing was observed. Compared to the reference method (culture followed by Etest), the specificity and sensitivity of PNA-FISH were 90.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57.1% to 99.5%) and 84.2% (95% CI, 59.5% to 95.8%), respectively. In the prospective cohort (n = 93 patients), 21 cases were positive by culture. For the patients harboring clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori, the method showed sensitivity of 80.0% (95% CI, 29.9% to 98.9%) and specificity of 93.8% (95% CI, 67.7% to 99.7%). These values likely represent underestimations, as some of the discrepant results corresponded to patients infected by more than one strain. PNA-FISH appears to be a simple, quick, and accurate method for detecting H. pylori clarithromycin resistance in paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. It is also the only one of the methods assessed here that allows direct and specific visualization of this microorganism within the biopsy specimens, a characteristic that allowed the observation that cells of different H. pylori strains can subsist in very close proximity in the stomach. PMID:23596234

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method using a peptide nucleic acid probe for identification of Salmonella spp. in a broad spectrum of samples.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C; Azevedo, N F; Fernandes, R M; Keevil, C W; Vieira, M J

    2010-07-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. using a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe was developed. The probe theoretical specificity and sensitivity were both 100%. The PNA-FISH method was optimized, and laboratory testing on representative strains from the Salmonella genus subspecies and several related bacterial species confirmed the predicted theoretical values of specificity and sensitivity. The PNA-FISH method has been successfully adapted to detect cells in suspension and is hence able to be employed for the detection of this bacterium in blood, feces, water, and powdered infant formula (PIF). The blood and PIF samples were artificially contaminated with decreasing pathogen concentrations. After the use of an enrichment step, the PNA-FISH method was able to detect 1 CFU per 10 ml of blood (5 x 10(9) +/- 5 x 10(8) CFU/ml after an overnight enrichment step) and also 1 CFU per 10 g of PIF (2 x 10(7) +/- 5 x 10(6) CFU/ml after an 8-h enrichment step). The feces and water samples were also enriched according to the corresponding International Organization for Standardization methods, and results showed that the PNA-FISH method was able to detect Salmonella immediately after the first enrichment step was conducted. Moreover, the probe was able to discriminate the bacterium in a mixed microbial population in feces and water by counter-staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). This new method is applicable to a broad spectrum of samples and takes less than 20 h to obtain a diagnosis, except for PIF samples, where the analysis takes less than 12 h. This procedure may be used for food processing and municipal water control and also in clinical settings, representing an improved alternative to culture-based techniques and to the existing Salmonella PNA probe, Sal23S10, which presents a lower specificity. PMID:20453122

  1. Large-scale polymorphism near the ends of several human chromosomes analyzed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C.; Giorgi, D.

    1994-09-01

    We have discovered a large DNA segment that is polymorphically present at the ends of several human chromosomes. The segment, f7501, was originally derived form a human chromosome 19-specific cosmid library. FISH was used to determine the cosmid`s chromosomal distribution on 44 unrelated humans and several closely related primates. The human subjects represent a diversity of reproductively isolated ethnic populations. FISH analysis revealed that sequences highly homologous to the cosmid`s insert are present on both homologs at 3q, 15q,. and 19p in almost all individuals (88, 85, and 87 of 88 homologs, respectively). Other chromosomes sites were labeled much more rarely in the sampled individuals. For example, 56 of the 88 analyzed chromosomes 11 were labeled (18+/+, 6-/-, and 20+/- individuals). In contrast, 2q was labeled on only 1/88 sampled chromosomes. The termini of 2q, 5q, 6p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 9p, 9q, 11p, 12q, 16p, 19q, and 20q and an interstitial site at 2q13-14 were labeled in at least one individual of the set. EcoR1-fragments derived from the cosmid showed the same hybridization pattern as the entire cosmid, indicating that at least 40 kbp is shared by these chromosome ends. Ethnic differences in the allele frequency of these polymorphic variants was observed. For example, signals were observed on 8/10 and 7/10 of the chromosomes 7p and 16q, respectively, derived form Biakan Pygmies, but these sites were infrequently labeled in non-Pygmy human populations (2/68, respectively). This region has undergone significant changes in chromosome location during human evolution. Strong signal was seen on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosome 3, which is homologous to human chromosome 4, a chromosome unlabeled in any of the humans we have analyzed.

  2. Evidence for cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization risk stratification of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in the era of novel therapie.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prashant; Fonseca, Rafael; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Sinha, Shirshendu; Gertz, Morie A; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David D; Ketterling, Rhett P; Buadi, Francis; Kyle, Robert A; Witzig, Thomas E; Greipp, Philip R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kumar, Shaji

    2010-06-01

    Overall survival (OS) has improved with increasing use of novel agents in multiple myeloma (MM). However, the disease course remains highly variable, and the heterogeneity largely reflects different genetic abnormalities. We studied the impact of the Mayo risk-stratification model of MM on patient outcome in the era of novel therapies, evaluating each individual component of the model-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), conventional cytogenetics (CG), and the plasma cell labeling index-that segregates patients into high- and standard-risk categories. This report consists of 290 patients with newly diagnosed MM, predominantly treated with novel agents, who were risk-stratified at diagnosis and were followed up for OS. Of these patients, 81% had received primarily thalidomide (n=50), lenalidomide (n=199), or bortezomib (n=79) as frontline or salvage therapies. Our retrospective analysis validates the currently proposed Mayo risk-stratification model (median OS, 37 months vs not reached for high- and standard-risk patients, respectively; P=.003). Although the FISH or CG test identifies a high-risk cohort with hazard ratios of 2.1 (P=.006) and 2.5 (P=.006), respectively, the plasma cell labeling index cutoff of 3% fails to independently prognosticate patient risk (hazard ratio, 1.4; P=.41). In those stratified as standard-risk by one of the 2 tests (FISH or CG), the other test appears to be of additional prognostic significance. This study validates the high-risk features defined by FISH and CG in the Mayo risk-stratification model for patients with MM predominantly treated with novel therapies based on immunomodulatory agents. PMID:20511484

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Have Comparable Performance Characteristics in the Analysis of Pancreaticobiliary Brushings for Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Jonathan C; Zheng, Zongli; McDonald, Thomas; Le, Long P; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Borger, Darrell; Batten, Julie; Vernovsky, Kathy; Sweeney, Brenda; Arpin, Ronald N; Brugge, William R; Forcione, David G; Pitman, Martha B; Iafrate, A John

    2016-01-01

    Cytological evaluation of pancreatic or biliary duct brushings is a specific, but insensitive, test for malignancy. We compared adjunctive molecular testing with next-generation sequencing (NGS) relative to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of high-risk neoplasia or malignancy. Bile duct brushings from 81 specimens were subjected to cytological analysis, FISH using the UroVysion probe set, and targeted NGS. Specimens were placed into negative/atypical (negative) or suspicious/positive (positive) categories depending on cytology and negative or positive categories on the basis of FISH and NGS results. Performance characteristics for each diagnostic modality were calculated on the basis of clinicopathologic follow-up and compared in a receiver operating characteristic analysis. There were 33 high-risk neoplasia/malignant strictures (41%) and 48 benign (59%). NGS revealed driver mutations in 24 cases (30%), including KRAS (21 of 24 cases), TP53 (14 of 24 cases), SMAD4 (6 of 24 cases), and CDKN2A (4 of 24 cases). Cytology had a sensitivity of 67% (95% CI, 48%-82%) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 89%-100%). When added to cytology, NGS increased the sensitivity to 85% (95% CI, 68%-95%), leading to a significant increase in the area under the curve in a receiver operating characteristic analysis (P = 0.03). FISH increased the sensitivity to 76% (95% CI, 58%-89%), without significantly increasing the area under the curve. These results suggest that ancillary NGS testing offers advantages over FISH, although studies with larger cohorts are needed to verify these findings. PMID:26596524

  4. Reliability Evaluation of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and G-Banding on Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Cells in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Manaflouyan Khajehmarjany, Soheila; Rahmani, Seyed Ali; Chavoshi, Seyed Hadi; Esfahani, Ali; Movassaghpour Akbari, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease. The cytogenetic hallmark of CML is Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. This study aimed to diagnose suspected CML patients, to monitor CML patients under therapy using cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to analyze their bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples, and finally to compare their obtained results for both specimens. This study was conducted during one-year period (2012-2013). The participants were recruited from the Hematology and Oncology Clinic of Shahid Gazi (Emam Reza) Hospital of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. We analyzed 90 samples from 60 suspected CML patients (30 BM and 60 PB samples). All samples were analyzed using G-banding, 5 samples using dual fusion FISH (DF-FISH) probes, as well as 30 samples using both FISH and G-banding. Among the 90 analyzed samples of 60 patients, 25 (41.66%) were Ph+ using karyotyping, whereas five cases were not analyzable, so FISH was applied and the results confirmed that only two individuals were BCR-ABL+. In the comparison between 25 BM and 25 PB samples using karyotyping, 15 (60%) and 10 (40%) were ph+, respectively. The comparison of FISH and karyotyping on 30 samples showed that 9 (30%) and 8 (26.66%) were Ph+, respectively, and only 18.18% of Ph+ patients showed atypical patterns. In the comparison between BM-cytogenetic and PB- interphase-FISH (I-FISH), BM-cytogenetic was more reliable than PB-I-FISH in detecting Ph. Our data demonstrate that FISH analysis is a rapid, reliable and sensitive technique. The comparison between BM and PB showed that PB can not be replaced by BM, even in detecting by FISH. PMID:25870848

  5. Quantitative Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Russell J.; Curtis, Thomas P.; Goodfellow, Michael; Stainsby, Fiona M.; Bingley, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical analyses showed that a lipase-based permeabilization method was quantitatively superior to previously described methods (P << 0.05). When mixed liquor and foam samples were examined, most of the mycolata present were rods or cocci, although filamentous mycolata were also observed. A nested analysis of variance showed that virtually all of the measured variance occurred between fields of view and not between samples. On this basis we determined that as few as five fields of view could be used to give a statistically meaningful sample. Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to examine the relationship between foaming and the concentration of mycolata in a 20-m3 completely mixed activated sludge plant. Foaming occurred when the number of mycolata exceeded a certain threshold value. Baffling of the plant affected foaming without affecting the number of mycolata. We tentatively estimated that the threshold foaming concentration of mycolata was about 2 × 106 cells ml?1 or 4 × 1012 cells m?2. We concluded that quantitative use of FISH is feasible and that quantification is a prerequisite for rational investigation of foaming in activated sludge. PMID:10698786

  6. Identification of a microdeletion at 7q21.3 with fluorescence in situ hybridization in a patient with split hand/split foot (ectrodactyly)

    SciTech Connect

    Hudgins, L.; Massa, H.; Disteche, C.

    1994-09-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF), often referred to as ectrodactyly or lobster claw deformity, is a human developmental disorder characterized by a deep median cleft of the hands and feet, missing digits, and fusion of remaining digits. This anomaly can be seen alone, frequently autosomal dominant, or in association with other abnormalities. One locus for this defect has been localized to chromosome 7q21.3-q22.1. We report a patient with SHSF plus mental retardation, short stature and dysmorphic features who was found to have a microdeletion at this locus detected only with the aid of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). T.H. is a 7 y.o. male who was referred for evaluation of foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. History was remarkable for growth retardation of postnatal onset and hypotonia. Renal ultrasound and audiology evaluation were normal. Physical exam revealed dysplastic ears, micrognathia, long philtrum, high narrow palate, and malformations of the feet consistent with SHSF. Family history was negative for limb abnormalities and mental retardation. A number of patients with SHSF and other anomalies have been found to have deletions involving chromosome 7q21-q22; therefore, high resolution chromosome analysis was performed in T.H. but was inconclusive. Cosmids and yeast artificial chromosomes which we had previously mapped to the SHSF critical region were used as FISH probes and a microdeletion was detected. We were thus able to determine the etiology of this child`s abnormalities and provide accurate genetic counseling, which would not have been possible with standard cytogenetic techniques. This technique also allowed us to further refine the SHSF critical region. This case illustrates the utility of FISH for the rapid identification of suspect microdeletions in SHSF. This approach should also be useful as an expeditious way of defining the critical regions for the location of genes which give rise to other developmental malformations.

  7. Male infertility and copy number variants (CNVs) in the dog: a two-pronged approach using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility affects ~10-15% of couples trying to have children, in which the rate of male fertility problems is approximately at 30-50%. Copy number variations (CNVs) are DNA sequences greater than or equal to 1 kb in length sharing a high level of similarity, and present at a variable number of copies in the genome; in our study, we used the canine species as an animal model to detect CNVs responsible for male infertility. We aim to identify CNVs associated with male infertility in the dog genome with a two-pronged approach: we performed a sperm analysis using the CASA system and a cytogenetic-targeted analysis on genes involved in male gonad development and spermatogenesis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using dog-specific clones. This analysis was carried out to evaluate possible correlations between CNVs on targeted genes and spermatogenesis impairments or infertility factors. Results We identified two genomic regions hybridized by BACs CH82-321J09 and CH82-509B23 showing duplication patterns in all samples except for an azoospermic dog. These two regions harbor two important genes for spermatogenesis: DNM2 and TEKT1. The genomic region encompassed by the BAC clone CH82-324I01 showed a single-copy pattern in all samples except for one dog, assessed with low-quality sperm, displaying a marked duplication pattern. This genomic region harbors SOX8, a key gene for testis development. Conclusion We present the first study involving functional and genetic analyses in male infertility. We set up an extremely reliable analysis on dog sperm cells with a highly consistent statistical significance, and we succeeded in conducting FISH experiments on sperm cells using BAC clones as probes. We found copy number differences in infertile compared with fertile dogs for genomic regions encompassing TEKT1, DNM2, and SOX8, suggesting those genes could have a role if deleted or duplicated with respect to the reference copy number in fertility biology. This method is of particular interest in the dog due to the recognized role of this species as an animal model for the study of human genetic diseases and could be useful for other species of economic interest and for endangered animal species. PMID:24373333

  8. Variant three-way translocation of inversion 16 in AML-M4Eo confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Climent, J A; Comes, A M; Vizcarra, E; Reshmi, S; Benet, I; Marugan, I; Tormo, M; Terol, M J; Solano, C; Arbona, C; Prosper, F; Barragan, E; Bolufer, P; Rowley, J D; García-Conde, J

    1999-04-15

    The inv(16) and t(16;16) characterize a subgroup of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML) with distinct morphological features and a favorable prognosis. Both cytogenetic abnormalities result in a fusion of CBF beta at 16q22 and MYH11 gene at 16p13, whose detection by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is useful for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Variant translocations of inv(16)/t(16;16) are very rare and whether they are also associated with a favorable prognosis is unknown. We report a patient presenting with typical AML-M4Eo and a three-way translocation of inv(16) involving 16p13, 16q22, and 3q22. FISH studies on bone marrow (BM) chromosomes using CBFB and MYH11 DNA probes revealed a fusion of CBFB and MYH11 on 16q of the der(16), as well as a signal from MYH11 on 16p but not from CBFB; normal signals for both probes were present on the normal 16. Neither of these labeled probes was on the der(3), but the translocation between the der(3) and der(16) was confirmed by using a chromosome 16 painting probe. Molecular analysis of BM cells using RT-PCR identified a CBFB-MYH11 fusion transcript type D. After achieving complete remission, the patient relapsed. We conclude that FISH and PCR are feasible tools to distinguish cases with variant abnormalities of inv(16) from cases with other chromosome 16 abnormalities. Variant abnormalities of inv(16) may be not associated with favorable prognosis. PMID:10214358

  9. The use of peroxidase-mediated deposition of biotin-tyramide in combination with time-resolved fluorescence imaging of europium chelate label in immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    de Haas, R R; Verwoerd, N P; van der Corput, M P; van Gijlswijk, R P; Siitari, H; Tanke, H J

    1996-10-01

    The application of europium chelates as delayed fluorescent labels in FISH and immunocytochemistry is hampered by their relatively low quantum yield. To increase the intensity of the delayed fluorescence, we have used a recently introduced peroxidase-mediated amplification system. This system results in a large accumulation of biotin-tyramide, which is detected using streptavidin-europium chelate as label. Optimal staining conditions were evaluated for the immunocytochemical detection of vimentin in cryosections of rat liver, for DNA in situ hybridization (alphoid type probes and 40-KB cosmid probes), and for RNA in situ hybridization (detection of 28S ribosomal RNA, human elongation factor mRNA, and luciferase mRNA). Using a time-resolved fluorescence microscope, intense europium fluorescence was obtained in all these applications when the tyramide amplification system was applied. The signals were strong enough to be observed by eye using the microscope in the time-delayed mode. The routine application of this technique for localization and quantization of antigens or nucleic acid sequences in tissue exhibiting strong autofluorescence is discussed. PMID:8813073

  10. Rat karyotyping by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): Localization of oncogene c-raf to 4q42, retinoblastoma antioncogene to 15q12, and mitochondrial D-loop-like sequences to the Y chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, S.; Upender, M.

    1995-02-10

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to karyotype the rat genome with long interspersed repetitive elements (LINEs). Two-color FISH experiments were used to localize the rat c-raf oncogene to 4q42 and the rat retinoblastoma anti-oncogene to 15q12. In addition, sequences similar to the rat mitochondrial origin of replication (D-loop-like sequences) have been found to be concentrated among repetitive element sequences on the Y chromosome. This report extends hybridization-based karyotype technology to the rat, thus facilitating the application of FISH to rat gene mapping. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Comparative study between quantitative digital image analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization of breast cancer equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 score 2+ cases

    PubMed Central

    Ayad, Essam; Mansy, Mina; Elwi, Dalal; Salem, Mostafa; Salama, Mohamed; Kayser, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimization of workflow for breast cancer samples with equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2)/neu score 2+ results in routine practice, remains to be a central focus of the on-going efforts to assess HER2 status. According to the College of American Pathologists/American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines equivocal HER2/neu score 2+ cases are subject for further testing, usually by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigations. It still remains on open question, whether quantitative digital image analysis of HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained slides can assist in further refining the HER2 score 2+. Aim of this Work: To assess utility of quantitative digital analysis of IHC stained slides and compare its performance to FISH in cases of breast cancer with equivocal HER2 score 2+. Materials and Methods: Fifteen specimens (previously diagnosed as breast cancer and was evaluated as HER 2- score 2+) represented the study population. Contemporary new cuts were prepared for re-evaluation of HER2 immunohistochemical studies and FISH examination. All the cases were digitally scanned by iScan (Produced by BioImagene [Now Roche-Ventana]). The IHC signals of HER2 were measured using an automated image analyzing system (MECES, www.Diagnomx.eu/meces). Finally, a comparative study was done between the results of the FISH and the quantitative analysis of the virtual slides. Results: Three out of the 15 cases with equivocal HER2 score 2+, turned out to be positive (3+) by quantitative digital analysis, and 12 were found to be negative in FISH too. Two of these three positive cases proved to be positive with FISH, and only one was negative. Conclusions: Quantitative digital analysis is highly sensitive and relatively specific when compared to FISH in detecting HER2/neu overexpression. Therefore, it represents a potential reliable substitute for FISH in breast cancer cases, which desire further refinement of equivocal IHC results. PMID:26110098

  12. Targeting the Treponemal Microbiome of Digital Dermatitis Infections by High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses and Comparison with Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Foix Bretó, Antoni; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K.

    2013-01-01

    Modern pyrosequencing technology allows for a more comprehensive approach than traditional Sanger sequencing for elucidating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of treponemes in digital dermatitis lesions by using deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. Treponema-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs and pyrosequencing were performed on biopsy specimens originating from 10 different Catalan dairy herds (n = 36) with digital dermatitis, and this analysis yielded 75,297 sequences. We identified 20 different taxa, including a potentially novel phylotype that displayed 95% sequence identity to members of the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like cluster. Species frequencies and abundances that were determined by pyrosequencing analysis were highly correlated with the results of fluorescent in situ hybridization using phylotype-specific oligonucleotide probes. In a limited number of animals from a single geographic region, we detected most of the Treponema phylotypes that were described in previous investigations of digital dermatitis. Additionally, we identified a number of phylotypes that mapped to oral treponemes of humans and dogs that had not been reported for digital dermatitis lesions. The results presented here support previous observations of a polytreponemal etiology of infections, with Treponema phagedenis-like, Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, and T. denticola/T. pedis-like phylotypes being highly associated with disease. Using this new approach, it has become feasible to study large herds and their surrounding environments, which might provide a basis for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:23658264

  13. Comparative study of ProEx C immunocytochemistry and UroVysion fluorescent in-situ hybridization assays on urine cytology specimens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sue; Smith, Elaine; Levin, Mary; Rao, Jian-Yu; Moatamed, Neda A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of urothelial carcinoma (UC) by urine cytology can be challenging. Recently, ProEx C has been studied as a marker to improve detection of UC. ProEx C is an assay targeting expression of topoisomerase IIa and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and is currently utilized to assist in diagnoses of the gynecological specimens. In this study, we compared the utility of ProEx C and UroVysion in urine specimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven urine specimens with UroVysion assay analysis and surgical biopsy follow-up were selected. The smears were stained with ProEx C. ProEx C and UroVysion assay results were separated into two categories based on surgical biopsy follow-up (benign or neoplastic). Surgical biopsy diagnoses were used as the gold standard for comparative evaluation of the two assays. The surgical follow-up was 9 benign, 2 low grade, and 16 high grade UCs. Results: The sensitivity was 88.9% for ProEx C and 55.6% for UroVysion, while the specificity was 77.8% for ProEx C and 44.4% for UroVysion. Positive predictive value was 88.9% for ProEx C and 66.7% for UroVysion. Negative predictive value was 77.8% and 33.3% for ProEx C and UroVysion, respectively. Using the two-tailed paired t-test, P value of 0.033 was obtained when ProEx C stain was compared with the UroVysion assay. Conclusion: ProEx C immunocytochemistry has a more favorable performance than fluorescent in-situ hybridization with a significant difference between the two assays using paired two-tail t-test (P = 0.0033). PMID:25685171

  14. Superiority of fluorescent in situ hybridization over immunohistochemistry in detection of HER2 gene in carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with and without schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hindawi, All; Mosaad, Maha; Akl, Maha; Khalil, Heba; Al Ganzoury, Hossam; Badawy, Mohamed; Elesaily, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    HER2 is an oncogene encoding a type 1 tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor and the role of HER2 in the development of numerous types of human cancer is still understood and correlates with clinical outcome, poor prognosis, it is a predictor factor for poor response to chemotherapy. HER2 overexpression is associated with reduced disease free and overall survival. Patients who have HER2 negative expression have a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the accuracy of detection of expression of HER2 protein by two different techniques of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The two techniques were applied to sixty two patients that included different cell types of carcinoma of the bladder, benign bilharzial lesions and control. Characteristics of the 62 patients are: 10 chronic cystitis, 19 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with schistosomiasis, 33 urothelial carcinoma (UC) schistosomal and non-schistosomal, ten healthy individuals without schistosomiasis served as controls. Gene amplification of HER2 was done using FISH and protein expression of HER2 by IHC. The study was applied on archival data of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and patient clinical data and follow up for 5 years. Overexpression of HER2 protein was found in 30/52 (57.7%). Fourteen cases had score of 2+, and sixteen cases had score of 3+. Using FISH technique it showed more accurate detection of HER2 gene as those fourteen cases who had score of 2+ had been found to be 5 out of 14 were positive for gene over expression, the other sixteen who had score of 3+ all were positive for gene amplification. HER2 protein and gene was found to be significantly overexpressed in carcinoma of the bladder in both cell types SCC and UC with or without schistosomiasis compared to the benign lesions and control groups (P <0.01) by both techniques. There is significant increase in expression of HER2 protein and gene in SCC compared to UC (P< 0.01). In UC overexpression of HER2 protein and gene was evident in all stages Ta, T1, T2-4. HER2 protein and gene overexpressed in different grades of UC. In SCC HER2 protein and gene had overexpression in different stages and grades. PMID:25643513

  15. Chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon discovered by linkage mapping and supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geographical isolation has generated a distinct difference between Atlantic salmon of European and North American Atlantic origin. The European Atlantic salmon generally has 29 pairs of chromosomes and 74 chromosome arms whereas it has been reported that the North American Atlantic salmon has 27 chromosome pairs and an NF of 72. In order to predict the major chromosomal rearrangements causing these differences, we constructed a dense linkage map for Atlantic salmon of North American origin and compared it with the well-developed map for European Atlantic salmon. Results The presented male and female genetic maps for the North American subspecies of Atlantic salmon, contains 3,662 SNPs located on 27 linkage groups. The total lengths of the female and male linkage maps were 2,153?cM and 968?cM respectively, with males characteristically showing recombination only at the telomeres. We compared these maps with recently published SNP maps from European Atlantic salmon, and predicted three chromosomal reorganization events that we then tested using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The proposed rearrangements, which define the differences in the karyotypes of the North American Atlantic salmon relative to the European Atlantic salmon, include the translocation of the p arm of ssa01 to ssa23 and polymorphic fusions: ssa26 with ssa28, and ssa08 with ssa29. Conclusions This study identified major chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon. However, while gross structural differences were significant, the order of genetic markers at the fine-resolution scale was remarkably conserved. This is a good indication that information from the International Cooperation to Sequence the Atlantic salmon Genome, which is sequencing a European Atlantic salmon, can be transferred to Atlantic salmon from North America. PMID:22928605

  16. Use of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization to Predict Patient Response to BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer: Results of a Prospective Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Dickstein, Rian J.; Messetti, Fabrizio; Anderson, Roosevelt; Pretzsch, Shanna M.; Gonzalez, Graciela Noguera; Katz, Ruth L.; Khanna, Abha; Zaidi, Tanweer; Wu, Xifeng; Grossman, H. Barton; Dinney, Colin P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose No reliable methods currently exist to predict patient response to intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), given after transurethral resection for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We initiated a prospective clinical trial to determine whether fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results during BCG immunotherapy can predict therapy failure. Materials and Methods Candidates for standard of care BCG were offered participation in a clinical trial. FISH was performed prior to BCG and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months during BCG therapy with maintenance. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between FISH results and tumor recurrence or progression; the Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to estimate recurrence- and progression-free survival. Results One hundred twenty-six patients participated. At a median follow-up of 24 months, 31% of patients had recurrent tumors and 14% experienced disease progression. Patients who had positive FISH results during BCG therapy were 3-5 times more likely than those who had negative FISH results to develop recurrent tumors and 5-13 times more likely to experience disease progression (p < 0.01). The timing of positive FISH results also affected outcome; for example, patients with a negative FISH result at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months demonstrated an 8.3% recurrence rate, compared to 48.1% in those with a positive FISH result at all three time points. Conclusions FISH results can identify patients who are at risk of tumor recurrence and progression during BCG immunotherapy. This information may be used to counsel patients about alternative treatment strategies. PMID:22245325

  17. Detection of two different mRNAs in a single section by dual in situ hybridization: a comparison between colorimetric and fluorescent detection.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Aymerich, María S; Castle, María M; Pérez-Manso, Mónica; Tuñón, Teresa; Erro, Elena; Lanciego, José L

    2007-05-15

    We have compared the performance of two methods designed to simultaneously detect two different mRNAs within a single brain section by dual ISH. Specific mRNA riboprobes labeled with biotin and digoxigenin were simultaneously hybridized and visualized using either brightfield or fluorescence microscopy. For brightfield visualization, the biotin-labeled riboprobe was detected with a peroxidase chromogen, whereas, an alkaline phosphatase substrate was used for the detection of the digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe. Dual fluorescent ISH involved the detection of the biotin-labeled riboprobe with an Alexa((R))488-conjugated streptavidin followed by the visualization of the digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe with the red fluorescent substrate HNPP. The dual ISH protocols presented here offer sensitive methods to detect the expression of two mRNAs of interest, with both colorimetric and fluorescent ISH each having its strengths and limitations. For example, dual colorimetric ISH has proven to be particularly useful to study the distribution of two mRNAs in different brain nuclei, whereas, dual fluorescent ISH has provided better results when studying the co-localization of two different mRNAs in single neurons. The comprehensive step-by-step procedure is presented, together with a troubleshooting section in which the advantages and limitations of these procedures are reviewed in depth. Moreover, alternative protocols for dual ISH were also compared to those presented here. PMID:17306886

  18. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes for enumeration of specific chromosomes in human cells.

    PubMed

    Taneja, K L; Chavez, E A; Coull, J; Lansdorp, P M

    2001-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes have significant advantages over conventional synthetic RNA or DNA probes in FISH procedures for detecting telomeric and trinucleotide repeat sequences. Here, we report that directly labeled PNA probes recognizing chromosome-specific repeat sequences are also powerful tools for detecting and enumerating specific chromosomes in interphase and metaphase cells. This is illustrated by multicolor FISH experiments with cells from normal individuals and patients with numerical sex chromosome aberrations. PMID:11107176

  19. High resolution chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients referred for Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    Laboratory testing is helpful in the evaluation of patients suspected to have either Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) or Angelman syndrome (AS) because most of the patients have recognizable cytogenetic deletions of 15q11q13. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, identified by molecular genetic techniques, is found in about 20 to 25% of PWS patients. Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 is seen in 2 to 3% of AS patients. Thus, PWS and AS represent the first examples in humans of genetic imprinting or the differential expression of genetic information depending on the parental origin. Herein, I report our experience with FISH and high resolution chromosome analysis in patients referred to confirm or rule out PWS or AS. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Karyotype analysis and visualization of 45S rRNA genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization in aroids (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Prabhu Shankar; Van Laere, Katrijn; Eeckhaut, Tom; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Karyotype analysis and FISH mapping using 45S rDNA sequences on 6 economically important plant species Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André, 1877, Monstera deliciosa Liebmann, 1849, Philodendron scandens Koch & Sello, 1853, Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel, 1877, Syngonium auritum (Linnaeus, 1759) Schott, 1829 and Zantedeschia elliottiana (Knight, 1890) Engler, 1915 within the monocotyledonous family Araceae (aroids) were performed. Chromosome numbers varied between 2n=2x=24 and 2n=2x=60 and the chromosome length varied between 15.77 µm and 1.87 µm. No correlation between chromosome numbers and genome sizes was observed for the studied genera. The chromosome formulas contained only metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, except for Philodendron scandens in which also telocentric and subtelocentric chromosomes were observed. The highest degree of compaction was calculated for Spathiphyllum wallisii (66.49Mbp/µm). B-chromosome-like structures were observed in Anthurium andraeanum. Their measured size was 1.87 times smaller than the length of the shortest chromosome. After FISH experiments, two 45S rDNA sites were observed in 5 genera. Only in Zantedeschia elliottiana, 4 sites were seen. Our results showed clear cytogenetic differences among genera within Araceae, and are the first molecular cytogenetics report for these genera. These chromosome data and molecular cytogenetic information are useful in aroid breeding programmes, systematics and evolutionary studies. PMID:26140158

  1. Localization of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease, in its pysllid vector using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) bacterium has been strongly associated with huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, which is currently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri in a persistent manner but its interac...

  2. Genomic In Situ Hybridization (GISH) as a Tool to Identify Chromosomes of Parental Species in Sunflower Interspecific Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific hybridization has been widely used to transfer genes from wild species into cultivated sunflower. Fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) has been used to identify alien chromosomes or segments in other crops, but an equivalent technique for sunflower is lacking. The objective...

  3. Unknown partner for USP6 and unusual SS18 rearrangement detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a solid aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Geiersbach, Katherine; Rector, Lyndsey S; Sederberg, Maria; Hooker, Ana; Randall, R Lor; Schiffman, Joshua D; South, Sarah T

    2011-04-01

    USP6 rearrangement is the most common genetic abnormality in primary aneurysmal bone cyst, and SS18 rearrangement has not been previously described in any type of tumor where synovial sarcoma was excluded from the differential diagnosis. We report a case of solid aneurysmal bone cyst in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated rearrangements of both USP6 and SS18, but histologic features were consistent with aneurysmal bone cyst throughout the lesion. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the SS18-SSX1 and SS18-SSX2 translocations, identity testing, and SS18 FISH were performed on cytogenetic monolayer cultures and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Genomic microarray, FISH, and immunohistochemistry were performed on follow-up studies of the FFPE specimen. The karyotype was 45,X,add(X)(p11.2),add(4)(q13),add(8)(p21),-13,add(17)(p11.2),add(18)(q11.2) in all 20 cells analyzed from monolayer cultures. The karyotype showed no cytogenetically visible alterations of chromosomal regions harboring known partners for USP6. Metaphase FISH with a commercial SS18 break-apart probe showed translocation of the 5' portion of the SS18 probe to the short arm of the derivative X, as is observed in synovial sarcoma. RT-PCR showed no evidence of a SS18-SSX fusion, and immunohistochemistry was negative for TLE1, EMA, and cytokeratin AE1/3 expression. FISH on FFPE sections with a custom break-apart probe flanking USP6 showed evidence for a USP6 rearrangement throughout the tumor (25-50%). FISH on FFPE sections with a commercial SS18 break-apart FISH probe showed more variable results (0-50% split signals). There was no evidence of a SS18-USP6 fusion by FISH or RT-PCR. A molecular inversion probe array revealed a deletion encompassing the entire SS18 gene and its promoter, as well as portions of the region targeted by the commercial SS18 FISH probe. In conclusion, results obtained from commercially available FISH probes may occasionally yield misleading results. In this case, the SS18 rearrangement by FISH resulted from a complex rearrangement of 18q11.2 with a deletion of the SS18 gene. The translocation partner for USP6 remains unknown in this case. PMID:21536237

  4. The comparative utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Thway, Khin; Wang, Jayson; Wren, Dorte; Dainton, Melissa; Gonzalez, David; Swansbury, John; Fisher, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for FOXO1 gene rearrangement and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion transcripts have become routine ancillary tools for the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (ARMS). Here we summarize our experience of these adjunct diagnostic modalities at a tertiary center, presenting the largest comparative series of FISH and PCR for suspected or possible ARMS to date. All suspected or possible ARMS tested by FISH or PCR for FOXO1 rearrangement or PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion transcripts over a 7-year period were included. FISH and PCR results were correlated with clinical and histologic findings. One hundred samples from 95 patients had FISH and/or PCR performed. FISH had higher rates of technical success (96.8 %) compared with PCR (88 %). Where both tests were utilized successfully, there was high concordance rate between them (94.9 %). In 24 histologic ARMS tested for FISH or PCR, 83.3 % were translocation-positive (all for PAX3-FOXO1 by PCR) and included 3 histologic solid variants. In 76 cases where ARMS was excluded, there were 3 potential false-positive cases with FISH but none with PCR. PCR had similar sensitivity (85.7 %) and better specificity (100 %) in aiding the diagnosis of ARMS, compared with FISH (85 and 95.8 %, respectively). All solid variant ARMS harbored FOXO1 gene rearrangements and PAX3-FOXO1 ARMS were detected to the exclusion of PAX7-FOXO1. In comparative analysis, both FISH and PCR are useful in aiding the diagnosis of ARMS and excluding its sarcomatous mimics. FISH is more reliable technically but has less specificity than PCR. In cases where ARMS is in the differential diagnosis, it is optimal to perform both PCR and FISH: both have similar sensitivities for detecting ARMS, but FISH may confirm or exclude cases that are technically unsuccessful with PCR, while PCR can detect specific fusion transcripts that may be useful prognostically. PMID:25912319

  5. HER-2/neu in breast cancer: interobserver variability and performance of immunohistochemistry with 4 antibodies compared with fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Thomson, T A; Hayes, M M; Spinelli, J J; Hilland, E; Sawrenko, C; Phillips, D; Dupuis, B; Parker, R L

    2001-11-01

    The immunohistochemistry (IHC) performance of 4 anti-HER-2/neu antibodies was compared with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of HER-2/neu gene expression in breast cancer patients considered for Herceptin (Trastuzumab) therapy. Interobserver variability in IHC interpretation was measured. Formalin-fixed tissue was received from 24 provincial hospital laboratories. The following anti-Her-2 antibodies were used: DAKO A0485 (polyclonal), Novacastra CB11 (monoclonal), Zymed TAB250 (monoclonal), and DAKO HercepTest (polyclonal). Additional sections were analyzed by FISH (Vysis). Three pathologists blinded to FISH results independently interpreted invasive tumor cell membranous staining on a scale of 0 to +3. The HER-2/neu gene was considered amplified when the FISH signal ratio of HER-2/CEP-17 was > or =2.0. Blocks from all hospitals and of all ages were suitable for IHC and FISH analysis. No interlaboratory analysis variability was noted. The interobserver agreement (kappa) for stain intensity for each antibody was good for 0 and +3 but poor for +1 and +2. Reasonable concordance between IHC and FISH was found with three of the four antibodies. TAB250 was the most sensitive antibody. For the three pathologists, the IHC sensitivities and specificities compared with FISH using 0/+1 as negative and +2/+3 as positive were as follows: A0485, 63-84/95-98; CB11, 63-66/97-98; TAB-250, 82-100/94-95; HercepTest, 59-77/91-93. The positive and negative predictive values varied by stain intensity. Stain scores of 0 and +3 were highly predictive of gene status. Stain scores of +1 and +2 were not sufficiently predictive to classify cases as amplified versus nonamplified. IHC is a reasonable first test to assess HER-2/neu status in patients with breast cancer. For most cases, DAKO A0485, TAB250, and HercepTest adequately predicted gene status. In cases with stain intensity of +1 or +2, the interobserver agreement is poor, and the predictive value is unsatisfactory for clinical use. Additional testing, preferably with FISH, is recommended. PMID:11706067

  6. DNA/DNA in situ hybridization with enzyme linked probes

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, S.; Mosher, M.; Charles, P.; Henry, S.; Taub, F.

    1987-05-01

    A non-radioactive in situ nucleic acid hybridization method which requires no antibodies, haptens, avidin or biotin intermediateries is presented. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled nucleic acid probes are hybridized in situ for 2 hours or less, followed by brief washing of hybridized cells and the direct detection of in situ hybrids with diaminobenzidine (DAB). Application of this method to the detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in human cells is shown.

  7. Deletion of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) in Prader-Willi syndrome detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Two sibs with the typical phenotype without a cytogenetic deletion in chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kibe, Tetsuya; Wada, Yoshiro

    1996-04-24

    The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene is regarded as one of the candidates for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We describe two sibs with typical PWS presenting deletion of SNRPN detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Neither a cytogenetically detectable 15q12 deletion nor a deletion for the D15S11, D15S10, and GABRB3 cosmid probes were found in either patient. This implies a smaller deletion limited to the PWS critical region. FISH with a SNRPN probe will permit analysis of PWS patients with limited deletions not detectable with other probes. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  9. Miller-Dieker syndrome associated with duplication of 17p13.3 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.; Martinez, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Miller-Dieker syndrome is characterized by profound mental retardation, craniofacial abnormalities, and lissencephaly (smooth brain). Microscopic or submicroscopic deletions of the 17p13.3 region have been reported in Miller-Dieker patients. We report a patient with this syndrome in whom a duplication of the 17p13.3 region was detected by FISH. The 9-year-old female proband was referred because of features of Miller-Dieker syndrome: microcephaly, profound psychomotor retardation, seizures, characteristic facies, and lissencephaly shown by MRI studies. High-resolution G-banding failed to demonstrate an abnormality in chromosome 17. However, FISH analysis with the DNA probe (Oncor No. 5101) specific for Miller-Dieker region of chromosome 17p13.3 demonstrated duplication of this segment instead of the classic deletion. We know of no other report of Miller-Dieker syndrome associated with duplication of 17p13.3. The family study revealed normal chromosomes in both parents by cytogenetic and FISH analysis. Our investigation suggests that duplications, as well as deletions, of the 17p13.3 region are associated with the Miller-Dieker syndrome. The presence of deletions or duplications of the same chromosomal region in patients with features of Miller-Dieker syndrome suggests that its pathogenesis may be due to gene dosage effects.

  10. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Final progress report, April 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The ultimate goal of this research is to generate and apply novel technologies to speed completion and integration of the human genome map and sequence with biomedical problems. To do this, techniques were developed and genome-wide resources generated. This includes a genome-wide Mapped and Integrated BAC/PAC Resource that has been used for gene finding, map completion and anchoring, breakpoint definition and sequencing. In the last period of the grant, the Human Mapped BAC/PAC Resource was also applied to determine regions of human variation and to develop a novel paradigm of primate evolution through to humans. Further, in order to more rapidly evaluate animal models of human disease, a BAC Map of the mouse was generated in collaboration with the MTI Genome Center, Dr. Bruce Birren.

  11. Assignment of the human glypican gene (GPC1) to 2q35-q37 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeesch, J.R.; Mertens, G.; David, G.

    1995-01-01

    Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans are composed of a membrane-associated protein core substituted with a variable number of heparan sulfate chains. Two different cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan families can be distinguished: the syndecan-like integral membrane proteoglycans (SLIPS), with a core protein spanning the cytoplasmic membrane; and the glypican-related integral membrane proteoglycans (GRIPS), with a core protein anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol. The functions of these cell surface proteoglycans remain elusive, but because of their interactions with specific proteins, they are believed to be implicated in cell adhesion, cell growth, and control of proteolytic and lipolytic pathways. Glypican is the only human glypiated heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has so far been identified by cloning. Due to its highly conserved sequence, it has been speculated that this protein may support an essential function. Glypican is differentially expressed in different cell types and tissues. It is abundant in the adult rat brain, where it occurs in subpopulations of projection neurons. At this site, it may stabilize and activate neurotrophic polypeptide growth factors and mediate neuronal adhesion mechanisms that are essential for neuronal survival and injury responses. To learn more about glypican and to study its possible association with hereditary neuronal disorders, we have identified its chromosomal location. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  13. A practical strategy for detection of major chromosome aneuploidies using ratio-mixing fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Mohaddes, S M; Boyd, E; Morris, A; Morrison, N; Connor, J M

    1996-04-01

    We describe the use of ratio-mixing FISH to visualize simultaneously probe sets specific for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 as well as both sex chromosomes in uncultured lymphocytes and amniocytes. This method has the advantage of a smaller sample requirement than uni-colour FISH and potential for analysis of a larger number of chromosome aneuploidies using a minimum number of different probe haptenization and detection systems. An unselected series of uncultured lymphocytes and amniocytes was used to investigate the reliability of ratio-mixing FISH for diagnostic applications. The results indicate that the five-colour ratio-mixing FISH is a reliable technique and can be used for simultaneous detection of major aneuploidies. However, as a diagnostic approach, the strategy of using a three-colour ratio-mixing FISH and a dual colour to detect the five clinically important aneuploidies on two slides from the same sample, appears to be simpler and more practical. PMID:8737399

  14. Acute Myeloid Leukemia with a Masked Type of Three-Way t(8;11;21) Revealed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridizations Using AML1-ETO Probe.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pina J; Brahmbhatt, Manisha M; Patel, Dharmesh M; Shukla, Shilin N; Patel, Prabhudas S

    2014-01-01

    The translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) is associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) with M2 subtype. The accurate detection of this chromosomal rearrangement is vital due to its association with a favorable prognosis. Variants of t(8;21)(q22;q22) involving chromosomes 8, 21 and other chromosomes account for approximately 3% of all t(8;21)(q22;q22) in AML. Variants in some cases present as hidden translocations, and in such cases it is often difficult to confirm the presence of t(8;21)(q22;q22) by conventional cytogenetic analysis alone. The molecular detection of the AML1-ETO fusion gene is possible by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or dualcolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes specific for AML1 and ETO. The mechanism described for variant formation is one step or two steps. We report a case of AML with a masked variant translocation. Conventional cytogenetics and FISH study was carried out on a bone marrow sample of the patient at diagnosis. Karyotype result at diagnosis revealed t(8;11)(q22;p15) by G-banding. FISH nalysis disclosed a 3-way translocation involving chromosomes 8, 11, and 21 and identified a masked variant t(8;21)(q22;q22) using AML1-ETO probe and whole chromosome paint probes (WCP) 8 and 11 with a one-step mechanism. FISH analysis with the AML1 and ETO probes is extremely valuable in cases of AML-M2 because of its ability to reveal masked t(8;21) (q22;q22) translocations and thus quickly confirm the diagnosis, allowing patients to be assigned to the correct risk group in terms of treatment. Simple variants of the t(8;21) translocation involving chromosome 8 and a chromosome other than number 21 are rare. Our case illustrates the challenge of recognizing complex aberrations that occur with variant t(8;21) and further reinforces the utility of FISH applications on metaphase for more accurate characterization of chromosome abnormalities which can lead to more precise therapeutic stratification. PMID:26029947

  15. The river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) cytogenetic map: assignment of 64 loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization and R-banding.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Schibler, L; Incarnato, D; Gallagher, D; Eggen, A; Ferretti, L; Cribiu, E P; Womack, J

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-four genomic BAC-clones mapping five type I (ADCYAP1, HRH1, IL3, RBP3B and SRY) and 59 type II loci, previously FISH-mapped to goat (63 loci) and cattle (SRY) chromosomes, were fluorescence in situ mapped to river buffalo R-banded chromosomes, noticeably extending the physical map of this species. All mapped loci from 26 bovine syntenic groups were located on homeologous chromosomes and chromosome regions of river buffalo and goat (cattle) chromosomes, confirming the high degree of chromosome homeologies among bovids. Furthermore, an improved cytogenetic map of the river buffalo with 293 loci from all 31 bovine syntenic groups is reported. PMID:14970681

  16. Inter-observer reproducibility of HER2 immunohistochemical assessment and concordance with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): pathologist assessment compared to quantitative image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In breast cancer patients, HER2 overexpression is routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and equivocal cases are subject to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Our study compares HER2 scoring by histopathologists with automated quantitation of staining, and determines the concordance of IHC scores with FISH results. Methods A tissue microarray was constructed from 1,212 invasive breast carcinoma cases with linked treatment and outcome information. IHC slides were semi-quantitatively scored by two independent pathologists on a range of 0 to 3+, and also analyzed with an Ariol automated system by two operators. 616 cases were scorable by both IHC and FISH. Results Using data from unequivocal positive (3+) or negative (0, 1+) results, both visual and automated scores were highly consistent: there was excellent concordance between two pathologists (kappa = 1.000, 95% CI: 1-1), between two machines (kappa = 1.000, 95% CI: 1-1), and between both visual and both machine scores (kappa = 0.898, 95% CI: 0.775–0.979). Two pathologists successfully distinguished negative, positive and equivocal cases (kappa = 0.929, 95% CI: 0.909–0.946), with excellent agreement with machine 1 scores (kappa = 0.835, 95% CI: 0.806–0.862; kappa = 0.837, 95% CI: 0.81–0.862), and good agreement with machine 2 scores (kappa = 0.698, 95% CI: 0.6723–0.723; kappa = 0.709, 95% CI: 0.684–0.732), whereas the two machines showed good agreement (kappa = 0.806, 95% CI: 0.785–0.826). When comparing categorized IHC scores and FISH results, the agreement was excellent for visual 1 (kappa = 0.814, 95% CI: 0.768–0.856), good for visual 2 (kappa = 0.763, 95% CI: 0.712–0.81) and machine 1 (kappa = 0.665, 95% CI: 0.609–0.718), and moderate for machine 2 (kappa = 0.535, 95% CI: 0.485–0.584). Conclusion A fully automated image analysis system run by an experienced operator can provide results consistent with visual HER2 scoring. Further development of such systems will likely improve the accuracy of detection and categorization of membranous staining, making this technique suitable for use in quality assurance programs and eventually in clinical practice. PMID:19476653

  17. One-year monitoring of an oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel laboratory-developed test for bladder cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Tinawi-Aljundi, Rima; King, Lauren; Knuth, Shannon T; Gildea, Michael; Ng, Carrie; Kahl, Josh; Dion, Jacqueline; Young, Chris; Schervish, Edward W; Frontera, J Rene; Hafron, Jason; Kernen, Kenneth M; Di Loreto, Robert; Aurich-Costa, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously, we had developed and manufactured an oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization (OligoFISH) probe panel based on the most clinically sensitive chromosomes found in a reference set of bladder carcinoma cases. The panel was clinically validated for use as a diagnostic and monitoring assay for bladder cancer, reaching 100% correlation with the results of the UroVysion test. After 1 year of using this probe panel, we present here the comparison of cytology, cystoscopy, and pathology findings to the OligoFISH probe panel results to calculate its clinical performance. Materials and methods In order to calculate clinical performance, we compared the OligoFISH results to the cytology and cystoscopy/pathology findings for 147 initial diagnoses and 399 recurrence monitorings. Finally, we compared clinical performance to published values for the UroVysion test, including both low- and high-grade tumors. Results Chromosomes 3, 6, 7, and 20 were highly involved in bladder carcinoma aneuploidy. At the initial diagnosis, we obtained 90.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84.5%–94.7%) accuracy, 96.8% sensitivity (95% CI: 91.0%–99.3%), 79.2% specificity (95% CI: 65.9%–87.8%), 89.2% positive predictive value (PPV; 95% CI: 81.5%–94.5%), and 93.3% negative predictive value (NPV; 95% CI: 81.7%–97.3%). When monitoring for recurrence, we obtained 85.2% accuracy (95% CI: 81.3%–88.5%), 82.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 76.0%–87.1%), 88.4% specificity (95% CI: 83.2%–92.5%), 87.7% PPV (95% CI: 82.1%–92.0%), and 83.0% NPV (95% CI: 77.3%–87.8%). When looking at low- and high-grade tumors, the test showed 100% sensitivity for high-grade tumors (95% CI: 92.5%–100%) and 87.5% sensitivity (95% CI: 68.8%–95.5%) for low-grade tumors. All the clinical parameters for the OligoFISH panel were higher than the UroVysion test’s published performance. We found significantly higher clinical sensitivity and NPV at initial diagnosis and significantly higher specificity and PPV for recurrence. Conclusion The OligoFISH probe panel is a fast, easy, and reproducible test for bladder cancer diagnosis and monitoring, with excellent clinical performance and utility. PMID:25914883

  18. Direct detection of Legionella species from bronchoalveolar lavage and open lung biopsy specimens: comparison of LightCycler PCR, in situ hybridization, direct fluorescence antigen detection, and culture.

    PubMed

    Hayden, R T; Uhl, J R; Qian, X; Hopkins, M K; Aubry, M C; Limper, A H; Lloyd, R V; Cockerill, F R

    2001-07-01

    We developed a rapid thermocycling, real-time detection (also known as real-time PCR) method for the detection of Legionella species directly from clinical specimens. This method uses the LightCycler (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Indianapolis, Ind.) and requires approximately 1 to 2 h to perform. Both a Legionella genus PCR assay and Legionella pneumophila species-specific PCR assay were designed. A total of 43 archived specimens from 35 patients were evaluated, including 19 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens and 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded open lung biopsy specimens. Twenty-five of the specimens were culture-positive for Legionella (9 BAL specimens and 16 tissue specimens). BAL specimens were tested by LightCycler PCR (LC-PCR) methods and by a direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, which detects L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6 and several other Legionella species. Tissue sections were tested by the two LC-PCR methods, by DFA, by an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay, specifically designed to detect L. pneumophila, and by Warthin-Starry (WS) staining. The results were compared to the "gold standard" method of bacterial culture. With BAL specimens the following assays yielded the indicated sensitivities and specificities, respectively: Legionella genus detection by Legionella genus LC-PCR, 100 and 100%; Legionella genus detection by DFA assay, 33 and 100%; and L. pneumophila detection by L. pneumophila species-specific LC-PCR, 100 and 100%. With open lung biopsy specimens the following assays yielded the indicated sensitivities and specificities, respectively: Legionella genus detection by LC-PCR 68.8 and 100%; Legionella genus detection by DFA assay, 44 and 100%; Legionella genus detection by WS staining, 63 and 100%; L. pneumophila species-specific detection by LC-PCR, 17 and 100%; and L. pneumophila species-specific detection by ISH, 100 and 100%. The analytical sensitivity of both LC-PCR assays was <10 CFU/reaction. LC-PCR is a reliable method for the direct detection of Legionella species from BAL specimens. The Legionella genus LC-PCR assay could be performed initially; if positive, L. pneumophila species-specific LC-PCR could then be performed (if species differentiation is desired). The speed with which the LC-PCR procedure can be performed offers significant advantages over both culture-based methods and conventional PCR techniques. In contrast, for the methods evaluated, culture was the best for detecting multiple Legionella species in lung tissue. WS staining, Legionella genus LC-PCR, and L. pneumophila species-specific ISH were useful as rapid tests with lung tissue. PMID:11427579

  19. Zebrafish Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization Followed by Sectioning.

    PubMed

    Doganli, Canan; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful technique used for locating specific nucleic acid targets within morphologically preserved tissues and cell preparations. A labeled RNA or DNA probe hybridizes to its complementary mRNA or DNA sequence within a sample. Here, we describe RNA in situ hybridization protocol for whole-mount zebrafish embryos. PMID:26695046

  20. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur une faible quantité de liquide amniotique. Elle offre aux couples l'avantage de prendre, dans des délais raisonnables, la décision qui leur convient concernant la poursuite ou non de la grossesse. Elle permet souvent, avec un résultat normal, de rassurer rapidement les femmes enceintes trop angoissées. PMID:23330029

  1. Mapping of the gene encoding the [beta]-subunit of H[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase to human chromosome 13q34 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Song, I.; Brown, D.R.; Yamada, T.; Trent, J.M. )

    1992-12-01

    To identify the chromosomal loci encoding this gene, 1 [mu]g of a clone of the human H[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase subunit [beta] (designated HKB3-1-1a), which contains the coding region including exons 1 to 4 (approximately 17 kb), was labeled with biotin and hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes as previously described. A total of 32 metaphase cells were examined, and all cells examined had double fluorescent signals (i.e., one on each chromatid) on the terminal long arm of chromosome 13. In 17 cells double signals were observed on both homologs, and 15 cells had one homolog with a double signal on chromosome 13. Only chromosomes in which both chromatids displayed a signal were included for analyses, making the background hybridization essentially zero. The same cells hybridized for FISH had been previously G-banded (using trypsin Giemsa) and photographed to allow direct comparisons of the results. The results demonstrated that the sequences hybridizing to a DNA fragment that contains the coding region for the [beta]-subunit of H[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase can be localized to 13q34. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Localization of human elav-like neuronal protein 1 (Hel-N1) on chromosome 9p21 by chromosome microdissection polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jian; Knops, J.F.; Longshore, J.W.; King, P.H.

    1996-08-15

    Hel-N1 is a member of the highly conserved elav family of neuronal genes. It shares considerable sequence homology with HuD, another human member, and both genes are expressed in brain. HuD was recently mapped to chromosome 1p34. Here, we have utilized chromosome microdissection polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization to map Hel-N1 to chromosome 9p21. The different chromosomal locations of these homologous genes underscore their distinct identities. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Localization of ZNF164, ZNF146, GGTA1, SOX2, PRLR and EEF2 on homoeologous cattle, sheep and goat chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization and comparison with the human gene map.

    PubMed

    Hayes, H; Le Chalony, C; Goubin, G; Mercier, D; Payen, E; Bignon, C; Kohno, K

    1996-01-01

    The six following genes: zinc finger proteins 164 (ZNF164) and 146 (ZNF146), alpha-galactosyltransferase 1 (GGTA1), SRY-related HMG-box 2 (SOX2), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and elongatin factor 2 (EEF2) have been localized by fluorescent in situ hybridization respectively on bovine and caprine chromosomes 17, 18, 11, 1, 20 and 7 and on sheep chromosomes 17, 14, 3, 1, 16, and 5. The comparison of the results with the localization of these genes in man (except for ZNF164) confirm the correspondences between human and bovine chromosomes established from heterologous chromosome painting data. PMID:8641144

  4. Assignment of the tyrosinase-related protein-2 gene (TYRP2) to human chromosome 13q31-q32 by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Extended synteny with mouse chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, R.A. ); Baker, E.; Sutherland, G.R. )

    1994-05-01

    A recombinant human genomic liver DNA [lambda]-phage library was screened with the insert of the pHuTRP-2 cDNA clone to isolate a series of bacteriophage with inserts spanning the human TYRP2 gene. One of the [lambda]-phage clones ([lambda]HuT-YRP2-7) containing a 2-kb HindIII fragment with the 5[prime] exon sequence of the cDNA as determined by sequence analysis was used for the gene localization study. DNA prepared from the phage by Qiagen chromatography was nick-translated with biotin-14-dATP and hybridized in situ at a final concentration of 5 ng/[mu]l to metaphases from two normal males. The fluorescence in situ hybridization method was modified from that previously described in that chromosomes were stained before analysis with both propidium iodide as counterstain and DAPI for chromosome identification. Twenty metaphases from the first normal male were examined for fluorescent signal. All of these metaphases showed signal on one or both chromatids of chromosome 13 in the region 13q31-q33; 88% of this signal was at the interface of bands 13q31-q32. There was a total of four nonspecific background dots observed in these 20 metaphases. A similar result was obtained from hybridization of the probe to 20 metaphases from the second normal male (data not shown). This region has also been shown to contain the propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase [alpha]-chain gene by in situ hybridization. The localization of the TYRP2 locus to human chromosome 13q31-q32 extends the syntenic region of chromosome 13 with mouse chromosome 14. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  5. FLUORESCENT IN SITU DETECTION OF ENCEPHALITOZOON HELLEM SPORES WITH A 6-CARBOXYFLUORESCEIN-LABELED RNA-TARGETED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization assay has been developed for the detection of the human-pathogenic microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem, in water samples using epifluorescence microscopy. The assay employs a 19-nucleotide species-specific 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled oligo...

  6. Detection of in-situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Naoaki; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2000-04-01

    Detection of in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes provides important information about gene mappings and about analysis of chromosomal disorders. We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the detection of in situ hybridization to get better resolution as compared to light microscopy. Chromosomes were spread over a glass substrate and hybridized with DNA probes labeled with biotin or digoxigenin. The hybridized probes were reacted with streptavidin or anti-digoxigenin antibody, both of which were conjugated with 5-nm gold colloidal particles. We missed direct detection of the conjugated gold colloidal particles by micro-meter scale AFM scanning , but obtained clear topographic difference between the site of hybridization and the chromosome arm with the help of silver enhancement. We thus clearly detected the in situ hybridization using chromosome painting probes, alpha satellite probes, and locus specific gene probes by AFM. The in situ hybridization to DNA fiber was also detected by AFM. The detection of in situ hybridization by AFM has advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridization: no reduction of signal intensity under light irradiation. Application of AFM to the detection of in situ hybridization will be a useful method to analyze chromosomes.

  7. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblom, J.J.; Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  8. Multicenter Evaluation of the Candida albicans/Candida glabrata Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Method for Simultaneous Dual-Color Identification of C. albicans and C. glabrata Directly from Blood Culture Bottles?

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Janeen R.; Addison, Rachel M.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Gherna, Michael; Haase, Gerhard; Hall, Gerri; Johnson, Jennifer K.; Merz, William G.; Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, Heidrun; Stender, Henrik; Venezia, Richard A.; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.; Wu, Fann; Fiandaca, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Candida albicans/Candida glabrata peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method, a rapid two-color assay for detection of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in a multicenter study. The assay is designed for use directly from positive blood culture bottles in a FISH format. Intact, fixed cells are labeled fluorescent green (C. albicans) or fluorescent red (C. glabrata) by rRNA hybridization of fluorophore-labeled PNA probes. Results are available <3 h after cultures signal positive. An evaluation of 197 routine blood culture bottles newly positive for yeast by Gram staining was performed at five hospitals. The sensitivities of detection for C. albicans, and C. glabrata were 98.7% (78/79) and 100% (37/37), respectively, and the specificity for both components of the assay was 100% (82/82). The assay was also evaluated with 70 fungal reference strains and was challenged in the BacT/ALERT microbiological detection system with spiked blood culture bottles. These results support the use of the assay for rapid, simultaneous identification of C. albicans and C. glabrata in positive blood culture bottles. This rapid assay may aid in the selection of initial antifungal drugs, leading to improved patient outcomes. PMID:17977998

  9. In situ hybridization and immunostaining of Xenopus brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-li; Wang, Xiu-mei; Li, Zi-long; He, Rong-qiao; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic expression pattern analysis provides the primary information of gene function. Differences of the RNA and/or protein location will provide valuable information for gene expression regulation. Generally, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are two main techniques to visualize the locations of gene transcripts and protein products in situ, respectively. Here we describe the protocol for the whole brain dissection, the in situ hybridization and immunostaining of the developing Xenopus brain sections. Additionally, we point out the modification of in situ hybridization for microRNA expression detection. PMID:24048931

  10. Localization of the human transaldolase gene (TALDO) to chromosome 1p33-p34.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuda, Jun; Hashimoto, Katusyuki; Hirai, Momoki

    1997-03-01

    Transaldolase catalyzes the transfer of a C3 fragment corresponding to dihydroxyacetone from sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, forming erythrose 4-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway. The pathway provides mainly D-ribose 5-phosphate for nucleic acid synthesis and NADPH for lipid biosynthesis. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  11. The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) localizes to human chromosome 3p25 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.F. Jr.; Clancy, T.E.; Quan, R.

    1995-04-10

    The human oxytocin receptor regulates parturition and myometrial contractility, breast milk let-down, and reproductive behaviors in the mammalian central nervous system. Kimura et al. recently identified a human oxytocin receptor cDNA by means of expression cloning from a human myometrial cDNA library. To elucidate further the molecular mechanisms that regulate oxytocin receptor gene expression and to define the expected Mendelian inheritance of possible human disease states, we must determine the number of genes, their localization, and their organization and structure. We summarize below our data indicating that the human oxytocin receptor gene is localized to 3p25 and exists as a single copy in the haploid genome. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Cytogenetic analyses of premature ovarian failure using karyotyping and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a group of 1000 patients.

    PubMed

    Lakhal, B; Braham, R; Berguigua, R; Bouali, N; Zaouali, M; Chaieb, M; Veitia, R A; Saad, A; Elghezal, H

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the implication of chromosome abnormalities in the etiology of premature ovarian failure (POF), 1000 patients with POF recruited at the Department of Cytogenetics of Farhat Hached Hospital (Sousse, Tunisia) between January 1996 and December 2008. Chromosome analyses were performed by using karyotyping and interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a centromeric probe of the chromosome X to look for low-level mosaicism of X-chromosome monosomy. Hundred and eight chromosomal abnormalities (10.8%) were found using karyotype analysis. Anomalies were detected in 61 cases out of 432 primary amenorrhea patients (14.12%) and 47 cases out of 568 secondary amenorrhea patients (8.27%). In 23 POF patients among 200 (11.5%) with 46,XX normal karyotype and explored using interphase FISH analysis, the percentage of cells with X-chromosome monosomy was significantly higher as compared with controls in the same age. The cytogenetic study of POF patients showed a high prevalence of chromosome anomalies either in primary or in secondary amenorrhoea. Mosaic X-chromosome s aneuploïdy was the most frequent abnormality and some patients with POF may be attributable to low-level 45,X/46,XX mosaicism detectable using FISH analysis. PMID:20345472

  13. In situ DNA-hybridization chain reaction (HCR): a facilitated in situ HCR system for the detection of environmental microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Shuji; Hatamoto, Masashi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masanobu; Araki, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo

    2015-07-01

    In situ detection of microorganisms by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful tool for environmental microbiology, but analyses can be hampered by low rRNA content in target organisms, especially in oligotrophic environments. Here, we present a non-enzymatic, hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-based signal amplified in situ whole-cell detection technique (in situ DNA-HCR). The components of the amplification buffer were optimized to polymerize DNA amplifier probes for in situ DNA-HCR. In situ hybridization of initiator probes followed by signal amplification via HCR produced bright signals with high specificity and probe permeation into cells. The detection rates for Bacteria in a seawater sample and Archaea in anaerobic sludge samples were comparable with or greater than those obtained by catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH or standard FISH. Detection of multiple organisms (Bacteria, Archaea and Methanosaetaceae) in an anaerobic sludge sample was achieved by simultaneous in situ DNA-HCR. In summary, in situ DNA-HCR is a simple and easy technique for detecting single microbial cells and enhancing understanding of the ecology and behaviour of environmental microorganisms in situ. PMID:25523128

  14. A fluorescence in situ hybridization map of human chromosome 21 consisting of 30 genetic and physical markers on the chromosome: Localization of 137 additional YAC and cosmid clones with respect to this map

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, J.C.; Shadravan, F.; Lowry, S.R. )

    1993-07-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) map of human chromosome 21 was compiled using yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA probes that encode 28 markers physically and/or genetically mapped on the chromosome. Probes that recognize the centromere and rDNA repeat sequences in the p arm were also placed as reference markers on the FISH map. For each probe, the location of the fluorescence hybridization signal was measured on metaphase chromosomes with respect to fractional chromosome length (FL) from p-ter. The location of the markers was established with a standard error of [+-]1.9 Mb using from 9 to 63 FL measurements for each probe. The relative order and separation of the markers as determined by FISH are shown to correspond well to those of other maps of the chromosome. Fifty-one additional YAC and 86 cosmid clones were also localized by FISH with respect to the 30 markers on the chromosome. The cosmids, chosen at random from a flow-sorted chromosome 21 cosmid library, show some biases in chromosome distribution. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. [Development of a Dual Detection Method with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Immunostaining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections--Molecular Pathological Detection Techniques and Their Applications to Pathological Diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has recently become important for pathological diagnosis. However, its practical applications is not widespread because FISH protocol with FFPE specimens is complicated. We report a dual detection method by overlapping FISH with fluorescent immunostaining on FFPE sections. This method is characterized by changing buffers for heat treatment without proteolytic enzyme treatment. Subsequent proteolytic enzyme treatment can be omitted using an antigen activation solution, pH9 (Nichirei Corporation), for heat treatment. After the pretreatment, dual detection was achieved by DNA FISH following RNA FISH and fluorescent immunostaining. This protocol visualized gene abnormalities and protein overexpression on the same sections. Of note, in poorly differentiated tumors containing both normal and tumor cells, the tumor cells were clearly identified on the sections, and FISH signals could be counted in these cells. In addition, HER2 mRNA overexpression and gene amplification were simultaneously detected in HER2-positive gastric cancer. Thus, this method should be widely applicable in clinical settings. PMID:26548243

  16. Specific Detection and Localization of Microsporidian Parasites in Invertebrate Hosts by Using In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Judith E.; Solter, Leellen; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Braig, Henk R.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    We designed fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for two distinct microsporidian clades and demonstrated their application in detecting, respectively, Nosema/Vairimorpha and Dictyoceola species. We used them to study the vertical transmission of two microsporidia infecting the amphipod Gammarus duebeni. PMID:23087031

  17. Specific detection and localization of microsporidian parasites in invertebrate hosts by using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Dubuffet, Aurore; Smith, Judith E; Solter, Leellen; Perotti, M Alejandra; Braig, Henk R; Dunn, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    We designed fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for two distinct microsporidian clades and demonstrated their application in detecting, respectively, Nosema/Vairimorpha and Dictyoceola species. We used them to study the vertical transmission of two microsporidia infecting the amphipod Gammarus duebeni. PMID:23087031

  18. Linking Microbial Phylogeny to Metabolic Activity at the Single-Cell Level by Using Enhanced Element Labeling-Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (EL-FISH) and NanoSIMS? †

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Sebastian; Lösekann, Tina; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Ng, Wing-On; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Relman, David A.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    To examine phylogenetic identity and metabolic activity of individual cells in complex microbial communities, we developed a method which combines rRNA-based in situ hybridization with stable isotope imaging based on nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Fluorine or bromine atoms were introduced into cells via 16S rRNA-targeted probes, which enabled phylogenetic identification of individual cells by NanoSIMS imaging. To overcome the natural fluorine and bromine backgrounds, we modified the current catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique by using halogen-containing fluorescently labeled tyramides as substrates for the enzymatic tyramide deposition. Thereby, we obtained an enhanced element labeling of microbial cells by FISH (EL-FISH). The relative cellular abundance of fluorine or bromine after EL-FISH exceeded natural background concentrations by up to 180-fold and allowed us to distinguish target from non-target cells in NanoSIMS fluorine or bromine images. The method was optimized on single cells of axenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae cultures. EL-FISH/NanoSIMS was then applied to study interrelationships in a dual-species consortium consisting of a filamentous cyanobacterium and a heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium. We also evaluated the method on complex microbial aggregates obtained from human oral biofilms. In both samples, we found evidence for metabolic interactions by visualizing the fate of substrates labeled with 13C-carbon and 15N-nitrogen, while individual cells were identified simultaneously by halogen labeling via EL-FISH. Our novel approach will facilitate further studies of the ecophysiology of known and uncultured microorganisms in complex environments and communities. PMID:18359832

  19. Chromosomal localization of the genes encoding the kinetochore proteins CENPE and DENPF to human chromosomes 4q24{r_arrow}q25 and 1q32{r_arrow}q41, respectively, by fluorescence in situ