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1

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Seuss’s eloquent “One FISH, two FISH, red FISH, blue FISH” (1) could have been describing one of the most significant advancements in clinical cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The process, as described by Pinkel et al. in 1988 (2), involved fluorescent detection of probe DNA hybridized to chromosomal target sequences. The overall hybridization was essentially\\u000a the same one

Daynna J. Wolff; Stuart Schwartz

2

Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

1990-12-07

3

21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. 866.4700 ...fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification . An automated FISH enumeration system is a device...

2012-04-01

4

21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.  

...Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. 866.4700 ...fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification. An automated FISH enumeration system is a device...

2014-04-01

5

21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. 866.4700 ...fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification . An automated FISH enumeration system is a device...

2010-04-01

6

21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. 866.4700 ...fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification . An automated FISH enumeration system is a device...

2011-04-01

7

21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. 866.4700 ...fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems. (a) Identification . An automated FISH enumeration system is a device...

2013-04-01

8

Reutilization of previously hybridized slides for fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to clinical material is sometimes limited by sample size. In addition, heterogeneity among slides prepared from a single sample may lead to variation in FISH analyses. Reutilization of material for repeated FISH analyses would help to alleviate these problems. We have developed a simple procedure for repeated FISH analyses with directly conjugated probes. Previously hybridized probes are removed by incubation in denaturing solution, and slides can then be rehybridized without residual signals remaining. Several cycles of this procedure allow a full complement of chromosomal loci to be analyzed on the same population of cells. Advantages of this protocol include gaining more cytogenetic information from small samples and eliminating the problem of intratumorvariability. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Epstein, L.; DeVries, S.; Waldman, F.M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

9

Aneuploidy detection in porcine embryos using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to human embryos, there are very few studies published on the frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy in farm animals. The objectives of this study were to apply a three-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method for evaluating aneuploidy in porcine embryos using chromosome-specific DNA probes, establish baseline frequencies of aneuploidy in embryos and compare the results with our previous

D. Zudova; O. Rezacova; S. Kubickova; J. Rubes

2003-01-01

10

RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization in cultured mammalian cells.  

PubMed

It is now clear that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate a number of aspects of nuclear organization and gene expression. An important tool for the study of the distribution and function of lncRNAs is RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH). The protocols presented in this chapter describe this method in detail and also mention a number of critical points that must be considered when performing this technique. PMID:25240892

Tripathi, Vidisha; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V

2015-01-01

11

Microscopic detection of yeasts using fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been widely used for the detection and identification of microorganisms in their natural environments. In this chapter we describe the use of a simple FISH-based protocol to detect and identify clinically relevant yeast species in culture and biological samples using Cryptococcus neoformans as a model. After fixation of cells with paraformaldehyde, the same are embedded in hybridization buffer containing specific fluorochrome-labeled oligonucleotide probes. After incubation and a subsequent washing step for removing unbound probes, samples are analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy. PMID:23296886

Inácio, João; da Luz Martins, Maria

2013-01-01

12

Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

Korenberg, J.R.

1993-03-04

13

The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization in male infertility  

PubMed Central

Male factors are implicated in up to 50% of couples being evaluated and treated for infertility with advanced assisted reproductive technologies. Genetic abnormalities, including sperm chromosome aneuploidy as well as structural aberrations, are one of the major causes of infertility. The use of chromosome-specific DNA probes labeled with fluorochromes, particularly the combination with multiple probes, has been used to indirectly study the sperm chromosome by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinically, this technique is also used to assess the sperm of men recovering from gonadotoxic treatment. Recent advances in this technology facilitate the evaluation of sperm aneuploidy. Sperm FISH is a widely used screening tool to aid in counseling couples with severe male factor infertility, especially in cases of prior repeated in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure or recurrent pregnancy loss. Automation of FISH imaging and analysis, as well as the development of emerging techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization, will all contribute to the promise of future diagnostic approaches aimed at improving the quality, ease, and efficiency of aneuploidy analysis. PMID:21789092

Hwang, Kathleen; Weedin, John W.; Lamb, Dolores J.

2010-01-01

14

Pallister-Killian syndrome detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare cytogenetic condition first described in 1977 by Pallister et al. in 3 adults; the first affected child was reported in 1981. This syndrome (also known as Pallister mosaic aneuploidy syndrome or isochromosome 12p mosaicism) is characterized by postnatal growth retardation, seizures, hypotonia, deafness, profound mental retardation, minimal speech development, and a distinctive facial appearance (high prominent forehead, ocular hypertelorism, sparse anterior scalp hair, prominent lower lip, large ears with thick protruding lobules, cupid-bow shaped upper lip, and a long philtrum). A chromosome 12 abnormality (tetrasomy 12p) has been reported in skin biopsies from these patients but this chromosome anomaly is usually not found (or in only a small proportion, e.g., <0.5%, of blood cells) in peripheral blood. We report on an additional patient with Pallister-Killian syndrome confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using an alpha satellite DNA probe for chromosome 12. This report further illustrates the application of FISH in identifying the source of chromosomal markers of unknown origin in infants with multiple congenital anomalies specifically before the natural history of a condition allows for definitive diagnosis based on clinical findings. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Butler, M.G.; Dev, V.G. [Genetics Associates, Nashville, TN (United States)

1995-07-03

15

Characterization of Robertsonian translocations by using fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization with five biotin-labeled probes (three alphoid probes, a probe specific for beta-satellite sequences in all acrocentric chromosomes, and an rDNA probe) was used to characterize 30 different Robertsonian translocations, including three t(13;13); one t(15;15), four t(21;21), three t(13;14), two t(13;15), two (13;21), two t(13;22), one t(14;15), eight t(14;21), two t(14;22), and two t(21;22). Of 8 de novo homologous translocations, only one t(13;13) chromosome was interpreted as dicentric, while 19 of 22 nonhomologous Robertsonian translocations were dicentric. The three monocentric nonhomologous translocations included both of the t(13;21) and one t(21;22). Two of 26 translocations studied using the beta-satellite probe showed a positive signal, while rDNA was undetectable in 10 cases studied. These results indicate that most homologous Robertsonian translocations appear monocentric, while the bulk of nonhomologous translocations show two alphoid signals. A majority of the breakpoints localized using this analysis seem to be distal to the centromere and just proximal to the beta-satellite and nuclear-organizing regions. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:1729886

Wolff, D J; Schwartz, S

1992-01-01

16

Detection of dengue group viruses by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) represent a global challenge in public health. It is estimated that 50 to 100 million infections occur each year causing approximately 20,000 deaths that are usually linked to severe cases like DHF and dengue shock syndrome. The causative agent of DF is dengue virus (genus Flavivirus) that comprises four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used successfully to detect pathogenic agents, but has not been implemented in detecting DENV. To improve our understanding of DENV infection and dissemination in host tissues, we designed specific probes to detect DENV in FISH assays. Methods Oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize with RNA from the broadest range of DENV isolates belonging to the four serotypes, but not to the closest Flavivirus genomes. Three probes that fit the criteria defined for FISH experiments were selected, targeting both coding and non-coding regions of the DENV genome. These probes were tested in FISH assays against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). The FISH experiments were led in vitro using the C6/36 cell line, and in vivo against dissected salivary glands, with epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results The three 60-nt oligonucleotides probes DENV-Probe A, B and C cover a broad range of DENV isolates from the four serotypes. When the three probes were used together, specific fluorescent signals were observed in C6/36 infected with each DENV serotypes. No signal was detected in either cells infected with close Flavivirus members West Nile virus or yellow fever virus. The same protocol was used on salivary glands of Ae. albopictus fed with a DENV-2 infectious blood-meal which showed positive signals in the lateral lobes of infected samples, with no significant signal in uninfected mosquitoes. Conclusion Based on the FISH technique, we propose a way to design and use oligonucleotide probes to detect arboviruses. Results showed that this method was successfully implemented to specifically detect DENV in a mosquito cell line, as well as in mosquito salivary glands for the DENV-2 serotype. In addition, we emphasize that FISH could be an alternative method to detect arboviruses in host tissues, also offering to circumvent the discontinuity of antibodies used in immunofluorescent assays. PMID:23110979

2012-01-01

17

A Multiplex Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Protocol for Clonal Analysis of Drosophila Oogenesis  

E-print Network

Oogenesis Lily S. Cheung and Stanislav Shvartsman Abstract Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for expression of transgenes. Key words Drosophila melanogaster, Oogenesis, Follicle cells, Mosaic analysis melanogaster oogenesis is a classic model for the analysis of patterning and morphogenesis regulation

Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas"

18

Flow Sorting of Marine Bacterioplankton after Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to sort cells from coastal North Sea bacterioplankton by flow cytometry after in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted horseradish peroxidase-labeled oligonucleotide probes and catalyzed fluo- rescent reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). In a sample from spring 2003 >90% of the cells were detected by CARD-FISH with a bacterial probe (EUB338). Approximately 30% of the microbial assemblage was affiliated with

Raju Sekar; Bernhard M. Fuchs; Rudolf Amann; Jakob Pernthaler

2004-01-01

19

Fluorescence in situ hybridization for direct visualization of gram-negative anaerobes in subgingival plaque samples.  

PubMed

Fluorescent oligonucleotide probes complementary to variable regions of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacteroides forsythus 16S ribosomal RNA were used to identify these organisms in smears of formaldehyde-fixed subgingival plaque samples from patients suffering from periodontitis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization represents a useful method for assessing the microbial ecology of the periodontal flora. PMID:7686071

Gersdorf, H; Pelz, K; Göbel, U B

1993-03-01

20

Chromosome replicating timing combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times during S phase, following a temporal replication program. The specification of replication timing is thought to be a dynamic process regulated by tissue-specific and developmental cues that are responsive to epigenetic modifications. However, the mechanisms regulating where and when DNA replication initiates along chromosomes remains poorly understood. Homologous chromosomes usually replicate synchronously, however there are notable exceptions to this rule. For example, in female mammalian cells one of the two X chromosomes becomes late replicating through a process known as X inactivation(1). Along with this delay in replication timing, estimated to be 2-3 hr, the majority of genes become transcriptionally silenced on one X chromosome. In addition, a discrete cis-acting locus, known as the X inactivation center, regulates this X inactivation process, including the induction of delayed replication timing on the entire inactive X chromosome. In addition, certain chromosome rearrangements found in cancer cells and in cells exposed to ionizing radiation display a significant delay in replication timing of >3 hours that affects the entire chromosome(2,3). Recent work from our lab indicates that disruption of discrete cis-acting autosomal loci result in an extremely late replicating phenotype that affects the entire chromosome(4). Additional 'chromosome engineering' studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes result in this abnormal replication-timing phenotype, suggesting that all mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control proper replication timing of individual chromosomes(5). Here, we present a method for the quantitative analysis of chromosome replication timing combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization. This method allows for a direct comparison of replication timing between homologous chromosomes within the same cell, and was adapted from(6). In addition, this method allows for the unambiguous identification of chromosomal rearrangements that correlate with changes in replication timing that affect the entire chromosome. This method has advantages over recently developed high throughput micro-array or sequencing protocols that cannot distinguish between homologous alleles present on rearranged and un-rearranged chromosomes. In addition, because the method described here evaluates single cells, it can detect changes in chromosome replication timing on chromosomal rearrangements that are present in only a fraction of the cells in a population. PMID:23271586

Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew

2012-01-01

21

Chromosome Replicating Timing Combined with Fluorescent In situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times during S phase, following a temporal replication program. The specification of replication timing is thought to be a dynamic process regulated by tissue-specific and developmental cues that are responsive to epigenetic modifications. However, the mechanisms regulating where and when DNA replication initiates along chromosomes remains poorly understood. Homologous chromosomes usually replicate synchronously, however there are notable exceptions to this rule. For example, in female mammalian cells one of the two X chromosomes becomes late replicating through a process known as X inactivation1. Along with this delay in replication timing, estimated to be 2-3 hr, the majority of genes become transcriptionally silenced on one X chromosome. In addition, a discrete cis-acting locus, known as the X inactivation center, regulates this X inactivation process, including the induction of delayed replication timing on the entire inactive X chromosome. In addition, certain chromosome rearrangements found in cancer cells and in cells exposed to ionizing radiation display a significant delay in replication timing of >3 hours that affects the entire chromosome2,3. Recent work from our lab indicates that disruption of discrete cis-acting autosomal loci result in an extremely late replicating phenotype that affects the entire chromosome4. Additional 'chromosome engineering' studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes result in this abnormal replication-timing phenotype, suggesting that all mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control proper replication timing of individual chromosomes5. Here, we present a method for the quantitative analysis of chromosome replication timing combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization. This method allows for a direct comparison of replication timing between homologous chromosomes within the same cell, and was adapted from6. In addition, this method allows for the unambiguous identification of chromosomal rearrangements that correlate with changes in replication timing that affect the entire chromosome. This method has advantages over recently developed high throughput micro-array or sequencing protocols that cannot distinguish between homologous alleles present on rearranged and un-rearranged chromosomes. In addition, because the method described here evaluates single cells, it can detect changes in chromosome replication timing on chromosomal rearrangements that are present in only a fraction of the cells in a population. PMID:23271586

Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew

2012-01-01

22

Fluorescence in situ hybridization for phytoplasma and endophytic bacteria localization in plant tissues.  

PubMed

In the present study, we developed a rapid and efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization assay (FISH) in non-embedded tissues of the model plant Catharanthus roseus for co-localizing phytoplasmas and endophytic bacteria, opening new perspectives for studying the interaction between these microorganisms. PMID:21851838

Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Faoro, Franco

2011-11-01

23

Karyotyping in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) by Cross-Species Fosmid Fluorescence in situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome identification is critical for cytogenetic research and will accelerate studies on genetic variation and breeding, especially for those species with relatively little sequence information. So far, no reliable cytological landmarks have been developed to distinguish individual chromosomes in melon. In this study, using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) combined with comparative genome information, we selected 21 cucumber fosmids anchored

C. Liu; J. Liu; H. Li; Z. Zhang; Y. Han; S. Huang; W. Jin

2010-01-01

24

A fluorescent in situ hybridization method in flow cytometry to detect HIV1 specific RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In HIV+ patients, the presence of HIV-RNA in plasma and circulating cells has been reported to be a marker of progression but the percentage of transcriptionally active infected cells remains unclear. We have developed a reliable fluorescent in situ hybridization method for the detection of HIV specific RNA by flow cytometry.The procedure was applied to a panel of chronically infected

R. M. Borzì; A. Piacentini; M. C. G. Monaco; G. Lisignoli; A. Degrassi; L. Cattini; S. Santi; A. Facchini

1996-01-01

25

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPERM-DERIVED CHROMATIN IN ZYGOTES DETERMINED BY FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the spatial distribution of chromatin in zygote pronuclei. ybrid system involving golden hamster eggs and individual human sperm permitted use of DNA probes specific for the entire human chromosome 4, for the heterochromati...

26

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Spectral Imaging of Coral-Associated Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities play important roles in the functioning of coral reef communities. However, extensive autofluorescence of coral tissues and endosymbionts limits the application of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for the identification of the coral-associated bacterial communities. This study overcomes these limitations by combining FISH and spectral imaging. PMID:16598010

Ainsworth, T. D.; Fine, M.; Blackall, L. L.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

2006-01-01

27

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis of Renal Oncocytoma Reveals Frequent Loss of Chromosomes Y and 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeCytogenetic studies of a small number of renal oncocytomas have indicated that loss of chromosomes 1 and Y may be involved in the pathogenesis of this tumor. To evaluate these observations further we selected paraffin embedded renal oncocytoma specimens from 20 male and 10 female patients for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.

James A. Brown; Satoru Takahashi; Antonio Alcaraz; Thomas J. Borell; Kari L. Anderl; Junqi Qian; Diane L. Persons; David G. Bostwick; Michael M. Lieber; Robert B. Jenkins

1996-01-01

28

Assignment of 55 novel cosmids to seven subregions of chromosome 13 using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-five individual cosmids isolated from a chromosome 13-specific library have been regionally assigned using fluorescence in situ hybridization. These cosmids represent novel DNA markers that can be added to the limited number of DNA probes already available for this chromosome. Individual cosmids mapped along the length of the chromosome with almost equal distribution except that there appears to be an

L. Hawthorn; J. K. Cowell; D. Nizetic; H. Lehrach

1994-01-01

29

Mapping pachytene chromosomes of coffee using a modified protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most direct method for physically mapping DNA sequences on chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of meiotic chromosomes during the pachytene stage is an important tool in plant cytogenetics, because it provides high-resolution measurements of physical distances. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of coffee pachytene chromosomes offers significant advantages compared with FISH mapping of somatic chromosomes, because pachytene chromosomes are 30 times longer and provide additional cytological markers. However, the application of this technique to pachytene chromosomes has been complicated by problems in making preparations of meiotic chromosomes and by difficulties in the application of standard FISH protocols. We have been able to overcome most of these obstacles in applying the FISH technique to the pachytene chromosomes of coffee plants. Digesting the external callose layer surrounding the pollen mother cells (PMCs) in conjunction with other procedures permitted suitable pachytene chromosomes to be obtained by increasing cell permeability, which allowed the probe sequences to enter the cells. For the first time, hybridization signals were registered on coffee pachytene chromosomes using the FISH technique with a repetitive sequence as a probe. We obtained slides on which 80 % of the PMCs had hybridization signals, resulting in FISH labelling with high efficiency. The procedure does not seem to be dependent on the genotype, because hybridization signals were detected in genetically different coffee plants. These findings enhance the possibilities for high-resolution physical mapping of coffee chromosomes. PMID:24244840

Iacia, Ana Amélia Sanchez; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A. F.

2013-01-01

30

Identification of mosaicism in Prader-Willi syndrome using fluorescent in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

We report on our findings of 4 patients with mosaicism for a deletion of chromosome 15, most commonly associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We examined a series of typical and atypical PWS patients in order to identify cytogenetically undetected deletions, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 4 of the patients analyzed we detected a deletion in 14-60% of peripheral blood leukocytes, using four commercially available probes. Our results indicate that mosaicism may play a role in the etiology of some PWS cases. These findings may be especially useful in patients who display discrepancies between clinical phenotype and established diagnostic criteria. Methylation and microsatellite polymorphism analyses of 2 patients with low-level mosaicism failed to identify the deletion. We propose that fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most effective method for detecting somatic mosaicism, since a large number of cells can be individually examined for the presence or absence of a specific deletion. 47 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanchett, J.M. [Rehabilitation Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others] [Rehabilitation Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); and others

1996-12-30

31

Numerical chromosome abnormalities in spermatozoa of fertile and infertile men detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with single-color chromosome-specific probes was used to study the rates of disomy for chromosome 1, 16, X, and Y in sperm of fertile and infertile subjects. Diploidy rates were studied using a two-color cocktail of probes for chromosomes 17 and 18 in the same sperm samples. Two-color methodology was not available at the outset of

Norio Miharu; Robert G. Best; S. Robert Young

1994-01-01

32

Detection of chromosome aberrations in interphase nuclei using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.  

PubMed

We report here several experiences of interphase cytogenetics, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, for the detection of chromosome aberrations. FISH, using alpha satellite specific probes of 18, X, Y chromosomes, was done in interphase nuclei from peripheral blood of patients with Edwards' syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome and Turner's syndrome with healthy male and female controls, respectively. The distributions of fluorescent signals in 100 interphase nuclei were well correlated with metaphase findings. Nowadays FISH plays an increasingly important role in a variety of research areas, including cytogenetics, prenatal diagnosis, tumor biology, gene amplification and gene mapping. PMID:8198762

Song, H G; Choi, S O; Kang, I B

1993-08-01

33

Detection of chromosome aberrations in interphase nuclei using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.  

PubMed Central

We report here several experiences of interphase cytogenetics, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, for the detection of chromosome aberrations. FISH, using alpha satellite specific probes of 18, X, Y chromosomes, was done in interphase nuclei from peripheral blood of patients with Edwards' syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome and Turner's syndrome with healthy male and female controls, respectively. The distributions of fluorescent signals in 100 interphase nuclei were well correlated with metaphase findings. Nowadays FISH plays an increasingly important role in a variety of research areas, including cytogenetics, prenatal diagnosis, tumor biology, gene amplification and gene mapping. PMID:8198762

Song, H. G.; Choi, S. O.; Kang, I. B.

1993-01-01

34

A case of adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma characterized by multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization, comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization and cytogenetics.  

PubMed

Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a neoplasm of mature helper (CD4) T lymphocytes. Little is known, however, about the chromosome aberrations associated with the pathogenesis of this malignancy. Using molecular cytogenetic techniques we, therefore, investigated a 44-year-old man who had a 7-year history of ATLL with cutaneous involvement mimicking primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Conventional cytogenetics revealed gross chromosomal changes with chromosome numbers ranging from 71 to 82. There were structural abnormalities of chromosomes 7 and 9, partial deletions of chromosomes 1, 3, 5 and 6, and loss of chromosomes 2, 4, 9, 11--14, 21 and 22. Multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) identified two derivative chromosomes, der(6)t(6;7)(q16;q21) and der(7)t(6;7)(q16;q21)ins(6;12)(q2?;?), and a deletion of chromosome 1p. Conventional FISH confirmed the M-FISH findings. Comparative genomic hybridization of the blood revealed gains of DNA copy number at 1q12--25, 6p24--25, 9p23, 16p13--q13, 17q11--21, 19p13 and 20q13 and loss at 11p15 while lymph nodes showed gains at 3p22--24, 3q27--29, 7q36 and 15q26 and losses at 2p24--25, 2q37, 10p14--15, 11p15, 13q33--34 and 16p13.3. No DNA copy number changes were seen in a skin lesion. These results show the extent of genetic abnormalities within this malignancy. PMID:11453919

Mao, X; Lillington, D M; Czepulkowski, B; Young, B D; Russell-Jones, R; Whittaker, S

2001-07-01

35

Bacterioplankton Compositions of Lakes and Oceans: a First Comparison Based on Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to investigate the phylogenetic composition of bacterioplankton communities in several freshwater and marine samples. An average of about 50% of the cells were detected by probes for the domains Bacteria and Archaea, and of these, about half could be identified at the subdomain level with a set of group-specific

FRANK OLIVER GLOCKNER; BERNHARD M. FUCHS; RUDOLF AMANN

1999-01-01

36

Fluorescent in situ hybridization for evaluation of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes  

SciTech Connect

We have found fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results more reliavle than high resolution chromosome analysis for the diagnosis of Prader-Willi (PWS) or Angelman syndromes (AS). Specifically, we have found success in the detection of 15q11q13 deletions among 55 cases. Our study suggests that FISH analysis using PWS/AS probes can facilitate diagnostic evaluation of these cases for deletions. 2 refs., 1 tab.

Wenger, S.L.; Cummins, J.H. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-07-17

37

Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization to Detect Transgene Integration into Plant Genomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent chromosome analysis technologies have advanced our understanding of genome organization during the last 30 years and have enabled the investigation of DNA organization and structure as well as the evolution of chromosomes. Fluorescent chromosome staining allows even small chromosomes to be visualized, characterized by their composition and morphology, and counted. Aneuploidies and polyploidies can be established for species, breeding lines, and individuals, including changes occurring during hybridization or tissue culture and transformation protocols. Fluorescent in situ hybridization correlates molecular information of a DNA sequence with its physical location on chromosomes and genomes. It thus allows determination of the physical position of sequences and often is the only means to determine the abundance and distribution of DNA sequences that are difficult to map with any other molecular method or would require segregation analysis, in particular multicopy or repetitive DNA. Equally, it is often the best way to establish the incorporation of transgenes, their numbers, and physical organization along chromosomes. This chapter presents protocols for probe and chromosome preparation, fluorescent in situ hybridization, chromosome staining, and the analysis of results.

Schwarzacher, Trude

38

Visualization and analysis of mRNA molecules using fluorescence in situ hybridization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) method allows one to detect nucleic acids in the native cellular environment. Here we provide a protocol for using FISH to quantify the number of mRNAs in single yeast cells. Cells can be grown in any condition of interest and then fixed and made permeable. Subsequently, multiple single-stranded deoxyoligonucleotides conjugated to fluorescent dyes are used to label and visualize mRNAs. Diffraction-limited fluorescence from single mRNA molecules is quantified using a spot-detection algorithm to identify and count the number of mRNAs per cell. While the more standard quantification methods of northern blots, RT-PCR and gene expression microarrays provide information on average mRNAs in the bulk population, FISH facilitates both the counting and localization of these mRNAs in single cells at single-molecule resolution. PMID:23793137

McIsaac, R Scott; Silverman, Sanford J; Parsons, Lance; Xu, Ping; Briehof, Ryan; McClean, Megan N; Botstein, David

2013-01-01

39

Application of pseudomurein endoisopeptidase to fluorescence in situ hybridization of methanogens within the family Methanobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

In situ detection of methanogens within the family Methanobacteriaceae is sometimes known to be unsuccessful due to the difficulty in permeability of oligonucleotide probes. Pseudomurein endoisopeptidase (Pei), a lytic enzyme that specifically acts on their cell walls, was applied prior to 16S rRNA-targeting fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For this purpose, pure cultured methanogens within this family, Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus together with a Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus-containing syntrophic acetate-oxidizing coculture, endosymbiotic Methanobrevibacter methanogens within an anaerobic ciliate, and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) granule were examined. Even without the Pei treatment, Methanobacterium bryantii and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus cells are relatively well hybridized with oligonucleotide probes. However, almost none of the cells of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, cocultured Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, and the endosymbiotic methanogens and the cells within UASB granule were hybridized. Pei treatment was able to increase the probe hybridization ratio in every specimen, particularly in the specimen that had shown little hybridization. Interestingly, the hybridizing signal intensity of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus cells in coculture with an acetate-oxidizing H(2)-producing syntroph was significantly improved by Pei pretreatment, whereas the probe was well hybridized with the cells of pure culture of the same strain. We found that the difference is attributed to the differences in cell wall thicknesses between the two culture conditions. These results indicate that Pei treatment is effective for FISH analysis of methanogens that show impermeability to the probe. PMID:16950902

Nakamura, Kohei; Terada, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Shinzato, Naoya; Meng, Xian-Ying; Enoki, Miho; Kamagata, Yoichi

2006-11-01

40

Detection of sex chromosome aneuploidy in dog spermatozoa by triple color fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

With the development of a direct visualization of sex chromosome in a single sperm by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, the frequency of aberration (aneuploidy) in spermatozoa in several mammals has been investigated. However, there is no report in the incidence of X-Y aneuploidy in the sperm population of dogs. Therefore, in this study, the aneuploidy in dog spermatozoa was examined by multicolor FISH using specific molecular probes for canine sex chromosomes and autosome. Semen from eight male Labrador retrievers was used as specimen. For decondensation of sperm nuclei, the specimen was treated with 1 M NaOH for 4 minutes at room temperature. Probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 1, labeled with SpectrumGreen, Cy3 and Cy5, respectively, were hybridized with decondensed spermatozoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization signals in sperm heads were clearly detected in each specimen, regardless of the sperm donor. The FISH signal of at least one of the three probes was detected in all sperm heads examined. There was no significant difference between the theoretical ratio (50:50) and the observed ratio of X and Y chromosomes in spermatozoa of all the eight dogs. Mean percentage of sex chromosome aneuploidy was 0.127% (ranged between 0% and 0.316%). This percentage of canine sex chromosome aneuploidy was lower than the one reported in cattle, horses, river buffalo, and goats sperm, but higher than that observed in mice and sheep. PMID:24962971

Komaki, Haruna; Oi, Maya; Suzuki, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

41

Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the tissue detection of bacterial pathogens associated with porcine infections.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an efficient technique for the identification of specific bacteria in tissue of both experimental and spontaneous infections. The method detects specific sequences of nucleic acids by hybridization of fluorescently labeled probes to complementary target sequences within intact cells. FISH allows direct histological localization of the bacteria in the tissue and thereby a correlation between the infection and the histopathological changes present. This chapter presents protocols for FISH identification of bacterial pathogens in fixed deparaffinized tissue samples mounted on glass slides. Two different methods are presented: one is illustrated with the use of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) that is carried out directly on glass slides (Method I), whereas the other is exemplified by using a DNA probe in a Shandon rack (Method II). In the two methods, both PNA and DNA probes can be used. PMID:25399100

Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Barington, Kristiane; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Boye, Mette

2015-01-01

42

Combination of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Microautoradiography—a New Tool for Structure-Function Analyses in Microbial Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific sub- strate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation

NATUSCKA LEE; PER HALKJÆR NIELSEN; KJÆR HOLM ANDREASEN; STEFAN JURETSCHKO; JEPPE LUND NIELSEN; KARL-HEINZ SCHLEIFER; MICHAEL WAGNER

1999-01-01

43

Genomic analysis of sorghum by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

E-print Network

tips were treated with saturated aqueous ? - monobromonaphthalene solution at RT for 1.5 hr, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1) fixative, and rinsed in water for 10 min. Excised meristematic tips were placed in enzyme solution (5% cellulase, 2...

Kim, Jeong-Soon

2004-11-15

44

The Development of a Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Assay for the Detection of Dysplasia and Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's Esophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to identify a set of fluores- cence in situ hybridization probes for the detection of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in patients with Bar- rett's esophagus. We examined 170 brushing speci- mens from 138 patients with Barrett's esophagus or a history of Barrett's esophagus using fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes to 5p15, 5q21-22, cen- tromere

Shannon M. Brankley; Kenneth K. Wang; Aaron R. Harwood; Dylan V. Miller; Mona S. Legator; Lori S. Lutzke; Benjamin R. Kipp; Larry E. Morrison; Kevin C. Halling

2006-01-01

45

A multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization protocol for clonal analysis of Drosophila oogenesis.  

PubMed

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a common inmunohistochemical method used to examine the distribution of RNAs in tissue samples. In mosaic tissues composed of a mixed population of wild-type and loss-of- or gain-of-function mutant cells, FISH allows comparison of the effect of the perturbation on gene expression patterns in a mutant cell and its wild-type neighbors. Here, we provide a protocol for the detection of RNA in Drosophila mosaic follicular epithelia, where the mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) technique is used for expression of transgenes. PMID:25245690

Cheung, Lily S; Shvartsman, Stanislav

2015-01-01

46

Rapid identification of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia identification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The probe was evaluated using 33 human and veterinary clinical S. maltophilia isolates and 45 reference strains representing common bacterial species in the respiratory tract. The probe displayed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity on pure cultures and allowed detection in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients. The detection limit was 104 CFU/mL in spiked tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy horses. Altogether the study shows that this species-specific PNA FISH probe facilitates rapid detection of S. maltophilia in biological specimens. PMID:25356348

Hansen, N; Rasmussen, A K I; Fiandaca, M J; Kragh, K N; Bjarnsholt, T; Høiby, N; Stender, H; Guardabassi, L

2014-01-01

47

Multiplexed miRNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues  

PubMed Central

Multiplexed miRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (miRNA FISH) is an advanced method for visualizing differentially expressed miRNAs, together with other reference RNAs, in archival tissues. Some miRNAs are excellent disease biomarkers due to their abundance and cell-type specificity. However, these short RNA molecules are difficult to visualize due to loss by diffusion, probe mishybridization, and signal detection and signal amplification issues. Here, we describe a reliable and adjustable method for visualizing and normalizing miRNA signals in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. PMID:25218385

Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Bognanni, Claudia; Tuschl, Thomas

2015-01-01

48

Spatial distribution of sperm-derived chromatin in zygotes determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the spatial distribution of chromatin in zygote pronuclei. A hybrid system involving golden hamster eggs and individual human sperm permitted use of DNA probes specific for the entire human chromosome 4, for the heterochromatic region on the long arm of the human Y chromosome and for unique DNA sequences on human chromosome 19. Chromosome 4 occupied a circumscribed domain in the pronuclei, similar to findings in somatic interphases. Unlike the situation in somatic interphases, the Y heterochromatin was extended throughout the first cell cycle. Pronuclear chromatin was extended 3- to 4-fold compared to somatic interphase chromatin. The extended pronuclear chromatin conformation is likely to affect a zygote's susceptibility to environmental hazards. PMID:1279406

Brandriff, B F; Gordon, L A

1992-12-01

49

Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aureobasidium pullulans on microscope slides and leaf surfaces.  

PubMed Central

A 21-mer oligonucleotide probe designated Ap665, directed at the 18S rRNA of Aureobasidium pullulans and labelled with five molecules of fluorescein isothiocyanate, was applied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to populations of the fungus on slides and apple leaves from growth chamber seedlings and orchard trees. In specificity tests that included Ap665 and a similarly labelled universal probe and the respective complementary probes as controls, the hybridization signal was strong for Ap665 reactions with 12 A. pullulans strains but at or below background level for 98 other fungi including 82 phylloplane isolates. Scanning confocal laser microscopy was used to confirm that the fluorescence originated from the cytoplasmic matrix and to overcome limitations imposed on conventional microscopy by leaf topography. Images were recorded with a cooled charge-coupled device video camera and digitized for storage and manipulation. Image analysis was used to verify semiquantitative fluorescence ratings and to demonstrate how the distribution of the fluorescence signal in specific interactions (e.g., Ap665 with A. pullulans cells) could be separated at a given probability level from nonspecific fluorescence (e.g., in interactions of Ap665 with Cryptococcus laurentii cells) of an overlapping population. Image analysis methods were used also to quantify epiphytic A. pullulans populations based on cell number or percent coverage of the leaf surface. Under some conditions, leaf autofluorescence and the release of fluorescent compounds by leaves during the processing for hybridization decreased the signal-to-noise ratio. These effects were reduced by the use of appropriate excitation filter sets and fixation conditions. We conclude that FISH can be used to detect and quantify A. pullulans cells in the phyllosphere. PMID:9251214

Li, S; Spear, R N; Andrews, J H

1997-01-01

50

Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat. PMID:25478818

Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

2014-10-14

51

Detection of a complex translocation using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the detection of a complex 3-way translocation in a patient with multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The patient was a 10-year-old girl with mental retardation, seizures, repaired cleft palate, esotropia, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, upward slanting palpebral fissures, single transverse palmar crease, brachydactyly, hypoplastic nails, ectrodactyly between the third and fourth right toes, and hypoplasia of the left third toe. Chromosome analysis performed at birth was reported as normal. We performed high resolution banding analysis which revealed an apparently balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 9. However, because of her multiple abnormalities, further studies were ordered. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome painting probes revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(2;8;9) (2pter{yields}q31::8q21.2{yields}8qter; 8pter{yields}q21.2::2q31{yields}q34::9q34{yields}qter; 9pter{yields}q34::2q34{yields}qter). The 3-way translocation appears to be de novo, as neither parent is a translocation carrier. This case illustrates the importance of using FISH to further investigate cases of apparently balanced translocations in the presence of phenotypic abnormalities and/or mental retardation.

Rosen, B.A. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Abuelo, D.N. [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Mark, H.F. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

1994-09-01

52

Analysis of restriction enzyme-induced chromosomal aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa staining of metaphase chromosomes were used to determine the relative frequencies of symmetric exchange aberrations (translocations) and asymmetric exchange aberrations (rings, dicentrics, and polycentrics) after exposure of human lymphoblastoid cells to restriction enzymes or X-rays. The yield of symmetric exchanges was determined with the use of chromosome-specific probes for human chromosomes 2 or 4, which were hybridized to metaphase chromosomes from cells exposed to the enzymes Pvull, Sacl, or Xbal or 3 or 5 Gy of X-rays. The yield of asymmetric exchanges was determined in Giemsa-stained metaphase chromosomes from the same enzyme-treated or irradiated cell population. About 1.5- to 3-fold more symmetric than asymmetric exchanges were induced after restriction enzyme treatment. However, after X-ray treatment the yield of dicentrics relative to the yield of reciprocal translocations was close to the expected 1:1 ratio. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Columna, E.A.; Giaccia, A.J.; Evans, J.W.; Yates, B.L.; Morgan, W.F. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States) Stanford Medical School, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

53

Combined RNA/DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization on whole-mount Drosophila ovaries.  

PubMed

DNA FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) analysis reveals the chromosomal location of the gene of interest. RNA in situ hybridization is used to examine the amounts and cell location of transcripts. This method is commonly used to describe the localization of processed transcripts in different tissues or cell lines. Gene activation studies are often aimed at determining the mechanism of this activation (transcriptional or posttranscriptional). Elucidation of the mechanism of piRNA-mediated silencing of genomic repeats is at the cutting edge of small RNA research. The RNA/DNA FISH technique is a powerful method for assessing transcriptional changes at any particular genomic locus. Colocalization of the RNA and DNA FISH signals allows a determination of the accumulation of nascent transcripts at the transcribed genomic locus. This would be suggest that this gene is activated at the transcriptional (or co-transcriptional) level. Moreover, this method allows for the identification of transcriptional derepression of a distinct copy (copies) among a genomic repeat family. Here, a RNA/DNA FISH protocol is presented for the simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA in situ on whole-mount Drosophila ovaries using tyramide signal amplification. With subsequent immunostaining of chromatin components, this protocol can be easily extended for studying the interdependence between chromatin changes at genomic loci and their transcriptional activity. PMID:24178564

Shpiz, Sergey; Lavrov, Sergey; Kalmykova, Alla

2014-01-01

54

Fluorescence intensity profiles of in situ hybridization signals depict genome architecture within human interphase nuclei.  

PubMed

An approach towards construction of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) profiles of interphase chromatin architecture by quantification of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signal intensity is proposed. The technique was applied for analysis of signal intensity and distribution within interphase nuclei of somatic cells in different human tissues. Whole genomic DNA, fraction of repeated DNA sequences (Cot 1) and cloned satellite DNA were used as probes for FISH. The 2D and 3D fluorescence intensity profiles were able to depict FISH signal associations and somatic chromosome pairing. Furthermore, it allowed the detection of replicating signal patterns, the assessment of hybridization efficiency, and comparative analysis of DNA content variation of specific heterochromatic chromosomal regions. The 3D fluorescence intensity profiles allowed the analysis of intensity gradient within the signal volume. An approach was found applicable for determination of assembly of different types of DNA sequences, including classical satellite and alphoid DNA, gene-rich (G-negative bands) and gene-poor (G-positive bands) chromosomal regions as well as for assessment of chromatin architecture and targeted DNA sequence distribution within interphase nuclei. We conclude the approach to be a powerful additional tool for analysis of interphase genome architecture and chromosome behavior in the nucleus of human somatic cells. PMID:19140435

Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, Y B

2008-01-01

55

Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses of human oocytes in trisomy 18 and 21  

SciTech Connect

The commonly accepted view of synapsis is that only 2 homologues can synapse at any one site and that this restriction applies to polyploids as well. However, triple synapsis has been observed is some triploid plants and in triploid chicken. In humans, triple synapsis of the long arm of chromosome 21 was detected in sperm of a trisomic 21 individual. More recently, studies of oocytes from trisomic 21 and 18 fetuses also indicated extensive triple synapsis along the entire length of the chromosomes. To further investigate this question, we undertook an evaluation of trivalent synapsis in fetal oocytes from 2 trisomic 21 and 2 trisomic 18 fetuses using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome probes. Oocytes were hybridized with whole chromosome probes obtained from ONCOR, Inc. after fixation with methanol and acetic acid. Slides were scored for the distribution of prophase stages, hybridization efficiency, and hybridization characteristics of chromosomes 18 and 21 in the trisomic 18 and 21 fetuses respectively. Fifty-eight per cent (379/650) of pachytenes analyzed for chromosome 18 contained a conspicous trivalent and 319 (48%) of these nuclei contained a single, thick, continuous fluorescent signal consistent with complete triple synapsis along the entire length of all 3 chromosomes. Sixteen per cent (104/650) of pachytene contained 2 signals consistent with a bivalent and a univalent, and 9 cells contained 3 thin signals consistent with asynapsis of all 3 chromosomes. The remaining 158 pachytenes had unusual pairing configurations that we could not classify, but they most likely represent trivalents with partial pairing between different homologues. In the 2 trisomic 21 fetuses, the majority (143/232) of pachytenes also contained one signal while only 52 cells contained a bivalent and univalent. Five cells contained 3 separate signals. These results confirm the existence of triple synapsis in human meiosis.

Cheng, E.Y.; Chen, Y.J.; Gartler, S.M. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-09-01

56

Substrate uptake in extremely halophilic microbial communities revealed by microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and microautoradiography (FISH-MAR approach) was applied to brine samples of a solar saltern crystallizer pond from Mallorca (Spain) where the simultaneous occurrence of Salinibacter spp. and the conspicuous square Archaea had been detected. Radioactively labeled bicarbonate, acetate, glycerol, and an amino acid mixture were tested as substrates for the microbial populations inhabiting such brines. The results indicated that hitherto uncultured 'square Archaea' do actively incorporate amino acids and acetate. However, Salinibacter spp. only showed amino acid incorporation in pure culture, but no evidence of such activity in their natural environment could be demonstrated. No glycerol incorporation was observed for any component of the microbial community. PMID:12820037

Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Lee, Natuschka; Antón, Josefa; Wagner, Michael

2003-10-01

57

Joanna M. Bridger and Emanuela V. Volpi (eds.), Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH): Protocols and Applications, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 659,  

E-print Network

99 Joanna M. Bridger and Emanuela V. Volpi (eds.), Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH Fibers Beth A. Sullivan Abstract Immunofluorescence (IF) and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) are conventional methods used to study the structure and organization of metaphase chromosomes and interphase

Sullivan, Beth A.

58

Specific detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish wastewater treatment plants by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes detection in wastewater can be difficult because of the large amount of background microbiota and the presence of viable but non-culturable forms in this environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) assay combined with Direct Viable Count (DVC) method for detecting viable L. monocytogenes in wastewater samples, as an alternative

Yolanda Moreno; Lorena Ballesteros; Jorge García-Hernández; Paula Santiago; Ana González; M. Antonia Ferrús

2011-01-01

59

Novel fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches in solid tumors. Characterization of frozen specimens, touch preparations, and cytological preparations.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization has emerged as an extremely important tool for detection and characterization of nonrandom chromosome aberrations in cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays have been very reliable in cytogenetic tumor preparations, but have been more unpredictable in archival, paraffin-embedded specimens. We describe novel approaches for detection of chromosome aberrations in frozen tumor specimens, touch preparations, and cytological preparations. These approaches are both simple and reproducible, with minimal case-to-case variation in hybridization efficiency or hybridization signal quality. We demonstrate potential applications of these novel approaches by evaluating: 1) significance of normal karyotypes in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors; 2) p15/p16 copy number in prostate cancer; and 3) clonal chromosome 3p deletion in cytological preparations of pleural fluid from patients with mesothelioma. Images Figure 1 PMID:7573365

Xiao, S.; Renshaw, A.; Cibas, E. S.; Hudson, T. J.; Fletcher, J. A.

1995-01-01

60

Detection of micro-organisms in soil after in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted, fluorescently labelled oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

rRNA sequences were used as targets for synthetic oligonucleotides labelled with the fluorescent dye tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (Tritc) for in situ hybridizations to detect micro-organisms directly in soils that have different contents of soil minerals and organic material. Introduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were directly fixed in soils and applied to slides after separation of large soil minerals only. Remaining soil minerals

DITTMAR HAHN; RUDOLF I. AMANN; WOLFGANG LUDWIG; ANTOON D. L. AKKERMANS; KARL-HEINZ SCHLEIFER

1992-01-01

61

Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially

Xingwei Wang; Bin Zheng; Shibo Li; Roy R. Zhang; Yuhua Li; John J. Mulvihill; Wei R. Chen; Hong Liu

2009-01-01

62

Detection of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in acid mine drainage environments using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).  

PubMed

An important microorganism of acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching environments is Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans which oxidizes ferrous iron and generates ferric iron, an oxidant. Most investigations to understand microbial aspects of sulfide mineral dissolution have focused on understanding physiological, metabolic, and genetic characteristics of A. ferrooxidans. In this study, a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe designated S-S-T.ferr-0584-a-A-18, and labeled at the 5'-end with indocarbocyanine dye (CY3), was used in a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure on pure cultures of nine isolates of A. ferrooxidans. These isolates were recovered from acid mine drainage and mining environments. The probe was also used to detect cells of A. ferrooxidans, recovered from AMD samples, growing on FeTSB and FeSo solid media in a FISH procedure. In addition, the presence of cells of A. ferrooxidans in an environmental water sample from an AMD site in Copper Cliff, Ontario, Canada was analyzed using the FISH technique. Probe specificity was first confirmed with A. ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 (positive control) and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19377, Acidiphilium acidophilum ATCC 27807, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 (negative controls). Positive and negative control cells were also used to determine optimal stringency conditions for hybridizations with the probe. Cells of the nine isolates of A. ferrooxidans stained positive, although the fluorescent signal varied in intensity from isolate to isolate. Colonies of A. ferrooxidans from the environmental water sample of the AMD site were recovered only on FeTSB solid medium after 22 days of incubation. The probe was able to detect cells of A. ferrooxidans in a FISH procedure. However, no cells of A. ferrooxidans were detected in the AMD water sample without cultivation. Thus, probe S-S-T.ferr-0584-a-A-18 hybridized effectively with cells of A. ferrooxidans recovered from pure cultures but failed to directly detect cells of A. ferrooxidans in the AMD site. PMID:15676194

Mahmoud, K K; Leduc, L G; Ferroni, G D

2005-04-01

63

Simultaneous visualization of Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum with immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Propionibacterium granulosum (P. granulosum) are common skin colonizers that are implicated as possible contributing factors in acne vulgaris development. We have established direct visualization tools for the simultaneous detection of these closely related species with immunofluorescence assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). As proof of principle, we were able to distinguish P. acnes and P. granulosum bacteria in multi-species populations in vitro as well as in a mock skin infection model upon labelling with 16S rRNA probes in combinatorial FISH as well as with antibodies. Furthermore, we report the co-localization of P. acnes and P. granulosum in the stratum corneum and hair follicles from patients with acne vulgaris as well as in healthy individuals. Further studies on the spatial distribution of these bacteria in skin structures in various skin disorders are needed. PMID:23896347

Jahns, Anika C; Oprica, Cristina; Vassilaki, Ismini; Golovleva, Irina; Palmer, Ruth H; Alexeyev, Oleg A

2013-10-01

64

Identification of supernumerary ring chromosome 1 mosaicism using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 15-year-old black boy with severe mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, and a supernumerary ring chromosome mosaicism. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 1 painting probe (pBS1) identified the ring as derived from chromosome 1. The karyotype was 46,XY/47,XY,+r(1)(p13q23). A review showed 8 reports of ring chromosome 1. In 5 cases, the patients had a non-supernumerary ring chromosome 1 resulting in partial monosomies of the short and/or long arm of chromosome 1. In 3 cases, the presence of a supernumerary ring resulted in partial trisomy of different segments of chromosome 1. In one of these cases of the supernumerary ring was composed primarily of the centromere and the heterochromatic region of chromosome 1, resulting in normal phenotype. Our patient represents the third report of a supernumerary ring chromosome 1 resulting in abnormal phenotype. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Chen, H.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.; Wertelecki, W. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)] [and others

1995-03-27

65

Analyzing mRNA Expression Using Single mRNA Resolution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

As the product of transcription and the blueprint for translation, mRNA is the main intermediate product of the gene expression pathway. The ability to accurately determine mRNA levels is, therefore, a major requirement when studying gene expression. mRNA is also a target of different regulatory steps, occurring in different subcellular compartments. To understand the different steps of gene expression regulation, it is therefore essential to analyze mRNA in the context of a single cell, maintaining spatial information. Here, we describe a stepwise protocol for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) that allows detection of individual mRNAs in single yeast cells. This method allows quantitative analysis of mRNA expression in single cells, permitting “absolute” quantification by simply counting mRNAs. It further allows us to study many aspects of mRNA metabolism, from transcription to processing, localization, and mRNA degradation. PMID:20946829

Zenklusen, Daniel; Singer, Robert H.

2011-01-01

66

Chromosome translocations measured by fluorescence in-situ hybridization: A promising biomarker  

SciTech Connect

A biomarker for exposure and risk assessment would be most useful if it employs an endpoint that is highly quantitative, is stable with time, and is relevant to human risk. Recent advances in chromosome staining using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) facilitate fast and reliable measurement of reciprocal translocations, a kind of DNA damage linked to both prior exposure and risk. In contrast to other biomarkers available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time post exposure, has a rather small inter-individual variability, and can be measured accurately at the low levels. Here, the authors discuss results from their studies demonstrating that chromosome painting can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for workers exposed within the dose limits, for individuals exposed a long time ago, and even for those who have been diagnosed with leukemia but not yet undergone therapy.

Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.

1995-10-01

67

The design of a microscopic system for typical fluorescent in-situ hybridization applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a modern molecular biology technique used for the detection of genetic abnormalities in terms of the number and structure of chromosomes and genes. The FISH technique is typically employed for prenatal diagnosis of congenital dementia in the Obstetrics and Genecology department. It is also routinely used to pick up qualifying breast cancer patients that are known to be highly curable by the prescription of Her2 targeted therapy. During the microscopic observation phase, the technician needs to count typically green probe dots and red probe dots contained in a single nucleus and calculate their ratio. This procedure need to be done to over hundreds of nuclei. Successful implementation of FISH tests critically depends on a suitable fluorescent microscope which is primarily imported from overseas due to the complexity of such a system beyond the maturity of the domestic optoelectrical industry. In this paper, the typical requirements of a fluorescent microscope that is suitable for FISH applications are first reviewed. The focus of this paper is on the system design and computational methods of an automatic florescent microscopy with high magnification APO objectives, a fast spinning automatic filter wheel, an automatic shutter, a cooled CCD camera used as a photo-detector, and a software platform for image acquisition, registration, pseudo-color generation, multi-channel fusing and multi-focus fusion. Preliminary results from FISH experiments indicate that this system satisfies routine FISH microscopic observation tasks.

Yi, Dingrong; Xie, Shaochuan

2013-12-01

68

Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the prokaryotic community inhabiting crystallizer ponds.  

PubMed

A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol suitable for the identification of prokaryotes inhabiting hypersaline environments was developed and applied to several crystallizer ponds with salinities above 36% from a multipond solar saltern in Alicante, Spain. Two morphotypes were abundant in these environments: rods and square or square-like prokaryotes that could be affiliated to Bacteria and Archaea, respectively, by FISH with domain-specific probes. FISH with a newly designed probe proved that the archaeal 16S rDNA sequence most frequently recovered from the crystallizers, SPhT, originated from the dominant square-like prokaryotes. These uncultured prokaryotes have the morphology of Walsby's square bacteria. Additionally, FISH with a probe targeted to the genus Haloarcula, members of which are frequently isolated from this environment, indicated that this genus accounts for less than 0.1% of the total prokaryotic community. PMID:11207773

Antón, J; Llobet-Brossa, E; Rodríguez-Valera, F; Amann, R

1999-12-01

69

A 30-Mb metric fluorescence in situ hybridization map of human chromosome 19q.  

PubMed

A high-resolution metric physical map of chromosome 19q has been constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The map locates 136 cosmid reference points that span 30 Mb. The reference points are sequentially ordered from centromere to telomere, and the distance between neighboring cosmids is known from 240 partially overlapping, redundant estimates of genomic distances in kilobases separating pairs of cosmids. The average spacing between cosmid reference points is 220 kb, with over 75% of intervals less than 300 kb. Eighty-four genes and polymorphic markers have been assigned to mapped cosmids. The information on order and genomic distances separating pairs of cosmids, both key elements for building physical maps, has furthered the construction and integration of the genetic and physical maps of chromosome 19. PMID:8586418

Gordon, L A; Bergmann, A; Christensen, M; Danganan, L; Lee, D A; Ashworth, L K; Nelson, D O; Olsen, A S; Mohrenweiser, H W; Carrano, A V

1995-11-20

70

A 30-Mb metric fluorescence in situ hybridization map of human chromosome 19q  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution metric physical map of chromosome 19q has been constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The map locates 136 cosmid reference points that span 30 Mb. The reference points are sequentially ordered from centromere to telomere, and the distance between neighboring cosmids is known from 240 partially overlapping, redundant estimates of genomic distances in kilobases separating pairs of cosmids. The average spacing between cosmid reference points is 220 kb, with over 75% of intervals less than 300 kb. Eighty-four genes and polymorphic markers have been assigned to mapped cosmids. The information on order and genomic distances separating pairs of cosmids, both key elements for building physical maps, has furthered the construction and integration of the genetic and physical maps of chromosome 19. 24 refs., 3 figs.

Gordon, L.A.; Bergmann, A.; Christensen, M.; Danganan, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); and others

1995-11-20

71

Partial trisomy 13q identified by sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 19-month-old boy with partial trisomy 13q resulting from a probable balanced translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 13. The infant presented with omphalocele, malrotation, microcephaly with overriding skull bones, micrognathia, apparently low-set ears, rocker-bottom feet, and congenital heart disease, findings suggestive of trisomy 13. Karyotypic studies from peripheral blood lymphocytes documented an unbalanced karyotype 46,XY,-1,+der. The mother`s chromosomes were normal, and the father was not available. Conventional cytogenetic techniques were unable to identify the extra material on the terminal 1q. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the GTL-banded metaphases, the extra material on 1q was identified as the terminal long arm of 13, thus resulting in partial trisomy 13 (q32-qter). 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Carpenter, N.J.; Gucsavas, M. [Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

1995-07-31

72

[Detection of maize centromeric repeats in the relatives of maize using fluorescence in situ hybridization].  

PubMed

In order to analyze the conservation of maize centromeric satellite DNA (CentC) and centromeric retrotransposon (CRM) in the subspecies and relatives of Zea mays, dual fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the existence and distribution of the above two repetitive sequences in Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Z. diploperennis, Z. perennis, Tripsacum dactyloides, Coix lacryma-jobi, and Sorghum bicolor. In Z. mays ssp. mexicana, Z. diploperennis, and Z. perennis, both CentC and CRM probes produced strong or relatively strong signals in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. There was an obvious variation in the intensity of hybridization signals on different chromosomes, indicating that different centromeres have different amounts of CentC and CRM sequences. In some centromeres, the intensity of CentC signals differed from that of CRM signals and was free from overlapping. In T. dactyloides, only weak CentC and CRM signals were detected in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, while in C. lacryma-jobi and S. bicolor only relatively strong or strong CRM signals primarily located in the centromeric regions were detected. This result indicates that CentC is highly conserved among the subspecies of Z. mays and the species of Zea, and has high conservation in Tripsacum, a genus that is most closely related to Zea, and CRM is conserved among the species of grass family either closely or distantly related to Zea. PMID:20233704

She, Chao-Wen; Jiang, Xiang-Hui; Song, Yun-Chun; Liu, Wei

2010-03-01

73

Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)  

PubMed Central

Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) to human endothelial receptors during malaria infections is mediated by expression of PfEMP1 protein variants encoded by the var genes. The haploid P. falciparum genome harbors approximately 60 different var genes of which only one has been believed to be transcribed per cell at a time during the blood stage of the infection. How such mutually exclusive regulation of var gene transcription is achieved is unclear, as is the identification of individual var genes or sub-groups of var genes associated with different receptors and the consequence of differential binding on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infections. Recently, the mutually exclusive transcription paradigm has been called into doubt by transcription assays based on individual P. falciparum transcript identification in single infected erythrocytic cells using RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE1. Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human erythrocytes. The method is based on the use of digoxigenin- and biotin- labeled antisense RNA probes using the TSA Plus Fluorescence Palette System2 (Perkin Elmer), microscopic analyses and freshly selected P. falciparum IE. The in situ hybridization method can be used to monitor transcription and regulation of a variety of genes expressed during the different stages of the P. falciparum life cycle and is adaptable to other malaria parasite species and other organisms and cell types. PMID:23070076

Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C.; Joergensen, Louise; Jensen, Anja T. R.; Arnot, David E.

2012-01-01

74

Determination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

PubMed Central

Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as “mad cow disease”), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. PMID:25034259

Lecrenier, M. C.; Ledoux, Q.; Berben, G.; Fumière, O.; Saegerman, C.; Baeten, V.; Veys, P.

2014-01-01

75

Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and dermoscopy in the assessment of controversial melanocytic tumors.  

PubMed

Although the 'gold standard' for melanoma diagnosis remains histopathological analysis, presently dermoscopists play a significant role in the diagnostic process. However, even a combined approach may not allow a clear-cut judgment on equivocal melanocytic lesions. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) can offer assistance in the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities associated with malignancies, and its role is emerging in melanoma diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of the FISH in the assessment of controversial lesions, defined as those lesions showing discrepancies between dermatoscopic and histological evaluations. Twenty clinically and histologically ambiguous melanocytic lesions were selected. After the first histopathologic diagnosis, a second pathologist examined the specimens in a blinded review for a second opinion and to identify the most suitable areas to hybridize using probes specific to RREB1, MYB, and CCND1 genes and the centromere of chromosome 6. The first histopathological evaluation led to the diagnosis of melanoma in seven cases, whereas the second identified eight cases of malignant melanoma and was in agreement with the first in 65% of cases and with dermoscopy in 40% of cases. Cytogenetic abnormalities detected by FISH are markers of malignancy that can be useful in the characterization of difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic tumors, when the dermatologist and the pathologist have a different opinions. PMID:24077512

Ponti, Giovanni; Ruini, Cristel; Massi, Daniela; Pellacani, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Paglierani, Milena; Loschi, Pietro; Seidenari, Stefania

2013-12-01

76

X chromosome aneuploidy in infertile women: Analysis by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Up to 1 in 3 couples have a problem of infertility at some time in their lives. Sex chromosome anomalies are found in 5-10% of couples, with mosaic aneuploidy being a common finding in primary infertility. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), in contrast, is frequently associated with autosomal structural anomalies. We hypothesized that low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy was associated with primary infertility but not with RSA. Three groups were studied: women from couples with primary infertillity (n=26); women with three or more spontaneous abortions (n=22); and age-matched normally fertile women (at least two pregnancies; n=28). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine X chromosome ploidy in 100 nuclei per patient, using a contig of three cosmids from MAO locus (kindly donated by W. Berger, Nijmegen). A control probe (chr. 15 centromere) was simultaneously hybridized, and only nuclei containing two control signals were scored for the X chromosome. The mean numbers of nuclei with two X chromosome signals were the same in all groups (Welch equality of means test: p>0.97). However, there is a significant difference between the variances of the primary infertile and RSA groups (Levene`s test: p=0.025 after Bonferrone correction for multiple testing). This provides preliminary support for the hypothesis of an association between primary infertility and low-level mosaic X chromosome aneuploidy.

Morris, M.A.; Moix, I.; Mermillod, B. [Univ. and Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others

1994-09-01

77

Simple method for fluorescence DNA in situ hybridization to squashed chromosomes.  

PubMed

DNA in situ hybridization (DNA ISH) is a commonly used method for mapping sequences to specific chromosome regions. This approach is particularly effective at mapping highly repetitive sequences to heterochromatic regions, where computational approaches face prohibitive challenges. Here we describe a streamlined protocol for DNA ISH that circumvents formamide washes that are standard steps in other DNA ISH protocols. Our protocol is optimized for hybridization with short single strand DNA probes that carry fluorescent dyes, which effectively mark repetitive DNA sequences within heterochromatic chromosomal regions across a number of different insect tissue types. However, applications may be extended to use with larger probes and visualization of single copy (non-repetitive) DNA sequences. We demonstrate this method by mapping several different repetitive sequences to squashed chromosomes from Drosophila melanogaster neural cells and Nasonia vitripennis spermatocytes. We show hybridization patterns for both small, commercially synthesized probes and for a larger probe for comparison. This procedure uses simple laboratory supplies and reagents, and is ideal for investigators who have little experience with performing DNA ISH. PMID:25591075

Larracuente, Amanda M; Ferree, Patrick M

2015-01-01

78

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment of chromosome copy number in sperm  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 15% of all recognized pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in spontaneous abortions is approximately 50%. Thus aneuploidy is a significant cause of fetal wastage. In addition, structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes can also lead to birth defects, developmental delay, mental retardation and infertility. Conventional cytogenetic analysis via GTG- and other banding techniques is a powerful tool in the elucidation of the nature of chromosomal abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) enables detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomies, in intact cells. Using FISH and commercially available biotin-labeled probes, we have initiated a prospective study to assess specific chromosome copy number of preparations of unstained smears from men referred for a male infertility evaluation as well as smears from normal control males chosen randomly from the sample of sperm donors. A total of approximately 19,000 sperm nuclei have been examined thus far. Of those suitable for analysis, 7382 (38.75%) were normal possessing one copy of chromosome 8, 155 (0.81%) were disomic, and 15 (0.079%) had more than two copies of chromosome 8. Comparisons with data available in the literature will be discussed. Work is ongoing to increase the efficiency of hybridization using both reported and previously untried pretreatment and fixation protocols. We have also initiated studies using multicolor FISH with various chromosome enumeration probes. The assay described here is a potentially powerful tool for detecting rare events such as spontaneous germ cell aneuploidy, aneuploidy detected in semen from men with carcinoma in situ of the testis and aneuploidy induced by potential environmental genotoxicants. It can also be utilized for segregation analysis and for correlating chromosome copy number with germ cell morphology.

Sheu, M.; Sigman, M.; Mark, H.F.L. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

1994-09-01

79

Meiotic products of a Klinefelter 47,XXY male as determined by sperm fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meiotic segregation of 24 spermatozoa obtained from a 47,XXY male is described. Three-colour fluorescence in- situ hybridization with probes for chromosomes X, Y and 18 was used. Five spermatozoa carried an X chromosome, seven carried a Y, six had an XY gonosomal complement, five were missing the sex chromosome and one spermato- zoon was presumably diploid with an XX\\/1818

Anna M. Estop; Santiago Munne ´; Kathy M. Cieply; Kelly K. Vandermark; Allen N. Lamb; Harry Fisch

80

A FRET-based assay for characterization of alternative splicing events using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a quantitative method for detecting RNA alternative splicing variants that combines in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes with confocal microscopy Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The use of PNA probes complementary to sequences flank- ing a given splice junction allows to specifically quantify, within the cell, the RNA isoform generating such splice junction

Ana M. Blanco; Laura Rausell; Begona Aguado; Manuel Perez-Alonso; Ruben Artero

2009-01-01

81

In-solution fluorescence in situ hybridization and fluorescence-activated cell sorting for single cell and population genome recovery.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, technological advances in whole genome amplification, microfluidics, flow sorting, and high-throughput sequencing have led to the development of single-cell genomics. Single-cell genomic approaches are typically applied to anonymous microbial cells with only morphology providing clues to their identity. However, targeted separation of microorganisms based on phylogenetic markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene, is beginning to emerge in the single-cell genomics field. Here, we describe an in-solution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol which can be combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for separation of single cells or populations of interest from environmental samples. Sequencing of DNA obtained from sorted cells can be used for the recovery of draft quality genomes, and when performed in parallel with deep metagenomics, can be used to validate and further scaffold metagenomic assemblies. We illustrate in this chapter the feasibility of this FISH-FACS approach by describing the targeted recovery of a novel anaerobic methanotrophic archaeon. PMID:24060113

Haroon, Mohamed F; Skennerton, Connor T; Steen, Jason A; Lachner, Nancy; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W

2013-01-01

82

FISHIS: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Suspension and Chromosome Flow Sorting Made Easy  

PubMed Central

The large size and complex polyploid nature of many genomes has often hampered genomics development, as is the case for several plants of high agronomic value. Isolating single chromosomes or chromosome arms via flow sorting offers a clue to resolve such complexity by focusing sequencing to a discrete and self-consistent part of the whole genome. The occurrence of sufficient differences in the size and or base-pair composition of the individual chromosomes, which is uncommon in plants, is critical for the success of flow sorting. We overcome this limitation by developing a robust method for labeling isolated chromosomes, named Fluorescent In situ Hybridization In suspension (FISHIS). FISHIS employs fluorescently labeled synthetic repetitive DNA probes, which are hybridized, in a wash-less procedure, to chromosomes in suspension following DNA alkaline denaturation. All typical A, B and D genomes of wheat, as well as individual chromosomes from pasta (T. durum L.) and bread (T. aestivum L.) wheat, were flow-sorted, after FISHIS, at high purity. For the first time in eukaryotes, each individual chromosome of a diploid organism, Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, was flow-sorted regardless of its size or base-pair related content. FISHIS-based chromosome sorting is a powerful and innovative flow cytogenetic tool which can develop new genomic resources from each plant species, where microsatellite DNA probes are available and high quality chromosome suspensions could be produced. The joining of FISHIS labeling and flow sorting with the Next Generation Sequencing methodology will enforce genomics for more species, and by this mightier chromosome approach it will be possible to increase our knowledge about structure, evolution and function of plant genome to be used for crop improvement. It is also anticipated that this technique could contribute to analyze and sort animal chromosomes with peculiar cytogenetic abnormalities, such as copy number variations or cytogenetic aberrations. PMID:23469124

Giorgi, Debora; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Gennaro, Andrea; Ceoloni, Carla; Lucretti, Sergio

2013-01-01

83

FISHIS: fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension and chromosome flow sorting made easy.  

PubMed

The large size and complex polyploid nature of many genomes has often hampered genomics development, as is the case for several plants of high agronomic value. Isolating single chromosomes or chromosome arms via flow sorting offers a clue to resolve such complexity by focusing sequencing to a discrete and self-consistent part of the whole genome. The occurrence of sufficient differences in the size and or base-pair composition of the individual chromosomes, which is uncommon in plants, is critical for the success of flow sorting. We overcome this limitation by developing a robust method for labeling isolated chromosomes, named Fluorescent In situ Hybridization In suspension (FISHIS). FISHIS employs fluorescently labeled synthetic repetitive DNA probes, which are hybridized, in a wash-less procedure, to chromosomes in suspension following DNA alkaline denaturation. All typical A, B and D genomes of wheat, as well as individual chromosomes from pasta (T. durum L.) and bread (T. aestivum L.) wheat, were flow-sorted, after FISHIS, at high purity. For the first time in eukaryotes, each individual chromosome of a diploid organism, Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, was flow-sorted regardless of its size or base-pair related content. FISHIS-based chromosome sorting is a powerful and innovative flow cytogenetic tool which can develop new genomic resources from each plant species, where microsatellite DNA probes are available and high quality chromosome suspensions could be produced. The joining of FISHIS labeling and flow sorting with the Next Generation Sequencing methodology will enforce genomics for more species, and by this mightier chromosome approach it will be possible to increase our knowledge about structure, evolution and function of plant genome to be used for crop improvement. It is also anticipated that this technique could contribute to analyze and sort animal chromosomes with peculiar cytogenetic abnormalities, such as copy number variations or cytogenetic aberrations. PMID:23469124

Giorgi, Debora; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Gennaro, Andrea; Ceoloni, Carla; Lucretti, Sergio

2013-01-01

84

[Fluorescence in situ hybridization in the diagnosis and follow-up of chronic myelogenous leukemia].  

PubMed

Chronic myelogenous leukaemia is a clonal myeloproliferative stem cell disease. Its cytogenetical hallmark is the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) or the BCR/ABL fusion gene. Their identification is important both in the diagnosis and the follow-up of the disease. In our department we have investigated the BCR/ABL gene arrangement in 21 patients with fluorescence in situ hybridization. The aim of the analysis in freshly suspected patients without any previous therapy was to confirm diagnosis and mapping the ratio of Philadelphia positive cells. In contrast to the 95-100% Ph-positivity of mononuclear cells by classical cytogenetical examinations we found BCR/ABL gene arrangement only in various but always lower proportions. Therefore the latter examination gives a better representation of residual normal hemopoesis. Out of 9 patients who had received interferon treatment for at least 6 months, 4 gave a major, 4 a minor cytogenetical answer and in 1 case there was no cytogenetical response. Seven patients reached a complete and 2 a partial hematological remission. Among 5 other patients receiving interferon treatment, in 2 cases with double Ph-positivity we found a rapid progression. The data of 3 patients had to be excluded from the evaluation due to the so far short following time. PMID:11028176

Rejtó, L; Balázs, M; Adány, R; Rák, K; Telek, B; Kiss, A; Ujj, G; Mezei, G; Balogh, E; Udvardy, M

2000-09-24

85

Development of a PNA probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Prorocentrum donghaiense.  

PubMed

Prorocentrum donghaiense is a common but dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, which is widely distributed along the China Sea coast. Development of methods for rapid and precise identification and quantification is prerequisite for early-stage warning and monitoring of blooms due to P. donghaiense. In this study, sequences representing the partial large subunit rDNA (D1-D2), small subunit rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of P. donghaiense were firstly obtained, and then seven candidate DNA probes were designed for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests on P. donghaiense. Based on the fluorescent intensity of P. donghaiense cells labeled by the DNA probes, the probe DP0443A displayed the best hybridization performance. Therefore, a PNA probe (PP0443A) analogous to DP0443A was used in the further study. The cells labeled with the PNA probe displayed more intensive green fluorescence than that labeled with its DNA analog. The PNA probe was used to hybridize with thirteen microalgae belonging to five families, i.e., Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Raphidophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae, and showed no visible cross-reaction. Finally, FISH with the probes PP0443A and DP0443A and light microscopy (LM) analysis aiming at enumerating P. donghaiense cells were performed on the field samples. Statistical comparisons of the cell densities (cells/L) of P. donghaiense in the natural samples determined by FISH and LM were performed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparisons of the means. The P. donghaiense cell densities determined by LM and the PNA probe are remarkably higher than (p<0.05) that determined by the DNA probe, while no significant difference is observed between LM and the PNA probe. All results suggest that the PNA probe is more sensitive that its DNA analog, and therefore is promising for the monitoring of harmful algal blooms of P. donghaiense in the future. PMID:22022408

Chen, Guofu; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Baoyu; Wang, Guangce; Lu, Douding; Xu, Zhong; Yan, Peishen

2011-01-01

86

The importance of using fluorescence in situ hybridization for the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Quality metaphase preparations are required for unambiguous detection of the deletion. We and others have reported cases of SMS due to mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). Examination of peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of a patient with the SMS phenotype at 850 band level of resolution revealed a low level mosaicism (11%) for the deletion. Examination of fibroblasts at relatively low resolution revealed the deletion in all cells. In a second study, we reported molecular evidence for mosaicism in the unaffected mother of an SMS patient who demonstrated mosaicism (55%) for the deletion at a resolution level of < 500 bands. We now report a different SMS patient who was initially diagnosed as mosaic del(17)(p11.2) in two different cytogenetic laboratories. A third blinded cytogenetic study yielded a questionable diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) conducted in two different laboratories with two different markers shown to be within the deletion region and a control marker from chromosome 17 demonstrated a deletion in 20/20 and 25/25 metaphases scored, respectively. It appears the latter patient may harbor a very small deletion and that FISH is a more reliable test for the Smith-Magenis deletion. Furthermore, FISH should be used to confirm or refute mosaicism seen in routine cytogenetics studies.

Juyal, R.C.; Greenberg, F.; Lupski, J.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

87

A simple method for combined fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

By combining in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunocytochemistry (IC), microscopic topological localization of mRNAs and proteins can be determined. Although this technique can be applied to a variety of tissues, it is particularly important for use on neuronal cells which are morphologically complex and in which specific mRNAs and proteins are located in distinct subcellular domains such as dendrites and dendritic spines. One common technical problem for combined ISH and IC is that the signal for immunocytochemical localization of proteins often becomes much weaker after conducting ISH. In this manuscript, we report a simplified but robust protocol that allows immunocytochemical localization of proteins after ISH. In this protocol, we fix cultured cortical or hippocampal neurons with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA), rinse briefly in PBS, and then further fix the cells with C methanol. Our method has several major advantages over previously described ones in that (1) it is simple, as it is just consecutive routine fixation procedures, (2) it does not require any special alteration to the fixation procedures such as changes in salt concentration, and (3) it can be used with antibodies that are compatible with either methanol (MeOH-) or PFA-fixed target proteins. To our best knowledge, we are the first to employ this fixation method for fluorescence ISH + IC. PMID:17846501

Moon, Il Soo; Cho, Sun-Jung; Jin, Ingnyol; Walikonis, Randall

2007-08-31

88

Potential clinical impact of three-dimensional visualization for fluorescent in situ hybridization image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromosomal translocation is strong indication of cancers. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can effectively detect this translocation and achieve high accuracy in disease diagnosis and prognosis assessment. For this purpose, whole chromosome paint probes are utilized to image the configuration of DNA fragments. Although two-dimensional (2-D) microscopic images are typically used in FISH signal analysis, we present a case where the translocation occurs in the depth direction where two probed FISH signals are overlapped in the projected image plane. Thus, the translocation cannot be identified. However, when imaging the whole specimen with a confocal microscope at 27 focal planes with 0.5-?m step interval, the translocation can be clearly identified due to the free rotation capability by the three-dimensional (3-D) visualization. Such a translocation detection error of using 2-D images might be critical in detecting and diagnosing early or subtle disease cases where detecting a small number of abnormal cells can make diagnostic difference. Hence, the underlying implication of this report suggests that utilizing 3-D visualization may improve the overall accuracy of FISH analysis for some clinical cases. However, the clinical efficiency and cost of using 3-D versus 2-D imaging methods are also to be assessed carefully.

Li, Zheng; Li, Shibo; Bin, Zheng; Zhang, Roy; Li, Yuhua; Tian, Huimin; Chen, Wei; Liu, Hong

2012-05-01

89

Profiling T cell activation using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Flow cytometric characterization of Ag-specific T cells typically relies on detection of protein analytes. Shifting the analysis to detection of RNA would provide several significant advantages, which we illustrate by developing a new host immunity-based platform for detection of infections. Cytokine mRNAs synthesized in response to ex vivo stimulation with pathogen-specific Ags are detected in T cells with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by flow cytometry. Background from pre-existing in vivo analytes is lower for RNAs than for proteins, allowing greater sensitivity for detection of low-frequency cells. Moreover, mRNA analysis reveals kinetic differences in cytokine expression that are not apparent at the protein level but provide novel insights into gene expression programs expected to define different T cell subsets. The utility of probing immunological memory of infections is demonstrated by detecting T cells that recognize mycobacterial and viral Ags in donors exposed to the respective pathogens. PMID:25505292

Bushkin, Yuri; Radford, Felix; Pine, Richard; Lardizabal, Alfred; Mangura, Bonita T; Gennaro, Maria Laura; Tyagi, Sanjay

2015-01-15

90

Detection of a variable number of ribosomal DNA loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization in Populus species.  

PubMed

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to related Populus species (2n = 19) in order to detect rDNA loci. An interspecific variability in the number of hybridization sites was revealed using as probe an homologous 25S clone from Populus deltoides. The application of image analysis methods to measure fluorescence intensity of the hybridization signals has enabled us to characterize major and minor loci in the 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA. We identified one pair of such rDNA clusters in Populus alba; two pairs, one major and one minor, in both Populus nigra and P. deltoides; and three pairs in Populus balsamifera, (two major and one minor) and Populus euroamericana (one major and two minor). FISH results are in agreement with those based on RFLP analysis. The pBG13 probe containing 5S sequence from flax detected two separate clusters corresponding to the two size classes of units that coexist within 5S rDNA of most Populus species. Key words : Populus spp., fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, rDNA variability, image analysis. PMID:18469951

Prado, E A; Faivre-Rampant, P; Schneider, C; Darmency, M A

1996-10-01

91

Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization signal detection by computing intensity variance along the optical axis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence in situ Hybridization technology is a commonly used tool to detect chromosome aberrations, which are often pathologically significant. Since manual FISH analysis is a tedious and time-consuming procedure, reliable and robust automated image acquisition and analysis are in demand. Under high magnification objective lenses such as 60x and 100x, the depth of field will often be too small and the FISH probes may not always lie in the same focal plane. A statistical variance based automated FISH analysis method is developed in order to address this problem. On a stack of slices at consecutive image planes with a step size d, the statistical variance alone the z-axis is calculated to form a 2-D matrix. Since pixels shift dramatically to high intensity at FISH probe location, the probes will manifest high peak values in the matrix. A computer-aided detection scheme based on top-hat transform is applied to the matrix to detect FISH probe signals. This study demonstrates a simple and robust method for FISH probe detection as well as a way of 2- D representation of 3-D data.

Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bin; Ren, Liqiang; Liu, Hong

2014-02-01

92

Spatial genome organization: contrasting views from chromosome conformation capture and fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Although important for gene regulation, most studies of genome organization use either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods. FISH directly visualizes the spatial relationship of sequences but is usually applied to a few loci at a time. The frequency at which sequences are ligated together by formaldehyde cross-linking can be measured genome-wide by 3C methods, with higher frequencies thought to reflect shorter distances. FISH and 3C should therefore give the same views of genome organization, but this has not been tested extensively. We investigated the murine HoxD locus with 3C carbon copy (5C) and FISH in different developmental and activity states and in the presence or absence of epigenetic regulators. We identified situations in which the two data sets are concordant but found other conditions under which chromatin topographies extrapolated from 5C or FISH data are not compatible. We suggest that products captured by 3C do not always reflect spatial proximity, with ligation occurring between sequences located hundreds of nanometers apart, influenced by nuclear environment and chromatin composition. We conclude that results obtained at high resolution with either 3C methods or FISH alone must be interpreted with caution and that views about genome organization should be validated by independent methods. PMID:25512564

Williamson, Iain; Berlivet, Soizik; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Boyle, Shelagh; Illingworth, Robert S; Paquette, Denis; Dostie, Josée; Bickmore, Wendy A

2014-12-15

93

Microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry (µFlowFISH)  

PubMed Central

We describe an integrated microfluidic device (µFlowFISH) capable of performing 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) followed by flow cytometric detection for identifying bacteria in natural microbial communities. The device was used for detection of species involved in bioremediation of Cr(VI) and other metals in groundwater samples from a highly-contaminated environmental site (Hanford, WA, USA). The µFlowFISH seamlessly integrates two components: a hybridization chamber formed between two photopolymerized membranes, where cells and probes are electrophoretically loaded, incubated and washed; and a downstream cross structure for electrokinetically focusing cells into a single-file flow for flow cytometry analysis. The device is capable of analyzing a wide variety of bacteria including aerobic, facultative and anaerobic bacteria and was initially tested and validated using cultured microbes, including Escherichia coli, as well as two strains isolated from Hanford site: Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain RCH1, and Pseudomonas sp. strain RCH2 that are involved in Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization. Combined labeling and detection efficiencies of 74–97% were observed in experiments with simple mixtures of cultured cells confirmed specific labeling. Results obtained were in excellent agreement with those obtained by conventional flow cytometry confirming the accuracy of µFlowFISH. Finally, the device was used for analyzing water samples collected on different dates from the Hanford Site. We were able to monitor the numbers of Pseudomonas sp. with only 100–200 cells loaded into the microchip. The µFlowFISH approach provides an automated platform for quantitative detection of microbial cells from complex samples, and is ideally suited for analysis of precious samples with low cell numbers such as those found at extreme environmental niches, bioremediation sites, and the human microbiome. PMID:21755095

Liu, Peng; Meagher, Robert J.; Light, Yooli Kim; Yilmaz, Suzan; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Singh, Anup K.

2011-01-01

94

Microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry (?FlowFISH).  

PubMed

We describe an integrated microfluidic device (?FlowFISH) capable of performing 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) followed by flow cytometric detection for identifying bacteria in natural microbial communities. The device was used for detection of species involved in bioremediation of Cr(vi) and other metals in groundwater samples from a highly-contaminated environmental site (Hanford, WA, USA). The ?FlowFISH seamlessly integrates two components: a hybridization chamber formed between two photopolymerized membranes, where cells and probes are electrophoretically loaded, incubated and washed, and a downstream cross structure for electrokinetically focusing cells into a single-file flow for flow cytometry analysis. The device is capable of analyzing a wide variety of bacteria including aerobic, facultative and anaerobic bacteria and was initially tested and validated using cultured microbes, including Escherichia coli, as well as two strains isolated from Hanford site: Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain RCH1, and Pseudomonas sp.strain RCH2 that are involved in Cr(vi) reduction and immobilization. Combined labeling and detection efficiencies of 74-97% were observed in experiments with simple mixtures of cultured cells, confirming specific labeling. Results obtained were in excellent agreement with those obtained by conventional flow cytometry confirming the accuracy of ?FlowFISH. Finally, the device was used for analyzing water samples collected on different dates from the Hanford site. We were able to monitor the numbers of Pseudomonas sp. with only 100-200 cells loaded into the microchip. The ?FlowFISH approach provides an automated platform for quantitative detection of microbial cells from complex samples, and is ideally suited for analysis of precious samples with low cell numbers such as those found at extreme environmental niches, bioremediation sites, and the human microbiome. PMID:21755095

Liu, Peng; Meagher, Robert J; Light, Yooli K; Yilmaz, Suzan; Chakraborty, Romy; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Singh, Anup K

2011-08-21

95

Metallographic in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Metallographic methods, in which a target is visualized using a probe or antibody that deposits metal selectively at its binding site, offers many advantages for bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) detection as well as for other labeling and detection methods. Autometallographically enhanced gold labeling procedures have demonstrated higher sensitivity than conventional enzyme chromogens. Enzyme metallography, a novel procedure in which an enzymatic probe is used to deposit metal directly from solution, has been used to develop bright-field ISH methods for HER2 gene determination in breast cancer and other biopsy specimens. It provides the highest level of sensitivity and resolution, both for visualizing endogenous gene copies in nonamplified tissues and for resolving multiple gene copies to allow copy enumeration in amplified tissues without the need for oil immersion or fluorescence optics. An automated enzyme metallography procedure, silver ISH, has been developed for use in slide-staining instruments. Metallographic staining also provides excellent results for immunohistochemistry and may be combined with other staining procedures for the simultaneous detection of more than one gene or combinations of genes and proteins. PMID:17640553

Powell, Richard D; Pettay, James D; Powell, William C; Roche, Patrick C; Grogan, Thomas M; Hainfeld, James F; Tubbs, Raymond R

2007-08-01

96

Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1995-01-02

97

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis of Atypical Melanocytic Proliferations and Melanoma in Young Patients  

PubMed Central

Morphologic heterogeneity among melanocytic proliferations is a common challenge in the diagnosis of melanoma. In particular, atypical melanocytic lesions in children, adolescents, and young adults may be difficult to classify because of significant morphologic overlap with melanoma. Recently a four-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol to detect chromosomal abnormalities in chromosomes 6 and 11 has shown promise for improving the classification of melanocytic lesions. We sought to determine the correlation between FISH results, morphology, and clinical outcomes in a series of challenging melanocytic proliferations in young patients. We retrospectively performed the standard four-probe FISH analysis on 21 melanocytic neoplasms from 21 patients younger than 25 years of age (range 5–25 years, mean 14.6 years) from Stanford University Medical Center who were prospectively followed for a median of 51 months (range 1–136 months). The study cohort included patients with 5 confirmed melanomas, 2 melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential (MelTUMPs), 10 morphologically challenging atypical Spitz tumors (ASTs), and 4 typical Spitz nevi. FISH detected chromosomal aberrations in all five melanomas and in one MelTUMP, in which the patient developed subsequent lymph node and distant metastasis. All 10 ASTs, 4 Spitz nevi, and 1 of 2 MelTUMPs were negative for significant gains or losses in chromosomes 6 and 11q. Our findings demonstrated a strong correlation between positive FISH results and the histomorphologic impression of melanoma. This finding was also true for the MelTUMP with poor clinical outcome. Therefore FISH may serve as a helpful adjunct in the classification of controversial melanocytic tumors in young patients. PMID:24924836

DeMarchis, Emilia H; Swetter, Susan M; Jennings, Charay D; Kim, Jinah

2014-01-01

98

Localization of the human OB gene (OBS) to chromosome 7q32 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

An important gene involved in the pathogenesis of obesity is the product of the human homologue of the murine obese gene (gene symbol OBS). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have localized the human OB gene to human chromosome 7, specifically to region 7q32.1. The FISH data of human OBS provide a gene-associated marker for genetic mapping. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Geffroy, S.; Duban, B.; Martinville, B. de [Universitaire de Lille (France)] [and others] [Universitaire de Lille (France); and others

1995-08-10

99

Chromosomal mapping of mouse 5S rRNA genes by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse 5S rRNA gene was mapped by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotinylated probes. Two genomic fragments amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of BALB\\/c mice and Mus spretus, a 0.16-kb fragment that included the 121 -bp 5S rRNA gene and a 1.6-kb fragment that included the whole spacer region, were used for chromosomal mapping

Y. Matsuda; K. Moriwaki; V. M. Chapman; Y. Hoi-Sen; J. Akbarzadeh; H. Suzuki

1994-01-01

100

Detection of Gallibacterium spp. in chickens by fluorescent 16S rRNA in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Gallibacterium has recently been included as a new genus of the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981, which encompasses bacteria previously reported as Pasteurella anatis, "Actinobacillus salpingitidis," and avian Pasteurella haemolytica-like organisms. So far, identification has exclusively relied on phenotypic characterization. We present a method based on a cyanine dye 3.18-labeled in situ hybridization probe targeting 16S rRNA to allow specific detection of bacteria belonging to the genus Gallibacterium. The probe, GAN850, showed no cross-reactivity to 25 other poultry-associated bacterial species, including members of the families Pasteurellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, when cross-reactivities were evaluated by whole-cell hybridization. The probe was further evaluated by hybridization to formalin-fixed spleen and liver tissues from experimentally infected chickens, in which it proved to be useful for the detection of Gallibacterium. Additionally, determination of the spatial distribution and the host cell affiliation of Gallibacterium at various times during the infection process was possible. In conclusion, the in situ hybridization technique described may be of use as a diagnostic tool as well as for studies to elucidate the pathogenesis of Gallibacterium infections in chickens. PMID:14605154

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Christensen, Henrik; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Bisgaard, Magne

2003-11-01

101

Detection of Gallibacterium spp. in Chickens by Fluorescent 16S rRNA In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium has recently been included as a new genus of the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981, which encompasses bacteria previously reported as Pasteurella anatis, “Actinobacillus salpingitidis,” and avian Pasteurella haemolytica-like organisms. So far, identification has exclusively relied on phenotypic characterization. We present a method based on a cyanine dye 3.18-labeled in situ hybridization probe targeting 16S rRNA to allow specific detection of bacteria belonging to the genus Gallibacterium. The probe, GAN850, showed no cross-reactivity to 25 other poultry-associated bacterial species, including members of the families Pasteurellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, when cross-reactivities were evaluated by whole-cell hybridization. The probe was further evaluated by hybridization to formalin-fixed spleen and liver tissues from experimentally infected chickens, in which it proved to be useful for the detection of Gallibacterium. Additionally, determination of the spatial distribution and the host cell affiliation of Gallibacterium at various times during the infection process was possible. In conclusion, the in situ hybridization technique described may be of use as a diagnostic tool as well as for studies to elucidate the pathogenesis of Gallibacterium infections in chickens. PMID:14605154

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Christensen, Henrik; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Bisgaard, Magne

2003-01-01

102

Identification of Dekkera bruxellensis (Brettanomyces) from Wine by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes  

PubMed Central

A new fluorescence in situ hybridization method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Brettanomyces is described. The test is based on fluorescein-labeled PNA probes targeting a species-specific sequence of the rRNA of Dekkera bruxellensis. The PNA probes were applied to smears of colonies, and results were interpreted by fluorescence microscopy. The results obtained from testing 127 different yeast strains, including 78 Brettanomyces isolates from wine, show that the spoilage organism Brettanomyces belongs to the species D. bruxellensis and that the new method is able to identify Brettanomyces (D. bruxellensis) with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. PMID:11157265

Stender, Henrik; Kurtzman, Cletus; Hyldig-Nielsen, Jens J.; Sørensen, Ditte; Broomer, Adam; Oliveira, Kenneth; Perry-O'Keefe, Heather; Sage, Andrew; Young, Barbara; Coull, James

2001-01-01

103

Analysis of the subcellular distribution of RNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

In situ hybridization is a powerful method of examining the spatial distribution of RNA molecules at the subcellular level and serves as a basic technique in the fields of cell and developmental biology. In this technique, target RNAs are fixed in cells using formaldehyde and then hybridized to complementary probes labeled with modified nucleotides that are subsequently detected by immunohistochemical methods. Here, the procedures that are commonly used for the detection of RNA in mammalian tissues and cells are described, focusing on technical tips that improve the sensitivity, productivity, and reproducibility. PMID:25240891

Nakagawa, Shinichi

2015-01-01

104

Rapid-prenatal diagnosis through fluorescence in situ hybridization for preventing aneuploidy related birth defects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Women with high-risk pregnancies are offered prenatal diagnosis through amniocentesis for cytogenetic analysis of fetal cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detecting numerical aberrations of chromosomes 13, 21, 18, X and Y in high-risk pregnancies in an Indian scenario. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 163 samples were received for a FISH and/or a full karyotype for prenatal diagnosis from high-risk pregnancies. In 116 samples both conventional culture techniques for getting karyotype through G-banding techniques were applied in conjunction to FISH test using the AneuVysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Inc.), following standard recommended protocol to compare the both the techniques in our setup. RESULTS: Out of 116 patients, we got 96 normal for the five major chromosome abnormality and seven patients were found to be abnormal (04 trisomy 21, 02 monosomy X, and 01 trisomy 13) and all the FISH results correlated with conventional cytogenetics. To summarize the results of total 163 patients for the major chromosomal abnormalities analyzed by both/or cytogenetics and FISH there were 140 (86%) normal, 9 (6%) cases were abnormal and another 4 (2.5%) cases were suspicious mosaic and 10 (6%) cases of culture failure. The diagnostic detection rate with FISH in 116 patients was 97.5%. There were no false-positive and false-negative autosomal or sex chromosomal results, within our established criteria for reporting FISH signals. CONCLUSION: Rapid FISH is a reliable and prompt method for detecting numerical chromosomal aberrations and has now been implemented as a routine diagnostic procedure for detection of fetal aneuploidy in India. PMID:23901191

Fauzdar, Ashish; Chowdhry, Mohit; Makroo, R. N.; Mishra, Manoj; Srivastava, Priyanka; Tyagi, Richa; Bhadauria, Preeti; Kaul, Anita

2013-01-01

105

Quantitative microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization - a comparison between repeat-depleted and non-depleted DNA probes.  

PubMed

Complex probes used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) usually contain repetitive DNA sequences. For chromosome painting, in situ suppression of these repetitive DNA sequences has been well established. Standard painting protocols require large amounts of an unlabeled 'blocking agent', for instance Cot-1 DNA. Recently, it has become possible to remove repetitive DNA sequences from library probes by means of magnetic purification and affinity PCR. Such a 'repeat depleted library probe' was hybridized to the q-arm of chromosome 15 of human metaphase spreads and interphase cell nuclei without any preannealing by Cot-1 DNA. Apart from this, 'standard' FISH conditions were used. After in situ hybridization, microscope images were obtained comparable to those achieved with the #15q library probe prior to depletion. The images were recorded by a true color CCD camera. By digital image analysis using 'line scan' and 'area scan' procedures, the painting efficiency expressed in terms of relative fluorescence signal intensity was quantitatively evaluated. The painting efficiency using the repeat depleted probe of chromosome 15q was compared to the painting efficiency after standard FISH. The results indicate that both types of probes are compatible to a high FISH efficiency. Using equivalent probe concentrations, no significant differences were found for FISH with standard painting probes and repeat depleted painting probes. PMID:10889276

Rauch, J; Wolf, D; Craig, J M; Hausmann, M; Cremer, C

2000-07-10

106

Increased incidence of disomic sperm nuclei in a 47,XYY male assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using triple-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization in decondensed sperm heads, we assessed the sex-chromosome distribution\\u000a in spermatozoa from a 47,XYY male compared with controls. The incidence of spermatozoa with 24,XY (0.30%) and 24,YY (1.01%)\\u000a disomy was significantly higher than in our control series. Diploid meiocytes present in the ejaculate were mainly 47,XYY\\u000a (60.6–86.7%), and haploid meiocytes were mainly 24,XY (78.1%).These

Joan Blanco; Carmen Rubio; Carlos Simon; Josep Egozcue; Francesca Vidal

1997-01-01

107

Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization to clarify a complex chromosomal rearrangement in a child with multiple congenital anomalies  

SciTech Connect

A child with multiple congenital anomalies was referred for cytogenetic evaluation. G-banded analysis showed a complex chromosome rearrangement involving 6 different chromosomes and 10 breakpoints. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome painting probes and repetitive sequence probes was performed. In most cases the painting probes alone helped to clarify the G-banded results. However, in one instance, where the terminal band of the long arm of chromosome 1 was involved, the use of a telomeric probe was essential in defining the rearrangement. 13 refs., 3 figs.

Spikes, A.S.; Hegmann, K.; Smith, J.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-05-22

108

QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS. (R823845)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Image and multifactorial statistical analyses were used to evaluate the intensity of fluorescence signal from cells of three strains of A. pullulans and one strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides , as an outgroup, hybridized with either a universal o...

109

Standardization criteria for the detection of BCR\\/ABL fusion in interphase nuclei of chronic myelogenous leukemia patients by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as a new clinical test, is not presently standardized. For practical reasons, each laboratory must build its own criteria. In this work, we present our standardization criteria for clinical practice, which include not only the methods for cell fixation, specimen preparation, and hybridization conditions, but mainly the definition of false-positive range and the scoring criteria

Ninette Cohen; Ilya Novikov; Izhar Hardan; Arif Esa; Frida Brok-Simoni; Ninette Amariglio; Gideon Rechavi; Isaac Ben-Bassat; Luba Trakhtenbrot

2000-01-01

110

Design and Performance of a 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probe for Detection of Members of the Genus Bdellovibrio by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization?  

PubMed Central

A 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3-labeled oligonucleotide probe was designed to detect members of the genus Bdellovibrio by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Specific hybridization conditions were established; however, the detection of bdellovibrios in environmental samples required enrichment, confirming that Bdellovibrio spp. are not present in large numbers in the environment. PMID:17905886

Mahmoud, Khaled K.; McNeely, Damian; Elwood, Chelsea; Koval, Susan F.

2007-01-01

111

Sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of subtelomeric repeat  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zucc (Japanese hop) is a dioecious species of the family Cannabaceae. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 = 14 + XX for females and 2n = 17 = 14 + XY1Y2 for male. To date, no fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) markers have been established for the identification of Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes. In this paper, we report a method for the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus by FISH for HJSR, a high copy subtelomeric repeat. The signal is present in the subtelomeric region of one arm of the X chromosome. We demonstrate that males have two Y chromosomes that differ in FISH signal with the HJSR probe. Indeed, the HJSR probe hybridizes to a subtelomeric region on both arms of chromosome Y1 but not of chromosome Y2. The orientation and position of pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) were also determined. PMID:24260665

Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Yakovin, Nikolay A.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2012-01-01

112

A high-resolution karyotype of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis revealed by pachytene analysis and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular cytogenetic map of Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, 2 n=20) was constructed based on the 4?-6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained mitotic metaphase and pachytene chromosomes and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (McFISH), using three repetitive DNA sequences, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and C11-350H. The lengths of mitotic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.46 ?m to 3.30 ?m. Five 45S and three 5S

Dal-Hoe Koo; Prikshit Plaha; Yong Pyo Lim; Yoonkang Hur; Jae-Wook Bang

2004-01-01

113

Identification of Neurofibromatosis 1 ( NF1) Homologous Loci by Direct Sequencing, Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization, and PCR Amplification of Somatic Cell Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have identified seven NF1-related loci, two separate loci on chromosome 2, at bands 2q21 and 2q33-q34, and one locus each on five other chromosomes at bands 14q11.2, 15q11.2, 18p11.2, 21q11.2-q21, and 22q11.2. Application of PCR using NF1 primer pairs and genomic DNA from somatic cell hybrids confirmed the above loci, identified additional loci

Smita M. Purandare; Heidi Huntsman Breidenbach; Ying Li; Xiao Lin Zhu; Shun'ichi Sawada; Shannon M. Neil; Arthur Brothman; Ray White; Richard Cawthon; David Viskochil

1995-01-01

114

A simple and rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization microwave protocol for reliable dicentric chromosome analysis.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situhybridization (FISH) is an extremely effective and sensitive approach to analyzing chromosome aberrations. Until recently, this procedure has taken multiple days to complete. The introduction of telomeric and centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes has reduced the procedure's duration to several hours, but the protocols still call for a high temperature (80-90°C) step followed by 1-3 h of hybridization. The newest method to speed up the FISH protocol is the use of a microwave to shorten the heating element to less than a minute; however this protocol still calls for a 1-h hybridization period. We have utilized PNA centromere/telomere probes in conjunction with a microwave oven to show telomere and centromere staining in as little as 30 s. We have optimized the hybridization conditions to increase the sensitivity and effectiveness of the new protocol and can effectively stain chromosomes in 2 min and 30 s of incubation. We have found that our new approach to FISH produces extremely clear and distinct signals. Radiation-induced dicentric formation in mouse and human fibroblast cells was analyzed by two individual scorers and the observed dicentrics matched very well. PMID:23161278

Cartwright, Ian M; Genet, Matthew D; Kato, Takamitsu A

2013-03-01

115

Improved signal recognition for interphase fluorescent in-situ hybridization using a non-ionic detergent (NP-40) pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

We have reported that the non-ionic detergent ethylphenolpoly (ethyleneglycolether)x known as Noniet-P40 (Shell International Petroleum) can gently disrupt cell membranes, resulting in cells with varying degrees of free chromatin release. The extent of this phenomena is dependent upon the concentration of NP-40 and the detergent`s exposure time to the cells. Treated cells can range from halos of DNA around the cells to fully extended free chromatin configurations. We have demonstrated that these treated cells are excellent targets for many different fluorescently labelled probes used for in situ hybridization studies. Recently, we have compared NP-40 harvested lymphocytes with normally harvested cells to see if we could improve upon the number of cells showing discreet signals in interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization. Preliminary work has shown that using a trisomy 21 cell line, one can get a statistically significant improvement with NP-40 pretreatment cells over control levels, in the number of cells having three discreet signals in interphase {open_quotes}FISH{close_quotes}. Such a pretreatment is simple to perform and may be of value when the number of cells available for analysis is low, as in the search for fetal cells from maternal circulation.

Zhu, H.M.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.; Sciorra, L.J. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

116

Physical mapping of rRNA genes in Medicago sativa and M. glomerata by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to diploid and tetraploid subspecies of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to investigate the distribution of rRNA genes and to utilize the sites of 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA sequences as markers for studying the genome evolution within the species. Medicago glomerata Balb., the species considered to be the ancestor of alfalfa, was included in this study in order to obtain more information on the phylogenetics of alfalfa. Simultaneous in situ hybridization was performed with the probes pTa71 and pXVI labeled with digoxigenin and biotin, respectively. In the diploid taxa, M. glomerata, M. sativa ssp. coerulea Schmalh and ssp. falcata Arcangeli, the 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sequences were mapped to two sites corresponding to the secondary constrictions of the nucleolar chromosome pair, while 5S rDNA appeared to be distributed in two pairs of sites. Chromosomes carrying 5S loci could be distinguished on the basis of their morphological characteristics. The number of rDNA sites detected in the tetraploid M. sativa ssp. falcata and ssp. sativa (L.) L. & L. were twice the number found in the respective diploid ssp. falcata and ssp. coerulea. The results of this study show that the distribution of ribosomal genes was maintained during the evolutionary steps from the primitive diploid to the cultivated alfalfa. Modifications of the number of rRNA loci were not observed. The importance of in situ hybridization for improving karyotype analysis in M. sativa L. is discussed. PMID:10833055

Falistocco, E

2000-01-01

117

Pallister-Killian syndrome: A mild case diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Review of the literature and expansion of the phenotype  

SciTech Connect

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare disorder characterized by a specific combination of anomalies, mental retardation and mosaic presence of a supernumerary isochromosome 12p which is tissue-limited. We report an atypical case of PKS with a mild phenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to demonstrate that the supernumerary marker chromosome identified in the patient`s fibroblasts was an isochromosome 12p. This study broadens the spectrum of PKS phenotype. It also illustrates the usefulness of fluorescence in situ hybridization in diagnosis of patients with chromosomal abnormalities and mild or atypical clinical findings. 40 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Bielanska, M.M.; Khalifa, M.M.; Duncan, A.M.V. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

1996-10-16

118

Rapid detection of lymphoma-specific translocations in interphase nuclei of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

We have recently developed a method to detect tumor-specific rearrangement of the IgH gene in interphase nuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Tumor-specific IgH gene rearrangement is equivalent to 14q32.33 translocation. Using this approach, we detected 14q32.33 translocation in 29 of 70 patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Chromosome t(3;14) was found in 10 of these 29 patients, and were demonstrated as a fusion signal of BCL6 and VH gene probes in interphase nuclei. Furthermore, in another series of 11 patients and a NHL cell line, we demonstrated t(14;18) and t(11;14) in interphase and metaphase cells with a combination of BCL2 (or PRAD1) with IgH gene probes. Interphase FISH with lymphoma-associated gene probes is a rapid procedure for cytogenetic diagnosis of B-cell NHL. PMID:9209369

Taniwaki, M; Ueda, Y; Nishida, K; Takashima, T; Kashima, K; Matsuda, F; Silverman, G A

1997-04-01

119

Specific Detection of Arcobacter and Campylobacter Strains in Water and Sewage by PCR and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for detecting Arcobacter and Campylobacter strains in river water and wastewater samples. Both 16S and 23S rRNA sequence data were used to design specific primers and oligonucleotide probes for PCR and FISH analyses, respectively. In order to assess the suitability of the methods, the assays were performed on naturally and artificially contaminated samples and compared with the isolation of cells on selective media. The detection range of PCR and FISH assays varied between 1 cell/ml (after enrichment) to 103 cells/ml (without enrichment). According to our results, both rRNA-based techniques have the potential to be used as quick and sensitive methods for detection of campylobacters in environmental samples. PMID:12571045

Moreno, Yolanda; Botella, Salut; Alonso, José Luis; Ferrús, María A.; Hernández, Manuel; Hernández, Javier

2003-01-01

120

Identification and characterization of marker chromosomes, de novo rearrangements and microdeletions in 100 cases with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

Results of molecular cytogenetic analysis are presented for 100 cases in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used as an adjunct to standard cytogenetics. Commercially available centromeric, telomeric, chromosome painting and unique sequence probes were used. Cases were from a 12-month period (June 1993-May 1994) and included examples of sex chromosome abnormalities (8), duplications (5), de novo translocations (6), satellited (12) and non-satellited (7) markers, and microdeletion syndromes (62). Satellited marker chromosomes were evaluated using a combination of DAPI/Distamycin A staining, hybridization with a classical satellite probe for chromosome 15 and hybridization with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 13, 14, 21 and 22. Markers positive for the chromosome 15 probe were further evaluated using unique sequence probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Microdeletion analysis was performed for Prader-Willi/Angelman (49) and DiGeorge/VCF (13) syndromes. Seven cases evaluated for Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome demonstrated evidence of a deletion within this region. Uniparental disomy analysis was available in cases where a deletion was not detected by FISH, yet follow-up was clinically indicated. Two cases evaluated for DiGeorge/VCF syndrome demonstrated molecular evidence of a deletion. Included in our analysis is an example of familial DiGeorge syndrome.

Anderson, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Papenhausen, P.R. [Roche Biomedical Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-09-01

121

Chromosome localization and gene-copy-number quantification of three random integrations in Chinese-hamster ovary cells and their amplified cell lines using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to localize three random Chinese-hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal integration sites and deter- mine gene copy number in their amplified cell lines. Metaphase FISH showed all three to have integrated into different chromosome positions on different chromosomes. All three Geneticin parent cell lines were found to have single integration sites by Southern-

Julian Davies; Mitchell Reff

2001-01-01

122

Detection of 47, XYY Trophoblast Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization after Using Immunomagnetic Lymphocyte Depletion and Flow Cytometry Sorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows to diagnose aneuploidy in uncultured interphase nuclei. This rapid method of chromosomal analysis associated with cell-sorting techniques was realized on 47, XYY fetal cells isolated from maternal blood. Trophoblast cells were sorted by combining immunomagnetic removal of maternal lymphocytes and flow cytometry sorting using antitrophoblast monoclonal antibodies. Cells were sorted directly on slides and

V. Cacheux; C. Milesi-Fluet; G. Tachdjian; L. Druart; J. F. Bruch; B. L. Hsi; S. Uzan; C. Nessmann

1992-01-01

123

Correlation of cytomorphology, immunophenotyping, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 381 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 301 patients with plasma cell myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further clarify the transformation from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to plasma cell myeloma (PCM), we compared interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns in 381 MGUS and 301 PCM patients. According to the World Health Organization and the International Myeloma Working Group, a threshold of 10% of bone marrow plasma cells separated MGUS from PCM. After magnetic

Ulrike Bacher; Torsten Haferlach; Wolfgang Kern; Tamara Alpermann; Susanne Schnittger; Claudia Haferlach

2010-01-01

124

Combined fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection of microRNAs and immunofluorescent labeling for cell-type markers  

PubMed Central

Identification of the cell type of origin for normal or aberrant gene expression is critical for many studies, and poses a significant problem for some regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular function by targeting specific mRNAs and reducing the level of their protein product. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in cell-types where they are not normally expressed occurs in several disease conditions. Therefore, it is important to determine not only the expression level of microRNAs, but also where they are expressed. Here we describe a detailed method for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with immunofluorescent labeling for cell-type markers in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) sections along with modifications required to adapt the protocol for primary neurons grown in culture. We have combined the specificity and stability of locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes with tyramide signal amplification. To prevent loss of small RNA species, we performed post-fixation with ethylcarbodiimide (EDC). Additionally by omitting protease digestion and using only high temperature with sodium citrate buffer for FFPE sections, we were able to perform immunolabeling for proteins concurrently with in situ hybridization without compromising efficacy of either procedure. PMID:24065888

Chaudhuri, Amrita D.; Yelamanchili, Sowmya V.; Fox, Howard S.

2013-01-01

125

Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Progress report, April 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

Korenberg, J.R.

1993-03-04

126

High-Resolution Single-Copy Gene Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and Its Use in the Construction of a Cytogenetic Map of Maize Chromosome 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution cytogenetic maps provide important biological information on genome organization and function, as they correlate genetic distance with cytological structures, and are an invaluable complement to physical sequence data. The most direct way to generate a cytogenetic map is to localize genetically mapped genes onto chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Detection of single-copy genes on plant chromosomes has

Chung-Ju Rachel Wang; Lisa Harper; W. Zacheus Cande

2006-01-01

127

Fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones for the analysis of chromosome rearrangement in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome identification using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has the potential to contribute to the analysis and understanding of chromosomal instability of CHO cell lines and to improve our understanding of chromosome organization during the establishment of recombinant CHO cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging using BAC clones as probes (BAC-FISH) can provide valuable information

Yihua Cao; Shuichi Kimura; Takayuki Itoi; Kohsuke Honda; Hisao Ohtake; Takeshi Omasa

128

Evaluation of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Identification of Clinically Relevant Mycobacteria in Clinical Specimens and Tissue Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

With fluorescently labeled PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes targeting 16S rRNA, we established a 3-h fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for specific visualization of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. leprae, M. avium, and M. kansasii. Probe specificity was tested against a panel of 25 Mycobacterium spp. and 10 gram-positive organisms. After validation, probes were used to identify

Michael Lefmann; Birgitta Schweickert; Petra Buchholz; Ulf B. Gobel; Timo Ulrichs; Peter Seiler; Dirk Theegarten; Annette Moter

2006-01-01

129

Fluorescence in situ hybridization as adjunct to cytology improves the diagnosis and directs estimation of prognosis of malignant pleural effusions  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of malignant cells in effusions by conventional cytology is hampered by its limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as adjuncts to conventional cytologic examination in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 93 inpatients with pleural effusions (72 malignant pleural effusions metastatic from 11 different organs and 21 benign) over 23 months. All the patients came from Chinese northeast areas. Aspirated pleural fluid underwent cytologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for aneuploidy. We used FISH in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations (chromosomes 7, 11, and 17) in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield and identified the efficiency by diagnostic biopsy. Predominant cytogenetic anomalies and patterns of intratumor cytogenetic heterogeneity were brought in relation to overall survival rate. Results Cytology alone confirmed malignant pleural effusions in 45 of 72 patients (sensitivity 63%), whereas FISH alone positively identified 48 of 72 patients (sensitivity 67%). Both tests had high specificity in predicting benign effusions. If cytology and FISH were considered together, they exhibited 88% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Combined, the two assays were more sensitive than either test alone. Although the positive predictive value of each test was 94.5%, the negative predictive value of cytology and FISH combined was 78%, better than 47% and 44% for FISH and cytology alone, respectively. There was a significantly prolonged survival rate for patients with aneuploidy for chromosome 17. Conclusions FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting malignant cells in pleural effusions . The high sensitivity and specificity may be associated with geographic area and race. Simple numeric FISH anomalies may be prognostic. PMID:23148562

2012-01-01

130

mathFISH, a Web Tool That Uses Thermodynamics-Based Mathematical Models for In Silico Evaluation of Oligonucleotide Probes for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization? †  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models of RNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for perfectly matched and mismatched probe/target pairs are organized and automated in web-based mathFISH (http://mathfish.cee.wisc.edu). Offering the users up-to-date knowledge of hybridization thermodynamics within a theoretical framework, mathFISH is expected to maximize the probability of success during oligonucleotide probe design. PMID:21148691

Yilmaz, L. Safak; Parnerkar, Shreyas; Noguera, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

131

A Study of the Relative Dominance of Selected Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous Bioreactor by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and the community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an anaerobic continuous bioreactor used for\\u000a treatment of a sulfate-containing wastewater were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hybridization to the 16S rRNA probe EUB338 for the domain Bacteria was performed, followed by a nonsense probe\\u000a NON338 as a control for nonspecific staining. Sulfate-reducing consortia were identified by using

B. Icgen; S. Moosa; S. T. L. Harrison

2007-01-01

132

Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes brownrot of potato, by fluorescent in situ hybridization with 23S rRNA-targeted probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years, Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, was repeatedly found in potatoes in Western Europe. To detect this bacterium in potato tissue samples, we developed a method based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The nearly complete genes encoding 23S rRNA of five R. solanacea- rum strains and one Ralstonia pickettii strain were PCR amplified,

B. A. WULLINGS; Beuningen van A. R; J. D. Janse; A. D. L. Akkermans

1998-01-01

133

Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

2013-01-01

134

Karyotype characterization of the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens (Rafinesque 1817) by chromosome banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

A karyotype analysis using several staining techniques was carried out on the North American lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens. The chromosome number was found to be 2n = 262 +/- 6. A representative karyotype of 264 chromosomes was composed of 134 meta- and submetacentrics, 70 telo- and acrocentrics, and 60 microchromosomes. The constitutive heterochromatin, revealed by C banding, was localized in various positions on several chromosomes, including microchromosomes. The signals of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a HindIII satellite DNA probe were visible as centromeric heterochromatin blocks on 48 chromosomes. The telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)n detected by FISH was localized at both ends of all chromosomes and two chromosomes were entirely marked. Fluorescent staining with GC-specific chromomycin A3 showed recognizable fluorescent regions, whereas a more uniform base composition was revealed by the AT-specific 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). After silver staining, the active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were detected on 12 chromosomes. FISH with the 5S probe showed four signals on four small chromosomes. Our data suggest that A. fulvescens is a tetraploid species. PMID:15284879

Fontana, Francesco; Bruch, Ronald M; Binkowski, Fred P; Lanfredi, Massimo; Chicca, Milvia; Beltrami, Nicola; Congiu, Leonardo

2004-08-01

135

Technical Note: Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically, these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but does not allow discrimination between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a new and useful approach to identify living cells possessing an active metabolism. Our work is the first test of the suitability of the FISH technique, based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect live benthic foraminifera. The protocol was applied on Ammonia group and Miliolids, as well as on agglutinated polythalamous (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra) and soft-shelled monothalamous (i.e., Psammophaga sp. and saccamminid morphotypes) taxa. The results from FISH analyses were compared with those obtained, on the same specimens assayed with FISH, from microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and pseudopodial activity. Our results indicate that FISH targets only metabolically active foraminifera, and allows discerning from low to high cellular activity, validating the hypothesis that the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the probe is dependent upon the physiological status of cells. These findings support the usefulness of this molecular approach as a key tool for obtaining information on the physiology of living foraminifera, both in field and experimental settings.

Borrelli, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Luna, G. M.; Nardelli, M. P.; Sbaffi, T.; Morigi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A.

2011-08-01

136

Food selection by bacterivorous protists: insight from the analysis of the food vacuole content by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to analyze bacterial prey composition in protistan food vacuoles in both laboratory and natural populations. Under laboratory conditions, we exposed two bacterial strains (affiliated with ?- and ?-Proteobacteria – Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively) to grazing by three protists: the flagellates Bodo saltans and Goniomonas sp., and the ciliate

Jan Jezbera; Karel Hor?ák; Karel Šimek

2005-01-01

137

Food selection by bacterivorous protists: insight from the analysis of the food vacuole content by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to analyze bacterial prey composition in protistan food vacuoles in both laboratory and natural populations. Under laboratory conditions, we exposed two bacterial strains (affiliated with b- and c-Proteobacteria - Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively) to grazing by three protists: the flagel- lates Bodo saltans and Goniomonas sp., and the

Jan Jezbera; Karel Hornak; Karel Simek

138

Fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes in the interphase and metaphase stages of the cell cycle.  

PubMed

In the past decade, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used routinely in detecting molecular abnormalities in the interphase and metaphase stages of the cell cycle. Many of the molecular anomalies which are detected in this manner are diagnostic of a prenatal, postnatal, or neoplastic genetic disorder. With the continuous isolation of commercially available DNA probes specific to a particular chromosome region, FISH analysis has become standardized in its ability to detect characteristic chromosomal anomalies in association with genetic and neoplastic diseases. In recent years, FISH has also become automated to accommodate the increased volume of slide preparations necessary for the number of DNA probes needed to detect characteristic molecular anomalies in cancer tissues and bone marrow samples. FISH technology provides essential information to the physician regarding the diagnosis, response to treatment, and ultimately the prognosis of their patients' disorder. It has become an important source of information routinely used in conjunction with chromosome analyses, and presently to confirm molecular alterations detected by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses. In this chapter we describe the methods for performing FISH analyses in order to determine the presence or the absence of genetic abnormalities which define whether the patient has either a genetic syndrome or malignant disease. PMID:23179826

Cannizzaro, Linda A

2013-01-01

139

Chromosomal structural rearrangement of Paeonia brownii and P. californica revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Chromosomal structural rearrangement in Paeonia brownii and P. californica (2n = 10) was studied by in situ hybridization using 18S rDNA probes. Six major rDNA sites were detected in mitotic cells of P. californica; six major and two minor rDNA sites were found in P. brownii. Two cytotypes (A and B), with different chromosomal morphology and (or) rDNA locations, were observed in the population of P. californica. Cytotype A, with rDNA sites only on the short arms of chromosomes, was considered to be the normal cytotype. Both translocation and pericentric inversion may have occurred to give rise to cytotype B, in which one homolog of chromosome 4 has rDNA sites on both arms while its homolog has no rDNA sites: one homolog of chromosome 3 has a rDNA site on the long arm. Two rearranged cytotypes, C and D, were observed in the population of P. brownii. Given that the normal cytotype of P. brownii is most likely to have six major rDNA sites on the short arms of chromosomes 3, 4, and 5, and two minor sites on the short arms of chromosome 2, cytotype C may have resulted from a translocation between the short arm of one homolog of chromosome 2 and the long arm of one homolog of chromosome 4, and cytotype D may have resulted from a translocation between the short arm of one homolog of chromosome 3 and the long arm of one homolog of chromosome 4. These results supported previous observations, based on meiotic configurations, that chromosomal structural rearrangement occurred frequently in P. brownii and P. californica. PMID:9924793

Zhang, D; Sang, T

1998-12-01

140

Assignment of the human FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) gene to chromosome 1p36 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the localization of the human FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) gene to human chromosome 1p36 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This protein is the binding site for rapamycin and FK506, two potent immunosuppressive drugs. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Moore, P.A.; Rosen, C.A.; Carter, K.C. [Human Genome Sciences, Rockville, MD (United States)] [Human Genome Sciences, Rockville, MD (United States)

1996-04-15

141

LNA flow–FISH: A flow cytometry–fluorescence in situ hybridization method to detect messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel method using flow cytometry–fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow–FISH) to detect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) in suspended cells using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes. ?-Actin mRNA was targeted in whole A549 epithelial cells by hybridization with a biotinylated, LNA-modified probe. The LNA bound to ?-actin was then stained using phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin and detected by flow cytometry.

Kelly L. Robertson; Dzung C. Thach

2009-01-01

142

High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of 342 new cosmid markers including 43 RFLP markers on human chromosome 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 17 with 342 cosmid markers, each newly isolated from a cosmid library constructed from a human-mouse hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 17. Direct mapping on R- and\\/or G-banded (pro)metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized these markers throughout the chromosome, although density was highest in

Johji Inazawa; Takeshi Ariyama; Tatsuo Abe; Hiroko Saito; Yusuke Nakamura

1993-01-01

143

Fluorescence in situ Hybridization with Human Chromosome-Specific Libraries: Detection of Trisomy 21 and Translocations of Chromosome 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomes can be specifically stained in metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei by in situ hybridization with entire chromosome-specific DNA libraries. Unlabeled human genomic DNA is used to inhibit the hybridization of sequences in the library that bind to multiple chromosomes. The target chromosome can be made at least 20 times brighter per unit length than the others. Trisomy 21 and

D. Pinkel; J. Landegent; C. Collins; J. Fuscoe; R. Segraves; J. Lucas; J. Gray

1988-01-01

144

Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine living biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but this approach does not allow discriminating between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a potentially useful approach identifying living cells with active metabolism cells. In this work, we tested for the first time the suitability of the FISH technique based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect these live benthic protists. The protocol was applied on the genus Ammonia, on the Miliolidae group and an attempt was made also with agglutinated species (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra). In addition microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and, sometimes, those of pseudopodial activity where conducted. The results of the present study indicate that FISH targeted only live and metabolically active foraminifera. These results allowed to identify as "live", cells improperly classified as "dead" by means of the classical technique (Type I error) and vice versa to identify as dead the foraminifera without rRNA, but stained using Rose Bengal (Type II error). In addition, the comparative FISH analysis of starved and actively growing cells demonstrated that individuals with active metabolism were stained more intensively than starved cells. This finding supports the hypothesis that the physiological status of cells can be directly related with the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the fluorescent probe. We conclude that the use of molecular approaches could represent a key tool for acquiring crucial information on living foraminifera specimens and for investigating their ecological role in marine sediments.

Borrelli, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Luna, G. M.; Morigi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A.

2010-10-01

145

Spatial organization of bacterial flora in normal and inflamed intestine: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study in mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the role of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The spatial organization of intestinal flora was investigated in normal mice and in two models of murine colitis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The murine small intestine was nearly bacteria-free. The normal colonic flora was organized in three distinct compartments (crypt, interlaced, and fecal), each with different bacterial compositions. Crypt bacteria were present in the cecum and proximal colon. The fecal compartment was composed of homogeneously mixed bacterial groups that directly contacted the colonic wall in the cecum but were separated from the proximal colonic wall by a dense interlaced layer. Beginning in the middle colon, a mucus gap of growing thickness physically separated all intestinal bacteria from contact with the epithelium. Colonic inflammation was accompanied with a depletion of bacteria within the fecal compartment, a reduced surface area in which feces had direct contact with the colonic wall, increased thickness and spread of the mucus gap, and massive increases of bacterial concentrations in the crypt and interlaced compartments. Adhesive and infiltrative bacteria were observed in inflamed colon only, with dominant Bacteroides species. CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal colons are functionally different organs with respect to the intestinal flora, representing a bioreactor and a segregation device. The highly organized structure of the colonic flora, its specific arrangement in different colonic segments, and its specialized response to inflammatory stimuli indicate that the intestinal flora is an innate part of host immunity that is under complex control. PMID:15754393

Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Lochs, Herbert; Hale, Laura P.

2005-01-01

146

Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor  

PubMed Central

Background The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Results Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. Conclusions The approach described in this study enables for the first time the analysis of the metabolically active fraction of the microbial communities within biogas reactors by Flow-FISH. PMID:24304697

2013-01-01

147

Fluorescent in situ hybridization of pre-incubated blood culture material for the rapid diagnosis of histoplasmosis.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown to be useful for the detection of Candida and Cryptococcus species in blood culture materials. FISH procedures for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum have not been reported so far. This study describes the development and evaluation of fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeting FISH probes to detect and identify H. capsulatum in blood cultures. All three analyzed H. capsulatum reference strains and clinical isolates showed positive signals with the newly designed specific oligonucleotide probes for H. capsulatum, whereas negative reactions were observed for all three nontarget yeast species and the two nontarget bacteria. The assay was also successfully applied for detections of H. capsulatum cells in pre-incubated blood culture samples of patients with clinical suspicion of histoplasmosis (n = 33). The described FISH-based assay was shown to be easy to apply, sensitive, and specific (compared to polymerase chain reaction) for the detection and identification of H. capsulatum in this proof-of-principle analysis. Larger multicentric assessments are recommended for a thorough diagnostic evaluation of the procedure. PMID:25537280

da Silva, Roberto Moreira; da Silva Neto, João Ricardo; Santos, Carla Silvana; Cruz, Kátia Santana; Frickmann, Hagen; Poppert, Sven; Koshikene, Daniela; de Souza, João Vicente Braga

2015-02-01

148

Triplex in-situ hybridization  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

Fresco, Jacques R. (Princeton, NJ); Johnson, Marion D. (East Windsor, NJ)

2002-01-01

149

Fluorescent in situ hybridization with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to identify small phytoplankton by flow cytometry.  

PubMed Central

Because of their tiny size (0.2 to 2 microns), oceanic picophytoplanktonic cells (either cultured strains or natural communities) are difficult to identify, and some basic questions concerning their taxonomy, physiology, and ecology are still largely unanswered. The present study was designed to test the suitability of in situ hybridization with rRNA fluorescent probes detected by flow cytometry for the identification of small photosynthetic eukaryotes. Oligonucleotide probes targeted against regions of the 18S rRNAs of Chlorophyta lineage (CHLO probe) and of non-Chlorophyta (NCHLO probe) algal species were designed. The CHLO and NCHLO probes, which differed by a single nucleotide, allowed discrimination of chlorophyte from nonchlorophyte cultured strains. The sensitivity of each probe was dependent upon the size of the cells and upon their growth stage. The mean fluorescence was 8 to 80 times higher for specifically labeled than for nonspecifically labeled cells in exponential growth phase, but it decreased sharply in stationary phase. Such taxon-specific probes should increase the applicability of flow cytometry for the rapid identification of cultured pico- and nanoplanktonic strains, especially those that lack taxonomically useful morphological features. PMID:7618862

Simon, N; LeBot, N; Marie, D; Partensky, F; Vaulot, D

1995-01-01

150

Microsieve lab-chip device for rapid enumeration and fluorescence in situ hybridization of circulating tumor cells.  

PubMed

Herein we present a lab-chip device for highly efficient and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood samples. The device utilizes a microfabricated silicon microsieve with a densely packed pore array (10(5) pores per device) to rapidly separate tumor cells from whole blood, utilizing the size and deformability differences between the CTCs and normal blood cells. The whole process, including tumor cell capture, antibody staining, removal of unwanted contaminants and immunofluorescence imaging, was performed directly on the microsieve within an integrated microfluidic unit, interconnected to a peristaltic pump for fluid regulation and a fluorescence microscope for cell counting. The latter was equipped with a dedicated digital image processing program which was developed to automatically categorize the captured cells based on the immunofluorescence images. A high recovery rate of >80% was achieved with defined numbers of MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells spiked into human whole blood and filtered at a rapid flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). The device was further validated with blood drawn from various cancer patients (8 samples). The whole process, from sample input to result, was completed in 1.5 h. In addition, we have also successfully demonstrated on-microsieve fluorescence in situ hybridization for single cell molecular analysis. This simple method has great potential to supplant existing complex CTC detection schemes for cancer metastasis analysis. PMID:22930096

Lim, Li Shi; Hu, Min; Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Looi, Xing Lun; Leong, Sai Mun; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Li, Mo-Huang

2012-11-01

151

Several chromosomes involved in translocations with chromosome 5 shown with fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients with malignant myeloid disorders.  

PubMed

In many patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia, complex chromosome aberrations can be seen, among which aberrations of chromosome 5 constitute a substantial part. With conventional cytogenetic technique, these aberrations are often identified as deletions or monosomy 5. We analyzed nine patients who, under conventional cytogenetic analysis, showed deletion or monosomy 5. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole-chromosome painting probes to identify the counterpart chromosome and locus-specific identifiers for 5q31 and 5q33 approximately q34. A deletion of 5q was found concomitant with unbalanced translocations. Our results and cases from the literature showed that material from chromosome 5 could be translocated to almost all chromosomes. All patients but one had short survival; this one patient had a preserved 5q31 and 5q33 approximately q34 but a deletion of the q-arm more centromeric than these bands. In eight of the nine patients, further 14 translocations were revealed, not involving chromosome 5. PMID:15527906

Bram, Susanne; Rödjer, Stig; Swolin, Birgitta

2004-11-01

152

LNA probes substantially improve the detection of bacterial endosymbionts in whole mount of insects by fluorescent in-situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of unculturable bacteria and their localization in the host, by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), is a powerful technique in the study of host-bacteria interaction. FISH probes are designed to target the 16?s rRNA region of the bacteria to be detected. LNA probes have recently been used in FISH studies and proven to be more efficient. To date no report has employed LNA probes for FISH detection of bacterial endosymbiont in the whole mount tissues. Further, though speculated, bacteriocytes have not been reported from males of Bemisia tabaci. Results In this study, we compared the efficiency in detecting bacteria by fluorescent DNA oligonucleotides versus modified probes containing Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) substitution in their structure. We used the insect Bemisia tabaci as the experimental material since it carried simultaneous infection by two bacteria: one a primary endosymbiont, Portiera (and present in more numbers) while the other a secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus (and present in less numbers). Thus a variation in the abundance of bacteria was expected. While detecting both the bacteria, we found a significant increase in the signal whenever LNA probes were used. However, the difference was more pronounced in detecting the secondary endosymbiont, wherein DNA probes gave weak signals when compared to LNA probes. Also, signal to noise ratio for LNA probes was higher than DNA probes. We found that LNA considerably improved sensitivity of FISH, as compared to the commonly used DNA oligonucleotide probe. Conclusion By employing LNA probes we could detect endosymbiotic bacteria in males, which have never been reported previously. We were able to detect bacteriocytes containing Portiera and Arsenophonus in the males of B. tabaci. Thus, employing LNA probes at optimized conditions will help to significantly improve detection of bacteria at the lowest concentration and may give a comprehensible depiction about their specific distribution within samples. PMID:22624773

2012-01-01

153

Aneuploidy detection for chromosomes 1, X and Y by fluorescence in situ hybridization in human sperm from oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients  

SciTech Connect

Oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males (n=15) were investigated for infertility as compared with proven fertile donors. The oligoasthenoteratozoospermic population showed a mean sperm concentration of 9.7 x 10{sup 6}/ml (Range 4.2-19.7), mean motility of 38.5% (Range 10.6-76.8) and morphology (measured by the percentage of normal forms evaluated by strict criteria) with a mean of 3.49% (Range 1.5-5.0). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using satellite DNA probes specific for chromosomes 1 (puc 1.77), X (alpha satellite), and Y (satellite-III at Yqh) was performed on human interphase sperm nuclei. DNA probes were either directly labelled with rhodamine-dUTP, FITC-dUTP, or biotinylated by nick translation. Hybridization and signal detection were done by routine laboratory protocols. Microscopic analysis was performed using a cooled CCD camera attached to an epi-fluorescent microscope. After hybridization, fertile donors yielded a frequency of 0.96% (n=12) nullisomic, 98.5% (n=1231) monosomic and 0.96% (n=12) disomic for chromosome 1, whereas oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males yielded a frequency of 16% (n=600) nullisomic, 74.5% (n=2792) monosomic and 9.9% (n=370) disomic. In addition, fertile donors yielded a frequency of 45.7% (n=633) monosomic and 0.7% (n=11) disomic for chromosome X, whereas oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males yielded a frequency of 38.7% (n=760) monosomic and 0.8% (n=13) disomic. Chromosome Y frequencies for fertile donors showed 44.6% (n=614) monosomic and 0.6% (n=2) disomic, whereas oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males yielded a frequency of 33.2% (n=701) monosomic and 0.8% (n=15) disomic. This suggests that the frequency of nullisomy for chromosome 1 is significantly higher (p<0.001) in sperm from oligoasthenoteratozoospermic makes versus sperm from our fertile donors. We conclude that FISH is a powerful tool to determine the frequency of aneuploidy in sperm from oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients.

Pang, M.G.; Zackowski, J.L.; Acosta, A.A. [Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

154

Specific detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish wastewater treatment plants by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and PCR.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes detection in wastewater can be difficult because of the large amount of background microbiota and the presence of viable but non-culturable forms in this environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) assay combined with Direct Viable Count (DVC) method for detecting viable L. monocytogenes in wastewater samples, as an alternative to conventional culture methods. 16S rRNA sequence data were used to design a specific oligonucleotide probe. In order to assess the suitability of the method, the assays were performed on naturally (n=87) and artificially (n=14) contaminated samples and results were compared to those obtained with the isolation of cells on selective media and with a PCR method. The detection limit of FISH and PCR assays was 10(4) cells/mL without enrichment and 10 cells/mL after enrichment. A total of 47 samples, including 3 samples from effluent sites, yielded FISH positive results for L. monocytogenes. Using DVC-FISH technique, the presence of viable L. monocytogenes cells was detected in 23 out of these 47 FISH positive wastewater samples. PCR and culture methods yielded 27 and 23 positive results, respectively. According to these results, FISH technique has the potential to be used as a sensitive method for the detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes in environmental wastewater samples. PMID:21762946

Moreno, Yolanda; Ballesteros, Lorena; García-Hernández, Jorge; Santiago, Paula; González, Ana; Ferrús, M Antonia

2011-10-01

155

The Utility of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Detection of Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma in Routine Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the ability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in detecting bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC), FISH and cytology were compared for the evaluation of 308 consecutive urine samples from patients suspected of having BUC. All patients underwent cystoscopy for identification of bladder lesions. The FISH results were compared with the cytology assessment. In all, 122 patients had confirmed BUC. Among them, 68 (55.7%) were FISH-positive, while only 33 (27%) were positive on cytology. According to disease stage (superficial vs. invasive) and grade (low vs. high), the sensitivities of FISH were also significantly higher than those of cytology in all categories. Moreover, in 36 patients who had no visible tumor with flat, erythematous mucosa (suspicious lesion), FISH was more sensitive than cytology for the detection of BUC (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P=0.002). The FISH was negative in 168 (90.3%) of 186 patients with no histological evidence of BUC or negative cystoscopy findings. The sensitivity of FISH for detecting BUC was superior to that of cytology, regardless of tumor stage and grade. FISH is a significant additional and complementary method for detection of BUC in patients who have suspicious lesions on cystoscopy. PMID:19949672

Kwak, Kyung Won; Kim, Sun Hee

2009-01-01

156

Microbial populations identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a constructed wetland treating acid coal mine drainage  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are an integral part of the biogeochemical processes in wetlands, yet microbial communities in sediments within constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) are only poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity and abundance in a wetland receiving AMD using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Seasonal samples of oxic surface sediments, comprised of Fe(III) precipitates, were collected from two treatment cells of the constructed wetland system. The pH of the bulk samples ranged between pH 2.1 and 3.9. Viable counts of acidophilic Fe and S oxidizers and heterotrophs were determined with a most probable number (MPN) method. The MPN counts were only a fraction of the corresponding FISH counts. The sediment samples contained microorganisms in the Bacteria (including the subgroups of acidophilic Fe- and S-oxidizing bacteria and Acidiphilium spp.) and Eukarya domains. Archaea were present in the sediment surface samples at < 0.01% of the total microbial community. The most numerous bacterial species in this wetland system was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, comprising up to 37% of the bacterial population. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was also abundant.

Nicomrat, D.; Dick, W.A.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States). Environmental Science Graduate Programme

2006-07-15

157

Monitoring of chimerism using fluorescence in situ hybridization in a child with severe combined immune deficiency following bone marrow transplant  

SciTech Connect

A boy with severe combined immunodeficiency received a bone marrow transplant from his sister when he was approximately 3 years of age. His peripheral blood karyotype at age 3 and 4 years was 46,XX (20 cells analyzed). Because of a decline in antibody production at 19 years of age, the patient`s peripheral blood was analyzed again for suspected chimerism. His karyotype in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated culture was 46,XX in 49 cells and 46,XY in one cell. Both metaphase and interphase cells were examined for sex chromosome constitution using X and Y dual-color alpha-satellite probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results for metaphase cells showed 1/50 XY cells, but 38% of interphase cells showed the presence of both X and Y centromere. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated cultures grew poorly and were therefore analyzed using FISH only: 81% of interphase cells were 46,XX. The discrepancy between metaphase and interphase in the PHA-stimulated cultures most likely represents a failure of this boy`s own XY T-cells to be stimulated.

Wenger, S.L.; Chen, X.O.; Katz, A.J. [Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

158

Telomeric IGH Losses Detectable by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Reflect Somatic VH Recombination Events  

PubMed Central

Routine interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with LSI IGH/CCND1 assay, applied to differentiate CLL from leukemic mantle cell lymphoma, identified a subset of cases (42/174) with translocation-like IGH signal pattern. To unravel the underlying 14q32/IGH aberrations, 14 of these cases were subjected to cytogenetic, detailed FISH, and VH mutation analyses. FISH identified cryptic losses of various portions of the IGHV region in all 14 cases. Fine mapping of these VH deletions revealed a strict correlation between their distal border and localization of the used VH gene, suggesting that they are not oncogenic but reflect physiological events accompanying somatic V-D-J assembly. This hypothesis was further supported by FISH analysis of 20 CLL and hairy cell leukemia cases with the known VH usage showing a constant loss of sequences proximal to the used gene, identification of VH deletions in normal B cells, and their exclusive demonstration in B cell malignancies, but not of T cell and myeloid linage. Given that these cryptic physiological VH losses in B cells may seriously complicate analysis of B cell leukemia/lymphoma and lead to false conclusions, FISH users should take them into consideration when interpreting IGH aberrations in these malignancies. PMID:17251335

Wlodarska, Iwona; Matthews, Christine; Veyt, Ellen; Pospisilova, Helena; Catherwood, Mark A.; Poulsen, Tim S.; Vanhentenrijk, Vera; Ibbotson, Rachel; Vandenberghe, Peter; Morris, T.C.M. “Curly”; Alexander, H. Denis

2007-01-01

159

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Microdeletion syndromes are characterized by small (<5 Mb) chromosomal deletions in which one or more genes are involved. These are frequently associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The phenotype is the result of haploinsufficiency of genes in the critical interval. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is commonly used for precise genetic diagnosis of microdeletion syndromes. This study was conducted to assess the role of FISH in the diagnosis of suspected microdeletion syndrome. Methods: FISH was carried out on 301 clinically suspected microdeletion syndrome cases for the confirmation of clinical diagnosis using non-commercial probes. Of these, 177 cases were referred for 22q11.2 microdeletion, 42 cases were referred for William syndrome, 38 cases were referred for Prader Willi/Angelman and 44 cases were referred for other suspected microdeletion syndromes. Results: FISH was confirmatory in 23 cases only (7.6%). There were 17 cases of 22q11.2 microdeletion, four cases of Prader Willi syndrome and two cases of William syndrome. Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach). Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24056568

Halder, Ashutosh; Jain, Manish; Chaudhary, Isha; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika

2013-01-01

160

Grazing of a Tetrahymena sp. on Adhered Bacteria in Percolated Columns Monitored by In Situ Hybridization with Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes  

PubMed Central

Predation of attached Pseudomonas putida mt2 by the small ciliate Tetrahymena sp. was investigated with a percolated column system. Grazing rates were examined under static and dynamic conditions and were compared to grazing rates in batch systems containing suspended prey. The prey densities were 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of pore space and 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of suspension, respectively. Postingestion in situ hybridization of bacteria with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes was used to quantify ingestion. During 30 min, a grazing rate of 1,382 ± 1,029 bacteria individual?1 h?1 was obtained with suspended prey; this was twice the grazing rate observed with attached bacteria under static conditions. Continuous percolation at a flow rate of 73 cm h?1 further decreased the grazing rate to about 25% of the grazing rate observed with suspended prey. A considerable proportion of the protozoans fed on neither suspended bacteria nor attached bacteria. The transport of ciliates through the columns was monitored at the same time that predation was monitored. Less than 20% of the protozoans passed through the columns without being retained. Most of these organisms ingested no bacteria, whereas the retained protozoans grazed more efficiently. Retardation of ciliate transport was greater in columns containing attached bacteria than in bacterium-free columns. We propose that the correlation between grazing activity and retardation of transport is a consequence of the interaction between active predators and attached bacteria. PMID:9546161

Eisenmann, Heinrich; Harms, Hauke; Meckenstock, Rainer; Meyer, Elisabeth I.; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

1998-01-01

161

Quick fluorescent in situ hybridization protocol for Xist RNA combined with immunofluorescence of histone modification in X-chromosome inactivation.  

PubMed

Combining RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with immunofluorescence (immuno-FISH) creates a technique that can be employed at the single cell level to detect the spatial dynamics of RNA localization with simultaneous insight into the localization of proteins, epigenetic modifications and other details which can be highlighted by immunofluorescence. X-chromosome inactivation is a paradigm for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-mediated gene silencing. X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) lncRNA accumulation (called an Xist cloud) on one of the two X-chromosomes in mammalian females is a critical step to initiate X-chromosome inactivation. Xist RNA directly or indirectly interacts with various chromatin-modifying enzymes and introduces distinct epigenetic landscapes to the inactive X-chromosome (Xi). One known epigenetic hallmark of the Xi is the Histone H3 trimethyl-lysine 27 (H3K27me3) modification. Here, we describe a simple and quick immuno-FISH protocol for detecting Xist RNA using RNA FISH with multiple oligonucleotide probes coupled with immunofluorescence of H3K27me3 to examine the localization of Xist RNA and associated epigenetic modifications. Using oligonucleotide probes results in a shorter incubation time and more sensitive detection of Xist RNA compared to in vitro transcribed RNA probes (riboprobes). This protocol provides a powerful tool for understanding the dynamics of lncRNAs and its associated epigenetic modification, chromatin structure, nuclear organization and transcriptional regulation. PMID:25489864

Yue, Minghui; Charles Richard, John Lalith; Yamada, Norishige; Ogawa, Akiyo; Ogawa, Yuya

2014-01-01

162

Evaluation of thresholds for benomyl- and carbendazim-induced aneuploidy in cultured human lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Threshold mechanisms of activity for mutagenic agents have been debated for some time, especially for those substances which induce aneuploidy by inhibiting mitotic spindle function. No observed effect levels (NOELs) or "practical thresholds" have been demonstrated for several aneugens both in vitro and in vivo generally by either counting chromosomes in metaphase preparations or by observing micronuclei. Recently, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has proven to be a sensitive and useful technique for the assessment of aneuploidy at low concentrations. Using binucleate human lymphocytes coupled with FISH, we have been able to characterize a threshold mechanism of action for two spindle inhibitors, benomyl and its active metabolite, carbendazim. Test chemicals were added 24 h following culture initiation. After a further 20 h, cytochalasin B was added, and cells were harvested 28 h later (72 h post initiation). The distribution of chromosomes between the nuclei of binucleate cells was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy for the simultaneous detection of centromeres labeled with FITC (green) or Cy-3 (red). Six human chromosomes were investigated in pairs (1 and 8, 11 and 18, and X and 17). Abnormalities were classified as chromosome loss (including centromeric positive micronuclei), chromosome gain, non-disjunction, or polyploidy. Dose-response data were generated over a range of closely spaced concentrations at 100 ng/ml intervals. The threshold, defined as the lowest "effect" concentration using statistical methods, was determined for each chromosome. Non-disjunction proved to be the most sensitive endpoint for the detection of aneuploidy occurring at higher frequencies and lower concentrations. Results for the six chromosomes demonstrated similar dose-response data which included a series of concentrations with no statistically significant increase above background, followed by a second range of higher concentrations with a statistically significant, concentration-dependent increase. Nearly equimolar threshold concentrations were determined for benomyl- and carbendazim-induced non-disjunction. PMID:10633176

Bentley, K S; Kirkland, D; Murphy, M; Marshall, R

2000-01-01

163

Fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry as tools to evaluate the treatments for the control of slime-forming enterobacteria in paper mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slime formation is a serious problem nowadays in the paper industry. Some enterobacteria are associated with the formation\\u000a of slime deposits in paper and board mills. Detection and characterization of slime forming bacteria, belonging to the genus\\u000a Enterobacter, Raoultella, and Klebsiella have been achieved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using one probe based on the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus

C. Esperanza Torres; Alicia Gibello; Mar Nande; Margarita Martin; Angeles Blanco

2008-01-01

164

Physical Mapping of Ribosomal RNA Genes in Peonies (Paeonia, Paeoniaceae) by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization: Implications for Phylogeny and Concerted Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical maps of the 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were generated by fluorescent in situ hybridization for five diploid Paeonia species, P. delavayi and P. rockii of section Moutan, and P. emodi, P. tenuifolia, and P. veitchii of section Paeonia. Of five pairs of mitotic chromosomes, rDNA loci were mapped near the telomeres of chromosomes 3, 4, and 5 of

Daming Zhang; Tao Sang

1999-01-01

165

Diagnostic Utility of Multiprobe Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Assay for Detecting Cytogenetic Aberrations in Acute Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Specific cytogenetic aberrations detected by conventional karyotyping or FISH play a major role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with acute leukemia. The FISH technique enhances the capacity of conventional karyotyping to detect subtle chromosomal aberrations. Multiprobe FISH assay (Cytocell, UK) can hybridize multiple probes to a single slide, thereby increasing the detection rate of cytogenetic aberrations. This study aimed to evaluate multiprobe FISH in detecting cytogenetic abnormalities in acute leukemia. Methods Thirty newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients who attended the hematology clinic at Dong-A University Hospital from October 2008 to October 2012 were enrolled in the study. The multiprobe FISH results were compared with those of G-banding. Results Multiprobe FISH detected the chromosomal aberrations identified by G-banding, as well as additional aberrations in 6 of 30 (20.0%) cases, which included ETV6/RUNX1 translocation, p16 deletion, TP53 deletion, and IGH break-apart. Conclusions The multiprobe FISH assay was a more sensitive and reliable technique compared with G-banding. It was also more cost-effective and yielded faster results. PMID:24790906

Kim, Bo-Ram; Choi, Jae-Lim; Kim, Ji-Eun; Woo, Kwang-Sook; Kim, Kyeong-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Man; Kim, Sung-Hyun

2014-01-01

166

Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Progress report, April 1--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this proposal is to create a cDNA map of the human genome. Mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach will generate 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

Korenberg, J.R.

1993-12-31

167

Rapid identification of Acinetobacter spp. by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) from colony and blood culture material  

PubMed Central

Multi-drug-resistant strains of the Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause nosocomial infections. Rapid identification of Acinetobacter spp. is desirable in order to facilitate therapeutic or hygiene decisions. We evaluated a newly designed DNA probe that can be used under standard conditions in both a microwave oven and a slide chamber for the rapid identification of Acinetobacter spp. by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Using FISH, the new probe correctly identified 81/81 Acinetobacter spp. isolates and excluded 109/109 tested non-target organisms from agar culture. Furthermore, the new probe correctly identified 7/7 Acinetobacter spp. in 214 blood cultures determined to contain Gram-negative bacteria by Gram staining. Using either the microwave oven or slide chamber technique, the new probe was able to identify Acinetobacter spp. in 100% of the samples tested. FISH used in conjunction with our newly designed probe provides an easy, cheap, precise, and rapid method for the preliminary identification of Acinetobacter spp., especially in laboratories where more sophisticated methods like matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) are not available. PMID:24516735

Essig, A.; Hagen, R. M.; Riecker, M.; Jerke, K.; Ellison, D.; Poppert, S.

2011-01-01

168

Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic aid for synovial sarcoma.  

PubMed Central

Identification of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) that is associated with a high proportion of synovial sarcoma can be a useful diagnostic aid. The translocation results in fusion of the SYT gene on chromosome 18 to either the SSX1 or the SSX2 gene, two homologous genes within Xp11.2. Two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were assessed as approaches to identify the rearrangement in well characterized cases. The presence of the translocation, and the specific chromosome X gene disrupted, were inferred from the configuration of signals from chromosome-specific centromere probes, paints, and markers flanking each gene in preparations of interphase nuclei. Rearrangement was found in two cell lines and eight of nine tumor samples, including analysis of five touch imprints. This was consistent with cytogenetic data in four cases and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis using primers known to amplify both SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2 transcripts. The transcripts were distinguished by restriction with LspI and SmaI. Contrary to previous suggestions, there was no obvious correlation between histological subtype and involvement of the SSX1 or SSX2 gene. These approaches could also be applied to the identification of tumor-free margins and metastatic disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8579118

Shipley, J.; Crew, J.; Birdsall, S.; Gill, S.; Clark, J.; Fisher, C.; Kelsey, A.; Nojima, T.; Sonobe, H.; Cooper, C.; Gusterson, B.

1996-01-01

169

Application of rRNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is often associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). This species consists of many strains that differ in their ability to produce toxins but have similar morphology, making identification difficult. In this study, species-specific rRNA probes were designed for whole-cell fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to distinguish A. minutum from two phylogenetic clades. We acquired the complete SSU to LSU rDNA sequences (GenBank accession numbers JF906989-JF906999) of 11 Alexandrium strains and used these to design rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Three ribotype-specific probes, M-GC-1, M-PC-2, and M-PC-3, were designed. The former is specific for the GC clade ("Global clade") of A. minutum, the majority of which have been found non-toxic, and the latter two are specific for the PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning)-producing PC clade ("Pacific clade"). The specificity of these three probes was confirmed by FISH. All cells in observed fields of view were fluorescently labeled when probes and target species were incubated under optimized FISH conditions. However, the accessibility of rRNA molecules in ribosomes varied among the probe binding positions. Thus, there was variation in the distribution of positive signals in labeled cells within nucleolus and cytosol (M-GC-1, M-PC-3), or just nucleolus (M-PC-2). Our results provide a methodological basis for studying the biogeography and population dynamics of A. minutum, and providing an early warning of toxic HABs.

Tang, Xianghai; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang; Yu, Zhigang

2012-03-01

170

Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and high resolution karyotype analysis reveal a novel inversion duplication of 10q  

SciTech Connect

A white male born with dysmorphic features, including upslanting palpebral fissures, bilateral simian creases, posteriorly rotated ears, bitemporal narrowing, frontal bossing, camptodactyly and head circumference and weight less than the 5th percentile was found to have a de novo add(10)(q26.1). High resolution karyotype analysis revealed a novel chromosomal abnormality: 46,XY,inv dup(10)(q26.3-q25.1). Fluorescent in situ hybridization using a chromosome 10-specific painting probe (Oncor, Inc.) confirmed that the extra material was derived from chromosome 10. Duplication of 10q24 or 10q25 is associated with characteristic craniofacial malformations, minor malformations of the hands and feet, major malformations of the heart, skeleton, and kidneys and severe mental retardation. Our patient, currently 7 months old, has many of the skeletal and craniofacial manifestations of other patients, but is developmentally normal at this early age. This is the first FISH confirmation of a 10q duplication and demonstrates the utility of this technology in addition to karyotype analysis. Molecular studies to determine the parental origin and extent of the duplication are in progress, since the apparent lack of developmental delay was unexpected. Identification of the origin of duplicated material will help assist in genetic counseling by further delineating new genetic syndromes.

Czarnecki, P.; Dyke, D.L. Van [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Dowling, P.K. [MetPath, Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

171

Minimizing off-target signals in RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization  

E-print Network

and Systems Biology Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, 2 Department are becoming extremely sensitive, to the point where individual RNA or DNA molecules can be detected with small probes. At this level of sensitiv- ity, the elimination of `off-target' hybridization is of crucial

Tomkins, Andrew

172

Rapid Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Blood Cultures by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes  

PubMed Central

A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method with peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from positive blood culture bottles that contain gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) is described. The test (the S. aureus PNA FISH assay) is based on a fluorescein-labeled PNA probe that targets a species-specific sequence of the 16S rRNA of S. aureus. Evaluations with 17 reference strains and 48 clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus species, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and other clinically relevant and phylogenetically related bacteria and yeast species, showed that the assay had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Clinical trials with 87 blood cultures positive for GPCC correctly identified 36 of 37 (97%) of the S. aureus-positive cultures identified by standard microbiological methods. The positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 98%, respectively. It is concluded that this rapid method (2.5 h) for identification of S. aureus directly from blood culture bottles that contain GPCC offers important information for optimal antibiotic therapy. PMID:11773123

Oliveira, Kenneth; Procop, Gary W.; Wilson, Deborah; Coull, James; Stender, Henrik

2002-01-01

173

Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion: A case with equivocal cytogenetic findings resolved by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The availability of markers for the 17p11.2 region has enabled the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SMS is typically associated with a discernible deletion of band 17p11.2 upon cytogenetic analysis at a resolution of 400-550 bands. We present a case that illustrates the importance of using FISH to confirm a cytogenetic diagnosis of del(17)(p11.2). Four independent cytogenetic analyses were performed with different conclusions. Results of low resolution analyses of amniocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were apparently normal, while high resolution analyses of peripheral blood samples in two laboratories indicated mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). FISH clearly demonstrated a 17p deletion on one chromosome of all peripheral blood cells analyzed and ruled out mosaicism unambiguously. The deletion was undetectable by flow cytometric quantitation of chromosomal DNA content, suggesting that it is less than 2 Mb. We conclude that FISH should be used to detect the SMS deletion when routine chromosome analysis fails to detect it and to verify mosaicism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Juyal, R.C.; Patel, P.I.; Greenberg, F. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-09-11

174

Chromosomal mapping of mouse 5S rRNA genes by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The mouse 5S rRNA gene was mapped by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotinylated probes. Two genomic fragments amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of BALB/c mice and Mus spretus, a 0.16-kb fragment that included the 121-bp 5S rRNA gene and a 1.6-kb fragment that included the whole spacer region, were used for chromosomal mapping of the 5S rRNA gene. Both fragments hybridized to a single locus on a pair of autosomal chromosomes of BALB/c mice. The major cluster of mouse 5S rRNA genes was assigned to the most terminal R-negative to R-positive bands of the E region of mouse Chromosome 8, which is homologous to the linkage of the 5S rRNA gene on the long arm of human chromosome 1. The location of the 5S rRNA gene was mapped in five laboratory strains, in wild mice of six Mus musculus subspecies (domesticus, brevirostris, musculus, bactrianus, castaneus, and molossinus) derived from 10 separate localities, and in four different Mus species (spretus, hortulanus, spicilegus, and caroli), using FISH. The 5S rRNA cluster mapped to the same position on the chromosomes of all mouse species and subspecies studied. These results suggest that the location of the mouse 5S rRNA gene on the distal telomeric region of Chromosome 8 is evolutionarily conserved. In comparison, the chromosomal assignments of centromeric 18S-28S rRNA genes are highly variable among the different M. musculus subspecies and Mus species. PMID:8162702

Matsuda, Y; Moriwaki, K; Chapman, V M; Hoi-Sen, Y; Akbarzadeh, J; Suzuki, H

1994-01-01

175

Molecular analysis of hematopoietic colonies derived from chronic myeloid leukemia patients: interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization compared with RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the molecular analysis of hematopoietic colonies derived from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Molecular analysis of individual colonies is often performed to monitor purging efficacy in CML. We harvested individual colony-forming unit granulocyte–macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies. One half was analyzed with

SFT Thijsen; GJ Schuurhuis; JW van Oostveen; AP Theijsmeijer; MMAC Langenhuijsen; GJ Ossenkoppele

1997-01-01

176

FISH in chips: turning microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization into a quantitative and clinically reliable molecular diagnosis tool.  

PubMed

Microfluidic systems bear promise to provide new powerful tools for the molecular characterization of cancer cells, in particular for the routine detection of multiple cancer biomarkers using a minute amount of the sample. However, taking miniaturized cell-based assays into the clinics requires the implementation and validation of complex biological protocols on chip, as well as the development of disposable microdevices produced at a low cost. Based on a recently developed microfluidic chip made of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer for cell immobilization with minimal dead volume and controlled shear stress, we developed a protocol performed entirely in the liquid phase, allowing the immobilization and fixation of cells and their quantitative characterization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrated first in cell lines and then in two clinical case studies the potential of this method to perform quantitative copy number measurement and clinical scoring of the amplification of the ERBB2 gene, a decisive biomarker for the prescription of HER2+ related targeted therapies. This validation was performed in a blind protocol in two clinical case studies, in reference to the gold standard and clinically used method based on glass slides. We obtained a comparable reproducibility and a minor difference in apparent amplification, which can be corrected by internal calibration. The method thus reaches the standard of robustness needed for clinical use. The protocol can be fully automated, and its consumption of samples and DNA probes is reduced as compared to glass slide protocols by a factor of at least 10. The total duration of the assay is divided by two. PMID:25474258

Perez-Toralla, Karla; Mottet, Guillaume; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Champ, Jérôme; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Draskovic, Irena; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stéphanie

2014-12-01

177

Utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect MDM2 amplification in liposarcomas and their morphological mimics  

PubMed Central

The atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT)/well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) and the de-differentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) represent the most common category of liposarcomas. ALT/WDLSs and DDLSs are often difficult to distinguish from other tumors with similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we investigated whether the detection of amplified or overexpressed murine double-minute 2 (MDM2) can be a useful diagnostic ancillary aid. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect MDM2 amplification and protein overexpression, respectively, in 49 WDLSs, 5 DDLSs, 23 myxoid liposarcomas, 25 benign lipomatous tumors, and 75 spindle and pleomorphic sarcomas. MDM2 amplification was detected in 48 of 49 WDLSs, 5 of 5 DDLSs, 2 of 9 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and 2 of 10 myxofibrosarcomas. We did not detect MDM2 amplification in any of the benign lipomatous tumors. FISH-mediated detection of MDM2 amplification was the most valuable diagnostic aid for ALT/WDLS, as determined by using the Fisher exact test to compare two different diagnoses of 19 biopsies. On the contrary, unequivocal nuclear overexpression of MDM2 was found in only 10 of 50 ALT/WDLSs. The sensitivity and specificity of MDM2 amplification in distinguishing a DDLS from spindle and pleomorphic sarcomas were 100% and 95%, respectively, while those of MDM2 overexpression were 100% and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that FISH-mediated detection of MDM2 amplification is the most useful adjunct in the diagnosis of both ALT/WDLS and DDLS. However, IHC-mediated detection of MDM2 protein is useful only for the diagnosis of DDLS. PMID:23826411

Kimura, Hiroaki; Dobashi, Yoh; Nojima, Takayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Hiroko; Sawada-Kitamura, Seiko; Oyama, Takeru; Ooi, Akishi

2013-01-01

178

Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H. [Alberta Children`s Hospital and Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

1994-09-01

179

Optimization of a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method for the detection of bacteria and disclosure of a formamide effect.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique to identify microorganisms, there is a lack of understanding concerning the interaction of the different factors affecting the obtained fluorescence. In here, we used flow cytometry to study the influence of three essential factors in hybridization - temperature, time and formamide concentration - in an effort to optimize the performance of a Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probe targeting bacteria (EUB338). The PNA-FISH optimization was performed with bacteria representing different families employing response surface methodology. Surprisingly, the optimum concentration of formamide varied according to the bacterium tested. While hybridization on the bacteria possessing the thickest peptidoglycan was more successful at nearly 50% (v/v) formamide, hybridization on all other microorganisms appeared to improve with much lower formamide concentrations. Gram staining and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to confirm that the overall effect of formamide concentration on the fluorescence intensity is a balance between a harmful effect on the bacterial cell envelope, affecting cellular integrity, and the beneficial denaturant effect in the hybridization process. We also conclude that microorganisms belonging to different families will require different hybridization parameters for the same FISH probe, meaning that an optimum universal PNA-FISH procedure is non-existent for these situations. PMID:25034435

Santos, Rita S; Guimarães, Nuno; Madureira, Pedro; Azevedo, Nuno F

2014-10-10

180

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Chromosome 15q26: Determination of a Candidate Region by Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has an incidence of 1 in 3,000 births and a high mortality rate (33%–58%). Multifactorial inheritance, teratogenic agents, and genetic abnormalities have all been suggested as possible etiologic factors. To define candidate regions for CDH, we analyzed cytogenetic data collected on 200 CDH cases, of which 7% and 5% showed numerical and structural abnormalities, respectively. This study focused on the most frequent structural anomaly found: a deletion on chromosome 15q. We analyzed material from three of our patients and from four previously published patients with CDH and a 15q deletion. By using array-based comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization to determine the boundaries of the deletions and by including data from two individuals with terminal 15q deletions but without CDH, we were able to exclude a substantial portion of the telomeric region from the genetic etiology of this disorder. Moreover, one patient with CDH harbored a small interstitial deletion. Together, these findings allowed us to define a minimal deletion region of ?5 Mb at chromosome 15q26.1-26.2. The region contains four known genes, of which two—NR2F2 and CHD2—are particularly intriguing gene candidates for CDH. PMID:15750894

Klaassens, M.; van Dooren, M.; Eussen, H. J.; Douben, H.; den Dekker, A. T.; Lee, C.; Donahoe, P. K.; Galjaard, R. J.; Goemaere, N.; de Krijger, R. R.; Wouters, C.; Wauters, J.; Oostra, B. A.; Tibboel, D.; de Klein, A.

2005-01-01

181

Identification of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) homologous loci by direct sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and PCR amplification of somatic cell hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have identified seven NF1-related loci, two separate loci on chromosome 2, at bands 2q21 and 2q33-q34, and one locus each on five other chromosomes at bands 14q11.2, 15q11.2, 18p11.2, 21q11.2-q21, and 22q11.2. Application of PCR using NF1 primer pairs and genomic DNA from somatic cell hybrids confirmed the above loci, identified additional loci on chromosomes 12 and 15, and showed that the various loci do not share homology beyond NF1 exon 27b. Sequenced PCR products representing segments corresponding to NF1 exons from these loci demonstrated greater than 95% sequence identity with the NF1 locus. We used sequence differences between bona fide NF1 and NF1-homologous loci to strategically design primer sets to specifically amplify 30 of 36 exons within the 5{prime} end of the NF1 gene. These developments have facilitated mutation analysis at the NF1 locus using genomic DNA as template. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Purandare, S.M.; Neil, S.M.; Brothman, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-10

182

Trisomy 10p resulting from an inv dup of 10p defined by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

De novo cases of trisomy for the entire short arm of chromosome 10 are infrequently reported and are most commonly the result of translocation of 10p to an acrocentric chromosome. Most reported cases of trisomy 10p are not trisomy for the complete short arm of chromosome 10, but are duplication, deficiency syndromes that result from either inheritance of an unbalanced translocation from a parent possessing a balanced reciprocal translocation, or from a recombinant chromosome derived from a parental pericentric inversion of chromosome 10. Here, we report a case of a de novo trisomy 10p that resulted from an inverted duplication of the entire short arm of chromosome 10. A 42 year old G7,P5,SAB1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age. Ultrasound examination at 17 weeks demonstrated a fetus of normal size with no apparent anatomic abnormalities. Cytogenetic evaluation demonstrated one homologue of chromosome 10 had a tandem inverted duplication of the short arm. The fetal karyotype was interpreted to be 46,XX,inv dup (10) (peter-cen::cen-p15::q11-pter). Parental karyotype are normal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a chromosome 10 paint, chromosome 10 centromere, and all telomere probe, confirmed the inverted duplication involved the entire short arm of chromosome 10. Termination of pregnancy was performed at 20 weeks gestation. Autopsy revealed multiple anomalies including low-set posteriorly rotated ears, cleft of the soft palate, ocular hypertelorism, small upturned nose, agenesis of the gallbladder, sacral hemivertebrae, and abnormal flexion of the thumbs. The fetal karyotype was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis in lung and kidney. This is the second reported case of a de novo tandem duplication of 10p of which we are aware, and the first using FISH technology to characterize the abnormality.

Clement, S.J.; Easterling, T.R.; Leppig, K.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

183

Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques for the rapid detection of genetic prognostic factors in neuroblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroblastoma is the commonest extracranial solid tumour in children. There are a number of molecular genetic features known which are of prognostic importance and which are used to direct therapy. Identification and targeting of high-risk individuals with intensive therapeutic regimens may allow an improvement in survival rates. The most powerful biological parameters associated with prognosis in this malignancy are chromosomal

C P F Taylor; N P Bown; A G McGuckin; J Lunec; A J Malcolm; A D J Pearson; Denise Sheer; CPF Taylor

2000-01-01

184

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: A Sensitive Method for Trisomy 8 Detection in Bone Marrow Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

RISOMY 8 is a common cytogenetic abnormality T found in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), myelodysplastic syn- dromes (MDS), or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL).1-5 Using conventional cytogenetic methods in which 20 to 30 metaphase cells are typically examined, it is possible to find 2 or more metaphases with trisomy 8 in many of these patients.

Robert B. Jenkins; Michelle M. Le Beau; William J. Kraker; Thomas J. Borell; Paul G. Stalboerger; Elizabeth M. Davis; Lolita Penland; Anthony Fernald; Rafael Espinosa; Daniel J. Schaid; Gordon W. Dewald

1992-01-01

185

IDENTIFICATION OF SEX CHROMOSOME MOLECULAR MARKERS USING RAPDS AND FLUORESCENT IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN RAINBOW TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this work is to identify molecular markers associated with the sex chromosomes in rainbow trout to study the mode of sex determination mechanisms in this species. Using the RAPD assay and bulked segregant analysis, two markers were identified that generated polymorphi...

186

Duplication of intrachromosomal insertion segments 4q32?q35 confirmed by comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

A 35-year-old man with infertility was referred for chromosomal analysis. In routine cytogenetic analysis, the patient was seen to have additional material of unknown origin on the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 4. To determine the origin of the unknown material, we carried out high-resolution banding, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and FISH. CGH showed a gain of signal on the region of 4q32?q35. FISH using whole chromosome painting and subtelomeric region probes for chromosome 4 confirmed the aberrant chromosome as an intrachromosomal insertion duplication of 4q32?q35. Duplication often leads to some phenotypic abnormalities; however, our patient showed an almost normal phenotype except for congenital dysfunction in spermatogenesis. PMID:22384449

Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Ju Yeon; Oh, Ah Rum; Choi, Eun Young; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Kang, Inn Soo; Koong, Mi Kyoung

2011-01-01

187

Assignment of the human caltractin gene (CALT) to Xq28 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center of interphase eukaryotic cells, an its duplication is essential to eukaryotic cell division. Caltractin, a structural component of centrosomes, is highly homologous in amino acid sequence to the product of the CDC31 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In S. cerevisiae, an important role for CDC31 in duplication of the spindle pole body (SPB), a kind of microtubule-organizing center, has been demonstrated by an experiment in which mutant CDC31 prevented SPB duplication and led to formation of a monopolar spindle. In view of the localization of human caltractin in centrosomes and the sequence homology it bears to yeast CDC31, it is reasonable to assume that caltractin functions in humans as CDC31 does in yeast. As a part of the Human Genome Project, we have been determining nucleotide sequences of DNA clones randomly selected from a directionally cloned cDNA library constructed from fetal brain mRNA obtained from Clontech (La Jolla, CA). By comparing 5{prime} partial DNA sequences of these cDNA clones with known DNA sequences in the database, we found one clone that was highly homologous to the caltractin gene of Chlamydomonas, which turned out to be the same as a human gene identified recently. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Tanaka, Tanaka; Okui, Keiko; Nakamura, Yusuke [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-01

188

Combined Fluorescent-Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Identification and Laser Microdissection of Interphase Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting of sequential FISH and CISH combined with laser-microdissection of chromosomes from the interphase nucleus and followed by subsequent chromosome identification by microsatellite allele genotyping. This approach identified proximally positioned chromosomes from cultured cells, and the analysis showed that the identity of the chromosomes proximally positioned varies. However, the data suggest that there may be a tendency of the same chromosomes to be positioned close to each other in the interphase nucleus of trisomic cells. The protocol described here represents a powerful new method for genome analysis. PMID:23565206

Paz, Nerea; Zabala, Amaia; Royo, Félix; García-Orad, África; Zugaza, José L.; Parada, Luis A.

2013-01-01

189

QUANTITATIVE FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS ON MICROSCOPE SLIDES AND LEAF SURFACES. (R823845)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

190

Novel karyotype in the Ullrich-Turner syndrome - 45,X/46,X,r(X)/46,X,dic(X) - investigated with fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

A 10-year-old girl with Ullrich-Turner syndrome was found to have the novel karyotype 45,X/46,X,r(X)(p11q11)/46,X,dic(X)(p11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the {alpha} satellite X centromere probe established the origin of the small ring chromosome. Scanning a large number of cells by interphase FISH showed that the dicentric (X) was the least prevalent cell line. The common breakpoint of Xp11 suggests a sequence of errors as the mechanism whereby these 3 distinct cell lines have arisen. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Robson, L.; Jackson, J.; Cowell, C.; Sillence, D.; Smith, A. [Children`s Hospital, Camperdown (Australia)

1994-04-15

191

Identification of Prader-Willi Syndrome mosaicism by fluorescent in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a microdeletion syndrome involving an interstitial deletion of region q11-q13 on the paternal chromosome 15. We report 2 cases of PWS that were analyzed using FISH and were found to be mosaic for a normal cell line and a deleted cell line. Case 1 was diagnosed as an atypical PWS who was cytogenetically normal. She is a 38 y.o. white female displaying some but not all of the features of PWS. Case 2 is a 23 y.o. white male with a classical deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13. He displays very typical features of PWS. He was also noted to be albino. FISH analysis was performed on PHA stimulated lymphocytes. We examined four loci: D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3. The number of cells examined for each locus ranged from 46 to 75. Case 1 was deleted at 3 of the 4 loci (D15S11, SNRPN and GABRB3) in 30% of her cells. The D15S10 locus was not deleted. This may account for the atypical features displayed by this patient. It also suggests that this chromosome is rearranged resulting in the retention of the interstitial locus. The exact nature of the rearrangement needs to be determined. Case 2 was deleted at all four loci in 60% of the cells analyzed. This result was unexpected because his deletion was identified cytogenetically, but mosaicism was not detected. These are the first reported cases of mosaic PWS diagnosed using FISH. The use of cytogenetics alone requires high resolution banding to accurately identify the deletion. This makes the detection of small deletions in every cell difficult and the determination of mosaicism almost impossible. Our results suggest that mosaicism may be occurring more frequently than previously thought and may account for some of the atypical cases. Studies are in progress to determine the effect of mosaicism on methylation at genes located within this region which are imprinted and are thought to be involved in the etiology of Prader-Willi Syndroms.

Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U. [Magee Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanchett, J.M. [Rehabilitation Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

192

Partial trisomy 11q involving chromosome 1 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Partial trisomy 11q was detected in an infant delivered 3-4 weeks prematurely. The phenotype included slanted palpebral fissures, high arched palate, developmental delay, microcephaly, and cardiac defects, all of which occur in the majority of cases with this syndrome. Other features included a column-shaped skull, preauricular pit, single palmar crease, short, broad great toes, flat occiput, unilateral kidney agenesis, and strabismus. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed the presence of extra material on the long arm of chromosome 1. The G-banding pattern of this extra material indicated that it might be derived from chromosome 1 or 11. Chromosomal {open_quotes}paints{close_quotes} showed that it was not chromosome 1 material, but was chromosome 11 material extending from band q21 to qter. Partial trisomy 11q arising from translocation of the 11q material to chromosome 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 17, 21, 22, and X has been reported previously, whereas translocation to chromosome 1 has not. The chromosome to which the 11q material is translocated does not alter the most frequent features of the partial trisomy 11q syndrome, but may influence other less common features.

McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.; McCorquodale, D.J. [Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

193

Visualization of mcr mRNA in a methanogen by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe and two-pass tyramide signal amplification (two-pass TSA–FISH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-pass tyramide signal amplification–fluorescence in situ hybridization (two-pass TSA–FISH) with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled oligonucleotide probe was applied to detect prokaryotic mRNA. In this study, mRNA of a key enzyme for methanogenesis, methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr), in Methanococcus vannielii was targeted. Applicability of mRNA-targeted probes to in situ hybridization was verified by Clone-FISH. It was observed that sensitivity of

Kengo Kubota; Akiyoshi Ohashi; Hiroyuki Imachi; Hideki Harada

2006-01-01

194

Fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of classical propionibacteria with specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application to enumeration in Gruyère cheese.  

PubMed

The classical or dairy propionibacteria have well-documented industrial applications and have been proposed for probiotic applications. Given their industrial importance it is necessary to employ fast and reliable techniques to monitor the growth during products elaboration, industrial fermentations or the intestinal transit. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to design oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S rRNA of dairy propionibacteria and optimise the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol to detect these bacteria. Two specific probes were in silico designed to detect Propionibacterium freudenreichii and P. jensenii, named Pfr435 and Pj446 respectively. The FISH protocol was optimised for the hybridisation of propionibacteria cells with the universal probe Eub338 and the designed probes. These probes were assayed in situ for their specificity to hybridise species of propionibacteria by observation using fluorescence microscopy and results were compared with the probe Pap446 previously designed for P. acidipropionici. Probes Pap446, Pfr435 and Pj446 were also evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry to assess the influence of cells physiological state during growth in batch culture in the fluorescence intensity. The maximum fluorescence intensity was observed at the onset of the stationary phase of growth and was then reduced. However, changes on the cells permeability did not reduce the efficiency of 16S rRNA hybridisation with the fluorescence-labelled probes. Propionibacteria counts obtained by FISH and plate count methods were compared in a commercial Gruyère cheese. The results showed that this method can be used as a rapid technique for the enumeration of these bacteria in cheese samples. PMID:21276635

Babot, Jaime D; Hidalgo, Maximiliano; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

2011-01-31

195

[Application of flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization in the measurement of relative telomere length of bone marrow CD34(+) cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (Flow-FISH) in measuring the telomere length of bone marrow cell subgroups in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Seven newly diagnosed patients with low-risk MDS and seven nutritional anemia patients who were matched with age and sex, were enrolled in this study. Heparinized bone marrow were sampled. Taking Molt-4 cell line as internal control cells, leukocytes isolated from whole bone marrow were labeled with CD34-Alexa Fluork ® 647, then denatured by high temperature and hybridized with FITC-conjugated telomere probe. The DNA was counterstained and the relative telomere length (RTL) of nucleated cells and CD34(+) cells in bone marrow were measured by four-color flow cytometry. The results showed that CD34(+) cells could be gated for the measurement of RTL in both groups, undergoing the denaturation and hybridization. Primary analysis indicated that the RTL of bone marrow CD34(+) cells in MDS patients was significantly shorter than that of bone marrow nucleated cells (P = 0.001), and the RTL of both CD34(+) cells and nucleated cells in bone marrow of MDS patients were significantly shorter than that of control group (P = 0.020, 0.002). It is concluded that the application of Flow-FISH in the measurement of RTL of certain cell subgroup is feasible by labeling the cell with thermostable fluorescence-conjugated antibody, and this technique is worthy to be investigated further. PMID:24156433

Guo, Tian-Jiao; Sun, Wan-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-Cai; Liu, Cong-Yan; He, Jing-Juan; Xu, Juan

2013-10-01

196

Comparison of culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and "Brachyspira hampsonii" in pig feces.  

PubMed

Swine dysentery is characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea and can occur following infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae or "Brachyspira hampsonii?". A definitive diagnosis is often based on the isolation of strongly beta-hemolytic spirochetes from selective culture or by the application of species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays directly to feces. While culture is highly sensitive, it typically requires 6 or more days to complete, and PCR, although rapid, can be limited by fecal inhibition. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been described in formalin-fixed tissues; however, completion requires approximately 2 days. Because of the time constraints of available assays, a same-day FISH assay was developed to detect B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii?" in pig feces using previously described oligonucleotide probes Hyo1210 and Hamp1210 for B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii", respectively. In situ hybridization was simultaneously compared with culture and PCR on feces spiked with progressive dilutions of spirochetes to determine the threshold of detection for each assay at 0 and 48 hr. The PCR assay on fresh feces and FISH on formalin-fixed feces had similar levels of detection. Culture was the most sensitive method, detecting the target spirochetes at least 2 log-dilutions less when compared to other assays 48 hr after sample preparation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also effectively detected both target species in formalin-fixed feces from inoculated pigs as part of a previous experiment. Accordingly, FISH on formalin-fixed feces from clinically affected pigs can provide same-day identification and preliminary speciation of spirochetes associated with swine dysentery in North America. PMID:25525136

Wilberts, Bailey L; Warneke, Hallie L; Bower, Leslie P; Kinyon, Joann M; Burrough, Eric R

2015-01-01

197

Delineation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a single hemizygous chromosomal region associated with aposporous embryo sac formation in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris.  

PubMed Central

Apomixis is a means of asexual reproduction by which plants produce embryos without meiosis and fertilization; thus the embryo is of clonal, maternal origin. We previously reported molecular markers showing no recombination with the trait for aposporous embryo sac development in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, and the collective single-dose alleles defined an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm that the ASGR is a hemizygous genomic region and to determine its chromosomal position with respect to rDNA loci and centromere repeats. We also documented chromosome transmission from P. squamulatum in several backcrosses (BCs) with P. glaucum using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One to three complete P. squamulatum chromosomes were detected in BC(6), but only one of the three hybridized with the ASGR-linked markers. In P. squamulatum and in all BCs examined, the apospory-linked markers were located in the distal region of the short arm of a single chromosome. All alien chromosomes behaved as univalents during meiosis and segregated randomly in BC(3) and later BC generations, but presence of the ASGR-carrier chromosome alone was sufficient to confer apospory. FISH results support our hypotheses that hemizygosity, proximity to centromeric sequences, and chromosome structure may all play a role in low recombination in the ASGR. PMID:12663545

Goel, Shailendra; Chen, Zhenbang; Conner, Joann A; Akiyama, Yukio; Hanna, Wayne W; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

2003-01-01

198

The microbial community structure of different permeable sandy sediments characterized by the investigation of bacterial fatty acids and fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

This study describes the microbial community structure of three sandy sediment stations that differed with respect to median grain size and permeability in the German Bight of the Southern North Sea. The microbial community was investigated using lipid biomarker analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. For further characterization we determined the stable carbon isotope composition of the biomarkers. Biomarkers identified belong to different bacterial groups such as members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). To support these findings, investigations using different fluorescent in situ hybridization probes were performed, specifically targeting Cytophaga-Flavobacterium, gamma-Proteobacteria and different members of the SRB. Depth profiles of bacterial fatty acid relative abundances revealed elevated subsurface peaks for the fine sediment, whereas at the other sandy sediment stations the concentrations were less variable with depth. Although oxygen penetrates deeper into the coarser and more permeable sediments, the SRB biomarkers are similarly abundant, indicating suboxic to anoxic niches in these environments. We detected SRB in all sediment types as well as in the surface and at greater depth, which suggests that SRB play a more important role in oxygenated marine sediments than previously thought. PMID:15658995

Bühring, S I; Elvert, M; Witte, U

2005-02-01

199

A high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 5: Localization of 206 new cosmid markers by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The authors have constructed a high-resolution cytogenetic map of human chromosome 5 with 206 new cosmid clones by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization. The fluorescent signals of 206 clones were evenly distributed throughout chromosome 5, although they were sublocalized preferentially to R-positive bands. This high-resolution cytogenetic map with an average distance of nearly 1 Mb will serve as an important resource for construction of a genetic linkage map, which is essential for positional cloning of responsible genes. Moreover, these mapping data provide many useful landmarks for the construction of contig maps of chromosome 5, as required in the Human Genome Project. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Takahashi, Ei-Ichi; Hitomi, Akitsu (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

1993-07-01

200

Development of automated brightfield double In Situ hybridization (BDISH) application for HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere (CEN 17) for breast carcinomas and an assay performance comparison to manual dual color HER2 fluorescence In Situ hybridization (FISH)  

PubMed Central

Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a quantitative assay for selecting breast cancer patients for trastuzumab therapy. However, current HER2 FISH procedures are labor intensive, manual methods that require skilled technologists and specialized fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, FISH slides cannot be archived for long term storage and review. Our objective was to develop an automated brightfield double in situ hybridization (BDISH) application for HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere (CEN 17) and test the assay performance with dual color HER2 FISH evaluated breast carcinomas. Methods The BDISH assay was developed with the nick translated dinitrophenyl (DNP)-labeled HER2 DNA probe and DNP-labeled CEN 17 oligoprobe on the Ventana BenchMark® XT slide processing system. Detection of HER2 and CEN 17 signals was accomplished with the silver acetate, hydroquinone, and H2O2 reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the fast red and naphthol phosphate reaction with alkaline phosphatise (AP), respectively. The BDISH specificity was optimized with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded xenograft tumors, MCF7 (non-amplified HER2 gene) and BT-474 (amplified HER2 gene). Then, the BDISH performance was evaluated with 94 routinely processed breast cancer tissues. Interpretation of HER2 and CEN 17 BDISH slides was conducted by 4 observers using a conventional brightfield microscope without oil immersion objectives. Results Sequential hybridization and signal detection for HER2 and CEN 17 ISH demonstrated both DNA targets in the same cells. HER2 signals were visualized as discrete black metallic silver dots while CEN 17 signals were detected as slightly larger red dots. Our study demonstrated a high consensus concordance between HER2 FISH and BDISH results of clinical breast carcinoma cases based on the historical scoring method (98.9%, Simple Kappa = 0.9736, 95% CI = 0.9222 – 1.0000) and the ASCO/CAP scoring method with the FISH equivocal cases (95.7%, Simple Kappa = 0.8993%, 95% CI = 0.8068 – 0.9919) and without the FISH equivocal cases (100%, Simple Kappa = 1.0000%, 95% CI = 1.0000 – 1.0000). Conclusion Automated BDISH applications for HER2 and CEN 17 targets were successfully developed and it might be able to replace manual two-color HER2 FISH methods. The application also has the potential to be used for other gene targets. The use of BDISH technology allows the simultaneous analyses of two DNA targets within the context of tissue morphological observation. PMID:18945356

Nitta, Hiroaki; Hauss-Wegrzyniak, Beatrice; Lehrkamp, Megan; Murillo, Adrian E; Gaire, Fabien; Farrell, Michael; Walk, Eric; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Dietel, Manfred; Wang, Lin; Loftus, Margaret; Pettay, James; Tubbs, Raymond R; Grogan, Thomas M

2008-01-01

201

Bacterioplankton community structure in a maritime antarctic oligotrophic lake during a period of holomixis, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).  

PubMed

The bacterioplankton community structure in Moss Lake, a maritime Antarctic oligotrophic lake, was determined with vertical depth in the water column, during the ice-free period on Signy Island in the South Orkney Islands. Bacterioplankton community structure was determined using a combination of direct counting of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and in situ hybridization with group-specific, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. Using PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE, the bacterioplankton community composition was shown to be constant with vertical depth in the water column. Specific bacterioplankton species identified through cloning and sequencing the DGGE products obtained were Flavobacterium xinjiangensis (a Flavobacterium), Leptothrix discophora (a beta-Proteobacterium), and a number of uncultured groups: two beta-Proteobacteria, an unclassified Proteobacterium, three sequences from Actinobacteria, and a Cyanobacterium. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), however, demonstrated that there were minor but significant fluctuations in different groups of bacteria with vertical depth in the water column. It showed that the beta-Proteobacteria accounted for between 26.4 and 71.5%, the alpha-Proteobacteria 2.3-10.6%, the gamma-Proteobacteria 0-29.6%, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group 1.8-23.5% of cells hybridizing to a universal probe. This study reports the first description of the community structure of an oligotrophic Antarctic freshwater lake as determined by PCR-dependent and PCR-independent molecular techniques. It also suggests that the bacterioplankton community of Moss Lake contains classes of bacteria known to be important in freshwater systems elsewhere in the world. PMID:12739078

Pearce, D A

2003-07-01

202

Assignment of six genes to bovine chromosomes 5 and 16 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, radiation hybrid mapping and genetic linkage analysis.  

PubMed

Several quantitative trait loci for beef carcass traits have been mapped to bovine chromosome 5. The objective of this study was to map six candidate genes for these traits by fluoresence in situ hybridization, genetic linkage analysis and radiation hybrid mapping. MYF5 and MYF6 were assigned to 5q13, WIF1 to 5q23 and MMP19 to 5q25. A paralog of MYF5 (putatively MYOG) was assigned to 16q12. A novel microsatellite placed MYF5 and MYF6 10.4 cM from BM6026 and 19.1 cM from BL23 on the genetic linkage map. MYF5 (62.6 cR), WNT10B (319.5 cR), WIF1 (500.8 cR) and MMP19 (701.2 cR) were also integrated into the 5000(Rad) radiation hybrid map. PMID:17317959

Hansen, G R; Abbey, C A; Gaile, D P; Raudsepp, T; Chowdhary, B P; Womack, J E; Gill, C A

2007-01-01

203

Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric DNA probes as a new approach to distinguish chromosome breakage from aneuploidy in interphase cells and micronuclei  

SciTech Connect

Chromosomal abnormalities are believed to contribute significantly to human reproductive failure, carcinogenesis and other pathophysiological conditions. For example, approximately 15% of recognized pregnancies terminate in spontaneous abortion, and of these approximately 30% have been shown to be chromosomally abnormal. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to early embryonic and fetal death appears to decrease with gestational age, suggesting that as many as 67% of the aborted embryos in early embryonic deaths are chromosomally abnormal. Furthermore, clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities can also be found to be present in approximately 0.58 to 0.67% of live births. These figures indicate that within a given year, hundreds of thousands of chromosomally abnormal babies will be born throughout the world and additional millions of chromosomally abnormal embryos will have been spontaneously aborted. For the past several years, our research has focused on utilizing new molecular cytogenetic techniques to develop assays for detecting aneuploidy-inducing agents in mammalian cells. One approach that we have sucessfully employed involves the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes to determine the number of copies of a representative chromosome present within the nucleus following chemical exposure. DNA sequences (probes) which hybridize to blocks of repetitive centromeric DNA on specific chromosomes have been developed for most of the human chromosomes. In situ hybridization with these probes results in the staining of a compact chromosomal region which can be easily detected in interphase nuclei. The presence of 3 (or more) hybridization domains in an interphase nucleus indicates the presence of three centromeric regions and has been presumed to indicate that three copies of the entire chromosome were present in the nucleus.

Eastmond, D.A.; Rupa, D.S.; Chen, H.W.; Hasegawa, L. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

204

Intratumoral heterogeneous amplification of ERBB2 and subclonal genetic diversity in gastric cancers revealed by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

A humanized monoclonal antibody against ERBB2 is used in neoadjuvant therapy for patients with gastric cancer. A critical factor in determining patient eligibility and predicting outcomes of this therapy is the intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification in gastric adenocarcinomas. The aims of this study are to assess the underlying mechanisms of intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification; to characterize the diversity of coamplified oncogenes such as EGFR, FGFR2, MET, MYC, CCND1, and MDM2; and to examine the usefulness of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the semicomprehensive detection of these gene amplifications. A combined analysis of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ERBB2-amplified cancer cells in 51 of 475 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinomas. The fraction of amplification-positive cells in each tumor ranged from less than 10% to almost 100%. Intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification, defined as less than 50% of cancer cells positive for ERBB2 amplification, was found in 41% (21/51) of ERBB2-amplified tumors. The combined analysis of MLPA and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that ERBB2 was coamplified with EGFR in 7 tumors, FGFR2 in 1 tumor, and FGFR2 and MET in 1 tumor; however, the respective genes were amplified in mutually exclusive cells. Coamplified ERBB2 and MYC coexisted within single nuclei in 4 tumors, and one of these cases had suspected coamplification in the same amplicon of ERBB2 with MYC. In conclusion, the amplification status of ERBB2 and other genes can be obtained semicomprehensively by MLPA and could be useful to plan individualized molecularly targeted therapy against gastric cancers. PMID:24491355

Tajiri, Ryosuke; Ooi, Akishi; Fujimura, Takashi; Dobashi, Yoh; Oyama, Takeru; Nakamura, Ritsuko; Ikeda, Hiroko

2014-04-01

205

Dicentric chromosome aberration analysis using giemsa and centromere specific fluorescence in-situ hybridization for biological dosimetry: An inter- and intra-laboratory comparison in Indian laboratories.  

PubMed

To facilitate efficient handling of large samples, an attempt towards networking of laboratories in India for biological dosimetry was carried out. Human peripheral blood samples were exposed to (60)Co ?-radiation for ten different doses (0-5Gy) at a dose rate of 0.7 and 2Gy/min. The chromosomal aberrations (CA) were scored in Giemsa-stained and fluorescence in-situ hybridization with centromere-specific probes. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the CA yield for given doses except 4 and 5Gy, between the laboratories, among the scorers and also staining methods adapted suggest the reliability and validates the inter-lab comparisons exercise for triage applications. PMID:25014548

Bhavani, M; Tamizh Selvan, G; Kaur, Harpreet; Adhikari, J S; Vijayalakshmi, J; Venkatachalam, P; Chaudhury, N K

2014-09-01

206

Detection of WWE2-related Lentisphaerae by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization in landfill leachate.  

PubMed

We collected samples of anaerobic landfill leachate from municipal solid waste landfill (Vert-le-Grand, France) and constructed 16S rRNA clone libraries using primers targeting Planctomycetes and relatives (Pla46F and 1390R). Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in the abundant representation of WWE2-related Lentisphaerae, members of the phylum Lentisphaerae, in the clone library (98% of the retrieved sequences). Although the sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with the cultured isolate Victivallis vadensis were identified (WWE2 subgroup II), the majority of the sequences were affiliated with an uncultured Lentisphaerae lineage (WWE2 subgroup I). We designed oligonucleotides probes targeting the specific 16S rRNA gene regions of those 2 subgroups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the abundance of the uncultivated WWE2 subgroup I in our leachate samples. PMID:20962908

Limam, Rim Driss; Bouchez, Théodore; Chouari, Rakia; Li, Tianlun; Barkallah, Insaf; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani

2010-10-01

207

Clinical and cytogenetic findings in seven cases of inverted duplication of 8p with evidence of a telomeric deletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in 7 cases of inverted duplication of region 8p11.2-p23. The phenotype of inv dup (8p) compiled from this series and the literature (N = 29) consists of severe mental retardation (100%), minor facial alterations (97%), agenesis of the corpus callosum (80%), hypotonia (66%), orthopedic abnormalities (58%), scoliosis/kyphosis (40%), and congenital heart defect (26%). A telomeric deletion of region 8p23.3-pter was confirmed in 3 of our cases studied using fluorescent in situ hybridization with a telomeric probe for 8p. Thus, these karyotypes are inv dup del(8) (qter{r_arrow} p23.1::p23.1{r_arrow}p11.2:). Our findings suggest that most cases of inv dup(8p) probably have a telomeric deletion. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Guo, Wen-Jun; Callif-Daley, F.; Zapata, M.C.; Miller, M.E. [Children`s Medical Center, Dayton, OH (United States)

1995-09-11

208

Differentiation of Methanosaeta concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri in Anaerobic Mesophilic Granular Sludge by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy†  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotide probes, designed from genes coding for 16S rRNA, were developed to differentiate Methanosaeta concilii, Methanosarcina barkeri, and mesophilic methanogens. All M. concilii oligonucleotide probes (designated MS1, MS2, and MS5) hybridized specifically with the target DNA, but MS5 was the most specific M. concilii oligonucleotide probe. Methanosarcina barkeri oligonucleotide probes (designated MB1, MB3, and MB4) hybridized with different Methanosarcina species. The MB4 probe specifically detected Methanosarcina barkeri, and the MB3 probe detected the presence of all mesophilic Methanosarcina species. These new oligonucleotide probes facilitated the identification, localization, and quantification of the specific relative abundance of M. concilii and Methanosarcina barkeri, which play important roles in methanogenesis. The combined use of fluorescent in situ hybridization with confocal scanning laser microscopy demonstrated that anaerobic granule topography depends on granule origin and feeding. Protein-fed granules showed no layered structure with a random distribution of M. concilii. In contrast, a layered structure developed in methanol-enriched granules, where M. barkeri growth was induced in an outer layer. This outer layer was followed by a layer composed of M. concilii, with an inner core of M. concilii and other bacteria. PMID:10224023

Rocheleau, Sylvie; Greer, Charles W.; Lawrence, John R.; Cantin, Christiane; Laramée, Louise; Guiot, Serge R.

1999-01-01

209

Comparative Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Mapping of a 431-kb Arabidopsis thaliana Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Contig Reveals the Role of Chromosomal Duplications in the Expansion of the Brassica rapa Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative genome studies are important contributors to our understanding of genome evolution. Most comparative genome studies in plants have been based on genetic mapping of homologous DNA loci in different genomes. Large-scale comparative physical mapping has been hindered by the lack of efficient and affordable techniques. We report here the adaptation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for comparative

Scott A. Jackson; Zhukuan Cheng; Ming Li Wang; Howard M. Goodman; Jiming Jiang

2000-01-01

210

Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were

Vanessa Lemos; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Margarida Alves; Maria Luísa Lobo; Maria C. Sousa; Francisco Antunes; Olga Matos

2005-01-01

211

Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a posterior neck dedifferentiated liposarcoma with MDM2 fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on a Pap-stained smear.  

PubMed

Head and neck liposarcomas, while rare, tend to be subcutaneous and well-differentiated. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas of the head and neck are exceedingly rare in the literature. We present a case of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma arising in the soft tissue of the posterior neck of an 86-year-old man and diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Aspirate smears showed a dual population of atypical lipomatous and spindled cells. MDM2 (murine double minute 2) amplification was demonstrated on a Pap-stained smear using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MDM2 FISH amplification in a liposarcoma performed on an aspirate smear. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25132684

Zreik, Riyam; Soyalp, Krystal; Ruiz, Steve; Ward, Russell; Dobin, Sheila; Chen, Xiangbai; Liu, Lina; Rao, Arundhati

2014-07-31

212

Microfluidic-Based Amplification-Free Bacterial DNA Detection by Dielectrophoretic Concentration and Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer Assisted in Situ Hybridization (FRET-ISH) †,‡  

PubMed Central

Although real-time PCR (RT-PCR) has become a diagnostic standard for rapid identification of bacterial species, typical methods remain time-intensive due to sample preparation and amplification cycle times. The assay described in this work incorporates on-chip dielectrophoretic capture and concentration of bacterial cells, thermal lysis, cell permeabilization, and nucleic acid denaturation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assisted in situ hybridization (FRET-ISH) species identification. Combining these techniques leverages the benefits of all of them, allowing identification to be accomplished completely on chip less than thirty minutes after receipt of sample, compared to multiple hours required by traditional RT-PCR and its requisite sample preparation. PMID:25586031

Packard, Michelle M.; Shusteff, Maxim; Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

2012-01-01

213

Arm-specific telomere dynamics of each individual chromosome in induced pluripotent stem cells revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

We have reported that telomere fluorescence units (TFUs) of established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human amnion (hAM933) and fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were significantly longer than those of the parental cells, and that the telomere extension rates varied quite significantly among clones without chromosomal instability, although the telomeres of other iPSCs derived from MRC-5 became shorter as the number of passages increased along with chromosomal abnormalities from an early stage. In the present study we attempted to clarify telomere dynamics in each individual chromosomal arm of parental cells and their derived clonal human iPSCs at different numbers of passages using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). Although no speci?c arm of any particular chromosome appeared to be consistently shorter or longer than most of the other chromosomes in any of the cell strains, telomere elongation in each chromosome of an iPSC appeared to be random and stochastic. However, in terms of the whole genome of any specific cell, the telomeres showed overall elongation associated with iPSC generation. We have thus demonstrated the specific telomere dynamics of each individual chromosomal arm in iPSCs derived from parental cells, and in the parental cells themselves, using Q-FISH. PMID:25217290

Terai, Masanori; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Kuroiwa, Mie; Arai, Tomio; Toyoda, Masashi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Takubo, Kaiyo

2014-12-01

214

Re-appraisal of the phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the analysis of the Competibacteraceae in wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Members of the family Competibacteraceae are common in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) designed for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and are putatively deleterious to the process of P removal. Their ability to accumulate large amounts of polyhydroxyalkanoates is also suggested to be of potential commercial interest for bioplastic production. In this study we have updated the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny of the Competibacter and the Plasticicumulans lineages. The former is delineated by 13 clades including two described genera; 'Ca.?Competibacter' and 'Ca.?Contendobacter'. The oligonucleotide probes used for detection of the family by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were re-evaluated and designed for coverage of these clades. Surveys of full-scale WWTPs based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and FISH analysis indicate that a number of member clades always coexist, with their relative abundances varying substantially between and temporally within plants. The hypothesis that these differences are based on niche partitioning is supported by marked phenotypic differences between clades. An in-depth understanding of the ecology of the family requires further studies of the metabolism of individual clades in situ. The proposed phylogeny and FISH probes will provide the foundation for such studies. PMID:25224028

McIlroy, Simon J; Nittami, Tadashi; Kanai, Eri; Fukuda, Junji; Saunders, Aaron M; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

2014-09-16

215

Evaluation of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Identification of Clinically Relevant Mycobacteria in Clinical Specimens and Tissue Sections  

PubMed Central

With fluorescently labeled PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes targeting 16S rRNA, we established a 3-h fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for specific visualization of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. leprae, M. avium, and M. kansasii. Probe specificity was tested against a panel of 25 Mycobacterium spp. and 10 gram-positive organisms. After validation, probes were used to identify 52 mycobacterial culture isolates. Results were compared to conventional genotypic identification with amplification-based methods. All isolates (M. tuberculosis complex, n = 24; M. avium, n = 7; M. kansasii, n = 1) were correctly identified by FISH. In addition, the technique was used successfully for visualization of mycobacteria in biopsies from infected humans or animals. In conclusion, PNA-FISH is a fast and accurate tool for species-specific identification of culture-grown mycobacteria and for direct visualization of these organisms in tissue sections. It may be used successfully for both research and clinical microbiology. PMID:17021106

Lefmann, Michael; Schweickert, Birgitta; Buchholz, Petra; Göbel, Ulf B.; Ulrichs, Timo; Seiler, Peter; Theegarten, Dirk; Moter, Annette

2006-01-01

216

Whole-mount in situ hybridization using DIG-labeled probes in planarian.  

PubMed

In recent years freshwater flatworms (planarian) have become a powerful model for studies of regeneration and stem cell biology. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are key and most commonly used techniques to determine and visualize gene expression patterns in planaria. Here, we present the established version of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (WFISH) protocol optimized over the last years by several labs from the rapidly growing planaria field and give an overview of recently introduced modifications which can be critical in the study of low abundant transcripts. PMID:25218375

Rybak-Wolf, Agnieszka; Solana, Jordi

2014-01-01

217

Mapping of low-frequency chimeric yeast artificial chromosome libraries from human chromosomes 16 and 21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis  

SciTech Connect

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones from low-frequency chimeric libraries of human chromosomes 16 and 21 were mapped onto human diploid fibroblast metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital imaging microscopy. YACs mapped onto chromosome 21 were selected to provide subregional location and ordering of known and unknown markers on the long arm of chromosome 21, particularly in the Down syndrome region (q22). YACs mapped onto chromosome 16 were selected to overlap regions spanning chromosome 16 cosmid maps. YAC clones were indirectly labeled with fluorescein, and the total DNA of the chromosome was counterstained with propidium iodide. A single image containing both the FISH signal and the whole chromosome was acquired for each chromosome of interest containing the fluorescent probe signal in a metaphase spread. From the digitized image, the fluorescence intensity profile through the long axis of the chromosome gave the total chromosome length and the probe position. The map position of the probe was expressed as the fractional length (FL) of the total chromosome relative to the end of the short arm (Flpter). From each clone hybridized, 20-40 chromosome images were analyzed. Thirty-eight YACs were mapped onto chromosome 16, and their FLs were distributed along the short and long arms. On chromosome 21, 47 YACs were mapped, including 12 containing known markers. To confirm the order of a dense population of YACs within the Down syndrome region, a two-color mapping strategy was used in which an anonymous YAC was located relative to one or two known markers on the metaphase chromosome. The chromosome FL maps have a 1- to 2-Mb resolution, and the FL measurement of each probe has a typical standard error of 0.5-1 Mb. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marrone, B.L.; Campbell, E.W.; Anzick, S.L.; Shera, K.; Campbell, M.; Yoshida, T.M.; McCormick, M.K.; Deaven, L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1994-05-01

218

Simultaneous 16S and 18S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on LR White sections demonstrated in Vestimentifera (Siboglinidae) tubeworms.  

PubMed

Traditional morphological identification of invertebrate marine species is limited in early life history stages for many taxa. In this study, we demonstrate, by example of Vestimentiferan tubeworms (Siboglinidae, Polychaeta), that the simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of both eukaryotic host and bacterial symbiont cells is possible on a single semi-thin (1 ?m) section. This allows the identification of host specimens to species level as well as offering visualization of bacteria distributed within the host tissue. Previously published 18S rRNA host-specific oligonucleotide probes for Riftia pachyptila, Tevnia jerichonana and a newly designed Oasisia alvinae probe, as well as a 16S rRNA probe targeting symbionts found in all host species, were applied. A number of standard fixation and hybridization parameters were tested and optimized for the best possible signal intensity and cellular resolution. Ethanol conserved samples embedded in LR White low viscosity resin yielded the best results with regard to both signal intensity and resolution. We show that extended storage times of specimens does not affect the quality of signals attained by FISH and use our protocol to identify morphologically unidentifiable tubeworm individuals from a small data set, conforming to previous findings in succession studies of the Siboglinidae family. PMID:21507466

Schimak, Mario P; Toenshoff, Elena R; Bright, Monika

2012-02-01

219

mRNA-targeted Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) of Gram-negative Bacteria Without Template Amplification or Tyramide Signal Amplification  

SciTech Connect

Technologies are needed to study gene expression at the level of individual cells within a population or microbial community. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) supplies high-resolution spatial information and has been widely applied to study microbial communities at the rRNA level. While mRNA-targeted FISH has been popular for studying gene expression in eukaryotic cells, very little success has been achieved with prokaryotes. At present, detection of specific mRNAs in individual prokaryotic cells requires the use of in situ-RT-PCR or tyramide signal amplification (TSA). In this study we used DNA oligonucleotide probes labeled with a single near-infrared dye in FISH assays to detect multicopy plasmid-based and endogenous mRNA molecules in Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We took advantage of the fact there is much less background signal produced by biological materials and support matrices in the near-infrared spectrum and thus long camera exposure times could be used. In addition, we demonstrate that a combination of probes targeting both rRNA and mRNA could be successfully employed within the same FISH assay. These results, as well as ongoing R&D improvements in NIR and infrared dyes, indicate the FISH approach we demonstrated could be applied in certain environmental settings to monitor gene expression in mixed populations.

Coleman, James R.; Culley, David E.; Chrisler, William B.; Brockman, Fred J.

2007-12-01

220

Detection and quantification of native microbial populations on soil-grown rice roots by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) was applied to detect microbial cells on the rhizoplane of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Fluorescent signals of high intensity and specificity allowed for a reliable quantification of selected microbial phyla. Absolute cell numbers of archaea and bacteria were observed to be highest at flowering stage of rice plant development (P < 0.05) showing values of 1.32 and 6.26 × 10(4)  cells mm(-2) rhizoplane, respectively. Highest colonization densities shifted from the root tip toward more mature regions with increasing plant age. Significant differences between cell numbers observed within a short distance (0-15 mm) indicated irregular distribution patterns of microbiota. Root tips, elongation zones, and openings at the base of lateral roots represented preferential areas for microbial colonization, which were often covered with iron coatings and densely colonized with potential iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria (59% of bacteria). Methanogenic archaea were abundant on the rhizoplane (up to 0.96 × 10(3)  cells mm(-2) rhizoplane), and the decline of their relative abundance with plant age was also found in the associated rhizosphere soil. Cell numbers of methanotrophic bacteria significantly increased at flowering (6.38 × 10(3)  cells mm(-2) rhizoplane; P < 0.05), indicating their stimulation by root-derived substrates which was less pronounced in the rhizosphere soil. PMID:24118011

Schmidt, Hannes; Eickhorst, Thilo

2014-02-01

221

Simultaneous quantification of active carbon- and nitrogen-fixing communities and estimation of fixation rates using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and (14)C/(15)N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. PMID:25172848

McInnes, Allison S; Shepard, Alicia K; Raes, Eric J; Waite, Anya M; Quigg, Antonietta

2014-11-01

222

Alignment of the Genomes of Brachypodium distachyon and Temperate Cereals and Grasses Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Landing With Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

As part of an initiative to develop Brachypodium distachyon as a genomic “bridge” species between rice and the temperate cereals and grasses, a BAC library has been constructed for the two diploid (2n = 2x = 10) genotypes, ABR1 and ABR5. The library consists of 9100 clones, with an approximate average insert size of 88 kb, representing 2.22 genome equivalents. To validate the usefulness of this species for comparative genomics and gene discovery in its larger genome relatives, the library was screened by PCR using primers designed on previously mapped rice and Poaceae sequences. Screening indicated a degree of synteny between these species and B. distachyon, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization of the marker-selected BACs (BAC landing) to the 10 chromosome arms of the karyotype, with most of the BACs hybridizing as single loci on known chromosomes. Contiguous BACs colocalized on individual chromosomes, thereby confirming the conservation of genome synteny and proving that B. distachyon has utility as a temperate grass model species alternative to rice. PMID:16489232

Hasterok, Robert; Marasek, Agnieszka; Donnison, Iain S.; Armstead, Ian; Thomas, Ann; King, Ian P.; Wolny, Elzbieta; Idziak, Dominika; Draper, John; Jenkins, Glyn

2006-01-01

223

Genomic aberrations in salivary duct carcinoma arising in Warthin tumor of parotid gland: DNA microarray and HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Carcinoma arising from Warthin tumor is extremely rare. A 79-year-old man was admitted for a firm, well-defined, 5-cm left infra-auricular mass. Aspiration cytology showed many lymphohistiocytes and oncocytes in a proteinaceous background, compatible with Warthin tumor. A left superficial parotidectomy showed a solid mass around the cyst wall. The tumor cells of the solid area were arranged as infiltrative ducts with a few foci of malignant transformation. Virtual karyotyping disclosed a complex pattern of genetic aberrations with a focal amplification in 12q14-q21.2. This chromosomal region contains the MDM2 (murine double minute) gene, which regulates p53 inactivation. HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a focal amplification. Subsequently, the patient underwent total parotidectomy and ipsilateral neck dissection for a recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first case of salivary duct carcinoma arising from Warthin tumor. The essential molecular pathway has not been reported, we presume an important role of MDM2 amplification- P53 inactivation. PMID:21877991

Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yoo, Young Sam; Park, Kyeongmee; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jung Yeon; Monzon, Federico A

2011-09-01

224

Is monosomy 5 an uncommon aberration? Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals translocations and deletions in myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myelocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Acquired loss of material from chromosome 5 in bone marrow cells is common in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). In this study, we have applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses with probes for the three regions 5p15.2, 5q31, 5q33-q34, and whole chromosome 5 painting probes (WCP 5) to investigate what further information could be gained regarding the cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosome 5 in 35 patients with MDS or AML. With FISH, a del(5q) was found in all patients except for two. Translocations of material from chromosome 5 were found in 10 patients. Among 16 patients with clones of monosomy 5 seen by cytogenetics, 14 had deletions or translocations. Different breakpoints on chromosome 5 were observed. In conclusion, the extended FISH analyses yielded additional information about chromosome 5 abnormalities in 60% of the patients. Of interest is the finding of a high proportion of translocations and that monosomy 5 occurs less often than is generally believed. PMID:12699885

Bram, Susanne; Swolin, Birgitta; Rödjer, Stig; Stockelberg, Dick; Ogärd, Inger; Bäck, Hans

2003-04-15

225

Automated design of probes for rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals the advantages of using dual probes for accurate identification.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a common technique for identifying cells in their natural environment and is often used to complement next-generation sequencing approaches as an integral part of the full-cycle rRNA approach. A major challenge in FISH is the design of oligonucleotide probes with high sensitivity and specificity to their target group. The rapidly expanding number of rRNA sequences has increased awareness of the number of potential nontargets for every FISH probe, making the design of new FISH probes challenging using traditional methods. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of published probes that revealed that many have insufficient coverage or specificity for their intended target group. Therefore, we developed an improved thermodynamic model of FISH that can be applied at any taxonomic level, used the model to systematically design probes for all recognized genera of bacteria and archaea, and identified potential cross-hybridizations for the selected probes. This analysis resulted in high-specificity probes for 35.6% of the genera when a single probe was used in the absence of competitor probes and for 60.9% when up to two competitor probes were used. Requiring the hybridization of two independent probes for positive identification further increased specificity. In this case, we could design highly specific probe sets for up to 68.5% of the genera without the use of competitor probes and 87.7% when up to two competitor probes were used. The probes designed in this study, as well as tools for designing new probes, are available online (http://DECIPHER.cee.wisc.edu). PMID:24928876

Wright, Erik S; Yilmaz, L Safak; Corcoran, Andrew M; Ökten, Hatice E; Noguera, Daniel R

2014-08-01

226

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Is Necessary to Detect an Association Between Chromosome Aberrations and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure In Utero and Reveals Nonrandom Chromosome Involvement  

PubMed Central

Chromosome aberrations are associated with environmental exposures in infants and children. Recently we reported that prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with stable aberration frequencies in cord blood from a subset of 60 newborns from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health Prospective Cohort Study (Bocskay K et al. [2005]: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:506–511). To determine whether the environmental exposures may be targeting specific chromosomes and to compare various methods for measuring chromosome aberrations, we further evaluated this same subset of subjects composed of African-American and Dominican nonsmoking mother–newborn pairs residing in low-income neighborhoods of New York City, and exposed to varying levels of airborne PAHs. Chromosome aberrations were measured in cord blood lymphocytes, both by whole chromosome probe (WCP) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and traditional Giemsa-staining. Prenatal exposures were assessed by personal air monitoring. Breaks in chromosomes 1–6, as detected by WCP FISH, were nonrandomly distributed, underscoring the importance of appropriate chromosome probe selection to capture cytogenetic damage in response to exposure. FISH for stable aberrations was found to be a more sensitive method for detecting aberration frequencies associated with environmental exposures, when compared with FISH for unstable aberrations or Giemsa-staining for aberrations. Together, these results suggest that PAHs may be targeting specific chromosomes and highlight the importance of using the more sensitive detection methods to assess risk in populations with low levels of exposure. PMID:17253628

Bocskay, Kirsti A.; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Tang, Deliang; Liu, Xinhua; Warburton, Dorothy; Perera, Frederica P.

2011-01-01

227

Long-range interphase chromosome organization in Drosophila: a study using color barcoded fluorescence in situ hybridization and structural clustering analysis.  

PubMed

We have developed a color barcode labeling strategy for use with fluorescence in situ hybridization that enables the discrimination of multiple, identically labeled loci. Barcode labeling of chromosomes provides long-range path information and allows structural analysis at a scale and resolution beyond what was previously possible. Here, we demonstrate the use of a three-color, 13-probe barcode for the structural analysis of Drosophila chromosome 2L in blastoderm stage embryos. We observe the chromosome to be strongly polarized in the Rabl orientation and for some loci to assume defined positions relative to the nuclear envelope. Our analysis indicates packing approximately 15- to 28-fold above the 30-nm fiber, which varies along the chromosome in a pattern conserved across embryos. Using a clustering implementation based on rigid body alignment, our analysis suggests that structures within each embryo represent a single population and are effectively modeled as oriented random coils confined within nuclear boundaries. We also found an increased similarity between homologous chromosomes that have begun to pair. Chromosomes in embryos at equivalent developmental stages were found to share structural features and nuclear localization, although size-related differences that correlate with the cell cycle also were observed. The methodology and tools we describe provide a direct means for identifying developmental and cell type-specific features of higher order chromosome and nuclear organization. PMID:15371546

Lowenstein, Michael G; Goddard, Thomas D; Sedat, John W

2004-12-01

228

Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment. PMID:25498420

Barranger, Audrey; Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Dégremont, Lionel; Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida

2015-02-01

229

Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells  

SciTech Connect

Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lemieux, N. (Universite de Montreal (Canada)); Malfoy, B. (Institut Curie Section de Biologie, Paris (France)); Forrest, G.L. (Beckman Research Institute at the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

230

Comparison of karyotypes of Acipenser oxyrinchus and A. sturio by chromosome banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

A highly debated problem in Acipenseridae taxonomy is whether Acipenser oxyrinchus (North American Atlantic sturgeon) and A. sturio (European Atlantic sturgeon) are true species: a detailed comparison of their karyotypes could provide relevant information. Here we describe for the first time the karyotype of A. oxyrinchus (2n = 121 +/- 3), and its features, among which the constitutive heterochromatin, revealed by C-banding technique, the distribution of telomeric regions, and the 5S rRNA genes, detected by FISH. The results reveal that A. oxyrinchus and A. sturio karyotypes and features are quite similar. Moreover, comparing the results obtained through hybridization by FISH with HindIII and PstI satellite DNA in these and in other sturgeon species, no hybridization signals are detected in A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus, while A. stellatus and A. gueldenstaedtii show hybridization. Thus A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus appear very similar from a cytogenetic point of view: these and molecular data repeatedly point out that A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus represent a sister clade in comparison to all other sturgeon species up to now studied. PMID:17624498

Fontana, Francesco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Kirschbaum, Frank; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A; Robles, Francisca; Forlani, Anna; Congiu, Leonardo

2008-03-01

231

Resolving Genetic Functions within Microbial Populations: In Situ Analyses Using rRNA and mRNA Stable Isotope Probing Coupled with Single-Cell Raman-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization ? †  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotes represent one-half of the living biomass on Earth, with the vast majority remaining elusive to culture and study within the laboratory. As a result, we lack a basic understanding of the functions that many species perform in the natural world. To address this issue, we developed complementary population and single-cell stable isotope (13C)-linked analyses to determine microbial identity and function in situ. We demonstrated that the use of rRNA/mRNA stable isotope probing (SIP) recovered the key phylogenetic and functional RNAs. This was followed by single-cell physiological analyses of these populations to determine and quantify in situ functions within an aerobic naphthalene-degrading groundwater microbial community. Using these culture-independent approaches, we identified three prokaryote species capable of naphthalene biodegradation within the groundwater system: two taxa were isolated in the laboratory (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida), whereas the third eluded culture (an Acidovorax sp.). Using parallel population and single-cell stable isotope technologies, we were able to identify an unculturable Acidovorax sp. which played the key role in naphthalene biodegradation in situ, rather than the culturable naphthalene-biodegrading Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the same groundwater. The Pseudomonas isolates actively degraded naphthalene only at naphthalene concentrations higher than 30 ?M. This study demonstrated that unculturable microorganisms could play important roles in biodegradation in the ecosystem. It also showed that the combined RNA SIP-Raman-fluorescence in situ hybridization approach may be a significant tool in resolving ecology, functionality, and niche specialization within the unculturable fraction of organisms residing in the natural environment. PMID:18997025

Huang, Wei E.; Ferguson, Andrew; Singer, Andrew C.; Lawson, Kathryn; Thompson, Ian P.; Kalin, Robert M.; Larkin, Michael J.; Bailey, Mark J.; Whiteley, Andrew S.

2009-01-01

232

Food selection by bacterivorous protists: insight from the analysis of the food vacuole content by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

A modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to analyze bacterial prey composition in protistan food vacuoles in both laboratory and natural populations. Under laboratory conditions, we exposed two bacterial strains (affiliated with beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria -- Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively) to grazing by three protists: the flagellates Bodo saltans and Goniomonas sp., and the ciliate Cyclidium glaucoma. Both flagellate species preferably ingested A. hydrophila over P. fluorescens, while C. glaucoma showed no clear preferences. Differences were found in the digestion of bacterial prey with B. saltans digesting significantly faster P. fluorescens compared to two other protists. The field study was conducted in a reservoir as part of a larger experiment. We monitored changes in the bacterial prey composition available compared to the bacteria ingested in flagellate food vacuoles. Bacteria detected by probe HGC69a (Actinobacteria) and R-BT065 were negatively selected by flagellates. Bacteria detected by probe CF319a were initially positively selected but along with a temporal shift in bacterial cell size, this trend changed to negative selection during the experiment. Overall, our analysis of protistan food vacuole content indicated marked effects of flagellate prey selectivity on bacterioplankton community composition. PMID:16329920

Jezbera, Jan; Hornák, Karel; Simek, Karel

2005-05-01

233

Chromosomal study of lettuce and its allied species (Lactuca spp., Asteraceae) by means of karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

In this study, in addition to the karyotype analysis, the chromosomal distributions of 5 S and 18 S rDNAs, and the Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3) telomeric sequences were detected by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to promote the information of chromosomal organization and evolution in the cultivated lettuce and its wild relatives, L. sativa, L. serriola, L. saligna and L. virosa. The karyotype analysis revealed the dissimilarity between L. virosa and the remaining species. In all four Lactuca species studied, one 5 S rDNA and two 18 S rDNA loci were detected. The simultaneous FISH of 5 S and 18 S rDNAs revealed that both rDNA loci of L. sativa, L. serriola and L. saligna were identical, however, that of L. virosa was different from the other species. These analyses indicate the closer relationships between L. sativa/L. serriola and L. saligna rather than L. virosa. Arabidopsis-type telomeric sequences were detected at both ends of their chromatids of all chromosomes not in the other regions. This observation suggests the lack of telomere-mediated chromosomal rearrangements among the Lactuca chromosomes. PMID:18215246

Matoba, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Takayuki; Nagano, Katsuya; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Uchiyama, Hiroshi

2007-12-01

234

Reagent and Labor Cost Optimization through Automation of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) with the VP 2000: An Italian Case Study.  

PubMed

In the modern molecular diagnostic laboratory, cost considerations are of paramount importance. Automation of complex molecular assays not only allows a laboratory to accommodate higher test volumes and throughput but also has a considerable impact on the cost of testing from the perspective of reagent costs, as well as hands-on time for skilled laboratory personnel. The following study tracked the cost of labor (hands-on time) and reagents for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing in a routine, high-volume pathology and cytogenetics laboratory in Treviso, Italy, over a 2-y period (2011-2013). The laboratory automated FISH testing with the VP 2000 Processor, a deparaffinization, pretreatment, and special staining instrument produced by Abbott Molecular, and compared hands-on time and reagent costs to manual FISH testing. The results indicated significant cost and time saving when automating FISH with VP 2000 when more than six FISH tests were run per week. At 12 FISH assays per week, an approximate total cost reduction of 55% was observed. When running 46 FISH specimens per week, the cost saving increased to 89% versus manual testing. The results demonstrate that the VP 2000 processor can significantly reduce the cost of FISH testing in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25395292

Zanatta, Lucia; Valori, Laura; Cappelletto, Eleonora; Pozzebon, Maria Elena; Pavan, Elisabetta; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Merkle, Dennis

2014-11-13

235

Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

1994-08-01

236

Localization of a Female-Specific Marker on the Chromosomes of the Brown Seaweed Saccharina japonica Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background There is a heteromorphic alternative life in the brown seaweed, Saccharina japonica (Aresch.) C. E. Lane, C. Mayes et G. W. Saunders (?=?Laminaria japonica Aresch.), with macroscopic monoecious sporophytes and microscopic diecious gametophytes. Female gametophytes are genetically different from males. It is very difficult to identify the parent of a sporophyte using only routine cytological techniques due to homomorphic chromosomes. A sex-specific marker is one of the best ways to make this determination. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain clear images, chromosome preparation was improved using maceration enzymes and fluorochrome 4?, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). The chromosome number of both male and female haploid gametophytes was 31, and there were 62 chromosomes in diploid sporophytes. Although the female chromosomes ranged from 0.77 µm to 2.61 µm in size and were larger than the corresponding ones in the males (from 0.57 µm to 2.16 µm), there was not a very large X chromosome in the females. Based on the known female-related FRML-494 marker, co-electrophoresis and Southern blot profiles demonstrated that it was inheritable and specific to female gametophytes. Using modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), this marker could be localized on one unique chromosome of the female gametophytes as well as the sporophytes, whereas no hybridization signal was detected in the male gametophytes. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that this marker was a female chromosome-specific DNA sequence. This is the first report of molecular marker localization on algal chromosomes. This research provides evidence for the benefit of using FISH for identifying molecular markers for sex identification, isolation of specific genes linked to this marker in the females, and sex determination of S. japonica gametophytes in the future. PMID:23166593

Gu, JunGang; Li, LiHua; Zhou, ZhiGang

2012-01-01

237

Two congenital cases of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization for melanocytic tumors: case reports and review of these recent topics.  

PubMed

The term 'pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma' (PEM) has recently been proposed as a nosological framework grouping lesions formerly known as animal-type melanomas, sporadic epithelioid blue nevi and Carney complex-associated epithelioid blue nevi. Congenital PEMs have been reported extremely rarely and their prognosis is poorly known. Four-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for melanocytic lesions is a recent method developed to assess the malignant potential of ambiguous melanocytic lesions. Here we describe 2 cases of congenital epithelioid and strongly pigmented melanocytic lesions consistent with PEM. No BRAF gene mutation was found in the 2 cases. FISH for melanocytic lesions was also performed. The first case proved entirely negative, whereas the second one showed a positive zone with an extra copy of chromosome 6. The prognosis and management of PEM are discussed, with a review of the available data on the history, demographics, molecular alterations and histopathological aspects of this entity. PEM seems to represent a unique low-grade melanocytic tumor with a limited potential of metastasis to lymph nodes, but a favorable long-term clinical course. The published data about FISH for melanocytic tumors, and especially PEM, are reviewed. Four-color FISH may be a useful tool to assess more accurately the prognosis of these tumors. PMID:20558976

Battistella, M; Prochazkova-Carlotti, M; Berrebi, D; Bennaceur, S; Edan, C; Riffaud, L; Rütten, A; Fraitag, S

2010-01-01

238

3D-catFISH: a system for automated quantitative three-dimensional compartmental analysis of temporal gene transcription activity imaged by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of neural activity-regulated, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression provides a method of functional brain imaging with cellular resolution. This enables the identification, in one brain, of which specific principal neurons were active during each of two distinct behavioral epochs. The unprecedented potential of this differential method for large-scale analysis of functional neural circuits is limited, however, by the time-intensive nature of manual image analysis. A comprehensive software tool for processing three-dimensional, multi-spectral confocal image stacks is described which supports the automation of this analysis. Nuclei counterstained with conventional DNA dyes and FISH signals indicating the sub-cellular distribution of specific, IEG RNA species are imaged using different spectral channels. The DNA channel data are segmented into individual nuclei by a three-dimensional multi-step algorithm that corrects for depth-dependent attenuation, non-isotropic voxels, and imaging noise. Intra-nuclear and cytoplasmic FISH signals are associated spatially with the nuclear segmentation results to generate a detailed tabular/database and graphic representation. Here we present a comprehensive validation of data generated by the automated software against manual quantification by human experts on hippocampal and parietal cortical regions (96.5% concordance with multi-expert consensus). The high degree of reliability and accuracy suggests that the software will generalize well to multiple brain areas and eventually to large-scale brain analysis. PMID:15351517

Chawla, Monica K; Lin, Gang; Olson, Kathy; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Burke, Sara N; McNaughton, Bruce L; Worley, Paul F; Guzowski, John F; Roysam, Badrinath; Barnes, Carol A

2004-10-15

239

Measuring mRNA copy-number in individual Escherichia coli cells using single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH)  

PubMed Central

We present a method for measuring the absolute number of mRNA molecules from a gene of interest in individual, chemically fixed Escherichia coli cells. A set of fluorescently-labeled oligonucleotide probes are hybridized to the target mRNA, so that each mRNA molecule is decorated by a known number of fluorescent dyes. Cells are then imaged using fluorescence microscopy. The number of target mRNA is estimated from the total intensity of fluorescent foci in the cell, rather than from counting discrete “spots” as in other currently available protocols. Image analysis is performed using an automated algorithm. The measured mRNA copy-number distribution obtained from many individual cells can be used to extract the parameters of stochastic gene activity, namely the frequency and size of transcription bursts from the gene of interest. The experimental procedure takes 2 days, with another 2-3 days typically required for image and data analysis. PMID:23680982

Skinner, Samuel O.; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A.; Xu, Heng; Golding, Ido

2014-01-01

240

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Expression and Gene Amplification in Normal, Hyperplastic, and Cancerous Glottic Tissue: Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization Study on Tissue Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein overexpression and gene amplification in carcinogenesis of glottic cancer. Method In order to evaluate EGFR expression at protein and gene level, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on tissue microarrays of laryngeal tissue (145 samples) – 38 samples of normal mucosa, 46 samples of hyperplastic lesions, and 61 samples of cancerous lesions. Results Membranous (mEGFR) and cytoplasmic (cEGFR) EGFR expression was significantly different between the analyzed groups. The differences were most striking in the suprabasal-transforming zone. IHC evaluation showed that high and low mEGFR staining contributed to the differentiation of dysplastic lesions, simple hyperplasia, and cancerous tissue, as well as between different degrees of atypia in hyperplastic lesions (P?in simple and abnormal hyperplastic lesions, but it was confirmed in 2/21 atypical hyperplasias, indicating that gene amplification can facilitate identification of malignant potential in hyperplastic lesions. In cancerous tissue, EGFR gene amplification was found in 8/50 samples. EGFR gene amplification was found in preinvasive cancer in one patient. In invasive carcinomas, gene amplification was not associated with stage or grade. Carcinomas with gene amplification showed significantly higher cEGFR expression (basal layer P?=?0.003; suprabasal layer P?=?0.002). Conclusions This study confirmed an increase in EGFR protein expression and gene amplification with the increase in biological aggressiveness of glottic lesions. A correlation between EGFR gene amplification and protein expression was established. Gene amplification proved to be an early event in glottic carcinogenesis, indicating its importance for glottic cancer prevention, early detection, and protocol selection. PMID:19673037

Braut, Tamara; Krstulja, Mira; Kujundži?, Milodar; Manestar, Dubravko; Hadžisejdi?, Ita; Jonji?, Nives; Grahovac, Blaženka; Manestar, Darko

2009-01-01

241

Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

Thompson, Curtis T.

2000-04-01

242

Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae by fluorescent in situ hybridization compared to culturing and the determination of prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women colonized by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) may transfer this microorganism to their newborns. S. agalactiae is an important cause of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborns. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered as a method of identification in the field of diagnostic microbiology. In this paper, we have designed a study to compare the DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment and culturing for the identification of S. agalactiae and to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by S. agalactiae among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 285 pregnant women at 35 weeks or more than 35 weeks of gestation. The specimens were inoculated into Lim broth. In order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of GBS DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment, the specimens were tested using both FISH and conventional culture methods. In addition, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined. Results Based on the results of this study, both the sensitivity and specificity of FISH were 100%. S. agalactiae was detected by both culture and FISH in 27 of the 285 pregnant women. Thus, the prevalence of GBS colonization was 9.5%. Conclusions Since short-term (7 h) Lim broth enrichment followed by FISH using oligonucleotide probes showed a high sensitivity and specificity, this protocol is therefore a highly accurate and relatively rapid method for the detection of S. agalactiae. Our analysis suggests that the use of DNA FISH to screen for S. agalactiae colonization in pregnant women may be considered in the absence of GBS culture availability. PMID:24010831

2013-01-01

243

Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings in 43 aneurysmal bone cysts: aberrations of 17p mapped to 17p13.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign, cystic lesion of bone composed of blood-filled spaces separated by fibrous septa. Relatively few cases of aneurysmal bone cyst have been cytogenetically characterized, yet abnormalities of the short arm of chromosome 17 appear to be recurrent. In this study, conventional cytogenetic analysis of 43 aneurysmal bone cyst specimens from 38 patients over a 12-year period revealed clonal chromosomal abnormalities in 12 specimens. Karyotypic anomalies of 17p, including a complex translocation and inversion, were identified in eight of these 12 specimens. In an effort to further define the aberrant 17p breakpoint, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed using a series of probe combinations spanning a 5.1 Mb region between the TP53 (17p13.1) and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (17p13.3) gene loci. These studies revealed the critical breakpoint locus at 17p13.2, flanked proximally by an RP11-46I8, RP11-333E1, and RP11-457I18 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probe cocktail and distally by an RP11-198F11 and RP11-115H24 BAC and RP5-1050D4 P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) probe cocktail. Overall, abnormalities of the 17p13.2 locus were identified by metaphase and/or interphase cell FISH analysis in 22 of 35 (63%) aneurysmal bone cyst specimens examined including 26 karyotypically normal specimens. These cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings expand our knowledge of chromosomal alterations in aneurysmal bone cyst, further localize the critically involved 17p breakpoint, and provide an alternative approach (ie FISH) for detecting 17p abnormalities in nondividing cells of aneurysmal bone cysts. The latter could potentially be utilized as an adjunct in diagnostically challenging cases. PMID:15044915

Althof, Pamela A; Ohmori, Kazuo; Zhou, Ming; Bailey, Jacqueline M; Bridge, R Stuart; Nelson, Marilu; Neff, James R; Bridge, Julia A

2004-05-01

244

PHF1 rearrangements in ossifying fibromyxoid tumors of soft parts: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study of 41 cases with emphasis on the malignant variant.  

PubMed

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts (OFMT) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm of uncertain differentiation. Very recently recurrent rearrangements of the PHF1 gene have been reported in OFMT, including typical, atypical, and malignant variants. We sought to validate and extend these findings in a larger series of well-characterized OFMT, in particular malignant variants. Slides and blocks from 41 OFMT were retrieved, rereviewed, and classified as typical, atypical, and malignant using previously published criteria. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of each case using a break-apart probe strategy, with direct-labeled FISH probes designed from bacterial artificial chromosomes. The 41 tumors occurred in 23 men and 18 women with a mean age of 55 years and involved the head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower limbs. The tumors were classified as typical (n=14), atypical (n=6) and malignant (n=21). PHF1 rearrangements were detected in 20 of 41 cases (49%) including 43% typical, 50% atypical, and 52% malignant cases. The results of our study confirm previous findings, with PHF1 rearrangements present in nearly 50% of OFMT, including roughly similar percentages of typical, atypical, and malignant tumors. These results support our previous hypothesis that OFMT might represent a translocation-associated tumor, underscore the likely importance of PHF1 rearrangements in the pathogenesis of these lesions, confirm the relationship between typical and malignant OFMT, and suggest a role for PHF1 FISH in the diagnosis of morphologically challenging cases. PMID:23887158

Graham, Rondell P; Weiss, Sharon W; Sukov, William R; Goldblum, John R; Billings, Steven D; Dotlic, Snjezana; Folpe, Andrew L

2013-11-01

245

Detection of Y chromosome sequences in a 45,X/46,XXq - patient by Southern blot analysis of PCR-amplified DNA and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

In some cases of gonadal dysgenesis, cytogenetic analysis seems to be discordant with the phenotype of the patients. We have applied techniques such as Southern blot analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to resolve the phenotype/genotype discrepancy in a patient with ambiguous genitalia in whom the peripheral blood karotype was 45,X. Gonadectomy at age 7 months showed the gonadal tissue to be prepubertal testis on the left side and a streak gonad on the right. The karyotype obtained from the left gonad was 45,X/46,XXq- and that from the right gonad was 45,X. Three different techniques, PCR amplification, FISH, and chromosome painting for X and Y chromosomes, confirmed the presence of Y chromosome sequences. Five different tissues were evaluated. The highest percentage of Y chromosome positive cells were detected in the left gonad, followed by the peripheral blood lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa. No Y chromosomal material could be identified in the right gonad. Since the Xq- chromosome is present in the left gonad (testis), it is likely that the Xq- contains Y chromosomal material. Sophisticated analysis in this patient showed that she has at least 2 cell lines, one of which contains Y chromosomal material. These techniques elucidated the molecular basis of the genital ambiguity for this patient. When Y chromosome sequences are present in patients with Ullrich-Turner syndrome or gonadal dysgenesis, the risk for gonadal malignancy is significantly increased. Hence, molecular diagnostic methods to ascertain for the presence of Y chromosome sequences may expedite the evaluation of patients with the ambiguous genitalia. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kocova, M.; Siegel, S.F.; Wenger, S.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-02-13

246

Subtyping of renal cortical neoplasms in fine needle aspiration biopsies using a decision tree based on genomic alterations detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve the overall accuracy of diagnosis in needle biopsies of renal masses, especially small renal masses (SRMs), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and to develop a renal cortical neoplasm classification decision tree based on genomic alterations detected by FISH. Patients and Methods Ex vivo fine needle aspiration biopsies of 122 resected renal cortical neoplasms were subjected to FISH using a series of seven-probe sets to assess gain or loss of 10 chromosomes and rearrangement of the 11q13 locus. Using specimen (nephrectomy)-histology as the ‘gold standard’, a genomic aberration-based decision tree was generated to classify specimens. The diagnostic potential of the decision tree was assessed by comparing the FISH-based classification and biopsy histology with specimen histology. Results Of the 114 biopsies diagnostic by either method, a higher diagnostic yield was achieved by FISH (92 and 96%) than histology alone (82 and 84%) in the 65 biopsies from SRMs (<4?cm) and 49 from larger masses, respectively. An optimized decision tree was constructed based on aberrations detected in eight chromosomes, by which the maximum concordance of classification achieved by FISH was 79%, irrespective of mass size. In SRMs, the overall sensitivity of diagnosis by FISH compared with histopathology was higher for benign oncocytoma, was similar for the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma subtype, and was lower for clear-cell and papillary subtypes. The diagnostic accuracy of classification of needle biopsy specimens (from SRMs) increased from 80% obtained by histology alone to 94% when combining histology and FISH. Conclusion The present study suggests that a novel FISH assay developed by us has a role to play in assisting in the yield and accuracy of diagnosis of renal cortical neoplasms in needle biopsies in particular, and can help guide the clinical management of patients with SRMs that were non-diagnostic by histology. PMID:24467611

Gowrishankar, Banumathy; Cahill, Lynnette; Arndt, Alexandra E; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Lin, Oscar; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Chaganti, Seeta; Nanjangud, Gouri J; Murty, Vundavalli V; Chaganti, Raju S K; Reuter, Victor E; Houldsworth, Jane

2014-01-01

247

Physical mapping of ribosomal RNA genes in peonies (Paeonia, Paeoniaceae) by fluorescent in situ hybridization: implications for phylogeny and concerted evolution.  

PubMed

Physical maps of the 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were generated by fluorescent in situ hybridization for five diploid Paeonia species, P. delavayi and P. rockii of section Moutan, and P. emodi, P. tenuifolia, and P. veitchii of section Paeonia. Of five pairs of mitotic chromosomes, rDNA loci were mapped near the telomeres of chromosomes 3, 4, and 5 of P. rockii and P. tenuifolia, chromosomes 2, 3, 4, and 5 of P. delavayi, and all five pairs of chromosomes of P. emodi and P. veitchii. Combining this information with the previously obtained rDNA maps of P. brownii and P. californica of section Oneapia, we hypothesized that the most recent common ancestor of extant peony species had three rDNA loci located on chromosomes 3, 4, and 5. Increase in number of rDNA loci occurred later in each of the three sections, and the increase from three to four loci represents a parallel gain of an rDNA locus on chromosome 2 in P. delavayi of section Moutan and P. brownii of section Oneapia. The increase in number of rDNA loci likely resulted from the translocation of rDNA repeats from chromosomes bearing rDNA loci to chromosomes without them; such translocation is probably facilitated by the telomeric location of rDNA loci. For allotetraploid peony species lacking polymorphism in sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA, the rDNAs derived from divergent diploid parents may have been homogenized through concerted evolution among at least six rDNA loci in the allotetraploids. Chromosomal location of rDNA loci has a more substantial impact on the tempo of concerted evolution than the number of loci. PMID:10330077

Zhang, D; Sang, T

1999-05-01

248

Evidence of Multiple Treponema Phylotypes Involved in Bovine Digital Dermatitis as Shown by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization?  

PubMed Central

The etiopathogenesis of the skin disease digital dermatitis (DD), an important cause of lameness in cattle, remains uncertain. Microscopically, the disease appears to be polymicrobial, with spirochetes as the predominant bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify the main part of the bacteria involved in DD lesions of cattle by using culture-independent molecular methods. Ten different phylotypes of Treponema were identified either by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria from DD lesions or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using phylotype-specific 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes. Two phylotypes, phylotype 1 (PT1) and PT2, were not closely related to any characterized treponemal species. PT7 was 99.3% identical to Treponema denticola, while PT9 resembled T. vincentii by 96%. The remaining phylotypes, PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT8, and Treponema brennaborense had previously been isolated from DD lesions. Forty DD biopsy specimens were examined for Treponema by FISH. With one exception, all of the biopsy specimens revealed epidermotropic, intermingled infection with three or more different phylotypes (mean, 4.7). The most prevalent species were PT1 (95%), PT6 (93%), and PT3 (85%). While colonization by PT3 was confined to the surface of the epidermis, both PT1 and PT6 invaded deep into the stratum spinosum and were seen in ulcerated dermal papillae. In two cases, all 10 phylotypes were demonstrated. Furthermore, FISH with a Treponema group-specific probe showed that Treponema accounted for more than 90% of the total bacterial population in the biopsy specimens. These data strongly suggest that a group of apparently symbiotic Treponema species are involved as primary bacterial pathogens in DD. PMID:18562583

Klitgaard, Kirstine; Boye, Mette; Capion, Nynne; Jensen, Tim K.

2008-01-01

249

Karyotypic characterization of representatives from Melolonthinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): karyotypic analysis, banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).  

PubMed

Meiotic chromosomes of Phyllophaga (Phytalus) vestita, Phyllophaga (Phyllophaga) aff capillata and Lyogenys fuscus (Melolonthinae) were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, fluorochromes, silver nitrate and FISH. The three species had a diploid number of 2n=20 and a sex mechanism of the (Xyp; XYp) parachute type. P. (Phytalus) vestita,P. (Phyllophaga) aff capillata and Lyogenys fuscus showed pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin (CH) in all autosomal bivalents and on X chromosomes. Staining with CMA3 and DAPI fluorochromes showed that the CH of P. (Phytalus) vestita is not specifically rich in AT and GC-base pairs, whereas in P. (Phyllophaga) aff capillata the sex bivalent and one autosomal pair were found to be enriched in GC base pairs with CMA3, and in Lyogenys fuscus CH was positive for DAPI. Silver nitrate staining revealed nucleolar remnants in all three species. However, FISH obtained a precise identification of nucleolar organizing regions with an rDNA 18S and 25S probe. A signal of hybridization was seen in each species, being detected in the X chromosome of P. (Phytalus) vestita and Lyogenys fuscus, and in a small autosomal bivalent of P. (Phyllophaga) aff capillata. PMID:14641484

De Cássia De Moura, Rita; De Souza, Maria José; De Melo, Natoniel Franklin; De Castro Lira-Neto, Amaro

2003-01-01

250

Identification of a microdeletion at 7q21.3 with fluorescence in situ hybridization in a patient with split hand/split foot (ectrodactyly)  

SciTech Connect

Split hand/split foot (SHSF), often referred to as ectrodactyly or lobster claw deformity, is a human developmental disorder characterized by a deep median cleft of the hands and feet, missing digits, and fusion of remaining digits. This anomaly can be seen alone, frequently autosomal dominant, or in association with other abnormalities. One locus for this defect has been localized to chromosome 7q21.3-q22.1. We report a patient with SHSF plus mental retardation, short stature and dysmorphic features who was found to have a microdeletion at this locus detected only with the aid of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). T.H. is a 7 y.o. male who was referred for evaluation of foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. History was remarkable for growth retardation of postnatal onset and hypotonia. Renal ultrasound and audiology evaluation were normal. Physical exam revealed dysplastic ears, micrognathia, long philtrum, high narrow palate, and malformations of the feet consistent with SHSF. Family history was negative for limb abnormalities and mental retardation. A number of patients with SHSF and other anomalies have been found to have deletions involving chromosome 7q21-q22; therefore, high resolution chromosome analysis was performed in T.H. but was inconclusive. Cosmids and yeast artificial chromosomes which we had previously mapped to the SHSF critical region were used as FISH probes and a microdeletion was detected. We were thus able to determine the etiology of this child`s abnormalities and provide accurate genetic counseling, which would not have been possible with standard cytogenetic techniques. This technique also allowed us to further refine the SHSF critical region. This case illustrates the utility of FISH for the rapid identification of suspect microdeletions in SHSF. This approach should also be useful as an expeditious way of defining the critical regions for the location of genes which give rise to other developmental malformations.

Hudgins, L. [Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Massa, H.; Disteche, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

251

Male infertility and copy number variants (CNVs) in the dog: a two-pronged approach using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects ~10-15% of couples trying to have children, in which the rate of male fertility problems is approximately at 30-50%. Copy number variations (CNVs) are DNA sequences greater than or equal to 1 kb in length sharing a high level of similarity, and present at a variable number of copies in the genome; in our study, we used the canine species as an animal model to detect CNVs responsible for male infertility. We aim to identify CNVs associated with male infertility in the dog genome with a two-pronged approach: we performed a sperm analysis using the CASA system and a cytogenetic-targeted analysis on genes involved in male gonad development and spermatogenesis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using dog-specific clones. This analysis was carried out to evaluate possible correlations between CNVs on targeted genes and spermatogenesis impairments or infertility factors. Results We identified two genomic regions hybridized by BACs CH82-321J09 and CH82-509B23 showing duplication patterns in all samples except for an azoospermic dog. These two regions harbor two important genes for spermatogenesis: DNM2 and TEKT1. The genomic region encompassed by the BAC clone CH82-324I01 showed a single-copy pattern in all samples except for one dog, assessed with low-quality sperm, displaying a marked duplication pattern. This genomic region harbors SOX8, a key gene for testis development. Conclusion We present the first study involving functional and genetic analyses in male infertility. We set up an extremely reliable analysis on dog sperm cells with a highly consistent statistical significance, and we succeeded in conducting FISH experiments on sperm cells using BAC clones as probes. We found copy number differences in infertile compared with fertile dogs for genomic regions encompassing TEKT1, DNM2, and SOX8, suggesting those genes could have a role if deleted or duplicated with respect to the reference copy number in fertility biology. This method is of particular interest in the dog due to the recognized role of this species as an animal model for the study of human genetic diseases and could be useful for other species of economic interest and for endangered animal species. PMID:24373333

2013-01-01

252

Large-scale polymorphism near the ends of several human chromosomes analyzed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered a large DNA segment that is polymorphically present at the ends of several human chromosomes. The segment, f7501, was originally derived form a human chromosome 19-specific cosmid library. FISH was used to determine the cosmid`s chromosomal distribution on 44 unrelated humans and several closely related primates. The human subjects represent a diversity of reproductively isolated ethnic populations. FISH analysis revealed that sequences highly homologous to the cosmid`s insert are present on both homologs at 3q, 15q,. and 19p in almost all individuals (88, 85, and 87 of 88 homologs, respectively). Other chromosomes sites were labeled much more rarely in the sampled individuals. For example, 56 of the 88 analyzed chromosomes 11 were labeled (18+/+, 6-/-, and 20+/- individuals). In contrast, 2q was labeled on only 1/88 sampled chromosomes. The termini of 2q, 5q, 6p, 6q, 7p, 8p, 9p, 9q, 11p, 12q, 16p, 19q, and 20q and an interstitial site at 2q13-14 were labeled in at least one individual of the set. EcoR1-fragments derived from the cosmid showed the same hybridization pattern as the entire cosmid, indicating that at least 40 kbp is shared by these chromosome ends. Ethnic differences in the allele frequency of these polymorphic variants was observed. For example, signals were observed on 8/10 and 7/10 of the chromosomes 7p and 16q, respectively, derived form Biakan Pygmies, but these sites were infrequently labeled in non-Pygmy human populations (2/68, respectively). This region has undergone significant changes in chromosome location during human evolution. Strong signal was seen on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosome 3, which is homologous to human chromosome 4, a chromosome unlabeled in any of the humans we have analyzed.

Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Giorgi, D. [CNRS, Montpelier (France)] [and others

1994-09-01

253

Rat karyotyping by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): Localization of oncogene c-raf to 4q42, retinoblastoma antioncogene to 15q12, and mitochondrial D-loop-like sequences to the Y chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to karyotype the rat genome with long interspersed repetitive elements (LINEs). Two-color FISH experiments were used to localize the rat c-raf oncogene to 4q42 and the rat retinoblastoma anti-oncogene to 15q12. In addition, sequences similar to the rat mitochondrial origin of replication (D-loop-like sequences) have been found to be concentrated among repetitive element sequences on the Y chromosome. This report extends hybridization-based karyotype technology to the rat, thus facilitating the application of FISH to rat gene mapping. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Zullo, S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); [NIMH Neuroscience Center, Washington, DC (United States); Upender, M. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

1995-02-10

254

Pre-clinical evaluation of probes to detect t(8;21) AML minimal residual disease by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The 8;21 translocation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results in a consistent fusion transcript, AML1/ETO. Long-term clinical remission occurs in some patients despite incomplete eradication of AML1/ETO as demonstrated by RT-PCR, thus limiting the usefulness of this assay. An important future goal will be to determine if there is a level of minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients below which relapse is unlikely. For the detection of MRD, we have developed reagents for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that identify both derivative 8 and 21 chromosomes with a high analytical sensitivity. In t(8;21) AML cells, two fused signals were detected in addition to the normal 8 and 21 alleles. The sensitivity and specificity of this probe mixture were analyzed in cell lines and patient bone marrows. One and two randomly juxtaposed signals were observed in 2.4 and 0.04% of normal cells, respectively. However, these were easily differentiated from t(8;21) cells by the absence of signals from the normal alleles. Using as criteria the presence of two fused signals plus the normal alleles, we observed no false positives among 5,000 normal cells. The probe correctly identified 20/20 patients with t(8;21) AML and 10/10 non-t(8;21) patients. In cell dilution experiments, the analytical sensitivity of this reagent was equal to that of the X chromosome and Y chromosome alpha-satellite probes. These optimized probes should facilitate the quantitative assessment and study of MRD in t(8;21) AML. PMID:9491326

Paskulin, G A; Philips, G; Morgan, R; Sandberg, A; Richkind, K; Borovik, C; McGavran, L; Rabinovich, N; Dietz-Band, J; Erickson, P; Drabkin, H; Varella-Garcia, M

1998-02-01

255

Standardization of fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) blood and marrow cells by the CLL Research Consortium  

PubMed Central

Five laboratories in the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Research Consortium (CRC) investigated standardizing and pooling of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results as a collaborative research project. This investigation used fixed bone marrow and blood cells available from previous conventional cytogenetic or FISH studies in two pilot studies, a one-day workshop, and proficiency test. Multiple FISH probe strategies were used to detect 6q-, 11q-, +12, 13q-, 17p-, and IGH rearrangements. Ten specimens were studied by participants who used their own probes (pilot study 1). Of 312 FISH interpretations, 224 (72%) were true-negative, 74 (24%) true-positive, 6 (2%) false-negative, and 8 (3%) false-positive. In pilot study no. 2, each participant studied two specimens using identical FISH probe sets to control for variation due to probe sets and probe strategies. Of 80 FISH interpretations, no false interpretations were identified. At a subsequent workshop, discussions produced agreement on scoring criteria. The proficiency test that followed produced no false-negative results and 4% (3/68) false-positive interpretations. Interpretation disagreements among laboratories were primarily attributable to inadequate normal cutoffs, inconsistent scoring criteria, and the use of different FISH probe strategies. Collaborative organizations that use pooled FISH results may wish to impose more conservative empiric normal cutoff values or use an equivocal range between the normal cutoff and the abnormal reference range to eliminate false-positive interpretations. False-negative results will still occur, and would be expected in low-percentage positive cases; these would likely have less clinical significance than false positive results. Individual laboratories can help by closely following rigorous quality assurance guidelines to ensure accurate and consistent FISH studies in their clinical practice and research. PMID:21156226

Smoley, Stephanie A.; Van Dyke, Daniel L.; Kay, Neil E.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Dell’ Aquila, Marie L.; Cin, Paola Dal; Koduru, Prasad; Aviram, Ayala; Rassenti, Laura; Byrd, John C.; Rai, Kanti R.; Brown, Jennifer R.; Greaves, Andrew W.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette; Neuberg, Donna; Kipps, Thomas J.; Dewald, Gordon W.

2013-01-01

256

Diagnostic accuracy of bronchial brush cytology and the added value of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Bronchial brush (BB) cytology carries low sensitivity for detecting neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), including typical carcinoid (TC) tumors of the lung. We aimed to investigate the detection of neuroendocrine tumors including TC through BB routine cytology cell block (CB), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Materials and Methods: A SNOMED search showed 187 lung biopsy or resection specimens from 2008 through 2011 containing neuroendocrine or carcinoid in the diagnosis. Residual BB specimens retained in PreservCyt were used to prepare a ThinPrep slide for FISH analysis. CBs were stained with H and E and IHC for chromogranin and synaptophysin. Results: Of the 187 cases, 16 had residual BB material available within 1 year of diagnosis and were used in CB preparation for IHC and FISH slides. Cytologic evaluation determined 1 case positive for malignancy (small cell lung carcinoma [SCLC]), 1 suspicious for adenocarcinoma, and 14 negative for malignancy. On the basis of histologic diagnosis, FISH was performed. SCLC showed polysomy (86% abnormal cells); 2 TC tumors showed a gain of 7p12 (15% abnormal cells) and a gain of 5q15 (72% abnormal cells), respectively. Two cases had CBs with positive immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin. The sensitivity for detection of NEC was 18.8%, 15.4%, and 25% for cytologic evaluation, CB, and FISH, respectively. Conclusion: Neuroendocrine tumors, including TC are difficult to detect with BB cytologic evaluation, most likely because tumor cells lack in the specimen. Assessment of further studies is needed to explore the role of cytology and ancillary methods for detection of these tumors.

Reynolds, Jordan P.; Voss, Jesse S.; Brankley, Shannon M.; Caudill, Jill M.; Henry, Michael R.; Clayton, Amy C.; Halling, Kevin C.; Nassar, Aziza

2014-01-01

257

Comparative study of ProEx C immunocytochemistry and UroVysion fluorescent in-situ hybridization assays on urine cytology specimens  

PubMed Central

Background: Detection of urothelial carcinoma (UC) by urine cytology can be challenging. Recently, ProEx C has been studied as a marker to improve detection of UC. ProEx C is an assay targeting expression of topoisomerase IIa and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 and is currently utilized to assist in diagnoses of the gynecological specimens. In this study, we compared the utility of ProEx C and UroVysion in urine specimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven urine specimens with UroVysion assay analysis and surgical biopsy follow-up were selected. The smears were stained with ProEx C. ProEx C and UroVysion assay results were separated into two categories based on surgical biopsy follow-up (benign or neoplastic). Surgical biopsy diagnoses were used as the gold standard for comparative evaluation of the two assays. The surgical follow-up was 9 benign, 2 low grade, and 16 high grade UCs. Results: The sensitivity was 88.9% for ProEx C and 55.6% for UroVysion, while the specificity was 77.8% for ProEx C and 44.4% for UroVysion. Positive predictive value was 88.9% for ProEx C and 66.7% for UroVysion. Negative predictive value was 77.8% and 33.3% for ProEx C and UroVysion, respectively. Using the two-tailed paired t-test, P value of 0.033 was obtained when ProEx C stain was compared with the UroVysion assay. Conclusion: ProEx C immunocytochemistry has a more favorable performance than fluorescent in-situ hybridization with a significant difference between the two assays using paired two-tail t-test (P = 0.0033).

Chang, Sue; Smith, Elaine; Levin, Mary; Rao, Jian-Yu; Moatamed, Neda A.

2015-01-01

258

Targeting the treponemal microbiome of digital dermatitis infections by high-resolution phylogenetic analyses and comparison with fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Modern pyrosequencing technology allows for a more comprehensive approach than traditional Sanger sequencing for elucidating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of treponemes in digital dermatitis lesions by using deep sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. Treponema-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs and pyrosequencing were performed on biopsy specimens originating from 10 different Catalan dairy herds (n = 36) with digital dermatitis, and this analysis yielded 75,297 sequences. We identified 20 different taxa, including a potentially novel phylotype that displayed 95% sequence identity to members of the Treponema denticola/Treponema pedis-like cluster. Species frequencies and abundances that were determined by pyrosequencing analysis were highly correlated with the results of fluorescent in situ hybridization using phylotype-specific oligonucleotide probes. In a limited number of animals from a single geographic region, we detected most of the Treponema phylotypes that were described in previous investigations of digital dermatitis. Additionally, we identified a number of phylotypes that mapped to oral treponemes of humans and dogs that had not been reported for digital dermatitis lesions. The results presented here support previous observations of a polytreponemal etiology of infections, with Treponema phagedenis-like, Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, and T. denticola/T. pedis-like phylotypes being highly associated with disease. Using this new approach, it has become feasible to study large herds and their surrounding environments, which might provide a basis for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:23658264

Klitgaard, Kirstine; Foix Bretó, Antoni; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K

2013-07-01

259

High resolution chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients referred for Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory testing is helpful in the evaluation of patients suspected to have either Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) or Angelman syndrome (AS) because most of the patients have recognizable cytogenetic deletions of 15q11q13. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, identified by molecular genetic techniques, is found in about 20 to 25% of PWS patients. Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 is seen in 2 to 3% of AS patients. Thus, PWS and AS represent the first examples in humans of genetic imprinting or the differential expression of genetic information depending on the parental origin. Herein, I report our experience with FISH and high resolution chromosome analysis in patients referred to confirm or rule out PWS or AS. 10 refs., 1 tab.

NONE

1995-05-08

260

Microbial diversity in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola (formerly Verongia cavernicola) analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed electronmicroscopical methods (SEM, TEM) to document the microbial community associated with the marine\\u000a sponge Aplysina cavernicola (formerly Verongia cavernicola, class Demospongiae). Five dominant bacterial types were identified, three of which resemble the morphotypes originally described\\u000a by Vacelet (1975). One bacterial type possesses morphological properties that are characteristic of the genus Planctomyces. In addition, morphologically uniform bacteria which

A. B. Friedrich; H. Merkert; T. Fendert; J. Hacker; P. Proksch; U. Hentschel

1999-01-01

261

Quantitative real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches for enumerating Brevundimonas diminuta in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brevundimonas diminuta is a small Gram-negative bacterium used for validation of membranes and filters used in the pharmaceutical and drinking water\\u000a treatment industries. Current assays are time consuming, nonselective, and may be subject to interference by competing indigenous\\u000a microorganisms. The focus of this study is to develop rapid and specific enumeration methodologies for B. diminuta. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)

Robert S. DonofrioLorelle; Lorelle L. Bestervelt; Ratul Saha; Susan T. Bagley

2010-01-01

262

Genomic In Situ Hybridization (GISH) as a Tool to Identify Chromosomes of Parental Species in Sunflower Interspecific Hybrids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecific hybridization has been widely used to transfer genes from wild species into cultivated sunflower. Fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) has been used to identify alien chromosomes or segments in other crops, but an equivalent technique for sunflower is lacking. The objective...

263

Unknown partner for USP6 and unusual SS18 rearrangement detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a solid aneurysmal bone cyst.  

PubMed

USP6 rearrangement is the most common genetic abnormality in primary aneurysmal bone cyst, and SS18 rearrangement has not been previously described in any type of tumor where synovial sarcoma was excluded from the differential diagnosis. We report a case of solid aneurysmal bone cyst in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated rearrangements of both USP6 and SS18, but histologic features were consistent with aneurysmal bone cyst throughout the lesion. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the SS18-SSX1 and SS18-SSX2 translocations, identity testing, and SS18 FISH were performed on cytogenetic monolayer cultures and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Genomic microarray, FISH, and immunohistochemistry were performed on follow-up studies of the FFPE specimen. The karyotype was 45,X,add(X)(p11.2),add(4)(q13),add(8)(p21),-13,add(17)(p11.2),add(18)(q11.2) in all 20 cells analyzed from monolayer cultures. The karyotype showed no cytogenetically visible alterations of chromosomal regions harboring known partners for USP6. Metaphase FISH with a commercial SS18 break-apart probe showed translocation of the 5' portion of the SS18 probe to the short arm of the derivative X, as is observed in synovial sarcoma. RT-PCR showed no evidence of a SS18-SSX fusion, and immunohistochemistry was negative for TLE1, EMA, and cytokeratin AE1/3 expression. FISH on FFPE sections with a custom break-apart probe flanking USP6 showed evidence for a USP6 rearrangement throughout the tumor (25-50%). FISH on FFPE sections with a commercial SS18 break-apart FISH probe showed more variable results (0-50% split signals). There was no evidence of a SS18-USP6 fusion by FISH or RT-PCR. A molecular inversion probe array revealed a deletion encompassing the entire SS18 gene and its promoter, as well as portions of the region targeted by the commercial SS18 FISH probe. In conclusion, results obtained from commercially available FISH probes may occasionally yield misleading results. In this case, the SS18 rearrangement by FISH resulted from a complex rearrangement of 18q11.2 with a deletion of the SS18 gene. The translocation partner for USP6 remains unknown in this case. PMID:21536237

Geiersbach, Katherine; Rector, Lyndsey S; Sederberg, Maria; Hooker, Ana; Randall, R Lor; Schiffman, Joshua D; South, Sarah T

2011-04-01

264

Deletion of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) in Prader-Willi syndrome detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Two sibs with the typical phenotype without a cytogenetic deletion in chromosome 15q  

SciTech Connect

The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene is regarded as one of the candidates for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We describe two sibs with typical PWS presenting deletion of SNRPN detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Neither a cytogenetically detectable 15q12 deletion nor a deletion for the D15S11, D15S10, and GABRB3 cosmid probes were found in either patient. This implies a smaller deletion limited to the PWS critical region. FISH with a SNRPN probe will permit analysis of PWS patients with limited deletions not detectable with other probes. 22 refs., 1 fig.

Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kibe, Tetsuya; Wada, Yoshiro [Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan)

1996-04-24

265

&p.1:Abstract Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 15-m-thick paraffin sections  

E-print Network

spots) in 18/19 cases, and mono- somy 7 (-7) in 13/19 cases. In 5-µm sections, however, trisomy 7 aberration type. Trisomy 7 (+7) became apparent in 15-µm-thick sections in all 19 tu- mors, polysomy 7 (>3

Rodenacker, Karsten

266

Chromosome segregation in a man heterozygous for a pericentric inversion, inv(9)(p11q13), analyzed by using sperm karyotyping and two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on sperm nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of sperm karyotypes and two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei were carried out in a\\u000a man heterozygous for the pericentric inversion inv(9)(p11q13). Sperm chromosome complements were obtained after in vitro fusion\\u000a of zona-free hamster oocytes and donor sperm. A total of 314 sperm complements was analyzed: 153 (48.7%) carried the inverted\\u000a chromosome 9 and 161 (51.3%)

P. Colls; J. Blanco; O. Martínez-Pasarell; F. Vidal; J. Egozcue; C. Márquez; M. Guitart; C. Templado

1997-01-01

267

Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Bifidobacterium spp. with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application in fecal samples.  

PubMed Central

Three 16S rRNA hybridization probes were developed and tested for genus-specific detection of Bifidobacterium species in the human fecal flora. Variable regions V2, V4, and V8 of the 16S rRNA contained sequences unique to this genus and proved applicable as target sites for oligodeoxynucleotide probes. Determination of the genus specificity of the oligonucleotides was performed by whole-cell hybridization with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled probes. To this end, cells were fixed on glass slides, hybridized with the probes, and monitored by videomicroscopy. In combination with image analysis, this allowed quantification of the fluorescence per cell and objective evaluation of hybridization experiments. One of the probes developed was used to determine the population of Bifidobacterium spp. in human fecal samples. A comparison was made with results obtained by cultural methods for enumeration. Since both methods gave similar population estimates, it was concluded that all bifidobacteria in feces were culturable. However, since the total culturable counts were only a fraction of the total microscopic counts, the contribution of bifidobacteria to the total intestinal microflora was overestimated by almost 10-fold when cultural methods were used as the sole method for enumeration. PMID:7487040

Langendijk, P S; Schut, F; Jansen, G J; Raangs, G C; Kamphuis, G R; Wilkinson, M H; Welling, G W

1995-01-01

268

Generation of an integrated karyotype of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) by banding pattern and fluorescent in situ hybridization  

E-print Network

). In Drosophila the relation between heterochromatin banding, imprinting and gene silencing is very well documented (Tulin et al., 2002, Yasuhara and Wakimoto, 2006). It is well known that adult worker honeybees typically shift from working in the hive...). The FISH procedure has been routinely used to verify the genome sequence maps in human and Drosophila (The International Human Genome Mapping Consortium 2001), to characterize the genes of Drosophila that resides in heterochromatin regions (Rossi et al...

Aquino Perez, Gildardo

2009-05-15

269

Locked nucleic acid flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a method for bacterial small RNA detection.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique that is used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences in the cellular environment. In order to increase throughput, FISH can be combined with flow cytometry (flow-FISH) to enable the detection of targeted nucleic acid sequences in thousands of individual cells. As a result, flow-FISH offers a distinct advantage over lysate/ensemble-based nucleic acid detection methods because each cell is treated as an independent observation, thereby permitting stronger statistical and variance analyses. These attributes have prompted the use of FISH and flow-FISH methods in a number of different applications and the utility of these methods has been successfully demonstrated in telomere length determination, cellular identification and gene expression, monitoring viral multiplication in infected cells, and bacterial community analysis and enumeration. Traditionally, the specificity of FISH and flow-FISH methods has been imparted by DNA oligonucleotide probes. Recently however, the replacement of DNA oligonucleotide probes with nucleic acid analogs as FISH and flow-FISH probes has increased both the sensitivity and specificity of each technique due to the higher melting temperatures (T(m)) of these analogs for natural nucleic acids. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes are a type of nucleic acid analog that contain LNA nucleotides spiked throughout a DNA or RNA sequence. When coupled with flow-FISH, LNA probes have previously been shown to outperform conventional DNA probes and have been successfully used to detect eukaryotic mRNA and viral RNA in mammalian cells. Here we expand this capability and describe a LNA flow-FISH method which permits the specific detection of RNA in bacterial cells (Figure 1). Specifically, we are interested in the detection of small non-coding regulatory RNA (sRNA) which have garnered considerable interest in the past few years as they have been found to serve as key regulatory elements in many critical cellular processes. However, there are limited tools to study sRNAs and the challenges of detecting sRNA in bacterial cells is due in part to the relatively small size (typically 50-300 nucleotides in length) and low abundance of sRNA molecules as well as the general difficulty in working with smaller biological cells with varying cellular membranes. In this method, we describe fixation and permeabilzation conditions that preserve the structure of bacterial cells and permit the penetration of LNA probes as well as signal amplification steps which enable the specific detection of low abundance sRNA (Figure 2). PMID:22258228

Robertson, Kelly L; Vora, Gary J

2012-01-01

270

Miller-Dieker syndrome associated with duplication of 17p13.3 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)  

SciTech Connect

Miller-Dieker syndrome is characterized by profound mental retardation, craniofacial abnormalities, and lissencephaly (smooth brain). Microscopic or submicroscopic deletions of the 17p13.3 region have been reported in Miller-Dieker patients. We report a patient with this syndrome in whom a duplication of the 17p13.3 region was detected by FISH. The 9-year-old female proband was referred because of features of Miller-Dieker syndrome: microcephaly, profound psychomotor retardation, seizures, characteristic facies, and lissencephaly shown by MRI studies. High-resolution G-banding failed to demonstrate an abnormality in chromosome 17. However, FISH analysis with the DNA probe (Oncor No. 5101) specific for Miller-Dieker region of chromosome 17p13.3 demonstrated duplication of this segment instead of the classic deletion. We know of no other report of Miller-Dieker syndrome associated with duplication of 17p13.3. The family study revealed normal chromosomes in both parents by cytogenetic and FISH analysis. Our investigation suggests that duplications, as well as deletions, of the 17p13.3 region are associated with the Miller-Dieker syndrome. The presence of deletions or duplications of the same chromosomal region in patients with features of Miller-Dieker syndrome suggests that its pathogenesis may be due to gene dosage effects.

Li, S.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.; Martinez, J.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

271

Incidence of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of Germinal Center B-Cell Origin in Whole Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Tissue Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using t(14;18) Compared with Immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be divided into prognostically important categories such as germinal center B (GCB)-like\\u000a and non-GCB-like groups. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation defines a unique subset of DLBCL cases with a GCB gene expression\\u000a profile. Two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was applied to detect t(14;18) (q32;q21) in the nuclei\\u000a of paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 61 patients

Yuko Hirose; Yasufumi Masaki; Hiromi Karasawa; Kumiko Shimoyama; Toshihiro Fukushima; Hiroshi Kawabata; Noriyoshi Ogawa; Yuji Wano; Mamoru Ozaki

2005-01-01

272

Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Final progress report, April 1, 1994--July 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this research is to generate and apply novel technologies to speed completion and integration of the human genome map and sequence with biomedical problems. To do this, techniques were developed and genome-wide resources generated. This includes a genome-wide Mapped and Integrated BAC/PAC Resource that has been used for gene finding, map completion and anchoring, breakpoint definition and sequencing. In the last period of the grant, the Human Mapped BAC/PAC Resource was also applied to determine regions of human variation and to develop a novel paradigm of primate evolution through to humans. Further, in order to more rapidly evaluate animal models of human disease, a BAC Map of the mouse was generated in collaboration with the MTI Genome Center, Dr. Bruce Birren.

Korenberg, J.R.

1997-12-31

273

In situ hybridization to chromosomes stabilized in gel microdrops  

SciTech Connect

Conventional chromosome in situ hybridization procedures rely on fixation to glass slides followed by microscopic evaluation. This report describes the development of a microdrop in situ hybridization (MISH) method which facilitates hybridization to chromosomes in suspension. Chromosomes encapsulated in gel microdrops (GMDs) composed of an agarose matrix withstood stringent hybridization and denaturation conditions. Because of the increased stability, hybridization to encapsulated chromosomes was detected by flow cytometry as well as conventional microscopy. Thus, the MISH method offers a means for chromosome hybridization without slides and may enable identification and isolation of chromosomes using hybridization rather than nucleic acid binding dyes. 36 refs., 6 figs.

Nguyen, Bao-Tram; Lazzari, K.; Abebe, J. [One Cell systems, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

274

Inter-observer reproducibility of HER2 immunohistochemical assessment and concordance with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): pathologist assessment compared to quantitative image analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In breast cancer patients, HER2 overexpression is routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and equivocal cases are subject to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Our study compares HER2 scoring by histopathologists with automated quantitation of staining, and determines the concordance of IHC scores with FISH results. Methods A tissue microarray was constructed from 1,212 invasive breast carcinoma cases with linked treatment and outcome information. IHC slides were semi-quantitatively scored by two independent pathologists on a range of 0 to 3+, and also analyzed with an Ariol automated system by two operators. 616 cases were scorable by both IHC and FISH. Results Using data from unequivocal positive (3+) or negative (0, 1+) results, both visual and automated scores were highly consistent: there was excellent concordance between two pathologists (kappa = 1.000, 95% CI: 1-1), between two machines (kappa = 1.000, 95% CI: 1-1), and between both visual and both machine scores (kappa = 0.898, 95% CI: 0.775–0.979). Two pathologists successfully distinguished negative, positive and equivocal cases (kappa = 0.929, 95% CI: 0.909–0.946), with excellent agreement with machine 1 scores (kappa = 0.835, 95% CI: 0.806–0.862; kappa = 0.837, 95% CI: 0.81–0.862), and good agreement with machine 2 scores (kappa = 0.698, 95% CI: 0.6723–0.723; kappa = 0.709, 95% CI: 0.684–0.732), whereas the two machines showed good agreement (kappa = 0.806, 95% CI: 0.785–0.826). When comparing categorized IHC scores and FISH results, the agreement was excellent for visual 1 (kappa = 0.814, 95% CI: 0.768–0.856), good for visual 2 (kappa = 0.763, 95% CI: 0.712–0.81) and machine 1 (kappa = 0.665, 95% CI: 0.609–0.718), and moderate for machine 2 (kappa = 0.535, 95% CI: 0.485–0.584). Conclusion A fully automated image analysis system run by an experienced operator can provide results consistent with visual HER2 scoring. Further development of such systems will likely improve the accuracy of detection and categorization of membranous staining, making this technique suitable for use in quality assurance programs and eventually in clinical practice. PMID:19476653

2009-01-01

275

Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc  

PubMed Central

Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur une faible quantité de liquide amniotique. Elle offre aux couples l'avantage de prendre, dans des délais raisonnables, la décision qui leur convient concernant la poursuite ou non de la grossesse. Elle permet souvent, avec un résultat normal, de rassurer rapidement les femmes enceintes trop angoissées. PMID:23330029

Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

2012-01-01

276

Novel, rapid DNA-based on-chip bacterial identification system combining dielectrophoresis and amplification-free fluorescent resonance energy transfer assisted in-situ hybridization (FRET-ISH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although real-time PCR (RT-PCR) has become a diagnostic standard for rapid identification of bacterial species, typical methods remain time-intensive due to sample preparation and amplification cycle times. The assay described in this work incorporates on-chip dielectrophoretic capture and concentration of bacterial cells, thermal lysis, cell permeabilization, and nucleic acid denaturation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assisted in-situ hybridization (FRET-ISH) species identification. Identification is achieved completely on chip in less than thirty minutes from receipt of sample compared to multiple hours required by traditional RT-PCR and its requisite sample preparation.

Packard, Michelle M.; Shusteff, Maxim; Alocilja, Evangelyn

2011-10-01

277

In situ identification of bacteria in drinking water and adjoining biofilms by hybridization with 16S and 23S rRNA-directed fluorescent oligonucleotide probes.  

PubMed Central

Free-water-phase and surface-associated microorganisms from drinking water were detected and roughly identified by hybridization with fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes complementary to regions of 16S and 23S rRNA characteristic for the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya and the beta and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria. Samples of glass-attached biofilms and plankton were taken from a Robbins device installed in a water distribution system. More than 70% of the surface-associated cells and less than 40% of the planktonic cells visualized by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining bound detectable amounts of rRNA-targeted probes. These findings are an indication for higher average rRNA content and consequently higher physiological activity of the attached microbial cells compared with the free-living cells. All detectable cells hybridized with the bacterial probe, whereas no Archaea and no Eucarya cells could be detected. Simultaneous hybridization with probes specific for the beta and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria revealed that microcolonies already consisted of mixed populations in early stages with fewer than 50 cells. These observations provide further evidence that the coexistence and interaction of bacteria in drinking water biofilms may be an integral part of their growth and survival strategies. Images PMID:8357261

Manz, W; Szewzyk, U; Ericsson, P; Amann, R; Schleifer, K H; Stenström, T A

1993-01-01

278

Detection of in-situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes by atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes provides important information about gene mappings and about analysis of chromosomal disorders. We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the detection of in situ hybridization to get better resolution as compared to light microscopy. Chromosomes were spread over a glass substrate and hybridized with DNA probes labeled with biotin or digoxigenin. The hybridized probes were reacted with streptavidin or anti-digoxigenin antibody, both of which were conjugated with 5-nm gold colloidal particles. We missed direct detection of the conjugated gold colloidal particles by micro-meter scale AFM scanning , but obtained clear topographic difference between the site of hybridization and the chromosome arm with the help of silver enhancement. We thus clearly detected the in situ hybridization using chromosome painting probes, alpha satellite probes, and locus specific gene probes by AFM. The in situ hybridization to DNA fiber was also detected by AFM. The detection of in situ hybridization by AFM has advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridization: no reduction of signal intensity under light irradiation. Application of AFM to the detection of in situ hybridization will be a useful method to analyze chromosomes.

Okamoto, Naoaki; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

2000-04-01

279

In situ hybridization in the plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana.  

PubMed

Here we describe in detail the detection of gene expression in plant tissues of Kalanchoë daigremontiana by in situ hybridization analyses. Included are methods for making RNA transcript probes, probe-tissue hybridization, and detection of antisense RNA probes. The in situ hybridization technique is used to determine which cells or group of cells in particular tissue(s) express a gene of interest. PMID:20147047

Garcês, Helena; Sinha, Neelima

2009-10-01

280

Fluorescent in situ hybridization as a screening test for HER2 amplification in G2 and G3 breast cancers of lobular and ductal histotype and metastases.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), as a screening test, in moderately- (G2) or poorly- (G3) differentiated breast cancers of the ductal (IDC) and lobular (ILC) histotypes and distant metastases. HER2 FISH was performed on 486 G2 and 477 G3 both of IDC and ILC histotypes and in 241 metastases. A significant difference in the HER2 amplification was observed between G2 (14.8%) and G3 (31.9%), with no difference according to the histotype. However, the rate of amplification increased to 36% in the G2/hormone receptor-negative cases as compared to 10.6% in the G2/receptor-positive cases (p<0.0001). HER2 was amplified in 17% of metastases with some differences depending on the location. These data suggest that the HER2 FISH analysis may be an effective screening test in breast cancer metastases and G3 tumors, irrespective of the hormone receptor status or presence of lymphovascular invasion. PMID:18425387

Castellano, Isabella; Sapino, Anna; Arisio, Riccardo; Viale, Giuseppe; Bussolati, Gianni; Bandelloni, Roberto; Barresi, Gaetano; Bersiga, Alessandra; Bordi, Cesare; Botti, Gerardo; Cosimi, Fabia; D'Amore, Emanuele; Doglioni, Claudio; Marchetti, Antonio; Nappi, Oscar; Romeo, Francesco; Roncalli, Massimo; Russo, Rosa; Santinelli, Alfredo; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Tanda, Francesco; Tricomi, Paolo; Trentini, Gianpaolo; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Iurlaro, Monica

2008-05-01

281

Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes  

SciTech Connect

Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

Youngblom, J.J. [California State University-Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

282

Assignment of the Human Gene for Smoothelin (SMTN) to Chromosome 22q12 by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and Radiation Hybrid Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smooth muscle cells (SMC) display a great variation in size morphology and biochemistry. This variation is attributed to differences in embryological origin and the state of differentiation. (10). Unlike striated muscle cells, SMC can differentiate from a proliferative (synthetic) to a contractile phenotype, a process that is reversible. A number of marker proteins for SMC, in general, and for the

J. J. M. Engelen; L. E. Esterling; J. C. M. Albrechts; S. D. Detera-Wadleigh; G. J. J. M. van Eys

1997-01-01

283

Chromosomal mapping of 18S-28S and 5S rRNA genes by two-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization in six sturgeon species.  

PubMed

The number and distribution of the 18S-28S and 5S rRNA (rDNA) gene sequences were examined on mitotic chromosomes of six sturgeon species by two-colour in situ hybridization. Four of the six species, Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser sturio, and Acipenser ruthenus, with about 120 chromosomes, showed from six to eight 18S-28S rDNA signals, while 5S rDNA signals were on only one chromosome pair. The two species with 250-270 chromosomes, Acipenser baerii and Acipenser transmontanus, showed from 10 to 12 18S-28S sites and two chromosome pairs bearing 5S rDNA signals. In all examined species, the rather intense 5S rDNA signals apparently overlapped those of 18S-28S rDNA. These data support the diploid-tetraploid relationships between the two chromosome groups of sturgeons. The close association between the two rDNA families in species belonging to an ancestral fish order, such as Acipenseriformes, supports the hypothesis that the association represents a primitive condition. PMID:12834065

Fontana, Francesco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Congiu, Leonardo; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Rossi, Remigio

2003-06-01

284

Community Analysis of Biofilters Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Including a New Probe for the Xanthomonas Branch of the Class Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

Domain-, class-, and subclass-specific rRNA-targeted probes were applied to investigate the microbial communities of three industrial and three laboratory-scale biofilters. The set of probes also included a new probe (named XAN818) specific for the Xanthomonas branch of the class Proteobacteria; this probe is described in this study. The members of the Xanthomonas branch do not hybridize with previously developed rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. Bacteria of the Xanthomonas branch accounted for up to 4.5% of total direct counts obtained with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. In biofilter samples, the relative abundance of these bacteria was similar to that of the ?-Proteobacteria. Actinobacteria (gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C DNA content) and ?-Proteobacteria were the most dominant groups. Detection rates obtained with probe EUB338 varied between about 40 and 70%. For samples with high contents of gram-positive bacteria, these percentages were substantially improved when the calculations were corrected for the reduced permeability of gram-positive bacteria when formaldehyde was used as a fixative. The set of applied bacterial class- and subclass-specific probes yielded, on average, 58.5% (± a standard deviation of 23.0%) of the corrected eubacterial detection rates, thus indicating the necessity of additional probes for studies of biofilter communities. The Xanthomonas-specific probe presented here may serve as an efficient tool for identifying potential phytopathogens. In situ hybridization proved to be a practical tool for microbiological studies of biofiltration systems. PMID:10427047

Friedrich, Udo; Naismith, Michèle M.; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Lipski, André

1999-01-01

285

Whole Mount In Situ Hybridization On Mouse Embryos  

E-print Network

Whole Mount In Situ Hybridization On Mouse Embryos Modified by Lise Zakin and Eddy De Robertis 2008 Henrique et al., 1995. Nature 375, 787-790. Note: This protocol works well for embryos up to 10.5 days post-coïtum (d.p.c.). For older embryos, use in situ on sections. Dissections -Dissect embryos in 1X PBS; remove

De Robertis, Eddy M.

286

High-Resolution Mapping of Human Chromosome 11 by in Situ Hybridization with Cosmid Clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmid clones containing human DNA inserts have been mapped on chromosome 11 by fluorescence in situ hybridization under conditions that suppress signal from repetitive DNA sequences. Thirteen known genes, one chromosome 11-specific DNA repeat, and 36 random clones were analyzed. High-resolution mapping was facilitated by using digital imaging microscopy and by analyzing extended (prometaphase) chromosomes. The map coordinates established by

Peter Lichter; Chieh-Ju Chang Tang; Katherine Call; Gary Hermanson; Glen A. Evans; David Housman; David C. Ward

1990-01-01

287

In situ sensitive fluorescence imaging of neurons cultured on a plasmonic dish using fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

A plasmonic dish was fabricated as a novel cell-culture dish for in situ sensitive imaging applications, in which the cover glass of a glass-bottomed dish was replaced by a grating substrate coated with a film of silver. Neuronal cells were successfully cultured over a period of more than 2 weeks in the plasmonic dish. The fluorescence images of their cells including dendrites were simply observed in situ using a conventional fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence from neuronal cells growing along the dish surface was enhanced using the surface plasmon resonance field. Under an epi-fluorescence microscope and employing a donut-type pinhole, the fluorescence intensity of the neuron dendrites was found to be enhanced efficiently by an order of magnitude compared with that using a conventional glass-bottomed dish. In a transmitted-light fluorescence microscope, the surface-selective fluorescence image of a fine dendrite growing along the dish surface was observed; therefore, the spatial resolution was improved compared with the epi-fluorescence image of the identical dendrite. PMID:25321614

Tawa, Keiko; Yasui, Chikara; Hosokawa, Chie; Aota, Hiroyuki; Nishii, Junji

2014-11-26

288

Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making this type of measurement. Attention is also given to ways in which in-water fluorescence measurements have revolutionized biogeochemical studies of CDOM and how those measurements can be used in conjunction with remotely sense satellite data to understand better the biogeochemistry of DOM in aquatic environments.

Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

2014-01-01

289

In situ measurements of phytoplankton fluorescence using low cost electronics.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. PMID:23783738

Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S; Wright, Dana L

2013-01-01

290

In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics  

PubMed Central

Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. PMID:23783738

Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Wright, Dana L.

2013-01-01

291

Physical mapping of rRNA genes by fluorescent in-situ hybridization and structural analysis of 5S rRNA genes and intergenic spacer sequences in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digoxigenin-labelled 5S rDNA probe (pTa-794) and a rhodamine-labelled 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA probe (pTa71) were used for double-target in-situ hybridization to root-tip metaphase, prophase and interphase chromosomes of cultivated beet,Beta vulgaris L. After in-situ hybridization with the 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA probe, one major pair of sites was detected which corresponded to the secondary constriction at the end of the short arm of

T. Schmidt; T. Schwarzacher; J. S. Heslop-Harrison

1994-01-01

292

Systematic screening at diagnosis of -5/del(5)(q31), -7, or chromosome 8 aneuploidy by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 110 acute myelocytic leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients: concordances and discrepancies with conventional cytogenetics.  

PubMed

To assess the contribution of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) toward the detection of recurring unbalanced chromosomal anomalies at diagnosis, a systematic screening of -5/del(5)(q31), -7, and chromosome 8 aneuploidy was performed on 110 patients with acute myelocytic leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. We searched for monosomy 5/del(5q) by one-color I-FISH with a probe specific for the 5q31 region and for -7/8 by dual-color I-FISH with centromeric probes for chromosomes 7 and 8. Discrepancies between conventional cytogenetics (CC) and I-FISH were observed in 8 of the 110 patients (7.3%). For -5/del(5)(q31), a discordance was observed in two patients with complex abnormalities involving chromosome 5. Whereas no discordance was observed for -7, I-FISH detected a trisomy 7 unnoticed by CC in two cases. In six patients, I-FISH revealed a chromosome 8 aneuploidy not detected by CC. Our results illustrate that, when using this specific set of probes, I-FISH is of special interest for the detection of minor clones with chromosome 8 aneuploidy, breakpoint assessment, and sequence identification (markers). Also, to avoid misinterpretations, I-FISH should not be used alone at disease presentation, particularly in cases complex changes that have clearly established prognostic significance. PMID:15193439

Beyer, Valérie; Castagné, Chantal; Mühlematter, Dominique; Parlier, Valérie; Gmür, Jürg; Hess, Urs; Kovacsovics, Tibor; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Tobler, Andreas; Jacky, Emanuel; Schanz, Urs; Bargetzi, Mario; Hagemeijer, Anne; de Witte, Theo; van Melle, Guy; Jotterand, Martine

2004-07-01

293

GeneCARD-FISH: Detection of tceA and vcrA reductive dehalogenase genes in Dehalococcoides mccartyi by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Due to the direct involvement in the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, reductive dehalogenase genes (RDase) are considered biomarkers of the metabolic potential of different strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc). This is known to be the only microbe able to completely reduce toxic chlorinated solvents to harmless ethene. In the last years, several Molecular Biological Tools (MBTs) have been developed to optimize the detectability of Dhc cells and/or the RDase genes, with particular attention to the most important indicators of ethene formation, namely tceA and vcrA genes. Despite qPCR has been indicated as the MBT of choice, the use of CARD-FISH recently demonstrated to provide a more accurate quantification of Dhc cells in a wide concentration range, overcoming the drawbacks of loosing nucleic acids during the preparation of the sample associated with qPCR. CARD-FISH assays usually target 16S rRNA and up to date no protocol able to discriminate different Dhc strains by detecting RDase genes has been developed. This study reports the first evidence of in situ detection of tceA and vcrA genes into Dhc cells by applying a new procedure named geneCARD-FISH. Dhc strains carrying tceA and vcrA genes were identified and quantified in a PCE-to-ethene dechlorinating microbial enrichment and overall they represented 58.63%±2.45% and 40.46%±1.86% of the total Dhc cells, respectively. These values were markedly higher than those obtained by qPCR, which strongly underestimated the actual concentration of vcrA gene (0.08%±0.01% of Dhc 16S rRNA gene copies). The assay was successfully applied also for the analysis of environmental samples and remarkably strengthens the biomonitoring activities at field scale by providing the specific in situ discrimination of Dhc cells carrying the key-RDase genes. PMID:25595619

Matturro, B; Rossetti, S

2015-03-01

294

Detection and Enumeration of Methanotrophs in Acidic Sphagnum Peat by 16S rRNA Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, Including the Use of Newly Developed Oligonucleotide Probes for Methylocella palustris  

PubMed Central

Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, were developed for specific detection of the acidophilic methanotroph Methylocella palustris using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence signal of probe Mcell-181 was enhanced by its combined application with the oligonucleotide helper probe H158. Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes with reported group specificity for either type I methanotrophs (probes M-84 and M-705) or the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group of type II methanotrophs (probes MA-221 and M-450), were used in FISH to determine the abundance of distinct methanotroph groups in a Sphagnum peat sample of pH 4.2. M. palustris was enumerated at greater than 106 cells per g of peat (wet weight), while the detectable population size of type I methanotrophs was three orders of magnitude below the population level of M. palustris. The cell counts with probe MA-221 suggested that only 104 type II methanotrophs per g of peat (wet weight) were present, while the use of probe M-450 revealed more than 106 type II methanotroph cells per g of the same samples. This discrepancy was due to the fact that probe M-450 targets almost all currently known strains of Methylosinus and Methylocystis, whereas probe MA-221, originally described as group specific, does not detect a large proportion of Methylocystis strains. The total number of methanotrophic bacteria detected by FISH was 3.0 (±0.2) × 106 cells per g (wet weight) of peat. This was about 0.8% of the total bacterial cell number. Thus, our study clearly suggests that M. palustris and a defined population of Methylocystis spp. were the predominant methanotrophs detectable by FISH in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog. PMID:11571193

Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Derakshani, Manigee; Liesack, Werner

2001-01-01

295

Fixing Embryos for In Situ Hybridization Leslie Vosshall  

E-print Network

1 Fixing Embryos for In Situ Hybridization Leslie Vosshall 2/7/2001 1. A few days in advance, set old plates in the fly waste container in the fly room. 3. The evening before the first embryo the embryos on the old plate as described below. First, use a spatula or kimwipe to remove the large blob

296

Interstitial deletion of chromosome 1q [del(1)(q24q25.3)] identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene dosage analysis of apolipoprotein A-II, coagulation factor V, and antithrombin III  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 12-month-old Japanese boy with an interstitial deletion of the long-arm of chromosome 1 and meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, anal atresia, atrial septal defect, left renal agenesis, bilateral cryptorchidism, talipes equinovarus, low birth weight, growth/developmental retardation, and many minor anomalies. By conventional GTG-banding, his karyotype was first interpreted as 46,XY,de1(1)(q23q24), but it was corrected as 46,XY.ish del(1)(q24q25.3) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 known cosmid clones as probes. His serum levels of apolipoprotein A-II (gene symbol: APOA2, previously assigned to 1q21-q23) and coagulation factor V (F5, 1q21-q25) were normal, while serum concentration and activity of antithrombin III (AT3, 1q23-q25.1) was low. The results indicated that localization of APOA2 and F5 are proximal to the deleted region and AT3 is located within the deletion extent in the patient. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Takano, Takako; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Mori, Yosuke [Teikyo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others] [Teikyo Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); and others

1997-01-20

297

Detection of MDM2-CDK4 amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 200 paraffin-embedded tumor samples: utility in diagnosing adipocytic lesions and comparison with immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcomas and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are characterized by the amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 genes. To evaluate the accuracy of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in the differential diagnosis of adipose tissue tumors, we investigated MDM2-CDK4 status by FISH, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [quantitative PCR (Q-PCR)] and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 200 adipose tumors. First, we evaluated MDM2-CDK4 amplification and expression in a series of 94 well-defined adipose tissue tumors. Results showed that FISH was interpretable in 45 of 50 cases (90%), and was more specific and sensitive than Q-PCR and IHC. We then used the same techniques as complementary diagnostic tools in a series of 106 adipose and soft tissue tumors of unclear diagnosis to distinguish between (i) lipomas and atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcomas, (ii) malignant undifferentiated tumors and dedifferentiated liposarcomas, and (iii) a variety of benign tumors and liposarcomas. Our results indicate that although helpful, IHC alone is often insufficient to solve diagnostic problems. FISH and Q-PCR methods gave concordant results and were equally informative in most cases. However, the proportion of noninterpretable cases was slightly higher with FISH than with Q-PCR. When tumor cells represented a minor component of the tumor tissue, such as with inflammatory tumors, FISH was more powerful than Q-PCR by allowing visualization of individual cells. In conclusion, we recommend that the evaluation of MDM2-CDK4 amplification using FISH or Q-PCR be used to supplement IHC analysis when diagnosis of adipose tissue tumors is not possible based on clinical and histologic information alone. PMID:17895748

Sirvent, Nicolas; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Maire, Georges; Hostein, Isabelle; Keslair, Frédérique; Guillou, Louis; Ranchere-Vince, Dominique; Terrier, Philippe; Pedeutour, Florence

2007-10-01

298

Edited by Oliver Hobert. Last revised May 24, 2012. Published December 13, 2012. This chapter should be cited as: Ji N. and van Oudenaarden A. Single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH) of C. elegans worms and embryos (December 13, 2012),  

E-print Network

FISH) of C. elegans worms and embryos (December 13, 2012), WormBook, ed. The C. elegans Research Community, WormBook, doi/10.1895/wormbook.1.153.1, http://www.wormbook.org. Copyright: © 2012 Ni Ji and Alexander.vanoudenaarden@hubrecht.eu. Single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH) of C. elegans worms and embryos* Ni Ji1

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

299

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study of response to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in myelodysplasia associated with monosomy 7: Evidence for differentiation of the dysplastic clone  

SciTech Connect

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic differentiation which may respond to the administration of cytokines with increases in the number of circulating mature neutrophils. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to investigate a young patient with myelodyplasia associated with monosomy 7 to determine whether mature appearing polymorphonuclear cells present in response to treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) were progeny of the dysplastic clone or represented stimulation of residual normal hematopoiesis. The patient is a 26 year old male with a long history of a complex stem cell disorder dating to age 5. A chromosome fragility test was negative. In October 1993 treatment was begun with G-CSF when the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) fell to 300/mm{sup 3} despite GM-CSF therapy. Cytogenetic study of bone marrow just prior to starting G-CSF revealed monosomy 7 in all metaphases. A study in July, 1992 was normal. On his most recent marrow examination (1/94), blasts had numerous dysplastic forms. FISH was performed on buffy coat smears of patient and control specimens using a biotin labelled alpha satellite probe to chromosome 7. At the time of study, the peripheral blood count was 12,500 mm{sup 3}, with 56% neutrophils, 6% bands and no circulating blasts. Cells were scored as either polymorphonuclear or mononuclear cells. In a healthy control, 22 of 190 scored as either polymorphonuclear cells (12%) contained one chromosome 7 signal, versus 193 of 200 (96.5%) in the patient. For mononuclear cells, the control demonstrated 23 of 137 nuclei (17%) with one signal, versus 300 of 511 nuclei (59%) in the patient. We conclude that G-CSF induced differentiation in the dysplastic clone in this case and did not stimulate normal hermatopoiesis.

Cicilline, M. [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Mark, H.F.L.; Rintels, P. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

1994-09-01

300

Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance without and with positive plasma cell identification: analysis of 192 cases from the Region of Southern Denmark.  

PubMed

Interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (i-FISH) was used to investigate 192 patients with multiple myeloma (MM; n = 182) and benign monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 10). Of the 182 MM cases, 132 were investigated without and 50 with positive plasma cell identification (PC-ID+); 134 were investigated at diagnosis, 32 at time of progression, 7 at time of relapse, and 9 were investigated with partial remission or no response. The FISH analysis detected 11q23 (n = 61), 13q13 approximately q14 (n = 181), 14q32 (n = 121), 17p13.1 (n = 181), t(4;14) (n = 76), and t(11;14) (n = 73). Of the 132 patients investigated without PC-ID+, 61 (46%) showed chromosomal abnormalities, compared with 45 of 49 of evaluable cases (92%) with PC-ID+. The increase in abnormal cases identified was due mainly to the detection of more cases with 13q-, 17p-, and der(14)(q32). G-banding cytogenetics was performed in 72 patients; abnormalities were revealed in 19 cases (26%). Concordance between G-banding and i-FISH for one or more aberrations was found in 14 patients. Translocation (11;14) was detected by both methods in four of five cases. In four out of seven cases with either near-tetraploidy/triploidy or hypoploidy in the G-banded karyotypes, the modal number in the G-banded karyotypes could not be elucidated with certainty with i-FISH. Three of the 10 MGUS patients showed abnormalities. In conclusion, PC-ID+ is important for the detection of structural aberrations and disclosing translocations involving 14q32. Of these, translocations t(4;14) constituted 9% and t(11;14), 20%. Finally, based on the small number of cytogenetically abnormal cases, it is recommended to include cytogenetics (and, for example, the DNA index) in the prognostic armamentarium. PMID:17452249

Christensen, Jacob H; Abildgaard, Niels; Plesner, Torben; Nibe, Anne; Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Anne G; Kerndrup, Gitte B

2007-04-15

301

Nonradioactive In Situ Hybridization in Combination with Tract-Tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of mRNAs in cell bodies has greatly expanded our ability to detect\\u000a cellular phenotypes in the central nervous system. Riboprobes have been used in the past to identify neuropeptide precursors,\\u000a distribution of receptors, ion channels, and enzymes. More recently, the discovery of unambiguous markers for the major ionotropic\\u000a transmitters has

Ruth L. Stornetta; Patrice G. Guyenet

302

Chromosome mapping of 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA by dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).  

PubMed

Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is an important aquaculture flatfish in China. Cytogenetic analysis has revealed that its sex determination system is female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW). The W chromosome is morphologically larger and has been considered evolutionarily younger than any other chromosome in the set. However, the genetic origin and evolution process of this neo-chromosome remains unclear. In this study, 2 tandem arrays of rRNA genes were chosen to address this question. Both the major rDNA (18S rDNA) and the minor rDNA (5S rDNA) were located on the C. semilaevis chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Six 18S rDNA signals were observed on the centromeric regions of 3 pairs of autosomes in both males and females. In females, there was an additional 18S rDNA signal mapping to the telomeric region of the W chromosome long arm. With respect to the 5S rDNA, 12 signals were mapped to the centromeric regions of six pairs of autosomes. Two-color FISH further confirmed that the two pairs of the 5S rDNA signals were correspondingly located at the same positions of the same autosomes as those of the 18S rDNA signals. These results allowed us to speculate about the evolution process of the W chromosome. Chromosome fusions and repetitive sequence accumulations might have occurred in C. semilaevis. The synteny and non-synteny of C. semilaevis 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA might imply the original and evolutionary characteristics of this species. These findings will facilitate studies on karyotype evolution of the order Pleuronectiformes. PMID:25526196

Jiang, L; Jiang, J; Liu, J; Yuan, J; Chen, Y; Zhang, Q; Wang, X

2014-01-01

303

High-Throughput RNA In Situ Hybridization in Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

The introduction of large-scale gene expression profiling studies has greatly increased the need to rapidly obtain high-quality cellular expression patterns of genes found to exhibit differential expression. The use of large-scale nonradioactive RNA in situ hybridization makes this possible, and greatly increases the general usefulness of this data. Here, we describe protocols for parallel analysis of up to 50 different gene-specific probes in mouse retinal sections. PMID:23150371

Blackshaw, Seth

2014-01-01

304

The fate of Helicobacter pylori phagocytized by Acanthamoeba polyphaga demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerization chain reaction tests  

EPA Science Inventory

Helicobacter pylori able to express green fluorescent protein, as well as an ATCC strain, and a clinical isolate of this pathogen were evaluated for their ability to survive predation by Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Ingestion was evaluated by microscopic observation of the GFP-H. pyl...

305

Cytogenetic Analysis Using Quantitative, High-Sensitivity, Fluorescence Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome classification and detection of chromosome aberrations. Biotin-labeled DNA was hybridized to target chromosomes and subsequently rendered fluorescent by successive treatments with fluorescein-labeled avidin and biotinylated anti-avidin antibody. Human chromosomes in human-hamster hybrid cell lines were intensely and uniformly stained in metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei when human genomic

D. Pinkel; T. Straume; J. W. Gray

1986-01-01

306

Fluorescence in situ hybridization of uncultured zoosporic fungi: Testing with clone-FISH and application to freshwater samples using CARD-FISH.  

PubMed

Recently, molecular environmental surveys of the eukaryotic microbial community in lakes have revealed a high diversity of sequences belonging to uncultured zoosporic fungi commonly known as chytrids. These microorganisms have two different stages in their life cycle and are known as algal parasites (i.e. host-attached infective sporangia) and as food sources for zooplankton (i.e. free-living zooflagellate propagules) in aquatic systems. However, because of their small size and their lack of distinctive morphological features, traditional microscopy does not allow the detection of chytrids, particularly of zoospores which have probably been misidentified as phagotrophic flagellates in previous studies. Hence, quantitative data on chytrids in natural environments is missing. We have adapted a clone-FISH approach known from prokaryotes to optimize the hybridization conditions of a designed oligonucleotidic probe specific to Chytridiales (i.e. the largest group of the true-fungal division of Chytridiomycota), before application to natural samples using the CARD-FISH approach. When these conditions were applied, the CARD-FISH assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity, and offers a promising tool for quantitative assessment of natural zoosporic fungi, primarily of zoospores which contributed up to 60% of the total abundance of heterotrophic flagellates. Although the field results from the CARD-FISH approach were considered preliminary and mainly as 'proof of concept', findings were consistent with ecological considerations known from pelagic habitats and host versus parasite populations, with recurrent ecological patterns in two contrasting lake ecosystems. We conclude that this approach will contribute to a better understanding of the ecological significance of zoosporic organisms in microbial food webs of pelagic ecosystems. PMID:20849888

Jobard, Marlène; Rasconi, Serena; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

2010-11-01

307

Rapid Discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Two Matrix-Assisted Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) Platforms  

PubMed Central

Background Due to considerable differences in pathogenicity, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus have to be reliably discriminated in routine diagnostics. Retrospective analyses suggest frequent misidentifications of commensal H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae. In a multi-center approach, we assessed the suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus to species level. Methodology A strain collection of 84 Haemophilus spp. comprising 50 H. influenzae, 25 H. parainfluenzae, 7 H. haemolyticus, and 2 H. parahaemolyticus including 77 clinical isolates was analyzed by FISH with newly designed DNA probes, and two different MALDI-TOF-MS systems (Bruker, Shimadzu) with and without prior formic acid extraction. Principal Findings Among the 84 Haemophilus strains analyzed, FISH led to 71 correct results (85%), 13 uninterpretable results (15%), and no misidentifications. Shimadzu MALDI-TOF-MS resulted in 59 correct identifications (70%), 19 uninterpretable results (23%), and 6 misidentifications (7%), using colony material applied directly. Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS with prior formic acid extraction led to 74 correct results (88%), 4 uninterpretable results (5%) and 6 misidentifications (7%). The Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS misidentifications could be resolved by the addition of a suitable H. haemolyticus reference spectrum to the system's database. In conclusion, no analyzed diagnostic procedure was free of errors. Diagnostic results have to be interpreted carefully and alternative tests should be applied in case of ambiguous test results on isolates from seriously ill patients. PMID:23646201

Frickmann, Hagen; Christner, Martin; Donat, Martina; Berger, Anja; Essig, Andreas; Podbielski, Andreas; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven

2013-01-01

308

Whole mount in situ hybridization methodology for Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence for Schistosoma mansoni has been determined, allowing the complete protein complement to be predicted. However, few functional genomics techniques have been developed for use in S. mansoni, limiting the usefulness of the sequence data. Here we describe a whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) method that can be used to identify the tissue-specific expression of transcripts in S. mansoni. Using this protocol we determine the tissue-specific expression of tetraspanin 2, a female-enriched tetraspanin, phenol oxidase, the secretory Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and an Argonaute family member. The localization of these transcripts by WISH correlates with prior studies performed using immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization on tissue sections. WISH can be adapted to screen multiple transcripts, thus identifying novel targets for drugs or vaccines. PMID:21397637

Cogswell, Alexis A.; Collins, James J.; Newmark, Phillip A.; Williams, David L.

2011-01-01

309

Cytochrome P4502E (CYP2E) in Brain: Constitutive Expression, Induction by Ethanol and Localization by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P4502E (P4502E), the major ethanol-inducible P450 metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde and bioactivates procarcinogens to ultimate carcinogens. Metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the brain could be deleterious since it can react with cytoskeletal proteins, forming adducts. In the present study, rats were administered ethanol chronically to evaluate its effect on chlorzoxazone hydroxylation in rat brain regions. Chlorzoxazone hydroxylation in

Sudarshan C. Upadhya; Padmashree S. Tirumalai; Michael R. Boyd; Toshiyuki Mori; Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath

2000-01-01

310

The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the diagnosis of hidden mosaicism: apropos of three cases of sex chromosome anomalies.  

PubMed

FISH has been used as a complement to classical cytogenetics in the detection of mosaicism in sex chromosome anomalies. The aim of this study is to describe three cases in which the final diagnosis could only be achieved by FISH. Case 1 was an 8-year-old 46,XY girl with normal female genitalia referred to our service because of short stature. FISH analysis of lymphocytes with probes for the X and Y centromeres identified a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y) constitution, and established the diagnosis of Turner syndrome. Case 2 was a 21-month-old 46,XY boy with genital ambiguity (penile hypospadias, right testis, and left streak gonad). FISH analysis of lymphocytes and buccal smear identified a 45,X/46,XY karyotype, leading to diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Case 3 was a 47,XYY 19-year-old boy with delayed neuromotor development, learning disabilities, psychological problems, tall stature, small testes, elevated gonadotropins, and azoospermia. FISH analysis of lymphocytes and buccal smear identified a 47,XYY/48,XXYY constitution. Cases 1 and 2 illustrate the phenotypic variability of the 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and the importance of detection of the 45,X cell line for proper management and follow-up. In case 3, abnormal gonadal function could be explained by the 48,XXYY cell line. The use of FISH in clinical practice is particularly relevant when classical cytogenetic analysis yields normal or uncertain results in patients with features of sex chromosome aneuploidy. PMID:23295296

Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas; Paulo, Juliana De; Santos, Ana Paula; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Andrade, Juliana Gabriel Ribeiro; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Júnior, Gil

2012-11-01

311

Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings in 43 aneurysmal bone cysts: aberrations of 17p mapped to 17p13.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign, cystic lesion of bone composed of blood-filled spaces separated by fibrous septa. Relatively few cases of aneurysmal bone cyst have been cytogenetically characterized, yet abnormalities of the short arm of chromosome 17 appear to be recurrent. In this study, conventional cytogenetic analysis of 43 aneurysmal bone cyst specimens from 38 patients over a 12-year

Pamela A Althof; Kazuo Ohmori; Ming Zhou; Jacqueline M Bailey; R Stuart Bridge; Marilu Nelson; James R Neff; Julia A Bridge

2004-01-01

312

Apparent mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2) ruled out by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a Smith-Magenis syndrome patient  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome typically associated with a deletion of band p11.2 of human chromosome 17. Finucane et al. reported a 14-year-old boy with mild physical and behavior manifestations of SMS. No evidence for deletion was initially evident in 20 peripheral blood lymphocytes examined at 850 band level of resolution. Examination of metaphase chromosomes of skin fibroblasts showed a deletion of 17p11.2 in 25/25 cells examined which was consistent with the patient`s clinical manifestations of SMS. Subsequent examination of 25 cells from peripheral blood cultures indicated that 11% of cells harbored a deletion at 17p11.2, thus suggesting a mosaicism for the deletion. A third study of 20 peripheral blood lymphocytes examined at 550-850 band length resolution in a different laboratory, indicated that 13 cells had no apparent deletion, 4 cells had an apparent deletion and 3 cells were questionable. 7 refs.

Juyal, R.C.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lupski, J.R.; Greenberg, F.; Baldini, A.; Patel, P.I. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-11-20

313

International, collaborative assessment of limitations of chromosome-specific probes (CSP) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): Analysis of expected detections in 73,000 prenatal cases  

SciTech Connect

FISH and CSP have been proposed to reduce karyotyping need. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential efficacy of CSP-FISH using currently available probes (13, 18, 21, X, & Y) in large, prenatal diagnostic centers. Results (1990-1993) from 7 centers in 4 countries were divided by those expected to be detectable by currently available probes, and those which would be missed assuming 10% probe efficacy. 72,994 karyotypes included 699 trisomy 21`s, 352 trisomy 18`s, 136 trisomy 13`s, 358 sex chromosome aneuploidies, 70 triploidies, and 855 others (translocations, inversions, deletions, markers). Of 2,613 abnormalities, 1,745 would be detectable (66.8%). [Detroit 55.7%, Stockholm 68.3%, Boston 52.6%, Denver 61.3%, Muenster 77.0%, London 84.5%, Philadelphia 69.4%]. Centers with high proportions of referrals for ultrasound anomalies had the highest CSP-FISH positives secondary to increased T 18 & 13. We conclude: (1) 73,000 karyotypes show relatively consistent incidences of the common trisomies, sex chromosome abnormalities, and other chromosome abnormalities among the centers. (2) The proportion expected detectable by FISH-CSP technology varies from 52.6% to 84.5%, averaging 66.8%. (3) 1/3 of the karyotypic abnormalities would be missed, and therefore, replacement of complete karyotyping with FISH would have unacceptably high false-negative rates for routine evaluation. (4) FISH-CSP, while useful when positive for anomalies, is not sufficient when negative to obviate the need for a complete karyotype.

Evans, M.I.; Henry, G.P.; Miller, W.A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

314

Localization of the horse (Equus caballus) ?-globin gene complex to chromosome 13 by luorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-globin gene complex in Equus caballus has been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to the telomeric region of the long arm of chromosome 13. This is the first equine gene to be mapped to this chromosome.Copyright © 1993 S. Karger AG, Basel

E. A. Oakenfull; V. J. Buckle; J. B. Clegg

1993-01-01

315

Aneusomy of chromosomes 7, 8, and 17 and amplification of HER-2/neu and epidermal growth factor receptor in Gleason score 7 prostate carcinoma: a differential fluorescent in situ hybridization study of Gleason pattern 3 and 4 using tissue microarray.  

PubMed

Recent evidence shows that the proportion of poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma (Gleason pattern [GP] 4/5) is a surrogate factor for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). However, little is known about specific molecular and cytogenetic changes in this aggressive component of localized prostate cancer. We constructed a tissue microarray containing areas of GP 3 and 4 from formalin-fixed radical prostatectomy specimens of 39 patients with Gleason score 7 carcinoma (>or=50% GP 4), known pathologic staging parameters (stage < T3b), and biochemical failure data (mean follow-up, 30 months; range, 5 to 74 months). Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on 5-microm microarray sections using pericentromeric probes to chromosomes 7, 8, and 17 and probes for the HER-2/neu and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes. Low-level amplification of HER-2/neu was found in 26% of cases (3 to 5 signals per nucleus, corrected for chromosome 17 aneusomy). Aneusomy of chromosomes 7, 8, and 17 was identified in 21%, 15%, and 5% of cases, respectively. All aberrations occurred almost exclusively in GP 4 carcinoma (8 of 8 aneusomies 7, 2 of 2 trisomies 17, 9 of 10 HER-2/neu amplifications, and 5 of 6 aneusomies 8; P < .001). The presence of HER-2/neu amplification was associated with high tumor volume (>2.0 cm(3), P = 0.004). Among patients with negative surgical margins, gain of chromosome 7 was associated with biochemical failure after RP (P =.004, log-rank). Amplification of the EGFR gene occurred in only 1 case (3%). Significant differences in HER-2/neu amplification and gain of chromosomes 7, 8, and 17 were detected between GP 4 prostate carcinoma and GP 3. The frequency of aberrations increased with tumor volume. Chromosome 7 abnormalities may play an important role in cancer progression in margin-negative patients. EGFR amplification was rare, suggesting that this oncogene is not altered at the gene copy number level. PMID:11774175

Skacel, M; Ormsby, A H; Pettay, J D; Tsiftsakis, E K; Liou, L S; Klein, E A; Levin, H S; Zippe, C D; Tubbs, R R

2001-12-01

316

Assignment of the human angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene (AGTR2) to chromosome Xq22-q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Angiotensin II (AII), the biologically active effector of the renin-angiotensin system, is a major regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte balance and a growth factor for diverse cell types. AII exerts its physiological effects by interacting with two pharmacologically distinct subtypes of receptors, designated AT{sub 1}, and AT{sub 2}. Most of the known responses to AII are mediated by the AT{sub 1} subtype, whereas the function of the AT{sub 2} receptor remains largely unknown. AT{sub 2} receptor expression is abundant in particular tissues such as adrenal medulla, specific brain regions, uterine myometrium, and ovarian granuloma cells. This specific localization in adult coupled to the demonstration that some actions of AII such as secretion of luteinizing hormone and prolactine, dilation of brain arterioles, or drinking response in rats can be inhibited in vitro by an AT{sub 2} receptor antagonist suggests that the AT{sub 2} subtype may play a role in neuronal and reproductive function. In addition, a growing amount of evidence indicates that the AT{sub 2} receptor may play a most important role in processes involving cellular growth and differentiation. It is abundantly and widely expressed in the mesenchymal tissues of the developing fetus and in the immature brain and is up-regulated in the heart and in vascular smooth muscle cells in the first days following birth. Moreover, AT{sub 2} receptor expression is enhanced in the adult in wound healing, in the neointima of injured vessels, and in pheochromocytoma. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Chassagne, C.; Meloche, S. [Hotel-Dieu de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Hotel-Dieu de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beatty, B.G. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1995-01-20

317

In Situ Measurement of Bioluminescence and Fluorescence in an Integrated  

E-print Network

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 3 DuPont Company Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 2, chemical detection, and gene expres- sion profiling. We have demonstrated methods for in situ measurements

Sinskey, Anthony J.

318

The use of dna sequencing (ITS and trnL-F), AFLP, and fluorescent in situ hybridization to study allopolyploid Miscanthus (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two clones of Miscanthus, grown under the names M. 3giganteus and M. sacchariflorus, have been used in biomass trials in Europe, but neither the identity of these clones nor their origin has been established. DNA sequencing, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and chromosome studies confirm thatM. 3giganteus is an allotriploid (2n 5 3x 5 57) combining genomes from M. sinensis

TREVOR R. HODKINSON; M. W. Chase; CHIGUSA TAKAHASHI; ILIA J. LEITCH; MICHAEL D. BENNETT; STEPHEN A. RENVOIZE

2002-01-01

319

A Variant Klinefelter Syndrome Patient with an XXY\\/XX\\/XY Karyotype Studied by GTG-Banding and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klinefelter syndrome is the first human sex chromosomal abnormality to be reported. The majority of Klinefelter syndrome patients have the XXY karyotype. Approximately 15% of Klinefelter patients, however, are mosaics with variable phenotypes. Among the variant Kline felter genotypes are such karyotypes as XY\\/XXY and XX\\/XXY. The variation in phenotypes most likely depends on the number of abnormal cells and

Hon Fong L. Mark; Hongwei Bai; Edgar Sotomayor; Seamus Mark; Kathy Zolnierz; Ellison Airall; Mark Sigman

1999-01-01

320

Accurate Identification of ALK Positive Lung Carcinoma Patients: Novel FDA-Cleared Automated Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Scanning System and Ultrasensitive Immunohistochemistry  

PubMed Central

Background Based on the excellent results of the clinical trials with ALK-inhibitors, the importance of accurately identifying ALK positive lung cancer has never been greater. However, there are increasing number of recent publications addressing discordances between FISH and IHC. The controversy is further fuelled by the different regulatory approvals. This situation prompted us to investigate two ALK IHC antibodies (using a novel ultrasensitive detection-amplification kit) and an automated ALK FISH scanning system (FDA-cleared) in a series of non-small cell lung cancer tumor samples. Methods Forty-seven ALK FISH-positive and 56 ALK FISH-negative NSCLC samples were studied. All specimens were screened for ALK expression by two IHC antibodies (clone 5A4 from Novocastra and clone D5F3 from Ventana) and for ALK rearrangement by FISH (Vysis ALK FISH break-apart kit), which was automatically captured and scored by using Bioview's automated scanning system. Results All positive cases with the IHC antibodies were FISH-positive. There was only one IHC-negative case with both antibodies which showed a FISH-positive result. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHC in comparison with FISH were 98% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions The specificity of these ultrasensitive IHC assays may obviate the need for FISH confirmation in positive IHC cases. However, the likelihood of false negative IHC results strengthens the case for FISH testing, at least in some situations. PMID:25248157

Conde, Esther; Suárez-Gauthier, Ana; Benito, Amparo; Garrido, Pilar; García-Campelo, Rosario; Biscuola, Michele; Paz-Ares, Luis; Hardisson, David; de Castro, Javier; Camacho, M. Carmen; Rodriguez-Abreu, Delvys; Abdulkader, Ihab; Ramirez, Josep; Reguart, Noemí; Salido, Marta; Pijuán, Lara; Arriola, Edurne; Sanz, Julián; Folgueras, Victoria; Villanueva, Noemí; Gómez-Román, Javier; Hidalgo, Manuel; López-Ríos, Fernando

2014-01-01

321

A new image analysis system for biological dosimetry by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Step 1: metaphase finder and automatic metaphase acquisition validation.  

PubMed

Because of the large number of cells to be analyzed in cases of overexposure to ionizing radiation, an automated imaging system is desirable for scoring both translocations and dicentrics. This system should include three essential steps: automatic metaphase finding, automatic image capture at high magnification, and, finally, optimized data analysis for aberration interpretation. We evaluated a new image analysis system (CYTOGEN, IMSTAR, France) and found that its metaphase finder saved time, as much as quadrupling the speed of scoring chromosomal aberrations. Automatic metaphase selection did not appear to induce bias. We confirmed the equivalence of observing aberrations on a screen after automatic image capture and direct observation under a microscope. This work validated all of the steps necessary for obtaining images for automatic chromosomal aberration detection. The protocols for the detection of translocations may now be applied for biological dosimetry. This step will be validated in a future study. PMID:11599883

Roy, L; Durand, V; Delbos, M; Sorokine-Durm, I; Soussaline, F; Voisin, P

2001-06-01

322

In situ hybridization approach to study mRNA expression and distribution in cochlear frozen sections.  

PubMed

In situ hybridization is well suited to obtaining specific topological information on gene transcripts and thereby to relating such observations to a particular function. In spite of the technical and practical difficulties, the application of molecular biological techniques such as in situ hybridization to the cochlea can provide important insights. However, the rarity of gene products (mRNA and proteins) in the cochlea and its fragile structure require the refinement and adaptation of in situ hybridization methods. The present chapter provides a detailed in situ hybridization protocol adapted to frozen tissue sections collected from adult and neonatal stages of the vertebrate cochlea. PMID:18839340

Hiel, Hakim

2009-01-01

323

The diagnostic value of SYT-SSX detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for synovial sarcoma: a review and prospective study of 255 cases.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of SYT-SSX detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for synovial sarcoma (SS) in known and potential cases. SYT-SSX was analyzed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 62 known SS, 60 non-SS and 133 potential SS by RT-PCR and FISH. FISH was mainly performed on a tissue microarray with some modifications. SYT-SSX was detected in 94.7% (54/57) of known SS and 70.5% (86/122) of potential SS by RT-PCR and in 96.7% (58/60) of known SS and 78.1% (100/128) of potential SS by FISH. Moreover, SYT-SSX was negative in 100% (58/58) of non-SS by RT-PCR and in 100% (59/59) of non-SS by FISH. Accordingly, SYT-SSX was detected in 106 potential SS by RT-PCR or FISH, including 80 cases manifested by both methods, 20 specimens verified only by FISH and 6 samples confirmed only by RT-PCR. Clinical findings and immunohistochemistry data were analyzed in potential SS with final molecular diagnosis. The positive ratio of cytokeratin (CK) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in finally diagnosed SS was 51.9% (55/106) and 61.3% (65/106), respectively. Except EMA, clinical parameters (age, sex, tumor size, tumor sites) and other immunohistochemistry indexes (CK, S-100, neurone specific enolase (NSE), CD99, myoglobin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), cluster of differentiation (CD) 68 and mesothelial cell) had no significant difference between finally diagnosed SS and non-SS. It is indicated that the efficiency of FISH is comparable to or even higher than that of RT-PCR for SYT-SSX detection. The detection of SYT-SSX by RT-PCR or FISH is very useful for the final diagnosis of potential synovial sarcomas. PMID:18460022

Sun, Baocun; Sun, Yan; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Xiulan; Zhang, Shiwu; Liu, Yanxue; Li, Xiaoqing; Feng, Yumei; Zhou, Hongyuan; Hao, Xishan

2008-07-01

324

High-Resolution Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization Using Quantum Dot Nanocrystals  

PubMed Central

The photostability and narrow emission spectra of nanometer-scale semiconductor crystallites (QDs) make them desirable candidates for whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect mRNA transcripts in morphologically preserved intact embryos. We describe a method for direct QD labeling of modified oligonucleotide probes through streptavidin-biotin and antibody-mediated interactions (anti-FITC and anti-digoxigenin). To overcome permeability issues and allow QD conjugate penetration, embryos were treated with proteinase K. The use of QDs dramatically increased sensitivity of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) in comparison with organic fluorophores and enabled fluorescent detection of specific transcripts within cells without the use of enzymatic amplification. Therefore, this method offers significant advantages both in terms of sensitivity, as well as resolution. Specifically, the use of QDs alleviates issues of photostability and limited brightness plaguing organic fluorophores and allows fluorescent imaging of cleared embryos. It also offers new imaging possibilities, including intracellular localization of mRNAs, simultaneous multiple-transcript detection, and visualization of mRNA expression patterns in 3D. PMID:22287835

Ioannou, Andriani; Eleftheriou, Iro; Lubatti, Andrea; Charalambous, Anna; Skourides, Paris A.

2012-01-01

325

Non-isotopic RNA In Situ Hybridization on Embryonic Sections.  

PubMed

This unit describes methods for non-isotopic RNA in situ hybridization on embryonic mouse sections. These methods can be used to follow the spatiotemporal dynamics of gene expression in an embryonic tissue of interest. They involve the use of labeled (e.g., digoxygenin, FITC) antisense riboprobes that hybridize to a specific mRNA in the target tissue. The probes are detected using an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated antibody recognizing the label and a chromogenic substrate. This method can be used to: (1) assess the expression of a single gene within a tissue, (2) compare the expression profiles of two genes within a tissue, or (3) compare the distribution of a transcript and protein within a tissue. While this approach is not quantitative, it provides a qualitative assessment of the precise cell types where a gene is expressed, which is not easily achievable with other more quantitative methods such as quantitative PCR. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25559002

Touahri, Yacine; Adnani, Lata; Mattar, Pierre; Markham, Kathryn; Klenin, Natalia; Schuurmans, Carol

2015-01-01

326

IN SITU PLANETARY MINERALOGY USING SIMULTANEOUS TIME RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. J. Blacksberg1  

E-print Network

1. Image of our pulsed 532nm laser focusedIN SITU PLANETARY MINERALOGY USING SIMULTANEOUS TIME RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY@gps.caltech.edu Introduction: Micro-Raman spectroscopy is one of the primary methods of mineralogical analysis

Rossman. George R.

327

Regulatory Pathway Analysis by High-Throughput In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Automated in situ hybridization enables the construction of comprehensive atlases of gene expression patterns in mammals. Such atlases can become Web-searchable digital expression maps of individual genes and thus offer an entryway to elucidate genetic interactions and signaling pathways. Towards this end, an atlas housing ?1,000 spatial gene expression patterns of the midgestation mouse embryo was generated. Patterns were textually annotated using a controlled vocabulary comprising >90 anatomical features. Hierarchical clustering of annotations was carried out using distance scores calculated from the similarity between pairs of patterns across all anatomical structures. This process ordered hundreds of complex expression patterns into a matrix that reflects the embryonic architecture and the relatedness of patterns of expression. Clustering yielded 12 distinct groups of expression patterns. Because of the similarity of expression patterns within a group, members of each group may be components of regulatory cascades. We focused on the group containing Pax6, an evolutionary conserved transcriptional master mediator of development. Seventeen of the 82 genes in this group showed a change of expression in the developing neocortex of Pax6-deficient embryos. Electromobility shift assays were used to test for the presence of Pax6-paired domain binding sites. This led to the identification of 12 genes not previously known as potential targets of Pax6 regulation. These findings suggest that cluster analysis of annotated gene expression patterns obtained by automated in situ hybridization is a novel approach for identifying components of signaling cascades. PMID:17953485

Visel, Axel; Carson, James; Oldekamp, Judit; Warnecke, Marei; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Zhou, Xunlei; Shaw, Chad A; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Eichele, Gregor

2007-01-01

328

1Nonradioactive In Situ Hybridization in Atherosclerotic Tissue.  

PubMed

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful and important technique that allows the detection and microscopic localization of nucleic acids within the specific cell, tissue, or chromosome of interest. In addition, it offers increased sensitivity over traditional filter hybridization, since low-copy mRNA molecules in individual cells can be detected. At the time the ISH technique was developed by Pardue and Gall (1), there were restrictions in it since radioisotopes were the only labels for nucleic acids available and autoradiographic film was the only detection system. Current molecular biological cloning techniques have now enabled most researchers to prepare almost any specific probe of choice and, more importantly, modern nonradioactive labels with colorimetric detection have removed all the limitations and restrictions of radioactive labels. The principal advantages of nonradioactive hybridization compared with isotopic hybridization are increased speed, greater resolution, lower costs, and reduced radioactive exposure. Furthermore, it allows the opportunity for combining different labels in one ISH experiment. The procedures behind ISH localization of DNA or RNA are very similar and may be summarized in five areas: (1) sample and glass slide preparation, including fixation, mounting, and ISH pretreatment, (2) probe preparation/labeling, (3) hybridization, (4) probe removal/washing, and (5) detection. Nonradioactive probe labeling itself can be divided into two methods, i.e., direct and indirect. This chapter describes the preparation of atherosclerotic tissue for ISH, indirect labeling of probes with digoxigenin (DIG), and the detection protocols suitable for this type of tissue. The DIG labeling method was developed by Kessler (2) and is based on the steroid digoxigenin, which is isolated from Digitalis purpurea and D. lanata. The DIG molecule is linked to the C-5 position of uridine (UTP, dUTP, or ddUTP) via a spacer arm. The DIG-labeled nucleotides can be incorporated easily into nucleic acid probes by DNA polymerases such as DNA polymerase I,Taq DNA polymerase, T7 DNA polymerase, RNA polymerases, and terminal transferase. These various enzymes therefore allow DIG labeling by random priming, nick translation, PCR, 3'-end labeling/tailing, and in vitro transcription. Following hybridization, DIG-probes may be detected with high-affinity specific anti-DIG antibodies (3). These antibodies are conjugated with alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fluoroscein, rhodamine, AMCA (amino-methylcoumarin-acetic acid), or colloidal gold (for electron microscopy) enabling a very versatile detection system. This system can be made even more versatile and sensitive by using unconjugated anti-DIG followed by conjugated secondary antibodies. A detection sensitivity of about 0.1 pg (as determined by Southern blot) can be achieved with combinations of anti-DIG-alkaline phospatase and NBT or BCIP. In this chapter, I describe a protocol that we developed for nonradioactive in situ hybridization of atherosclerotic tissue for the detection of interleukin 8, tissue factor, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue (4-7). PMID:21340943

Apostolopoulos, J

2001-01-01

329

In situ hybridization of plant meiotic and mitotic chromosomes: differences in signal detection.  

PubMed

The technique of in situ hybridization to both meiotic and mitotic chromosomes of Rumex acetosa is described. Differences in the efficiency of signal detection were observed between the two types of material. The implications of these results for in situ hybridization to other plant species are explored. PMID:1300148

Clark, M S; Parker, J S

1992-09-01

330

In situ hybridization of superparamagnetic iron-biomolecule nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The increase in interest in the integration of organic-inorganic nanostructures in recent years has promoted the use of hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) in medicine, energy conversion, and other applications. Conventional hybridization methods are, however, often long, complicated, and multistepped, and they involve biomolecules and discrete nanostructures as separate entities, all of which hinder the practical use of the resulting HNPs. Here, we present a novel, in situ approach to synthesizing size-specific HNPs using Fe-biomolecule complexes as the building blocks. We choose an anticancer peptide (p53p, MW 1.8 kDa) and an enzyme (GOx, MW 160 kDa) as model molecules to demonstrate the versatility of the method toward different types of molecules over a large size range. We show that electrostatic interaction for complex formation of metal hydroxide ion with the partially charged side of biomolecule in the solution is the key to hybridization of metal-biomolecule materials. Electrochemical deposition is then used to produce hybrid NPs from these complexes. These HNPs with controllable sizes ranging from 30 nm to 3.5 ?m are found to exhibit superparamagnetic behavior, which is a big challenge for particles in this size regime. As an example of greatly improved properties and functionality of the new hybrid material, in vitro toxicity assessment of Fe-GOx HNPs shows no adverse effect, and the Fe-p53p HNPs are found to selectively bind to cancer cells. The superparamagnetic nature of these HNPs (superparamagnetic even above the size regime of 15-20 nm!), their biocompatibility, and the direct integration approach are fundamentally important to biomineralization and general synthesis strategy for bioinspired functional materials. PMID:24992603

Moghimi, Nafiseh; Donkor, Apraku David; Mohapatra, Mamata; Thomas, Joseph Palathinkal; Su, Zhengding; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Leung, Kam Tong

2014-07-23

331

Iridium Clusters for Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane—An In Situ Transmission and Fluorescence XAFS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ transmission and fluorescence EXAFS combined with on-line gas analysis have provided new insight in the structural changes and the catalytic properties of Ir clusters during the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane. A novel in situ fluorescence XAFS setup with a multi element silicon drift detector allows time-resolved in situ studies on catalysts with small noble metal concentrations.

J.-D. Grunwaldt; P. Kappen; L. Basini; B. S. Clausen

2002-01-01

332

Renal cell carcinomas with t(6;11)(p21;q12): A clinicopathologic study emphasizing unusual morphology, novel alpha-TFEB gene fusion point, immunobiomarkers, and ultrastructural features, as well as detection of the gene fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with t(6;11)(p21;q12) are extremely rare and characterized by specific chromosome translocation, involving the transcription factor EB (TFEB). Fewer than 30 cases have been described in the literature. We examined 7 additional cases of this rare tumor by clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, molecular, and ultrastructural analyses. Four tumors had the typical morphologic features of TFEB RCCs, whereas 3 cases demonstrated uncommon morphologic features, mimicking epithelioid angiomyolipoma, chromophobe cell RCC, and clear cell RCC, respectively. Immunohistochemically, aside from TFEB and cathepsin K, kidney-specific cadherin was another sensitive and relatively specific marker for TFEB RCCs, supporting a distal nephron origin for these renal tumors. We also observed different ultrastructures including mitochondrion with areas of lipofuscin pigment in the smaller cells in these cases. An identical Alpha-TFEB fusion gene, 486 bp, was identified in 2 cases. In addition to the polymerase chain reaction method, we also developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay to serve as a cost-effective and time-efficient diagnostic tool. We detected a TFEB gene rearrangement in all 7 cases using the fluorescence in situ hybridization method. TFEB RCC seemed to be an indolent tumor. During a mean follow-up of 31 months, none of the cases developed tumor recurrence, progression, or metastasis. PMID:22895266

Rao, Qiu; Liu, Biao; Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yun; Shi, Qun-Li; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Shao-Jun; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ru-Song; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Tu, Pin; Wang, Jian-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

2012-09-01

333

In situ preparation of highly fluorescent dyes upon photoirradiation.  

PubMed

Photoswitchable or photoactivatable fluorescent dyes are potentially applicable to ultrahigh density optical memory media as well as super-resolution fluorescence imaging when the dyes are highly fluorescent and have large absorption coefficients. Here, we report on highly fluorescent photochromic dyes, which are initially nonluminous in solution under irradiation with visible light but activated to emit green or red fluorescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light. The dyes 5a-9a are sulfone derivatives of 1,2-bis(2-ethyl-6-phenyl(or thienyl)-1-benzothiophen-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene. It was found that substitution of phenyl or thiophene rings at 6 and 6' positions of the benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide groups is effective to increase the fluorescence quantum yields of the closed-ring isomers over 0.7 and absorption coefficients over 4 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1). The phenyl-substituted derivatives 5a-7a undergo photocyclization reactions to produce yellow closed-ring isomers 5b-7b, which emit brilliant green fluorescence at around 550 nm (?(F) = 0.87-0.88) under irradiation with 488 nm light. Any absorption intensity change of the closed-ring isomers was not observed even after 100 h storage in the dark at 80 °C. The closed-ring isomers slowly returned to the initial open-ring isomers upon irradiation with visible (? > 480 nm) light. The ring-opening quantum yields (?(C?O)) were measured to be (1.6-4.0) × 10(-4). When the phenyl substituents are replaced with thiophene rings, such as compounds 8a and 9a, the absorption bands of the closed-ring isomers shift to longer than 500 nm. The closed-ring isomers exhibit brilliant red fluorescences at around 620 nm (?(F) = 0.61-0.78) under irradiation with 532 nm light. The ring-opening reactions are very slow (?(C?O) < 1 × 10(-5)). The fluorescence lifetimes of these sulfone derivatives were measured to be around 2-3 ns, which is much longer than the value of the closed-ring isomer of 1,2-bis(2-methyl-1-benzothiophen-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene (?(F) = 4 and 22 ps). The closed-ring isomer 8b in 1,4-dioxane exhibits excellent fatigue resistant property under irradiation with visible light (? > 440 nm) superior to the stability of Rhodamine 101 in ethanol. PMID:21819048

Uno, Kakishi; Niikura, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Masakazu; Ishibashi, Yukihide; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Irie, Masahiro

2011-08-31

334

The Use of Whole-Mount "in Situ" Hybridization to Illustrate Gene Expression Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"In situ" hybridization is a widely used technique for studying gene expression. Here, we describe two experiments addressed to postgraduate genetics students in which the effect of transcription factors on gene expression is analyzed in "Drosophila embryos of different genotypes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In one of the…

Llamusí, Beatriz; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Paricio, Nuria; Artero, Rubén

2014-01-01

335

Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization  

E-print Network

Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization Sanja Tepavcevic, Seth B-enhanced solar energy conversion. By using this simple in situ UV polymerization method that couples mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. 1. Introduction Hybrid solar cells have been developed

Sibener, Steven

336

Fluorescent labels for in situ wet chemistry experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate a wide selection of dyes and suggest a panel that would be the most likely to succeed in a simple flight instrument with a single excitation laser. We also investigate fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots as additions to or replacements for these organic dyes.

Kloepfer, J. A.; Nadeau, J. L.

2003-01-01

337

Resolving Genetic Functions within Microbial Populations: In Situ Analyses Using rRNA and mRNA Stable Isotope Probing Coupled with Single-Cell Raman-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prokaryotes represent one-half of the living biomass on Earth, with the vast majority remaining elusive to culture and study within the laboratory. As a result, we lack a basic understanding of the functions that many species perform in the natural world. To address this issue, we developed complementary population and single-cell stable isotope (13C)-linked analyses to determine microbial identity and

Wei E. Huang; Andrew Ferguson; Andrew C. Singer; Kathryn Lawson; Ian P. Thompson; Robert M. Kalin; Michael J. Larkin; Mark J. Bailey; Andrew S. Whiteley

2009-01-01

338

Duplex in situ hybridization in the study of gene co-regulation in the vertebrate brain.  

PubMed

We describe here a high-sensitivity in situ hybridization protocol, optimized for fresh-frozen brain sections, that enables the detection of two transcripts, at single cell resolution. Riboprobes directed against two mRNAs of interest are synthesized with nucleotides tagged with different haptens (digoxigenin- or biotin-UTP), via in vitro transcription, hybridized simultaneously to brain sections, and independently detected through immunocytochemistry. Sequential detection of each probe involves peroxidase-mediated precipitation of tyramide-linked fluorophores of separate emission wavelengths. In addition, we demonstrate how classic non-fluorescent chromogens, such as 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, can be successfully combined with fluorescence-based detection, to yield reliable detection of two transcript populations. We provide examples of representative results obtained with this protocol and describe necessary controls. Additionally, we discuss common problems associated with this methodology, and detail troubleshooting recommendations. Although this method has been optimized for brain sections, it may be useful to detect two mRNA species in a variety of tissues. PMID:19960326

Pinaud, Raphael; Jeong, Jin K

2010-01-01

339

Rapid in situ assessment of physiological activities in bacterial biofilms using fluorescent probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two rapid in situ enumeration methods using fluorescent probes were used to assess the physiological activities of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms on stainless steel. Fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and rhodamine 123 (Rh 123), were chosen to perform this study. CTC is a soluble redox indicator which can be reduced by respiring bacteria to fluorescent CTC-formazan crystals. Rh 123 is incorporated into bacteria with respect to cellular proton motive force. The intracellular accumulation of these fluorescent dyes can be determined using epifluorescence microscopy. The results obtained with these two fluorescent probes in situ were compared to the plate count (PC) and in situ direct viable count (DVC) methods. Viable cell densities within biofilms determined by the three in situ methods were comparable and always showed approximately 2-fold higher values than those obtained with the PC method. As an additional advantage, the results were observed after 2 h, which was shorter than the 4 h incubation time required for the DVC method and 24 h for colony formation. The results indicate that staining with CTC and Rh 123 provides rapid information regarding cell numbers and physiological activities of bacteria within biofilms.

Yu, F. P.; McFeters, G. A.

1994-01-01

340

[The method of phytoplankton photosynthesis activity in-situ measurement based on light induced fluorescence].  

PubMed

According to the phytoplankton fluorescence induction characteristics under different light conditions, chlorophyll fluorescence as a probe for analysis of phytoplankton photosynthesis was studied. The present paper proposed a in-situ measurement method based on the chlorophyll fluorescence values Ft and Fm to get phytoplankton photosynthesis activity, Chlorella vulgaris, microcystis aeruginosa and Cyclotella meneghiniana Kiits were selected as experimental subjects, a comparison test was done between self-developed in-situ measurement system and Water PAM in lab, and the results showed that coefficients between the two methods were 0.9778, 0.8786 and 0.7953. This work provides a rapid and in-situ measurement method for phytoplankton photosynthesis activity. PMID:24369649

Liu, Jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhao, Nan-jing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Ma, Ming-jun; Yin, Gao-fang; Dai, Pang-da; Wang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Chun-long; Duan, Jing-bo; Yu, Xiao-ya; Fang, Li

2013-09-01

341

Digoxigenin-labeled in situ hybridization for the detection of Streptococcus suis DNA in polyserositis and a comparison with biotinylated in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop digoxigenin-labeled in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of Streptococcus suis in naturally infected pigs with polyserositis and to compare it with biotinylated ISH. Digoxigenin-labeled hybridization signals for S. suis were observed in cells that had infiltrated the fibrous polyserositis and microcolonies in the blood vessels. Mock hybridization showed no hybridization signals for endogenous digoxigenin. Biotinylated hybridization signals for S. suis were observed in cells that had infiltrated the fibrous polyserositis. However, similar hybridization signals were also observed in the fibrous inflammatory area using mock hybridization for endogenous biotin. The present study demonstrated that digoxigenin-labeled ISH is a valuable diagnostic tool for specific detection of S. suis in polyserositic tissues without nonspecific reactions compared with biotinylated ISH. PMID:23985415

Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jeehoon; You, Ok Heui; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Chae, Chanhee

2014-01-01

342

Digoxigenin-Labeled In Situ Hybridization for the Detection of Streptococcus suis DNA in Polyserositis and a Comparison with Biotinylated In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to develop digoxigenin-labeled in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of Streptococcus suis in naturally infected pigs with polyserositis and to compare it with biotinylated ISH. Digoxigenin-labeled hybridization signals for S. suis were observed in cells that had infiltrated the fibrous polyserositis and microcolonies in the blood vessels. Mock hybridization showed no hybridization signals for endogenous digoxigenin. Biotinylated hybridization signals for S. suis were observed in cells that had infiltrated the fibrous polyserositis. However, similar hybridization signals were also observed in the fibrous inflammatory area using mock hybridization for endogenous biotin. The present study demonstrated that digoxigenin-labeled ISH is a valuable diagnostic tool for specific detection of S. suis in polyserositic tissues without nonspecific reactions compared with biotinylated ISH. PMID:23985415

KANG, Ikjae; SEO, Hwi Won; PARK, Changhoon; OH, Yeonsu; LEE, Jeehoon; YOU, Ok Heui; KIM, Sung-Hoon; GOTTSCHALK, Marcelo; CHAE, Chanhee

2013-01-01

343

HER2 in situ hybridization in gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: comparison of automated dual ISH to FISH.  

PubMed

Patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas that are HER2 positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization show a significant survival benefit with trastuzumab therapy. In situ hybridization is traditionally done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), despite some limitations. An alternative is the dual in situ hybridization (Dual ISH) technique that is fully automated and uses differentially labeled CEP17 and HER2 probes that can be read by light microscopy on 1 slide. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Dual ISH in gastric/GEJ cancer and to compare the results with those obtained by IHC and FISH. Cases of gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma were analyzed by IHC, FISH, and Dual ISH and the correlation between methods calculated. Results for 50 patients were available. There was a 98% (49/50) concordance rate between Dual ISH and FISH. One discrepant case was nonamplified by FISH but showed focal amplification by Dual ISH. Discrepancy was attributed to tumor heterogeneity, which was a frequent finding (78% of HER2-positive cases). There was excellent correlation between Dual ISH and FISH for assessment of HER2 amplification. Dual ISH was rapid, easy to interpret, and maintained cell morphology, which was valuable in identifying tumor heterogeneity. PMID:23455182

Grin, Andrea; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Bauer, Sharon; Streutker, Catherine J

2013-12-01

344

[Physical localization of ribosomal genes and chromosome DAPI banding by in situ hybridization in Medicago sativa L].  

PubMed

Physical localization of ribosomal genes in diploid and tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago. sativa) was studied using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). It was revealed that 45s gene was only located at nucleolus organizer region (NOR) with a single locus in both diploid and tetraploid alfalfa, while 5s gene had 2-3 loci on chromosomes. Using the genomic DNA from M. coerulea and M. falcata as probe to hybridize with tetraploid species in alfalfa, both diploid species were successfully hybridized with tetraploid chromosomes, only showing the difference in hybridization signals in different numbers of chromosomes. Chromosomes of alfalfa exhibited DAPI banding by FISH analysis. In general, the patterns of distribution of DAPI banding were consistent with C-banding for M. coerulea. The possible origination of tetraploid alfalfa was discussed based on DAPI banding patterns and FISH analysis for ribosomal genes . PMID:16520314

Chen, Jian-Min; Hong, Yi-Huan; Wang, You-Ping; Bowley, Steve; Wan, Jian-Min

2006-02-01

345

Preservation of RNA for in situ hybridization: Carnoy's versus formaldehyde fixation.  

PubMed

Tissues fixed with organic solvent fixatives such as Carnoy's solution are known to give poor and erratic results with in situ hybridization, whereas those fixed with paraformaldehyde produce more consistent results. To understand this difference and to improve the utility of Carnoy's-fixed tissue for in situ hybridization, we explored several parameters of RNA integrity and preservation. Carnoy's-fixed, paraffin-embedded livers and paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded livers of mice were compared for RNA extractability, degradation, and hybridizability. In addition, retention of RNA in tissue sections after sequential in situ hybridization treatments was compared. RNA was found to be easily extractable from Carnoy's-fixed liver and was well preserved, with only slight degradation of high molecular weight RNA. Conversely, only a small percentage of the RNA was extractable from paraformaldehyde-fixed liver unless the tissue was digested with protease. The extracted RNA was well preserved, without detectable degradation. Sections of tissue fixed in Carnoy's solution subjected to in situ hybridization retained only about 10% of their original RNA content and gave correspondingly weak in situ hybridization signals. Formaldehyde-fixed tissues retained much more of the RNA (about 45%) and produced strong in situ hybridization signals. Treatment of Carnoy's-fixed tissue sections with vaporous formaldehyde increased retention of RNA and provided in situ hybridization signals comparable with those of paraformaldehyde-fixed tissues. PMID:1280665

Urieli-Shoval, S; Meek, R L; Hanson, R H; Ferguson, M; Gordon, D; Benditt, E P

1992-12-01

346

In situ synthesis of fluorescent membrane lipids (ceramides) using click chemistry.  

PubMed

Ceramide analogues containing azide groups either in the polar head or in the hydrocarbon chains are non-fluorescent. When incorporated into phospholipid bilayers, they can react in situ with a non-fluorescent 1,8-naphthalimide using click chemistry giving rise to fluorescent ceramide derivatives emitting at ?440 nm. When incorporated into giant unilamellar vesicles, two-photon excitation at 760 nm allows visualization of the ceramide-containing bilayers. This kind of method may be of general applicability in the study of model and cell membranes. PMID:23596500

Garrido, María; Abad, José Luis; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Delgado, Antonio; Montes, L-Ruth

2012-07-01

347

Cytogenetic study of Anopheles albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) by C-banding and in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The C-banding pattern and the size and location of the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) are described for the first time in Brazilian populations of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis sensu lato. C-banding revealed variation in the size of the centromeric heterochromatic blocks in autosomal chromosomes and in the acrocentric (X) and puntiform (Y) sex chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of the sex (XX/XY) chromosomes and that this coincided with the number and location of centromeric constitutive heterochromatin blocks previously revealed by C-banding. The NORs varied in size among the homologues of the three populations. These findings of the populations studied support the hypothesis that the stability of NORs in the A. albitarsis complex is characterized by the presence of clustered and conserved sites in a unique pair of chromosomes. PMID:17362336

Rafael, M S; Santos, I P; Tadei, W P; Carvalho, K A; Recco-Pimente, S M; Sallum, M A M; Forattini, O P

2006-12-01

348

Next-Generation in Situ Hybridization Chain Reaction: Higher Gain, Lower Cost, Greater Durability  

PubMed Central

Hybridization chain reaction (HCR) provides multiplexed, isothermal, enzyme-free, molecular signal amplification in diverse settings. Within intact vertebrate embryos, where signal-to-background is at a premium, HCR in situ amplification enables simultaneous mapping of multiple target mRNAs, addressing a longstanding challenge in the biological sciences. With this approach, RNA probes complementary to mRNA targets trigger chain reactions in which metastable fluorophore-labeled RNA hairpins self-assemble into tethered fluorescent amplification polymers. The properties of HCR lead to straightforward multiplexing, deep sample penetration, high signal-to-background, and sharp subcellular signal localization within fixed whole-mount zebrafish embryos, a standard model system for the study of vertebrate development. However, RNA reagents are expensive and vulnerable to enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the stringent hybridization conditions used to destabilize nonspecific hairpin binding also reduce the energetic driving force for HCR polymerization, creating a trade-off between minimization of background and maximization of signal. Here, we eliminate this trade-off by demonstrating that low background levels can be achieved using permissive in situ amplification conditions (0% formamide, room temperature) and engineer next-generation DNA HCR amplifiers that maximize the free energy benefit per polymerization step while preserving the kinetic trapping property that underlies conditional polymerization, dramatically increasing signal gain, reducing reagent cost, and improving reagent durability. PMID:24712299

2014-01-01

349

Automated in situ hybridization for human papilloma virus.  

PubMed

With the increased number of requests for high-risk human papilloma virus in situ hybridization (HPV ISH), not only for uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but also for biopsies and resections of oropharyngeal SCC, and fine needle aspiration cell blocks of metastatic SCC in cervical lymph nodes, we optimized an automated method to replace the manual one we had used. The new technique used the Leica BOND-maX or III immunostainer, already in use for immunohistochemical analysis, with the Enzo HPV type 16/18 and 6/11 probes. We stained 55 surgical biopsies and 41 cell blocks of oropharyngeal SCC. Sensitivity was 90% and 73% for biopsies and cell blocks, respectively, with a specificity of 100% in both. Stain is strong and crisp with no background. Turnaround time is short as runs are performed daily, with up to 30 slides per run. Technologists become trained in a few days, and the repeat rate is low. The only disadvantage is that ISH and IHC cannot be performed simultaneously. We highly recommend this automated technique for high-risk and low-risk HPV ISH and probably with other probes. PMID:24897064

Cohen, Cynthia; Lawson, Diane; Jiang, Jennifer; Siddiqui, Momin T

2014-09-01

350

Regulatory pathway analysis by high-throughput in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Automated in situ hybridization (ISH) permits construction of comprehensive atlases of gene expression patterns in mammals. When web-accessible, such atlases become searchable digital expression maps of individual genes and offer an entryway to elucidate genetic interactions and signaling pathways. An atlas housing ~1,000 spatial gene expression patterns of the mid-gestation mouse embryo was generated. Patterns were textually annotated using a controlled vocabulary comprising 90 anatomical features. Hierarchical clustering of annotations was carried out using distance scores calculated from the similarity between pairs of patterns across all anatomical structures. This ordered hundreds of complex expression patterns into a matrix that reflected the embryonic architecture and the relatedness of patterns of expression. Clustering yielded twelve distinct groups of expression pattern. Because of similarity of expression patterns within a group, members of this group may be components of regulatory cascades. We focused on one group, which is composed of 83 genes, including Pax6, an evolutionary conserved transcriptional master mediator of the development. Using functional studies, ISH on Pax6-deficient embryos and Pax6 binding site identification and validation by means of electromobility shift assays, we identified numerous genes that are transcriptionally regulated by Pax6. Hence cluster analysis of annotated gene expression patterns obtained by robotic ISH is an entryway for identification of components of signaling cascades in mammals.

Visel, Axel; Carson, James P.; Oldekamp, Judit; Warnecke, Marei; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Zhou, Xunlei; Shaw, Chad; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Eichele, Gregor

2007-10-01

351

Automated multiplexing quantum dots in situ hybridization assay for simultaneous detection of ERG and PTEN gene status in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The photostability and narrow emission spectra of nonorganic quantum dot fluorophores make them desirable detection methods for ultrasensitive and multiplexing in situ hybridization applications to identify genetic aberrances in morphologically preserved clinical tissue specimens. However, robustness and reliability have not been fully investigated for quantum dot fluorophores in situ hybridization applications. We demonstrate the feasibility of an automated multiplexing four-color quantum dot fluorophores in situ hybridization assay comprised of four genomic probes each labeled with unique haptens, four anti-hapten antibodies each conjugated with quantum dot fluorophores with distinct emission spectrum, protocols for their use on a fully automated tissue staining platform, and direct observation of multiple signals using conventional filter-based fluorescent microscopy. This assay is successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of ERG3p, ERG5p, PTEN, and CEN10 genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate tissues on BenchMark ULTRA instruments. There were 386 slides from 10 prostatectomy cases stained on 13 on these instruments. These 10 cases consisted of benign prostate and prostate cancer; the cancer cases were either positive or negative for ERG rearrangement and/or contained PTEN deletion. There were 350 (91%) slides appropriately stained for all four targets. The staining results accurately identified the ERG and PTEN status for all 10 cases. This approach is expected to enable multiplexing in situ detection of molecular biomarkers in routinely processed human clinical specimens. PMID:23994645

Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Lei

2013-11-01

352

Investigation of polymer electrolyte membrane chemical degradation and degradation mitigation using in situ fluorescence spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A fluorescent molecular probe, 6-carboxy fluorescein, was used in conjunction with in situ fluorescence spectroscopy to facilitate real-time monitoring of degradation inducing reactive oxygen species within the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) of an operating PEM fuel cell. The key requirements of suitable molecular probes for in situ monitoring of ROS are presented. The utility of using free radical scavengers such as CeO2 nanoparticles to mitigate reactive oxygen species induced PEM degradation was demonstrated. The addition of CeO2 to uncatalyzed membranes resulted in close to 100% capture of ROS generated in situ within the PEM for a period of about 7 h and the incorporation of CeO2 into the catalyzed membrane provided an eightfold reduction in ROS generation rate. PMID:22219367

Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Arges, Christopher G.; Ramani, Vijay

2012-01-01

353

Hybrid assemblies of fluorescent nanocrystals and membrane proteins in liposomes.  

PubMed

Because of the growing potential of nanoparticles in biological and medical applications, tuning and directing their properties toward a high compatibility with the aqueous biological milieu is of remarkable relevance. Moreover, the capability to combine nanocrystals (NCs) with biomolecules, such as proteins, offers great opportunities to design hybrid systems for both nanobiotechnology and biomedical technology. Here we report on the application of the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method for incorporation of hydrophobic, red-emitting CdSe@ZnS NCs into the bilayer of liposomes. This method enabled the construction of a novel hybrid proteo-NC-liposome containing, as model membrane protein, the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Electron microscopy confirmed the insertion of NCs within the lipid bilayer without significantly altering the structure of the unilamellar vesicles. The resulting aqueous NC-liposome suspensions showed low turbidity and kept unaltered the wavelengths of absorbance and emission peaks of the native NCs. A relative NC fluorescence quantum yield up to 8% was preserved after their incorporation in liposomes. Interestingly, in proteo-NC-liposomes, RC is not denatured by Cd-based NCs, retaining its structural and functional integrity as shown by absorption spectra and flash-induced charge recombination kinetics. The outlined strategy can be extended in principle to any suitably sized hydrophobic NC with similar surface chemistry and to any integral protein complex. Furthermore, the proposed approach could be used in nanomedicine for the realization of theranostic systems and provides new, interesting perspectives for understanding the interactions between integral membrane proteins and nanoparticles, i.e., in nanotoxicology studies. PMID:24460372

De Leo, Vincenzo; Catucci, Lucia; Falqui, Andrea; Marotta, Roberto; Striccoli, Marinella; Agostiano, Angela; Comparelli, Roberto; Milano, Francesco

2014-02-18

354

Analysis of chromosome segregation during mammalian meiosis using combined immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hubridization  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic non-disjunction is thought to occur in 10-20% of all human oocytes, making this the most common genetic abnormality in our species. Aberrant recombination has been implicated in the genesis of these errors; however, direct studies of the meiotic process have been hampered by the lack of material and appropriate technology. We have developed a technique for the evaluation of meiosis in intact mammalian oocytes that combines immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This allows for simultaneous, 3-dimensional visualization of the meiotic spindle, the alignment of the chromosomes on the spindle, and the placement of specific chromosomes. We have used this technology to follow meiotic progression in oocytes from XO female mice to evaluate the behavior of an unsynapsed chromosome during mammalian meiosis. Perturbations in chromosome behavior are evident early in meiosis: during the formation of the first meiotic spindle, the univalent X chromosome is properly positioned. With the onset of anaphase, the single X chromosome most commonly segregates as an intact chromosome, although equational segregation of the X chromatids is seen in a significant minority (approximately 20%) of oocytes. These observations demonstrate that failure of pairing/recombination can result in segregation of sister chromatids at meiosis I. This has obvious implications for human non-disjunction, much of which is thought to be due to recombination deficiencies; accordingly, we are now extending our studies to include analyses of human oocytes.

Hunt, P.A.; Embury, P.B.; Mroz, K.M. [Case Western Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

355

Portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the development of a portable fluorescence spectroscopy platform for Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus disease in situ detection is presented. The equipment consists of an excitation blue LED light source, a commercial miniature spectrometer and embedded software. Measurements of healthy, HLB-symptomatic and HLB-asymptomatic citrus leafs were performed. Leafs were excited with the blue LED and their fluorescence spectra collected. Embedded electronics and software were responsible for the spectrum processing and classification via partial least squares regression. Global success rates above 80% and 100% distinction of healthy and HLB-symptomatic leafs were obtained.

Mota, Alessandro D.; Rossi, Giuliano; de Castro, Guilherme Cunha; Ortega, Tiago A.; de Castro N., Jarbas C.

2014-02-01

356

Rate of in situ Shattercane x Sorghum Hybridization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor subsp. bicolor) can interbreed with its close weedy relative shattercane (S. bicolor subsp. drummondii). The introduction of traits from sorghum into a shattercane population could contribute to the invasiveness of the wild shattercane population. An in situ experiment was...

357

High resolution chromosome analysis and in situ hybridization on amniotic fluid for diagnosis of a cryptic translocation.  

PubMed

We report a cryptic translocation ascertained in a family after the birth of a mentally retarded proband. High resolution chromosome examination revealed that the father had a subtle translocation between chromosome 5 and chromosome 13, 46, XY, t(5;13) (q35.2;q34). Two specific, non-routine techniques were associated for prenatal diagnosis: high resolution cytogenetic studies on the amniotic fluid and fluorescent in situ hybridization with YACs as specific telomeric probes. The fetus had the same cryptic translocation as his father. PMID:9602490

Guichet, A; Briault, S; Moraine, C

1998-04-01

358

Improved method of detecting the ERG gene rearrangement in prostate cancer using combined dual-color chromogenic and silver in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The recently detected TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene was revealed as a recurrent and prevalent prostate cancer (PCa)-specific event, potentially qualifying it for clinical use. To detect this alteration, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the method of choice. However, FISH has some disadvantages for widespread adoption in clinical practice. Subsequently, chromogenic in situ hybridization, which uses organic chromogens, and enzymatic metallography silver in situ hybridization have emerged as promising bright-field alternatives. Compared with chromogenic in situ hybridization, silver in situ hybridization signals are very distinct and superior with regard to signal clarity and resolution, but the method excludes multicolor protocols. Based on the ERG break-apart FISH assay, we established a dual-color ERG break-apart assay using combined chromogenic in situ hybridization and silver in situ hybridization (CS-ISH) and compared these results with those obtained by FISH. We assessed 178 PCa and 10 benign specimens for their ERG rearrangement status by applying dual-color FISH and CS-ISH ERG break-apart assays to consecutive sections. We observed a highly significant concordance (97.7%) between FISH- and CS-ISH-based results (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.955, P < 0.001). Our findings demonstrate that the ERG rearrangement status can reliably be assessed by CS-ISH. Further, the CS-ISH technique combines the accuracy and precision of FISH with the ease of bright-field microscopy. This tool allows a much broader spectrum of applications in which to study the biological role and clinical use of ERG rearrangements in PCa. PMID:22642898

Braun, Martin; Stomper, Julia; Boehm, Diana; Vogel, Wenzel; Scheble, Veit J; Wernert, Nicolas; Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Fend, Falko; Kristiansen, Glen; Perner, Sven

2012-07-01

359

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

DOEpatents

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

360

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in culture and urogenital smears by in situ DNA hybridization using a biotinylated DNA probe.  

PubMed

The detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by in situ DNA hybridization in urogenital smears was investigated using a commercially available biotinylated DNA probe. Intracellular staining of inclusion bodies was used as the criterion for positivity. Of 35 patients with a culture proven chlamydial infection 19 had smears in which C. trachomatis was detected by in situ DNA hybridization, indicating a sensitivity of 54%. Of 57 patients with a negative culture, two had positive smears by in situ DNA hybridization. To compare whether the criterion for positivity had influenced the sensitivity obtained with in situ DNA hybridization, 14 duplicate smears from culture positive patients were analysed with in situ DNA hybridization and immunofluorescence. Both methods detected intracellular inclusion bodies in seven of these smears, suggesting that the presence of infected cells mainly determines the sensitivity. The DNA probe did not cross-react with micro-organisms commonly found in the urogenital tract. PMID:3073311

Meddens, M J; Quint, W G; van der Willigen, H; Wagenvoort, J T; v Dijk, W C; Lindeman, J; Herbrink, P

1988-12-01

361

In situ hybridization as a tool to study numerical chromosome aberrations in solid bladder tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for single- and double-target in situ hybridization (ISH) to, cells isolated from solid transitional cell carcinomas (TCC's) of the urinary bladder are described. Single cell suspensions were prepared from solid tumors of the urinary bladder by mechanical disaggregation and fixed in 70% ethanol. Using two DNA probes specific for the centromeres of chromosomes #1 and #18, ISH procedures were

A. H. N. Hopman; F. C. S. Ramaekers; A. K. Raap; J. L. M. Beck; P. Devilee; M. Ploeg; G. P. Vooijs

1988-01-01

362

Fluorescent in situ sequencing (FISSEQ) of RNA for gene expression profiling in intact cells and tissues.  

PubMed

RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) measures the quantitative change in gene expression over the whole transcriptome, but it lacks spatial context. In contrast, in situ hybridization provides the location of gene expression, but only for a small number of genes. Here we detail a protocol for genome-wide profiling of gene expression in situ in fixed cells and tissues, in which RNA is converted into cross-linked cDNA amplicons and sequenced manually on a confocal microscope. Unlike traditional RNA-seq, our method enriches for context-specific transcripts over housekeeping and/or structural RNA, and it preserves the tissue architecture for RNA localization studies. Our protocol is written for researchers experienced in cell microscopy with minimal computing skills. Library construction and sequencing can be completed within 14 d, with image analysis requiring an additional 2 d. PMID:25675209

Lee, Je Hyuk; Daugharthy, Evan R; Scheiman, Jonathan; Kalhor, Reza; Ferrante, Thomas C; Terry, Richard; Turczyk, Brian M; Yang, Joyce L; Lee, Ho Suk; Aach, John; Zhang, Kun; Church, George M

2015-03-01

363

Characterization of Chemoautotrophic Bacterial Symbionts in a Gutless Marine Worm (Oligochaeta, Annelida) by Phylogenetic 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis and In Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

ThephylogeneticrelationshipsofchemoautotrophicendosymbiontsinthegutlessmarineoligochaeteInanid- rilus leukodermatus to chemoautotrophic ecto- and endosymbionts from other host phyla and to free-living bacteria were determined by comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridizations confirmed that the 16S rRNA sequence obtained from these worms originated from the symbionts. The symbiontsequenceisuniquetoI.leukodermatus.Inphylogenetictreesinferredbybothdistanceandparsimony methods, the oligochaete symbiont is peripherally associated with one of two clusters of chemoautotrophic symbionts that

NICOLE DUBILIER; OLAV GIERE; DANIEL L. DISTEL; ANDCOLLEEN M. CAVANAUGH

1995-01-01

364

Human growth hormone and prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas analyzed by in situ hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Acidophilic pituitary adenomas commonly produce growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL), according to studies employing immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods. To examine this question, in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes was done on routinely processed tissues received in the pathology laboratory to analyze for the presence of GH and PRL messenger RNA (mRNA) in 4 normal pituitaries, 10 prolactinomas, and 16 GH-secreting adenomas. Most acidophilic cells in normal pituitaries expressed either GH or PRL hormone and the respective mRNAs, but GH mRNA and PRL hormone were also detected in some of the same cells. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of prolactinoma had cells with only PRL mRNA in their tumors, while most (14 of 16) patients with a clinical diagnosis of acromegaly or gigantism had both GH and PRL mRNAs in their tumors. The GH adenomas varied in these studies. In situ hybridization was helpful in characterizing the adenoma from a patient with acromegaly who had immunoreactive PRL, but no immunoreactive GH in the resected tumor; in situ hybridization analysis revealed mRNAs for both GH and PRL in the same tumor cells. Our findings indicate that pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegaly commonly express PRL mRNA. It is concluded that in situ hybridization provides new information about the clinical biology and the histopathologic classification of pituitary adenomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2466405

Lloyd, R. V.; Cano, M.; Chandler, W. F.; Barkan, A. L.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.

1989-01-01

365

Submicroscopic deletions at the WAGR locus, revealed by nonradioactive in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotin-labeled probes mapping to 11p13 has been used for the molecular analysis of deletions of the WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation) locus. They have detected a submicroscopic 11p13 deletion in a child with inherited aniridia who subsequently presented with Wilms tumor in a horseshoe kidney, only revealed at surgery. The mother, who has aniridia, was also found to carry a deletion including both the aniridia candidate gene (AN2) and the Wilms tumor predisposition gene (WT1). This is therefore a rare case of an inherited WAGR deletion. Wilms tumor has so far only been associated with sporadic de novo aniridia cases. The authors have shown that a cosmid probe for a candidate aniridia gene, homologous to the mouse Pax-6 gene, is deleted in cell lines from aniridia patients with previously characterized deletions at 11p13, while another cosmid marker mapping between two aniridia-associated translocation breakpoints (and hence a second candidate marker) is present on both chromosomes. These results support the Pax-6 homologue as a strong candidate for the AN2 gene. FISH with cosmid probes has proved to be a fast and reliable technique for the molecular analysis of deletions. It can be used with limited amounts of material and has strong potential for clinical applications. 41 refs., 1 figs., 3 tabs.

Fantes, J.A.; Bickmore, W.A.; Fletcher, J.M.; Hanson, I.M.; Heyningen, V. van (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Ballesta, F. (Hospital Clinic 1, Barcelona (Spain))

1992-12-01

366

A PDMS-Based Cylindrical Hybrid Lens for Enhanced Fluorescence Detection in Microfluidic Systems  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic systems based on fluorescence detection have been developed and applied for many biological and chemical applications. Because of the tiny amount of sample in the system; the induced fluorescence can be weak. Therefore, most microfluidic systems deploy multiple optical components or sophisticated equipment to enhance the efficiency of fluorescence detection. However, these strategies encounter common issues of complex manufacturing processes and high costs. In this study; a miniature, cylindrical and hybrid lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to improve the fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems is proposed. The hybrid lens integrates a laser focusing lens and a fluorescence collecting lens to achieve dual functions and simplify optical setup. Moreover, PDMS has advantages of low-cost and straightforward fabrication compared with conventional optical components. The performance of the proposed lens is first examined with two fluorescent dyes and the results show that the lens provides satisfactory enhancement for fluorescence detection of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red. The overall increments in collected fluorescence signal and detection sensitivity are more than 220% of those without lens, and the detection limits of Rhodamine 6G and Nile red are lowered to 0.01 ?g/mL and 0.05 ?g/mL, respectively. The hybrid lens is further applied to the detection of Nile red-labeled Chlorella vulgaris cells and it increases both signal intensity and detection sensitivity by more than 520%. The proposed hybrid lens also dramatically reduces the variation in detected signal caused by the deviation in incident angle of excitation light. PMID:24531300

Lin, Bor-Shyh; Yang, Yu-Ching; Ho, Chong-Yi; Yang, Han-Yu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

2014-01-01

367

In situ hybridization to detect and identify Burkholderia pseudomallei in human melioidosis.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei causes a potentially fatal infection called melioidosis. We have developed a nonfluorescent, colorimetric in situ hybridization assay using a specific probe to target 16s rRNA of B. pseudomallei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded infected tissues for diagnostic purposes and to study infectious disease pathology. A 63-base pair DNA probe was synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin by PCR. Probe specificity was confirmed by BLAST analysis and by testing on appropriate microbial controls. The in situ hybridization assay was specifically and consistently positive for B. pseudomallei, showing strongly and crisply stained, single bacillus and bacilli clusters in mainly inflamed tissues in seven human acute melioidosis cases and experimentally infected mouse tissues. Intravascular and extravascular bacilli were detected in both intracellular and extracellular locations in various human organs, including lung, spleen, kidney, liver, bone marrow, and aortic mycotic aneurysm, particularly in the inflamed areas. Intravascular, intracellular bacteria in melioidosis have not been previously reported. Although the identity of infected intravascular leukocytes has to be confirmed, extravascular, intracellular bacilli appear to be found mainly within macrophages and neutrophils. Rarely, large intravascular, extracellular bacillary clusters/emboli could be detected in both human and mouse tissues. B. cepacia and non-Burkholderia pathogens (16 microbial species) all tested negative. Nonpathogenic B. thailandensis showed some cross-hybridization but signals were less intense. This in situ hybridization assay could be usefully adapted for B. pseudomallei identification in other clinical specimens such as pus and sputum. PMID:24186135

Eu, Lin Chuan; Ong, Kien Chai; Hiu, Jessie; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Nathan, Sheila; Wong, Kum Thong

2014-05-01

368

Delineation of individual human chromosomes in metaphase and interphase cells by in situ suppression hybridization using recombinant DNA libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method of in situ hybridization for visualizing individual human chromosomes from pter to qter, both in metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei, is reported. DNA inserts from a single chromosomal library are labeled with biotin and partially preannealed with a titrated amount of total human genomic DNA prior to hybridization with cellular or chromosomal preparations. The cross-hybridization of repetitive

P. Lichter; T. Cremer; J. Borden; L. Manuelidis; D. C. Ward

1988-01-01

369

In situ hybridization (both radioactive and nonradioactive) and spatiotemporal gene expression analysis.  

PubMed

Section in situ hybridization using either radioactive or nonradioactive labeled cDNA probes is an invaluable technique that enables the investigator to detect and localize mRNA expression within tissue sections and cells. Here, we describe the labeling of (35)S-UTP radioactive and nonradioactive digoxigenin probes, preparation of tissue sections, hybridization, and washing of non-hybridized probes, followed by the detection of radioactive signals via dipping in nuclear emulsion and the immunohistochemical and subsequent colorimetric detection of nonradioactive signals. PMID:25064106

Simmons, Olga; Bolanis, Esther M; Wang, Jian; Conway, Simon J

2014-01-01

370

Delineation of HER2 Gene Status in Breast Carcinoma by Silver in Situ Hybridization is Reproducible among Laboratories and Pathologists  

PubMed Central

An automated enzyme metallographic silver in situ hybridization method (SISH) has been reported to successfully determine human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification. We evaluated the staining and interpretative reproducibility of the HER2 SISH assay at five laboratories and compared SISH results with other in situ hybridization (ISH) methods. The HER2 gene status of 89 breast carcinomas was analyzed in parallel using manual dual-color fluorescence ISH, manual chromogenic ISH, and bright-field automated SISH. A total of 1098 SISH-stained slides were evaluated. For comparison, all specimens were stained by 4B5 immunohistochemistry for HER2 protein expression. Interpretation was performed by pathologists at five different laboratories using the algorithms provided by the manufacturers and the guidelines of American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists. Staining and interpretative reproducibility were measured through the computation of weighted kappa statistics. Following the optimization of SISH staining, 1077/1098 (98%) of slides were evaluable. Excellent reproducibility and efficacy of HER2 SISH staining, and interobserver interpretation (Kw = 0.91), were observed among five sites. For the 89 invasive breast cancer cases, the overall rate of concordance between consensus 4B5 and consensus SISH, fluorescence ISH, and chromogenic ISH was 96.6% (86/89), 97.8% (87/89), and 96.6% (86/89), respectively. Overall concordance between positive and negative SISH and fluorescence ISH results, as well as between individual and consensus positive and negative SISH results, was excellent (P < 0.001). PMID:18832456

Carbone, Antonino; Botti, Gerardo; Gloghini, Annunziata; Simone, Gianni; Truini, Mauro; Curcio, Maria Pia; Gasparini, Patrizia; Mangia, Anita; Perin, Tiziana; Salvi, Sandra; Testi, Adele; Verderio, Paolo

2008-01-01

371

In-Situ Silver Acetylide Silver Nitrate Explosive Deposition Measurements Using X-Ray Fluorescence.  

SciTech Connect

The Light Initiated High Explosive facility utilized a spray deposited coating of silver acetylide - silver nitrate explosive to impart a mechanical shock into targets of interest. A diagnostic was required to measure the explosive deposition in - situ. An X - ray fluorescence spectrometer was deployed at the facility. A measurement methodology was developed to measure the explosive quantity with sufficient accuracy. Through the use of a tin reference material under the silver based explosive, a field calibration relationship has been developed with a standard deviation of 3.2 % . The effect of the inserted tin material into the experiment configuration has been explored.

Covert, Timothy T.

2014-09-01

372

Whole Mount Drosophila Embryo In Situ Hybridization with RNA probes Leslie Vosshall  

E-print Network

1 Whole Mount Drosophila Embryo In Situ Hybridization with RNA probes 2/5/2001 Leslie Vosshall DAY to the top with wash solution and place embryos on a nutator during the washing period. 1. Prepare fixed embryos according to attached protocol until 70% ethanol step. 2. Remove an aliquot of embryos sufficient

373

In situ building of a nanoprobe based on fluorescent carbon dots for methylmercury detection.  

PubMed

A new fluorescent assay based on in situ ultrasound-assisted synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) as optical nanoprobes for the detection of methylmercury has been developed. Application of high-intensity sonication allows simultaneous performance of the synthesis of fluorescent CDs within the analytical time scale and the selective recognition of the target analyte. Microvolume fluorospectrometry is applied for measurement of the fluorescence quenching caused by methylmercury. The assay uses low amounts of organic precursors (fructose, poly(ethylene glycol), and ethanol) and can be accomplished within 1 min. A detection limit of 5.9 nM methylmercury and a repeatability expressed as a relative standard deviation of 2.2% (N = 7) were obtained. CDs displayed a narrow size distribution with an average size of 2.5 nm as determined by electron transmission microscopy. To study the quenching mechanism, fluorescence, atomic absorption spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry were applied. Hydrophobicity of methylmercury and its ability to facilitate a nonradiative electron/hole recombination are suggested as the basis of the recognition event. A simple and green assay is achieved for quick detection of methylmercury without the use of tedious sample preparation procedures or complex and expensive instrumentation. PMID:24678836

Costas-Mora, Isabel; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

2014-05-01

374

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of sex chromosome in non-obstructive azoospermic men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare results of karyotypes and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique among non-obstructive azoospermic men and to evaluate feasibility of using FISH to assess the types of major sex chromosome abnormalities. We compared results of karyotypes and FISH technique in those patients, and the association between genetic abnormality and clinical and hormonal parameters was evaluated. We studied 68 non-obstructive azoospermic men using conventional cytogenetics and FISH. Karyotyping revealed chromosomal abnormalities in 28 males (41%); the most common was Klinefelter syndrome (82%). FISH proved very effective in verifying low level of mosaisim in two cases with Klinefelter syndrome and complex chromosomal rearrangements in four cases with structural sex chromosome abnormalities. Our results indicate that genetic testing and screening is important in men with hypergonadotrophic azoospermia prior to the employment of assisted reproduction techniques. FISH analysis is recommended before discussing the risk of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring of infertile couples. PMID:23346943

Sadik, D I; Seifeldin, N S

2014-04-01

375

Mapping of the gene encoding the melanocortin-1 ([alpha]-melanocyte stimulating hormone) receptor (MC1R) to human chromosome 16q24. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

[alpha]-Melanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), a hormone originally named for its ability to regulate pigmentation of melanocytes, is a 13-amino-acid post-translational product of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. [alpha]-MSH and the other products of POMC processing, which share the core heptapeptide amino acid sequence Met-Glu (Gly)-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly (Asp), the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), [beta]-MSH, and [gamma]-MSH, are collectively referred to as melanocortins. While best known for their effects on the melanocyte (pigmentation) and adrenal cortical cells (steroidogenesis), melanocortins have been postulated to function in diverse activities, including enhancement of learning and memory, control of the cardiovascular system, analgesia, thermoregulation, immunomodulation, parturition, and neurotrophism. To identify the chromosomal band encoding the human melanocortin-1 receptor gene, 1 [mu]g of an EMBL clone coding region of the human MC1R and approximately 15 kb of surrounding DNA was labeled with biotin and hybridized to human metaphase chromosomes as previously described. The results indicate that the human MC1R gene is localized to 16q24.3. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Gantz, I.; Yamada, Tadataka; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Trent, J.M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1994-01-15

376

Use of Monodispersed, Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria to Estimate In Situ Protozoan Bacterivory †  

PubMed Central

We have developed a procedure for preparing monodispersed, fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB), which may be used to measure virtually instantaneous rates of protozoan bacterivory in natural waters. FLB can be prepared both from natural bacterioplankton assemblages and from clonal isolates and can be stored in frozen suspension or freeze-dried without apparent loss of fluorescence intensity. They are not toxic to protozoa and can be metabolized to support bacterivorous protozoan growth rates equal to those on the same strain of unstained, viable bacteria. In experiments comparing uptake of FLB with uptake of fluorescent latex microspheres by protozoan assemblages in a salt marsh tidal creek, we found that both pelagic oligotrichous ciliates and phagotrophic flagellates ingested FLB with a frequency 4- to 10-fold greater than they ingested the microspheres. Consequently, it appears that the use of latex microspheres leads to underestimation of protozoan bacterivory and that the FLB technique is superior for estimating instantaneous rates of in situ protozoan grazing on bacterioplankton. Images PMID:16347355

Sherr, Barry F.; Sherr, Evelyn B.; Fallon, Robert D.

1987-01-01

377

Detection of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Hepatocytes, Bile Duct Epithelium, and Vascular Elements by in situ Hybridization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiolabeled probe specific for hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleotide sequences was hybridized in situ to liver tissue from three patients with chronic hepatitis B. The HBV genome was detected not only in infected hepatocytes but also in bile duct epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. These findings extend the known host cell range for HBV, suggest new mechanisms of viral dissemination, and illustrate the usefulness of in situ hybridization in the study of pathogenesis of HBV infection.

Blum, Hubert E.; Stowring, Linda; Figus, Annalena; Montgomery, Carolyn K.; Haase, Ashley T.; Vyas, Girish N.

1983-11-01

378

In situ dimerization of multiple wild type and mutant zinc transporters in live cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation.  

PubMed

Zinc transporters (ZnTs) facilitate zinc efflux and zinc compartmentalization, thereby playing a key role in multiple physiological processes and pathological disorders, presumed to be modulated by transporter dimerization. We recently proposed that ZnT2 homodimerization is the underlying basis for the dominant negative effect of a novel heterozygous G87R mutation identified in women producing zinc-deficient milk. To provide direct visual evidence for the in situ dimerization and function of multiple normal and mutant ZnTs, we applied here the bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technique, which enables direct visualization of specific protein-protein interactions. BiFC is based upon reconstitution of an intact fluorescent protein including YFP when its two complementary, non-fluorescent N- and C-terminal fragments (termed YN and YC) are brought together by a pair of specifically interacting proteins. Homodimerization of ZnT1, -2, -3, -4, and -7 was revealed by high subcellular fluorescence observed upon co-transfection of non-fluorescent ZnT-YC and ZnT-YN; this homodimer fluorescence localized in the characteristic compartments of each ZnT. The validity of the BiFC assay in ZnT dimerization was further corroborated when high fluorescence was obtained upon co-transfection of ZnT5-YC and ZnT6-YN, which are known to form heterodimers. We further show that BiFC recapitulated the pathogenic role that ZnT mutations play