Science.gov

Sample records for fluorescent dye staining

  1. Rapid staining of proteins on polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes using a mixture of fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, G; Kumar, T K; Pandian, S T; Yu, C

    2000-11-20

    The present work describes a novel, fluorescence-based method for staining proteins on SDS-PAGE and membrane(s). In this method, proteins are stained using a mixed-dye (sulfo-rhodamine B and 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid (NH(4)(+))) solution. The mixed-dye staining protocol can detect proteins up to a concentration of 15 ng. This method is generally applicable to all proteins and is more sensitive than the conventional Coomassie blue method. The staining method is rapid and efficient. Staining-destaining of proteins using the mixed-dye protocol takes less than half an hour. Another interesting feature of the staining protocol described here is the applicability to the staining of proteins on nitrocellulose membranes. PMID:11086192

  2. Fluorescent staining of gels.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Engelbert

    2012-01-01

    Certain transition metal complexes show intensive fluorescence when bound to proteins. They can be used to stain gels after electrophoresis with a sensitivity approaching that of silver staining, but in a much simpler and more reproducible procedure. Stains can be prepared easily and at a fraction of the cost of commercially available reagents.Hydrophobic dyes can be used to stain gels without fixing; they do not interfere with later blotting or electro-elution. PMID:22585519

  3. Ex Vivo Sentinel Node Mapping in Colon Cancer Combining Blue Dye Staining and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; van der Vorst, Joost R.; Hutteman, Merlijn; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node procedure has been proposed to improve nodal staging in colon cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of near-infrared fluorescence imaging to conventional blue dye staining for ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping. Materials and Methods Twenty-two consecutive patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer were included. After tumor resection, a premixed cocktail of the near-infrared lymphatic tracer HSA800 and blue dye was submucosally injected around the tumor for detection of sentinel lymph nodes. The Mini-FLARE imaging system was used for fluorescence imaging. Results In 95% of the patients, at least one sentinel lymph node was identified. Overall, a total of 77 sentinel lymph nodes were identified, of which 77 were fluorescent (100%) and 70 (91%) were blue. Sentinel lymph nodes that were located deeper in the mesenteric fat could easily be located by NIR fluorescence. In 4 out of 5 patients with lymph node metastases, tumor cells were present in at least 1 of the sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions This study shows the successful use and added value of the near-infrared fluorescence tracer HSA800 to conventional blue dye for the ex vivo sentinel lymph node procedure in colon cancer. PMID:23391167

  4. Development of pathological diagnostics of human kidney cancer by multiple staining using new fluorescent Fluolid dyes.

    PubMed

    Wuxiuer, Dilibaier; Zhu, Yun; Ogaeri, Takunori; Mizuki, Keiji; Kashiwa, Yuki; Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Aoyagi, Tei-ichiro; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2014-01-01

    New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC), and renal angiomyolipoma (AML), with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics. PMID:24995295

  5. Detection of glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels using Pro-Q Emerald 300 dye, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain.

    PubMed

    Mehta-D'souza, Padmaja

    2012-01-01

    Pro-Q Emerald 300 glycoprotein stain generates a bright-green fluorescent signal upon reacting with periodic acid-oxidized carbohydrate groups on proteins. With this dye, it is possible to detect proteins directly in the gel without the need to transfer them to a membrane. This dye is more sensitive than the standard periodic acid Schiff's base which uses acidic fuchsin dye. PMID:22585521

  6. A Novel Staining Protocol for Multiparameter Assessment of Cell Heterogeneity in Phormidium Populations (Cyanobacteria) Employing Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Tashyreva, Daria; Elster, Josef; Billi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial populations display high heterogeneity in viability and physiological activity at the single-cell level, especially under stressful conditions. We demonstrate a novel staining protocol for multiparameter assessment of individual cells in physiologically heterogeneous populations of cyanobacteria. The protocol employs fluorescent probes, i.e., redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, ‘dead cell’ nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green, and DNA-specific fluorochrome 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, combined with microscopy image analysis. Our method allows simultaneous estimates of cellular respiration activity, membrane and nucleoid integrity, and allows the detection of photosynthetic pigments fluorescence along with morphological observations. The staining protocol has been adjusted for, both, laboratory and natural populations of the genus Phormidium (Oscillatoriales), and tested on 4 field-collected samples and 12 laboratory strains of cyanobacteria. Based on the mentioned cellular functions we suggest classification of cells in cyanobacterial populations into four categories: (i) active and intact; (ii) injured but active; (iii) metabolically inactive but intact; (iv) inactive and injured, or dead. PMID:23437052

  7. Candida, fluorescent stain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This microscopic film shows a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Image ...

  8. Methods of staining and visualization of sphingolipid enriched and non-enriched plasma membrane regions of Arabidopsis thaliana with fluorescent dyes and lipid analogues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sterols and Sphingolipids form lipid clusters in the plasma membranes of cell types throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. These lipid domains provide a medium for protein signaling complexes at the plasma membrane and are also observed to be principal regions of membrane contact at the inception of infection. We visualized different specific fluorescent lipophilic stains of the both sphingolipid enriched and non-sphingolipid enriched regions in the plasma membranes of live protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Lipid staining protocols for several fluorescent lipid analogues in plants are presented. The most emphasis was placed on successful protocols for the single and dual staining of sphingolipid enriched regions and exclusion of sphingolipid enriched regions on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A secondary focus was placed to ensure that these staining protocols presented still maintain cell viability. Furthermore, the protocols were successfully tested with the spectrally sensitive dye Laurdan. Conclusion Almost all existing staining procedures of the plasma membrane with fluorescent lipid analogues are specified for animal cells and tissues. In order to develop lipid staining protocols for plants, procedures were established with critical steps for the plasma membrane staining of Arabidopsis leaf tissue and protoplasts. The success of the plasma membrane staining protocols was additionally verified by measurements of lipid dynamics by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique and by the observation of new phenomena such as time dependent lipid polarization events in living protoplasts, for which a putative physiological relevance is suggested. PMID:22867517

  9. A simple, rapid and low-cost staining method for gel-electrophoresis separated phosphoproteins via the fluorescent purpurin dye.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weitao; Shen, Jiayi; Xuan, Yuanhu; Zhu, Xinliang; Ni, Maowei; Zhu, Zhongxin; Hong, Guoying; Lu, Xianghong; Jin, Litai

    2014-12-01

    A novel fluorescence detection method for phosphoproteins in 1-D and 2-D SDS-PAGE by using purpurin is developed in this study. Phosphoproteins as low as 4-8 ng could be specifically detected by purpurin within 60 min, and the detection limit is similar to or better than that of Pro-Q Diamond staining. Only 2 steps (staining and destaining) are needed for purpurin staining without requiring excessive fixing and washing steps, and for single use, $0.8 is enough for purpurin staining. By comprehensively comparing with Pro-Q Diamond staining, it is concluded that purpurin staining is a simple, rapid and low-cost staining method for a broad application to the research of phosphoproteins. PMID:25325196

  10. Optimal Staining and Sample Storage Time for Direct Microscopic Enumeration of Total and Active Bacteria in Soil with Two Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, W.; Dodds, W. K.; Banks, M. K.; Skalsky, J.; Strauss, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct counting techniques, first developed for aquatic samples, can be used to enumerate bacteria in soil and groundwater sediments. Two fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for actively respiring bacteria and 4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for total bacteria, were tested for their usefulness in epifluorescent direct bacterial enumeration in soil. Both dyes can be used for the same soil sample without affecting enumeration results. Staining for 8 h with CTC and for 40 min with DAPI resulted in maximum numbers of stained cells. The optimal DAPI staining concentration is 10 mg liter(sup-1). After preparation, slides should be stored at 4(deg)C and counted within 2 days for CTC and within 24 h for DAPI. Sodium PP(infi) or sodium chloride solutions were used to desorb bacteria from soil prior to counting. Counts were significantly higher when sodium chloride was used. PMID:16535124

  11. Exploring the dynamics of fluorescence staining of bacteria with cyanine dyes for the development of kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Marlon Sheldon

    Bacterial infections continue to be one of the major health risks in the United States. The common occurrence of such infection is one of the major contributors to the high cost of health care and significant patient mortality. The work presented in this thesis describes spectroscopic studies that will contribute to the development of a fluorescent assay that may allow the rapid identification of bacterial species. Herein, the optical interactions between six bacterial species and a series of thiacyanine dyes are investigated. The interactions between the dyes and the bacterial species are hypothesized to be species-specific. For this thesis, two Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) TOP10 and Enterobacter aerogenes; two Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis; and two Bacillus endospores, B. globigii and B. thuringiensis, were used to test the proposed hypothesis. A series of three thiacyanine dyes---3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide (THIA), 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide (THC) and thiazole orange (THO)---were used as fluorescent probes. The basis of our spectroscopic study was to explore the bacterium-induced interactions of the bacterial cells with the individual thiacyanine dyes or with a mixture of the three dyes. Steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed that the different bacterial species altered the absorption properties of the dyes. Mixed-dye solutions gave unique absorption patterns for each bacteria tested, with competitive binding observed between the bacteria and spectrophotometric probes (thiacyanine dyes). Emission spectroscopy recorded changes in the emission spectra of THIA following the introduction of bacterial cells. Experimental results revealed that the emission enhancement of the dyes resulted from increases in the emission quantum yield of the thiacyanine dyes upon binding to the bacteria cellular components. The recorded emission enhancement data were fitted to an exponential (mono-exponential or bi-exponential) function, and time constants were extracted by regressing on the experimental data. The addition of the TWEEN surfactants decreased the rate at which the dyes interacted with the bacterial cells, which typically resulted in larger time constants derived from an exponential fit. ANOVA analysis of the time constants confirmed that the values of the time constants clustered in a narrow range and were independent of dye concentration and weakly dependent on cell density.

  12. Chromosome characterization using single fluorescent dye

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A.; Hirons, Gregory T.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomes are characterized by fluorescent emissions from a single fluorescent dye that is excited over two different wavelengths. A mixture containing chromosomes is stained with a single dye selected from the group consisting of TOTO and YOYO and the stained chromosomes are placed in a flow cytometer. The fluorescent dye is excited sequentially by a first light having a wavelength in the ultraviolet range to excite the TOTO or YOYO to fluoresce at a first intensity and by a second light having a wavelength effective to excite the TOTO or YOYO dye to fluoresce at a second intensity. Specific chromosomes may be identified and sorted by intensity relationships between the first and second fluorescence emissions.

  13. Lipophilic Dye Staining of Cryptococcus neoformans Extracellular Vesicles and Capsule?

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, Andr Moraes; Frases, Susana; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that causes systemic mycosis in immunosuppressed individuals. Recent studies have determined that this fungus produces vesicles that are released to the extracellular environment both in vivo and in vitro. These vesicles contain assorted cargo that includes several molecules associated with virulence and implicated in host-pathogen interactions, such as capsular polysaccharides, laccase, urease, and other proteins. To date, visualization of extracellular vesicles has relied on transmission electron microscopy, a time-consuming technique. In this work we report the use of fluorescent membrane tracers to stain lipophilic structures in cryptococcal culture supernatants and capsules. Two dialkylcarbocyanine probes with different spectral characteristics were used to visualize purified vesicles by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Dual staining of vesicles with dialkylcarbocyanine and RNA-selective nucleic acid dyes suggested that a fraction of the vesicle population carried RNA. Use of these dyes to stain whole cells, however, was hampered by their possible direct binding to capsular polysaccharide. A fluorescent phospholipid was used as additional membrane tracer to stain whole cells, revealing punctate structures on the edge of the capsule which are consistent with vesicular trafficking. Lipophilic dyes provide new tools for the study of fungal extracellular vesicles and their content. The finding of hydrophobic regions in the capsule of C. neoformans adds to the growing evidence for a structurally complex structure composed of polysaccharide and nonpolysaccharide components. PMID:19465562

  14. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  15. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  16. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  17. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  18. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  19. Improving acid-fast fluorescent staining for the detection of mycobacteria using a new nucleic acid staining approach.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gavin J; Shapiro, Howard M; Lenaerts, Anne J

    2014-09-01

    Acid fast staining of sputum smears by microscopy remains the prevalent method for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of microscopy using acid fast stains requires 10(4) bacilli per ml of sputum. Although fluorescent acid fast stains, such as Auramine-O, show improved sensitivity, almost half of culture-positive TB cases are currently estimated to remain smear-negative. These current diagnosis problems provide impetus for improving staining procedures. We evaluated a novel fluorescent acid-fast staining approach using the nucleic acid-binding dye SYBR(®) Gold on mycobacterial in vitro cultures. The SYBR(®) Gold stain detected 99% of MTB in both actively replicating aerobic and non-replicating hypoxic cultures. Transmission light microscopy with Ziehl-Neelsen fuchsin, and fluorescence microscopy with Auramine-O or Auramine-rhodamine detected only 54%-86% of MTB bacilli. SYBR(®) Gold fluoresces more intensely than Auramine-O, and is highly resistant to fading. The signal to noise ratio is exceptionally high due to a >1000-fold enhanced fluorescence after binding to DNA/RNA, thereby reducing most background fluorescence. Although cost and stability of the dye may perhaps limit its clinical use at this time, these results warrant further research into more nucleic acid dye variants. In the meantime, SYBR(®) Gold staining shows great promise for use in numerous research applications. PMID:25130623

  20. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies. PMID:26158569

  1. Hydroxyethyl lactamide, a dye solvent useful in vital staining.

    PubMed

    Risso-Dominguez, C J

    1976-03-01

    In a search for new vital stains to reveal the microanatomy of nudibranch mollusks, the slow or very low solubility of many dyes in sea water posed a serious problem. Preliminary dissolution in tap water proved impractical. Hydroxyethyl lactamide, an odorless liquid and dye solvent was found ideal since it permits immediate attainment of saturated solutions of dyes in sea water. Since hydroxyethyl lactamide passed the severe "eolid nudibranch test" and has been found nonirritating for the very sensitive rhinophorial structures, and furthermore since it has been used by the pharmaceutical industry as a vehicle in antibiotic preparations, it appears to be an ideal universal dye solvent for general use in vital staining. It has been used extensively in unpublished research by the writer on vital staining of nudibranchs. It has a low order of physiological activity and can be regarded an essentially inert when used in vital staining. PMID:59418

  2. The color of lactotroph secretory granules stained with FM1-43 depends on dye concentration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph M; Betz, William J

    2008-04-15

    When pituitary lactotroph granules undergo exocytosis in the presence of FM1-43, their cores absorb dye and fluoresce brightly. We report that different granules fluoresce with different colors, despite being stained with a single fluorescent dye; emission spectra from individual granules show up to a 25 nm difference between the greenest and reddest granules. We found a correlation between granule color and average fluorescence intensity, suggesting that granule color depends upon dye concentration. We confirmed this in two ways: by increasing FM dye concentration in granules, which red shifted granule color, and by partially photobleaching the FM dye in granules, which green shifted granule color. Increasing stimulation intensity (by increasing KCl concentration) increased the proportion of red granules, indicating that granules exocytosing during intense stimulation bound more dye. This, perhaps, reflects differences in granule core maturation and condensation in which mature granules with condensed cores bind more FM dye but require more intense stimulation to be released. Concentration-dependent color shifts of FM dyes may be useful for monitoring aggregation processes occurring on a size scale smaller than the optical limit. PMID:18065476

  3. The Color of Lactotroph Secretory Granules Stained with FM1-43 Depends on Dye Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph M.; Betz, William J.

    2008-01-01

    When pituitary lactotroph granules undergo exocytosis in the presence of FM1-43, their cores absorb dye and fluoresce brightly. We report that different granules fluoresce with different colors, despite being stained with a single fluorescent dye; emission spectra from individual granules show up to a 25 nm difference between the greenest and reddest granules. We found a correlation between granule color and average fluorescence intensity, suggesting that granule color depends upon dye concentration. We confirmed this in two ways: by increasing FM dye concentration in granules, which red shifted granule color, and by partially photobleaching the FM dye in granules, which green shifted granule color. Increasing stimulation intensity (by increasing KCl concentration) increased the proportion of red granules, indicating that granules exocytosing during intense stimulation bound more dye. This, perhaps, reflects differences in granule core maturation and condensation in which mature granules with condensed cores bind more FM dye but require more intense stimulation to be released. Concentration-dependent color shifts of FM dyes may be useful for monitoring aggregation processes occurring on a size scale smaller than the optical limit. PMID:18065476

  4. Strategies of fluorescence staining for trace total ribonucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis with argon ion laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-An; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Po-Ling

    2015-08-01

    In this work, five fluorescent dyes (SYTO-9, SYBR Green I, SYBR Green II, SYBR Safe, and SYBR Gold) were used as both on-column and precolumn stains for total RNA analysis by CE-LIF with Ar ion laser excitation. In the on-column RNA stain, the SYTO-9 provided the highest fluorescence intensity and the lowest detectable concentration, as low as 10 pg/μL, while the SYBR Green II and SYBR Gold were adsorbed on the poly(ethylene oxide) thus affected the separation efficiency. As a precolumn stain, SYBR Gold was the most sensitive among the five dyes due to the strong affinity between the dye and RNA molecules. As a result, a single-cell quantity of RNA (10-30 pg per cell) could be detected by CE-LIF with precolumn staining by SYBR Gold. Because of the great savings of fluorescent dye using precolumn stain (one button dye may use for one million stain), this method is the best strategy for RNA staining in terms of cost-effectiveness and sensitivity. PMID:25930728

  5. Real-time histological imaging of kidneys stained with food dyes using multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yasuaki; Kimura, Kazushi; Wang, Shujie; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a real-time imaging technique for diagnosis of kidney diseases which is composed of two steps, staining renal cells safely with food dyes and optical sectioning of living renal tissue to obtain histological images by multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Here, we demonstrated that the MPM imaging with food dyes, including erythrosine and indigo carmine, could be used as fluorescent agents to visualize renal functions and structures such as glomerular bloodstreams, glomerular filtration, and morphology of glomeruli and renal tubules. We also showed that the kidneys of IgA nephropathy model-mice stained with the food dyes presented histopathological characteristics different from those observed in normal kidneys. The use of the food dyes enhances the quality of tissue images obtained by MPM and offers the potential to contribute to a clinical real-time diagnosis of kidney diseases. PMID:26260138

  6. Fluorescent staining of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels by salicylaldehyde azine.

    PubMed

    Ni, Mao-Wei; Ye, Wei-Jian; Cong, Wei-Tao; Hong, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Zhong-Xin; Duan, Yuan-Meng; Zhou, Xuan; Jin, Li-Tai

    2013-12-01

    As a non-covalent fluorescence probe, in this study, salicylaldehyde azine (SA) was introduced as a sensitive fluorescence-based dye for detecting proteins both in 1-D and 2-D polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels. Down to 0.2 ng of single protein band could be detected within 1 h, which similars to that of glutaraldehyde (GA)-silver stain, but approximately four times higher than that of SYPRO Ruby fluorescent stain. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the MS compatibility of SA stain with SYPRO Ruby stain indicated that SA stain is compatible with the downstream of protein identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Additionally, the probable mechanism of the SA stain was investigated by molecular docking. The results demonstrated that the interaction between SA and protein was mainly contributed by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. PMID:24105885

  7. Sizing of single fluorescently stained DNA fragments by scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Laib, Stephan; Rankl, Michael; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Seeger, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to determine DNA fragment sizes based on the fluorescence detection of single adsorbed fragments on specifically coated glass cover slips. The brightness of single fragments stained with the DNA bisintercalation dye TOTO-1 is determined by scanning the surface with a confocal microscope. The brightness of adsorbed fragments is found to be proportional to the fragment length. The method needs only minute amount of DNA, beyond inexpensive and easily available surface coatings, like poly-l-lysine, 3-aminoproyltriethoxysilane and polyornithine, are utilizable. We performed DNA-sizing of fragment lengths between 2 and 14 kb. Further, we resolved the size distribution before and after an enzymatic restriction digest. At this a separation of buffers or enzymes was unnecessary. DNA sizes were determined within an uncertainty of 7–14%. The proposed method is straightforward and can be applied to standardized microtiter plates. PMID:14602931

  8. Evaluation of optimal DNA staining for triggering by scanning fluorescence microscopy (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Marecka, Monika; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Malkusch, Wolf; Bocsi, József; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    In imaging and flow cytometry, DNA staining is a common trigger signal for cell identification. Selection of the proper DNA dye is restricted by the hardware configuration of the instrument. The Zeiss Imaging Solutions GmbH (München, Germany) introduced a new automated scanning fluorescence microscope - SFM (Axio Imager.Z1) which combines fluorescence imaging with cytometric parameters measurement. The aim of the study was to select optimal DNA dyes as trigger signal in leukocyte detection and subsequent cytometric analysis of double-labeled leukocytes by SFM. Seven DNA dyes (DAPI, Hoechst 33258, Hoechst 33342, POPO-3, PI, 7-AAD, and TOPRO-3) were tested and found to be suitable for the implemented filtersets (fs) of the SFM (fs: 49, fs: 44, fs: 20). EDTA blood was stained after erythrocyte lysis with DNA dye. Cells were transferred on microscopic slides and embedded in fluorescent mounting medium. Quality of DNA fluorescence signal as well as spillover signals were analyzed by SFM. CD45-APC and CD3-PE as well as CD4-FITC and CD8-APC were selected for immunophenotyping and used in combination with Hoechst. Within the tested DNA dyes DAPI showed relatively low spillover and the best CV value. Due to the low spillover of UV DNA dyes a triple staining of Hoechst and APC and PE (or APC and FITC, respectively) could be analyzed without difficulty. These results were confirmed by FCM measurements. DNA fluorescence is applicable for identifying and triggering leukocytes in SFM analyses. Although some DNA dyes exhibit strong spillover in other fluorescence channels, it was possible to immunophenotype leukocytes. DAPI seems to be best suitable for use in the SFM system and will be used in protocol setups as primary parameter.

  9. Image analysis of dye stained patterns in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Christina; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Quality of surface water and groundwater is directly affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. In general, it is difficult to measure or model water flow. Indeed, parametrization of hydrological models is problematic and often no unique solution exists. To visualise flow patterns in soils directly dye tracer studies can be done. These experiments provide images of stained soil profiles and their evaluation demands knowledge in hydrology as well as in image analysis and statistics. First, these photographs are converted to binary images classifying the pixels in dye stained and non-stained ones. Then, some feature extraction is necessary to discern relevant hydrological information. In our study we propose to use several index functions to extract different (ideally complementary) features. We associate each image row with a feature vector (i.e. a certain number of image function values) and use these features to cluster the image rows to identify similar image areas. Because images of stained profiles might have different reasonable clusterings, we calculate multiple consensus clusterings. An expert can explore these different solutions and base his/her interpretation of predominant flow mechanisms on quantitative (objective) criteria. The complete workflow from reading-in binary images to final clusterings has been implemented in the free R system, a language and environment for statistical computing. The calculation of image indices is part of our own package Indigo, manipulation of binary images, clustering and visualization of results are done using either build-in facilities in R, additional R packages or the LATEX system.

  10. Dimeric fluorescent energy transfer dyes comprising asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1996-01-01

    Novel fluorescent DNA-staining dyes are provided combining asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine dyes, which provide for strong DNA affinity, large Stokes shifts and emission in the red region of the spectrum. The dyes find particular application in gel electrophoresis and for labels which may be bound to a variety of compositions in a variety of contexts.

  11. Dimeric fluorescent energy transfer dyes comprising asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1996-10-15

    Novel fluorescent DNA-staining dyes are provided combining asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine dyes, which provide for strong DNA affinity, large Stokes shifts and emission in the red region of the spectrum. The dyes find particular application in gel electrophoresis and for labels which may be bound to a variety of compositions in a variety of contexts. 4 figs.

  12. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  13. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  14. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  15. Advantages of preelectrophoretic conjugation of polypeptides with fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Strottmann, J M; Robinson, J B; Stellwagen, E

    1983-07-15

    A rapid simple procedure is described for the conjugation of proteins, glycoproteins, and peptides with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate during the time required to polymerize a polyacrylamide gel. Such conjugation does not perturb the electrophoretic mobility of the polypeptides in detergent containing gels. The location of polypeptide . dye conjugate is evident by inspection immediately upon removal of a gel from an electrophoresis cabinet avoiding the time required for postelectrophoretic staining and destaining procedures. The sensitivity of detection of polypeptide . fluorescein conjugates is at least equivalent to that obtained using Coomassie blue. PMID:6414333

  16. Use of Fluorescent Dyes for Readily Recognizing Sperm Damage

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Omar Ibrahim; Cuiling, Li; Jiaojiao, Wang; Huiping, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sperm is produced by the testis and mature in the epididymis. For having a successful conception, the fertilizing sperm should have functional competent membranes, intact acrosome, functional mitochondria and an intact haploid genome. The effects of genetic and environmental factors result in sperm vulnerability to damage in the process of spermatogenesis and maturation. In recent years, the feasibility of detecting sperm damage is enhanced through the advances in technologies like fluoscerent staining techniques assisted with fluorescence microscope, flow cytometry and computer analysis systems. Fluoscerent staining techniques involve the use of fluorescent dyes, either directly or indirectly for binding them with some ingredients of sperm and evaluating the damage of the structure or function of the sperm, i.e. membrane, acrosome, mitochondria, chromosome or DNA. PMID:24163795

  17. Dye-tissue interactions: mechanisms, quantification and bonding parameters for dyes used in biological staining.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W

    2005-01-01

    Staining of tissues by dyes is accomplished through various types of bonds, some of which have been poorly defined in traditional biological literature. Here, basic principles of bonding are reviewed to establish uniform terminology and definitions consistent with the field of chemistry. The concept of charge - its presence or absence, magnitude, extent of delocalization and potential for being displaced by outside forces - underlies all bonding phenomena. These same attributes influence solubility and resistance to extraction during dehydration of tissue sections. Covalent bonds involve shared electrons; they are very strong and essentially irreversible under conditions encountered during staining. Polar covalent bonds within dye molecules generate partial atomic charges that create the potential for hydrogen bonding. This is measured by the hydrogen bonding parameter (h), the number of groups bearing charges within the ranges -0.15 to -0.50 eV or +0.15 to +0.30 eV. The potential for ionic bonding is indicated by net charge (Z), while the strength of such bonds is a function of charge site geometry on both bonding partners. Charge delocalization owing to conjugation, electron influencing groups, and resonance creates soft charge sites in which the ionic charge is spread over a large volume. Poorly delocalized charges or point charges are hard (small in volume). Firm bonds result from hard-hard or soft-soft pairs. Hard-soft combinations are weak, readily displaced in competitive interactions, and disrupted by solvents. Coordinate bonds with certain metals are involved with mordant staining and metal chelation dyes. Three different van der Waals attractions comprise the remainder of bonding types, all involving dipoles: Keesom (dipole-dipole) forces, Debye (dipole-induced dipole) forces and London (induced dipole-induced dipole) forces. Potentials for engaging in any of these is quantified by measures of polarity (dipole moment, d), polarizability (crudely with pi atoms describing the size of the conjugated system, or more directly with alpha), hydrophobicity (with the octanol-water partition coefficient, log P or the more convenient Hydrophobic Index, HI), and the number of halogen atoms (X). By using molecular modeling software, quantitative measures of bonding potential (bonding parameters) have been determined for over 400 dyes. PMID:16195171

  18. Visible fluorescent detection of proteins in polyacrylamide gels without staining.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Carol L; Yang, Jing; Turner, Raymond J; Edwards, Robert A

    2004-03-01

    2,2,2-Trichloroethanol (TCE) incorporated into polyacrylamide gels before polymerization provides fluorescent visible detection of proteins in less than 5min of total processing time. The tryptophans in proteins undergo an ultraviolet light-induced reaction with trihalocompounds to produce fluorescence in the visible range so that the protein bands can be visualized on a 300-nm transilluminator. In a previous study trichloroacetic acid or chloroform was used to stain polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels for protein visualization. This study shows that placing TCE in the gel before electrophoresis can eliminate the staining step. The gel is removed from the electrophoresis apparatus and placed on a transilluminator and then the protein bands develop their fluorescence in less than 5min. In addition to being rapid this visualization method provides detection of 0.2microg of typical globular proteins, which for some proteins is slightly more sensitive than the standard Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) method. Integral membrane proteins, which do not stain well with CBB, are visualized well with the TCE in-gel method. After TCE in-gel visualization the same gel can then be CBB stained, allowing for complementary detection of proteins. In addition, visualization with TCE in the gel is compatible with two-dimensional PAGE, native PAGE, Western blotting, and autoradiography. PMID:14769330

  19. Facial nerve identification with fluorescent dye in rats.

    PubMed

    Melo, Giulianno Molina de; Cervantes, Onivaldo; Covolan, Luciene; Baptista, Heloisa Allegro; Ferreira, Elenn Soares; Abrahao, Marcio

    2016-02-01

    PURPOSE The parotidectomy technique still has an elevated paresis and paralysis index, lowering patient life's quality. The correct identification of the facial nerve can prevent nerve damage. Fluorescent dye identifies nerves in experimental studies but only few articles focused its use on facial nerve study in parotidectomies. We aimed to stain the rat facial nerve with fluorescent dye to facilitate visualization and dissection in order to prevent injuries. METHODS Forty adult male Wistar rats were submitted to facial injection of saline solution (Gsf-control group, 10) or fluorescent dye solution (Gdye group, 30) followed by parotidectomy preserving the facial nerve, measuring the time for localization and facility of localization (LocTime and LFN). Nerve function was assessed using the Vibrissae Movements (PMV) and Eyelid Closure Motion (PFP) scores. RESULTS Nerve localization was faster in Gdye group, with 83% Easy LFN rate. The Gdye group presented with low nerve injury degree and better PMV and PFP scores, with high sensitivity and accuracy. CONCLUSIONS This experimental method of facial nerve fluorescence was effective for intraoperative nerve visualization, identification and preservation. The technique may be used in future facial nerve studies, translated to humans, contributing to the optimization of parotid surgery in the near future. PMID:26959618

  20. Fluorescent indicator dyes for calcium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsien, Roger Y. (Inventor); Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new class of highly fluorescent indicator dyes that are specific for calcium ions. The new fluorescent indicator dyes combine a stilbene-type fluorophore with a tetracarboxylate parent Ca.sup.2+ chelating compound having the octacoordinate pattern of liganding groups characteristic of EGTA and BAPTA. Preferred forms contain extra heterocyclic bridges to reinforce the ethylenic bond of the stilbene and to reduce hydrophobicity. Compared to their widely used predecessor, quin2, the new dyes offer up to thirty-fold brighter fluorescence, major changes in wavelength (not just intensity) upon Ca.sup.2+ binding, slightly lower affinities for Ca.sup.2+, slightly longer wavelengths of excitation, and considerably improved selectivity for Ca.sup.2+ over other divalent cations. These properties, particularly the wavelength sensitivity to Ca.sup.2+, make the dyes useful indicators for many intracellular applications, especially in single cells, adherent cell layers, or bulk tissues. The present invention also discloses an improved method for synthesizing alpha-acyloxyalkyl bromides wherein the bromides so synthesized are free of contaminating bis(1-bromoalkyl)ether. The improved method is exemplified herein in the synthesis of acetoxymethyl bromide, a compound useful in preparing the acetoxymethyl esters disclosed herein as novel Ca.sup.2+ specific fluorescent indicators.

  1. Shock wave diagnostics using fluorescent dye probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, Alexandr; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent probes are highly developed, and have found increasing use in a wide variety of applications. We have studied shock compression of various materials with embedded dye probes used as high speed probes of pressure and temperature. Under the right conditions, dye emission can be used to make a map of the pressure distribution in shocked microstructured materials with high time (1 ns) and space (1 micrometer) resolution. In order to accomplish this goal, we started by studying shock compression of PMMA polymer with rhodamine 6G dye (R6G), as a function of shock pressure and shock duration. We observed the shock-induced spectral redshift and the shock-induced intensity loss. We investigated the fundamental mechanisms of R6G response to pressure. We showed that the time response of a dye probe is limited by its photophysical behavior under shock. We developed superemissive ultrafast dye probes by embedding R6G in a silica nanoparticle. More recently, we have searched for dye probes that have better responses. For instance, we have found that the dye Nile Red embedded in the right polymer matrix has 1.7 times larger pressure-induced redshift than R6G.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells consisting of dye-bilayer structure stained with two dyes for harvesting light of wide range of wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inakazu, Fumi; Noma, Yusuke; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi

    2008-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) containing dye-bilayer structure of black dye and NK3705 (3-carboxymethyl-5-[3-(4-sulfobutyl)-2(3H)-bezothiazolylidene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone, sodium salt) in one TiO2 layer (2-TiO-BD-NK) are reported. The 2-TiO-BD-NK structure was fabricated by staining one TiO2 layer with these two dyes, step by step, under a pressurized CO2 condition. The dye-bilayer structure was observed by using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The short circuit current (Jsc) and the incident photon to current efficiency of the cell (DSC-2-TiO-BD-NK) was almost the sum of those of DSC stained with black dye only (DSC-1-TiO-BD) and DSC stained with NK3705 only (DSC-1-TiO-NK).

  3. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  4. Spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis studied with fluorescent staining.

    PubMed

    Annenkov, Vadim V; Danilovtseva, Elena N

    2016-04-01

    Siliceous sponges are the most primitive multicellular animals whose skeleton consists of spicules - needle-like constructions from silicon dioxide surrounding organic axial filaments. Mechanisms of spicule formation have been intensively studied due to the high ecological importance of sponges and their interest to materials science. Light and electron microscopy are not appropriate enough to display the process from silicon-enriched cells to mature spicules because of composite structure of the sponge tissues. In this article, spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge has been studied for the first time with the use of fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent vital dye NBD-N2 was applied to stain growing siliceous structures in the sponge and primmorph cell system. The main stages of spicule growth in the fresh-water sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis (Pallas, 1773) were visualized: silicon accumulation in sclerocytes; formation of an organic filament protruding from the cell; further elongation of the filament and growth of the spicule in a spindle-like form with enlargement in the center; merger with new sclerocytes and formation of the mature spicule. Fluorescent microscopy combined with SEM allows us to overcome the virtual differentiation between intra- and extracellular mechanisms of spicule growth. The growing spicule can capture silicic acid from the extracellular space and merge with new silicon-enriched cells. Visualization of the growing spicules with the fluorescent dye allows us to monitor sponge viability in ecological or toxicological experiments and to apply genomic, proteomic and biochemical techniques. PMID:26821342

  5. Storable, thermally activated, near-infrared chemiluminescent dyes and dye-stained microparticles for optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumes, Jeffrey M.; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J.; Giblin, Jay; Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G.; Culligan, William J.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Kuno, Masaru; Smith, Bradley D.

    2010-12-01

    Imaging techniques are a vital part of clinical diagnostics, biomedical research and nanotechnology. Optical molecular imaging makes use of relatively harmless, low-energy light and technically straightforward instrumentation. Self-illuminating, chemiluminescent systems are particularly attractive because they have inherently high signal contrast due to the lack of background emission. Currently, chemiluminescence imaging involves short-lived molecular species that are not stored but are instead generated in situ, and they typically emit visible light, which does not penetrate far through heterogeneous biological media. Here, we describe a new paradigm for optical molecular imaging using squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides, interlocked fluorescent and chemiluminescent dye molecules that have a squaraine chromophore encapsulated inside a macrocycle endoperoxide. Squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides can be stored indefinitely at temperatures below -20 °C, but upon warming to body temperature they undergo a unimolecular chemical reaction and emit near-infrared light that can pass through a living mouse.

  6. Brain morphology imaging by 3D microscopy and fluorescent Nissl staining.

    PubMed

    Lazutkin, A A; Komissarova, N V; Toptunov, D M; Anokhin, K V

    2013-07-01

    Modern optical methods (multiphoton and light-sheet fluorescent microscopy) allow 3D imaging of large specimens of the brain with cell resolution. It is therefore essential to refer the resultant 3D pictures of expression of transgene, protein, and other markers in the brain to the corresponding structures in the atlas. This implies counterstaining of specimens with morphological dyes. However, there are no methods for contrasting large samples of the brain without their preliminary slicing. We have developed a method for fluorescent Nissl staining of whole brain samples. 3D reconstructions of specimens of the hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, and cortex were created. The method can be used for morphological control and evaluation of the effects of various factors on the brain using 3D microscopy technique. PMID:24137612

  7. Highly Fluorescent dye-nanoclay Hybrid Materials Made from Different Dye Classes.

    PubMed

    Grabolle, Markus; Starke, Marian; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2016-04-12

    Nanoclays like laponites, which are commercially avaible in large quantities for a very moderate price, provide a facile solubilization strategy for hydrophobic dyes without the need for chemical functionalization and can act as a carrier for a high number of dye molecules. This does not require reactive dyes, amplifies fluorescence signals from individual emitters due to the high number of dyes molecules per laponite disk, and renders hydrophobic emitters applicable in aqueous environments. Aiming at the rational design of bright dye-loaded nanoclays as a new class of fluorescent reporters for bioanalysis and material sciences and the identification of dye structure-property relationships, we screened a series of commercial fluorescent dyes, differing in dye class, charge, and character of the optical transitions involved, and studied the changes of their optical properties caused by clay adsorption at different dye loading concentrations. Upon the basis of our dye loading density-dependent absorption and fluorescence measurements with S2105 and Lumogen F Yellow 083, we could identify two promising dye-nanoclay hybrid materials that reveal high fluorescence quantum yields of the nanoclay-adsorbed dyes of at least 0.20 and low dye self-quenching even at high dye-loading densities of up to 50 dye molecules per laponite platelet. PMID:27007448

  8. An easy method for cutting and fluorescent staining of thin roots

    PubMed Central

    Zelko, Ivan; Lux, Alexander; Sterckeman, Thibault; Martinka, Michal; Kollárová, Karin; Lišková, Desana

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Cutting plant material is essential for observing internal structures and may be difficult for various reasons. Most fixation agents such as aldehydes, as well as embedding resins, do not allow subsequent use of fluorescent staining and make material too soft to make good-quality hand-sections. Moreover, cutting thin roots can be very difficult and time consuming. A new, fast and effective method to provide good-quality sections and fluorescent staining of fresh or fixed root samples, including those of very thin roots (such as Arabidopsis or Noccaea), is described here. Methods To overcome the above-mentioned difficulties the following procedure is proposed: fixation in methanol (when fresh material cannot be used) followed by en bloc staining with toluidine blue, embedding in 6 % agarose, preparation of free-hand sections of embedded material, staining with fluorescent dye, and observation in a microscope under UV light. Key Results Despite eventual slight deformation of primary cell walls (depending on the species and root developmental stage), this method allows effective observation of different structures such as ontogenetic changes of cells along the root axis, e.g. development of xylem elements, deposition of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae in endodermis or exodermis or peri-endodermal thickenings in Noccaea roots. Conclusions This method provides good-quality sections and allows relatively rapid detection of cell-wall modifications. Also important is the possibility of using this method for free-hand cutting of extremely thin roots such as those of Arabidopsis. PMID:22419758

  9. Differential staining of two subpopulations of Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellum with acid dyes.

    PubMed

    Tandler, C J; Ríos, H; Pellegrino de Iraldi, A

    1997-09-01

    We present a new method that stains differently two subpopulations of Purkinje cells in the adult rat. Deparaffinized sections of cerebella, fixed by perfusion with buffered glutaraldehyde or Bouin's fluid were stained with 0.5% light green in 50% ethanol (10-30 min). The excess dye was removed with saturated aqueous picric acid (10-30 min). At this point some Purkinje cells appeared as lightly stained neurons, while others were strongly stained. Slides were immersed in 0.5% aqueous acid fuchsin for approximately 1 min until the lightly stained neurons acquired a red color. Following immersion in 1% phosphotungstic acid, slides were rapidly dehydrated in ethanol, passed to xylene and mounted in Canada balsam. Two subpopulations of Purkinje cells differing in their protein content in somata and proximal dendrites stained differentially by this method. They occurred in all coronal and sagittal sections and in patches or stripes. Their relative proportion varied from lobule to lobule. A second staining method used potassium permanganate as the sole staining reagent. The staining reagent can be used on sections previously stained with the acid dyes. Purkinje cells appeared as subsets of brownish to deep brown stained neurons, the latter ones corresponding to green stained cells in the dichromic method. The results obtained indicated that the subpopulations reflect real differences among individual neurons and are not artifacts. The technique holds promise for identifying and localizing sub-sets of Purkinje cells differing in their protein content under normal and experimental conditions and for their further characterization by combined staining and histochemical procedures. PMID:9408581

  10. Evaluation of a fluorescent lectin-based staining technique for some acidophilic mining bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, D.J.; Bruhn, D.F.; Miller, K.S.; Stoner, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    A fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining technique was modified and found to be effective for staining gram-positive, acidophilic mining bacteria. Bacteria identified by others as being gram positive through 16S rRNA sequence analyses, yet clustering near the divergence of that group, stained weakly. Gram-negative bacteria did not stain. Background staining of environmental samples was negligible, and pyrite and soil particles in the samples did not interfere with the staining procedure.

  11. "Coffee Ring Effect" in Ophthalmology: "Anionic Dye Deposition" Hypothesis Explaining Normal Lid Margin Staining.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Sharifzadeh, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    The process of formation of Marx line is studied in this article. Various theories have been proposed previously, in order to explain the mechanisms which lead to the development of Marx line. These theories are based on the characteristics of stained area and do not pay attention to the behavior of dye solution itself on the surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the latter behavior and introduce a new theory based on it, in order to explain the process of the Marx line formation.This study also introduces "Coffee Ring Effect" and its possible applications in explaining some ophthalmological phenomena.The effect of dye solution's behavior on the beneath surface is adopted in order to propose a novel theory. This new hypothesis is called "Anionic Dye Deposition" which was based on "Coffee Ring Effect" phenomenon. For evaluation of this theory, Evaporation pattern of Rose Bengal and fluorescein were analyzed on different surfaces. Furthermore, the effect of tear meniscus alteration on lid margin staining is studied.During the evaporation process of dye solutions, it was observed that almost all of the solute was deposited at the edge of the drop on hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, in the study of lid margin staining, it is observed that tear meniscus alteration during gaze affects staining pattern. This observation invalidates former hypotheses which only focus on stained surface characteristics.According to the observations in this study, it is proposed that Marx line staining occurs as a result of "anionic dye deposition" due to evaporation. PMID:27057835

  12. Novel procedure for the identification of proteins by mass fingerprinting combining two-dimensional electrophoresis with fluorescent SYPRO red staining.

    PubMed

    Valdes, I; Pitarch, A; Gil, C; Bermúdez, A; Llorente, M; Nombela, C; Méndez, E

    2000-06-01

    The fluorescent sensitive SYPRO Red dye was successfully employed to stain proteins in two-dimensional gels for protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting. Proteins which are not chemically modified during the SYPRO Red staining process are well digested enzymatically in the gel and hence the resulting peptides can be efficiently eluted and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A SYPRO Red two-dimensional gel of a complex protein extract from Candida albicans was analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. The validity of SYPRO Red staining was demonstrated by identifying, via peptide mass fingerprinting, 10 different C. albicans proteins from a total of 31 selected protein spots. The peptide mass signal intensity, the number of matched peptides and the percentage of coverage of protein sequences from SYPRO Red-stained proteins were similar to or greater than those obtained in parallel with the modified silver protein gel staining. This work demonstrates that fluorescent SYPRO Red staining is compatible with the identification of proteins separated on polyacrylamide gel and that it can be used as an alternative to silver staining. As far as we know, this is the first report in which C. albicans proteins separated using 2-D gels have been identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The improved technique described here should be very useful for carrying out proteomic studies. PMID:10862118

  13. Brazilwood, sappanwood, brazilin and the red dye brazilein: from textile dyeing and folk medicine to biological staining and musical instruments.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W; Bain, C L

    2015-01-01

    Brazilin is a nearly colorless dye precursor obtained from the heartwood of several species of trees including brazilwood from Brazil, sappanwood from Asia and the Pacific islands, and to a minor extent from two other species in Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean islands. Its use as a dyeing agent and medicinal in Asia was recorded in the 2(nd) century BC, but was little known in Europe until the 12(th) century AD. Asian supplies were replaced in the 16(th) century AD after the Portuguese discovered vast quantities of trees in what is now Brazil. Overexploitation decimated the brazilwood population to the extent that it never fully recovered. Extensive environmental efforts currently are underway to re-create a viable, sustainable population. Brazilin is structurally similar to the better known hematoxylin, thus is readily oxidized to a colored dye, brazilein, which behaves like hematein. Attachment of the dye to fabric is by hydrogen bonding or in conjunction with certain metallic mordants by coordinative bonding. For histology, most staining procedures involve aluminum (brazalum) for staining nuclei. In addition to textile dyeing and histological staining, brazilin and brazilein have been and still are used extensively in Asian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of disorders. Recent pharmacological studies for the most part have established a scientific basis for these uses and in many cases have elucidated the biochemical pathways involved. The principal use of brazilwood today is for the manufacture of bows for violins and other stringed musical instruments. The dye and other physical properties of the wood combine to produce bows of unsurpassed tonal quality. PMID:25893688

  14. Deep-red to near-infrared fluorescent dyes: Synthesis, photophysical properties, and application in cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jiasheng; Zhou, Bingjiang; Niu, Guangle; Zhang, Hongyan; Ge, Jiechao; Wang, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    More and more attention has been paid to the design of new fluorescent imaging agents with good photostability and water solubility, especially those with emissions in the deep-red and near-infrared regions. In this work, we designed and synthesized four novel fluorescent dyes with deep-red or NIR fluorescence by hybridizing coumarin and pyronin moieties based on our previous work. Introduction of carboxylic acid in the dyes not only imparted the dyes with water solubility but also provided a versatile sensing platform for designing the fluorescent probes and sensors of biomolecules. The photophysical properties of these new dyes were investigated through absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cell imaging experiments showed that esterification products could selectively stain lysosomes with good photostability, thereby indicating that they could be useful in the development of fluorescent probes for bioimaging. PMID:27060414

  15. Uniform silica nanoparticles encapsulating two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weibing; Liu Chang; Wang Mingliang; Huang Wei; Zhou Shengrui; Jiang Wei; Sun Yueming; Cui Yiping; Xu Chunxinag

    2009-04-15

    We have prepared uniform silica nanoparticles (NPs) doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye by reverse microemulsion method. Obvious solvatochromism on the absorption spectra of dye-doped NPs indicates that solvents can partly penetrate into the silica matrix and then affect the ground and excited state of dye molecules. For dye-doped NP suspensions, both one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence are much stronger and recorded at shorter wavelength compared to those of free dye solutions with comparative overall dye concentration. This behavior is possibly attributed to the restricted twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), which reduces fluorescence quenching when dye molecules are trapped in the silica matrix. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells with low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: Water-soluble silica NPs doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye were prepared. They were found of enhanced one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence compared to free dye solutions. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells.

  16. A Method for the Direct Identification of Differentiating Muscle Cells by a Fluorescent Mitochondrial Dye

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tetsuaki; McDermott, John C.; Gramolini, Anthony O.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of differentiating muscle cells generally requires fixation, antibodies directed against muscle specific proteins, and lengthy staining processes or, alternatively, transfection of muscle specific reporter genes driving GFP expression. In this study, we examined the possibility of using the robust mitochondrial network seen in maturing muscle cells as a marker of cellular differentiation. The mitochondrial fluorescent tracking dye, MitoTracker, which is a cell-permeable, low toxicity, fluorescent dye, allowed us to distinguish and track living differentiating muscle cells visually by epi-fluorescence microscopy. MitoTracker staining provides a robust and simple detection strategy for living differentiating cells in culture without the need for fixation or biochemical processing. PMID:22174849

  17. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niranjan; Mehul, Jadav; Das, Bhupamani; Solanki, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), and red rose (Rosa hybrida) were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen) internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain. Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose) followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites. PMID:27047037

  18. Continuous gamma irradiation effects on acrylic staining treated with basic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawi, Anis M.; Al-Harithy, Rafila S.; Muslih, Raad M.

    Gamma photons were used as a tool to enhance colours producing of the acrylic fibres used in the manufacture of textile in Iraq. Acrylic fibres and basic dyes were irradiated at doses up to 5 Mrad. Different fascinating colours were obtained after the dyeing process. Colours were found to depend on the total dose absorbed. Developed colours are stable against decolorization and their staining are comparable to that of the normal non-irradiated material. Computer Nova 3 fortran was used to differentiate between the obtained colours. Further physical and chemical studies are still under investigation in order to view the nature of changes that took place during radiolysis.

  19. Apparatus for fixing, staining, and rinsing of tissue cultures for fluorescent-antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Poole, G M

    1972-08-01

    A staining tray and tray-housing container have been developed to facilitate fluorescent-antibody staining of tissue cultures on cover slips, which allows fixing, staining, and rinsing with a minimum of handling. Breakage and loss of cells were negligible. PMID:16349928

  20. Enumeration of soil bacteria with the green fluorescent nucleic acid dye Sytox green in the presence of soil particles.

    PubMed

    Klauth, Peter; Wilhelm, Ralf; Klumpp, Erwin; Poschen, Lothar; Groeneweg, Joost

    2004-11-01

    Total counts in soils are usually determined using fluorescent dyes, such as DAPI or Sybr green, due to fluorescence enhancement if they are bound to nucleic acids. Unfortunately, these commonly used dyes stain soil particles as well. Therefore, besides fluorescence enhancement, sufficient spectral differentiation is also required. We present a new procedure that overcomes the problems of visualising bacteria on surfaces in soil and avoids the separation of soil particles to a large extent. Spectral differentiation between bacteria and soil matrix is achieved by using Sytox green and a suboptimal excitation wavelength. Bacteria exhibit a bright green fluorescence, while soil particles fluoresce blue or red. Slight homogenisation and sedimentation of the sand and coarse silt that were too big for microscopic investigations were the only separation steps required. We compared the proposed Sytox green staining with Sybr green staining. The recovery of Sybr green-stained cells amounted to 38%, whereas in samples stained by Sytox green 81% of the spiked cells were counted. Sytox green can also be combined with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using deep red dyes such as Cy5. PMID:15369855

  1. Identification and use of fluorescent dyes for plant cell wall imaging using high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Charles T; Carroll, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell walls define cell shape during development and are composed of interlaced carbohydrate and protein networks. Fluorescent dyes have long been used to label plant cell walls, enabling optical microscopy-based interrogation of cell wall structure and composition. However, the specific cell wall components to which these dyes bind are often poorly defined. The availability of fluorescent compound libraries provides the potential to screen for and identify new fluorescent compounds that interact with specific plant cell wall components, enabling the study of cell wall architecture in intact, living tissues. Here, we describe a technique for screening fluorescent compound libraries for enhanced fluorescence upon interaction with plant cell walls, a secondary screening method to identify which cell wall components interact with a given dye, and a protocol for staining and observing Arabidopsis seedlings using a fluorescent cell wall-labeling dye. These methods have the potential to be applied to screening for differences in cell wall structure and composition among genetically diverse plant varieties or species. PMID:24306866

  2. Facile and eco-friendly synthesis of green fluorescent carbon nanodots for applications in bioimaging, patterning and staining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lihong; Li, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofeng; Wen, Xiangping; Zhang, Guomei; Yang, Jun; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2015-04-01

    We report a facile and eco-friendly strategy for the fabrication of green fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for bio-imaging, patterning, and staining. A one-pot hydrothermal method using various plant petals yields bright green-emitting CDs, providing an easy way for the production of green fluorescent CDs without the need for a tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. The as-prepared CDs show small size distribution and excellent dispersibility. Their strong green fluorescence is observed when the excitation wavelength is between 430 nm and 490 nm. Moreover, they exhibit high tolerance to various external conditions, such as pH values, external cations, and continuous excitation. Due to minimum toxicity as well as good photoluminescence properties, these CDs can be applied to in vitro and in vivo imaging, patterning, and staining. According to confocal fluorescence imaging of human uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, CDs penetrate into the cell and enter the cytoplasm and the nucleus. More strikingly, carp is directly fed with CDs for in vivo imaging and shows bright green fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 470 nm. In addition, the obtained CDs are used as fluorescent inks for drawing luminescence patterns. Finally, we also apply the CDs as a fluorescent dye. Interestingly, the absorbent filter paper with staining emits dramatic fluorescence under 470 nm excitation.We report a facile and eco-friendly strategy for the fabrication of green fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for bio-imaging, patterning, and staining. A one-pot hydrothermal method using various plant petals yields bright green-emitting CDs, providing an easy way for the production of green fluorescent CDs without the need for a tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. The as-prepared CDs show small size distribution and excellent dispersibility. Their strong green fluorescence is observed when the excitation wavelength is between 430 nm and 490 nm. Moreover, they exhibit high tolerance to various external conditions, such as pH values, external cations, and continuous excitation. Due to minimum toxicity as well as good photoluminescence properties, these CDs can be applied to in vitro and in vivo imaging, patterning, and staining. According to confocal fluorescence imaging of human uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, CDs penetrate into the cell and enter the cytoplasm and the nucleus. More strikingly, carp is directly fed with CDs for in vivo imaging and shows bright green fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 470 nm. In addition, the obtained CDs are used as fluorescent inks for drawing luminescence patterns. Finally, we also apply the CDs as a fluorescent dye. Interestingly, the absorbent filter paper with staining emits dramatic fluorescence under 470 nm excitation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00783f

  3. Protein stains and applications.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Ranjini K; Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Sundaram, Pazhani

    2012-01-01

    Staining of proteins separated on gels provides the basis for determination of the critical properties of these biopolymers, such as their molecular weight and/or charge. Detection of proteins on gels and blots require stains. These stains vary in sensitivity, ease of use, color, stability, versatility, and specificity. This review discusses different stains and applications with details on how to use the advantages and disadvantages of each stain. It also compiles some important points to be considered in imaging and evaluation. Commonly used colorimetric and fluorescent dyes for general protein staining, and posttranslational modification-specific detection methods are also discussed. PMID:22585510

  4. Extrinsic Fluorescent Dyes as Tools for Protein Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Hawe, Andrea; Sutter, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Noncovalent, extrinsic fluorescent dyes are applied in various fields of protein analysis, e.g. to characterize folding intermediates, measure surface hydrophobicity, and detect aggregation or fibrillation. The main underlying mechanisms, which explain the fluorescence properties of many extrinsic dyes, are solvent relaxation processes and (twisted) intramolecular charge transfer reactions, which are affected by the environment and by interactions of the dyes with proteins. In recent time, the use of extrinsic fluorescent dyes such as ANS, Bis-ANS, Nile Red, Thioflavin T and others has increased, because of their versatility, sensitivity and suitability for high-throughput screening. The intention of this review is to give an overview of available extrinsic dyes, explain their spectral properties, and show illustrative examples of their various applications in protein characterization. PMID:18172579

  5. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its sulfonic acid moiety is modified to less water soluble moiety was identified. In polar solvents, these water soluble compounds are strongly fluorescent, however form the less soluble aggregated species with virtual loss of fluorescence when the sulfonate groups are cleaved by enzymatic activity to form the corresponding straight chain alkyl aldehyde derivatives. To achieve this conversion in vitro photo-reduced riboflavin mononucleotide (FMN) with a glucose/ glucose-oxygenase oxygen scavenging system was utilized. The reduced FMN serves as a key substrate in the enzymatic desulfonation. Once the FMNH2 was produced the desulfonation reaction was characterized by using Laser Induced Fluorescence Capillary Zone Electropheresis (LIF-CZE). This method can be utilized as an assay to detect the enzyme activity in vitro with the possibilities of in vivo applications.

  6. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tony J.; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose–response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  7. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W

    2015-11-01

    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  8. Fluorescent dyes with directly connected xanthone and xanthene units.

    PubMed

    Katori, Akane; Azuma, Eriko; Ishimura, Hina; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2015-05-01

    Unexpected dimerization of a methoxymethyl-protected xanthone occurred upon treatment with an aryl lithium reagent generated from 2-bromo-1,3-dimethylbenzene and n-butyllithium. The hydrogen between two directing ethereal oxygen atoms was not abstracted, but that adjacent to the carbonyl group was removed to afford a dimeric compound containing two directly connected fluorescent xanthone and xanthene units. Starting from this discovery, three dimeric dyes were constructed, and their optical properties were examined. Although the two fluorescent units were orthogonal in each dye, efficient energy transfer was observed in dimeric dye 16 in three solvent systems. In contrast, solvent-dependent energy transfer was detected for another dimeric dye, 5. After close investigation, we found that the orientation factor (κ) is the main factor influencing Förster resonance energy transfer in these dyes. PMID:25867283

  9. Multimodal fluorescence microscopy of prion strain specific PrP deposits stained by thiophene-based amyloid ligands

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Karin; Simon, Rozalyn; Sjölander, Daniel; Sigurdson, Christina J; Hammarström, Per; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2014-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP) forms aggregates which vary in structural conformation yet share an identical primary sequence. These variations in PrP conformation are believed to manifest in prion strains exhibiting distinctly different periods of disease incubation as well as regionally specific aggregate deposition within the brain. The anionic luminescent conjugated polythiophene (LCP), polythiophene acetic acid (PTAA) has previously been used to distinguish PrP deposits associated with distinct mouse adapted strains via distinct fluorescence emission profiles from the dye. Here, we employed PTAA and 3 structurally related chemically defined luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) to stain brain tissue sections from mice inoculated with 2 distinct prion strains. Our results showed that in addition to emission spectra, excitation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can fruitfully be assessed for optical distinction of PrP deposits associated with distinct prion strains. Our findings support the theory that alterations in LCP/LCO fluorescence are due to distinct conformational restriction of the thiophene backbone upon interaction with PrP aggregates associated with distinct prion strains. We foresee that LCP and LCO staining in combination with multimodal fluorescence microscopy might aid in detecting structural differences among discrete protein aggregates and in linking protein conformational features with disease phenotypes for a variety of neurodegenerative proteinopathies. PMID:25495506

  10. Multimodal fluorescence microscopy of prion strain specific PrP deposits stained by thiophene-based amyloid ligands.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Karin; Simon, Rozalyn; Sjölander, Daniel; Sigurdson, Christina J; Hammarström, Per; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2014-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP) forms aggregates which vary in structural conformation yet share an identical primary sequence. These variations in PrP conformation are believed to manifest in prion strains exhibiting distinctly different periods of disease incubation as well as regionally specific aggregate deposition within the brain. The anionic luminescent conjugated polythiophene (LCP), polythiophene acetic acid (PTAA) has previously been used to distinguish PrP deposits associated with distinct mouse adapted strains via distinct fluorescence emission profiles from the dye. Here, we employed PTAA and 3 structurally related chemically defined luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) to stain brain tissue sections from mice inoculated with 2 distinct prion strains. Our results showed that in addition to emission spectra, excitation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can fruitfully be assessed for optical distinction of PrP deposits associated with distinct prion strains. Our findings support the theory that alterations in LCP/LCO fluorescence are due to distinct conformational restriction of the thiophene backbone upon interaction with PrP aggregates associated with distinct prion strains. We foresee that LCP and LCO staining in combination with multimodal fluorescence microscopy might aid in detecting structural differences among discrete protein aggregates and in linking protein conformational features with disease phenotypes for a variety of neurodegenerative proteinopathies. PMID:25495506

  11. Maximizing dye fluorescence via incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Lei, Guangyin; Booker, Annette C.; Linares, Katherine A.; Fleming, Dara L.; Meehan, Kathleen; Lu, Guo-Quan; Love, Nancy G.; Love, Brian J.

    2004-12-01

    Gram-negative bacteria initiate a stress response in which the cells efflux potassium when electrophilic toxins are introduced into their environment. Hence, measurement of K+ concentration in the surrounding water using a fluorescence-based potassium-selective optode has been proposed for environmental and homeland security applications. Unfortunately, the fluorophore commonly used in such an optode is inefficient. Surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) can be used to increase its fluorescence efficiency, which will improve the sensor's performance. To understand this phenomenon before applying it to the optode system, Rose Bengal (RB), an inexpensive and well characterized dye, in solution with gold and silver nanoparticles was studied. As expected, fluorescence from RB-gold solutions was low since alignment of gold's surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak and absorption and fluorescence energies in RB favored energy transfer from RB to the gold nanoparticles. The alignment of the silver's SPR peak and the RB transitions favored transfer from silver to RB. SEF was observed in solutions with large dye-to-silver separation. However, little fluorescence was observed when the solution was pumped at the silver's SPR peak. Fluorescence from the dye decreased as dye-to-silver separation decreased. An explanation for these observations is presented; additional research is needed to develop a complete understanding.

  12. Highly sensitive and simple fluorescence staining of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-based gels by using hydrophobic tail-mediated enhancement of fluorescein luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kang, Donghoon; Jung, Duk Young; Suh, Myungkoo

    2003-10-01

    Fluorescein has an extremely low luminescence intensity in acidic aqueous media. However, when it was bound to proteins, subsequent increase of luminescence intensity took place. Furthermore, when a hydrophobic tail, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, was introduced to fluorescein, more dramatic increase of luminescence intensity was observed upon binding to proteins. In the present study, by utilizing this luminescence enhancement, three hydrophobic fluorescein dyes (5-dodecanoyl amino fluorescein, 5-hexadecanoyl amino fluorescein, and 5-octadecanoyl amino fluorescein) were examined as noncovalent fluorescent stains of protein bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Effective incorporation of the dyes to proteins in gels was accomplished either simply by adding dyes at the protein fixation step, or by treating gels with a staining solution after the fixation. The sensitivity of this staining method using the fluorescein derivatives was approximately 1 ng/band for most proteins. For some cases, protein bands containing as low as 0.1 ng were successfully visualized. In addition, the detection sensitivity showed much less protein-to-protein variation than silver staining. This new staining method was also successfully applied to two-dimensional electrophoresis of rat brain proteins. Its overall sensitivity was comparable to that of silver staining. PMID:14595675

  13. Dimeric fluorescent energy transfer dyes comprising asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    Novel fluorescent heterodimeric DNA-staining energy transfer dyes are provided combining asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine dyes, which provide for strong DNA affinity, large Stokes shifts and emission in the red region of the spectrum. The dyes find particular application in gel electrophoresis and for labels which may be bound to a variety of compositions in a variety of contexts. Kits and individual compounds are provided, where the kits find use for simultaneous detection of a variety of moieties, particularly using a single narrow wavelength irradiation source. The individual compounds are characterized by high donor quenching and high affinity to dsDNA as a result of optimizing the length of the linking group separating the two chromophores.

  14. Effects of purification and fluorescent staining on viability of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Ramanuj; Randhawa, Baljit; Krahenbuhl, James L

    2005-09-01

    Over the years, researchers have carried out experiments with Mycobacterium leprae obtained from either human multibacillary lesions, or infected armadillo tissues, or infected footpad tissues of conventional mice as well as athymic nu/nu mice. In general, these sources of leprosy bacilli are satisfactory for most biochemical and mouse footpad studies, but less than satisfactory for studies in cell biology and immunology where contaminating host tissues pose a serious problem. We examined the utility of a procedure for eliminating mouse footpad tissue from M. leprae suspension using sodium hydroxide solution and its subsequent effect on the viability of the organism by determining the rate of palmitic acid oxidation, bacterial membrane integrity, and growth in the mouse footpad. We found that treating M. leprae suspension, obtained from infected nu/nu mouse footpad, with 0.1N NaOH for 3 min was sufficient to remove the majority of mouse tissue without adversely affecting the viability of the organism. This is a simple and rapid method to get suspensions of nu/nu footpad-derived viable M. leprae essentially free of host tissues, which can be a research reagent for studying the host-pathogen relationship in leprosy. We also report here a method for labeling M. leprae with the fluorescent dye PKH26, without compromising on the viability of the organism. This method may be useful in intracellular trafficking studies of M. leprae or in other cell biology studies that require tracking of the bacteria using fluorescent tag. We observed the staining to be stable in vitro over considerable lengths of time and did not affect the viability of the bacteria. PMID:16830641

  15. Near-infrared squaraine dyes for fluorescence enhanced surface assay

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Terpetschnig, Ewald A.; Stevens, Megan; Patsenker, Leonid; Kolosova, Olga S.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available, near-infrared fluorescent squaraine dyes (Seta-635 and Seta-670) were covalently bound to antibodies and employed insurface enhanced immunoassay. From fluorescence intensity and lifetime changes determined for a surface which had been coated with silver nanoparticles as well as a non-coated glass surface, both labelled compounds exhibited a 15 to 20-fold enhancement of fluorescence on the silver coated surface compared to that achieved on the non-coated surface. In addition, the fluorescence lifetime changes drastically for both labels in the case of silver-coated surfaces. The fluorescence signal enhancement obtained for the two dyes was greater than that previously recorded for Rhodamine Red-X and AlexaFluor-647 labels. PMID:20046935

  16. DBD dyes as fluorescent probes for sensing lipophilic environments.

    PubMed

    Wawrzinek, Robert; Wessig, Pablo; Möllnitz, Kristian; Nikolaus, Jörg; Schwarzer, Roland; Müller, Peter; Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Small fluorescent organic molecules based on [1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f][1,3]benzodioxole (DBD) could be used as probes for lipophillic microenvironments in aqueous solutions by indicating the critical micelles concentration of detergents and staining cell organelles. Their fluorescence lifetime decreases drastically by the amount of water in their direct environment. Therefore they are potential probes for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:22858138

  17. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the appropriate amount of tracers was found according to the flowrate of the spring. The amount of dye is very important for the consistency of the results and the applicability of the tests. For example if the amount of tracer that is estimated is found to be inadequate, any field readings and data could be lost. Most importantly tracer dye is costly and hard to prepare, transport and will follow a torturous path through the cave to the underground river.

  18. Fluorescence imaging of dendritic spines of Golgi-Cox-stained neurons using brightening background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Min; Xiong, Hanqing; Yang, Tao; Shang, Zhenhua; Chen, Muqing; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel fluorescence imaging approach to imaging nonfluorescence-labeled biological tissue samples. The method was demonstrated by imaging neurons in Golgi-Cox-stained and epoxy-resin-embedded samples through the excitation of the background fluorescence of the specimens. The dark neurons stood out clearly against background fluorescence in the images, enabling the tracing of a single dendritic spine using both confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy. The results suggest that the reported fluorescence imaging method would provide an effective alternative solution to image nonfluorescence-labeled samples, and it allows tracing the dendritic spine structure of neurons.

  19. Fluorescence imaging of dendritic spines of Golgi-Cox-stained neurons using brightening background.

    PubMed

    Ai, Min; Xiong, Hanqing; Yang, Tao; Shang, Zhenhua; Chen, Muqing; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel fluorescence imaging approach to imaging nonfluorescence-labeled biological tissue samples. The method was demonstrated by imaging neurons in Golgi-Cox-stained and epoxy-resin-embedded samples through the excitation of the background fluorescence of the specimens. The dark neurons stood out clearly against background fluorescence in the images, enabling the tracing of a single dendritic spine using both confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy. The results suggest that the reported fluorescence imaging method would provide an effective alternative solution to image nonfluorescence-labeled samples, and it allows tracing the dendritic spine structure of neurons. PMID:25585023

  20. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ 1H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N+ CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions.

  1. Development of Highly Fluorescent Materials Based on Thiophenylimidazole Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Javier; Bu, Xiu R.; Mintz, Eric A.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Organic fluorescent materials are expected to find many potential applications in optical devices and photo-functionalized materials. Although many investigations have been focused on heterocyclic compounds such as coumarins, bipyridines, rhodamines, and pyrrole derivatives, little is known for fluorescent imidazole materials. We discovered that one particular class of imidazole derivatives is highly fluorescent. A series of monomeric and polymeric based fluorescent dyes were prepared containing a thiophene unit at the second position of the imidazole ring. Dependence of fluorescence efficiency on parameters such as solvent polarity and substituent groups has been investigated. It was found that a formyl group at the 2-position of the thiophene ring dramatically enhance fluorescence properties. Ion recognition probes indicated their potential as sensor materials. These fluorophores have flexibility for introduction of versatile substituent groups that could improve the fluorescence efficiency and sensor properties.

  2. Electrowetting actuation of a dye-doped fluorescent droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Mero, Rea Divina C.

    2014-11-01

    We report tunable color output from a fluorescent dye-doped droplet actuated by electrowetting. The system design, based on a planar electrowetting set-up, is compact and straightforward, with minimal voltage requirements for effective actuation. Fluorescent droplets are sourced from a 1 mM solution of rhodamine 6G in distilled water. Initial contact angle for a dye-doped droplet is 72.1°. At a maximum applied voltage of 20 V, the contact angle decreases to 56.5°. Emission spectra are collected as the droplet fluoresces under UV illumination. Over an electrowetting voltage range of 0 to 20 V, the peak fluorescence wavelength shifts from 568 to 546 nm.

  3. Optimization strategies for a fluorescent dye with bimodal excitation spectra: application to semiautomated proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Wayne F.; Berggren, Kiera N.; Lopez, Mary F.

    2001-04-01

    Facilities engaged in proteome analysis differ significantly in the degree that they implement automated systems for high-throughput protein characterization. Though automated workstation environments are becoming more routine in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sectors of industry, university-based laboratories often perform these tasks manually, submitting protein spots excised from polyacrylamide gels to institutional core facilities for identification. For broad compatibility with imaging platforms, an optimized fluorescent dye developed for proteomics applications should be designed taking into account that laser scanners use visible light excitation and that charge-coupled device camera systems and gas discharge transilluminators rely upon UV excitation. The luminescent ruthenium metal complex, SYPRO Ruby protein gel stain, is compatible with a variety of excitation sources since it displays intense UV (280 nm) and visible (470 nm) absorption maxima. Localization is achieved by noncovalent, electrostatic and hydrophobic binding of dye to proteins, with signal being detected at 610 nm. Since proteins are not covalently modified by the dye, compatibility with downstream microchemical characterization techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry is assured. Protocols have been devised for optimizing fluorophore intensity. SYPRO Ruby dye outperforms alternatives such as silver staining in terms of quantitative capabilities, compatibility with mass spectrometry and ease of integration into automated work environments.

  4. Image analysis of cells stained by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.; Wiegant, J.; Vrolijk, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Specific nucleic acid sequences of about 1 kb can be detected on a routine basis using FISH methods. This is achieved by indirect techniques and conventional microscopy, or with fluorescent probes (direct methods) and integrating detection devices (e.g. CCD cameras). Labeling of probes with defined ratios of two or three fluorophores allows localization of multiple targets, especially when the signals are quantified by image analysis. This requires fluoroescence microscopes equipped with multi band pass filters and computer controlled filter wheels for sequential recording of red, green and blue images using a B/W CCD camera, and correction of occurring image shifts. This combined approach was applied to localize and map genes on chromosomes. In case of nuclei with long extentions of almost linear DNA molecules, (so-called halo preparations), single hybridization sides could be shown.

  5. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  6. Treatment of pulsed dye laser-resistant port wine stain birthmarks.

    PubMed

    Jasim, Zaid F; Handley, Julian M

    2007-10-01

    The concept of selective photothermolysis with the 577-/585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) revolutionized treatment of relatively common port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. The majority of PWS can be significantly lightened with the PDL. However, few PWS are lightened completely with PDL and up to 20% hardly lighten at all. PDL-resistant PWS exist in any large cutaneous laser practice and constitute a difficult management problem. This article discusses the proposed cause, and currently available and emerging options for PDL-resistant PWS. These include higher power, longer wavelength, variable pulse width lasers with selective epidermal cooling such as 595-nm PDL, 755-nm alexandrite, 810-nm diode, 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, and intense pulse light systems. Other promising modalities include topical and systemic photodynamic therapy, electrical optical synergy technology, pulse stacking of similar or differing wavelengths, use of optical clearing agents in conjunction with laser, and erbium laser epidermal stripping before laser treatment. PMID:17658196

  7. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  8. Update on flashlamp pumped pulsed dye laser treatment for port wine stains (capillary malformation) patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: Currently, the method of choice for the treatment of port-wine stains is laser photocoagulation. Because of evolving treatment options, it is no longer enough for port-wine stains merely to be lightened through laser treatment. The best course of management consists of the most appropriate laser that will produce the most complete clearing of a lesion in the fewest treatment sessions with the least morbidity. The goal is generally accomplished with the use of yellow-light lasers. Materials (Subjects) and Methods: Absorption of laser energy by melanin causes localized heating in the epidermis, which may, if not controlled, produce permanent complications such as hypertrophic scarring or dyspigmentation. Refinements of the results can be achieved by using the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser (FLPDL) in conjunction with the cryogen spray cooling (CSC) system. In our related studies, the infrared thermal image instrument is used for doctors in determining the optimum laser light dosage and preventing the side effects caused by FLPDL. Topic application of angiogenesis inhibitor (Imiquimod) in conjunction with pulsed dye laser treatment for the PWS patients has been assessed for improvement of FLPDL treatment. Results: We present the clinical effect of FLPDL, and the efficacy and safety of cooled laser treatment of PWS birthmarks. Our clinical outcome in the laser treatment of patients with PWS has been achieved to maximize thermal impact on targeted vessels, while minimizing adverse complications. Conclusions: CSC in conjunction with FLPDL can improve the treatment of PWS. The infrared image instrument is helpful for doctors in determining the optimum laser light dosage. Topic application of angiogenesis inhibitor (Imiquimod) in conjunction with laser treatment for the PWS patients is promising in the near future. PMID:24155536

  9. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry to predict the response of port wine stains to pulsed dye laser.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, Shlomit; Azaria, Ron; Inbar, Roy; Ad-El, Dean; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy can be used to quantitate subtle differences in color. We applied a portable reflectance spectrometer to determine its utility in the evaluation of pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains (PWS) and in prediction of clinical outcome, in a prospective study. Forty-eight patients with PWS underwent one to nine pulsed dye laser treatments. Patient age and skin color as well as PWS surface area, anatomic location, and color were recorded. Pretreatment spectrophotometric measurements were performed. The subjective clinical results of treatment and the quantitative spectrophotometry results were evaluated by two independent teams, and the findings were correlated. The impact of the clinical characteristics on the response to treatment was assessed as well. Patients with excellent to good clinical results of laser treatments had pretreatment spectrophotometric measurements which differed by more than 10%, whereas patients with fair to poor results had spectrophotometric measurements with a difference of of less than 10%. The correlation between the spectrophotometric results and the clinical outcome was 73% (p < 0.01). The impact of the other clinical variables on outcome agreed with the findings in the literature. Spectrophotometry has a higher correlation with clinical outcome and a better predictive value than other nonmeasurable, nonquantitative, dependent variables. PMID:23609559

  10. Approximate analytic solutions for the optical pumping of fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    A general technique for solving a system of rate equations describing the interaction of an electromagnetic field and a molecular system is presented. The method is used to obtain approximate time-dependent solutions for the upper-level population of fluorescent dyes in the presence of a pump field.

  11. Disposable nitrate-selective optical sensor based on fluorescent dye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, disposable thin-film optical nitrate sensor was developed. The sensor was fabricated by applying a nitrate-selective polymer membrane on the surface of a thin polyester film. The membrane was composed of polyvinylchloride (PVC), plasticizer, fluorescent dye, and nitrate-selective ionophore...

  12. Bright and photostable cyanine-styryl chromophores with green and red fluorescence colour for DNA staining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohländer, Peggy R.; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and optical characterisation of a series of green- and red-emitting cyanine and cyanine-styryl dyes is presented that were developed based on the cyanine-indole-quinolinium and based on the thiazole red type structure. For the green emitting fluorophores the quinolinium part was replaced by a pyridinium group. The bridge to the indole group was attached either to the 2-position or to the 4-position of the pyridinium moiety. For the red-emitting dyes the connection to the indole moiety is at the 4-position of the quinolinium part. In each set of dyes a methyl group at the indole-NH and/or a phenyl group at the 2-position of the indole part were introduced to tune the optical properties and photostability. Additionally, two dyes were modified with a cyano group to tune the photophysical properties and to enhance the photostabilities. The developed dyes show good photostabilities and bright green or red fluorescence intensities in the presence of DNA. Thus, these dyes represent important and promising candidates for fluorescent molecular imaging of nucleic acids inside living cells.

  13. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    SciTech Connect

    He, Tingchao; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli; Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Lin, Xiaodong E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg; Sun, Handong E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-03-16

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  14. High-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis of double-stranded DNA fragments using monomeric and dimeric fluorescent intercalating dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Clark, S.M.; Benson, S.C.; Rye, H.S.; Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A. )

    1994-07-01

    Fluorescence-detected capillary electrophoresis separations of [phi]X174/HaeIII DNA restriction fragments have been performed using monomeric and dimeric intercalating dyes. Replaceable hydroxyethyl cellulose solutions were used as the separation medium. Confocal fluorescence detection was performed following 488-nm laser excitation. The limits of DNA detection for on-column staining with monomeric dyes (ethidium bromide, two propidium dye derivatives, oxazole yellow, thiazole orange, and a polycationic thiazole orange derivative) were determined. The thiazole orange dyes provide the most sensitive detection with limiting sensitivities of 2-4 amol of DNA base pairs per band, and detection of the 603-bp fragment was successful, injecting from [phi]X174/HaeIII samples containing only 1-2 fg of this fragment per microliter. Separations of preformed DNA-dimeric dye complexes were also performed. The breadth of the bands observed in separations of preformed DNA-dimeric dye complexes is due to the presence of DNA fragments with different numbers of bound dye molecules that can be resolved as closely spaced subbands in many of our separations. The quality of these DNA-dye complex separations can be dramatically improved by performing the electrophoresis with 9-aminoacridine (9AA) in the column and running buffers. 43 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Rapid and Inexpensive Method of Loading Fluorescent Dye into Pollen Tubes and Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Haiyong; Xing, Wenxi; Wu, Fenfen; Wang, Yongzhang

    2016-01-01

    The most direct technique for studying calcium, which is an essential element for pollen tube growth, is Ca2+ imaging. Because membranes are relatively impermeable, the loading of fluorescent Ca2+ probes into plant cells is a challenging task. Thus, we have developed a new method of loading fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester into cells that uses a cell lysis solution to improve the introduction of this fluorescent dye into pollen tubes. Using this method, the loading times were reduced to 15 min. Furthermore, loading did not have to be performed at low (4°C) temperatures and was successful at room temperature, and pluronic F-127 was not required, which would theoretically allow for the loading of an unlimited number of cells. Moreover, the method can also be used to fluorescently stain root hairs. PMID:27055240

  16. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-10

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  17. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-01

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  18. Neoplasm diagnostics based on fluorescence of polymethine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtsov, Michael P.; Voropay, Eugene S.; Chalov, Vadim N.; Zhavrid, Edvard A.

    2002-05-01

    Investigated polymethine dye TICS has near IR bands of fluorescence and absorption within the transparency region of biological tissues. It can be detected up to 1.5 cm from the surface of the skin. The intensity of a fluorescence signal of TICS is linear for doses up to 2 mg/kg in both tumor and muscle tissue. The ratio of an intensity of light induced fluorescence in tumor tissue to one in muscle tissue is up to 3.6 for rapidly growing tumors. The retention time of TICS is 7 days in all tissues. TICS can be used in the detection of tumor boundaries and tumor internal structure.

  19. Ethidium bromide: a fast fluorescent staining procedure for the detection of symbiotic partnership of flagellates and prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, J; König, H

    1999-03-01

    The hindgut of 'lower' termites harbors a dense population of flagellates and bacteria. The flagellates possess ecto- and endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Most of them are hardly visible in the phase contrast microscope. Staining with the DNA-intercalating agent ethidium bromide visualizes the nuclei of the flagellates as well as the ecto- and endosymbiotic bacteria as red objects. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between endosymbiotic methanogens and other bacteria. Following UV excitation, the blue-green autofluorescence of the methanogenic bacteria eclipses the red fluorescence light of the intercalated ethidium bromide. The dye facilitates the observation of symbiotic bacteria and helps identify the number, shape, localization, and dividing status of the nuclei. Thus, it is a powerful tool for the examination of microorganisms in complex habitats, which are rich in strongly autofluorescent material, like wood. PMID:10192044

  20. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonaro, Carlo M. Corpino, Riccardo Ricci, Pier Carlo Chiriu, Daniele; Cannas, Carla

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  1. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, Carlo M.; Corpino, Riccardo; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Chiriu, Daniele; Cannas, Carla

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard referenc Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently "dope" the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  2. Tailoring Fluorescent Dyes To Optimize a Hybrid RGD-Tracer.

    PubMed

    Bunschoten, Anton; van Willigen, Danny M; Buckle, Tessa; van den Berg, Nynke S; Welling, Mick M; Spa, Silvia J; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2016-05-18

    Quantitative assessment of affinity and kinetics is a critical component in the development of (receptor-targeted) radiotracers. For fluorescent tracers, such an assessment is currently not yet applied, while (small) changes in chemical composition of the fluorescent component might have substantial influence on the overall properties of a fluorescent tracer. Hybrid imaging labels that contain both a radiolabel and a fluorescent dye can be used to evaluate both the affinity (fluorescent label) and the in vivo distribution (radiolabel) of a targeted tracer. We present a hybrid label oriented and matrix-based scoring approach that enabled quantitative assessment of the influence of (overall) charge and lipophilicity of the fluorescent label on the (in vivo) characteristics of αvβ3-integrin targeted tracers. Systematic chemical alterations in the fluorescent dye were shown to result in a clear difference in the in vivo distribution of the different hybrid tracers. The applied evaluation technique resulted in an optimized targeted tracer for αvβ3-integrin, which combined the highest T/M ratio with the lowest uptake in other organs. Obviously this selection concept would also be applicable during the development of other (receptor-targeted) imaging tracers. PMID:27074375

  3. A blue fluorescent labeling technique utilizing micro- and nanoparticles for tracking in LIVE/DEAD® stained pathogenic biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia

    PubMed Central

    Klinger-Strobel, Mareike; Ernst, Julia; Lautenschläger, Christian; Pletz, Mathias W; Fischer, Dagmar; Makarewicz, Oliwia

    2016-01-01

    Strategies that target and treat biofilms are widely applied to bacterial cultures using popular live/dead staining techniques with mostly red or green fluorescent markers (eg, with SYTO® 9, propidium iodide, fluorescein). Therefore, visualizing drugs or micro- and nanoparticulate delivery systems to analyze their distribution and effects in biofilms requires a third fluorescent dye that does not interfere with the properties of the live/dead markers. The present study establishes and evaluates a model for tracking polymeric particles in fluorescently stained biological material. To this end, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based micro- and nanoparticles were used as well-established model systems, which, because of their favorable safety profiles, are expected to play important future roles with regard to drug delivery via inhalation. PLGA was covalently and stably labeled with 7-amino-4-methyl-3-coumarinylacetic acid (AMCA), after which blue fluorescent poly(ethylene glycol)-block-PLGA (PEG-PLGA) particles were prepared using a mixture of fluorescent AMCA-PLGA and PEG-PLGA. Because chitosan is known to reduce negative surface charge, blue fluorescent PEG-PLGA-particles with chitosan were also prepared. These micro- and nanoparticles were physicochemically characterized and could be clearly distinguished from live/dead stained bacteria in biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:26917959

  4. IR-780 Dye for Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiaomin; Yan, Fei; Wang, Fuli; Qin, Weijun; Wu, Guojun; Yang, Xiaojian; Shao, Chen; Chung, Leland W.K.; Yuan, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging as a novel imaging modality that allows for early detection of cancer and real-time monitoring to acquire related information. IR-780 iodide, a lipophilic dye, accumulates selectively in breast cancer cells and drug-resistant human lung cancer cells, with a peak emission at 780 nm that can be easily detected by the NIRF imaging system. The application of IR-780 for prostate cancer imaging was thoroughly investigated to further expand its clinical value. Material/Methods The impact of IR-780 on the survival of prostate cancer cells PC-3 and LNCaP as well as normal prostate epithelial cells RWPE-1 was determined. Duration of IR-780 dye staining was optimized in PC-3 cells. The involvement of specific OATP1B3 inhibitor in the selective accumulation of IR-780 was investigated. IR-780 for prostate cancer imaging was carried out in athymic nude mouse models and, acute toxicity of IR-780 was evaluated. Results IR-780 incubation resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition to cell proliferation. Mean fluorescence intensity of prostate cancer cells peaked at 20-min IR-780 incubation. Specific uptake of IR-780 dye in prostate cancer cells was mainly through the function of OATP1B3. We also demonstrated that NIRF dye effectively identified the subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts, subsequently confirmed by histological examination. There was no significant impact on the physical activity, weight, and tissue histology of BABL/C mice with 10-fold imaging dose of 1-month IR-780 dye administration. Conclusions NIRF imaging using IR-780 dye is a feasible and practicable method for prostate cancer detection, with potential tumor-killing ability, although more investigations are needed before clinical translation. PMID:25686161

  5. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of prostate cancer using heptamethine carbocyanine dyes

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, JIANLIN; YI, XIAOMIN; YAN, FEI; WANG, FULI; QIN, WEIJUN; WU, GUOJUN; YANG, XIAOJIAN; SHAO, CHEN; CHUNG, LELAND W.K.

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an attractive novel modality for the detection of cancer. A previous study defined two organic polymethine cyanine dyes as ideal NIRF probes, IR-783 and its derivative MHI-148, which have excellent optical characteristics, superior biocompatibility and cancer targeting abilities. To investigate the feasibility of NIRF dye-mediated prostate cancer imaging, dye uptake and subcellular co-localization were investigated in PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells and RWPE-1 normal prostate epithelial cells. Different organic anion transporting peptide (OATP) inhibitors were utilized to explore the potential role of the OATP subtype, including the nonspecific OATP inhibitor bromosulfophthalein, the OATP1 inhibitor 17β-estradiol, the selective OATP1B1 inhibitor rifampicin and the selective OATP1B3 inhibitor cholecystokinin octapeptide. NIRF dyes were also used for the simulated detection of circulating tumor cells and the rapid detection of prostate cancer in human prostate cancer tissues and prostate cancer xenografts in mouse models. The results revealed that the cancer-specific uptake of these organic dyes in prostate cancer cells occurred primarily via OATP1B3. A strong NIRF signal was detected in prostate cancer tissues, but not in normal tissues that were stained with IR-783. Prostate cancer cells were recognized with particular NIR fluorescence in isolated mononuclear cell mixtures. The results of the present study demonstrated that NIRF dye-mediated imaging is a feasible and practicable method for prostate cancer detection, although further investigative studies are required before clinical translation. PMID:25354708

  6. Sensitive Immunofluorescent Staining of Cells via Generation of Fluorescent Nanoscale Polymer Films in Response to Biorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Avens, Heather J.; Berron, Brad J.; May, Allison M.; Voigt, Katerina R.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Immunofluorescent staining is central to nearly all cell-based research, yet only a few fluorescent signal amplification approaches for cell staining exist, each with distinct limitations. Here, the authors present a novel, fluorescent polymerization-based amplification (FPBA) method that is shown to enable similar signal intensities as the highly sensitive, enzyme-based tyramide signal amplification (TSA) approach. Being non-enzymatic, FPBA is not expected to suffer from nonspecific staining of endogenous enzymes, as occurs with enzyme-based approaches. FPBA employs probes labeled with photopolymerization initiators, which lead to the controlled formation of fluorescent polymer films only at targeted biorecognition sites. Nuclear pore complex proteins (NPCs; in membranes), vimentin (in filaments), and von Willebrand factor (in granules) were all successfully immunostained by FPBA. Also, FPBA was demonstrated to be capable of multicolor immunostaining of multiple antigens. To assess relative sensitivity, decreasing concentrations of anti-NPC antibody were used, indicating that both FPBA and TSA stained NPC down to a 1:100,000 dilution. Nonspecific, cytoplasmic signal resulting from NPC staining was found to be reduced up to 5.5-fold in FPBA as compared to TSA, demonstrating better signal localization with FPBA. FPBA’s unique approach affords a combination of preferred attributes, including high sensitivity and specificity not otherwise available with current techniques. PMID:21339175

  7. Radioactivity-synchronized fluorescence enhancement using a radionuclide fluorescence-quenched dye.

    PubMed

    Berezin, Mikhail Y; Guo, Kevin; Teng, Bao; Edwards, W Barry; Anderson, Carolyn J; Vasalatiy, Olga; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Griffiths, Gary L; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate the first evidence of radioactivity-synchronized fluorescence quenching of a near-infrared light-emitting dye by a radionuclide, (64)Cu, and subsequent fluorescence enhancement upon (64)Cu decay to the daughter isotopes (64)Ni and (64)Zn. The dynamic switch from high radioactivity and low fluorescence to low radioactivity and high fluorescence is potentially useful for developing complementary multimodal imaging and detection platforms for chemical, environmental, and biomedical applications as well as for unraveling the mechanisms of metal-induced dynamic fluorescence changes. PMID:19514722

  8. Tissue diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis using a fluorescent stain with Uvitex 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, C; Müller, A; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Eidt, S; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V; Schrappe, M

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To detect intestinal microsporidiosis in paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens using a fluorescence technique incorporating optical brighteners. METHODS--Eight HIV infected patients with confirmed intestinal microsporidiosis (six with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, one with Encephalitozoon intestinalis and one with Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection) and 10 without infection were studied. Tissue sections of paraffin wax embedded duodenal biopsy specimens were stained with 1% Uvitex 2B, coded and analysed independently by two investigators. RESULTS--In all eight cases with confirmed intestinal microsporidian infection, spores could be detected easily in tissue sections using the fluorescence technique. Spores or other elements consistent with microsporidiosis were not found in the 10 patients without infection. CONCLUSION--Staining of tissue sections from paraffin wax embedded intestinal biopsy specimens with stains incorporating Uvitex 2B is a rapid and easy technique for the diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis. Images PMID:8543621

  9. A double filtering method for measuring the translational velocity of fluorescently stained cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasokawa, Toshiki; Ishimaru, Ichirou; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Takegawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Naotaka

    2007-09-24

    The authors propose a double filtering method to measure translational velocity for tracking fluorescently stained cells. This method employs two diffraction gratings installed in the infinity space through which the parallel pencil beam of the fluorescence passes. With this method, the change in light intensity whose period is proportional to the translational velocity of the sample can be obtained at the imaging surface. By using a sample that has a random distribution of fluorescence intensity, the authors verified that translational velocity measurements could be achieved using the proposed method.

  10. Fluorescent labeling of dendritic spines in cell cultures with the carbocyanine dye “DiI”

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Connie; Trzcinski, Olivia; Doering, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing cell morphology is a key component to understand neuronal function. Several staining techniques have been developed to facilitate the morphological analysis of neurons, including the use of fluorescent markers, such as DiI (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate). DiI is a carbocyanine membrane dye that exhibits enhanced fluorescence upon insertion of its lipophilic hydrocarbon chains into the lipid membrane of cells. The high photostability and prominent fluorescence of the dye serves as an effective means of illuminating cellular architecture in individual neurons, including detailed dendritic arborizations and spines in cell culture and tissue sections. Here, we specifically optimized a simple and reliable method to fluorescently label and visualize dissociated hippocampal neurons using DiI and high-resolution confocal microscopic imaging. With high efficacy, this method accurately labels neuronal and synaptic morphology to permit quantitative analysis of dendritic spines. Accurate imaging techniques of these fine neuronal specializations are vital to the study of their morphology and can help delineate structure-function relationships in the central nervous system. PMID:24847216

  11. Assessment of gamete quality for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) by use of fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Chávez, Carmen G; Jenkins, Jill; Segovia, Manuel; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2006-08-01

    Evaluation of sperm motility is the single most widely used parameter to determine semen quality in mammals and aquatic species. While a good indicator for fresh sperm viability, post-thaw motility is not always effective at predicting fertilizing ability. Techniques using fluorescent dyes can assess functionality of mammalian sperm, but have not been widely applied in aquatic organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an important mollusk in the United States, and cryopreservation protocols have been developed to preserve sperm and larvae to assist research and hatchery production. In this study, protocols were developed to assess sperm cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial function by flow cytometry and to assess viability of eggs by fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescent dyes SYBR 14 and propidium iodide (PI) (to assess membrane integrity) and rhodamine 123 (R123) (to assess mitochondrial membrane potential) were used to evaluate the quality of thawed oyster sperm previously cryopreserved with different cryoprotectant and thawing treatments. Membrane integrity results were correlated with motility of thawed sperm and mitochondrial membrane potential with fertilizing ability. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used to assess cytotoxicity of cryoprotectant solutions and post-thaw damage to oyster eggs. The results indicated that membrane integrity (P=0.004) and thawing treatments (P=0.04), and mitochondrial membrane potential (P=0.0015) were correlated with motility. Fertilizing ability was correlated with cryoprotectant treatments (P=0.0258) and with mitochondrial membrane potential (P=0.001). The dye FDA was useful in indicating structural integrity of fresh and thawed eggs. Exposure of eggs, without freezing, to dimethyl sulfoxide yielded higher percentages of stained eggs and fertilization rate than did exposure to propylene glycol (P=0.002). Thawed eggs were not stained with FDA (<1%) and larvae were not produced. PMID:16777086

  12. Assessment of gamete quality for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) by use of fluorescent dyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.; Segovia, M.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of sperm motility is the single most widely used parameter to determine semen quality in mammals and aquatic species. While a good indicator for fresh sperm viability, post-thaw motility is not always effective at predicting fertilizing ability. Techniques using fluorescent dyes can assess functionality of mammalian sperm, but have not been widely applied in aquatic organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an important mollusk in the United States, and cryopreservation protocols have been developed to preserve sperm and larvae to assist research and hatchery production. In this study, protocols were developed to assess sperm cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial function by flow cytometry and to assess viability of eggs by fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescent dyes SYBR 14 and propidium iodide (PI) (to assess membrane integrity) and rhodamine 123 (R123) (to assess mitochondrial membrane potential) were used to evaluate the quality of thawed oyster sperm previously cryopreserved with different cryoprotectant and thawing treatments. Membrane integrity results were correlated with motility of thawed sperm and mitochondrial membrane potential with fertilizing ability. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used to assess cytotoxicity of cryoprotectant solutions and post-thaw damage to oyster eggs. The results indicated that membrane integrity (P = 0.004) and thawing treatments (P = 0.04), and mitochondrial membrane potential (P = 0.0015) were correlated with motility. Fertilizing ability was correlated with cryoprotectant treatments (P = 0.0258) and with mitochondrial membrane potential (P = 0.001). The dye FDA was useful in indicating structural integrity of fresh and thawed eggs. Exposure of eggs, without freezing, to dimethyl sulfoxide yielded higher percentages of stained eggs and fertilization rate than did exposure to propylene glycol (P = 0.002). Thawed eggs were not stained with FDA (<1%) and larvae were not produced. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid sizing of individual fluorescently stained DNA fragments by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, P M; Johnson, M E; Martin, J C; Ambrose, W P; Marrone, B L; Jett, J H; Keller, R A

    1993-01-01

    Large, fluorescently stained restriction fragments of lambda phage DNA are sized by passing individual fragments through a focused continuous wave laser beam in an ultrasensitive flow cytometer at a rate of 60 fragments per second. The size of the fluorescence burst emitted by each stained DNA fragment, as it passes through the laser beam, is measured in one millisecond. One hundred sixty four seconds of fluorescence burst data allow linear sizing of DNA with an accuracy of better than two percent over a range of 10 to 50 kbp. This corresponds to analyzing less than 1 pg of DNA. Sizing of DNA fragments by this approach is much faster, requires much less DNA, and can potentially analyze large fragments with better resolution and accuracy than with gel-based electrophoresis. Images PMID:8451182

  14. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  15. Two-photon fluorescence and fluorescence imaging of two styryl heterocyclic dyes combined with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-yao; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Ying-kai; Qiao, Cong-de; Liu, Zhao-e.

    2016-03-01

    Two new styryl heterocyclic two-photon (TP) materials, 4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-benzene iodated salt (probe-1) and 4,4- [4-(N-methyl)styrene] -benzene iodated salt (probe-2) were successfully synthesized and studied as potential fluorescent probes of DNA detection. The linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of two compounds in different solvents were investigated. The absorption, one- and two-photon fluorescent spectra of the free dye and dye-DNA complex were also examined to evaluate their photophysical properties. The binding constants of dye-DNA were obtained according to Scatchard equation with good values. The results showed that two probes could be used as fluorescent DNA probes by two-photon excitation, and TP fluorescent properties of probe-1 are superior to that of probe-2. The fluorescent method date indicated that the mechanisms of dye-DNA complex interaction may be groove binding for probe-1 and electrostatic interaction for probe-2, respectively. The MTT assay experiments showed two probes are low toxicity. Moreover, the TP fluorescence imaging of DNA detection in living cells at 800 nm indicated that the ability to locate in cell nuclei of probe-1 is better than that of probe-2.

  16. Two-photon fluorescence and fluorescence imaging of two styryl heterocyclic dyes combined with DNA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-yao; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Ying-kai; Qiao, Cong-de; Liu, Zhao-e

    2016-03-01

    Two new styryl heterocyclic two-photon (TP) materials, 4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-benzene iodated salt (probe-1) and 4,4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-benzene iodated salt (probe-2) were successfully synthesized and studied as potential fluorescent probes of DNA detection. The linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of two compounds in different solvents were investigated. The absorption, one- and two-photon fluorescent spectra of the free dye and dye-DNA complex were also examined to evaluate their photophysical properties. The binding constants of dye-DNA were obtained according to Scatchard equation with good values. The results showed that two probes could be used as fluorescent DNA probes by two-photon excitation, and TP fluorescent properties of probe-1 are superior to that of probe-2. The fluorescent method date indicated that the mechanisms of dye-DNA complex interaction may be groove binding for probe-1 and electrostatic interaction for probe-2, respectively. The MTT assay experiments showed two probes are low toxicity. Moreover, the TP fluorescence imaging of DNA detection in living cells at 800 nm indicated that the ability to locate in cell nuclei of probe-1 is better than that of probe-2. PMID:26629954

  17. Phosphoproteome profiling using a fluorescent phosphosensor dye in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Otani, Mieko; Taniguchi, Taizo; Sakai, Akiko; Seta, Jouji; Kadoyama, Keiichi; Nakamura-Hirota, Tooru; Matsuyama, Shogo; Sano, Keiji; Takano, Masaoki

    2011-07-01

    We validated the novel PhosphoQUANTI SolidBlue Complex (PQSC) dye for the sensitive fluorescent detection of phosphorylated proteins in polyacrylamide- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (PAGE and 2DE, respectively). PQSC can detect as little as 15.6 ng of ß-casein, a pentaphosphorylated protein, and 61.3 ng of ovalbumin, a diphosphorylated protein. Fluorescence intensity correlates with the number of phosphorylated residues on the protein. To demonstrate the specificity of PQSC for phosphoproteins, enzymatically dephosphorylated lysates of Swiss 3T3 cells were separated in 2DE gels and stained by PQSC. The fluorescence signals in these gels were markedly reduced following dephosphorylation. When the phosphorylated proteins in Swiss 3T3 cell lysates were concentrated using a phosphoprotein enrichment column, the majority of phosphoproteins showed fluorescence signals in the pI 4-5 range. Finally, we performed phosphoproteome analysis to study differences in the protein phosphorylation profiles of proliferating and quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. Over 135 discernible protein spots were detected, from which a selection of 15 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS). The PQSC staining procedure for phosphoprotein detection is simple, reversible, and fully compatible with MALDI TOF-MS. PMID:21384102

  18. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Brian J.; Maisto, Pietro; Lowe, K. Todd; Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Tiemsin, Patsy I.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene latex sphere particles are widely used to seed flows for velocimetry techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). These particles may be doped with fluorescent dyes such that signals spectrally shifted from the incident laser wavelength may be detected via Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An attractive application of the LIF signal is achieving velocimetry in the presence of strong interference from laser scatter, opening up new research possibilities very near solid surfaces or at liquid/gas interfaces. Additionally, LIF signals can be used to tag different fluid streams to study mixing. While fluorescence-based PIV has been performed by many researchers for particles dispersed in water flows, the current work is among the first in applying the technique to micron-scale particles dispersed in a gas. A key requirement for such an application is addressing potential health hazards from fluorescent dyes; successful doping of Kiton Red 620 (KR620) has enabled the use of this relatively safe dye for fluorescence PIV for the first time. In this paper, basic applications proving the concept of PIV using the LIF signal from KR620-doped particles are exhibited for a free jet and a twophase flow apparatus. Results indicate that while the fluorescence PIV techniques are roughly 2 orders of magnitude weaker than Mie scattering, they provide a viable method for obtaining data in flow regions previously inaccessible via standard PIV. These techniques have the potential to also complement Mie scattering signals, for example in multi-stream and/or multi-phase experiments.

  19. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ (1)H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N(+)CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions. PMID:26921604

  20. Anatomical differences in response to treatment of port-wine stains by the pulsed dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renfro, Lisa; Geronemus, Roy G.

    1992-06-01

    Two-hundred and fifty-seven patients (136 adults and 121 children) with port-wine stains of the head and neck were treated with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser. The head and neck was subdivided into 8 anatomical regions (forehead/temple, periorbital, medial cheek, nose, upper cutaneous lip, lateral cheek, chin and neck) which were independently evaluated for response. Response to treatment was found to be associated with the anatomical location of the lesion; in both adults and children the mid-facial region (medial cheek, nose and upper cutaneous lip) responded less favorably to treatment than the other regions of the head and neck (periorbital, forehead/temple, lateral cheek, neck and chin). In adults and children, mean percent lesional lightening of the mid-facial regions was 70.7% compared to 82.3% of the other regions of the head and neck with an estimated difference of 11.6% (95% confidence interval: 8.7% - 14.6%). The mean number of treatments for adults was 3.7, while this number in children was 3.9. All side effects were transient, and included cutaneous depressions, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation.

  1. Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Optical Reflection Spectra of Japanese Natural Dyes on Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Tadaki; Matsuda, Yasunori

    1987-02-01

    Fluorescence spectra under nitrogen-laser excitation were measured for silk cloth dyed with Japanese natural dyes. An identification of the dyes on silk was carried out using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique since dyed cloth has a characteristic fluorescence spectra. Moreover, it is possible to identify dyes on faded cloth and on cloth prepared by a combination dyeing using two kinds of dyes. The LIF technique can identify dyes on cloth which is difficult to identify using the reflection spectral method.

  2. Complexation and fluorescence of tricyclic basic dyes encapsulated in cucurbiturils.

    PubMed

    Montes-Navajas, Pedro; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2008-04-01

    Tricyclic basic dyes (proflavine, acridine orange, pyronine, pyronine Y, oxonine, thionine and methylene blue) often form one-to-one or two-to-one complexes with CB[7] and CB[8], respectively. In the case of pyronine Y, the complexes with CB[7] and CB[8] have a one-to-one and three-to-one stoichiometry, respectively. The binding constants for CB[7] complexes range from 3.07x10(6) to 1.70x10(7) m(-1). In the case of CB[8], the association constant varies between 3.24x10(13) and 2.50x10(16) m(-2). Overall, these binding constants are four orders of magnitude higher than those reported for the same dyes in beta and gamma-cyclodextrins. Formation of the host-guest complexes leads to an increase in the fluorescence quantum yields in the case of CB[7], while the dimeric or trimeric dye encapsulated in CB[8] are remarkably less fluorescent than the same dye in diluted solutions. PMID:18330855

  3. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characteristic of novel fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Shi, Jing-Jing; Chen, Gang; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Ji, Shun-Jun

    Four novel fluorescence dyes of the pyrazoline were synthesized and fully characterized by means of 1H, 13C NMR, and HRMS. The optical, electrochemical properties were also investigated. Solvent effect on the fluorescence characteristics of the four compounds indicates that the emission wavelength was red-shifted with the increase of solvent polarity. As we expected, the results indicated that these compounds exhibited high quantum yields. Quantum chemical calculations were used to obtain optimized ground-state geometry, spatial distributions of the HOMO, LUMO levels of the compounds.

  5. Coupled oscillators for tuning fluorescence properties of squaraine dyes.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Christoph; Scherpf, Thorsten; Ceymann, Harald; Schmiedel, Alexander; Holzapfel, Marco

    2015-03-18

    Combining a squaraine (S) and a BODIPY (B) chromophore in a heterodimer (SB) and two heterotrimers (BSB and SBS) by alkyne bridges leads to the formation of coupled oscillators whose fluorescence properties are superior compared to the parent squaraine chromophore. The lowest energy absorption and emission properties of these superchromophores are mainly governed by the squaraine part and are shifted by more than 1000 cm(-1) to the red by excitonic interaction between the squaraine and the BODIPY dye. Employing polarization-dependent transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion measurements, we could prove that the lowest energy absorption in SB and BSB is caused by a single excitonic state but by two for SBS. Despite the spectral red-shift of their lowest absorption band, the fluorescence quantum yields increase for SB and BSB compared to the parent squaraine chromophore SQA. This is caused by intensity borrowing from the BODIPY states, which increases the squared transition moments of the lowest energy band dramatically by 29% for SB and 63% for BSB compared to SQA. Thereby, exciton coupling leads to a substantial enhancement of fluorescence quantum yield by 26% for SB and by 46% for BSB and shifts the emission from the red into the near-infrared. In this way, the BODIPY-squaraine conjugates combine the best properties of each class of dye. Thus, exciton coupling in heterodimers and -trimers is a valuable alternative to tuning fluorescence properties by, e.g., attaching substituents to chromophores. PMID:25738517

  6. DNA fluorescent stain accumulates in the Golgi but not in the kinetosomes of amitochondriate protists.

    PubMed

    Dolan, M F

    2000-03-01

    Hindgut symbiotic trichomonads (uninucleate Caduceia versatilis, and multinucleate Stephanonympha sp. and Snyderella tabogae) from the dry-wood-eating termite Cryptotermes cavifrons (Kalotermitidae) accumulate DAPI (4,6diamidino-2-phenylindole) in the membranous sacs of the Golgi complex. This form of Golgi complex, typical of protists in the class Parabasalia, is called a parabasal body. Trichomonads contain organellar systems, mastigonts, that consist of four undulipodia (e.g. eukaryotic flagella and cilia), axostylar microtubules, a parabasal body and other structures. These cells bear from one (in the case of Caduceia) to hundreds (in the case of Snyderella) of mastigonts. These features are characteristic of their protist class (Parabasalia). The nuclei of all three species stained with DNA-specific stains: DAPI, SYTOX, acridine orange, propidium iodide, ethidium bromide and Feulgen, at optimal concentrations, but kinetosomes failed to stain at all. The nuclei, parabasal bodies and symbiotic bacteria (but no microtubular structures) fluoresced in glutaraldehyde-fixed cells stained with 1.45 microM DAPI. Parabasal bodies of Snyderella and Caduceia treated to remove lipids with Triton X-100, or treated with 5% trichloroacetic acid, lacked DAPI-fluorescence. I conclude that DNA, present as expected in nuclei and bacterial symbionts, is absent from and not associated with calonymphid kinetosomes. The reason for DNA-RNA stain accumulation in the Golgi cistemae is not clear. PMID:10963333

  7. Influence of pulsewidth on the efficiency of pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of port-wine stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strempel, Hartmut; Klein, Guy

    1996-12-01

    In order to destroy selectively cutaneous vessels with a dye laser, the exposition time has to be shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target tissue. Within this frame of time longer pulses are found to be more efficient in bleaching portwine stains than shorter ones. Two pulses of different length but with identical power density are compared in their therapeutical efficiency by means of reflectometry. There were no relevant differences neither in terms of lightness, redness nor in yellowness. If the increment and the irradiance is the same, a pulse stretching form 200 microsecond(s) to 260 microsecond(s) does not influence decisively the therapeutical effect in portwine stains.

  8. Coomassie Blue as a Near-infrared Fluorescent Stain: A Systematic Comparison With Sypro Ruby for In-gel Protein Detection*

    PubMed Central

    Butt, R. Hussain; Coorssen, Jens R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative proteome analyses suggest that the well-established stain colloidal Coomassie Blue, when used as an infrared dye, may provide sensitive, post-electrophoretic in-gel protein detection that can rival even Sypro Ruby. Considering the central role of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in top-down proteomic analyses, a more cost effective alternative such as Coomassie Blue could prove an important tool in ongoing refinements of this important analytical technique. To date, no systematic characterization of Coomassie Blue infrared fluorescence detection relative to detection with SR has been reported. Here, seven commercial Coomassie stain reagents and seven stain formulations described in the literature were systematically compared. The selectivity, threshold sensitivity, inter-protein variability, and linear-dynamic range of Coomassie Blue infrared fluorescence detection were assessed in parallel with Sypro Ruby. Notably, several of the Coomassie stain formulations provided infrared fluorescence detection sensitivity to <1 ng of protein in-gel, slightly exceeding the performance of Sypro Ruby. The linear dynamic range of Coomassie Blue infrared fluorescence detection was found to significantly exceed that of Sypro Ruby. However, in two-dimensional gel analyses, because of a blunted fluorescence response, Sypro Ruby was able to detect a few additional protein spots, amounting to 0.6% of the detected proteome. Thus, although both detection methods have their advantages and disadvantages, differences between the two appear to be small. Coomassie Blue infrared fluorescence detection is thus a viable alternative for gel-based proteomics, offering detection comparable to Sypro Ruby, and more reliable quantitative assessments, but at a fraction of the cost. PMID:24043422

  9. Treatment of Port-Wine Stains with Flash Lamp Pumped Pulsed Dye Laser on Indian Skin: A Six Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Thajudheen, Chandroth Ponnambath; Jyothy, Kannangath; Priyadarshini, Arul

    2014-01-01

    Context: Port-wine stain (PWS) is one of the commonly encountered congenital cutaneous vascular lesions, with an equal sex distribution. Pulsed dye lasers (PDL) have revolutionized the treatment of both congential and acquired cutaneous vascular lesions. The pulsed dye lasers owing to its superior efficacy and safety profile have become the gold standard for the management of port-wine stains. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of pulsed dye laser for the management of Port-wine stain on Indian skin. Materials and Methods: Seventy five patients of Fitzpatrick skin types IV&V with PWS underwent multiple treatments with PDL (V beam-Candela) over a period of six years at monthly intervals. Laser parameters were wavelength 595nm, spot sizes 7-10mm, fluence 6-12 j/cm2, pulse duration 0.45-10ms, along with cryogen cooling. Serial photographs were taken before and after every session. Clinical improvement scores of comparable photographs using a quartile grading (o=<20%, 1=21-40%, 2=41-60%, 3=61-80%, 4=>80%) were judged independently by two dermatologists after the series of treatment. Minimum number of treatments was 6 and maximum 17. They were followed up at six monthly intervals to observe re darkening of PWS. Results: No patient showed total clearance.Grade3 improvement was observed in 70 % of children and 50% of adults after 8-10 sessions. Children showed better and faster response than adults. Thirty percent of patients developed post inflammatory hyper pigmentation which resolved over a period of six to eight weeks. Two patients had superficial scarring due to stacking of pulses. None of the patients showed re darkening of PWS till now. Conclusion: Pulsed dye laser is an effective and safe treatment for port-wine stain in Indian skin. PMID:24761097

  10. Emission Lifetimes of a Fluorescent Dye under Shock Compression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-long; Bassett, Will P; Christensen, James M; Dlott, Dana D

    2015-11-01

    The emission lifetimes of rhodamine 6G (R6G) were measured under shock compression to 9.1 GPa, with the dual intents of better understanding molecular photophysics in extreme environments and assessing the usefulness of fluorescence lifetime microscopy to measure spatially dependent pressure distributions in shocked microstructured media. R6G was studied as free dye dissolved in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or dye encapsulated in silica microparticles suspended in PMMA. Thin layers of these materials in impedance-matched geometries were subjected to planar single-stage shocks created by laser-driven flyer plates. A synchronized femtosecond laser excited the dye at selected times relative to flyer plate arrival and the emission lifetimes were measured with a streak camera. Lifetimes decreased when shocks arrived. The lifetime decrease was attributed to a shock-induced enhancement of R6G nonradiative relaxation. At least part of the relaxation involved shock-enhanced intersystem crossing. For free dye in PMMA, the lifetime decrease during the shock was shown to be a linear function of shock pressure from 0 to 9 GPa, with a slope of -0.22 ns·GPa(-1). The linear relationship makes it simple to convert lifetimes into pressures. Lifetime measurements in shocked microenvironments may be better than emission intensity measurements, because lifetimes are sensitive to the surrounding environment, but insensitive to intensity variations associated with the motion and optical properties of a dynamically changing structure. PMID:26469397

  11. Laser velocimetry with fluorescent dye-doped polystyrene microspheres.

    PubMed

    Lowe, K Todd; Maisto, Pietro; Byun, Gwibo; Simpson, Roger L; Verkamp, Max; Danehy, Paul M; Tiemsin, Pacita I; Wohl, Christopher J

    2013-04-15

    Simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals are obtained from individual polystyrene latex microspheres dispersed in an air flow. Microspheres less than 1 μm mean diameter were doped with two organic fluorescent dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF), intended either to provide improved particle-based flow velocimetry in the vicinity of surfaces or to provide scalar flow information (e.g., marking one of two fluid streams). Both dyes exhibit measureable fluorescence signals that are on the order of 10(-3) to 10(-4) times weaker than the simultaneously measured Mie signals. It is determined that at the conditions measured, 95.5% of RhB LIF signals and 32.2% of DCF signals provide valid laser-Doppler velocimetry measurements compared with the Mie scattering validation rate with 6.5 W of 532 nm excitation, while RhB excited with 1.0 W incident laser power still exhibits 95.4% valid velocimetry signals from the LIF channel. The results suggest that the method is applicable to wind tunnel measurements near walls where laser flare can be a limiting factor and monodisperse particles are essential. PMID:23595429

  12. Utility of intensely fluorescent cyanine dyes (Cy3) for assay of gap junctional communication by dye-transfer.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Z; Ernst, L A; Nagy, J I

    1995-01-16

    Utilization of a class of fluorescent cyanine dyes (Cy3) for the assay of gap junctional communication by the dye transfer method was examined. When compared with Lucifer Yellow (LY), a commonly used tracer, microinjected Cy3 dye was found to yield similar degrees of cell coupling. Blockade of the transfer of both tracers by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA), which is known to cause closure of communicating channels, confirmed gap junctional mediation of dye movement. The fixability of a microinjected amine derivative of Cy3 dye demonstrated its compatibility with immunostaining protocols involving fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated reagents. These results together with the brilliant fluorescence of Cy3 dyes suggest the potential of Cy3 reagents as additional tools to study gap junction function. PMID:7739811

  13. Exploration of the two-photon excitation spectrum of fluorescent dyes at wavelengths below the range of the Ti:Sapphire laser

    PubMed Central

    Trgrdh, J; Robb, G; Amor, R; Amos, WB; Dempster, J; McConnell, G

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the wavelength dependence of the two-photon excitation efficiency for a number of common UV excitable fluorescent dyes; the nuclear stains DAPI, Hoechst and SYTOX Green, chitin- and cellulose-staining dye Calcofluor White and Alexa Fluor 350, in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (540800 nm). For several of the dyes, we observe a substantial increase in the fluorescence emission intensity for shorter excitation wavelengths than the 680 nm which is the shortest wavelength usually available for two-photon microscopy. We also find that although the rate of photo-bleaching increases at shorter wavelengths, it is still possible to acquire many images with higher fluorescence intensity. This is particularly useful for applications where the aim is to image the structure, rather than monitoring changes in emission intensity over extended periods of time. We measure the excitation spectrum when the dyes are used to stain biological specimens to get a more accurate representation of the spectrum of the dye in a cell environment as compared to solution-based measurements. PMID:25946127

  14. Exploration of the two-photon excitation spectrum of fluorescent dyes at wavelengths below the range of the Ti:Sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, J; Robb, G; Amor, R; Amos, W B; Dempster, J; McConnell, G

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the wavelength dependence of the two-photon excitation efficiency for a number of common UV excitable fluorescent dyes; the nuclear stains DAPI, Hoechst and SYTOX Green, chitin- and cellulose-staining dye Calcofluor White and Alexa Fluor 350, in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (540-800 nm). For several of the dyes, we observe a substantial increase in the fluorescence emission intensity for shorter excitation wavelengths than the 680 nm which is the shortest wavelength usually available for two-photon microscopy. We also find that although the rate of photo-bleaching increases at shorter wavelengths, it is still possible to acquire many images with higher fluorescence intensity. This is particularly useful for applications where the aim is to image the structure, rather than monitoring changes in emission intensity over extended periods of time. We measure the excitation spectrum when the dyes are used to stain biological specimens to get a more accurate representation of the spectrum of the dye in a cell environment as compared to solution-based measurements. PMID:25946127

  15. Microarray Analysis of Port Wine Stains Before and After Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Laquer, Vivian T.; Hevezi, Peter A.; Albrecht, Huguette; Chen, Tina S.; Zlotnik, Albert; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Neither the pathogenesis of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks nor tissue effects of pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of these lesions is fully understood. There are few published reports utilizing gene expression analysis in human PWS skin. We aim to compare gene expression in PWS before and after PDL, using DNA microarrays that represent most, if not all, human genes to obtain comprehensive molecular profiles of PWS lesions and PDL-associated tissue effects. Materials and Methods Five human subjects had PDL treatment of their PWS. One week later, three biopsies were taken from each subject: normal skin (N); untreated PWS (PWS); PWS post-PDL (PWS + PDL). Samples included two lower extremity lesions, two facial lesions, and one facial nodule. High-quality total RNA isolated from skin biopsies was processed and applied to Affymetrix Human gene 1.0ST microarrays for gene expression analysis. We performed a 16 pair-wise comparison identifying either up- or down-regulated genes between N versus PWS and PWS versus PWS + PDL for four of the donor samples. The PWS nodule (nPWS) was analyzed separately. Results There was significant variation in gene expression profiles between individuals. By doing pair-wise comparisons between samples taken from the same donor, we were able to identify genes that may participate in the formation of PWS lesions and PDL tissue effects. Genes associated with immune, epidermal, and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in PWS skin. The nPWS exhibited more profound differences in gene expression than the rest of the samples, with significant differential expression of genes associated with angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and inflammation. Conclusion In summary, gene expression profiles from N, PWS, and PWS + PDL demonstrated significant variation within samples from the same donor and between donors. By doing pair-wise comparisons between samples taken from the same donor and comparing these results between donors, we were able to identify genes that may participate in formation of PWS and PDL effects. Our preliminary results indicate changes in gene expression of angiogenesis-related genes, suggesting that dysregulation of angiogenic signals and/or components may contribute to PWS pathology. PMID:23440713

  16. Interaction of fluorescent dyes with DNA and spermine using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gracie, K; Smith, W E; Yip, P; Sutter, J U; Birch, D J S; Graham, D; Faulds, K

    2014-08-01

    Oligonucleotides labelled with fluorescent dyes are widely used as probes for the identification of DNA sequences in detection methods using optical spectroscopies such as fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Spermine is widely used in surface enhanced based assays as a charge reduction and aggregating agent as it interacts strongly with the phosphate backbone and has shown to enhance the signal of a labelled oligonucleotide. The fluorescence intensity of two commonly used labels, FAM and TAMRA, were compared when spermine was added under different experimental conditions. There was a marked difference upon conjugating the free dye to an oligonucleotide, when FAM was conjugated to an oligonucleotide there was around a six fold decrease in emission, compared to a six fold increase when TAMRA was conjugated to an oligonucleotide. Dye labelled single and double stranded DNA also behaved differently with double stranded DNA labelled with FAM being a much more efficient emitter in the mid pH range, however TAMRA becomes increasingly less efficient as the pH rises. Upon addition of the base spermine, signal enhancement from the FAM labelled oligonucleotide is observed. Increasing probe concentrations of TAMRA oligonucleotide above 0.5 μM led to signal reduction most likely through quenching, either by an interaction with guanine, or through self-quenching. By using different bases for comparison, spermine and triethylamine (TEA), different affects were observed in the measured fluorescence signals. When TEA was added to FAM, a reduction in the pH dependence of fluorescence was observed, which may be useful for mid pH range assays. With the drive to increase information content and decrease time and complexity of DNA assays it is likely that more assays will be carried out in complex media such as extracted DNA fragments and PCR product. This model study indicates that dye DNA and dye spermine interactions are dye specific and that extreme care with conditions is necessary particularly if it is intended to determine the concentrations of multiple analytes using probes labelled with different dyes. PMID:24915043

  17. Dye-enhanced reflectance and fluorescence confocal microscopy as an optical pathology tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Salomatina, Elena; Novak, John; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Castano, Ana; Hamblin, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Early detection and precise excision of neoplasms are imperative requirements for successful cancer treatment. In this study we evaluated the use of dye-enhanced confocal microscopy as an optical pathology tool in the ex vivo trial with fresh thick non-melanoma skin cancer excisions and in vivo trial with B16F10 melanoma cancer in mice. For the experiments the tumors were rapidly stained using aqueous solutions of either toluidine blue or methylene blue and imaged using multimodal confocal microscope. Reflectance images were acquired at the wavelengths of 630nm and 650 nm. Fluorescence was excited at 630 nm and 650 nm. Fluorescence emission was registered in the range between 680 nm and 710 nm. The images were compared to the corresponding en face frozen H&E sections. The results of the study indicate confocal images of stained cancerous tissue closely resemble corresponding H&E sections both in vivo and in vitro. This remarkable similarity enables interpretation of confocal images in a manner similar to that of histopathology. The developed technique may provide an efficient real-time optical tool for detecting skin pathology.

  18. pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Dyes: Are They Really pH-Sensitive in Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Zhe; Yue, Xuyi; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Chemically synthesized near-infrared (NIR) aza-BODIPY dyes displayed OFF/ON fluorescence at acidic pH (pKa = 6.2-6.6) through the suppression of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and/or internal charge transfer (ICT) process. The apparent pKas of the dyes were shifted well above physiological pH in hydrophobic microenvironment, which led to turned-on fluorescence in micelles and liposomes at neutral and basic pH. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) also activated the fluorescence, though to a much less extent. When these small molecular dyes entered cells, instead of being fluorescent only in acidic organelles, the whole cytoplasm exhibited fluorescence, with signal/background ratio as high as ?10 in no-wash live cell imaging. The dye 1 labeled cells remained highly fluorescent even after 3 days. Moreover, slight variations of the dye structure resulted in significantly different intracellular fluorescence behaviors, possibly due to their different cellular uptake and intracellular activation capabilities. After separation of cellular components, the fraction of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed the highest fluorescence, further confirming the fluorescence activation by membrane structures. The fluorescence intensity of these dyes at different intracellular pH (6.80 and 8.00) did not differ significantly, indicating that intracellular pH did not play a critical role. Altogether, we showed here for the first time that the fluorescence of pH-sensitive aza-BODIPY dyes were switched intracellularly not by acidic pH, but by intracellular membranes (and proteins as well). The excellent membrane permeability, ultra high fluorescence contrast ratio, persistent fluorescent signal, and minimum biological interference of dye 1 make it an ideal choice for live cell imaging and in vivo cell tracking. These findings also imply that the intracellular fluorescent properties of pH-sensitive dyes should be carefully examined before used as pH indicators. PMID:23464828

  19. Combined photoacoustic and fluorescent quenching studies on organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viappiani, Cristiano; Small, Jeanne R.

    1992-04-01

    The development of deconvolution techniques in pulsed-laser, time-resolved photoacoustics has opened the possibility of accurately distinguishing between processes occurring on different time scales, and has given photoacoustics better resolution in determining reaction enthalpies and quantum yields. While fluorescent signals are usually generated by a single de- excitation pathway in the fluorophore, photoacoustic signals usually arise from different sources, such as excited singlet and triplet deactivation, occurring on well-distinguished time scales. The understanding of the effect of quenching on photoacoustic signals therefore requires careful analysis of the data. In this work, a model is developed to describe the effect of fluorescence quenching on photoacoustic signals. The model takes advantage of the time resolution in pulsed-laser photoacoustics. Both static and dynamic quenching are taken into account. Important photophysical parameters (fluorescence and intersystem crossing quantum yields, the bimolecular quenching rate constant, and the volume of the sphere of action) appear in the expressions describing the dependence of photoacoustic signal on quencher concentration. Data from both steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved photoacoustic quenching measurements are analyzed simultaneously using a set of equations containing common parameters. Experimental data on the quenching of organic dyes are presented which support the validity of the model.

  20. Selection of hybrid hybridomas by flow cytometry using a new combination of fluorescent vital stains.

    PubMed

    Shi, T; Eaton, A M; Ring, D B

    1991-08-01

    A new combination of fluorescent dyes (rhodamine 123 and hydroethidine) was used to internally label hybridoma fusion partners. Murine hybridoma 520C9 (recognizing human c-erbB-2) was labeled with hydroethidine. Murine hybridoma 3G8 (recognizing human Fc gamma receptor III) was labeled with rhodamine 123, and verapamil was used to block rhodamine efflux via P-glycoprotein. Viability assays showed little cytotoxicity from these dyes at the concentrations used. The labeled cells were fused with polyethylene glycol, sorted for dual fluorescence on an Epics V cell sorter, and cloned. Hybrid hybridomas producing bispecific antibodies were selected for ability to promote lysis of SK-Br-3 breast cancer cells by human mononuclear cells. Several positive clones were obtained and shown to have a double content of DNA. Bispecific antibody produced by subclone 2B1 was purified by anion exchange chromatography and shown to bind both tumor cells and Fc gamma R III bearing cells. Using two parameter flow cytometric analysis, we were able to measure a 'bridging' effect of this bispecific antibody, which caused formation of complexes between PMNs and SK-Br-3 cells. Either parental antibody could compete with bispecific antibody to block such complexing. This fusion method provides several advantages over other techniques presently used (speed, convenience, low toxicity and automatic exclusion of dead cells) and can be applied to produce other hybrid hybridomas. PMID:1715368

  1. Multispot live-image autofocusing for high-throughput microscopy of fluorescently stained bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zeder, M; Pernthaler, J

    2009-09-01

    Screening by automated high-throughput microscopy has become a valuable research tool. An essential component of such systems is the autonomous acquisition of focused images. Here we describe the implementation of a high-precision autofocus routine for imaging of fluorescently stained bacteria on a commercially available microscope. We integrated various concepts and strategies that together substantially enhance the performance of autonomous image acquisition. These are (i) nested focusing in bright-field and fluorescence illumination, (ii) autofocusing by continuous life-image acquisition during movement in z-direction rather than at distinct z-positions, (iii) assessment of the quality and topology of a field of view (FOV) by multispot focus measurements, and (iv) acquisition of z-stacks and application of an extended depth of field algorithm to compensate for FOV unevenness. The freely provided program and documented source code allow ready adaptation of the here presented approach to various platforms and scientific questions. PMID:19658173

  2. Clinical approved fluorescent dyes coupled to endomicroscopy for in vivo diagnostic of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaci, Muriel; Dartigues, Peggy; Soufan, Ranya; De Leeuw, Frederic; Fabre, Monique; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is metastatic stage aggravating digestive, gynecological or bladder cancer dissemination and the preoperative evaluation of lesions remains difficult. There is therefore a need for minimal invasive innovative techniques to establish a precise preoperative assessment of cancer peritoneal cavity. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides dynamic images of the microarchitecture of tissues during an endoscopy. The PERSEE project proposes new developments in robotics and pCLE for the exploration of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy. Two fluorescent dyes, Patent blue V and Indocyanine green have been evaluated on human ex vivo samples to improve the contrast of pCLE images. For a future implementation in clinical study, two topically staining protocols operable in vivo have been validated on 70 specimens from 25 patients with a peritoneal carcinomatosis. The specimens were then imaged by pCLE with an optical probe designed for the application. A histo-morphological correlative study was performed on 350 pCLE images and 70 standard histological preparations. All images were interpreted in a random way by two pathologists. Differential histological diagnostics such as normal peritoneum or pseudomyxoma could be recognized on fluorescence images. The statistical analysis of the correlative study is underway. These dyes already approved for human use are interesting for pCLE imaging because some micromorphological criteria look like to conventional histology and are readable by pathologist. Thus pCLE images using both dyes do not require a specific semiology unlike to what is described in the literature, for pCLE associated with fluorescein for the in vivo imaging of pancreatic cysts.

  3. Sensitive silver staining of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using an azo dye, calconcarboxylic acid, as a silver-ion sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Tai; Hwang, Sun-Young; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2004-08-01

    A highly sensitive silver staining method for detecting proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was developed. It is based on the silver nitrate staining method but also employs an azo dye, calconcarboxylic acid (NN), as a silver-ion sensitizer. It increases silver binding on protein bands or spots by the formation of a silver-dye complex and also increases the reducing power of silver ions to metallic silver by NN itself with formaldehyde. After a 2 h gel fixing step, the protocol including sensitization, silver-ion impregnation, and reduction steps can be completed in 1 h. The sensitivity is superior to that of silver stain with glutardialdehyde as a silver-ion sensitizer. The detection limit of NN-silver stain is 0.05-0.2 ng protein. Considering the high sensitivity without using glutardialdehyde, the NN-silver stain would be useful for routine silver staining of proteins. PMID:15300767

  4. Design and synthesis of polymer-functionalized NIR fluorescent dyes--magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lakshmi, Jeeva Lavanya; Dolmanan, Surani Bin; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Ho, Vincent H B; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Hariharan, Anushya; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Zhang, Yong; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2013-08-27

    The fluorescent probes having complete spectral separation between absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift) are highly useful for solar concentrators and bioimaging. In bioimaging application, NIR fluorescent dyes have a greater advantage in tissue penetration depth compared to visible-emitting organic dyes or inorganic quantum dots. Here we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of an amphiphilic polymer, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhyride)-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) IR-820 dye and its conjugates with iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Our results demonstrate that the Stokes shift of unmodified dye can be tuned (from ~106 to 208 nm) by the functionalization of the dye with polymer and MNPs. The fabrication of bimodal probes involves (i) the synthesis of NIR fluorescent dye (IR-820 cyanine) functionalized with ethylenediamine linker in high yield, >90%, (ii) polymer conjugation to the functionalized NIR fluorescent dye, and (iii) grafting the polymer-conjugated dyes on iron oxide MNPs. The resulting uniform, small-sized (ca. 6 nm) NIR fluorescent dye-magnetic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a wider emissive range (800-1000 nm) and minimal cytotoxicity. Our preliminary studies demonstrate the potential utility of these NPs in bioimaging by means of direct labeling of cancerous HeLa cells via NIR fluorescence microscopy and good negative contrast enhancement in T2-weighted MR imaging of a murine model. PMID:23869722

  5. Evaluation of fluorescent dye degradation indirectly induced by x-ray ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Clayton Augusto; Duarte de Menezes, Frederico; de Araujo, Renato E

    2015-08-01

    This work evaluated the fluorescent dye degradation indirectly induced by ionizing radiation with high energy photons (50 keV). Aqueous gels of agarose with low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G and Fluorescein were submitted to doses of x-ray radiation up to 200 Gy. The dye degradation was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, using an excitation light-emitting diode with a peak wavelength of 462 nm. A rate equation model of fluorophores and radicals' species populations was developed to describe the degradation time behavior of the fluorescent solutions. The model suggests fluorescent dyes should be used in dosimetry. PMID:26368112

  6. Dimer formation effect on the red-shift in fluorescent spectra of dye solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukprasong, Saksit; Manjit, Yongyut; Limpichaipanit, Apichart; Ngamjarurojana, Athipong

    2015-07-01

    The red-shift on fluorescent dyes spectra at high concentration was investigated by laser induce fluorescence technique. In this research, the fluorescent dyes (Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine B, Fluorescein and Bromofluorescein) were used. The sample solutions were prepared with methanol solvent in the concentration range of 10-5 to 10-3 Molar and the temperature of sample solution was controlled at 25 °C by temperature control chamber. Then, the sample solution was illuminated by violet laser (405 nm) excitation source and the fluorescence spectra were recorded by CCD spectrometer. The result showed that the fluorescence spectra of all fluorescent dye solutions were dependent on concentration of fluorescent dyes. The position of fluorescence maximum intensity was shifted to a higher wavelength (red-shift) when the concentration increased because the dimer formation rate increases with increasing concentration, but the shifting of wavelength for each fluorescent dye solutions was different, which suggests the different rate of formation of dimer molecules in each fluorescent dye solutions.

  7. Staining diatoms with rhodamine dyes: control of emission colour in photonic biocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kucki, Melanie; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of rhodamine dyes in the cell wall of diatoms Coscinodiscus granii and Coscinodiscus wailesii for the production of luminescent hybrid nanostructures is investigated. By systematic variation of the substitution pattern of the rhodamine core, we found that carbonic acids are considerably better suited than esters because of their physiological compatibility. The amino substitution pattern that controls the optical properties of the chromophore has no critical influence on dye uptake and incorporation, thus a variety of biocomposites with different emission maxima can be prepared. Applications in biomineralization studies as well as in materials science are envisioned. PMID:21865248

  8. A new probe using hybrid virus-dye nanoparticles for near-infrared fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changfeng; Barnhill, Hannah; Liang, Xiaoping; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Huabei

    2005-11-01

    A fluorescent probe based on bionanoparticle cowpea mosaic virus has been developed for near-infrared fluorescence tomography. A unique advantage of this probe is that over 30 dye molecules can be loaded onto each viral nanoparticle with an average diameter of 30 nm, making high local dye concentration (∼1.8 mM) possible without significant fluorescence quenching. This ability of high loading of local dye concentration would increase the signal-to-noise ratio considerably, thus sensitivity for detection. We demonstrate successful tomographic fluorescence imaging of a target containing the virus-dye nanoparticles embedded in a tissue-like phantom. Tomographic fluorescence data were obtained through a multi-channel frequency-domain system and the spatial maps of fluorescence quantum yield were recovered with a finite-element-based reconstruction algorithm.

  9. Modelling of microcracks image treated with fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, Victor; Lashmanov, Oleg U.

    2015-06-01

    The main reasons of catastrophes and accidents are high level of wear of equipment and violation of the production technology. The methods of nondestructive testing are designed to find out defects timely and to prevent break down of aggregates. These methods allow determining compliance of object parameters with technical requirements without destroying it. This work will discuss dye penetrant inspection or liquid penetrant inspection (DPI or LPI) methods and computer model of microcracks image treated with fluorescent dye. Usually cracks on image look like broken extended lines with small width (about 1 to 10 pixels) and ragged edges. The used method of inspection allows to detect microcracks with depth about 10 or more micrometers. During the work the mathematical model of image of randomly located microcracks treated with fluorescent dye was created in MATLAB environment. Background noises and distortions introduced by the optical systems are considered in the model. The factors that have influence on the image are listed below: 1. Background noise. Background noise is caused by the bright light from external sources and it reduces contrast on the objects edges. 2. Noises on the image sensor. Digital noise manifests itself in the form of randomly located points that are differing in their brightness and color. 3. Distortions caused by aberrations of optical system. After passing through the real optical system the homocentricity of the bundle of rays is violated or homocentricity remains but rays intersect at the point that doesn't coincide with the point of the ideal image. The stronger the influence of the above-listed factors, the worse the image quality and therefore the analysis of the image for control of the item finds difficulty. The mathematical model is created using the following algorithm: at the beginning the number of cracks that will be modeled is entered from keyboard. Then the point with random position is choosing on the matrix whose size is 1024x1024 pixels (result image size). This random pixel and two adjacent points are painted with random brightness, the points, located at the edges have lower brightness than the central pixel. The width of the paintbrush is 3 pixels. Further one of the eight possible directions is chosen and the painting continues in this direction. The number of `steps' is also entered at the beginning of the program. This method of cracks simulating is based on theory A.N. Galybin and A.V. Dyskin, which describe cracks propagation as random walk process. These operations are repeated as many times as many cracks it's necessary to simulate. After that background noises and Gaussian blur (for simulating bad focusing of optical system) are applied.

  10. Toxicity, mutagenicity and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of three popular DNA intercalating fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Sayas, Enric; García-López, Federico; Serrano, Ramón

    2015-09-01

    We have compared the toxicity, mutagenicity and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of three DNA-intercalating fluorescent dyes widely used to stain DNA in gels. Safety data about ethidium bromide (EtBr) are contradictory, and two compounds of undisclosed structure (Redsafe and Gelred) have been proposed as safe alternatives. Our results indicate that all three compounds inhibit yeast growth, with Gelred being the most inhibitory and also the only one causing cell death. EtBr and Gelred, but not Redsafe, induce massive formation of petite (non-respiratory) mutants, but only EtBr induces massive loss of mitochondrial DNA. All three compounds increase reversion of a chromosomal point mutation (lys2-801(amber) ), with Gelred being the most mutagenic and Redsafe the least. These dyes are all cationic and are probably taken by cells through non-selective cation channels. We could measure the glucose-energized transport of EtBr and Gelred inside the cells, while uptake of Redsafe was below our detection limit. We conclude that although all three compounds are toxic and mutagenic in the yeast system, Redsafe is the safest for yeast, probably because of very limited uptake by these cells. PMID:26108459

  11. Synthesis and characterization of fluorescent dyes-magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Jańczewski, Dominik; Bin Dolmanan, Surani; Sudhiranjan, Tripathy; Selvan, Subramanian T.

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles have been emerging as potential bimodal probes in the area of bioimaging. However, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye as a fluorescent material for bimodal probe remains unexplored. The tailor-design of NIR cyanine dye is challenging. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of novel functional IR 820 dye. This modified IR 820 has been successfully conjugated with long and short back-bone chain polymers. All these compounds preserve good water solubility and photochemical properties. The magnetic-fluorescent bimodal probe has been demonstrated, wherein the magnetic nanoparticles have been coated with dye-polymer. The cytotoxicity studies on HeLa cells show that MNP@dye-polymer with short back-bone chain has better cell viability.

  12. Diolistics: incorporating fluorescent dyes into biological samples using a gene gun

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, John A.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The hand-held gene gun provides a rapid and efficient method of incorporating fluorescent dyes into cells, a technique that is becoming known as diolistics. Transporting fluorescent dyes into cells has, in the past, used predominantly injection or chemical methods. The use of the gene gun, combined with the new generation of fluorescent dyes, circumvents some of the problems of using these methods and also enables the study of cells that have proved difficult traditionally to transfect (e.g. those deep in tissues and/or terminally differentiated); in addition, the use of ion- or metabolite-sensitive dyes provides a route to study cellular mechanisms. Diolistics is also ideal for loading cells with optical nanosensors – nanometre-sized sensors linked to fluorescent probes. Here, we discuss the theoretical considerations of using diolistics, the advantages compared with other methods of inserting dyes into cells and the current uses of the technique, with particular consideration of nanosensors. PMID:17945370

  13. Organic fluorescent thermometers based on borylated arylisoquinoline dyes.

    PubMed

    Pais, Vânia F; Lassaletta, José M; Fernández, Rosario; El-Sheshtawy, Hamdy S; Ros, Abel; Pischel, Uwe

    2014-06-16

    Borylated arylisoquinolines with redshifted internal charge-transfer (ICT) emission were prepared and characterized. Upon heating, significant fluorescence quenching was observed, which forms the basis for a molecular thermometer. In the investigated temperature range (283-323 K) an average sensitivity of -1.2 to -1.8% K(-1) was found for the variations in fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. In the physiological temperature window (298-318 K) the average sensitivity even reaches values of up to -2.4% K(-1). The thermometer function is interpreted as the interplay between excited ICT states of different geometry. In addition, the formation of an intramolecular Lewis pair can be followed by (11)B NMR spectroscopy. This provides a handle to monitor temperature-dependent ground-state geometry changes of the dyes. The role of steric hindrance is addressed by the inclusion of a derivative that lacks the Lewis pair formation. PMID:24861774

  14. Estrogen receptor-targeted optical imaging of breast cancer cells with near-infrared fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Iven; Deodhar, Kodand; Chiplunkar, Shuba V.; Patkar, Meena

    2010-02-01

    Molecular imaging provides the in vivo characterization of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. With the advent of optical molecular imaging, specific molecules, proteins and genes may be tagged with a luminescent reporter and visualized in small animals. This powerful new tool has pushed in vivo optical imaging to the forefront as it allows for direct determination of drug bio-distribution and uptake kinetics as well as an indicator of biochemical activity and drug efficacy. Although optical imaging encompasses diverse techniques and makes use of various wavelengths of light, a great deal of excitement in molecular research lies in the use of tomographic and fluorescence techniques to image living tissues with near-infrared (NIR) light. Nonionizing, noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging has great potential to become promising alternative for breast cancer detection. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of human tissue suggest that a variety of lesions show distinct fluorescence spectra compared to those of normal tissue. It has also been shown that exogenous dyes exhibit selective uptake in neoplastic lesions and may offer the best contrast for optical imaging. Use of exogenous agents would provide fluorescent markers, which could serve to detect embedded tumors in the breast. In particular, the ability to monitor the fluorescent yield and lifetime may also enable biochemical specificity if the fluorophore is sensitive to a specific metabolite, such as oxygen. As a first step, we have synthesized and characterized one such NIR fluorescent dye conjugate, which could potentially be used to detect estrogen receptors (ER)[2] . The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1, 1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5- carboxylic acid, sodium salt. The ester formed was found to have an extra binding ability with the receptor cites as compared to ICG, which was established by the partition coefficient studies. The replacement of the sodium ion in the ester by a larger glucosammonium ion was found to enhance the hydrophilicity and reduce the toxic effect on the cell lines. The excitation and emission peaks for the conjugate were recorded in the NIR region as 750nm and 788nm respectively. The ester was found nontoxic on adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/MDA-MB-231. Specific binding and endocytosis of the estrogen-labeled conjugate was studied on the MCF-7 (ER positive) and MDA-MB-231 (ER negative). Conjugate staining of MCF-7 cells showed ~ 4-fold increase in signal intensity compared to MDA-MB- 231. Further, estrogen molecules were found to be specifically localized to the nuclear region of MCF-7 cells, whereas MDA-MB-231 showed plasma membrane staining. This technique offers the potential of noninvasive detection of hormone receptor status in breast cancer cells and would help in decreasing the load of unnecessary biopsies. Here, we have reported the progress made in the development of a novel NIR external contrast agent and the work is in progress to use this conjugate for the molecular based, diagnostic imaging of breast cancer.

  15. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  16. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  17. Method and apparatus for staining immobilized nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Foote, Robert S.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2000-01-01

    A method for staining immobilized nucleic acids includes the steps of affixing DNA probes to a solid substrate, moving target DNA material into proximity with the DNA probes, whereby the target DNA hybridized with specific ones of the DNA probes, and moving a fluorescent dye into proximity with the hybridized target DNA, whereby the fluorescent dye binds to the hybridized DNA to enable subsequent detection of fluorescence.

  18. Inflammatory morphea mimicking an acquired port-wine stain initially treated with pulsed-dye laser.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shanna Shan-Yi; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The early inflammatory lesions of morphea may present with erythema or violaceous patches and plaques before evolving into areas of sclerosis. They have been misdiagnosed as acquired port-wine stains (PWSs). We report a previously well 7-year-old Chinese girl presenting with early facial morphea mimicking an acquired PWS with unusual histologic features of perineural inflammation. The presence of cutaneous perineural inflammation may be seen in a small percentage of cases of morphea and appears to be a feature of early inflammatory morphea. We report this case to highlight the importance in recognizing this entity and summarize the reported cases of inflammatory morphea mimicking acquired PWSs. PMID:25803570

  19. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies - Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR) - we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be beneficial for screening a large number of antibody samples during early monoclonal development phase. PMID:26851520

  20. Molecular design and synthesis of a pH independent and cell permeant fluorescent dye and its applications.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaojie; Liu, Chang; Huang, Kun; Zhang, Siwen; He, Song; Zhao, Liancheng; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-06-21

    Fluorescent dyes have played crucial roles in the field of molecular imaging as fluorescent fluorophores. In this work, a novel water-soluble and pH-independent fluorescent xanthene dye, a hydroxyl regioisomeric 3',4'-benzorhodol, has been designed and synthesized. Compared with those of rhodol dyes, the absorption (ca. 570 nm) and maximum emission (ca. 620 nm) of the dye are largely red-shifted. Due to its ring-opened zwitterion structure in water media, the dye showed good membrane permeability and distributed in the whole cell cytoplasm upon incubation with live cells. Meanwhile, the dye could be easily modified to probes. The hydrazide derivative of the dye exhibited an excellent Hg(2+) selectivity over other relevant metal ions with a detection limit down to 3 nM. Thus, the excellent fluorescence properties and chemical properties of the dye allow it to be designed as a fluorescent chemosensor and biomarker for biological applications. PMID:25990913

  1. Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Sachse, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5–9 lines, which is comparable to 4–8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery. PMID:25309455

  2. Fluorescent Polymer Nanoparticles Based on Dyes: Seeking Brighter Tools for Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Reisch, Andreas; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2016-04-01

    Speed, resolution and sensitivity of today's fluorescence bioimaging can be drastically improved by fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) that are many-fold brighter than organic dyes and fluorescent proteins. While the field is currently dominated by inorganic NPs, notably quantum dots (QDs), fluorescent polymer NPs encapsulating large quantities of dyes (dye-loaded NPs) have emerged recently as an attractive alternative. These new nanomaterials, inspired from the fields of polymeric drug delivery vehicles and advanced fluorophores, can combine superior brightness with biodegradability and low toxicity. Here, we describe the strategies for synthesis of dye-loaded polymer NPs by emulsion polymerization and assembly of pre-formed polymers. Superior brightness requires strong dye loading without aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ). Only recently several strategies of dye design were proposed to overcome ACQ in polymer NPs: aggregation induced emission (AIE), dye modification with bulky side groups and use of bulky hydrophobic counterions. The resulting NPs now surpass the brightness of QDs by ≈10-fold for a comparable size, and have started reaching the level of the brightest conjugated polymer NPs. Other properties, notably photostability, color, blinking, as well as particle size and surface chemistry are also systematically analyzed. Finally, major and emerging applications of dye-loaded NPs for in vitro and in vivo imaging are reviewed. PMID:26901678

  3. Rapid viability assessment of yeast cells using vital staining with 2-NBDG, a fluorescent derivative of glucose.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Bong; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2002-06-01

    A fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), which had been developed previously for the analysis of glucose uptake activity by living cells, was investigated to evaluate its applicability for assaying the viability of yeasts. Fluorescence intensities of the yeast population were measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry upon exposure to antifungal agents after staining with 2-NBDG and were compared to the number of colony forming units (CFU). A good correlation was obtained between the yeast viability, determined by the CFU, and the accumulation of 2-NBDG by yeast cells (correlation constant: r=0.98). Susceptibility testing of amphotericin B and miconazole against yeast strains by plate count and 2-NBDG fluorescence method yielded corresponding results. In conclusion, we found that staining with 2-NBDG is a rapid and sensitive method for the assessment of yeast cell viability. PMID:12038577

  4. Argon-pumped tunable dye laser therapy for facial port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults--a new technique using small spot size and minimal power

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, A.; Wheeland, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    A low power, argon-pumped tunable dye laser was used to deliver yellow light of 577 nm. Individual blood vessels within port-wine stain hemangiomas were treated with a 0.1-mm beam of light using 8 X magnification. This technique permits excellent resolution of facial and nuchal port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults without the adverse complications of textural change, permanent pigmentation abnormality, or hypertrophic scarring.

  5. Fluorescence lifetime properties of near-infrared cyanine dyes in relation to their structures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeran; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Henary, Maged; Strekowski, Lucjan

    2008-01-01

    Structurally diverse near-infrared (NIR) absorbing polymethine dyes were prepared and their fluorescence lifetimes (FLT) were evaluated in relation to their structural features. Comparative FLT analysis based on the modification of methine chain length and heterocyclic system showed that indolium or benz[e]indolium heptamethine dyes exhibited longer FLT than the benz[c,d]indolium trimethine dye. Modification of heterocyclic system alone with an intact chain length showed that indolium-based heptamethine dyes showed approximately 30% longer FLT than the benz[e]indolium-based dyes. In general, the FLT of polymethine dyes increased from polar to non-polar solvents. In addition, correlation study between the theoretical and the experimental FLT for indocyanine green (ICG) suggests that the lack of structural rigidity for these cyanine dyes is primarily responsible for the loss of the excited state energy via non-radiative pathway. PMID:20016664

  6. Spectral Fluorescence Properties of an Anionic Oxacarbocyanine Dye in Complexes with Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronkin, P. G.; Tatikolov, A. S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral fluorescence properties of the anionic oxacarbocyanine dye 3,3'-di-(γ-sulfopropyl)-5,5'-diphenyl-9-ethyloxacarbocyanine betaine (OCC) were studied in solutions and in complexes with human serum albumin (HSA). Interaction with HSA leads to a significant increase in the fluorescence of the dye. We studied quenching of the fluorescence of OCC in a complex with HSA by ibuprofen and warfarin. Data on quenching of fluorescence by ibuprofen indicate binding of the dye to binding site II of subdomain IIIA in the HSA molecule. Synchronous fluorescence spectra of human serum albumin in the presence of OCC showed that complexation with OCC does not lead to appreciable rearrangement of the protein molecule at the binding site.

  7. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence study on dyes used in DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kaisyang; Force, R.K. )

    1993-01-01

    Research on the time-resolved fluorescence of fluorescein isothiocyanate, NBD, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, and Texas Red - the dyes used for fluorescence-based DNA sequencing - is described. Mean fluorescence lifetiems in both aqueous buffer solution and 5.3%T, 4.8%C polyacrylamide gel were determined as a function of excitation wave-lengths at 337, 470, and 550 nm and were found to be 3.5, 1.1, 2.5, and 4.3 ns; the detection limits are 10, 200, 200 and 200 amol for FITC, NBD, TEMR, and T. Red, respectively. Comparisons of fluorescence parameters between the conjugated dyes and the free dyes are also reported. Results on the optimization of the excitation source wavelengths to improve sensitivity and reduce background scattering in polyacrylamide gel are also reported. Time-resolved fluorescence was successfully applied to resolve spectral overlapping of emissions in both solution and in polyacrylamide gel. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A double fluorescence staining protocol to determine the cross-sectional area of myofibers using image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Fassel, T. A.; Schultz, E.; Greaser, M. L.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A double fluorescence staining protocol was developed to facilitate computer based image analysis. Myofibers from experimentally treated (irradiated) and control growing turkey skeletal muscle were labeled with the anti-myosin antibody MF-20 and detected using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC). Extracellular material was stained with concanavalin A (ConA)-Texas red. The cross-sectional area of the myofibers was determined by calculating the number of pixels (0.83 mu m(2)) overlying each myofiber after subtracting the ConA-Texas red image from the MF-20-FITC image for each region of interest. As expected, myofibers in the irradiated muscle were smaller (P < 0.05) than those in the non-irradiated muscle. This double fluorescence staining protocol combined with image analysis is accurate and less labor-intensive than classical procedures for determining the cross-sectional area of myofibers.

  9. Enhanced fluorescence from dye molecules by Au nanoparticles on asymmetric double-stranded DNA and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. H.; Liu, L. Z.; Zhu, X. B.; Wu, X. L.; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) prepared on asymmetric DNA double helical structures show some twinning structures and sharp corners because of the low processing temperature. The distance between individual NPs varies between 2 and 4 nm, and these NPs form clusters with a size of 40 nm. The DNA structures also provide docking sites for the fluorescent dye. The dependence of the fluorescence enhancement on the distance between the NPs and dye molecules is investigated. The maximum enhancement factor is 5.8 when the distance between the dye and Au NP surface is 3.4 nm and the results are consistent with theoretical simulation.

  10. Base-content dependence of emission enhancements, quantumyields, and lifetimes of cyanine dyes bound to double-strand DNA: Photophysical properties of monomeric and bichromophoric DNA stains

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, T.L.; Nafisi, K.; Zhao, M.; Lenhard, J.R.; Johnson, I.

    1995-12-21

    This paper reports fluorescence quantum yield, emission enhancement, and emission lifetime measurements for 10 cyanine dyes complexed to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), (dAdT){sub 10}, and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. Six of the dyes are linked bichromophores with four cationic charges per molecule, and four are monomers with two cationic charges per molecule. All of the dyes exhibit either bi- or triexponential emission decay kinetics reflecting different dye/ds DNA modes of binding, and the average radiative lifetime for the bichromophores bound to ds DNA is 5.1{+-}0.8 ns. These results are consistent with expectations that binding-induced restriction of torsion about the central methine bridge is responsible for the large emission enhancements of these dyes. Scrutiny of the lengths of average emission lifetime for these 10 dyes on (dAdT){sub 10} and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes finds that they do not vary as expected if electron transfer (ET) emission quenching were an important process. There are also differences in emission quantum yield between dyes with pyridinium and quinolinium structural components when bound to (dAdT){sub 10} and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. These differences are very distinct for the monomeric dyes where pyridinium dyes have 4-fold greater emission yields on (dAdT){sub 10} duplexes and quinolinium dyes have 2-fold greater emission yields on (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Comparative analysis of heterochromatin distribution in wild and cultivated Abelmoschus species based on fluorescent staining methods.

    PubMed

    Merita, Keisham; Kattukunnel, Joseph John; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Bhat, Kangila Venkataramana; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2015-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fluorochrome-binding pattern in nine taxa of Abelmoschus had shown that the type, amount and distribution pattern of heterochromatin were characteristic for each taxa. The fluorescent chromosome-binding sites obtained by chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining in all the nine species showed constitutive heterochromatin CMA(+), DAPI(+) and CMA(+)/DAPI(+). Large amount of heterozygosity was observed with regard to heterochromatin distribution pattern in all the taxa studied. The CMA(+)-binding sites are comparatively less than DAPI(+)-binding sites which is clearly evident as AT-rich regions are more than GC-rich regions in all the nine taxa analysed in Abelmoschus. These CMA(+) and DAPI(+)-binding sites apparently rise with the increased in chromosome numbers of the different species. This pattern of heterochromatin heterogeneity seems to be a general characteristic feature. Therefore, the differential pattern of distribution of GC- and AT-rich sequences might have played an important role in diversification of the genus Abelmoschus. Polyploidy is an important factor in the evolution of Abelmoschus and the sole reason for range in chromosome numbers in this genus. It may be noted that, though often, but not always, the increase of DNA is caused by an increase in the amount of heterochromatin, i.e. increase of non-coding sections indicating restructuring of the heterochromatin. Thus, cumulative small and direct numerical changes might have played a role in the speciation of Abelmoschus. PMID:25300590

  12. Automated quality assessment of autonomously acquired microscopic images of fluorescently stained bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zeder, M; Kohler, E; Pernthaler, J

    2010-01-01

    Quality assessment of autonomously acquired microscopic images is an important issue in high-throughput imaging systems. For example, the presence of low quality images (>or=10%) in a dataset significantly influences the counting precision of fluorescently stained bacterial cells. We present an approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) to assess the quality of such images. Spatially invariant estimators were extracted as ANN input data from subdivided images by low level image processing. Different ANN designs were compared and >400 ANNs were trained and tested on a set of 25,000 manually classified images. The optimal ANN featured a correct identification rate of 94% (3% false positives, 3% false negatives) and could process about 10 images per second. We compared its performance with the image quality assessment by different humans and discuss the difficulties in assigning images to the correct quality class. The computer program and the documented source code (VB.NET) are provided under General Public Licence. PMID:19821518

  13. Stable fluorescent complexes of double-stranded DNA with bis-intercalating asymmetric cyanine dyes: properties and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Rye, H S; Yue, S; Wemmer, D E; Quesada, M A; Haugland, R P; Mathies, R A; Glazer, A N

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis, proof of structure, and the absorption and fluorescence properties of two new unsymmetrical cyanine dyes, thiazole orange dimer (TOTO; 1,1'-(4,4,7,7-tetramethyl-4,7- diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiaz ole)-2- methylidene]-quinolinium tetraiodide) and oxazole yellow dimer (YOYO; an analogue of TOTO with a benzo-1,3-oxazole in place of the benzo-1,3-thiazole) are reported. TOTO and YOYO are virtually non-fluorescent in solution, but form highly fluorescent complexes with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), up to a maximum dye to DNA bp ratio of 1:4, with greater than 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement. The dsDNA-TOTO (lambda max 513 nm; lambda maxF 532 nm) and dsDNA-YOYO (lambda max 489 nm; lambda maxF 509 nm) complexes are completely stable to electrophoresis on agarose and acrylamide gels. Mixtures of restriction fragments pre-labeled with ethidium dimer (EthD; lambda maxF 616 nm) and those pre-labeled with either TOTO or YOYO were separated by electrophoresis. Laser excitation at 488 nm and simultaneous confocal fluorescence detection at 620-750 nm (dsDNA-EthD emission) and 500-565 nm (dsDNA-TOTO or dsDNA-YOYO emission) allowed sensitive detection, quantitation, and accurate sizing of restriction fragments ranging from 600 to 24,000 bp. The limit of detection of dsDNA-TOTO and YOYO complexes with a laser-excited confocal fluorescence gel scanner for a band 5-mm wide on a 1-mm thick agarose gel was 4 picograms, about 500-fold lower than attainable by conventional staining with ethidium bromide. Images PMID:1614866

  14. Time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectroscopy of visible and near infrared dyes in picosecond dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) dyes absorb and emit light within the range from 700 to 900 nm have several benefits in biological studies for one- and/or two-photon excitation for deeper penetration of tissues. These molecules undergo vibrational and rotational motion in the relaxation of the excited electronic states, Due to the less than ideal anisotropy behavior of NIR dyes stemming from the fluorophores elongated structures and short fluorescence lifetime in picosecond range, no significant efforts have been made to recognize the theory of these dyes in time-resolved polarization dynamics. In this study, the depolarization of the fluorescence due to emission from rotational deactivation in solution will be measured with the excitation of a linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse and a streak camera. The theory, experiment and application of the ultrafast fluorescence polarization dynamics and anisotropy are illustrated with examples of two of the most important medical based dyes. One is NIR dye, namely Indocyanine Green (ICG) and is compared with Fluorescein which is in visible range with much longer lifetime. A set of first-order linear differential equations was developed to model fluorescence polarization dynamics of NIR dye in picosecond range. Using this model, the important parameters of ultrafast polarization spectroscopy were identified: risetime, initial time, fluorescence lifetime, and rotation times.

  15. Far-Red Emitting Fluorescent Dyes for Optical Nanoscopy: Fluorinated Silicon-Rhodamines (SiRF Dyes) and Phosphorylated Oxazines.

    PubMed

    Kolmakov, Kirill; Hebisch, Elke; Wolfram, Thomas; Nordwig, Lars A; Wurm, Christian A; Ta, Haisen; Westphal, Volker; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-09-14

    Far-red emitting fluorescent dyes for optical microscopy, stimulated emission depletion (STED), and ground-state depletion (GSDIM) super-resolution microscopy are presented. Fluorinated silicon-rhodamines (SiRF dyes) and phosphorylated oxazines have absorption and emission maxima at about λ≈660 and 680 nm, respectively, possess high photostability, and large fluorescence quantum yields in water. A high-yielding synthetic path to introduce three aromatic fluorine atoms and unconventional conjugation/solubilization spacers into the scaffold of a silicon-rhodamine is described. The bathochromic shift in SiRF dyes is achieved without additional fused rings or double bonds. As a result, the molecular size and molecular mass stay quite small (<600 Da). The use of the λ=800 nm STED beam instead of the commonly used one at λ=750-775 nm provides excellent imaging performance and suppresses re-excitation of SiRF and the oxazine dyes. The photophysical properties and immunofluorescence imaging performance of these new far-red emitting dyes (photobleaching, optical resolution, and switch-off behavior) are discussed in detail and compared with those of some well-established fluorophores with similar spectral properties. PMID:26272226

  16. Staining proteins in gels.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2004-02-01

    This unit describes protocols for detecting protein in a gel by either Coomassie blue, silver or fluorescent staining. Alternate rapid staining procedures are provided for each method and a support protocol describes how to photograph stained gels. Fluorescent staining (e.g., with SYPRO Orange or Red) is described as a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins in SDS-polyacrylamide gels is described, and an alternate protocol details variations in the procedure for proteins in nondenaturing gels. A final support protocol describes the photography of fluorescently stained proteins. PMID:18432935

  17. Staining proteins in gels.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2009-01-01

    This unit describes protocols for detecting protein in a gel by Coomassie blue, silver, or fluorescent staining. As a general protein stain, Coomassie is easier and more rapid; however, fluorescent and silver staining methods are considerably more sensitive and thus can be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and often as sensitive as silver staining. Alternate protocols describe rapid Coomassie and silver staining methods, as well as fluorescent stains that are specific for phosphoproteins and glycoproteins. Staining of proteins in SDS-polyacrylamide gels is described; variations for fluorescent staining of proteins in nondenaturing gels are also included. Support protocols describe photography of stained proteins. PMID:19170026

  18. Use of fluorescent NIR dyes in silica nanoparticles and as enzyme substrates in bioanalytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged; Ellis, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) absorbing carbocyanine dyes have been increasingly used in analytical, biological and medical fields as they can be useful for developing bioanalytical and biomedical methods. The utilization of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous and is due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. NIR dyes typically have relatively lower fluorescent quantum yield as compared to visible fluorophores, but much higher molar absorptivities which more than compensates for the lower quantum yields regarding detection limits. Fluorescence intensity of NIR dyes significantly increases by enclosing several dye molecules in silica nanoparticles. Self quenching may become a problem for carbocyanines at such high concentrations that may be present in the silica nanoparticles. Dyes that have large Stokes' shift can significantly decrease this problem. Increased Stokes' shift for carbocyanines dyes can be achieved by substituting meso position halogens with a linker containing aliphatic or aromatic amino moiety which also serves as a covalent linker for attaching the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. The primary applications of these particles are for bright fluorescent labels to be used in bioanalytical applications such as immunochemistry, flow cytometry, etc. This work also discusses the use of NIR dyes as enzyme substrates. NIR dyes can be used as enzyme substrates and hence for characterization of enzyme activity. The well characterized alkenesulfonate monooxygenase enzyme was chosen for these studies. Carbocyanines containing alkylsulfonate moieties do not exhibit significant fluorescence change upon binding to biomolecules however otherwise identical NIR dye analogs that contain alkylaldehyde moiety at the same position do exhibit changes which can be utilized for characterization of alkenesulfonate monooxygenase enzyme activity using near infrared dyes as substrates. In this study a new class of sulfonated penta- and heptamethine dyes were used as substrates in vitro utilizing a photo-reduced riboflavin mononucleotide (FMN) with a glucose/ glucose-oxygenase oxygen scavenging system. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) detected CZE was utilized to detect the sulfonated and de-sulfonated carbocyanines. The lower fluorescence quantum yield of the less water soluble alkylaldehyde analogs was detected and enzyme activity was characterized.

  19. Evaluation of Polymethine Dyes as Potential Probes for Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors: Part - 1

    PubMed Central

    James, Nadine S.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Henary, Maged; Strekowsk, Lucjan; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes have become important for many biomedical applications, including in vivo optical imaging. Conjugation of NIR fluorescent dyes to photosensitizing molecules (photosensitizers) holds strong potential for NIR fluorescence image guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the photophysical properties, in vivo tumor-affinity and fluorescence imaging potential of a series of heterocyclic polymethine dyes, which could then be conjugated to certain PDT agents. For our present study, we selected a series of symmetrical polymethine dyes containing a variety of bis-N-substituted indole or benzindole moieties linked by linear conjugation with and without a fused substituted cyclohexene ring. The N-alkyl side chain at the C-terminal position was functionalized with sulfonic, carboxylic acid, methyl ester or hydroxyl groups. Although, among the parent cyanine dyes investigated, the commercially available, cyanine dye IR783 (3) (bis-indole-N-butylsulfonate)-polymethine dye with a cyclic chloro-cyclohexene moiety showed best fluorescence-imaging ability, based on its spectral properties (λAbs=782 nm, λFl=810 nm, ε = 261,000 M-1cm-1, ΦFl≈0.08) and tumor affinity. In addition to 3, parent dyes IR820 and Cypate (6) were also selected and subjected to further modifications by introducing desired functional groups, which could enable further conjugation of the cyanine dyes to an effective photosensitizer HPPH developed in our laboratory. The synthesis and biological studies (tumor-imaging and PDT) of the resulting bifunctional conjugates are discussed in succeeding paper (Part-2 of this study). PMID:24019854

  20. Volume measurements and fluorescent staining indicate an increase in permeability for organic cation transporter substrates during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Brandon A; Kharel, Prakash; Robinson, Lauren C; Synowicki, Ron A; Model, Michael A

    2016-05-15

    Extensive membrane blebbing is one of the earliest observable changes in HeLa cells stimulated with apoptosis inducers. Blebbing caused by actinomycin D or camptothecin, but not by anti-Fas antibody, is accompanied by an almost 10% volume increase as measured by transmission-through-dye microscopy. When the experiment is carried out in DMEM medium, the swelling appears to result from activation of amiloride-sensitive channels. Low-sodium choline-, but not N-methyl(-)D-glucamine-based, medium, also supports swelling during the blebbing phase of apoptosis; this indicates that the membrane becomes permeable to choline as well. Because choline can enter the cells through organic cation transporters (OCT), we tested three fluorescent dyes (2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, rhodamine 123 and ethidium bromide) that have been reported to utilize OCT for cell entry. Intact HeLa cells are poorly permeable for these fluorophores, and initially they accumulate on the plasma membranes. Blebbing results in an enhanced penetration of these dyes into the cell interior, as was demonstrated both by direct observation and by FRET. The increased membrane permeability is specific for OCT substrates; the other tested cationic dyes apparently cross the membrane by other routes and exhibit a markedly different behavior. Our results reveal a previously unknown feature of apoptosis and the utility of cationic dyes for studying membrane transport. PMID:26997529

  1. Modulating fluorescence anisotropy of dye-labeled DNA without involving mass amplification.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiaojing; Huang, Hongduan; Chen, Yang; Li, Chenxi; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescence anisotropy, known as a simple, homogeneous and cost-effective analytical technology, is an invaluable technique for studying the micro-environmental changes of the dye associated with the molecular interactions. An in-depth understanding of the variables affecting the fluorescence anisotropy signal can facilitate better experimental designs to effectively improve the analytical performance. This work is a follow-up effort in evaluating the factors that can significantly influence fluorescence anisotropy. We systematically studied fluorescence anisotropy of dsDNA with the changing length based on dye-DNA interactions, with the fluorophores in the end-labeling, the middle-site-labeling, and multiple number of labeling manners. The fluorescence anisotropy value and the base-pair response dynamic range could be expanded by labeling the fluorophores in the middle of dsDNA and increasing the number of labels on dsDNA. The C overhang configuration in the end-labeling manner could enhance the fluorescence anisotropy signal but not expand the base-pair response range. Results from all the labeling fluorophores reinforced the leveling-off effect, i.e., the fluorescence anisotropy signal does not response to the increased length of the DNA duplex when the length is larger than a critical number of base pairs. These findings provide perspectives about choosing appropriate fluorescent dyes and labeling sites for simple and universal fluorescence anisotropy designs in various applications. PMID:27154716

  2. Molecular Engineering of Thiazole Orange Dye: Change of Fluorescent Signaling from Universal to Specific upon Binding with Nucleic Acids in Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Jing; Deng, Qiang; Hou, Jin-Qiang; Hu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Ya; Zhang, Kun; Luyt, Leonard G; Wong, Wing-Leung; Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2016-04-15

    The universal fluorescent staining property of thiazole orange (TO) dye was adapted in order to be specific for G-quadruplex DNA structures, through the introduction of a styrene-like substituent at the ortho-position of the TO scaffold. This extraordinary outcome was determined from experimental studies and further explored through molecular docking studies. The molecular docking studies help understand how such a small substituent leads to remarkable fluorescent signal discrimination between G-quadruplex DNA and other types of nucleic acids. The results reveal that the modified dyes bind to the G-quadruplex or duplex DNA in a similar fashion as TO, but exhibit either enhanced or quenched fluorescent signal, which is determined by the spatial length and orientation of the substituent and has never been known. The new fluorescent dye modified with a p-(dimethylamino)styryl substituent offers 10-fold more selectivity toward telomeric G-quadruplexes than double-stranded DNA substrates. In addition, native PAGE experiments, FRET, CD analysis, and live cell imaging were also studied and demonstrated the potential applications of this class of thiazole-orange-based fluorescent probes in bioassays and cell imaging. PMID:26752011

  3. Hematoxylin substitutes: a survey of mordant dyes tested and consideration of the relation of their structure to performance as nuclear stains.

    PubMed

    Lillie, R D; Pizzolato, P; Donaldson, P T

    1976-01-01

    In the search for hematoxylin substitutes 26 dyes were more or less extensively tested for performance as nuclear stains, usually in combination with aluminum, chronic, ferrous and ferric salts. Reports from the literature on hematoxylin substitutes were also considered, and efforts were made to obtain samples of favorably reported dyes and test them. The reports on anthocyanins include isolated reports on several berry juices and a considerable number of studies on Sambucus niger and Vaccinium myrtillus. None of these have so far been tested by us. Otherwise favorable reports have appeared on eleven synthetic dyes and on carmine, brazilin, and hematin. Except for one of the synthetics, naphthazarin, which is no longer fractured, we had samples of all of these. In addition, more or less unsuccessful trials were made on twelve dyestuffs, some of which were new syntheses designed to combine chelating capacity with nucleophilia. Following Fyg's report of blue nuclear staining with chrome alum carmine, trial was made to change the red nuclear stain of kernechtrot by altering the metal mordant. The most successful dyes were phenocyanin TC, gallein, fluorone black, alizarin cyanin BB and alizarin blue S. Celestin blue B with an iron mordant is quite successful if properly handled to prevent gelling of solutions. PMID:59410

  4. Probing endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border using fluorescent lipophilic dyes: lipid sorting at the apical cell surface.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-05-01

    The small intestinal brush border is a specialized cell membrane that needs to withstand the solubilizing effect of bile salts during assimilation of dietary nutrients and to achieve detergent resistance; it is highly enriched in glycolipids organized in lipid raft microdomains. In the present work, the fluorescent lipophilic probes FM 1-43 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl)pyridinium dibromide), FM 4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(6-(4-(diethylamino) phenyl)hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide), TMA-DPH (1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene p-toluenesulfonate), and CellMask Orange plasma membrane stain were used to study endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border of organ-cultured porcine mucosal explants. All the dyes readily incorporated into the brush border but were not detectably endocytosed by 5 min, indicating a slow uptake compared with other cell types. At later time points, FM 1-43 clearly appeared in distinct punctae in the terminal web region, previously shown to represent early endosomes (TWEEs). In contrast, the other dyes were relatively "endocytosis resistant" to varying degrees for periods up to 2 h, indicating an active sorting of lipids in the brush border prior to internalization. For some of the dyes, a diphenylhexatriene motif in the lipophilic tail seemed to confer the relative endocytosis resistance. Lipid sorting by selective endocytosis therefore may be a process in the enterocytes aimed to generate and maintain a unique lipid composition in the brush border. PMID:25526697

  5. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be stained by the dye and appear green under the blue light. The provider can determine the location and likely cause of the cornea problem depending on the size, location, and shape of the staining.

  6. Rapid Macrocycle Threading by a Fluorescent Dye-Polymer Conjugate in Water with Nanomolar Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Evan M.; Liu, Wenqi; Spence, Graeme T.; Shaw, Scott K.; Davis, Anthony P.; Destecroix, Harry; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    A macrocyclic tetralactam host is threaded by a highly fluorescent squaraine dye that is flanked by two polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chains with nanomolar dissociation constants in water. Furthermore, the rates of bimolecular association are very fast with kon ~106–107 M−1s−1. The association is effective under cell culture conditions and produces large changes in dye optical properties including turn-on near-infrared fluorescence that can be imaged using cell microscopy. Association constants in water are ~1000 times higher than in organic solvents and strongly enthalpically favored at 27 °C. The threading rate is hardly affected by the length of the PEG chains that flank the squaraine dye. For example, macrocyle threading by a dye conjugate with two appended PEG2000 chains is only three times slower than threading by a conjugate with triethyleneglycol chains that are twenty times shorter. The results are a promising advance towards synthetic mimics of streptavidin/biotin. PMID:26106948

  7. Photostabilizing effects of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum on organic fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisk, Wade N.

    2003-07-01

    The photostabilization efficacy of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq3) was determined for methanol solutions of the fluorescent laser dyes 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-567) and rhodamine 590 (R590) by evaluation with the , rose bengal (RB). The photostability was measured by noting the decrease in fluorescence with accumulated 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Rose bengal demonstrated dramatic photostability enhancement upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition; whereas nominal photostability enhancement was observed for PM-567 and R590 upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition. A geminate dye-singlet oxygen complex is proposed to explain the disparity in dye photostability enhancement between rose bengal and the laser dyes.

  8. Combined immunofluorescence-DNA-fluorescence staining technique for enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in a population of acidophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Muyzer, G.; De Bruyn, A.; Schmedding, D.J.M.; Bos, P.; Westbroek, P.; Kuenen, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    An antiserum raised against whole cells of Thiobacillus ferroxidans was allowed to react with a variety of acidophilic and nonacidophilic bacteria in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Both experiments demonstrated that the antiserum was specific at the species level. This preparation was used to evaluate the role of T. ferroooxidans in the microbial desulfurization process. Leaching experiments were performed, and the numbers of T. ferrooxidans cells and other bacteria were estimated by using a combined immunofluorescence-DNA-fluorescence staining technique that was adapted for this purpose. Nonsterile coal samples inoculated with T. ferrooxidans yielded high concentrations of soluble iron after 16 days. After this period, however, T. ferrooxidans cells could no longer be detected by the immunofluorescence assay, whereas the DNA-fluorescence staining procedure demonstrated a large number of microorganisms on the coal particles. These results indicate that T. ferrooxidans is removed by competition with different acidophilic microorganisms that were originally present on the coal.

  9. Photophysics of Laser Dye-Doped Polymer Membranes for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence target generation in dye-doped polymer films has recently been introduced as a promising alternative to more traditional photogrammetric targeting techniques for surface profiling of highly transparent or reflective membrane structures. We investigate the photophysics of these dye-doped polymers to help determine their long-term durability and suitability for laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetric targeting. These investigations included experimental analysis of the fluorescence emission pattern, spectral content, temporal lifetime, linearity, and half-life. Results are presented that reveal an emission pattern wider than normal Lambertian diffuse surface scatter, a fluorescence time constant of 6.6 ns, a pump saturation level of approximately 20 micro J/mm(exp 2), and a useful lifetime of more than 300,000 measurements. Furthermore, two demonstrations of photogrammetric measurements by laser-induced fluorescence targeting are presented, showing agreement between photogrammetric and physically measured dimensions within the measurement scatter of 100 micron.

  10. Determination of torasemide by fluorescence quenching method with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhiping; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing

    2013-10-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of torasemide (TOR) with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as fluorescence probes was developed. In acidulous medium, TOR could interact with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), dibromofluorescein (DBF) and diiodofluorescein (DIF) to form binary complexes, which could lead to fluorescence quenching of above dihalogenated fluorescein dyes. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelengths were located at 532 nm (TOR-DCF), 535 nm (TOR-DBF) and 554 nm (TOR-DIF). The relative fluorescence intensities (ΔF = F0 - F) were proportional to the concentration of TOR in certain ranges. The detection limits were 4.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DCF system, 9.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DBF system and 35.1 ng mL-1 for TOR-DIF system. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors were studied; and the effect of coexisting substances was investigated owing to the highest sensitivity of TOR-DCF system. In addition, the reaction mechanism, composition and structure of the complex were discussed by quantum chemical calculation and Job's method. The fluorescence quenching of dihalogenated fluorescein dyes by TOR was a static quenching process judging from the effect of temperature and the Stern-Volmer plots. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TOR in tablets and human urine samples.

  11. Erythrocyte incubation as a method for free-dye presence determination in fluorescently labeled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Patrizia; Martinelli, Chiara; Carney, Randy P; Carney, Tamara M; Stellacci, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    The field of nanotheranostics encompasses the integration of nanosized carriers in cancer imaging, diagnosis, and therapy. The use of nanomedicines for theranostic application typically depends on direct visualization of the nanocarriers. Normally fluorescent probes are attached to nanocarriers for biodistribution measurement through fluorescence imaging. However continued, noninvasive assurance that the fluorescent probe remains bound to the carrier has proven elusive. Mature erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, are incapable of endocytosis. As a consequence, when incubated with fluorescently labeled particles, they do not show any signal coming from the membrane or the cytoplasm. Yet, these cells readily take up free BODIPY fluorescent dyes into their membranes. Here we show that incubation of nanoparticles with erythrocytes is a rapid and reliable method for the detection of unbound dye present within a nanoparticle sample, as the detection of a fluorescent signal coming from the cells can only be due to unbound dye present in the sample. We test the method on both sulfonate and PEG terminated gold nanoparticles, and we determine the minimum concentration of detectable dye for a specific gold nanoparticle sample. PMID:23190092

  12. Ecophysiological Analysis of Microorganisms in Complex Microbial Systems by Combination of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Extracellular Staining Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Ecophysiological analysis and functions of single cells in complex microbial systems can be examined by simple combinations of Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification with various staining techniques targeting functional phenotypes. In this chapter, we describe methods and protocols optimized for the study of extracellular enzymes, surface hydrophobicity and specific surface structures. Although primarily applied to the study of microbes in wastewater treatment (activated sludge and biofilms), the methods may also be used with minor modifications in several other ecosystems.

  13. New epifluorescence microscope providing pairs of specific fluorescence images of double-stained cells for simultaneous visual perception and for quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, Thomas; Tribukait, Bernhard

    1996-05-01

    A new epi-fluorescence microscope for analysis of cells stained with two fluorochromes which can be spectrally isolated is described. The system makes it possible to perform independent and specific spectral selection of each dye (e.g. DAPI and CY3) while perceiving the two specific images simultaneously by eye. The optics uses splitting of the primary excitation and emission light beams, independent modification of the separated beams, and their reunification. Modifications in the separated beams comprise: (1) isolation of specific wavelengths (365 nm and 546 nm in the excitation light path, 435 - 500 nm and 590 - 750 nm in the emission light beams), (2) wavelength switching without image displacement and blur by means of a light chopper alternating between ultraviolet-excitation/blue-detection and green-excitation/red-detection at frequencies of up to 140 Hz for observation by eye without image flicker, and (3) the possible separate positioning of lenses for compensation of chromatic aberrations. The system demonstrates a good transmission of the chosen wavelengths. A high specificity of double fluorescence analysis with minimal effects of spectral overlap was attained with good temporal resolution. It has been shown that it is feasible to obtain separate chromatic compensations for the use of a microscope objective in spectral regions outside the range for which the objective is corrected. Quantitative and independent measurements of the two fluorescence images by a CCD camera synchronized with the light chopper are feasible. In conclusion, this imaging system is outlined for highly specific visual analysis and exact quantitative measurement of double fluorescence labeled specimens in cytology and histology.

  14. Simultaneous SERS and surface-enhanced fluorescence from dye-embedded metal core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Peng

    2014-05-21

    We demonstrate a methodology to prepare Au-core-Ag-shell nanoparticles displaying both SERS and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) activities simultaneously by embedding dye molecules between the core and the shell. Polyelectrolytes are used to adjust the spacing and the dye position between the core and the shell. Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition can serve as an effective and flexible way to introduce various types of dye molecules into the nanostructures. Results from the spectral measurements shed light on the intricacy between SERS and SEF. PMID:24695881

  15. TiO2-nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells containing fluorescent material.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong-Rae; Lee, Young-Joon; Park, Hun; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Won-Youl

    2013-05-01

    We fabricated a dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with TiO2 nanotube arrays obtained by anodization of Ti foil. Vertical structure of TiO2 nanotube arrays is very attractive due to a high electron transfer from dye to electrode. To improve the power conversion efficiency, fluorescent material, F-6377, was applied in TiO2-nanotube-based DSCs to use a light spectrum efficiently. Fluorescent material was absorbed the different wavelength of 460 nm from the light absorbed by N719 dye. Fluorescent material to emit the absorbed light energy provided an additional light for dye in DSCs and additional electrons was generated. Thickness of TiO2 nanotube arrays grown by anodic oxidation was 15 microm. N719 dye and 13(-)/l(-) electrolyte were used to fabricate the DSCs. The short circuit current densities (J(sc)) and the power conversion efficiency in DSCs with fluorescent were 10.8 mA/cm2 and 2.48%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was observed to understand an electron transfer and life time. PMID:23858885

  16. Testing the Fraunhofer line discriminator by sensing fluorescent dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoertz, G. E.

    1969-01-01

    The experimental Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) has detected increments of Rhodamine WT dye as small as 1 ppb in 1/2 meter depths. It can be inferred that increments considerably smaller than 1 ppb will be detectable in depths considerably greater than 1/2 meter. Turbidity of the water drastically reduces luminescence or even completely blocks the transmission of detectable luminescence to the FLD. Attenuation of light within the water by turbidity and by the dye itself are the major factors to be considered in interpreting FLD records and in relating luminescence coefficient to dye concentration. An airborne test in an H-19 helicopter established feasibility of operating the FLD from the aircraft power supply, and established that the rotor blades do not visibly affect the monitoring of incident solar radiation.

  17. Bichromophoric hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence probes applied for monitoring of the photochemically initiated polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabatc, Janina; Bajorek, Agnieszka; Dobosz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of series homodimmeric hemicyanine dyes based on ( p-N,N-dimethylaminostyryl)benzothiazolium, ( p-N,N-dimethylaminostyryl)benzoxazolium, ( p-N,N-dimethylaminostyryl)-2,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium residues were determined. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the dyes under study were measured in different polarity solvents at room temperature. On the basis of the solvatochromic behavior the ground state ( μ g) and excited state ( μ e) dipole moments of bis-(N,N-dimethylaminostyryl) derivatives were evaluated. The dipole moments ( μ g and μ e) were estimated from solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra as function of dielectric constant ( ɛ) and refractive index ( n) of applied solvents. The absorption and fluorescence spectra are only slightly affected by the solvent polarity. The analysis of solvatochromic behavior of the fluorescence spectra as a function of Δ f ( ɛ, n) revealed that the emission occurs from a high polarity excited state. The large dipole moment changes along with the red-shifted fluorescence, as the solvent polarity is increased, demonstrates the formation of an intramolecular charge transfer state (ICT). Six bichromophoric hemicyanine dyes, possessing benzothiazole, benzoxazole or indolinium group linked by 5 or 10 methylene groups were evaluated as fluorescence probes applied for monitoring of the polymerization process. The study on the changes in fluorescence intensity and spectroscopic shift of studied compounds were carried out during photochemically initiated polymerization of 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-propane-1,3-diol triacrylate (TMPTA).

  18. The mutual influence of two different dyes on their sensitized fluorescence (cofluorescence) in nanoparticles from complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied the fluorescence sensitization and quenching for pairs of different dyes simultaneously incorporated into nanoparticles from complexes M(diketone)3phen, where M(III) is La(III), Lu(III), or Sc(III); diketone is p-phenylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (PhBTA) or naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (NTA); and phen is 1,10-phenanthroline. We have shown that, upon formation of nanoparticles in the solution in the presence of two dyes the concentrations of which are either comparable with or lower than the concentration of nanoparticles (<20 nM), the intensities of the sensitized fluorescence of dyes in nanoparticles in binary solutions and in solutions of either of the dyes coincide. We have found that the intensity of sensitized fluorescence of small (<20 nM) concentrations of rhodamine 6G (R6G) or Nile blue (NB) increases by an order of magnitude upon simultaneous introduction into nanoparticles of 1 μM of coumarin 30 (C30), while the intensity of fluorescence of C30 sensitized by complexes decreases by an order of magnitude. The same effect is observed as 1 μM of R6G are introduced into nanoparticles with NB ([NB] ≤ 20 nM). The increase in the fluorescence of dye molecules upon their incorporation from the solution into nanoparticles from complexes is noticeably lower than that expected from the proposed ratio of concentrations of complexes and dyes in nanoparticles. Analysis of the obtained data indicates that the introduction of large concentrations of C30 or R6G dyes into nanoparticles makes it possible to prevent large energy losses due to impurities or upon transition to a triplet state that arises during the migration of the excitation energy over S 1 levels of complexes. Energy accumulated by these dyes is efficiently transferred to another dye that is present in the solution at lower concentrations and that has a lower-lying S 1 level, which makes it possible to increase its fluorescence by an order of magnitude upon its incorporation into nanoparticles.

  19. Polarization and symmetry of electronic transitions in long fluorescence lifetime triangulenium dyes.

    PubMed

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W

    2013-03-14

    To fully exploit the capabilities of fluorescence probes in modern experiments, where advanced instrumentation is used to probe complex environments, other photophysical properties than emission color and emission intensity are monitored. Each dye property can be addressed individually as well as collectively to provide in-depth information unavailable from the standard intensity measurements. Dyes with long emission lifetimes and strongly polarized transitions enable the monitoring of lifetime changes as well as emission polarization (anisotropy). Thus experiments can be designed to follow slow dynamics. The UV and visible electronic transitions of a series of red-emitting dyes based on the triangulenium motif are investigated. We resolve overlapping features in the spectra and assign the orientation of the transition moments to the molecular axes. The result is the complete Jablonski diagram for the UV and visible spectral region. The symmetries of the studied dyes are shown to have a large influence on the optical response, and they are clearly separated into two groups of symmetry by their photophysical properties. The C(2v) symmetric dyes, azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA(+)) and diazaoxatriangulenium (DAOTA(+)), have high emission anisotropies, fluorescence lifetimes around 20 ns, and fluorescence quantum yields of ∼50%. The trioxatriangulenium (TOTA(+)) and triazatriangulenium (TATA(+)) dyes-nominally of D(3h) symmetry-have fluorescence lifetimes around 10 ns lifetimes and fluorescence quantum yields of 10-15%. However, the D(3h) symmetry is shown to be lowered to a point group, where the axes transform uniquely such that the degeneracy of the E' states is lifted. PMID:23391292

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies of the optimisation of fluorescence from near-infrared dye-doped silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nooney, Robert I; McCahey, Ciara M N; Stranik, Ondrej; Le Guevel, Xavier; McDonagh, Colette; MacCraith, Brian D

    2009-02-01

    There is substantial interest in the development of near-infrared dye-doped nanoparticles (NPs) for a range of applications including immunocytochemistry, immunosorbent assays, flow cytometry, and DNA/protein microarray analysis. The main motivation for this work is the significant increase in NP fluorescence that may be obtained compared with a single dye label, for example Cy5. Dye-doped NPs were synthesised and a reduction in fluorescence as a function of dye concentration was correlated with the occurrence of homo-Frster resonance energy transfer (HFRET) in the NP. Using standard analytical expressions describing HFRET, we modelled the fluorescence of NPs as a function of dye loading. The results confirmed the occurrence of HFRET which arises from the small Stokes shift of near-infrared dyes and provided a simple method for predicting the optimum dye loading in NPs for maximum fluorescence. We used the inverse micelle method to prepare monodispersed silica NPs. The NPs were characterised using dynamic light scattering, UV spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantum efficiency of the dye inside the NPs, as a function of dye loading, was also determined. The fluorescent NPs were measured to be approximately 165 times brighter than the free dye, at an optimal loading of 2% (w/w). These experimental results were in good agreement with model predictions. PMID:18846367

  1. Collective fluorescence switching of counterion-assembled dyes in polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisch, Andreas; Didier, Pascal; Richert, Ludovic; Oncul, Sule; Arntz, Youri; Mély, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2014-06-01

    The current challenge in the field of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for bioimaging is to achieve extreme brightness and external control of their emission using biodegradable materials. Here we propose a new concept of fluorescent polymer NPs, doped with ionic liquid-like salts of a cationic dye (octadecyl rhodamine B) with a bulky hydrophobic counterion (fluorinated tetraphenylborate) that serves as spacer minimizing dye aggregation and self-quenching. The obtained 40-nm poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) NPs containing up to 500 dyes are brighter than quantum dots and exhibit photo-induced reversible on/off fluorescence switching, never reported for dye-doped NPs. We show that this collective switching of hundreds of dyes is due to ultrafast excitation energy transfer and can be used for super-resolution imaging. These NPs, being spontaneously endocytosed by living cells, feature high signal-to-noise ratio and absence of toxicity. The counterion-based concept opens the way to a new class of nanomaterials for sensing, imaging and light harvesting.

  2. Interaction of gold nanoclusters with IR light emitting cyanine dyes: a systematic fluorescence quenching study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banik, Debasis; Kundu, Niloy; Roy, Arpita; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2014-08-28

    This paper describes the intermolecular interactions of gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) with cyanine dyes, namely HITC P, DTTC I, and IR 144. All the cyanine dyes quenched the fluorescence of Au NCs effectively. Steady-state and time-resolved measurements were performed to understand the competition between electron transfer and energy transfer in the Au NCs and cyanine dye system. A significant spectral overlap between the emission spectrum of the Au NCs and the absorption spectrum of cyanine dyes was observed, making both ideal for studying FRET interactions. However, after careful inspection of the steady state spectra and time resolved decays we concluded that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) could be the major pathway to quench the fluorescence intensity of Au NCs. To elucidate the interaction mechanism between Au NCs and cyanine dyes, docking studies were also performed. The docking studies reveal that the quencher molecules, i.e. cyanine dyes, come in close proximity with the 34-cysteine (Cys) in BSA where the Au clusters are located to enable the electron transfer process. PMID:25018085

  3. Suitability of Mixing Fluorescent Dye in Adulticides and its Impact on Droplet Characteristics and Pesticide Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Waits, Christy

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used to help visualize insecticidal droplets or to trace movement of insecticides; however, the effect these dyes have on the insecticide's efficacy and droplet characteristics is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of mixing Uvitex OB fluorescent dye with 5 adulticides on their efficacy in a wind tunnel. Efficacy was determined via droplet size characteristics, spray flux (active ingredient [AI] deposition), and female adult Aedes aegypti mortality. Fyfanon® ULV, Anvil® 10+10, Duet™, Aqualuer® 20-20, and Zenivex® E20, diluted with corn oil, were tested with and without the dye at maximum, minimum, and half-minimum label rates. Adulticide droplet size was not affected by the addition of dye to any of the 5 pesticides tested. Mosquito mortality was strongly correlated with AI deposition for all pesticides except Duet. There was no difference among correlation coefficients of the 5 pesticides and between coefficients of any pesticide pairs, indicating that all correlations were similar. The addition of dye slightly but nonsignificantly and nonconsistently affected mortality. It was found that the source of this variability was due to large variation in mortality among different replicates of the same treatment. PMID:26675457

  4. Improvements in laser flare removal for particle image velocimetry using fluorescent dye-doped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosky, B. J.; Lowe, K. T.; Danehy, P. M.; Wohl, C. J.; Tiemsin, P. I.

    2015-11-01

    Laser flare, or scattering of laser light from a surface, can often be a major issue in particle image velocimetry (PIV) involving solid boundaries in the flow or a gas-liquid interface. The use of fluorescent light from dye-doped particles has been demonstrated in water applications, but reproducing the technique in an airflow is more difficult due to particle size constraints and safety concerns. The following work presents fluorescent Kiton Red 620 (KR620)-doped polystyrene latex microspheres as a solution to this issue. The particles are small and narrowly distributed, with a mean diameter of 0.87 μ \\text{m} and diameter distribution standard deviation of 0.30 μ \\text{m} . Furthermore, the KR620 dye exhibits much lower toxicity than other common fluorescent dyes, and would be safe to use in large flow facilities. The fluorescent signal from the particles is measured on average to be 320  ±  10 times weaker than the Mie scattering signal from the particles. This reduction in signal is counterbalanced by greatly enhanced contrast via optical rejection of the incident laser wavelength. Fluorescent PIV with these particles is shown to eliminate laser flare near surfaces, allowing for velocity measurements as close as 100 μ \\text{m} to the surface. In one case, fluorescent PIV led to velocity vector validation rates more than 20 times that of the Mie scattering results in the boundary layer region of an angled surface.

  5. Ion-enhanced fluorescence staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using bis(8-p-toluidino-1-naphthalenesulfonate).

    PubMed

    Horowitz, P M; Bowman, S

    1987-09-01

    A method for the sensitive fluorescent staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels that extends the applicability and sensitivity of existing procedures has been developed. SDS-protein complexes are able to bind the noncovalent hydrophobic probe, bis(8-p-toluidino-1-naphthalenesulfonate) (bisANS) with an increase in quantum yield that is considerably larger than that observed with the commonly used monomeric form, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS). The quantum yield of bisANS bound to the SDS-protein complex is greatly enhanced by incubation with one of a number of cations including potassium and barium. The use of bisANS with metal ion enhancements provides a method for staining SDS gels that can be more sensitive than commonly used methods based on the binding of Coomassie blue, and provides a simple and rapid method for the detection and quantitation of proteins. The use of metal ion enhancements also greatly increases the sensitivity of staining methods based on the use of 1,8-ANS. The present method is much more sensitive than previous noncovalent, flourescent, postelectrophoresis stains, but it retains their considerable advantages of speed, simplicity, and the ability to perform secondary procedures on the separated materials. PMID:3425913

  6. Fluorescence enhancement monitoring of pyrromethene laser dyes by metallic Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Mahmoud E M; Abou Kana, Maram T H; Abdel Fattah, Gamal

    2014-11-01

    Fluorescence enhancement monitoring of pyrromethene laser dyes using their complexation with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was studied. The size of the prepared Ag NPs was determined by transmission electron spectroscopy and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. Mie theory was also used to confirm the size of NPs theoretically. The effect of different nanoparticle concentrations on the optical properties of 1 10(-4) M PM dyes shows that 40%of Ag NPs concentration (40%C Ag NPs) in complex is the optimum concentration. Also, the effects of different concentrations of PM dyes in a complex was measured. Emission enhancement factors were calculated for all samples. Fluorescence enhancement efficiencies depended on the input pumping energy of a Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 532 nm and 8 ns pulse duration) were reported and showed the lowest energy (28 and 32 mJ) in the case of PM567 and PM597, respectively. PMID:24652745

  7. Fingerprint visualization enhancement by deposition of columnar thin films and fluorescent dye treatment.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Jhuma; Ramakrishna, S A; Mekkaoui Alaoui, I

    2013-05-10

    Enhanced visualization of latent fingerprints on two non-porous surfaces, smooth glass slides and highly reflecting rough aluminum sheets, is obtained by depositing columnar thin films (CTFs) of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and silica (SiO2) by physical vapor deposition at large oblique angles. Due to the vapor flux getting shadowed by the physical residues in the fingerprints, the CTFs are deposited only on the upraised ridges, resulting in highly enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint. The visualization of these fingerprints with deposited CTFs is further enhanced by subsequently treating them with a fluorescent dye and fluorescence imaging. A specific amino-acid reagent (1,2-indanedione) and non-specific laser dye (Rhodamine 6G), both allowed enhanced visualization of the CTFs grown on the fingerprints, due to the localization and entrenchment of the dye within the CTF regions. PMID:23597736

  8. On the nature of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining and the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect. I. Model experiments on the specificity of azure B-eosin Y stain as compared with other thiazine dye-eosin Y combinations.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, D H; Gehring, T

    1985-03-01

    After incorporation into a polyacrylamide matrix, the biopolymers DNA, RNA, heparin, hyaluronic acid, collagen and the synthetic polymers poly(U) and poly(A, U) were stained with the pure thiazine dyes, Methylene Blue, the Azures and Thionin alone and combined with Eosin Y. Satisfactory spectrophotometric agreement was obtained between the staining reactions of the biopolymers in the artificial matrix and those in their natural surroundings. This was especially true with respect to the specificity of the Azure B-Eosin Y dye-pair, which is based on the generation, on suitable substrates, of a purple colour, the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect (RGE), with an absorbance maximum near 550 nm. In the model experiments, DNA, heparin, hyaluronic acid and collagen were found to be RGE-positive and poly(U), poly(A, U) and RNA RGE-negative. A theory of RGE is proposed which complies with the new and earlier observations: after saturation of available anionic binding sites and aggregate formation by Azure B, electron donor acceptor complexes are formed between Eosin Y and Azure B via hydrogen-bridge formation of the aminosubstituent proton of Azure B and between Eosin Y and the biopolymer surface. Charge-transfer complex formation may also account for the qualitative identity of Azure B-Eosin Y and Azure A-Eosin Y spectra of substrates, which are coloured purple. Quantitatively, Azure A-Eosin Y is less efficient in giving RGE. The generation of RGE is time-dependent. Equilibrium staining is attained after about 120 h. The implications of the results for the biological application of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining are discussed briefly. PMID:2411682

  9. A near-infrared fluorescence dye for sensitive detection of hydrogen sulfide in serum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuanjun; Shi, Jiaqi; Yang, Liu; Han, Jiahuai; Han, Shoufa

    2014-01-01

    Cy-Cl, a cationic near-infrared cyanine dye, readily reacts with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) via nucleophilic thiolation to give dose-dependent 'turn-off' fluorescence and colorimetric read-out, allowing selective detection of low levels of H2S in serum and imaging of mitochondrial H2S in living cells. PMID:24295788

  10. Highly sensitive turn-on biosensors by regulating fluorescent dye assembly on liposome surfaces.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sungbaek; Kwon, Min Sang; Phillips, Andrew W; Seo, Deokwon; Kim, Jinsang

    2015-06-25

    We developed a new self-signaling sensory system built on phospholipid liposomes having H-aggregated R6G dyes on their surface. Selective molecular recognition of a target by the phospholipid displaces R6G from the liposome surface to turn on fluorescence signal. Selective and sensitive detection of neomycin down to 2.3 nM is demonstrated. PMID:26022090

  11. A facile method for preparation of dye-doped silica-based raspberry-like microspheres and fluorescent films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Ma, Zhanfang; Wang, Chungang; Su, Zhongmin

    2009-11-01

    Fluorescent silica microspheres encapsulating dye molecules have been demonstrated to be very useful in a variety of applications in biological fields due to its excellent properties such as high fluorescent intensity because thousands of dye molecules can be concentrated to respond fluorescent signals at the same time. Herein, we present a facile method for preparing raspberry-like dye-doped silica microspheres (RLDDSM) and RLDDSM film with dual-size hierarchical surfaces by the utility of poly(vinylpyridine) (PVP) as the only employed adhesives. Importantly, in comparison to one of the dye-doped silica particles, the fluorescent signals of RLDDSM can be greatly enhanced to possess higher fluorescent intensity. Additionally, the surface morphology and the fluorescent intensity of RLDDSM can be well controlled by changing experimental parameters. PMID:19908570

  12. Development of Thermally Stable and Highly Fluorescent IR Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bu, Xiu R.

    2004-01-01

    Fluorophores are the core component in various optical applications such as sensors and probes. Fluorphores with low-energy or long wavelength emission, in particular, in NIR region, possess advantages of low interference and high sensitivity. In this study, we has explored several classes of imidazole-based compounds for NIR fluorescent properties and concluded: (1) thiazole-based imidazole compounds are fluorescent; (2) emission energy is tunable by additional donor groups; (3) they also possess impressive two- photon absorption properties; and (4) fluorescence emission can be induced by two- photon input. This report summarizes (1) synthesis of new series of fluorophore; (2) impact of electron-withdrawing groups on fluorescent property; (3) unique property of two-photon absorption; and (4) on-going development.

  13. Dynamic staining of bacteria at a single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Vicente; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Lin, Adam; Chau, Kenny; Vullev, Valentine I.

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial infectious diseases remain one of the major health hazards nation- and worldwide. The expedience of detection and identification of bacterial pathogens determines how early the diagnosis is, and hence, what the treatment and the outcome of the illness would be. As we have previously reported, the dynamics of fluorescence staining provides venues for the development of expedient assays for detection and identification of bacterial species[1]. We measured the kinetics of bacterial staining with cyanine and thioflavin dyes and investigated their photophysical properties. We demonstrated that the pseudo first-order kinetic constants of the fluorescence staining processes have species specificity without contrition dependence. Combining the dynamics of staining with real-time fluorescence microscopy we characterized the fluorescence staining process at the single-cell level with improved sensitivity and contrast.

  14. Demonstration of Actinomyces and Arachnia species in cervicovaginal smears by direct staining with species-specific fluorescent-antibody conjugate.

    PubMed Central

    Pine, L; Malcolm, G B; Curtis, E M; Brown, J M

    1981-01-01

    For direct observation of microaerophilic actinomycetes by fluorescent antibody, a procedure was developed in which pepsin treatment and rhodamine conjugate of normal serum were used to reduce nonspecific staining in cervicovaginal smears. Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Arachnia propionica were observed in cervicovaginal smears from women who did use and who did not use an intrauterine contraceptive device. A. israelii was found more commonly in women with an intrauterine contraceptive device, but no evidence was obtained that the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device influenced the presence of either A. propionica or A. naeslundii. PMID:6161943

  15. New fluoranthene FLUN-550 as a fluorescent probe for selective staining and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul; Sharma, Ashutosh; Kathuria, Manoj; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Verma, Ashwni; Mishra, Prabhat R; Nazir, Aamir; Mitra, Kalyan

    2014-02-01

    A new class of live cell permeant, nontoxic fluoranthene-based fluorescent probe (FLUN-550) having a high Stokes shift in aqueous medium has been discovered. It showed selective staining of lipid droplets (LDs, dynamic cytoplasmic organelles) at a low concentration without background noise in in vitro live cell imaging of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, J774 macrophages, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and single-celled, parasitic protozoa Leishmania donovani promastigotes and in vivo nonparasitic soil nematode C. elegans. PMID:24410145

  16. Multifunctional particles: Magnetic nanocrystals and gold nanorods coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken N.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-07-15

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stoeber type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags-exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. - Graphical abstract: Colloidal gold nanorods and iron platinum and iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells using a generic coating strategy. These heterostructures are promising contrast agents for dual-mode medical imaging. Their optical and magnetic properties were studied and are reported here.

  17. Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elson, D. S.; Jo, J. A.; Marcu, L.

    2007-05-01

    We report a side viewing fibre-based endoscope that is compatible with intravascular imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The instrument has been validated through testing with fluorescent dyes and collagen and elastin powders using the Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique to calculate the fluorescence lifetimes. The instrument has also been tested on freshly excised unstained animal vascular tissues.

  18. Photonic effects on the fluorescence lifetimes of dyes in thin PVA layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prangsma, Jord C.; Molenaar, Robert; Subramaniam, Vinod; Blum, Christian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the expected change in fluorescent decay rate when a fluorophore in aqueous solution is moved to a thin spin-coated layer of poly(vinyl alcohol). We take into account the local field effect due to the change in the refractive index of the medium around the fluorophore and the photonic effect due to the layers. The obtained results are compared with experimental results for the organic dye Atto565 and the fluorescent protein mCherry. We find that the effects for the organic dye can be well described with the model, for the fluorescent protein (FP) the model is less accurate. We discuss the possible explanations for this.

  19. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. PMID:26022724

  20. Polar diketopyrrolopyrrole-imidazolium salts as selective probes for staining mitochondria in two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Marek; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Hugues, Vincent; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Gryko, Daniel T

    2015-06-15

    Three rationally designed polar derivatives of diketopyrrolopyrrole consisting of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cationic units and benzene, thiophene, or furan rings as π spacers were synthesized and thoroughly studied. The obtained salts are soluble in polar organic solvents and show satisfactory solubility in water, which makes them suitable for the applications in bioimaging. Photophysical measurements revealed that the obtained derivatives are characterized by strong absorption and good fluorescence quantum yields. The corresponding two-photon properties were also examined and showed that the synthesized salts exhibit large two-photon absorption cross-sections reaching 4000 GM (GM=Goeppert-Mayer unit, 1 GM=10(-50)  cm(4)  s photon(-1) ) and very high two-photon brightness values exceeding 2000 GM. It was demonstrated that these salts can be safely applied in two-photon fluorescence microscopy for selective staining of mitochondria in living cells. PMID:25966282

  1. Plasmonic properties and enhanced fluorescence of gold and dye-doped silica nanoparticle aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Nathaniel Scott

    The development of metal-enhanced fluorescence has prompted a great interest in augmenting the photophysical properties of fluorescent molecules with noble metal nanostructures. Our research efforts, outlined in this dissertation, focus on augmenting properties of fluorophores by conjugation with gold nanostructures. The project goals are split into two separate efforts; the enhancement in brightness of fluorophores and long distance non-radiative energy transfer between fluorophores. We believe that interacting dye-doped silica nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles can facilitate both of these phenomena. Our primary research interest is focused on optimizing brightness, as this goal should open a path to studying the second goal of non-radiative energy transfer. The two major challenges to this are constructing suitable nanomaterials and functionalizing them to promote plasmonically active complexes. The synthesis of dye-doped layered silica nanoparticles allows for control over the discrete location of the dye and a substrate that can be surface functionalized. Controlling the exact location of the dye is important to create a silica spacer, which promotes productive interactions with metal nanostructures. Furthermore, the synthesis of silica nanoparticles allows for various fluorophores to be studied in similar environments (removing solvent and other chemo-sensitive issues). Functionalizing the surface of silica nanoparticles allows control over the degree of silica and gold nanoparticle aggregation in solution. Heteroaggregation in solution is useful for producing well-aggregated clusters of many gold around a single silica nanoparticle. The dye-doped surface functionalized silica nanoparticles can than be mixed efficiently with gold nanomaterials. Aggregating multiple gold nanospheres around a single dye-doped silica nanoparticle can dramatically increase the fluorescent brightness of the sample via metal-enhanced fluorescence due to increase plasmonic scattering. Our aim is to promote heteroaggregation with functionalized silica nanoparticles while minimizing homoaggregation of silica-silica or gold-gold species. Reproducible production of multiple gold nanospheres about a dye-doped silica nanoparticle should lead to dramatic fluorescence brightness enhancements in solution. Gold nanorods can potentially be used to establish radiationless energy transfer between hetero dye-doped silica nanoparticles via gold nanorod plasmon mediated FRET by aggregating two different dye-doped silica nanoparticles preferentially at opposite ends of the nanorod. End-cap binding is accomplished by tuning the strength of gold binding ligands that functionalize the surface of the silica nanoparticles. The gold nanorod can then theoretically serve as a waveguide by employing the longitudinal plasmon as a non-radiative energy transfer agent between the two different fluorophores, giving rise to a new ultrafast signaling paradigm. Heteroaggregation of dye-doped silica nanoparticles and gold nanorods can be potentially employed to as nano waveguides. Construction and aggregation of functionalized silica and gold nano-materials provides an opportunity to advance the field of fluorescence. The synthesis of gold nano-particles allows control over their size and shape, which give rise to useful optical and electronic properties. Silica nanoparticles provide a framework allowing control over a requisite distance for increasing beneficial and deceasing non-radiative dye-metal interactions as well fluorophore protection. Our aim is to take advantage of fine-tuned synthetic control of functionalized nanomaterials to realize the great potential of solution based metal-enhanced fluorescence for future applications.

  2. Dendrimer-tuned formation of fluorescent organic microcrystals. Influence of dye hydrophobicity and dendrimer charge.

    PubMed

    Bertorelle, Franck; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Fery-Forgues, Suzanne

    2006-09-26

    The reprecipitation method is a simple and useful way to prepare microcrystals through a solvent exchange process. It was applied to three fluorescent dyes of the 4-amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole series. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 differ by the length of the alkyl chain, which comprises 8, 12, and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. The reprecipitation process was first studied in water, in the absence of additives. The kinetics was monitored by UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of the microparticles were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Dyes 1 and 2 lead to microcrystals, the whole process taking much more time for 2 than for 1. The long-chained dye 3 only gave stable aggregates. Therefore, it appears that the hydrophobicity of the organic dye markedly influenced the reprecipitation process. The latter was then studied in the presence of additives. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers, terminated by 64 carboxylate or amino groups were placed in the reprecipitation medium. They had little effect upon the formation of aggregates for dye 3. In contrast, they drastically accelerated the reprecipitation of 1 and 2 and tuned the size and shape of the microcrystals. Platelets and spindles were thus obtained by varying the nature of the dendrimer, and their optical properties were briefly investigated. PMID:16981772

  3. Nano- and microparticles of organic fluorescent dyes: self-organization and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Fery-Forgues, Suzanne; Abyan, Mouhammad; Lamere, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Organic nanostructured materials are of increasing interest for applications in the fields of bioanalysis, photocatalysis, photonics, and organic light-emitting diodes. However, their preparation is still difficult to control and their optical properties are inadequately known. A solvent-exchange process called the "reprecipitation method" was used here to prepare nano- and microcrystals from fluorescent dyes belonging, for example, to the coumarin and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) series. Typically, the dyes were dissolved in a hydrophilic organic solvent and then suddenly placed in an aqueous environment, where they spontaneously produce molecular assemblies. According to the self-association properties of the dyes and to the experimental conditions used, the nano- and microcrystals obtained exhibited different sizes and shapes, as observed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. In some cases, the crystal habit was controlled by adding some additives to the reprecipitation medium. The overall optical properties of the free-standing particles in suspension were generally quite close to those of the dissolved dyes. However, strong distortions of the absorption and emission spectra were observed for crystals grown in the presence of ionic additives. Under the fluorescence microscope, individual microcrystals may show peculiar emission characteristics, displaying bright and dark zones, or behaving like tiny optical fibers. PMID:18596359

  4. Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunpeng; Xiao, Yunjie; Wang, Yanyan; Feng, Yaqing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Shuxian; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 μg/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10-30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications. PMID:26976627

  5. Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kunpeng; Xiao, Yunjie; Wang, Yanyan; Feng, Yaqing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Shuxian; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 μg/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10–30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications. PMID:26976627

  6. New pyridinium-based fluorescent dyes: A comparison of symmetry and side-group effects on G-Quadruplex DNA binding selectivity and application in live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Jing; Hu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Kun; Wong, Wing-Leung; Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2016-07-15

    A series of C1-, C2-and C3-symmetric pyridinium conjugates with different styrene-like side groups were synthesized and were utilized as G-quadruplex selective fluorescent probes. The new compounds were well-characterized. Their selectivity, sensitivity, and stability towards G-quadruplex were studied by fluorescence titration, native PAGE experiments, FRET and circular dichroism (CD) analyses. These new compounds investigated in the fluorescence assays were preferentially bound with G-quadruplex DNA compared with other type of nucleic acids and it is fascinating to realize the effects of molecular symmetry and associated side groups showing unexpectedly great influence on the fluorescent signal enhancement for the discrimination of G-quadruplexes DNA from other nucleic acids. This may correlate with the pocket symmetry and shape of the G-quadruplex DNA inherently. Among the compounds, a C2-symmetric dye (2,6-bis-((E)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-vinyl)-1-methylpyridin-1-ium iodide) with indolyl-groups substituted was screened out from the series giving the best selectivity and sensitivity towards G-quadruplexes DNA, particularly telo21, due to its high equilibrium binding constant (K=2.17×10(5)M(-1)). In addition, the limit of detection (LOD) of the dye to determine telo21 DNA in bioassays was found as low as 33nM. The results of the study give insight and certain crucial factors, such as molecular symmetry and the associated side groups, on developing of effective fluorescent dyes for G-quadruplex DNA applications including G-quadruplex structure stabilization, biosensing and clinical applications. The compound was also demonstrated as a very selective G-quadruplex fluorescent agent for living cell staining and imaging. PMID:26994364

  7. Using Fluorescent Dyes to Demonstrate Solution-Mixing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian; Shmaefsky, Mary Jo

    1994-01-01

    Describes a demonstration using a variety of clear solutions in which the instructor asks students whether the solutions appear homogeneous or inadequately mixed. The solutions are then induced to fluoresce with ultraviolet light to provide visible evidence of homogeneity or nonhomogeneity. (PR)

  8. Solvatochromism, multiphoton fluorescence, and resonance energy transfer in a new octupolar dye-pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namboodiri, C. K. R.; Bisht, P. B.; Mukkamala, R.; Chandra, B.; Aidhen, I. S.

    2013-03-01

    A new octupolar molecule (E, E, E)-2,4,6-Tris [2-(4-N, N-diphenylaminophenyl) vinyl] pyridine (DPATSP) has been synthesized and studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence in condensed phase. The large π-conjugation along the chain has been found to be responsible for large solvent-induced shift of fluorescence. Pumping with fs pulses at 790 nm have been found to induce the two-photon fluorescence. The two-photon absorption (2PA) cross section has been measured by the two photon induced fluorescence (2PIF) method. The N-methyl derivative of DPATSP shows a red shift in the absorption spectrum. The overlap of the fluorescence spectrum of DPATSP with the absorption spectrum of the DPATSP-Me makes a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system. The FRET efficiency has been studied by embedding this dye pair in a polymer matrix.

  9. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic study of solvatochromic curcumin dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Digambara; Barakat, Christelle

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin, the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric, has recently acquired attention by chemists due its wide range of potential biological applications as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-carcinogenic agent. This molecule fluoresces weakly and poorly soluble in water. In this detailed study of curcumin in thirteen different solvents, both the absorption and fluorescence spectra of curcumin was found to be broad, however, a narrower and simple synchronous fluorescence spectrum of curcumin was obtained at Δ λ = 10-20 nm. Lippert-Mataga plot of curcumin in different solvents illustrated two sets of linearity which is consistent with the plot of Stokes' shift vs. the ET30. When Stokes's shift in wavenumber scale was replaced by synchronous fluorescence maximum in nanometer scale, the solvent polarity dependency measured by λSFSmax vs. Lippert-Mataga plot or ET30 values offered similar trends as measured via Stokes' shift for protic and aprotic solvents for curcumin. Better linear correlation of λSFSmax vs. π* scale of solvent polarity was found compared to λabsmax or λemmax or Stokes' shift measurements. In Stokes' shift measurement both absorption/excitation as well as emission (fluorescence) spectra are required to compute the Stokes' shift in wavenumber scale, but measurement could be done in a very fast and simple way by taking a single scan of SFS avoiding calculation and obtain information about polarity of the solvent. Curcumin decay properties in all the solvents could be fitted well to a double-exponential decay function.

  10. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-06-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  11. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  12. Azido-Substituted BODIPY Dyes for the Production of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Stefano; Paoli, Paolo; Brandi, Alberto; Venturini, Lorenzo; Giambastiani, Giuliano; Tuci, Giulia; Cicchi, Stefano

    2015-10-19

    A series of azido-dyes were synthesized through Knoevenagel reactions of an azido-BODIPY with aromatic aldehydes. The nature of the substituents allowed the fine tuning of their spectroscopic properties. The dyes were used to decorate oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs), bearing terminal triple bond groups, by CuAAC reactions, affording fluorescent materials. This decoration allowed the efficient determination of the internalization of the ox-MWCNT derivatives by different model cancer cells, such as MCF7. PMID:26332894

  13. A Combined Immunofluorescence-DNA-Fluorescence Staining Technique for Enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in a Population of Acidophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Muyzer, Gerard; de Bruyn, Anke C.; Schmedding, Diederik J. M.; Bos, Piet; Westbroek, Peter; Kuenen, Gijs J.

    1987-01-01

    An antiserum raised against whole cells of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was allowed to react with a variety of acidophilic and nonacidophilic bacteria in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Both experiments demonstrated that the antiserum was specific at the species level. This preparation was used to evaluate the role of T. ferrooxidans in the microbial desulfurization process. Leaching experiments were performed, and the numbers of T. ferrooxidans cells and other bacteria were estimated by using a combined immunofluorescence-DNA-fluorescence staining technique that was adapted for this purpose. Nonsterile coal samples inoculated with T. ferrooxidans yielded high concentrations of soluble iron after 16 days. After this period, however, T. ferrooxidans cells could no longer be detected by the immunofluorescence assay, whereas the DNA-fluorescence staining procedure demonstrated a large number of microorganisms on the coal particles. These results indicate that T. ferrooxidans is removed by competition with different acidophilic microorganisms that were originally present on the coal. Images PMID:16347315

  14. A rapid and simple 8-quinolinol-based fluorescent stain of phosphoproteins in polyacrylamide gel after electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain an easy and rapid protocol to visualize phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE, a fluorescent detection method named 8-Quinolinol (8-Q) stain is described. 8-Q can form ternary complexes in the gel matrix contributed by the affinity of aluminum ion (Al(3+) ) to the phosphate groups on the proteins and the metal chelating property of 8-Quinolinol, exhibiting strong fluorescence in ultraviolet light. It can visualize as little as 4∼8 ng of α-casein and β-casein, 16∼32 ng of ovalbumin and κ-casein which is more sensitive than Stains-All but less sensitive than Pro-Q Diamond. The protocol of 8-Q requires only 70 min in 0.75 mm mini-size or 1.0 mm large-size gels with five changes of solutions without destaining step; Pro-Q takes at least 250 min with 11 changes of solutions. In addition, the new method was confirmed by the study of dephosphorylation and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The approach to visualize phosphoprotein utilizing 8-Q could be an alternative to simplify the analytical operations for phosphoproteomics research. PMID:26177935

  15. Selective fluorescence functionalization of dye-doped polymerized structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Duocastella, Martí; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated with Direct Laser Writing (DLW) lithography. Well-defined fluorescent pixels (area = 0.24 μm2) were written inside a polymer matrix with the help of a femtosecond pulsed laser (multiphoton absorption) via a thermally-induced di-aggregation of a fluorescent dye. Moreover, we have accomplished a fine control of the fluorescence intensity which can increase the storage capacity of ODS systems fabricated with this approach.The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated with Direct Laser Writing (DLW) lithography. Well-defined fluorescent pixels (area = 0.24 μm2) were written inside a polymer matrix with the help of a femtosecond pulsed laser (multiphoton absorption) via a thermally-induced di-aggregation of a fluorescent dye. Moreover, we have accomplished a fine control of the fluorescence intensity which can increase the storage capacity of ODS systems fabricated with this approach. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06071k

  16. Benchtop Antigen Detection Technique using Nanofiltration and Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Varaljay, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    The designed benchtop technique is primed to detect bacteria and viruses from antigenic surface marker proteins in solutions, initially water. This inclusive bio-immunoassay uniquely combines nanofiltration and near infrared (NIR) dyes conjugated to antibodies to isolate and distinguish microbial antigens, using laser excitation and spectrometric analysis. The project goals include detecting microorganisms aboard the International Space Station, space shuttle, Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), and human habitats on future Moon and Mars missions, ensuring astronaut safety. The technique is intended to improve and advance water contamination testing both commercially and environmentally as well. Lastly, this streamlined technique poses to greatly simplify and expedite testing of pathogens in complex matrices, such as blood, in hospital and laboratory clinics.

  17. Stability of fluorescent labels in PLGA polymeric nanoparticles: Quantum dots versus organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Beduneau, Arnaud; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-10-15

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are currently being investigated for various therapeutic, diagnostic and drug delivery applications. The study of their interactions and fate in biological systems is frequently performed via their fluorescent labeling and following them using fluorescent microscopy. Quantum dots are proposed as stable fluorescent label and compared to other organic dyes (Nile red and DiI) in terms of their entrapment, diffusion in different aqueous or lipophilic media and photostability. In vitro transfer to hydrophilic PBS solution showed that after 8h, 4.2±2.2, 15.5±2.0 and 0.9±0.02% was released from the QDs, NR and DiI nanoparticles, respectively. However, higher diffusion rates were observed in the lipophilic medium chain triglyceride and artificial sebum for all the dyes used. Fluorescent intensity of the three different markers was found to be stable over a period of 24h. Continuous illumination with laser beam using a confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated the superior stability of quantum dots compared to the other organic dyes. Skin permeation experiments have shown that QDs were the most representative marker for the polymeric nanoparticles skin penetration. PMID:26307264

  18. Localized surface plasmon-influenced fluorescence decay in dye-doped metallo-dielectric opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Dipak; Vijaya, R.

    2016-01-01

    Well-ordered opaline photonic crystals are grown by inward growing self-assembly method from Rhodamine B dye-doped polystyrene colloids. Subsequent to self-assembly, the crystals are infiltrated with gold nanoparticles of 40 nm diameter. Measurements of the stopband features and photoluminescence intensity from these crystals are supplemented by fluorescence decay time analysis. The fluorescence decay times from the dye-doped photonic crystals before and after the infiltration are dramatically different from each other. A lowered fluorescence decay time was observed for the case of gold infiltrated crystal along with an enhanced emission intensity. Double-exponential decay nature of the fluorescence from the dye-doped crystal gets converted into single-exponential decay upon the infiltration of gold nanoparticles due to the resonant radiative process resulting from the overlap of the surface plasmon resonance with the emission spectrum. The influence of localized surface plasmon due to gold nanoparticles on the increase in emission intensity and decrease in decay time of the emitters is established.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Far-Red/NIR-Fluorescent BODIPY Dyes, Solid-State Fluorescence, and Application as Fluorescent Tags Attached to Carbon Nano-onions.

    PubMed

    Bartelmess, Juergen; Baldrighi, Michele; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Buck, David; Echegoyen, Luis; Giordani, Silvia

    2015-06-26

    A series of π-extended distyryl-substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivatives with intense far-red/near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence was synthesized and characterized, with a view to enhance the dye's performance for fluorescence labeling. An enhanced brightness was achieved by the introduction of two methyl substituents in the meso positions on the phenyl group of the BODIPY molecule; these substituents resulted in increased structural rigidity. Solid-state fluorescence was observed for one of the distyryl-substituted BODIPY derivatives. The introduction of a terminal bromo substituent allows for the subsequent immobilization of the BODIPY fluorophore on the surface of carbon nano-onions (CNOs), which leads to potential imaging agents for biological and biomedical applications. The far-red/NIR-fluorescent CNO nanoparticles were characterized by absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies, as well as by thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. PMID:26015289

  20. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  1. Enhancement of the fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes caused by their interaction with nanoparticles from β-diketonate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet in aqueous and alcoholic-aqueous solutions in which nanoparticles from Ln(III) and Sc(III) diketonates are formed at concentrations of complexes in a solution of 5-30 μM. We have shown that, if the concentrations of the dyes in the solution are lower than 0.5 μM, dye molecules are incorporated completely into nanoparticles or are precipitated onto their surface. The fluorescence intensity of these incorporated and adsorbed Malachite Green and Crystal Violet molecules increases by several orders of magnitude compared to the solution, which takes place because of a sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yields of these dyes and at the expense of the sensitization of their fluorescence upon energy transfer from β-diketonate complexes entering into the composition of nanoparticles. We have shown that, if there is no concentration quenching, the values of the fluorescence quantum yield of the Crystal Violet dye incorporated into nanoparticles and adsorbed on their surface vary from 0.06 to 0.13, i.e., are close to the fluorescence quantum yield of this dye in solid solutions of sucrose acetate at room temperature. The independence of the fluorescence quantum yield of Crystal Violet on the morphology of nanoparticles testifies to a high binding constant of complexes and the dye. The considerable fluorescence quantum yields of triphenylmethane dyes in nanoparticles and sensitization of their fluorescence by nanoparticle-forming complexes make it possible to determine the concentration of these dyes in aqueous solutions by the luminescent method in the range of up to 1 nM.

  2. Critical tonicity determination of sperm using fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Noiles, E.E.; Ruffing, N.A.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Mark, L.A.; Watson, P.F.; Critser, J.K. ); Horstman, L. . School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. )

    1990-01-01

    The use of cryopreserved, rather than fresh, mammalian semen for artificial insemination confers several important medical and/or economic advantages. However, current methods for cryopreservation of both human and bovine spermatozoa result in approximately only a 50% survival rate with thawing, obviously reducing the fertilizing capacity of the semen. A primary consideration during the cooling process is to avoid intracellular ice crystal formation with its lethal consequences to the cell. Current techniques achieve this by controlling the cooling rate. Computation of the time necessary for this dehydration, and hence, the cooling rate, is dependent upon knowledge of the water permeability coefficient (L{sub {rho}}) and its activation energy. The fluorophore, 6-carboxyfluoroscein diacetate (CFDA), which is nonfluorescent, readily crosses the intact plasma membrane. Intracellular esterases hydrolyze CFDA to 6-carboxyfluoroscein, a fluorescent, membrane-impermeable fluorophore. Consequently, spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes fluoresce bright green (Garner et. al., 1986), but those with disrupted membranes do not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use loss of CFDA fluorescence to determine the osmolality at which 50% of the spermatozoa will swell and lyse (critical tonicity, CT). These data will then be used to determine the L{sub {rho}} and its activation energy for sperm, thus increasing the knowledge available in cellular cryopreservation. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    A Gram stain is a test used to identify bacteria. It is one of the most common ways to ... Urethral discharge Gram stain; Feces Gram stain; Stool Gram stain; Joint fluid Gram stain; Pericardial fluid Gram stain; Gram stain of ...

  4. Staining paraffin extracted, alcohol rinsed and air dried plant tissue with an aqueous mixture of three dyes.

    PubMed

    Graham, E T; Trentham, W R

    1998-07-01

    A staining solution containing alcian blue 8GX, Bismarck brown Y and safranin O was prepared with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. Paraffin was extracted with MicroClear solvent from 10 microm tissue sections mounted on slides. Paraffin solvent was removed by rinsing with isopropanol, and tissues were air dried. Slides with bare dry tissue sections were immersed in the triple stain and structures could be distinguished within 30 min as follows: nonlignified cell walls, blue; lignified cell walls, nuclei and chloroplasts, red; and cuticle, brown or yellow-brown. Excess staining solution was removed by rinsing with tap water, and the tissues were air dried again. Coverslips were affixed with resin over the stained dry tissues. This novel procedure was tested with immature tomato fruit, mature apple fruit, and various leaf and stem specimens of dogwood, laurel, pawpaw, poinsettia and zonal geranium. PMID:9735876

  5. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane integrity after being exposed to different levels of ethanol (1%, 6%, 10%, 12% v/v). Results showed that while Sc cells were able to recover membrane integrity after ethanol exposure, Hg cells were not. However, under alcoholic fermentation Sc cells didn't recover membrane integrity after the mid-term (4-5 days) of alcoholic fermentation. PMID:22819715

  6. Staining proteins in gels.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2003-08-01

    This unit describes protocols for detecting protein in a gel by either Coomassie blue staining or silver staining. The former is easier and more rapid; however, silver staining methods are considerably more sensitive and thus can be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Alternate rapid staining procedures are provided for each method and a support protocol describes how to photograph stained gels. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins in SDS-polyacrylamide gels is described, and an alternate protocol details variations in the procedure for proteins in nondenaturing gels. A final support protocol describes the photography of fluorescently stained proteins. PMID:18265316

  7. Measurement of atmospheric OH by titration of near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betterton, Eric A.; Gast, Karl

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has shown that certain polymethine dyes can be detected at ultratrace levels (greater than or equal to 6x10(exp -14) M) in solution by fluorimetry. These detection limits are possible because of the inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, because the dyes fluoresce in the near infrared region where background interference is negligible, and because powerful infrared diode lasers are now available to improve the signal to noise ratio. Other work has shown that the hydroxyl radical destroys the ability of polymethine dyes to fluoresce. These observations form the basis for a new hydroxyl radical detector that is essentially a fluorometric titrator. Theoretically, the detector should show an acceptable sensitivity and response time. Assuming that the atmospheric HO concentration is about 10(exp -11) moles m(exp -3) (i.e. 10(exp 6) molecules cm(exp -3)), then 10 L of air 'titrated' with 20 mL of 10(exp -11) M dye solution (an easily detected concentration) should result in a drop in the fluorescent signal of 50 percent - a readily detectable change. At a flow rate of 3 L min(exp -1) the sampling time would be 3 minutes. The biggest potential problem is selectivity: other oxidants may also cause the fluorescence signal to be lost. The chemistry of polymethine dyes has not been studied in detail and so no quantitative data are available. However, a survey of the literature suggests that in general HO should react up to six orders of magnitude faster than HO2 and other radicals such as RO2 and RO. It should also react much more rapidly than H2O2 and O3. Thus it may be possible to discriminate kinetically against potential interfering substances. It was shown in the laboratory that 10(exp -4) M H2O2 has little effect on the absorption spectrum of the dye IR125 over a period of hours but that the band at 780 nm is slowly lost in water over a period of days even under argon in the dark. By contrast, DMSO solutions of IR125 are stable.

  8. Dicyanostilbene-derived two-photon fluorescence dyes with large two-photon absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chibao; Lin, Changhua; Ren, Anxiang; Yang, Nianfa

    2011-12-01

    Four dicyanostilbene-derived two-photon fluorescence (TPF) dyes were synthesized as the model compounds to systematically study the effect of the dicyano and the terminal substituent on the two-photon absorption (TPA). These four compounds ( DSO, DCY, DTO and DPH) exhibit very large two-photon absorption cross sections ( δ). DCY (A- π-A) with the terminal cyano group has especially high fluorescence quantum yield (0.71) and relatively large δ (1480 GM), while DPH (D- π-A) with the substitutedamino group at its terminus possesses the largest δ (2800 GM) and the longest emission wavelength (620 nm). The idealest terminal substituent should not be the alkoxy group but the substitutedamino group. This class of dicyanostilbene dyes possess small molecule size, large δ (830-2800 GM), long-wavelength emission (459-620 nm) and large Stokes shift (80-206 nm), and are ideal chromophores for TPF labels and probes.

  9. Dye-Specific Wavelength Offsets to Resolve Spectrally Overlapping and Co-Localized Two-Photon Induced Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Almlie, C Kyle; Hsiao, Austen; Burrows, Sean M

    2016-01-19

    The fundamentally important fluorescent imaging has one major limitation, resolution of over three dyes. This limitation is in part due to the overlap of the broad emission profile of each of the emitters used in fluorescence detection. The overlapping emission contaminates each emitter's detection channel, referred to as cross-talk. To reduce fluorescence cross-talk for two photon applications, we present an innovative Two-Photon-Dye-Specific Excitation-Emission Offset (TP-DSO) method. TP-DSO selectively detects each dye by synchronously scanning the excitation and emission wavelengths at defined wavelength offsets. This technique advances multicolor analysis significantly by resolving dyes with highly overlapping spectral profiles. We identified three benefits: reduced excitation spectral bandwidth, reduced emission cross-talk between colocalized emitters with closely overlapping fluorescence, and validated use of thin-film variable optical emission filters for tuning the bandwidth and center wavelength. TP-DSO will advance multicolor analysis for many applications. PMID:26695340

  10. Rapid Macrocycle Threading by a Fluorescent Dye-Polymer Conjugate in Water with Nanomolar Affinity.

    PubMed

    Peck, Evan M; Liu, Wenqi; Spence, Graeme T; Shaw, Scott K; Davis, Anthony P; Destecroix, Harry; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-07-15

    A macrocyclic tetralactam host is threaded by a highly fluorescent squaraine dye that is flanked by two polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with nanomolar dissociation constants in water. Furthermore, the rates of bimolecular association are very fast with k(on) ≈ 10(6)-10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The association is effective under cell culture conditions and produces large changes in dye optical properties including turn-on near-infrared fluorescence that can be imaged using cell microscopy. Association constants in water are ∼1000 times higher than those in organic solvents and strongly enthalpically favored at 27 °C. The threading rate is hardly affected by the length of the PEG chains that flank the squaraine dye. For example, macrocycle threading by a dye conjugate with two appended PEG2000 chains is only three times slower than threading by a conjugate with triethylene glycol chains that are 20 times shorter. The results are a promising advance toward synthetic mimics of streptavidin/biotin. PMID:26106948

  11. Organic dye penetration quantification into a dental composite resin cured by LED system using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Silva, Maciel E., Jr.; Lins, Emery C. C. C.; Costa, Mardoqueu M.; Pelino, José Eduardo P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2007-02-01

    A major characteristic of LEDs systems is the lower heat emission related with the kind of light generation and spectral emission band. Material temperature during photoactivation can promote different photocuring performance. Organic dye penetration could be a trace to identify the efficacy of photocured composite resin. A new method using fluorescent spectroscopy through digital image evaluation was developed in this study. In order to understand if there is a real influence of material temperature during the photoactivation procedure of a dental restorative material, a hybrid composite resin (Z250, 3M-Espe, USA) and 3 light sources, halogen lamp (510 mW/cm2) and two LED systems 470+/-10nm (345 and 1000 mW/cm2) under different temperatures and intensities were used. One thousand and five hundred samples under different associations between light sources and temperatures (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C were tested and immediately kept in 6G rodamin dye solution. Dye penetration was evaluated through fluorescent spectroscopy recorded by digital image data. Pixels in gray scale showed the percentage penetration of organic dye into the composite resin mass. Time and temperature were statistically significant (p<0.05) through the ANOVA statistical test. The lowest penetration value was with 60 seconds and 25 °C. Time and temperature are important factors to promote a homogeneous structure polymerized composite resin more than the light source type, halogen or LEDs system.

  12. Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Janani, S R; Balakrishnan, T; Ramanibai, R

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW. PMID:24632164

  13. Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, S. R.; Umadevi, M.; Janani, S. R.; Balakrishnan, T.; Ramanibai, R.

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW.

  14. Charged solvatochromic dyes as signal transducers in pH independent fluorescent and colorimetric ion selective nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaojiang; Gutiérrez, Agustín; Trofimov, Valentin; Szilagyi, Istvan; Soldati, Thierry; Bakker, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Ionophore-based ion selective optical nanosensors that operate independently of the sample pH are developed here by the use of electrically charged solvatochromic dyes as signal transducers. A series of dye molecules with a D-π-A structure was synthesized and characterized in various solvents and incorporated into ion selective nanospheres for K(+), Na(+), and H(+). Since dye leakage was greatly suppressed when the solvatochromic dyes were encapsulated in the nanosphere core, ion sensing nanospheres were explored for cellular ion imaging in Dictyostelium discoideum live cells but spontaneous dye loss resulted in undesired staining of cells. The in vitro analysis of potassium in human plasma was successfully demonstrated with this approach. A theoretical model was developed for the response of the ion selective nanosensors containing charged solvatochromic dyes. The nanosensors exhibited a tunable response range, high sensitivity, and good stability. PMID:26352133

  15. Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dyes with High 2PA Cross Sections for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Yang; Yao, Sheng; Wang, Xuhua; Belfield, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Designed to achieve high two-photon absorptivity, new near infrared (NIR) emitting squaraine dyes, (E)-2-(1-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4-(1-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-2H-pyrrolium-2-ylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-enolate (1) and (Z)-2-(4-(dibutylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-(dibutyliminio)-2-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-enolate (2) were synthesized and characterized. Their linear photophysical properties were investigated via UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in various solvents, while their nonlinear photophysical properties were investigated using a combination of two-photon induced fluorescence and open aperture z-scan methods. Squaraine 1 exhibited a high two-photon absorption (2PA) cross section (δ2PA), ~ 20,000 GM at 800 nm, and high photostability with the photochemical decomposition quantum yield one order of magnitude lower than Cy 5, a commercially available pentamethine cyanine NIR dye. The cytotoxicity of the squaraine dyes were evaluated in HCT 116 and COS 7 cell lines to assess the potential of these probes for biomedical imaging. The viability of both cell lines was maintained above 80% at dye concentrations up to 30 μM, indicating good biocompatibility of the probes. Finally, one-photon fluorescence microscopy (1PFM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging was accomplished after incubation of micelle-encapsulated squaraine probes with HCT 116 and COS 7 cells, demonstrating their potential in 2PFM bioimaging. PMID:22591003

  16. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of dye-doped silica nano particles.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Kalani B; Green, Nathaniel S; Bumm, Lloyd A; Halterman, Ronald L

    2015-03-01

    Recent advancements in metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) suggest that it can be a promising tool for detecting molecules at very low concentrations when a fluorophore is fixed near the surface of metal nanoparticles. We report a simple method for aggregating multiple gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on Rhodamine B (RhB)-doped silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) utilizing dithiocarbamate (DTC) chemistry to produce MEF in solution. Dye was covalently incorporated into the growing silica framework via co-condensation of a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) coupled RhB precursor using the Stöber method. Electron microscopy imaging revealed that these mainly non-spherical particles were relatively large (80 nm on average) and not well defined. Spherical core-shell particles were prepared by physisorbing a layer of RhB around a small spherical silica particle (13 nm) before condensing an outer layer of silica onto the surface. The core-shell method produced nanospheres (~30 nm) that were well defined and monodispersed. Both dye-doped SiNPs were functionalized with pendant amines that readily reacted with carbon disulfide (CS2) under basic conditions to produce DTC ligands that have exhibited a high affinity for gold surfaces. GNPs were produced via citrate reduction method and the resulting 13 nm gold nanospheres were then recoated with an ether-terminated alkanethiol to provide stability in ethanol. Fluorescent enhancement was observed when excess GNPs were added to DTC coated dye-doped SiNPs to form nanoparticle aggregates. Optimization of this system gave a fluorescence brightness enhancement of over 200 fold. Samples that gave fluorescence enhancement were characterized through Transmission Emission Micrograph (TEM) to reveal a pattern of multiple aggregation of GNPs on the dye-doped SiNPs. PMID:25627927

  17. Study of excitation transfer in laser dye mixtures by direct measurement of fluorescence lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.; Dienes, A.

    1973-01-01

    By directly measuring the donor fluorescence lifetime as a function of acceptor concentration in the laser dye mixture Rhodamine 6G-Cresyl violet, we found that the Stern-Volmer relation is obeyed, from which the rate of excitation transfer is determined. The experimental results indicate that the dominant mechanism responsible for the efficient excitation transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole-dipole interaction.

  18. Using microencapsulated fluorescent dyes for simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.; Stephan, P.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel particle image thermometry method based on microcapsules filled with a fluorescent dye solution is described. The microcapsules consist of a liquid core of hexadecane in which the dye is dissolved and a solid polymer shell. The combination of a temperature-sensitive dye (Pyrromethene 597-8C9) and a dye showing a relatively smaller temperature sensitivity (Pyrromethene 567) in hexadecane makes application of the ratiometric LIF possible. This is necessary to compensate for fluctuations of the illuminating pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) as well as the different particle sizes. The applicability of this measurement technique is demonstrated for a cubic test cell (10 × 10 × 10 mm3) with flow and temperature fields driven by natural convection and a capillary tube (1.16 mm inner diameter) inducing a temperature gradient and a Hagen-Poiseuille velocity profile. For the first case, a light sheet illumination is used making two optical accesses necessary. In the second case an inverted microscope is used, so only one optical access is needed and a volume illumination is applied. The technique facilitates high-resolution measurements (first case: 79 × 79 μm2 second case: 8 × 8 μm2). Although the measurement uncertainty is high compared to LIF measurements with dissolved dyes, temperature fields can be reproduced very well, and the experimental results are in good agreement with numerical computations.

  19. Boron difluoride complexes of 2‧-hydroxychalcones and curcuminoids as fluorescent dyes for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aléo, Anthony; Felouat, Abdellah; Fages, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    The field of fluorescent boron complexes has witnessed tremendous developments in recent years. In that context, we have investigated two series of boron difluoride complexes based on 2‧-hydroxychalcone and curcuminoid ligands that represent naturally occurring pigment structures. The dyes display significantly large Stokes shift values, indicating that an ICT state is involved as lower-energy state in the singlet manifold. Remarkably they are also fluorescent in the solid-state, with emission wavelengths usually in the visible and mainly in the near infrared (NIR). It is especially intriguing that those dyes experience strong π-interactions in the crystal phase. We have observed that the formation of those highly stacked structures was not detrimental to solid-state emission and could even be exploited for the generation of efficient NIR emitters. For example, the boron complexes of curcuminoid ligands can be used to generate NIR fluorescent organic nanoparticles with large cross sections for two-photon absorption. The design of organic dyes displaying NIR emission in solution or in the solid-state remains challenging for applications in bioimaging and organic photonics. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  20. Cyclopenta[b]naphthalene cyanoacrylate dyes: Synthesis and evaluation as fluorescent molecular rotors

    PubMed Central

    Kocsis, Laura S.; Elbel, Kristyna M.; Hardigree, Billie A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design, synthesis and fluorescent profile of a family of environment-sensitive dyes in which a dimethylamino (donor) group is conjugated to a cyanoacrylate (acceptor) unit via a cyclopenta[b]naphthalene ring system. This assembly satisfies the typical D-π-A motif of a fluorescent molecular rotor and exhibits solvatochromic and viscosity-sensitive fluorescence emission. The central naphthalene ring system of these dyes was synthesized via a novel intramolecular dehydrogenative dehydro-Diels-Alder (IDDDA) reaction that permits incorporation of the donor and acceptor groups in variable positions around the aromatic core. A bathochromic shift of excitation and emission peaks was observed with increasing solvent polarity but the dyes exhibited a complex emission pattern with a second red emission band when dissolved in nonpolar solvents. Consistent with other known molecular rotors, the emission intensity increased with increasing viscosity. Interestingly, closer spatial proximity between the donor and the acceptor groups led to decreased viscosity sensitivity combined with an increased quantum yield. This observation indicates that structural hindrance of intramolecular rotation dominates when the donor and acceptor groups are in close proximity. The examined compounds give insight into how excited state intramolecular rotation can be influenced by both the solvent and the chemical structure. PMID:25614187

  1. Staining proteins in gels.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive than Coomassie staining, and is often as sensitive as silver staining. Staining of proteins with SYPRO Orange and SYPRO Ruby are also demonstrated here. PMID:19066521

  2. Development of an image processing support system based on fluorescent dye to prevent elderly people with dementia from wandering.

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kim, Juhyon; Nakajima, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    The wandering of elderly people with dementia is a significant behavioral problem and is a heavy burden on caregivers in residential and nursing homes. Thus, warning systems have been developed to prevent elderly people with dementia from leaving the premises. Some of these systems use radio waves. However, systems based on radio waves present several practical problems. For instance, the transmitter must be carried and may become lost; in addition, the battery of the transmitter must be changed. To solve these problems, we developed a support system that prevents elderly people with dementia from wandering. The system employs image processing technology based on fluorescent dye. The composition of the support system can be described as follows: fluorescent dye is painted in a simple shape on the clothes of an elderly person. The fluorescent color becomes visible by irradiation with a long wavelength of ultraviolet light. In the present paper, the relationship between the color of the dye and the cloth was investigated. A 3D video camera was used to acquire a 3D image and detect the simple shape. As a preliminary experiment, 3 colors (red, green and blue) of fluorescent dye were applied to cloths of 9 different colors. All fluorescent colors were detected on 6 of the cloths, but red and blue dye could not be detected on the other 3 cloths. In contrast, green dye was detectable on all 9 of the cloths. Additionally, we determined whether green dye could be detected in an actual environment. A rectangular shaped patch of green fluorescent dye was painted on the shoulder area of a subject, from the scapula to the clavicle. As a result, the green dye was detected on all 9 different colored cloths. PMID:24111431

  3. Same day sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: Ziehl-Neelsen versus fluorescent staining

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, T. Jaya; Selvaraj, R.; Sharma, Y. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sputum smear microscopy is the main tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited sensitivity of smear microscopy and patient dropouts (PDs) are the important obstacles of national TB control programs. Objectives: (1) To assess the diagnostic utility of the same day (SS2) approach (2) To compare the smear results of the spot morning (SM) and the SS2 approaches. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India from January 2011 to February 2015. Three sputum samples were collected [spot (S), second spot (S2) 1 h after S, and morning sample (M)] from the volunteers. The sputum smears were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), modified ZN (MZN), and fluorescent staining (FS) techniques and the results were pooled and compared under SM and SS2 approaches. Results: Of the 3,186 study participants, sputum smear positivity (SSP) for SM approach was 9.6% and 10.8% and for SS2 approach, it was 9.4% and 10.6%, respectively, with ZN and FS and the results were statistically insignificant (Mann-Whitney U test, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Technically SSP was similar for both the approaches and no improvement was observed with the SS2 approach. Hence, there is an urgent need to improve SSP. PMID:26985410

  4. Quantification of AAV particle titers by infrared fluorescence scanning of coomassie-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E; Linden, R Michael; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two-for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons-a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity. PMID:22816378

  5. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  6. Self-quenching DNA probes based on aggregation of fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Gabriela; Muller, Matthias; Hafner, Bernhard; Habl, Gregor; Nolte, Oliver; Marme, Nicole; Knemeyer, Jens-Peter

    2005-04-01

    Here we present a novel class of self-quenching, double-labeled DNA probes based on the formation of non fluorescent H-type dye dimers. We therefore investigated the aggregation behavior of the red-absorbing oxazine derivative MR121 and found a dimerization constant of about 3000 M-1. This dye was successfully used to develop hairpin-structured as well as linear self-quenching DNA probes that report the presence of the target DNA by an increase of the fluorescence intensity by a factor of 3 to 12. Generally fluorescence quenching of the hairpin-structure probes is more efficient compared to the linear probes, whereas the kinetic of the fluorescence increase is significantly slower. The new probes were used for the identification of different mycobacteria and their antibiotic resistant species. As a test system a probe for the identification of a DNA sequence specific for the Mycobacterium xenopi was synthesized differing from the sequence of the Mycobacterium fortuitum by 6 nucleotides. Furthermore we developed a method for the discrimination between the sequences of the wild type and an antibiotic resistant species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both sequences differ by just 2 nucleotides and were detected specifically by the use of competing olignonucleotides.

  7. Multifunctional Particles: Magnetic Nanocrystals and Gold Nanorods Coated with Fluorescent Dye-Doped Silica Shells

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken E.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stöber-type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags—exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. PMID:19578476

  8. Detection of acid moisture in photovoltaic modules using a dual wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takashi; Iwami, Kentaro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro; Masuda, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The formation of acetic acid via the penetration of moisture into ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) in photovoltaic (PV) modules is cited as the main reason for PV modules’ degradation. Currently, there is no effective method for detecting acetic moisture in PV modules. We proposed a simple method for detecting acid moisture in PV modules using a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye that measures pH by the ratio of the intensities of two peaks in the fluorescence spectra of the dye. We detected the pH change caused by acetic acid with the change in the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectra of the dried dye. Furthermore, we observed that the dry fluorescent dye is heat resistant to withstand the lamination process for the manufacturing of PV modules, and has good long-term durability.

  9. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; Nicolau, José

    2006-01-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions. PMID:16674197

  10. Fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium dyes induced by two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guibao; Hu, Dawei; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Liu, Huijun; Tian, Yupeng

    2007-06-01

    We report the fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium toluene- p-sulfonates having donor- π-acceptor (D- π-A) structure under two-photon excitation at 1064 nm. The experimental results show that both the two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence lifetime and the two-photon pumped (TPP) energy upconversion efficiency were increased with the enhancement of electron-donating capability of the donor in the molecule. It is also indicated that an overlong alkyl group tends to result in a weakened molecular conjugation, leading to a decreased two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section. By choosing the donor, we can obtain a longest fluorescence lifetime of 837 ps, a highest energy upconversion efficiency of ˜6.1%, and a maximum TPA cross-section of 8.74×10 -48 cm 4 s/photon in these dyes.

  11. Use of fluorescent dyes and spectrofluorometry to observe evidence of vesicant toxicity in human epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mershon, M.M.; Rhoads, L.S.; Van Buskirk, R.G.

    1993-05-13

    Normal human epidermal keratinocyes (NHEK) show multiple dose-related biochemical ranges at 3 hours after in vitro exposure to a vesicant compound, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) CEES in ethanol was diluted to 0.8, 8.0 and 80 mM concentrations in cell culture medium over confluent NHEK on gel-coated membranes of Millipore Millicells or in NHEK suspensions. A site-specific fluorescent dye was incubated with each NHEK layer for 1 hr prior to comparisons of normal and challenged NHEK within a Cytofluor 2300 spectrofluorometer. Reduced fluorescence from loss of all dye probes indicated severe membrane damage with 80 mM CEES in medium. Intracellular increases in Ca++, evidence of altered mitochondrial activity, and decreases in pH, glutathione levels and lysosomal integrity, were observed with 0.8 and 8.0 mM CEES in the culture medium. Control studies performed with Testskin and another human epidermal model suggest that dermal substitutes and transportation stresses can influence results with the dye probe/Cytofluor 2300 method. However, the feasibility of using the described methods to observe vesicant biochemical effects, screen antivesicants and perform other toxicological studies with NHEK models is supported by the results of the preliminary studies.

  12. Lifetime of fluorescent dye molecules in dense aqueous suspensions of polystyrene nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Giuseppe; Scheffold, Frank

    2015-11-16

    We study the lifetime of two common fluorescent dye molecules from the Alexa Fluor NHS Ester family dissolved in water in an opaque aqueous dispersion of dielectric polystyrene nanoparticles. We investigate the role of the dispersion composition by varying the particle concentration and adding SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) surfactant molecules. The observed strong changes in lifetime of Alexa 430 can be attributed to the relative contribution of radiative and non-radiative decay channels while the lifetime of the Alexa 488 dye depends only weakly on the sample composition. For Alexa 430, a dye with a rather low quantum yield in aqueous solution, the addition of polystyrene nanoparticles leads to a significant enhancement in quantum yield and an associated increase of the fluorescent lifetime by up to 55 %. We speculate that the increased quantum yield can be attributed to the hydrophobic effect on the structure of water in the boundary layer around the polystyrene particles in suspension. Adding SDS acts as a quencher. Over a range of particle concentrations the particle induced increase of the lifetime can be completely compensated by adding SDS. PMID:26698418

  13. Development of a wavelength-shifting fluorescent module for the adenosine aptamer using photostable cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bohländer, Peggy R; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-04-01

    DNA-based aptamers are commonly used recognition elements in biosensors for a range of target molecules. Here, the development of a wavelength-shifting optical module for a DNA-based adenosine-binding aptamer is described. It applies the combination of two photostable cyanine-styryl dyes as covalent modifications. This energy-transfer pair is postsynthetically attached to oligonucleotides via a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition by two structurally different approaches: 1) as nucleotide modifications at the 2'-position of uridines and 2) as nucleotide substitutions using (S)-amino-1,2-propanediol as acyclic linker between the phosphodiester bridges. Both dyes exhibit a remarkable photostability. A library of DNA aptamers consisting of different combinations of the two dyes in diagonal orientations were evaluated by their emission color contrast as readout. Further optimization led to aptasensors with improved fluorescent readout as compared with previously reported aptasensors. This approach described is synthetically facile using simple propargylated phosphoramidites as DNA building blocks. As such, this approach could be applied for other dyes and other chemical/biological applications. PMID:25969803

  14. Computer-generated holography enhances voltage dye fluorescence discrimination in adjacent neuronal structures

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Amanda J.; Zampini, Valeria; Tanese, Dimitrii; Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Emiliani, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Voltage-sensitive fluorescence indicators enable tracking neuronal electrical signals simultaneously in multiple neurons or neuronal subcompartments difficult to access with patch electrodes. However, efficient widefield epifluorescence detection of rapid voltage fluorescence transients necessitates that imaged cells and structures lie sufficiently far from other labeled structures to avoid contamination from out of focal plane and scattered light. We overcame this limitation by exciting dye fluorescence with one-photon computer-generated holography shapes contoured to axons or dendrites of interest, enabling widefield detection of voltage fluorescence with high spatial specificity. By shaping light onto neighboring axons and dendrites, we observed that dendritic back-propagating action potentials were broader and slowly rising compared with axonal action potentials, differences not measured in the same structures illuminated with a large “pseudowidefield” (pWF) spot of the same excitation density. Shaped illumination trials showed reduced baseline fluorescence, higher baseline noise, and fractional fluorescence transient amplitudes two times greater than trials acquired with pWF illumination of the same regions. PMID:26157998

  15. A new methodology for the visualization of latent fingermarks on the sticky side of adhesive tapes using novel fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hélio L; Stefani, Valter

    2016-06-01

    Three novel fluorescent dyes were evaluated for the detection of latent fingermarks on different types and colors of adhesive tapes. Compared with the conventional reagents used to reveal latent fingermarks on these surfaces, these new fluorescent dyes have many advantages. They are highly selective to fingermarks, require only a simple procedure, do not need pre- or post-treatment, have high thermal and photochemical stability, are low in cost and use only water as a solvent. In addition, the emitted fluorescence creates a sharp contrast with the fingermark surface, meaning the fingermarks can be clearly visualized and photographed when excited with longwave ultraviolet light (365nm). PMID:27084980

  16. Live intracellular super-resolution imaging using site-specific stains.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Lina; Manley, Suliana

    2013-12-20

    Point localization super-resolution imaging (SR) requires dyes that can cycle between fluorescent and dark states, in order for their molecular positions to be localized and create a reconstructed image. Dyes should also densely decorate biological features of interest to fully reveal structures being imaged. We tested site-specific dyes in several live-cell compatible imaging media and evaluated their performance in situ. We identify a number of new dyes and imaging medium-dye combinations for live staining, that densely highlight intracellular structures with excellent photophysical performance for SR. PMID:24079385

  17. Concentrated dyes as a source of two-dimensional fluorescent field for characterization of a confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Model, M A; Blank, J L

    2008-01-01

    The axial spread function is a useful tool for evaluation of a confocal microscope. It can be obtained experimentally by scanning a uniform fluorescent layer whose thickness is significantly below the resolution limit. Previous researchers have created thin fluorescent films by chemical synthesis. We show here that concentrated fluorescent dyes with a strong absorption at the excitation wavelength can serve as a good approximation of thin fluorescent films. The vertical intensity profiles of such dyes are symmetrical and represent the true axial resolution of a microscope. Solutions of dyes sufficiently opaque to test confocal microscopes with high-NA objectives can be prepared from sodium fluorescein, acid fuchsin and acid blue 9 for excitation at 488 nm, 543 nm and 633 nm, respectively. PMID:18173639

  18. Fluorescent Sensing of Chlorophenols in Water Using an Azo Dye Modified β-Cyclodextrin Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Phendukani; Krause, Rui W.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2011-01-01

    A water soluble azo dye modified β-cyclodextrin polymer 4 was synthesized and used as a chemosensor for the detection of chlorinated phenols, model chlorinated by-products (CBPs) of water treatment for drinking purposes. The characterization of the intermediates and the azo dye modified β-CD polymer was done by UV/Vis Spectrophotometry, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. The chlorophenols were capable of quenching the fluorescence of the polymer. The polymer showed greater sensitivity towards 2,4-dichlorophenol, with a sensitivity factor of 0.35 compared to 0.05 and 0.12 for phenol and 4-chlorophenol, respectively. The stability constants (Ks) of the pollutants were also determined by the Benesi-Hildebrand method to be 2.104 × 103 M−1 for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 1.120 × 102 M−1 for 4-chlorophenol. PMID:22163864

  19. Laser induced singlet-oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence of dyes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnovskii, A A; Bashtanov, M E; Drozdova, N N; Yuzhakova, O A; Luk'yanets, Evgenii A

    2002-01-31

    It is shown that water-soluble derivatives of phthalocyanines - poly(diethoxyphosphinylmethyl)substituted aluminium phthalocyanines - emit intense singlet-oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence upon laser-induced formation of singlet oxygen in air-saturated aqueous (D{sub 2}O) solutions. The delayed fluorescence is emitted by the dye molecules which accepted energy from two molecules of singlet oxygen. The quantum efficiency of delayed fluorescence in aerated D{sub 2}O of the chloroaluminium complex of octa(diethoxyphosphinylmethyl) phthalocyanine corresponds to the rate constant of population of excited dye molecules which is equal to (5.5 {+-} 3) x 10{sup 12} mole{sup -2} L{sup 2} s{sup -1}. This value is only an order of magnitude smaller than that for tetra(4-tert.-butyl)phthalocyanine earlier studied in aerated organic solvents. It is shown that these phthalocyanine derivatives can be used as highly sensitive luminescence indicators of singlet oxygen produced in aqueous solutions of different compounds upon laser excitation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Stable biocompatible cross-linked fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles based on AIE dye and itaconic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyin; Zhang, Xiqi; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Bin; Wei, Yen

    2014-09-01

    Self-assembly of polymeric materials to form nanoparticles is a particularly promising strategy for various biomedical applications, however, these self-assembling systems often encounter the critical micelle concentration (CMC) issue, as the nanoparticles is usually unstable at low concentration. Therefore, stable cross-linked fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FPNs) were covalently constructed from an aggregation induced emission (AIE) dye, itaconic anhydride, poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacylate and polyethylenimine. These obtained PhE-ITA-20%(80%) FPNs were fully characterized by a series of techniques including (1)H NMR spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, FT-IR spectra, transmission electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and dynamic light scattering. Such FPNs emitted intense fluorescence due to the introduction of aggregation induced emission dye. More importantly, the FPNs were found extremely stable in physiological solution even below the CMC owing to their cross-linked architectures. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell uptake behavior of the FPNs were further investigated to explore their potential biomedical applications, the demonstrated excellent biocompatibility made them promising for cell imaging. PMID:24973146

  1. Fluorescence energy transfer dye-labeled primers for DNA sequencing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, J.; Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Ruan, C.; Fuller, C.W.

    1995-05-09

    Fluorescent dye-labeled DNA primers have been developed that exploit fluorescence energy transfer (ET) to optimize the absorption and emission properties of the label. These primers carry a fluorescein derivative at the 5{prime} end as a common donor and other fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives attached to a modified thymidine residue within the primer sequence as acceptors. Adjustment of the donor-acceptor spacing through the placement of the modified thymidine residue within the primer sequence as acceptors. Adjustment of the donor-acceptor spacing through the placement of the modified thymidine in the primer sequence allowed generation of four primers, all having strong absorption at a common excitation wavelength (488 nm) and fluorescence emission maxima of 525,555,580, and 605 nm. The ET efficiency of these primers ranges from 65% to 97%, and they exhibit similar electrophoretic mobilities by gel electrophoresis. With argon-ion laser excitation, the fluorescence of the ET primers and of the DNA sequencing fragments generated with ET primers is 2- to 6-fold greater than that of the corresponding primers or fragments labeled with single dyes. The higher fluorescence intensity of the ET primers allows DNA sequencing with one-fourth of the DNA template typically required when using T7 DNA polymerase. With single-stranded M13mp18 DNA as the template, a typical sequencing reaction with ET primers on a commercial sequencer provided DNA sequences with 99.8% accuracy in the first 500 bases. ET primers should be generally useful in the development of other multiplex DNA sequencing and analysis methods. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  2. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  3. High-Throughput Isolation of Giant Viruses in Liquid Medium Using Automated Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence Staining

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Robert, Stephane; Reteno, Dorine G.; Andreani, Julien; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of giant viruses using amoeba co-culture is tedious and fastidious. Recently, the procedure was successfully associated with a method that detects amoebal lysis on agar plates. However, the procedure remains time-consuming and is limited to protozoa growing on agar. We present here advances for the isolation of giant viruses. A high-throughput automated method based on flow cytometry and fluorescent staining was used to detect the presence of giant viruses in liquid medium. Development was carried out with the Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain widely used in past and current co-culture experiments. The proof of concept was validated with virus suspensions: artificially contaminated samples but also environmental samples from which viruses were previously isolated. After validating the technique, and fortuitously isolating a new Mimivirus, we automated the technique on 96-well plates and tested it on clinical and environmental samples using other protozoa. This allowed us to detect more than 10 strains of previously known species of giant viruses and seven new strains of a new virus lineage. This automated high-throughput method demonstrated significant time saving, and higher sensitivity than older techniques. It thus creates the means to isolate giant viruses at high speed. PMID:26858703

  4. High-Throughput Isolation of Giant Viruses in Liquid Medium Using Automated Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence Staining.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Jacques Y B; Robert, Stephane; Reteno, Dorine G; Andreani, Julien; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of giant viruses using amoeba co-culture is tedious and fastidious. Recently, the procedure was successfully associated with a method that detects amoebal lysis on agar plates. However, the procedure remains time-consuming and is limited to protozoa growing on agar. We present here advances for the isolation of giant viruses. A high-throughput automated method based on flow cytometry and fluorescent staining was used to detect the presence of giant viruses in liquid medium. Development was carried out with the Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain widely used in past and current co-culture experiments. The proof of concept was validated with virus suspensions: artificially contaminated samples but also environmental samples from which viruses were previously isolated. After validating the technique, and fortuitously isolating a new Mimivirus, we automated the technique on 96-well plates and tested it on clinical and environmental samples using other protozoa. This allowed us to detect more than 10 strains of previously known species of giant viruses and seven new strains of a new virus lineage. This automated high-throughput method demonstrated significant time saving, and higher sensitivity than older techniques. It thus creates the means to isolate giant viruses at high speed. PMID:26858703

  5. Fluorescent Properties of 8-Substituted BODIPY Dyes: Influence of Solvent Effects.

    PubMed

    Marfin, Yuriy S; Merkushev, Dmitry A; Usoltsev, Sergey D; Shipalova, Maria V; Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V

    2015-09-01

    Three boron-dipyrrine (BODIPY) based dyes with bulky substituents in 8-position of dipyrrin ligand have been synthesized and characterized. Photophysical properties of the obtained compounds have been investigated in different individual solvents and solvent mixtures. Investigated compounds was found to be intensive fluorescent molecular rotors. The influence of different solvent parameters and the substituent nature on rotor characteristics have been observed and discussed. Minor changes in the nature of 8-substituent does not influence the spectral properties, but the presence of nitrogen donor atom in the phenyl substituent could be used for the sensing of the donor-acceptor interactions with solvent or dissolved compounds. The new approach of spectral properties correlation with solvent parameters was proposed, the viscosity parameter should be taken into account in case of BODIPYs with bulky substituents. The intensity of fluorescence molecular rotor properties decrease gradually with the viscosity increase above 1 cP. PMID:26280106

  6. Synthesis of New Styrylquinoline Cellular Dyes, Fluorescent Properties, Cellular Localization and Cytotoxic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dulski, Mateusz; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Cieslik, Wioleta; Spaczyńska, Ewelina; Bartczak, Piotr; Ratuszna, Alicja; Polanski, Jaroslaw; Musiol, Robert

    2015-01-01

    New styrylquinoline derivatives with their photophysical constants are described. The synthesis was achieved via Sonogashira coupling using the newly developed heterogeneous nano-Pd/Cu catalyst system, which provides an efficient synthesis of high purity products. The compounds were tested in preliminary fluorescent microscopy studies to in order to identify their preferable cellular localization, which appeared to be in the lipid cellular organelles. The spectroscopic properties of the compounds were measured and theoretical TD-DFT calculations were performed. A biological analysis of the quinolines that were tested consisted of cytotoxicity assays against normal human fibroblasts and colon adenocarcinoma cells. All of the compounds that were studied appeared to be safe and indifferent to cells in a high concentration range. The presented results suggest that the quinoline compounds that were investigated in this study may be valuable structures for development as fluorescent dyes that could have biological applications. PMID:26114446

  7. Fluorescence microscopy is superior to polarized microscopy for detecting amyloid deposits in Congo red-stained trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan; Sadimin, Evita; Richardson, Maurice; Goodell, Lauri; Fyfe, Billie

    2012-10-01

    The classic gold standard for detecting amyloid deposits is Congo red-stained bright field and polarized microscopy (CRPM). A prior study showed that Congo red fluorescence (CRF) microscopy had increased sensitivity compared with traditional CRPM when analyzing fat pad specimens. The purpose of the current study was to determine the sensitivity of CRF for evaluating Congo red-stained bone marrow biopsy specimens, and to compare these results with those of CRPM. We compared the CRPM and the CRF analyses of 33 trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens with clinical or morphologic suspicion of amyloid deposits. These results were verified against immunohistochemical staining with anti-amyloid P antibody. CRF achieved 100% sensitivity, and CRPM achieved 75% sensitivity. Both groups showed 100% specificity compared with amyloid P immunohistochemical staining. The results show that CRF is a sensitive method to analyze trephine bone marrow biopsy specimens for amyloid deposits. PMID:23010714

  8. Fluorescent viability stains to probe the metabolic status of aflatoxigenic fungus in dual culture of Aspergillus flavus and Pichia anomala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic activity of aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala was examined using several vital stains. Both the FUN-1 stain and the combined use of DiBAC4(5) with CDFA-AM stains demonstrated that P. anomala inactivated the ATP generating syst...

  9. Energy transfer processes in dye-doped nanostructures yield cooperative and versatile fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Damiano; Rampazzo, Enrico; Bonacchi, Sara; Montalti, Marco; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Prodi, Luca

    2014-02-01

    Fast and efficient energy transfer among dyes confined in nanocontainers provides the basis of outstanding functionalities in new-generation luminescent probes. This feature article provides an overview of recent research achievements on luminescent Pluronic-Silica NanoParticles (PluS NPs), a class of extremely monodisperse core-shell nanoparticles whose design can be easily tuned to match specific needs for diverse applications based on luminescence, and that have already been successfully tested in in vivo imaging. An outline of their outstanding properties, such as tuneability, bright and photoswitchable fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence, will be supported by a critical discussion of our recent works in this field. Furthermore, novel data and simulations will be presented to (i) thoroughly examine common issues arising from the inclusion of multiple dyes in a small silica core, and (ii) show the emergence of a cooperative behaviour among embedded dyes. Such cooperative behaviour provides a handle for fine control of brightness, emission colour and self-quenching phenomena in PluS NPs, leading to significantly enhanced signal to noise ratios.

  10. Detection of microlesions induced by heavy ions using liposomes filled with fluorescent dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koniarek, J. P.; Thomas, J. L.; Vazquez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In cells irradiation by heavy ions has been hypothesized to produce microlesions, regions of local damage. In cell membranes this damage is thought to manifest itself in the form of holes. The primary evidence for microlesions comes from morphological studies of cell membranes, but this evidence is still controversial, especially since holes also have been observed in membranes of normal, nonirradiated, cells. However, it is possible that damage not associated with histologically discernable disruptions may still occur. In order to resolve this issue, we developed a system for detecting microlesions based on liposomes filled with fluorescent dye. We hypothesized that if microlesions form in these liposomes as the result of irradiation, then the entrapped dye will leak out into the surrounding medium in a measurable way. Polypropylene vials containing suspensions of vesicles composed of either dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, or a combination of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were irradiated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory using 56Fe ions at 1 GeV/amu. In several cases we obtained a significant loss of the entrapped dye above the background level. Our results suggest that holes may form in liposomes as the result of heavy ion irradiation, and that these holes are large enough to allow leakage of cell internal contents that are at least as large as a 1 nm diameter calcein molecule. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the incorporation of Rhodamine B and 2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescein dyes in silica: Synthesis of fluorescent nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Elis C. C.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.; Diógenes, Izaura C. N.; de Sousa, Eduardo H. S.; Longhinotti, Elisane

    2014-05-01

    The present paper reports the incorporation of 2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes in silica nanoparticles by using the Stöber's method with some modifications. Based on infrared and electronic spectroscopies, these dyes were successfully incorporated resulting in fluorescent nanomaterials of an average size of 80 nm. A composite fluorescent nanomaterial containing both dyes was also synthesized and showed the occurrence of Förster resonant energy transfer process (FRET) with the average distance between the donor (DCF) and acceptor (RhB) of 3.6 nm. Furthermore, these fluorescent nanoparticles were modified with folic acid producing nanomaterials whose Zeta potential values were in the range of -2 to -13 mV. These values are consistent with the low dispersivity observed by TEM micrographs. Altogether, these suitable properties can lead to the development of nanomaterials for cancer bioimaging and drug release.

  12. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOEpatents

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1984-01-06

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  13. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOEpatents

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1986-03-04

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle. 8 figs.

  14. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOEpatents

    Martin, John C.; Jett, James H.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  15. Dye analysis of Shosoin textiles using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rikiya; Tanaka, Yoko; Ogata, Atsuhiko; Naruse, Masakazu

    2009-07-15

    The dyes of 8th century textiles, treasured for more than 1250 years in the Shosoin treasure repository in Japan, were analyzed by nondestructive methods, i.e., excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) reflectance spectrometry, in combination with natural dye references extracted from plants, which have been widely used from ancient times. In this analysis, five dyes were found in the following objects: embroidered shoes dedicated to Great Buddha of the Todaiji temple by the empress of that time, the cloth lining for a case holding a mirror belonging to the emperor of that time, two rolls of yellow and light green plain-weave silks, and a sleeveless coat used for a musical in a Buddhist ceremony in 752 A.D. EEM fluorescence spectrometry distinguished kihada yellow (Amur cork tree), kariyasu yellow (eulalia), and akane red (Japanese madder). UV-vis spectrometry also distinguished kariyasu yellow, ai blue (knotweed), akane red, and shikon purple (murasaki); the characteristic peaks of these dyes were detected by a second derivatization. The results show that although the dyes used easily degrade with age, EEM fluorescence and UV-vis reflectance spectrometry are useful for distinguishing dyes used in the Shosoin textiles, which had been stored for more than 1250 years. PMID:19507884

  16. Dye-enhanced laser fluorescence detection of caries lesions around brackets.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Cássio José Fornazari; Braga, Mariana Minatel; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Nicolau, José; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of DIAGNOdent [laser fluorescence(LF) and LFpen] devices enhanced by fluorescent dye in detecting mineral loss around brackets and comparing the inhibitory effect of bonding material on artificial demineralization, and to verify whether LF methods show the same trends of mineral loss. Brackets were bonded to premolar halves with Fuji Ortho LC, Transbond XT, and Ortho Glass LC cements (n = 15). The teeth were soaked in demineralizing solution (pH = 4.8) for 16 days. Mineral loss was calculated by atomic emission spectrometry, and lesions were measured with LF devices with dye [tetrakis N-methylpyridyl porphyrin (TMPyP)]. Groups were compared with regard to LF readings and mineral loss, and performance of caries detection was calculated. Higher mineral loss and LF-TMPyP values occurred in the resin group. LFpen-TMPyP readings were significantly higher in the demineralized groups. Correlation was observed between mineral loss and LF measurements. LF methods are capable of identifying lower demineralization around brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cements. PMID:18536957

  17. UV laser interaction with a fluorescent dye solution studied using pulsed digital holography.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Sjdahl, Mikael

    2013-10-21

    A frequency tripled Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 355 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) has been used to pump Coumarin 153 dye solved in ethanol. Simultaneously, a frequency doubled pulse (532 nm) from the same laser is used to probe the solvent perpendicularly resulting in a gain through stimulated laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission. The resulting gain of the probe beam is recorded using digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two digital holograms without and with the pump beam were recorded. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and used to calculate the gain of the probe beam due to the stimulated LIF. In addition numerical data of the local temperature rise was calculated from the corresponding phase maps using Radon inversion. It was concluded that about 15% of the pump beam energy is transferred to the dye solution as heat while the rest is consumed in the radiative process. The results show that pulsed digital holography is a promising technique for quantitative study of fluorescent species. PMID:24150372

  18. Excitation efficiency of a side-pumped fiberized fluorescent dye microcapillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko; Nedev, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    In the present work we study the dependence of fluorescence spectra for different pump source characteristics on the length of a micro-capillary filled with a fluorescent dye solution. A standard fiber-optic glass ferrule with two parallel 125 μm inner diameter holes serving as capillary structures has been studied. One of the holes of the ferrule was filled with a solution of Rhodamine 6G in glycerin, while in the second hole an angle-polished single-mode pump optical fiber was placed. Experiments with pump fibers polished at 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, 40° and 45° with a reflective aluminium coating have been conducted. The analysis of the experimental data shows differences in the behavior of the fluorescent spectra at different polished angles. Theoretical calculations for pump ray trajectories as well as overall power transmission for pump fibers polished at different angles have been made. The results show that the proposed construction could be used in optofluidic chemical and biosensors, microfluidic lasers or as a compact fluorescent source compatible with fiber-optic components.

  19. Ratiometric Optical Temperature Sensor Using Two Fluorescent Dyes Dissolved in an Ionic Liquid Encapsulated by Parylene Film

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Tetsuo; Aoki, Hironori; Binh-Khiem, Nguyen; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-01-01

    A temperature sensor that uses temperature-sensitive fluorescent dyes is developed. The droplet sensor has a diameter of 40 μm and uses 1 g/L of Rhodamine B (RhB) and 0.5 g/L of Rhodamine 110 (Rh110), which are fluorescent dyes that are dissolved in an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate) to function as temperature indicators. This ionic liquid is encapsulated using vacuum Parylene film deposition (which is known as the Parylene-on-liquid-deposition (PoLD) method). The droplet is sealed by the chemically stable and impermeable Parylene film, which prevents the dye from interacting with the molecules in the solution and keeps the volume and concentration of the fluorescent material fixed. The two fluorescent dyes enable the temperature to be measured ratiometrically such that the droplet sensor can be used in various applications, such as the wireless temperature measurement of microregions. The sensor can measure the temperature of such microregions with an accuracy of 1.9 °C, a precision of 3.7 °C, and a fluorescence intensity change sensitivity of 1.0%/K. The sensor can measure temperatures at different sensor depths in water, ranging from 0 to 850 μm. The droplet sensor is fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology and is highly applicable to lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:23535716

  20. Design of a fluorescent DNA IMPLICATION logic gate and detection of Ag+ and cysteine with triphenylmethane dye/G-quadruplex complexes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Hong; Kong, De-Ming; Shen, Han-Xi

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes the construction of a DNA IMPLICATION logic gate based on triphenylmethane (TPM) dye/G-quadruplex complexes, using Ag+ and cysteine (Cys) as the two inputs, and fluorescence intensity of the TPM dye as the output signal. Free triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes emit inherently low fluorescence signal, the formation of TPM dye/G-quadruplex complexes yielded greatly enhanced fluorescence signals from the dye, and the output signal of the gate was 1. The addition of Cys had no effect on the fluorescence signal, again yielding an output of 1. However, the addition of Ag+ instead of Cys greatly disrupted the G-quadruplex structure, causing a decrease in the fluorescence of the dye, and yielding an output signal of 0. The addition of Cys into the Ag+-quenched fluorescence system led to the release of Ag+ from G-quadruplex-forming DNAs, resulting in the reformation of G-quadruplex structures and the recovery of TMP dye fluorescence, the output signal of 1 was obtained again. Compared with previously published DNA logic gates, the gate operation described here was rapid and reversible, with a reliable, nondestructive readout and excellent digital behavior. In addition, the modulation of TPM dye/G-quadruplex complex fluorescence by Ag+ and Cys could be used to develop a simple, fast, label-free and highly specific homogenous sensing methods for Ag+ and Cys. PMID:20829021

  1. Membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody staining procedure for detecting and quantifying Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Barila, T.Y.

    1988-01-01

    e developed a rapid method for detecting and quantifying the pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by concentrating the bacteria on 0.2-μm polycarbonate filters and staining them with specific fluorescein-labeled antibody. Centrifugation of samples and resuspension of the sedimented material in phosphate-buffered saline containing Triton X-100 increased the ease of filtration. Background fluorescence was reduced by counterstaining filters with Eriochrome black T. Postfiltration staining, rinsing, and counterstaining were done in the syringe-mounted filter holders, reducing handling of the filters and possible loss of bacteria. The number of bacteria detected by the filtration – fluorescent antibody technique in a broth culture of R. salmoninarum ranged from 6.7 × 107to7.6 × 107/mL and was slightly higher than that determined by plate count (9.6 × 106/mL). Increasing the sample dilution or decreasing the number of microscope fields examined generally increased the variability of filter counts of R. salmoninarum. Using the filtration – fluorescent antibody technique, we detected the bacterium in the coelomic fluid of 85% of spawning female spring chinook salmon sampled from a hatchery population. Membrane Filtration – Fluorescent Antibody Staining Procedure for Detecting and Quantifying Renibacterium salmoninarum in Coelomic Fluid of Chinook Salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (PDF Download Available). 

  2. Cell type related differences in staining with pentameric thiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Magnusson, Karin; Jain, Mayur V; Rafat, Mehrdad; Ghavami, Saeid; Nilsson, K Peter R; Łos, Marek J

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescent compounds capable of staining cells selectively without affecting their viability are gaining importance in biology and medicine. Recently, a new family of optical dyes, denoted luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), has emerged as an interesting class of highly emissive molecules for studying various biological phenomena. Properly functionalized LCOs have been utilized for selective identification of disease-associated protein aggregates and for selective detection of distinct cells. Herein, we present data on differential staining of various cell types, including cancer cells. The differential staining observed with newly developed pentameric LCOs is attributed to distinct side chain functionalities along the thiophene backbone. Employing flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy we examined a library of LCOs for stainability of a variety of cell lines. Among tested dyes we found promising candidates that showed strong or moderate capability to stain cells to different extent, depending on target cells. Hence, LCOs with diverse imidazole motifs along the thiophene backbone were identified as an interesting class of agents for staining of cancer cells, whereas LCOs with other amino acid side chains along the backbone showed a complete lack of staining for the cells included in the study. Furthermore, for p-HTMI,a LCO functionalized with methylated imidazole moieties, the staining was dependent on the p53 status of the cells, indicating that the molecular target for the dye is a cellular component regulated by p53. We foresee that functionalized LCOs will serve as a new class of optical ligands for fluorescent classification of cells and expand the toolbox of reagents for fluorescent live imaging of different cells. PMID:24500794

  3. Fluorescence Quenching of Perylene DBPI Dye by Colloidal Low-Dimensional Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Daly, Samy A; Rahman, Mohammed M; Alamry, Kalid A; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2015-07-01

    The interaction of a perylene DBPI dye [N,N-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)] with aqueous colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied using steady state fluorescence quenching measurements. The Stern-Volmer quenching rate constant (Ksv) was calculated as ~2.2 × 10(8) and ~1.072 × 10(9) M(-1) in ethanol and ethylene glycol respectively. From fluorescence quenching data, the static quenching and energy transfer play a significant role in the fluorescence quenching of DBPI with AuNPs. The apparent association constant (Kapp) was calculated as ~1.4 × 10(9) (EtOH)and ~3.7 × 10(9) M(-1) (ethylene). Due to AuNPs interaction with DBPI, the average aggregated colloidal AuNPs size is increased from ~53.39 nm (before interaction) to ~94.12 nm (after interaction). PMID:25982950

  4. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  5. Signal Decomposition of Transmembrane Voltage-Sensitive Dye Fluorescence Using a Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asfour, Huda; Swift, Luther M.; Sarvazyan, Narine; Doroslova?ki, Milo; Kay, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of transmembrane voltage-sensitive dyes is used to study electrical activation in cardiac tissue. However, the fluorescence signals, typically, have low SNRs and may be contaminated with motion artifact. In this report, we introduce a new processing approach for fluoresced transmembrane potentials (fTmps) that is based upon a discrete wavelet transform. We show how fTmp signals can be decomposed and reconstructed to form three subsignals that contain signal noise (noise signal), the early depolarization phase of the action potential (rTmp signal), and motion artifact (rMA signal). A coiflet4 wavelet is used for fTmp decomposition and reconstruction of these subsignals. Results using fTmp signals that are contaminated with motion artifact indicate that the approach is a useful processing step to remove baseline drift, reduce noise, and reveal wavefronts. It streamlines the preprocessing of fTmps for the subsequent measurement of activation times and conduction velocities. It is a promising approach for studying wavefronts without aggressive mechanical tissue constraint or electromechanical uncoupling agents and is, useful for single-camera systems that do not provide for ratiometric imaging. PMID:21511560

  6. Characterization of the vitreous body of the human eye using a cyanine dye as a spectral and fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.

    2009-02-01

    We used one of cyanine dyes as a spectral and fluorescent probe in the study of the composition of the extracellular matrix of the human eye (its vitreous body). Owing to the unique ability of the dye to bind to collagens and human serum albumin, we revealed the simultaneous presence of both types of biomacromolecules in the vitreous body. The formation of the dye complex with human serum albumin leads to appearance of a long-wavelength absorption band (~612 nm) and a steep rise of fluorescence, whereas in the presence of collagens the dye forms J-aggregates with a longer-wavelength absorption band (640-660 nm) and moderate fluorescence. In this work we studied the composition of the human fetus vitreous body and its dynamics from 9 to 31 gestation weeks. On the basis of the data obtained by this method, we may assume that albumin, being a carrier protein, probably provides the vitreous body and surrounding tissues with necessary growth factors, hormones, lipids, vitamins, and some other biomolecules. The data show that the dye is promising not only for study of albumin functions in eye development, but also for characterization of some eye diseases and for analysis of other extracellular media.

  7. Fluorescence-based sensing of glucose using engineered glucose/galactose-binding protein: A comparison of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and environmentally sensitive dye labelling strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Faaizah; Gnudi, Luigi; Pickup, John C.

    2008-01-04

    Fluorescence-based glucose sensors using glucose-binding protein (GBP) as the receptor have employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and environmentally sensitive dyes, but with widely varying sensitivity. We therefore compared signal changes in (a) a FRET system constructed by transglutaminase-mediated N-terminal attachment of Alexa Fluor 488/555 as donor and QSY 7 as acceptor at Cys 152 or 182 mutations with (b) GBP labelled with the environmentally sensitive dye badan at C152 or 182. Both FRET systems had a small maximal fluorescence change at saturating glucose (7% and 16%), badan attached at C152 was associated with a 300% maximal fluorescence increase with glucose, though with badan at C182 there was no change. We conclude that glucose sensing based on GBP and FRET does not produce a larger enough signal change for clinical use; both the nature of the environmentally sensitive dye and its site of conjugation seem important for maximum signal change; badan-GBP152C has a large glucose-induced fluorescence change, suitable for development as a glucose sensor.

  8. Single-lane single-fluor sequencing using dideoxy-labeled, heavy-atom-modified near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Daryl C.; Flanagan, James H., Jr.; Legendre, Benjamin L., Jr.; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    1995-04-01

    Using a near-IR (NIR) fluorescence detection system and labels synthesized in our laboratories, electropherograms of oligonucleotides separated by capillary gel electrophoresis and detected using NIR fluorescence will be presented. The sequence of nucleotide bases was determined using a single-lane, single-dye technique. The molar concentrations of the ddNTP's used during extension reactions were varied in order to achieve a ratio of 4:2:1:0 (A:C:G:T) which allowed the identification of each terminal base via fluorescence intensity measurements. Sequencing ladders were prepared from the template, M13mp18, using standard Sanger dideoxy chain termination techniques, the modified T7 DNA polymerase, and a NIR-labeled M13 primer. The data indicated reliable sequence determination up to 300 bases with a base-calling accuracy of 90%. In order to eliminate the need for dye-labeled primers and the T7 DNA polymerase enzyme, we have developed a sequencing strategy which utilizes dye-labeled dideoxy nucleotides in a single-lane, single-fluor approach. Base-calling is accomplished by measuring the fluorescence lifetime of intramolecular heavy-atom modified dyes.

  9. AIRBORNE LIDAR MONITORING OF FLUORESCENT DYE PARTICLES AS A TRACER TO CHARACTERIZE TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION: A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of using airborne lidar to observe the three-dimensional distribution of fluorescent dye particle (FDP) tracers in long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion studies has been successfully demonstrated in field experiments conducted in the North East U.S. duri...

  10. Conformational dependence of energy transfer rate between photochromic molecule and fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokojima, Satoshi; Ryuo, Koutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Kobayashi, Takao; Kanda, Katsuya; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Irie, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    The dependence of the energy transfer rate from the fluorescent dye, bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene, to the diarylethene derivative on the dihedral angle around the adamantyl spacer, which is used in the single-molecule photoswitching experiment based on the photochromism [T. Fukaminato, T. Sasaki, T. Kawai, N. Tamai, M. Irie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 14843], is examined using the ab initio calculations. For the interpretation of the single-molecule photoswitching experiment, most desirable condition is that the on/off of the florescence is directly due to the photochromic reaction, but not others. One of the undesirable factors is the dependence of the energy transfer rate on the dihedral angle around spacer. The computational results show that the energy transfer rate depends little on the dihedral angle.

  11. Static and dynamic model fluorescence quenching of laser dye by carbon tetrachloride in binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadadevarmath, J. S.; Malimath, G. H.; Melavanki, R. M.; Patil, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence quenching of laser dye namely 4,4‴-Bis (2-butyloctyl-oxy)-p-quaterphenyl [BIBUQ] by carbon tetrachloride has been studied in different solvent mixtures of 1-4 dioxane (DN) and acetonitrile (AN) at room temperature. The quenching is found to be appreciable and a positive deviation from linearity was observed in the Stern-Volmer plot in all the solvent mixtures. Various parameters for the quenching process have been determined by sphere of action static quenching model and finite sink approximation model. The magnitudes of these rate parameters indicate that positive deviation in the Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot is both due to static and dynamic processes.

  12. Direct measurement of efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an environment-sensitive fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family pumps AcrB and MexB are the major efflux routes in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes provide a means to study efflux pump function in live bacterial cells in real-time. Recently, we demonstrated the utility of this approach using the dye Nile Red to quantify AcrB-mediated efflux and measured the ability of antibiotics and other efflux pump substrates to compete with efflux of Nile Red, independent of antibacterial activity. Here, we extend this method to P. aeruginosa and describe a novel application that permits the comparison and rank-ordering of bacterial strains by their inherent efflux potential. We show that glucose and l-malate re-energize Nile Red efflux in P. aeruginosa, and we highlight differences in the glucose dependence and kinetics of efflux between P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We quantify the differences in efflux among a set of P. aeruginosa laboratory strains, which include PAO1, the hyper-sensitive strain ATCC 35151 and its parent, ATCC 12055. Efflux of Nile Red in P. aeruginosa is mediated by MexAB-OprM and is slower than in E. coli. In conclusion, we describe an efflux measurement tool for use in antibacterial drug discovery and basic research on P. aeruginosa efflux pumps. PMID:26117599

  13. Time-resolved fluorescence for breast cancer detection using an octreotate-indocyanine green derivative dye conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Das, B. B.; Pu, Yang; Liang, Kexian; Milione, Giovanni; Sordillo, Peter P.; Achilefu, Sam; Alfano, R. R.

    2013-03-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence was used to investigate malignant and normal adjacent breast tissues stained with a conjugate of indocyanine green and octreotate. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime intensity was seen in the breast cancer sample compared to the normal sample. The fluorescent lifetimes were also investigated and showed similar fluorescence decay curves in stained malignant and normal breast tissue. These results confirm that somatostatin receptors occur on human breast carcinomas, suggest that the presence of somatostatin receptors should be investigated as a marker of breast cancer aggressiveness, and suggest that this conjugate might be used to detect the presence of residual breast cancer after surgery, allowing better assessment of tumor margins and reducing the need for second or repeat biopsies in selected patients. These results may also provide clues for designing future treatment options for breast cancer patients.

  14. Fluorescence enhancement of dyes embedded in nanoparticles of Lu, Eu, Al, and Sc diketonates of different composition and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the effect of central ions (Lu(III), Eu(III), Sc(III), and Al(III)), organic ligands (2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (NTA) and p-phenylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (PhBTA)), and their concentration in a water-alcohol solution on the fluorescence of β-diketonate complexes formed and nanoparticles (NPs) generated by the self-assembly of these complexes. The fluorescence quenching of ligands of the complexes of nanoparticles because of the introduction of molecules of dyes, such as Nile Blue (NB), Lissamine Rhodamine RB-200 (RB), and Crystal Violet (CV), in these nanoparticles is investigated, and the NP-sensitization of the fluorescence of these dyes is explored. The dependence of the intensity of the NP-sensitized fluorescence of NB on its concentration in nanoparticles consisting of complexes that differ in composition and concentration is studied. By analyzing this dependence for the nanoparticles consisting of Sc(NTA)3, the size of the studied nanoparticles is evaluated. It is shown that the nature of this dependence is determined by a competition of two processes: the migration of the excitation energy over complexes to dyes and the migration of the excitation energy of dyes to impurities or dimer of dyes. The size of nanoparticles is compared to the estimated values of the exciton diffusion length and the critical radius of energy transfer from complexes to NB. An energy transfer of close to 100% from the nanoparticles formed of 10 μM of Sc(NTA)3 to 50 nM of NB molecules embedded therein is observed. The introduction of NB molecules into nanoparticles leads to a 200-fold increase in fluorescence intensity compared to their direct excitation in solution.

  15. Evaluation of a Carbonic Anhydrase IX-Targeted Near-Infrared Dye for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Hypoxic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peng-Cheng; Roy, Jyoti; Putt, Karson S; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-01

    Proof-of-principle studies in ovarian, lung, and brain cancer patients have shown that fluorescence-guided surgery can enable removal of otherwise undetectable malignant lesions, decrease the number of cancer-positive margins, and permit identification of disease-containing lymph nodes that would have normally evaded resection. Unfortunately, the current arsenal of tumor-targeted fluorescent dyes does not permit identification of all cancers, raising the need to design new tumor-specific fluorescent dyes to illuminate the currently undetectable cancers. In an effort to design a more universal fluorescent cancer imaging agent, we have undertaken to synthesize a fluorophore that could label all hypoxic regions of tumors. We report here the synthesis, in vitro binding, and in vivo imaging of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye that is targeted to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), i.e., a widely accepted marker of hypoxic tissues. The low molecular weight NIR probe, named Hypoxyfluor, is shown to bind CA IX with high affinity and accumulate rapidly and selectively in CA IX positive tumors. Because nearly all human cancers contain hypoxic regions that express CA IX abundantly, this NIR probe should facilitate surgical resection of a wide variety of solid tumors. PMID:27043317

  16. Substituent and Solvent Effects on Excited State Charge Transfer Behavior of Highly Fluorescent Dyes Containing Thiophenylimidazole-Based Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Javier; Bu, Xiu R.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    The excited state charge transfer for a series of highly fluorescent dyes containing thiophenylimidazole moiety was investigated. These systems follow the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model. Dual fluorescence was observed for each substituted dye. X-ray structures analysis reveals a twisted ground state geometry for the donor substituted aryl on the 4 and 5 position at the imidazole ring. The excited state charge transfer was modeled by a linear solvation energy relationship using Taft's pi and Dimroth's E(sub T)(30) as solvent parameters. There is linear relation between the energy of the fluorescence transition and solvent polarity. The degree of stabilization of the excited state charge transfer was found to be consistent with the intramolecular molecular charge transfer. Excited dipole moment was studied by utilizing the solvatochromic shift method.

  17. Visual fluorescence detection of H2O2 and glucose based on "molecular beacon"-hosted Hoechst dyes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-Fei; Li, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-05-21

    In this work, a label-free molecular beacon (MB)-like biosensor is designed for the determination of H2O2 and glucose based on the fluorescence regulation of Hoechst dyes hosted by the designed AT-rich single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), in which Hg(2+) and cysteine (Cys) act as activators. The designed AT-rich ssDNA (ATprobe) can be directed to form a hairpin with an Hg(2+)-induced T-Hg(2+)-T complex, which provides a medium for enhancing the fluorescence of Hoechst dyes significantly. On the other hand, Cys can effectively grab Hg(2+) from the T-Hg(2+)-T complex by thiol-Hg(2+) interactions, destructing the hairpin and then switching the Hoechst dyes to the fluorescence "off" state. Combined with these properties, we have demonstrated its application for label-free fluorescence "turn on" detection of H2O2. The sensing mechanism is based on the specific reaction between H2O2 and Cys catalyzed by I(-), the resulting disulfide reverses the Cys-mediated fluorescence decrease of the MB-hosted Hoechst dyes. The approach achieves a low detection limit of 0.1 μM for H2O2. Moreover, this method is further applied to the noninvasive detection of glucose in artificial saliva and urine samples, combining with glucose oxidase (GOx) for the oxidation of glucose and formation of H2O2. Compared to traditional methods, the proposed design is cost-effective, simple to prepare and manipulate without fluorescence labeling or chemical modification. PMID:25868604

  18. Fluorescent dye-labelled polymer synthesis by nitroxide mediated radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Jozef; Chmela, Štefan; Hrčková, Ľudmila; Hrdlovič, Pavol

    2012-07-01

    New applications of polymers at advanced technologies demand increased requirements on their properties. These properties are influenced by molecular as well as supramolecular structure. Controlled radical polymerization mediated by stable nitroxides (NMP) or substituted alkoxyamines offers simple method for preparation of polymers with programmable structure of macromolecules which possess remarkable better physical as well as chemical properties. They can be used as a macro initiators for the synthesis of block copolymers. At the present time it has been generally accepted that the extent of "livingness" is high for all conversions [1-4]. To verify this statement a series of fluorescent dye-labelled regulators has been synthesized, spectrally characterized and used as the mediators of styrene and n-butyl acrylate polymerization. Direct quantification of dormant species concentration (extent of livingness) and calculation of molar mass of marked polymers was performed by absorption and/or emission spectroscopy. Controlled radical polymerization mediated by stable nitroxides bearing fluorescence mark represents unconventional approach for monitoring and evaluation of mechanism and kinetics of polymerization process. Results indicate that the extent of livingness is strongly influenced by conversion as well as mediator concentration. There is a clear tendency toward to decreasing amount of dormant species with increasing monomer conversion. Moreover, lower mediator concentration decreases livingness of polymerization process.

  19. A sensitive fluorescence method for detection of E. Coli using rhodamine 6G dyeing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaohui; Jiang, Caina; Wen, Guiqing; Zhang, Xinghui; Luo, Yanghe; Qin, Aimiao; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-06-01

    Negatively charged bacteria combined with positively charged alkaline dye rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in NaH2 PO4 -Na2 HPO4 buffer solution pH 7.4, by electrostatic interaction. The dyed bacteria exhibited a strong fluorescence peak at 552 nm and fluorescence intensity was directly linear to Escherichia coli (E. coli), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) concentrations in the range of 7.06 × 10(4) to 3.53 × 10(7) , 4.95 × 10(5) to 2.475 × 10(8) and 32.5 to 16250 colony forming unit/mL (cfu/mL) respectively, with detection limits of 3.2 × 10(4) cfu/mL E. coli, 2.3 × 10(5) cfu/mL B. subtilis and 16 cfu/mL S. aureus, respectively. Samples were cultured for 12 h, after which the linear detection range for E. coli was 2 to 88 cfu/mL. This simple, rapid and sensitive method was used for the analysis of water and drinking samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26573961

  20. Fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts for super-resolution optical microscopy of biological objects: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, Maksim V.; Belov, Vladimir N.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-12-01

    The review deals with commercially available organic dyes possessing large Stokes shifts and their applications as fluorescent labels in optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED). STED microscopy breaks Abbe’s diffraction barrier and provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. STED microscopy is non-invasive and requires photostable fluorescent markers attached to biomolecules or other objects of interest. Up to now, in most biology-related STED experiments, bright and photoresistant dyes with small Stokes shifts of 20-40 nm were used. The rapid progress in STED microscopy showed that organic fluorophores possessing large Stokes shifts are indispensable in multi-color super-resolution techniques. The ultimate result of the imaging relies on the optimal combination of a dye, the bio-conjugation procedure and the performance of the optical microscope. Modern bioconjugation methods, basics of STED microscopy, as well as structures and spectral properties of the presently available fluorescent markers are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the spectral properties of the commercial dyes are tabulated and correlated with the available depletion wavelengths found in STED microscopes produced by LEICA Microsytems, Abberior Instruments and Picoquant GmbH.

  1. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes Allow for Accurate Determination of Their Molecular Orientations in Phospholipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Timr, Štěpán; Brabec, Jiří; Bondar, Alexey; Ryba, Tomáš; Železný, Miloš; Lazar, Josef; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-07-30

    Several methods based on single- and two-photon fluorescence detected linear dichroism have recently been used to determine the orientational distributions of fluorescent dyes in lipid membranes. However, these determinations relied on simplified descriptions of nonlinear anisotropic properties of the dye molecules, using a transition dipole-moment-like vector instead of an absorptivity tensor. To investigate the validity of the vector approximation, we have now carried out a combination of computer simulations and polarization microscopy experiments on two representative fluorescent dyes (DiI and F2N12S) embedded in aqueous phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Our results indicate that a simplified vector-like treatment of the two-photon transition tensor is applicable for molecular geometries sampled in the membrane at ambient conditions. Furthermore, our results allow evaluation of several distinct polarization microscopy techniques. In combination, our results point to a robust and accurate experimental and computational treatment of orientational distributions of DiI, F2N12S, and related dyes (including Cy3, Cy5, and others), with implications to monitoring physiologically relevant processes in cellular membranes in a novel way. PMID:26146848

  2. Stain-less staining for computed histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mayerich, David; Walsh, Michael J.; Kadjacsy-Balla, Andre; Ray, Partha S.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Dyes such as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical stains have been increasingly used to visualize tissue composition in research and clinical practice. We present an alternative approach to obtain the same information using stain-free chemical imaging. Relying on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging and computation, stainless computed histopathology can enable a rapid, digital, quantitative and non-perturbing visualization of morphology and multiple molecular epitopes simultaneously in a variety of research and clinical pathology applications. PMID:26029735

  3. Ultra Q-bodies: quench-based antibody probes that utilize dye-dye interactions with enhanced antigen-dependent fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Ryoji; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Arakawa, Dai; Dong, Jinhua; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kaigome, Rena; Saiki, Fujio; Yamane, Kyosuke; Takagi, Hiroaki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we described a novel reagentless fluorescent biosensor strategy named Quenchbody, which functions via the antigen-dependent removal of the quenching effect on a fluorophore that is attached to a single-chain antibody variable region. To explore the practical utility of Quenchbodies, we prepared antibody Fab fragments that were fluorolabeled at either one or two of the N-terminal regions, using a cell-free translation-mediated position-specific protein labeling system. Unexpectedly, the Fab fragment labeled at the heavy chain N-terminal region demonstrated a deeper quenching and antigen-dependent release compared to that observed using scFv. Moreover, when the Fab was fluorolabeled at the two N-termini with either the same dye or with two different dyes, an improved response due to enhanced quenching via dye-dye interactions was observed. On the basis of this approach, several targets, including peptides, proteins, and haptens, as well as narcotics, were quantified with a higher response up to 50-fold. In addition, differentiation of osteosarcoma to osteoblasts was successfully imaged using a similarly fluorolabeled recombinant Fab protein prepared from E. coli. Due to its versatility, this “Ultra-Quenchbody” is expected to exhibit a range of applications from in vitro diagnostics to the live imaging of various targets in situ. PMID:24721819

  4. Protein Stains to Detect Antigen on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, Anil; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting/electroblotting) is the gold standard in the analysis of complex protein mixtures. Electroblotting drives protein molecules from a polyacrylamide (or less commonly, of an agarose) gel to the surface of a binding membrane, thereby facilitating an increased availability of the sites with affinity for both general and specific protein reagents. The analysis of these complex protein mixtures is achieved by the detection of specific protein bands on a membrane, which in turn is made possible by the visualization of protein bands either by chemical staining or by reaction with an antibody of a conjugated ligand. Chemical methods employ staining with organic dyes, metal chelates, autoradiography, fluorescent dyes, complexing with silver, or prelabeling with fluorophores. All of these methods have differing sensitivities and quantitative determinations vary significantly. This review will describe the various protein staining methods applied to membranes after western blotting. "Detection" precedes and is a prerequisite to obtaining qualitative and quantitative data on the proteins in a sample, as much as to comparing the protein composition of different samples. "Detection" is often synonymous to staining, i.e., the reversible or irreversible binding by the proteins of a colored organic or inorganic chemical. PMID:26139252

  5. Fluorescence dye adsorption assay to quantify carboxyl groups on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) microbeads.

    PubMed

    Rdiger, Stefan; Ruhland, Mirko; Schmidt, Carsten; Schrder, Christian; Grossmann, Kai; Bhm, Alexander; Nitschke, Jrg; Berger, Ingo; Schimke, Ingolf; Schierack, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Microbead-based assays have evolved into powerful tools for the multiplex detection of biomolecules. Analytes are captured by DNA or protein capture molecules which are coupled on microbead surfaces. A homogeneous carboxylation of microbeads is essential for the optimal and reproducible coupling of capture molecules and thus a prerequisite for an optimal multiplex microbead-based assay performance. We developed a simple fluorescence dye adsorption assay for the description of microbead carboxylation and for the prediction of coupling successes of capture molecules. Using the fluorescence dye SYTO-62 it is possible to quantify the degree of carboxylation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microbeads within 1 h in a multiplex format by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry. Compared to conventional bulk assays which only provide an average degree of carboxylation the main advantage of the SYTO-62 assay is the single microbead analysis and therefore the description of the qualitative distribution of carboxylation in microbead populations. The SYTO-62 assay is sensitive enough to even determine weak carboxylation. Also, the quality of microbeads can be evaluated. To our knowledge this is the first report which applies a reversible noncovalent fluorescent dye adsorption assay to quantify the degree of carboxylation on surfaces. PMID:21413805

  6. FITC-Conjugated Cyclic RGD Peptides as Fluorescent Probes for Staining Integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 in Tumor Tissues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides (FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2) as fluorescent probes for in vitro assays of integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression in tumor tissues. FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2 were prepared, and their integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding affinity was determined using the displacement assay against 125I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells. IC50 values of FITC-Galacto-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-RGD2 were calculated to be 28 ± 8, 32 ± 7, and 89 ± 17 nM, respectively. The integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding affinity followed a general trend: FITC-Galacto-RGD2 ∼ FITC-3P-RGD2 > FITC-RGD2. The xenografted tumor-bearing models were established by subcutaneous injection of 5 × 106 tumor cells into shoulder flank (U87MG, A549, HT29, and PC-3) or mammary fat pad (MDA-MB-435) of each athymic nude mouse. Three to six weeks after inoculation, the tumor size was 0.1–0.3 g. Tumors were harvested for integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 staining, as well as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Six human carcinoma tissues (colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer) were obtained from recently diagnosed cancer patients. Human carcinoma slides were deparaffinized in xylene, rehydrated with ethanol, and then used for integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 staining, as well as H&E staining. It was found that the tumor staining procedures with FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides were much simpler than those with the fluorescence-labeled integrin αvβ3 antibodies. Since FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2 were able to co-localize with the fluorescence-labeled integrin β3 antibody, their tumor localization and tumor cell binding are integrin αvβ3-specific. Quantification of the fluorescent intensity in five xenografted tumors (U87MG, MDA-MB-435, A549, HT29, and PC-3) and six human carcinoma tissues revealed an excellent linear relationship between the relative integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression levels determined with FITC-Galacto-RGD2 and those obtained with the fluorescence-labeled anti-human integrin β3 antibody. There was also an excellent linear relationship between the tumor uptake (%ID/g) of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 (an integrin αvβ3/αvβ5-targeted radiotracer) and the relative integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression levels from the quantification of fluorescent intensity in the tumor tissues stained with FITC-Galacto-RGD2. These results suggest that FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides might be useful to correlate the in vitro findings with the in vivo imaging data from an integrin αvβ3/αvβ5-targeted radiotracer. The results from this study clearly showed that the FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides (particularly FITC-3P-RGD2 and FITC-Galacto-RGD2) are useful fluorescent probes for assaying relative integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression levels in tumor tissues. PMID:25312799

  7. FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides as fluorescent probes for staining integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 in tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Pennington, Michael; Liu, Shuang

    2014-11-19

    This study sought to evaluate FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides (FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2) as fluorescent probes for in vitro assays of integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression in tumor tissues. FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2 were prepared, and their integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding affinity was determined using the displacement assay against (125)I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells. IC50 values of FITC-Galacto-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-RGD2 were calculated to be 28 ± 8, 32 ± 7, and 89 ± 17 nM, respectively. The integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding affinity followed a general trend: FITC-Galacto-RGD2 ∼ FITC-3P-RGD2 > FITC-RGD2. The xenografted tumor-bearing models were established by subcutaneous injection of 5 × 10(6) tumor cells into shoulder flank (U87MG, A549, HT29, and PC-3) or mammary fat pad (MDA-MB-435) of each athymic nude mouse. Three to six weeks after inoculation, the tumor size was 0.1-0.3 g. Tumors were harvested for integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 staining, as well as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Six human carcinoma tissues (colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer) were obtained from recently diagnosed cancer patients. Human carcinoma slides were deparaffinized in xylene, rehydrated with ethanol, and then used for integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 staining, as well as H&E staining. It was found that the tumor staining procedures with FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides were much simpler than those with the fluorescence-labeled integrin αvβ3 antibodies. Since FITC-RGD2, FITC-3P-RGD2, and FITC-Galacto-RGD2 were able to co-localize with the fluorescence-labeled integrin β3 antibody, their tumor localization and tumor cell binding are integrin αvβ3-specific. Quantification of the fluorescent intensity in five xenografted tumors (U87MG, MDA-MB-435, A549, HT29, and PC-3) and six human carcinoma tissues revealed an excellent linear relationship between the relative integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression levels determined with FITC-Galacto-RGD2 and those obtained with the fluorescence-labeled anti-human integrin β3 antibody. There was also an excellent linear relationship between the tumor uptake (%ID/g) of (99m)Tc-3P-RGD2 (an integrin αvβ3/αvβ5-targeted radiotracer) and the relative integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression levels from the quantification of fluorescent intensity in the tumor tissues stained with FITC-Galacto-RGD2. These results suggest that FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides might be useful to correlate the in vitro findings with the in vivo imaging data from an integrin αvβ3/αvβ5-targeted radiotracer. The results from this study clearly showed that the FITC-conjugated cyclic RGD peptides (particularly FITC-3P-RGD2 and FITC-Galacto-RGD2) are useful fluorescent probes for assaying relative integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 expression levels in tumor tissues. PMID:25312799

  8. Oxidative synthesis of highly fluorescent boron/nitrogen co-doped carbon nanodots enabling detection of photosensitizer and carcinogenic dye.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Shanaz; Mansoor, Farrukh; Naz, Shagufta; Lei, Jianping; Kanwal, Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Current research efforts have demonstrated the facile hydrothermal oxidative synthetic route to develop highly fluorescent boron/nitrogen co-doped carbon nanodots (CNDs). During this process, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)glycine served as a source of N doping and a carbon precursor as well, while boric acid H3BO3 is used as an oxidizing agent in the N2 environment. Surface passivation through ultrasonic treatment of CNDs was performed to induce modifications by using various surface passivating agents. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) remarkably enhanced the fluorescence performance and monodispersity of polymerized carbon nanodots (P-CNDs) in aqueous phase with an enhanced quantum yield of 23.71%, along with an increase in size from ~3 nm to ~200 nm. For characterization of CNDs and P-CNDs, UV, infrared, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectra, and atomic force microscopy techniques were utilized. Application potentials of synthesized P-CNDs were developed via introduction of protoporphyrin (PPD, a photosensitizer) which has great doping affinity with polymer PEI to switch-off the fluorescence of P-CNDs, leading to the production of dye-doped nanoprobes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was also observed during dye-doping, and PPD was detected with a limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) of 15 pM. The fluorescence recovery of this switched-off nanoprobe was made possible by using Sudan red III (carcinogenic dye), which was oxidized by PPD doped in P-CNDs. Sudan red III was detected in the concentration range of 9.9 pM-0.37 nM. Meanwhile, it was also confirmed that the dye-doped nanoprobe is highly selective and exceptionally sensitive to detect this carcinogenic agent in commercial products with a LOD (3σ) of 90 fM. PMID:24083490

  9. Treatment of port wine stains with pulsed dye laser: a retrospective study of 848 cases in Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenhao; Wang, Jinliang; Lin, Yan; Geng, Jianhui; Wang, Haixia; Gong, Yueqin; Liu, Huaxu; Zhang, Furen

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) therapy is offered as one of the effective treatments of port wine stains (PWSs). However, the efficacy of PDL differs in different populations. Objective The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy, and related factors, of 595 nm PDL in the treatment of PWSs in Chinese patients with skin type III to IV. Methods A total of 848 cases that were treated with PDL were enrolled and analyzed in this study. An independent dermatologist evaluated these lesions according to the before and after photographs. Results The response rate (RR) of all the 848 PWS patients was 69.9%, within which the cure rate was 6.3%. The patients aged ≤1 year had the highest RR (93.9%), whereas those treated after age 50 reacted the worst (RR =25%). We analyzed the anatomical distribution of the lesion and found that the temporal region had the highest lesion clearance (RR =75.3%), while the extremities had the lowest clearance (RR =44.5%). Compared with the patients whose lesion size was larger than 80 cm2, the patients with small lesion size, of 0–20 cm2, had better clinical effect (RR =73.8% vs 53.2%). The reactions of the patients with hyperplastic lesion were worse than those with red patches (RR =36.4% vs 71.7%). As well, increasing treatment numbers could achieve higher clearance rates (P=0.005). Conclusion The PDL had a relatively high RR but a low clearance rate in Chinese patients with PWS, although the earlier the intervention, the better was the efficacy. The response of PDL was, not only related to the anatomical area, but also, to the lesion size, type of lesion (ie, the presence of existing hyperplastic lesions), and the number of treatment, all of which are essential for the evaluation of therapeutic effect and acquisition of patients consent before treatment. PMID:25548515

  10. Self-assembly of highly fluorescent semiconductor nanorods into large scale smectic liquid crystal structures by coffee stain evaporation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Concetta; Carbone, Luigi; Fiore, Angela; Cingolani, Roberto; Manna, Liberato; Krahne, Roman

    2009-07-01

    We deposit droplets of nanorods dispersed in solvents on substrate surfaces and let the solvent evaporate. We find that strong contact line pinning leads to dense nanorod deposition inside coffee stain fringes, where we observe large scale lateral ordering of the nanorods with the long axis of the rods oriented parallel to the contact line. We observe birefringence of these coffee stain fringes by polarized microscopy and we find the direction of the extraordinary refractive index parallel to the long axis of the nanorods.

  11. SELECTIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF SMALL MOLECULE FLUORESCENT DYES/PROBES USED FOR THE DETECTION OF Zn2+ AND Ca2+ IN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Landero-Figueroa, Julio A.; Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Deepe, George; Caruso, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes are widely used in the detection of labile (free or exchangeable) Zn2+ and Ca2+ in living cells. However, their specificity over other cations and selectivity for detection of labile vs. protein-bound metal in cells remains unclear. We characterized these important properties for commonly used Zn2+ and Ca2+ dyes in a cellular environment. By tracing the fluorescence emission signal along with UV-Vis and size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) in tandem, we demonstrated that among the dyes used for Zn2+, Zinpyr-1 fluoresces in the low molecular mass (LMM) region containing labile Zn2+, but also fluoresces in different molecular mass regions where zinc ion is detected. However, FluoZin™-3 AM, Newport Green™ DCF and Zinquin ethyl ester display weak fluorescence, lack of metal specificity and respond strongly in the high molecular mass (HMM) region. Four Ca2+ dyes were studied in an unperturbed cellular environment, and two of these were tested for binding behavior under an intracellular Ca2+ release stimulus. A majority of Ca2+ was in the labile form as tested by SEC-ICP-MS, but the fluorescence from Calcium Green-1™ AM, Oregon Green® 488 BAPTA-1, Fura red™ AM and Fluo-4 NW dyes in cells did not correspond to free Ca2+ detection. Instead, the dyes showed non-specific fluorescence in the mid- and high-molecular mass regions containing Zn, Fe and Cu. Proteomic analysis of one of the commonly seen fluorescing regions showed the possibility for some dyes to recognize Zn and Cu bound to metallothionein-2. These studies indicate that Zn2+ and Ca2+ binding dyes manifest fluorescence responses that are not unique to recognition of labile metals and bind other metals, leading to suboptimal specificity and selectivity. PMID:24356796

  12. Quantitative super-resolution localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe

    PubMed Central

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Szczurek, Aleksander T.; Prakash, Kirti; Best, Gerrit; Mohana, Giriram K.; Lee, Hyun-Keun; Roignant, Jean-Yves; Dobrucki, Jurek W.; Cremer, Christoph; Birk, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (Żurek-Biesiada et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei. PMID:27054149

  13. Quantitative super-resolution localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Szczurek, Aleksander T; Prakash, Kirti; Best, Gerrit; Mohana, Giriram K; Lee, Hyun-Keun; Roignant, Jean-Yves; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Cremer, Christoph; Birk, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (Żurek-Biesiada et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei. PMID:27054149

  14. DNA Stains as Surrogate Nucleobases in Fluorogenic Hybridization Probes.

    PubMed

    Hövelmann, Felix; Seitz, Oliver

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance assigned to RNA dynamics in cells and tissues calls for probe molecules that enable fluorescence microscopy imaging in live cells. To achieve this goal, fluorescence dyes are conjugated with oligonucleotides so as to provide strong emission upon hybridization with the target molecule. The impressive 10(3)-fold fluorescence intensification observed when DNA stains such as thiazole orange (TO) interact with double-stranded DNA is intriguing and prompted the exploration of oligonucleotide conjugates. However, nonspecific interactions of DNA stains with polynucleotides tend to increase background, which would affect the contrast achievable in live-cell imaging. This Account describes the development of DNA-stain-labeled hybridization probes that provide high signal-to-background. We focus on our contributions in context with related advances from other laboratories. The emphasis will be on the requirements of RNA imaging in live cells. To reduce background, intercalator dyes such as TO were appended to peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is less avidly recognized by DNA stains than DNA/RNA. Constraining the TO dye as a nucleobase surrogate in "forced intercalation (FIT) probes" improved the target specificity, presumably by helping to prevent unspecific interactions. The enforcement of TO intercalation between predetermined base pairs upon formation of the probe-target duplex provided for high brightness and enabled match/mismatch selectivity beyond stringency of hybridization. We show examples that highlight the use of PNA FIT probes in the imaging of mRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA in living cells. The "FIT approach" was recently extended to DNA probes. Signal brightness can become limiting when low-abundance targets ought to be visualized over cellular autofluorescence. We discuss strategies that further the brightness of signaling by FIT probes. Multilabeling with identical dyes does not solve the brightness issue. To avoid self-quenching, we combined two different yet spectrally overlapping fluorescent base surrogates. A hybridization-sensitive dye serves as a light collector that transfers energy to a brightly emissive acceptor dye. To improve the brilliance of single-dye probes, the "TO-nucleotide" was accompanied by an adjacent locked nucleic acid (LNA) unit. The LNA-constrained FIT probes are responsive and bright, enabling the tracking of mRNA transport in living tissue. We also show that the color repertoire of FIT probes is not restricted to the green-emissive TO but can be expanded to cyan and red. A new base surrogate (4,4-linked bisquinoline) provided up to 195-fold enhancement of the fluorescence. PMID:26963493

  15. Studies of the photophysics of highly fluorescent Red Mega 480 laser dye in solutions: Steady state spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangod, V. B.; Mastiholi, B. M.; Raikar, Prasad; Kulkarni, S. G.; Raikar, U. S.

    2015-09-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of highly fluorescent industrially useful medium sized Red Mega 480 dye have been studied in various solvents at 298 K. The solute photophysical behavior depends strongly on the solute-solvent interactions. In order to understand the effect of inter molecular interactions on spectral behaviors of the dye in different solvents extent of this behavior can be analyzed by linear solvation energy relationships. In addition, ground and excited state dipole moments were evaluated by various methods. It is observed that excited state dipole moment (?e) is larger than the ground state (?g), absorption spectra show a bathochromic shift with increasing polarity indicating that transition involved is ? ? ?? and Onsager cavity radius is determined by atomic increment method.

  16. Dependence of Purcell effect on fluorescence wavelength in dye molecules on metal-dielectric multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Izawa, Hayato; Tomioka, Ryo; Sakata, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Shimokawa, Fusao; Nakanishi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the enhancement of spontaneous emission, i.e., broadband Purcell effect, has been achieved using hyperbolic metamaterials. Hyperbolic metamaterials, which can be realized using a metal-dielectric multilayer structure, have an extremely large optical anisotropy of permittivity in both the parallel and perpendicular directions to the propagation of light, especially when the signs of permittivities in both directions differ. In this study, we investigated the conditions for realizing the broadband Purcell effect using dye molecules with different fluorescence wavelengths. Our fabricated metal-dielectric multilayer structure exhibited hyperbolic dispersion at wavelengths beyond 500 nm. In the case of coumarin 500 whose fluorescence peak is located at 500 nm, no broadband Purcell effect was observed. However, in the case of pyridine 1 whose fluorescence peak is located at 650 nm, we observed the successfull fluorescence lifetime shortening, i.e., the broadband Purcell effect.

  17. Excitation laser energy dependence of surface-enhanced fluorescence showing plasmon-induced ultrafast electronic dynamics in dye molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tamaru, Hiroharu; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Murase, Norio; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-06-01

    We find unique properties accompanying surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) from dye molecules adsorbed on Ag nanoparticle aggregates, which generate surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The properties are observed in excitation laser energy dependence of SEF after excluding plasmonic spectral modulation in SEF. The unique properties are large blue shifts of fluorescence spectra, deviation of ratios between anti-Stokes SEF intensity and Stokes from those of normal fluorescence, super-broadening of Stokes spectra, and returning to original fluorescence by lower energy excitation. We elucidate that these properties are induced by electromagnetic enhancement of radiative decay rates exceeding the vibrational relaxation rates within an electronic excited state, which suggests that molecular electronic dynamics in strong plasmonic fields can be largely deviated from that in free space.

  18. Fluorescence Quenching of (Dimethylamino)naphthalene Dyes Badan and Prodan by Tryptophan in Cytochromes P450 and Micelles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-6-propionylnaphthalene dyes Badan and Prodan is quenched by tryptophan in Brij 58 micelles as well as in two cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP102, CYP119) with Badan covalently attached to a cysteine residue. Formation of nonemissive complexes between a dye molecule and tryptophan accounts for about 76% of the fluorescence intensity quenching in micelles, the rest is due to diffusive encounters. In the absence of tryptophan, fluorescence of Badan-labeled cytochromes decays with triexponential kinetics characterized by lifetimes of about 100 ps, 700800 ps, and 3 ns. Site mutation of a histidine residue in the vicinity of the Badan label by tryptophan results in shortening of all three decay lifetimes. The relative amplitude of the fastest component increases at the expense of the two slower ones. The average quenching rate constants are 4.5 108 s1 (CYP102) and 3.7 108 s1 (CYP119), at 288 K. Cyclic voltammetry of Prodan in MeCN shows a reversible reduction peak at ?1.85 V vs NHE that becomes chemically irreversible and shifts positively upon addition of water. A quasireversible reduction at ?0.88 V was observed in an aqueous buffer (pH 7.3). The excited-state reduction potential of Prodan (and Badan) is estimated to vary from about +0.6 V (vs NHE) in polar aprotic media (MeCN) to approximately +1.6 V in water. Tryptophan quenching of Badan/Prodan fluorescence in CYPs and Brij 58 micelles is exergonic by ?0.5 V and involves tryptophan oxidation by excited Badan/Prodan, coupled with a fast reaction between the reduced dye and water. Photoreduction is a new quenching mechanism for 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-6-propionylnaphthalene dyes that are often used as solvatochromic polarity probes, FRET donors and acceptors, as well as reporters of solvation dynamics. PMID:25079965

  19. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 5. Rhodamines.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodamines were first produced in the late 19(th) century, when they constituted a new class of synthetic dyes. These compounds since have been used to color many things including cosmetics, inks, textiles, and in some countries, food products. Certain rhodamine dyes also have been used to stain biological specimens and currently are widely used as fluorescent probes for mitochondria in living cells. The early history and current biological applications are sketched briefly and an account of the ambiguities, complications and confusions concerning dye identification and nomenclature are discussed. PMID:26529223

  20. A Three‐Component Assembly Promoted by Boronic Acids Delivers a Modular Fluorophore Platform (BASHY Dyes)†

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fábio M. F.; Rosa, João N.; Candeias, Nuno R.; Carvalho, Cátia Parente; Matos, Ana I.; Ventura, Ana E.; Florindo, Helena F.; Silva, Liana C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The modular assembly of boronic acids with Schiff‐base ligands enabled the construction of innovative fluorescent dyes [boronic acid salicylidenehydrazone (BASHY)] with suitable structural and photophysical properties for live cell bioimaging applications. This reaction enabled the straightforward synthesis (yields up to 99 %) of structurally diverse and photostable dyes that exhibit a polarity‐sensitive green‐to‐yellow emission with high quantum yields of up to 0.6 in nonpolar environments. These dyes displayed a high brightness (up to 54 000 m −1 cm−1). The promising structural and fluorescence properties of BASHY dyes fostered the preparation of non‐cytotoxic, stable, and highly fluorescent poly(lactide‐co‐glycolide) nanoparticles that were effectively internalized by dendritic cells. The dyes were also shown to selectively stain lipid droplets in HeLa cells, without inducing any appreciable cytotoxicity or competing plasma membrane labeling; this confirmed their potential as fluorescent stains. PMID:26691630

  1. Volume labeling with Alexa Fluor dyes and surface functionalization of highly sensitive fluorescent silica (SiO2) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Foster, Carmen M.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T.

    2013-10-01

    A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or ``free'' surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface-modified fluorescent particles with cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems.A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or ``free'' surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface-modified fluorescent particles with cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cell culture preparation for dose/response imaging experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02639f

  2. Volume Labeling with Alexa-Fluor Dyes and Surface Functionalization of Highly Sensitive Fluorescent SiO2 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Foster, Carmen M; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Nallathamby, Prakash D; Mortensen, Ninell P; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T; Gu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or free surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface modified fluorescent particles with cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems.

  3. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM). PMID:23180379

  4. Fluorescence imaging method for in vivo pH monitoring during liposomes uptake in rat liver using a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Begu, S; Mordon, S; Desmettre, T; Devoisselle, J M

    2005-01-01

    Liposomes are known to be taken up by the liver cells after intravenous injection. Among the few techniques available to follow this process in vivo are perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and scintigraphy. The study of the intracellular pathways and liposomal localization in the different liver cells requires sacrifice of the animals, cells separation, and electronic microscopy. In the acidic intracellular compartments, the in situ rate of release of liposomes remains poorly understood. We present a new method to follow the in situ and in vivo uptake of liposomes using a fluorescent pH-sensitive probe 5,6-carboxyfluorescein (5,6-CF). 5,6-CF is encapsulated in liposomes at high concentration (100 mM) to quench its fluorescence. After laparotomy, liposomes are injected into the penile vein of Wistar rats. Fluorescence images of the liver and the skin are recorded during 90 min and the fluorescence intensity ratio is calculated. Ratio kinetics show different profiles depending on the liposomal formulation. The calculated intracellular liver pH values are, respectively, 4.5 to 5.0 and 6.0 to 6.5 for DSPC/chol and DMPC liposomes. After sacrifice and flush with a cold saline solution, the pH of the intracellular site of the liver (ex vivo) is found to be 4.5 to 5.0. This value can be explained by an uptake of liposomes by the liver cells and subsequent localization into the acidic compartment. An intracellular event such as dye release of a drug carrier (liposomes loaded with a fluorescent dye) can be monitored by pH fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy in vivo and in situ. PMID:15910082

  5. Fluorescent porous film modified polymer optical fiber via "click" chemistry: stable dye dispersion and trace explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajun; Lv, Ling; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin

    2015-01-14

    In this paper, we report a facile strategy to fabricate fluorescent porous thin film on the surface of U-bent poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber (U-bent POF) in situ via "click" polymerization for vapor phase sensing of explosives. Upon irradiation of evanescent UV light transmitting within the fiber under ambient condition, a porous film (POSS-thiol cross-linking film, PTCF) is synthesized on the side surface of the fiber by a thiol-ene "click" reaction of vinyl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS-V8) and alkane dithiols. When vinyl-functionalized porphyrin, containing four allyl substituents at the periphery, is added into precursors for the polymerization, fluorescence porphyrin can be covalently bonded into the cross-linked network of PTCF. This "fastened" way reduces the aggregation-induced fluorescence self-quenching of porphyrin and enhances the physicochemical stability of the porous film on the surface of U-bent POF. Fluorescent signals of the PTCF/U-bent POF probe made by this method exhibit high fluorescence quenching toward trace TNT and DNT vapor and the highest fluorescence quenching efficiency is observed for 1, 6-hexanedimercaptan-based film. In addition, because of the presence of POSS-V8 with multi cross-linkable groups, PTCF exhibits well-organized pore network and stable dye dispersion, which not only causes fast and sensitive fluorescence quenching against vapors of nitroaromatic compounds, but also provides a repeatability of the probing performance. PMID:25487515

  6. In Situ Immune Infrared Fluorescent Staining for Detection and Quantification of Bluetongue Virus in Cullicoides Insect Cell Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted to sheep, cattle and other ruminants by Culicoides spp. of biting midges. Cell lines have been developed from C. sonorensis; however, techniques for directly detecting and quantifying virus in these insect cells are lacking. In situ immune infrared fluorescent s...

  7. Measurement of Bluetongue Virus Binding to a Mammalian Cell Surface Receptor by an In Situ Immune Fluorescent Staining Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantifiable in situ immune fluorescent assay (IFA) was developed to measure bluetongue virus (BTV) binding to mammalian cells. The utility of the assay was demonstrated with both Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. Since heparin sulfate (HS) has been ...

  8. Native chemical ligation combined with spirocyclization of benzopyrylium dyes for the ratiometric and selective fluorescence detection of cysteine and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongmin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhong, Yaogang; Guo, Yuan; Li, Zheng; Li, Hua

    2014-02-01

    Spirocyclization of xanthene dyes has become a powerful technique for developing fluorescent probes. Herein, we extend this unique fluorescence switching mechanism to a near-infrared (NIR) dye, 2-(7-diethylamino-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-7-diethylamino-1-benzopyrylium (CB), and construct a ratiometric fluorescent probe 1 for cysteine (Cys)/homocysteine (Hcy). The ratiometric sensing of probe 1 toward Cys/Hcy is realized by utilizing a tandem native chemical ligation/spirocyclization reaction to interrupt the large π-conjugated system of CB fluorophore, thereby affording remarkable blue shifts in the spectra of sensing system (from 669 to 423 nm in absorption spectra and from 694 to 474 nm in emission spectra). Probe 1 shows a high sensitivity for Cys/Hcy, and the detection limits (3 δ) for Cys and Hcy are 1.6 × 10(-7) and 1.8 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Moreover, since both the sulfhydril and the adjacent amino groups are involved in the sensing process, probe 1 is selective toward Cys/Hcy over other thiols such as glutathione. All these unique features make it particularly favorable for ratiometric Cys/Hcy sensing and bioimaging applications. It has been preliminarily used for Cys detection in rabbit serum samples and the ratiometric fluorescent imaging of Cys in living HepG2 cells. PMID:24410246

  9. Comparing the efficacy of routine H&E staining and cytokeratin immunohistochemical staining in detection of micro-metastasis on serial sections of dye-mapped sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabie, Seid Abbas; Hashemi, Seid Mozafar; Cherei, Ali; Mahzouni, Parvin; Sanei, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The significance of techniques used for detecting micro-metastasis (MM) or isolated tumor cells (ITCs) is a controversial issue among investigators. We evaluated the different techniques used on sentinel lymph node (SLN) to detect MM/ITCs. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one SLNs of 15 patients underwent serial section with 100 μm interval. In each level, two sections were prepared. One section was stained with H&E and another with anti-cytokeratin antibody (immunohistochemistry). Then the sections were evaluated for detecting MM/ITCs. Results were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: 1656 sections of 91 SLNs of 15 patients were evaluated by a pathologist; MM was found in 1 and ITCs in 1 case. Overall, 2 out of 15 cases (13.3% of the patients) showed MM/ITCs by IHC staining. So, serial section along with using IHC was superior than serial section and routine H&E staining. But it did not affect the 5-year survival of the patients (P = 0.47). Conclusion: Using the combined techniques of serial section and IHC staining could up-stage 13.3% of colon cancer patients who were lymph node negative. In other studies with different combination of serial section, IHC staining, and PCR, investigators were able to find MM/ITCs in 3-39% of the cases. In our study, although serial section and IHC staining could up-stage 13.3% of patients, it could not affect the 5-year survival of the patients.

  10. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  11. Binding of fluorescent acridine dyes acridine orange and 9-aminoacridine to hemoglobin: Elucidation of their molecular recognition by spectroscopy, calorimetry and molecular modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2016-06-01

    The molecular interaction between hemoglobin (HHb), the major human heme protein, and the acridine dyes acridine orange (AO) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) was studied by various spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. The dyes formed stable ground state complex with HHb as revealed from spectroscopic data. Temperature dependent fluorescence data showed the strength of the dye-protein complexation to be inversely proportional to temperature and the fluorescence quenching was static in nature. The binding-induced conformational change in the protein was investigated using circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy results. Circular dichroism data also quantified the α-helicity change in hemoglobin due to the binding of acridine dyes. Calorimetric studies revealed the binding to be endothermic in nature for both AO and 9AA, though the latter had higher affinity, and this was also observed from spectroscopic data. The binding of both dyes was entropy driven. pH dependent fluorescence studies revealed the existence of electrostatic interaction between the protein and dye molecules. Molecular modeling studies specified the binding site and the non-covalent interactions involved in the association. Overall, the results revealed that a small change in the acridine chromophore leads to remarkable alteration in the structural and thermodynamic aspects of binding to HHb. PMID:27077554

  12. A high-sensitive and non-radioisotopic fluorescence dye method for evaluating bacterial adhesion to denture materials.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Yoko; Washio, Jumpei; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Oral bacteria adhered to dental material surfaces are known to cause various oral diseases. This study aimed to develop a highsensitive and non-radioisotopic fluorescence dye method for quantification of oral bacteria (Streptococcus, Actinomyces and Veillonella) adhered to denture material surfaces. The amount of adhered bacteria was estimated from the fluorescence intensity derived from resazurin, which is reduced by bacterial metabolic reactions. The addition of bacterial metabolic substrates (glucose for Streptococcus and Actinomyces and sodium lactate for Veillonella) to the reaction mixture increased the fluorescence intensity by 2.3-110 times, subsequently improved the sensitivity. Furthermore, an experimental device having silicon wells containing test material was carefully designed for accurate quantification of bacteria adhered to test materials. The improved resazurin method using a new experimental device successfully enabled the quantification of bacterial adhesion to polymethyl methacrylate and other three conventional denture materials. PMID:23903640

  13. Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Einaga, Naoki; Esumi, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR), which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1) DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA); 2) DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA); and 3) DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA). These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method for quantifying DNA available for PCR. PMID:26937682

  14. Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Einaga, Naoki; Esumi, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR), which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1) DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA); 2) DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA); and 3) DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA). These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method for quantifying DNA available for PCR. PMID:26937682

  15. Solvent influence on absorption and fluorescence spectra of merocyanine dyes: a theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, I.; Brancolini, G.; Momicchioli, F.; Ponterini, G.; Vanossi, D.

    2003-03-01

    The solvaton-CS INDO model, previously successfully used to describe the solvatochromic properties of merocyanines, has been extended to the study of the solvent influence on the fluorescence spectra (fluorosolvatochromism) of these dyes. A ketocyanine (M1) and a stilbazolium betaine (M2) were chosen as representatives of positively and negatively solvatochromic behaviours, respectively. The gap of experimental knowledge concerning the emission properties of M2 was filled by a spectrofluorometric analysis in a set of solvents covering a large range of the ET(30) scale. Solvato- and fluorosolvatochromism were described by calculating the S 0(eq.)?S 1(Franck-Condon) and S 1(eq.)?S 0(Franck-Condon) transition energies as a function of a polarity factor related to the static dielectric constant of the solvent, and ranging from 0 to 1. The absorbing S 0(eq.) and emitting S 1(eq.) units (solute molecule + solvent cage) were approximated using the S 0 and S 1 geometries of the unsolvated molecule and the respective charge distributions fitted to the current value of k( ?). The calculation results fully confirm that S 0 and S 1 states of merocyanines can be viewed as a mixture of a neutral and a zwitterionic structure whose composition is controlled by the solvent polarity. The plots of the calculated spectral data (absorption and emission maxima and corresponding Stokes shifts) vs k( ?) are in fairly good agreement with those of the experimental data over almost the entire range of the normalized ETN values, thus showing that specific solvent interactions are at least partly simulated within the solvaton-CS INDO scheme. The methodological prerequisites for a correct prediction of solvatochromic shifts are recalled with reference to previous conflicting theoretical interpretations.

  16. In vivo fluorescence imaging of lysosomes: a potential technique to follow dye accumulation in the context of PDT?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1995-03-01

    Lysosomes and intracellular acidic compartments seem to play an important role in the context of PDT. Some photosensitizers are localized in the lysosomes of tumor-associated macrophages. Liposomes, which are lysosomotropic drug carriers, are used to deliver photosensitizers in tumors. Liposomes are taken up by the liver cells after intravenous injection. Intracellular pathway and liposomes localization in the different liver cells require sacrifice of the animals, cell separation, and observation by electronic microscopy. Little is known about liposomes kinetic uptake by the acidic intracellular compartments in vivo. We propose in this study a new method to follow liposomes uptake in the liver in vivo using a fluorescent pH-sensitive probe. We have already demonstrated the ability of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging using a pH-dependent probe to monitor pH in living tissues. As pH of lysosome is very low, the kinetic of liposome uptake in this intracellular acidic compartment is followed by monitoring the pH of the whole liver in vivo and ex vivo. Liposomes-encapsulated carboxyfluorescein are prepared by the sonication procedure. Carboxyfluorescein is used at high concentration (100 mM) in order to quench its fluorescence. Liposomes are injected to Wistar rats into the peinil vein. After laparotomy, fluorescence spectra and images are recorded during two hours. Results show a rapid fluorescence increase followed by a slow phase of fluorescence decrease. pH decreases from physiological value to 6.0. After sacrifice and flush with cold saline solution, pH of liver ex vivo is found to be 5.0 - 5.5. These data show a rapid clearance of released dye and an uptake of liposomes by the liver cells and, as liposomes penetrate in the acidic compartment, dye is released from liposomes and is delivered in lysosomes leading to the decrease of pH.

  17. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    PubMed Central

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 μM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity. PMID:25709579

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Photophysical Properties of Pyrroloquinoline-Based Compounds Showing Strong Blue Fluorescence as Potential Dyes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Carta, Davide; Balasso, Anna; Caliceti, Paolo; Ferlin, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    A small library of 3-ethylpyrrolo[3,2-f]quinoline derivatives was synthesized to identify a novel class of dyes for use in biological studies. According to the spectroscopic analyses performed to evaluate the fluorimetric parameters of quantum yield and brightness, 7-methyl- and 6,7-dimethylpyrroloquinolin(9)one derivatives were found to be the best blue luminescent dyes for biological applications. To enhance the luminescence profiles and to obtain probes that could be conjugated to functional groups of supramolecular drug delivery systems, these compounds were further modified at position 3 to obtain 3-heptanoic acid and 3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolin(9)one methylated derivatives. The most brilliant 6,7-dimethyl-3-aminohexylpyrroloquinolinone hydrochloride was conjugated to pullulan, a biocompatible polysaccharide used to produce colloidal systems for drug delivery. Comparative studies showed that this compound can be properly exploited as a blue fluorescent label in biological investigations, namely cell trafficking and pharmacokinetics/biodistribution studies. These molecules possess higher fluorescence efficiency than commercial dyes in biological media, making them suitable alternatives to commercially available products in current use. PMID:26447862

  19. Studies on the two-photon pumped upconverted fluorescence and superradiance of a new organic dye material in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangyong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Shengjun; Xu, Xinguang; Ren, Yan; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua; Tian, Yupeng; Hao, Fuying; Li, Shengli

    2002-10-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new organic dye, trans-4-p-(N-ethyl-N-ethylamino)-styryl-N-methyl-pyridinium tris(thiocyanato) cadmates (II), are reported in this paper. When pumped with a picosecond laser at the wavelength range of 850-1200 nm, intense upconversion fluorescence can be obtained. The upconversion efficiencies at different pump energies were measured when pumped with a 1064-nm laser beam from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The highest upconversion efficiencies were measured to be 5.8% and 7.6% in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and methanol. The lifetime of the dye in DMF was measured to be 75 ps. The strongest nonlinear absorption was at the wavelength of 940 nm, and the highest upconversion efficiency was at the wavelength of 1030 nm. The difference of the two wavelengths was caused by excited state absorption in the dye at wavelengths shorter than 1000 nm. The dye solution in DMF and methanol show a clear optical power limiting effect.

  20. Studies on the two-photon pumped upconverted fluorescence and superradiance of a new organic dye material in solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Shengjun; Xu, Xinguang; Ren, Yan; Shao, Zongshu; Jiang, Minhua; Tian, Yupeng; Hao, Fuying; Li, Shengli; Shi, Pengfei

    2002-10-20

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new organic dye, trans-4-[p-(N-ethyl-N-ethylamino)-styryl]-N-methyl-pyridinium tris(thiocyanato) cadmates (II), are reported in this paper. When pumped with a picosecond laser at the wavelength range of 850-1200 nm, intense upconversion fluorescence can be obtained. The upconversion efficiencies at different pump energies were measured when pumped with a 1064-nm laser beam from a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The highest upconversion efficiencies were measured to be 5.8% and 7.6% in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and methanol. The lifetime of the dye in DMF was measured to be 75 ps. The strongest nonlinear absorption was at the wavelength of 940 nm, and the highest upconversion efficiency was at the wavelength of 1030 nm. The difference of the two wavelengths was caused by excited state absorption in the dye at wavelengths shorter than 1000 nm. The dye solution in DMF and methanol show a clear optical power limiting effect. PMID:12396187

  1. Base-assisted one-pot synthesis of N,N',N"-triaryltriazatriangulenium dyes: enhanced fluorescence efficiency by steric constraints.

    PubMed

    Hammershøj, Peter; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Han, Bao-Hang; Laursen, Bo W

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we report the first synthesis of cationic N,N',N"-triaryltriazatriangulenium dyes (Ar(3)-TATA(+)). Previously, only alkyl-substituted triazatriangulenium derivatives (R(3)-TATA(+)) were known, a consequence of the low reactivity of anilines in the aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction leading to the formation of the TATA(+) core. The synthesis of Ar(3)-TATA(+) was achieved by heating the tris(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)methylium ion (DMP(3)C(+)) in various anilines in the presence of NaH. In the solvent-free reaction all three aryl substituents could be introduced despite the low reactivity of the anilines. The symmetric Ar(3)-TATA(+) derivatives with Ar = phenyl (2), 4-methoxyphenyl (3), and 4-bromophenyl (4) were synthesized. Single crystal structures of 2 and 4 were obtained as BF(4)(-) salts, where torsional angles larger than 80° were observed between the TATA(+) chromophore and the aryl substituents. The photophysical properties were studied in solution and in thin films. The results show that the Ar(3)-TATA(+) dyes have a surprising 3-fold increase in fluorescence quantum yields when compared to the parent alkyl-substituted R(3)-TATA(+) salts. With a high quantum yield (>50%) and emission in the red (λ(fl) = 560 nm) the Ar(3)-TATA(+) dyes represent a promising new addition to the family of superstable cationic triangulenium dyes. Additionally, the synthesized tribromo derivative 4 is shown to be a potential triagonal synthon for polymers and other macromolecules. PMID:22616844

  2. Migration and penetration of a fluorescent textile dye into the skin--in vivo versus in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Martina; Abdollahnia, Mandana; Ghr, Frank; Platzek, Thomas; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jrgen

    2009-09-01

    The amount of textile dye migration from the textile and penetration into the skin is relevant when assessing the risk of textile dyes. In this paper, in vivo methods were developed using a harmless textile dye with a strong fluorescence and were then compared with in vitro methods. For the in vivo method, the textile was applied to the lower back of six volunteers wearing the textile 12 h and to the lower back of 12 volunteers during 30 min active sport. The maximum skin absorption of 55 +/- 17 ng/cm(2) was obtained in the group engaged in sports. The in vitro methods, which involved the application of the textile to the pig ear skin, was shown to yield similar results to the 12 h in vivo group (31.2 +/- 9.6 ng/cm(2) vs 27 +/- 14 ng/cm(2)). The migration of the textiles into artificial sweat resulted in approximately 20 microg/cm(2). The disadvantage of such textile extract applications on pig ear skin is discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption of the dye is strongly correlated to the amount of sweat, whereas the contact time was less important. PMID:19397699

  3. Gram Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gram Stain Related tests: Susceptibility Testing , Bacterial Wound Culture , Blood Culture , Body Fluid Analysis , CSF Analysis , Urine Culture , AFB Testing , Gonorrhea , Stool Culture , Fungal Tests , Sputum ...

  4. Two-dimensional, computer-controlled film scanner: quantitation of fluorescence from ethidium bromide-stained DNA gels

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Monteleone, D.C.; Trunk, J.; Ciarrocchi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional scanner based on a digital plotter is described. The device is used to analyze photographic negatives of ethidium bromide-stained DNA-agarose gels. Scanning is controlled by and photometric data transferred to a computer for processing, storage, display, and analysis such as integration of the areas under bands and determination of the mean distances of migration of polydisperse samples. An integral light source and detector module designed for reading optical bar-codes is mounted in place of the pen of the plotter. Spatial resolution and reproducibility are about 0.2 and 0.005 mm, respectively. Photometric precision as good as one part per thousand is achieved by sinusoidal modulation of the intensity of the light source and synchronous, phase-sensitive detection of the signal from the detector by a lock-in amplifier. No part of the sensor assembly touches the surface of the negative. In contrast to a densitometer, the computer transforms photometric data to values directly proportional to the amount of DNA at given points on the original gel. The ability to move the sensor in two dimensions over the negative allows for the integration across the width of a lane correctly allowing for the nonuniform distribution of the DNA.

  5. The mitochondrial fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for organic cation transporters (OCTs) 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vee, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Da Violante, Georges; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent cationic dye commonly used as a mitochondrial probe and known or suspected to be transported by certain drug membrane transporters. The present study was designed to characterize the putative interactions of rhodamine 123 with human organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2. Intracellular uptake of the dye was demonstrated to be enhanced in both hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells when compared with control HEK293 cells. This increase of rhodamine 123 influxes was found to be a saturable carrier-mediated process, with low K(m) values (K(m) = 0.54 ?m and K(m) = 0.61 ?m for transport of the dye in hOCT1- and hOCT2-positive HEK293 cells, respectively). Known inhibitors of hOCT1 and hOCT2 activities such as verapamil, amitriptyline, prazosin, and quinine were next demonstrated to decrease rhodamine 123 accumulation in hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In addition, the dye was found to inhibit hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a model substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2; rhodamine 123 appeared nevertheless to be a more potent inhibitor of hOCT1-mediated TEA transport (IC?? = 0.37 ?m) than of that mediated by hOCT2 (IC?? = 61.5 ?m). Taken together, these data demonstrate that rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2. This dye may be therefore useful for fluorimetrically investigating cellular hOCT1 or hOCT2 activity, knowing, however, that other factors potentially contributing to cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, including mitochondrial membrane potential or expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, have also to be considered. PMID:22913740

  6. Application of a Vital Fluorescent Staining Method for Simultaneous, Near-Real-Time Concentration Monitoring of Two Bacterial Strains in an Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer in Oyster, Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Mark E.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Streger, Sheryl H.; Hall, James A.; Zhang, Pengfei; Kovacik, William P.; Vainberg, Simon; Johnson, William P.; Onstott, Tullis C.; DeFlaun, Mary F.

    2004-01-01

    Two differentially labeled bacterial strains were monitored in near-real time during two field-scale bacterial transport experiments in a shallow aquifer in July 2000 and July 2001. Comamonas sp. strain DA001 and Acidovorax sp. strain OY-107 were grown and labeled with the vital fluorescent stain TAMRA/SE (5 [and -6]-carboxytetramethylrhodamine, succinimidyl ester) or CFDA/SE (5 [and -6]-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester). Fluorescently labeled cells and a conservative bromide tracer were introduced into a suboxic superficial aquifer, followed by groundwater collection from down-gradient multilevel samplers. Cells were enumerated in the field by microplate spectrofluorometry, with confirmatory analyses for selected samples done in the laboratory by epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and ferrographic capture. There was general agreement in the results from all of the vital-stain-based enumeration methods, with differences ranging from <10% up to 40% for the analysis of identical samples between different tracking methods. Field analysis by microplate spectrofluorometry was robust and efficient, allowing thousands of samples to be analyzed in quadruplicate for both of the injected strains. The near-real-time data acquisition allowed adjustments to the predetermined sampling schedule to be made. The microplate spectrofluorometry data sets for the July 2000 and July 2001 experiments allowed the transport of the injected cells to be related to the site hydrogeology and injection conditions and enabled the assessment of differences in the transport of the two strains. This near-real-time method should prove effective for a number of microbial ecology applications. PMID:15006793

  7. Fully Automated Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Staining and Digital Analysis of HER2 in Breast Cancer: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Kuperus, Deborah A. J.; van Setten, Jan W.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boers, James. E.; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E.

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with supervised automated analysis with the Visia imaging D-Sight digital imaging platform. HER2 assessment was performed on 328 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tumors on tissue microarrays (TMA) and 100 (50 selected IHC 2+ and 50 random IHC scores) full-sized slides of resections/biopsies obtained for diagnostic purposes previously. For digital analysis slides were pre-screened at 20x and 100x magnification for all fluorescent signals and supervised-automated scoring was performed on at least two pictures (in total at least 20 nuclei were counted) with the D-Sight HER2 FISH analysis module by two observers independently. Results were compared to data obtained previously with the manual Abbott FISH test. The overall agreement with Abbott FISH data among TMA samples and 50 selected IHC 2+ cases was 98.8% (? = 0.94) and 93.8% (? = 0.88), respectively. The results of 50 additionally tested unselected IHC cases were concordant with previously obtained IHC and/or FISH data. The combination of the Leica FISH system with the D-Sight digital imaging platform is a feasible method for HER2 assessment in routine clinical practice for patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:25844540

  8. Fully automated fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) staining and digital analysis of HER2 in breast cancer: a validation study.

    PubMed

    van der Logt, Elise M J; Kuperus, Deborah A J; van Setten, Jan W; van den Heuvel, Marius C; Boers, James E; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with supervised automated analysis with the Visia imaging D-Sight digital imaging platform. HER2 assessment was performed on 328 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tumors on tissue microarrays (TMA) and 100 (50 selected IHC 2+ and 50 random IHC scores) full-sized slides of resections/biopsies obtained for diagnostic purposes previously. For digital analysis slides were pre-screened at 20x and 100x magnification for all fluorescent signals and supervised-automated scoring was performed on at least two pictures (in total at least 20 nuclei were counted) with the D-Sight HER2 FISH analysis module by two observers independently. Results were compared to data obtained previously with the manual Abbott FISH test. The overall agreement with Abbott FISH data among TMA samples and 50 selected IHC 2+ cases was 98.8% (κ = 0.94) and 93.8% (κ = 0.88), respectively. The results of 50 additionally tested unselected IHC cases were concordant with previously obtained IHC and/or FISH data. The combination of the Leica FISH system with the D-Sight digital imaging platform is a feasible method for HER2 assessment in routine clinical practice for patients with invasive breast cancer. PMID:25844540

  9. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Consiglio, A.; Meucci, A.; Cremonesi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’ tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r2>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage. PMID:26623308

  10. Organic solar cells with a multicharge separation structure consisting of a thin rubrene fluorescent dye for open circuit voltage enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Wan; Jiang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells were fabricated by inserting a thin rubrene fluorescent dye between pentacene and fullerene heterojunction with a multicharge separation (MCS) structure, which was adopted to inherently further improve maximum open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency. The morphology of organic films showed that a more surface roughness of pentacene film could be beneficial for an effective MCS interface, exciton dissociation, and charge carrier transportation. Moreover, a slight improvement of short-circuit current density when adding a 1 or 2 nm rubrene layer was also analyzed in detail based on external quantum efficiency spectra and optical transfer matrix theory.

  11. Monitoring of the prostate tumour cells redox state and real-time proliferation by novel biophysical techniques and fluorescent staining.

    PubMed

    Masarik, Michal; Gumulec, Jaromir; Hlavna, Marian; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Babula, Petr; Raudenska, Martina; Pavkova-Goldbergova, Monika; Cernei, Natalia; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Krizkova, Sona; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-06-01

    The present paper is focused on zinc(ii) treatment effects on prostatic cell lines PC-3 (tumour) and PNT1A (non-tumour). Oxidative status of cells was monitored by evaluation of expression of metallothionein (MT) isoforms 1A and 2A at the mRNA and protein level, glutathione (oxidised and reduced), and intracellular zinc(ii) after exposition to zinc(ii) treatment at concentrations of 0-150 μM using electrochemical methods, western blotting and fluorescent microscopy. A novel real-time impedance-based growth monitoring system was compared with widely used end-point MTT assay. Impedance-based IC(50) for zinc(ii) is 55.5 and 150.8 μM for PC-3 and PNT1A, respectively. MTT-determined IC(50) are >1.3-fold higher. Impedance-based viability correlates with viable count (r > 0.92; p < 0.03), not with MTT. Two-fold lower intracellular zinc(ii) in the tumour PC-3 cell line was found. After zinc(ii) treatment >2.6-fold increase of intracellular zinc(ii) was observed in non-tumour PNT1A and in tumour PC-3 cells. In PC-3 cells, free and bound zinc(ii) levels were enhanced more markedly as compared to PNT1A. PNT1A produced 4.2-fold less MT compared to PC3. PNT1A cells showed a 4.8-fold increase trend (r = 0.94; p = 0.005); PC-3 did show a significant trend at MT1 and MT2 protein levels (r = 0.93; p = 0.02) with nearly ten-fold increase after 100 μM zinc(ii) treatment. In terms of redox state, PNT1A had a predominance of reduced GSH forms (GSH : GSSG ratio > 1), when exposed to zinc(ii) compared to PC3, where predominance of oxidised forms remains at all concentrations. IC(50) differs significantly when determined by MTT and real-time impedance-based assays due to dependence of impedance on cell morphology and adhesion. When real-time growth monitoring, precise electrochemical methods and fluorescent microscopy are performed together, accurate information for metal fluxes, their buffering by thiol compounds and monitoring of the redox state become a powerful tool for understanding the role of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis. PMID:22592803

  12. Interactions of L-Arg with calf thymus DNA using neutral red dye as a fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Gao, Canzhu

    2012-11-01

    The interaction between L-Arg and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer (pH = 4) was investigated with the use of neutral red (NR) dye as a spectral probe coupled with UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy technique. The UV absorption spectroscopy indicated that L-Arg interacted with ctDNA via electrostatic force and the fluorescence enhancing of the DNA-NR system verified the electrostatic interaction. In addition, detectable changes in the CD spectrum of ctDNA in the presence of L-Arg indicated conformational changes in the DNA double helix after interaction with the drug. Docking studies were found to corroborate the experimental results. All these results prove that this drug interacts with ctDNA via an electrostatic binding mode.

  13. Perylene Diimide Based Fluorescent Dyes for Selective Sensing of Nitroaromatic Compounds: Selective Sensing in Aqueous Medium Across Wide pH Range.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, P S; Pitchaimani, J; Madhu, Vedichi; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-03-01

    Water soluble perylenediimide based fluorophore salt, N,N'-bis(ethelenetrimethyl ammoniumiodide)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylicbisimide (PDI-1), has been used for selective fluorescence sensing of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) in organic as well as aqueous medium across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). PDI-1 showed strong fluorescence in dimethylformamide (DMF) (Φf = 0.26 (DMF) and moderate fluorescence in water. Addition of picric acid (PA) and 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) into PDI-1 in DMF/aqueous solution selectively quenches the fluorescence. The concentration dependent studies showed decrease of fluorescence linearly with increase of PA and 4-NA concentration. The interference studies demonstrate high selectivity for PA and 4-NA. Interestingly, PDI-1 showed selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA across wide pH range (1.0 to 10.0). Selective fluorescence sensing of PA and 4-NA has also been observed with trifluoroacetate (PDI-2), sulfate (PDI-3) salt of PDI-1 as well as octyl chain substituted PDI (PDI-4) without amine functionality. These studies suggest that PA and 4-NA might be having preferential interaction with PDI aromatic core and quenches the fluorescence. Thus PDI based dyes have been used for selective fluorescent sensing of explosive NACs for the first time to the best our knowledge. Graphical Abstract Selective fluorescent sensing of picric acid and 4-nitroaniline nitroaromatic compounds by perylene diimide fluorescent dyes. PMID:26585348

  14. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander M.; Benson, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated.

  15. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated.

  16. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander M.; Benson, Scott C.

    1999-01-01

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated.

  17. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1997-07-08

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated. 4 figs.

  18. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1995-01-01

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated.

  19. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.M.; Benson, S.C.

    1998-06-16

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated. 4 figs.

  20. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1995-03-28

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated. 4 figures.

  1. Rational design of a new fluorescent 'ON/OFF' xanthene dye for phosphate detection in live cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Peragón, A; Miguel, D; Orte, A; Mota, A J; Ruedas-Rama, M J; Justicia, J; Alvarez-Pez, J M; Cuerva, J M; Crovetto, L

    2014-09-01

    A new fluorescein derivative with ON/OFF features, 9-[1-(4-tert-butyl-2-methoxyphenyl)]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (Granada Green, GG), was designed and synthesised. The new dye has spectral characteristics similar to those of other xanthenic derivatives but shows a higher pK(a) value for the equilibrium between its neutral and anionic forms. In addition, GG undergoes the same phosphate-mediated excited state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction as other xanthenic derivatives, giving rise to fluorescence decay traces that are dependent on both the phosphate concentration and pH of the medium. The phosphate-mediated ESPT reaction was employed to detect changes in the phosphate concentrations in live, permeabilised MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts at pH 7.35. Its high pK(a) value indicates that this new dye is more sensitive as an intracellular phosphate sensor than other previously tested dyes, as experimentally demonstrated by its ability to detect a wider range of phosphate concentrations in biomimetic media and by the increased ratio of the phosphate concentration/decay time. PMID:25017473

  2. Evaluation of quantum dot-based concentric FRET configurations with a fluorescent dye and dark quencher for multiplexed bioanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Erin M.; Algar, W. Russ

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) continue to emerge as a highly advantageous platform for bioanalysis. Their unique physical and optical properties are especially well suited for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based bioprobes. Concentric FRET configurations are a recent development in this area of research and are best described as QD bioconjugates where multiple energy transfer pathways have been assembled around the central QD. Concentric FRET configurations permit multiplexed bioanalysis using one type of QD vector, but require more sophisticated analyses than conventional FRET pairs. In this paper, we describe the design and characterization of a new concentric FRET configuration that assembles both a fluorescent dye, Alexa Fluor 555 or Alexa Fluor 647, and a dark quencher, QSY9, at different ratios around a central CdSeS/ZnS QD. It was found that the magnitudes of the total photoluminescence (PL) intensity and either the A555/QD or A647/QD PL ratio can be related to the number of QSY9 and A555 or A647 per QD. The trends in these parameters with changes in the number of each dye molecule per QD have both similarities and differences between configurations with A555 and A647. In each case, a system of equations can be defined to permit calculation of the number of each dye molecule per QD from PL measurements. Both of these dark quencher-based concentric FRET configurations are therefore good candidates for quantitative, multiplexed bioanalysis.

  3. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Hauke A.; Tétreault, Nicolas; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Stellacci, Francesco; Grätzel, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-π-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale.

  4. Functionalization of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-based nano-architectures using a naphthalimide derivative and their fluorescent, dyeing and antimicrobial properties on wool fibers.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Mousa; Safapour, Siyamak

    2016-06-01

    Novel naphthalimide-poly(amidoamine) dendrimer fluorescent dyes were synthesized, and their structures were identified and confirmed using different characterization methods such as Fourier transform infrared, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric studies demonstrated absorption maxima (λmax ) and extinction coefficient (εmax ) values in the ranges of 429-438 nm and 25,635-88,618 L/mol/cm, respectively. The dyeing, fastness and antimicrobial properties of dyed wool fibers were examined. Colorimetric measurements demonstrated a greenish-yellow hue with remarkable fluorescence intensity on dyed wool. Although the fastness properties of naphthalimide dye on wool fibers were poor/moderate, color fastness was appreciably improved through modification of the dye using dendrimers. The results revealed that the newly synthesized dyes are potent antimicrobial agents on wool fibers. Overall, it was deduced that poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers could be exploited as a promising tool in tailoring the different properties of naphthalimide dyes, being suitable for dyeing and antimicrobial finishing agents for wool fibers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663475

  5. Nano-confined squaraine dye assemblies: new photoacoustic and near-infrared fluorescence dual-modular imaging probes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Zhao, Ying-Xi; Qiao, Zeng-Ying; Mayerhffer, Ulrich; Spenst, Peter; Li, Xiao-Jun; Wrthner, Frank; Wang, Hao

    2014-11-19

    For the purpose of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic (PA) tomography dual-modular imaging, self-assembly of squaraine (SQ) dyes is constructed in the hydrophobic phospholipid bilayers of liposomes (SQ?L) with variable mixing ratios of SQ and phospholipids from 1:500 to 1:10 (w/w). When doping minimal amounts of SQ, molecularly dispersed SQ in bilayers shows remarkable fluorescence. Interesting, the PA signal is enhanced with increase of SQ in the nanoconfined bilayer region, which is attributed to the formation of SQ-based H-aggregates and enhanced thermal conversion efficiency (?). SQ?L shows satisfactory chemical and thermal stabilities and photobleaching resistance. SQ?L is well-distributed in the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells and its fluorescence signal remains for 7 days without dramatic quenching owing to the good stability of SQ?L. Furthermore, SQ?L is subjected to in vivo NIR fluorescence imaging to evaluate the whole-body biodistribution in organ level. Particularly, PA imaging with deeper tissue penetration capability is utilized to investigate the heterogeneous distribution SQ?L inside solid tumor. The majority of SQ?L are enriched in the area where the blood vessels are generated, implying that the liposomal nanocarriers exhibit lower tumor tissue penetration capability after the vascular leakage. This result is validated by histological examination of tumor tissue in parallel. PMID:25370305

  6. A Phosphole Oxide Based Fluorescent Dye with Exceptional Resistance to Photobleaching: A Practical Tool for Continuous Imaging in STED Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenguang; Fukazawa, Aiko; Taki, Masayasu; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Shigehiro

    2015-12-01

    The development of stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy represented a major breakthrough in cellular and molecular biology. However, the intense laser beams required for both excitation and STED usually provoke rapid photobleaching of fluorescent molecular probes, which significantly limits the performance and practical utility of STED microscopy. We herein developed a photoresistant fluorescent dye C-Naphox as a practical tool for STED imaging. With excitation using either a λ=405 or 488 nm laser in protic solvents, C-Naphox exhibited an intense red/orange fluorescence (quantum yield ΦF >0.7) with a large Stokes shift (circa 5900 cm(-1) ). Even after irradiation with a Xe lamp (300 W, λex =460 nm, full width at half maximum (FWHM)=11 nm) for 12 hours, 99.5 % of C-Naphox remained intact. The high photoresistance of C-Naphox allowed repeated STED imaging of HeLa cells. Even after recording 50 STED images, 83 % of the initial fluorescence intensity persisted. PMID:26493944

  7. Highly Photostable Near-Infrared Fluorescent pH Indicators and Sensors Based on BF2-Chelated Tetraarylazadipyrromethene Dyes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of new BF2-chelated tetraarylazadipyrromethane dyes are synthesized and are shown to be suitable for the preparation of on/off photoinduced electron transfer modulated fluorescent sensors. The new indicators are noncovalently entrapped in polyurethane hydrogel D4 and feature absorption maxima in the range 660–710 nm and fluorescence emission maxima at 680–740 nm. Indicators have high molar absorption coefficients of ∼80 000 M–1 cm–1, good quantum yields (up to 20%), excellent photostability and low cross-sensitivity to the ionic strength. pKa values of indicators are determined from absorbance and fluorescence measurements and range from 7 to 11, depending on the substitution pattern of electron-donating and -withdrawing functionalities. Therefore, the new indicators are suitable for exploitation and adaptation in a diverse range of analytical applications. Apparent pKa values in sensor films derived from fluorescence data show 0.5–1 pH units lower values in comparison with those derived from the absorption data due to Förster resonance energy transfer from protonated to deprotonated form. A dual-lifetime referenced sensor is prepared, and application for monitoring of pH in corals is demonstrated. PMID:22738322

  8. Fluorescent Dye Encapsulated ZnO Particles with Cell-specific Toxicity for Potential use in Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wingett, Denise; Engelhard, Mark H.; Feris, Kevin; Reddy, K. M.; Turner, Paul; Layne, Janet; Hanley, Cory; Bell, Jason; Tenne, Dmitri; Wang, Chong M.; Punnoose, Alex

    2008-07-24

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-encapsulated core-shell particles with a nanoscale ZnO finishing layer have been synthesized for the first time as multifunctional “smart” nanostructures for particle tracking and cell imaging using the visible fluorescence emission of the dye or UV fluorescence emission of ZnO, and anti-cancer/antibacterial treatments using the selective toxicity of the nanoscale ZnO outer surface. The chemical phase composition, morphology, size, and the layered core-shell architecture of the particles were characterized using detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry. Systematic XPS studies after removing nanometer thick layers confirmed the expected layered structure in the order ZnO-SiO2-APTMS-FITC proceeding from the surface to the core of the ~200 nm sized particles. Detailed investigation of the fluorescence properties of these hydrophilic particles in bio-compatible media using fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy demonstrated that the silica/ZnO outer layer offers considerable protection to the encapsulated dye molecules from photobleaching and quenching due to reactive species such as oxygen in the solvent. These particles showed promise toward cell imaging, for example when the bacterium Escherichia coli was used as a test system, the green fluorescence of the particles allowed confocal microscopy to image the cells. The FITC encapsulated ZnO (FITC-ZnO) particles demonstrated excellent selectivity in preferentially killing Jurkat cancer cells (18% cell viability) without any significant toxicity to normal primary immune cells (75% cell viability) at 60 μg/mL concentrations and inhibited the growth of both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria at concentrations ≥ 250-500 μg/mL (for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively). These results indicate that the novel FITC encapsulated multifunctional particles with nanoscale ZnO surface layer are smart nanostructures for particle tracking, cell imaging, antibacterial treatments and cancer therapy.

  9. Improved diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swabs and urine specimens compared to diagnosis by wet mount microscopy, culture, and fluorescent staining.

    PubMed

    van Der Schee, C; van Belkum, A; Zwijgers, L; van Der Brugge, E; O'neill, E L; Luijendijk, A; van Rijsoort-Vos, T; van Der Meijden, W I; Verbrugh, H; Sluiters, H J

    1999-12-01

    Four vaginal cotton swab specimens were obtained from each of 804 women visiting the outpatient sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for validation of various forms of Trichomonas vaginalis diagnostic procedures. One swab specimen was immediately examined by wet mount microscopy, a second swab was placed in Kupferberg's Trichosel medium for cultivation, and two swabs were placed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2. The resulting PBS suspension was used for direct staining with acridine orange and fluorescence microscopy, inoculation of modified Diamond's culture medium, and a PCR specific for T. vaginalis. A total of 70 samples positive in one or more of the tests were identified: 31 (3.8%) infections were detected by wet mount microscopy, and 36 (4.4%) were identified by acridine orange staining, as opposed to 40 (4.9%) and 46 (5.7%) positives in modified Diamond's and Trichosel media, respectively. PCR was positive for 61 (7.5%) samples. Secondly, from each of 200 women were obtained a urine sample and a vaginal cotton swab specimen, and 200 urine samples were obtained from men. For the women, 15 (7.4%) of the samples showed a positive result for either the wet mount (n = 1), Trichosel culture (n = 6), PCR on the vaginal swab sample (n = 10), or PCR on the urine specimen (n = 11). Four men (2%) were diagnosed with a T. vaginalis infection. Thus, PCR appears to be the method of choice for the detection of genital infections with T. vaginalis. PMID:10565943

  10. Uvitex2B: a rapid and efficient stain for detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within plant roots.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Nathalie; Escoute, Jacques; Lartaud, Marc; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Franche, Claudine; Kane, Aboubacry; Bogusz, Didier; Diouf, Diegane; Duponnois, Robin; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    The study of arbuscular mycorrhiza often requires the staining of fungal structures using specific dyes. Fluorescent dyes such as acid fuchsin and wheat germ agglutinin conjugates give excellent results, but these compounds are either hazardous or very expensive. Here, we show that a safer and inexpensive dye, Uvitex2B, can be efficiently used to stain intraradical fungal structures formed by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in three plant species: carrot, Casuarina equisetifolia, and Medicago truncatula. The intensity and stability of Uvitex2B allow the acquisition of high-quality images using not only confocal laser scanning microscopy but also epifluorescence microscopy coupled with image deconvolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Uvitex2B and β-glucuronidase staining are compatible and can thus be used to reveal arbuscular mycorrhizal structures in the context of promoter activation analysis. PMID:21225294

  11. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.

  12. Investigation of time-resolved fluorescence lifetime of perylene dye molecules embedded in silicon nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acikgoz, Sabriye

    2015-02-01

    The radiative decay rate of a perylene dye molecule attached to silicon nanopillar is investigated using a conventional time-correlated single photon counting technique. It is hard to produce a sustainable host with exactly the same dimensions all the time during fabrication to accommodate dye molecules for enhancement of spontaneous emission rate. The laser-induced electrochemical anodization method allows us to have a control over size and shape of the silicon nanostructures. The effect of the silicon nanopillar on the radiative decay rate of the dye molecules is described by the Klimov's prolate nanospheroid model. It is observed that the decay rate is significantly enhanced or inhibited due to plasmon resonance, depending on whether the dipole is embedded closely right at the tip or at equator of the prolate nanospheroid. Both inhibition and enhancement disappear when the distance between the dipole and prolate nanospheroid becomes large. Thus, the decay rate of the dye molecule approaches its natural value in the free space.

  13. Detection of de- and hyperpolarization of mitochondria of cultured astrocytes and neurons by the cationic fluorescent dye rhodamine 123.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Stefan; Zündorf, Gregor; Reiser, Georg

    2008-06-15

    The mitochondrial potential is an essential regulator in cellular physiology and detection of this parameter in living cells is still under discussion. Here we present a protocol which allows the use of rhodamine 123 as a probe for quantifying the mitochondrial potential. To avoid dequenching artefacts the detection area is limited to the area above the nucleus. In co-cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes and neurons, we analysed the mitochondrial accumulation of the cationic fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 (Rh123). Application of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoro-methoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP, 4 micromol/L) together with the ATP-synthase inhibitor oligomycin (Oli, 10 micromol/L) induced an immediate fluorescence increase of Rh123-loaded mitochondria. This effect is due to the well-known fluorescence dequenching caused by the reduction in concentration of Rh123 in the mitochondria after depolarization. However, above the nucleus an increase in fluorescence was registered. Due to the absence of mitochondria in the area above the nucleus this fluorescence increase is most likely caused by the Rh123 release from mitochondria. Pre-treatment of cells with antimycin A abolished the response to FCCP/Oli. Furthermore, a 10-min exposure to 50 mmol/L K+, which causes a plasma membrane depolarization in neurons, did not significantly change the FCCP/Oli-mediated Rh123 release measured above the nucleus of neurons. However, application of 100 micromol/L glutamate enhanced the effect of FCCP/Oli both in astrocytes and neurons. This enhancement is interpreted as an increase in mitochondrial potential above the control potential. Thus, this Rh123 method described here allows a cell type-specific determination of changes of mitochondrial polarization. PMID:18400303

  14. Generalized solvent scales as a tool for investigating solvent dependence of spectroscopic and kinetic parameters. Application to fluorescent BODIPY dyes.

    PubMed

    Filarowski, Aleksander; Kluba, Małgorzata; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Koll, Aleksander; Kochel, Andrzej; Pandey, Lesley; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Catalán, Javier; Boens, Noël

    2010-07-30

    Two difluoroboron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) based fluorescent dyes - 4,4-difluoro-3-{2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethenyl}-8-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-1,5,7-trimethyl-3a,4a-diaza-4-bora-s-indacene (1) and 4,4-difluoro-3-[2-(4-fluoro-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-8-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-1,5,7-trimethyl-3a,4a-diaza-4-bora-s-indacene (3) - have been synthesized via condensation of p-N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and 4-fluoro-3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, respectively, with 4,4-difluoro-8-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-3a,4a-diaza-4-bora-s-indacene (2). UV-vis spectrophotometry and steady-state and time-resolved fluorometry have been used to study the spectroscopic and photophysical characteristics of in various solvents. The multi-parameter Kamlet-Taft {pi*, alpha, beta} solvent scales and a new, generalized treatment of the solvent effect, proposed by Catalán (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 113, 5951-5960), have been used in the analysis of the solvatochromic shifts of the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission maxima of 1-3, and the rate constants of excited-state deactivation via fluorescence (k(f)) and radiationless decay (k(nr)). The four Catalán solvent scales (dipolarity, polarizability, acidity and basicity of the medium) are the most appropriate for describing the solvatochromic effects. Solvent dipolarity and polarizability are the important causes for the solvatochromism of 1. Conversely, the absorption and emission maxima of 2 and 3 are hardly dependent on the solvent: the small changes reflect primarily the polarizability of the solvent surrounding the dye. Fluorescence decay profiles of 1 can be described by a single-exponential function in aprotic solvents, whereas two decay times are found in alcohols. The fluorescence decays of 2 (lifetimes tau in 1.9-2.9 ns range) and 3 (tau between 3.5 and 4.0 ns) are mono-exponential in all solvents studied. The fluorescence properties of dye are very sensitive to the solvent: upon increasing solvent dipolarity, the fluorescence quantum yields and k(f) values decrease and the emission maxima become more red-shifted. The k(f) values of 2 [(1.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(8) s(-1)] and 3 [(1.5 +/- 0.2) x 10(8) s(-1)] are practically independent of the solvent properties. The crystal structure of reveals that the BODIPY core is nearly planar with the boron atom moved out of the plane. The angle between the phenyl group at the meso-position and the BODIPY plane equals 80 degrees. PMID:20505875

  15. Thermal damage assessment of blood vessels in a hamster skin flap model by fluorescence measurement of a liposome-dye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Desmettre, Thomas; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1997-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of thermal damage assessment of blood vessels by using laser-induced release of liposome-encapsulated dye. Experiments were performed in a hamster skin flap model. Laser irradiation was achieved with a 300micrometers fiber connected to a 805nm diode laser after potentiation using a specific indocyanine green (ICG) formulation. Liposomes- encapsulated carboxyfluorescein were prepared by the sonication procedure. Carboxyfluorescein was loaded at high concentration in order to quench its fluorescence. The measurements were performed after i.v. injection of DSPC liposomes and lasted 40 minutes. Fluorescence emission was measured with an ultra high sensitivity intensified camera. Three different shapes of fluorescent spots were identified depending on target and energy deposition in tissue: (i) intravascular fluorescence, (ii) transient low fluorescence circular spot and (iii) persistent high intense fluorescence spot. These images are correlated with histological data. The advantages of this liposome-dye system are (1) direct measurements can be obtained, (2) several repeated readings can be made from one injection, (3) continuous monitoring of the fluorescence can be made, (4) temperature-sensitive range can be adapted using different liposomes compositions, (5) circulation times of several hours can be achieved using DSPC liposomes (6) the tissue microcirculation and the vessel macrocirculation can be investigated simultaneously, therefore changes in response to a treatment regimen and/or ICG formulations can be detected. One main constraint exists: the fluorescent dye encapsulated into the liposomes has to be carefully chosen in order to avoid any direct absorption by the dye itself. In conclusion, one of the most significant applications of this experimental technique is the evaluation of various degrees of tissue thermal damage. It could be possible to consider the application of this technique in ophthalmology and dermatology and possibly for the evaluation of burn injury.

  16. Mixed-Dye-Based Label-Free and Sensitive Dual Fluorescence for the Product Detection of Nucleic Acid Isothermal Multiple-Self-Matching-Initiated Amplification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiong; Wu, Wenshuai; Zhu, Qiangyuan; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Mu, Ying

    2015-10-20

    Visual detections based on fluorescence and the color changes under natural light are two promising product detections for isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (INAAs) such as the isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (IMSA) as point-of-care testing techniques. However, the currently used approaches have shortcomings in application. For the former, fluorescence changes recognized by naked eye may be indistinguishable because of single fluorescence emitted and strong background noise, which requires empirical preset of cutoff intensity values. For the latter, visual detection sensitivity under natural light is not comparable to that based on fluorescence. Herein, hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) and SYBR Green I (SG) were coupled to acquire a label-free dual fluorescence for the visual product detection of IMSA. The mixed-dye-loaded off-chip (tube-based) and on-chip (microfluidic chip-based) IMSAs for the detection of hepatitis B virus were conducted. The results demonstrated that this dual fluorescence could realize distinguishable fluorescent color changes to improve visual detection sensitivity and avoid the preset of cutoff values. Moreover, the mixed dye is stable when kept at room temperature and compatible with the IMSA's reagents without a contamination-prone step of opening tubes after amplification. Also, this coupled dye inherits the advantages of achieving color changes under natural light from HNB and real-time detection from SG. In conclusion, the mixed-dye-based dual fluorescence has a potential in the point-of-care testing application for realizing off-chip and on-chip product detection of IMSA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), or other INAAs. PMID:26383158

  17. High resolution multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using cyanine and fluorescein dyes: rapid chromosome identification by directly fluorescently labeled alphoid DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Yurov, Y B; Soloviev, I V; Vorsanova, S G; Marcais, B; Roizes, G; Lewis, R

    1996-03-01

    We tested DNA probes directly labeled by fluorescently labeled nucleotides (Cy3-dCTP, Cy5-dCTP, FluorX-dCTP) for high resolution uni- and multicolor detection of human chromosomes and analysis of centromeric DNA organization by in situ hybridization. Alpha-satellite DNA probes specific to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4 + 9, 5 + 19, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13 + 21, 14 + 22, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, X and Y were suitable for the accurate identification of human chromosomes in metaphase and interphase cells. Cy3-labeled probes had several advantages: (1) a high level of fluorescence (5-10 times more compared with fluorescein-labeled probes); (2) a low level of fluorescence in solution, allowing the detection of target chromosomes in situ during hybridization without the washing of slides; and (3) high resistance to photobleaching during prolonged (1-2 h) exposure to strong light, thus allowing the use of a high energy mercury lamp or a long integration time during image acquisition in digital imaging microscopy for the determination of weak signals. For di- and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we successfully used different combinations of directly fluorophorated probes with preservation of images by conventional microscopy or by digital imaging microscopy. FluorX and Cy3 dyes allowed the use of cosmid probes for mapping in a one-step hybridization experiment. Cyanine-labeled fluorophorated DNA probes offer additional possibilities for rapid chromosome detection during a simple 15-min FISH procedure, and can be recommended for basic research and clinical studies, utilizing FISH. PMID:8786090

  18. Crystalline lens capsule staining with trypan blue.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Joseph San; Coroneo, Minas T

    2004-10-01

    A 1-step method for staining the anterior lens capsule with trypan blue is described. The dye is instilled via a paracentesis port at the start of cataract extraction. As aqueous humor is allowed to exit the anterior chamber (AC), which consequently shallows, the resulting pupil block confines the dye to the AC. An ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) is used to flush dye-stained aqueous from the AC, circumventing the need for AC washout. Although the OVD may be tinged with dye, this does not impede performing capsulorhexis. This method does not add to the surgical time, requires no additional instruments or materials, and is safe. PMID:15474812

  19. Twisting in the excited state of an N-methylpyridinium fluorescent dye modulated by nano-heterogeneous micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Cesaretti, A; Carlotti, B; Gentili, P L; Germani, R; Spalletti, A; Elisei, F

    2016-04-13

    A push-pull N-methylpyridinium fluorescent dye with a pyrenyl group as the electron-donor portion was investigated within the nano-heterogeneous media provided by some micellar systems. The molecule was studied by stationary and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in spherical micellar solutions and viscoelastic hydrogels, in order to throw light on the role played by twisting in its excited state deactivation. As proven by femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion and transient absorption experiments, the excited state dynamics of the molecule is ruled by charge transfer and twisting processes, which, from the locally excited (LE) state initially populated upon excitation, progressively lead to twisted (TICT) and planar (PICT) intramolecular charge transfer states. The inclusion within micellar aggregates was found to slow down and/or limit the rotation of the molecule with respect to what had previously been observed in water, while its confinement within the hydrophobic domains of the gel matrixes prevents any molecular torsion. The increasing viscosity of the medium, when passing from water to micellar systems, implies that the detected steady-state fluorescence comes from an excited state which is not fully relaxed, as is the case with the TICT state in micelles or the LE state in hydrogels, where the detected emission changes its usual orange colour to yellow. PMID:26982966

  20. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  1. Criteria for selecting fluorescent dye tracers for soil hydrological applications using Uranine as an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calibrating and verifying 2-D and 3-D vadose zone flow and transport models requires detailed information on water and solute redistribution. Among the different water flow and mass transfer determination methods, staining tracers have the best spatial resolution allowing visuali...

  2. Development of indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels was developed on 96-well plates for the identification and quantification of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in aqueous samples. A hapten, 2,4,2'-tribromodiphenyl ether-4’-aldehyde was sy...

  3. Development of a pH sensor based on a nanostructured filter adding pH-sensitive fluorescent dye for detecting acetic acid in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takashi; Itayama, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Iwami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Hara, Yukiko; Masuda, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid formed via the hydrolysis of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as an encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules causes a decrease in the conversion efficiency of such modules by grid corrosion. Here, a nondestructive and simple optical method for evaluating the condition of PV modules is proposed. This method uses a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye to detect acetic acid in PV modules using a change in pH. The change in pH induced by the formation of acetic acid is detected by the change in the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of two peaks of the dye. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye showed sensitivity for small amounts of acetic acid such as that produced from EVA. Furthermore, a membrane filter dyed with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye was confirmed to detect acetic acid in aged EVA after a damp-heat test (85 °C, 85%) for 5000 h in PV modules.

  4. Structure, Dynamic and Photophysical Properties of a Fluorescent Dye Incorporated in an Amorphous Hydrophobic Polymer Bundle

    PubMed Central

    De Mitri, N.; Monti, S.; Barone, V.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a low molecular weight organic dye, namely 4-naphtoyloxy-1-methoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, covalently bound to an apolar polyolefin are investigated by means of a multi-level approach, combining classical molecular dynamics simulations, based on an purposely parameterized force fields, and quantum mechanical calculations, based on density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT). The structure and dynamics of the dye in its embedding medium is analyzed and discussed in the light of the entangling effect of the surrounding polymer, also by comparing it to the results obtained for a different environment, i.e. toluene solution. The influence on photophysical properties of long lived cages, found in the polymeric embedding is eventually investigated in terms of slow and fast dye’s internal dynamics, by comparing computed IR and UV spectra with their experimental counterparts. PMID:24988373

  5. Oxygen-dependent photochemistry of fluorescent dyes studied at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Alois; Seelig, Johannes; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    We perform wide-field microscopy to investigate the photobleaching of organic fluorophores embedded in the polymeric host PMMA. Our experimental arrangement facilitates the comparison between the ensemble and single molecule data. We characterize the photostability of dye molecules of various families by measuring the 'bleaching number', defined as the average number of photons a molecule emits until photobleaching occurs. In particular, we have analysed the dependence of the bleaching number on the presence of oxygen. Surprisingly, we find an improvement of photostability in the presence of oxygen for ionic dyes (DiI, TMR, Rh6G, Alexa 546), suggesting that oxygen quenches the photoactive triplet state, but it only indirectly contributes to photochemistry. In contrast, we observe that photobleaching of the aromatic hydrocarbon is strongly enhanced by oxygen.

  6. Monitoring of the membrane potential in proteoliposomes with incorporated cytochrome-c oxidase using the fluorescent dye indocyanine.

    PubMed

    Ivashchuk-Kienbaum, Y A

    1996-06-01

    A method has been developed to monitor changes of the membrane potential across vesicle membranes in real time. Using the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye indocyanine and on the basis of a water/lipid redistribution model, a calculation procedure has been introduced to estimate the membrane potential in vesicles with incorporated cytochrome-c oxidase. Physical parameters, such as vesicle size distribution and density of the lipid bilayer were estimated and used as calculation parameters. By extrapolation of the transient potential change to zero time, the initial rate of the potential change (dU/dt) could be calculated. It is also shown, that the initial potential change (dU/dt) may be used to study the proton/electron stoichiometry of cytochrome-c oxidase incorporated in the vesicles. PMID:8661512

  7. Spicy SDS-PAGE gels: curcumin/turmeric as an environment-friendly protein stain.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Dorri, Yaser; Scofield, R Hal

    2012-01-01

    Gel proteins are commonly stained with calorimetric/fluorescent dyes. Here, we demonstrate that heat-solubilized curcumin can serve as a nontoxic and environment-friendly fluorescent/colorimetric reversible protein stain. Curcumin, the yellow pigment found in the rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa (turmeric), is insoluble in aqueous solvents. However, heat (100°C) solubilization in water renders 1.5% of curcumin soluble. Curcumin solubilized by ethanol or alkali is ineffective in staining proteins. Heat solubilized curry spice turmeric stains proteins similarly. Staining is achieved in 30 min, with a sensitivity almost equaling that of Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB). Destaining is not required, and excess curcumin/turmeric can be discarded into the sink. Binding of proteins by silver inhibits curcumin binding, suggesting similarity of protein binding by silver and curcumin. It costs $1.5-2.0 to stain a mini-gel with curcumin, while turmeric costs less than 0.005 cent. CBB staining/destaining costs about 2 cents. However, CBB is toxic and its use necessitates specialized disposal efforts. Curcumin/turmeric, thus, can serve as an ideal nontoxic protein stain. PMID:22585522

  8. Laser therapy in plastic surgery: decolorization in port wine stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Wolf, Leszek

    1996-03-01

    For the first time laserotherapy is described as a method of port wine stain decolorization in plastic surgery. The authors present their 20-year experience in the treatment of port wine stains with the argon laser and dye laser.

  9. Synthesis of fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles for target-cell-specific delivery and intracellular microRNA imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Henan; Mu, Yawen; Qian, Shanshan; Lu, Jusheng; Wan, Yakun; Fu, Guodong; Liu, Songqin

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is found to be up-regulated in many kinds of cancer and therefore is classified as an oncomiR. Herein, we design a multifunctional fluorescent nanoprobe (FSiNP-AS/MB) with the AS1411 aptamer and a molecular beacon (MB) co-immobilized on the surface of the fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles (FSiNPs) for target-cell-specific delivery and intracellular miRNA imaging. The FSiNPs were prepared by a facile reverse microemulsion method from tetraethoxysilane and silane derivatized coumarin that was previously synthesized by click chemistry. The as-prepared FSiNPs possess uniform size distribution, good optical stability and biocompatibility. In addition, there is a remarkable affinity interaction between the AS1411 aptamer and the nucleolin protein on the cancer cell surface. Thus, a target-cell-specific delivery system by the FSiNP-AS/MB is proposed for effectively transferring a MB into the cancer cells to recognize the target miRNA. Using miRNA-21 in MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line) as a model, the proposed multifunctional nanosystems not only allow target-cell-specific delivery with the binding affinity of AS1411, but also can track simultaneously the transfected cells and detect intracellular miRNA in situ. The proposed multifunctional nanosystems are a promising platform for a highly sensitive luminescent nonviral vector in biomedical and clinical research. PMID:25417796

  10. Application of a fluorescent dual stain to assess decontamination of tissue protein and prion amyloid from surgical stainless steel during simulated washer-disinfector cycles.

    PubMed

    Howlin, R P; Khammo, N; Secker, T; McDonnell, G; Keevil, C W

    2010-05-01

    Current World Health Organization guidelines pertaining to the reprocessing of surgical instruments in the face of potential iatrogenic transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) are incompatible for the vast majority of devices. This has led to the advent of a range of new decontamination measures. Even without the implementation of these new procedures, the incidence of proven iCJD through surgery remains low. In this study, existing decontamination processes in sterile service departments have been evaluated using simulated washer-disinfector cycles on surgical grade stainless steel wires inoculated with ME7 scrapie homogenate. The consequence of varying the soil drying times and choice of cycle pre-treatment on prion removal were evaluated. Assessment of residual contamination at each cycle phase was carried out with the application of a sensitive fluorescent staining procedure to identify both total protein and prion-associated amyloid. The study confirmed that immediate reprocessing following contamination was beneficial during the pre-treatment phase with either an enzymatic or pre-soak wetting agent. Final total protein levels at the end of the cycles, were not significantly different from those where the soil was allowed to dry. In addition, cycles involving a pre-treatment with either an enzymatic cleaner or pre-soak, whether the soil was allowed to dry or not, showed complete removal of detectable prion amyloid. The results suggest that current decontamination procedures, combined with immediate processing of surgical instruments, have the potential to be highly effective alone at reducing the risk of surgical transmission of CJD. PMID:20303614

  11. Detection of Legionella species in reclaimed water and air with the EnviroAmp Legionella PCR kit and direct fluorescent antibody staining.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C J; Bonilla, G F; Roll, B; Paszko-Kolva, C; Sangermano, L R; Fujioka, R S

    1995-01-01

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for areas with inadequate water supplies. However, there have been few studies on the variety of microorganisms found in this type of water, since typically reclaimed water is examined only for the presence of coliform bacteria. Many microorganisms, including the legionellae, are known to be more resistant to chlorine than are coliform bacteria. Previously, we detected > 10(3) Legionella cells per ml in primary and secondary sewage effluents and observed no significant reduction in population numbers throughout the treatment process. In this study, we detected Legionella spp. in chlorinated effluent by using an EnviroAmp Legionella PCR kit and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining. However, we were not able to isolate Legionella spp. from either natural or seeded reclaimed water samples. This suggests that the Legionella spp. detected by the PCR and DFA methods may be injured or viable but nonculturable after exposure to the high residual chlorine levels typically found in this type of water source. The numbers of coliform bacteria were low (< 2 cells per 100 ml) in most reclaimed water samples and were not correlated with the presence or absence of Legionella spp. We also collected air samples from above a secondary aeration basin and analyzed them by using the PCR, DFA, and plate culture methods. Legionella spp. were detected in the air obtained from above the secondary basin with all three methods. We concluded that the PCR was superior to the culture and DFA methods for detecting Legionella spp. in environmental water samples. PMID:7574578

  12. Fluorimetry of mitochondria in cells vitally stained with DASPMI or rhodamine 6 GO.

    PubMed

    Bereiter-Hahn, J; Seipel, K H; Vöth, M; Ploem, J S

    1983-10-01

    The fluorescent dyes DASPMI and rhodamine 6 GO specifically stain mitochondria in living cells. Dye concentrations from 10(-8) to 5 X 10(-6) mole l-1 can be used. Excitation and emission spectra, and quantum efficiency of DASPMI depend on solvent characteristics. Spectra of mitochondria in living cells correspond to those in phospholipids (excitation around 470 nm, emission 560-570 nm). Fluorescence intensity of DASPMI is a measure for the energization of mitochondria, as revealed by in vitro studies. In living cells uptake of the dye is strongly influenced by inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation (i.e. by oligomycin, FCCP). Distribution of fluorescence intensity indicates an intracellular gradient in energy load of endothelial cells. Single mitochondria exhibit oscillations in fluorescence. Mitochondria loaded with DASPMI release the dye suddenly into the cytoplasm on treatment with FCCP. Cyanide and antimycin however, do not diminish fluorescence in vivo under optimal nutritional conditions, while they do so in mitochondrial suspension, indicating different mitochondrial behaviour in vivo and in suspension. PMID:6205786

  13. Fluorescent Dye-doped Sol-gel Sensor for Highly Sensitive Carbon Dioxide Gas Detection below Atmospheric Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce N.; Jin, Jun; Mechery, Shelly J; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Owens, Thomas W; Yu, Bi Dan; Goswami, Kisholoy; Hong, Kunlun; Grant, Joseph; Xue, Ziling {nmn}

    2009-01-01

    Optical fluorescence sol-gel sensors have been developed for the detection of carbon dioxide gas in the 0.03?30% range with a detection limit of 0.008% (or 80 ppm) and a quantitation limit of 0.02% (or 200 ppm) CO{sub 2}. Sol?gels were spin-coated on glass slides to create an organically modified silica-doped matrix with the 1-hydroxypyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (HPTS) fluorescent indicator. The luminescence intensity of the HPTS indicator (513 nm) is quenched by CO{sub 2}, which protonates the anionic form of HPTS. An ion pair technique was used to incorporate the lipophilic dye into the hydrophilic sol?gel matrix. TiO{sub 2} particles (<5 {mu}m diameter) were added to induce Mie scattering and increase the incident light interaction with the sensing film, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Moisture-proof overcoatings have been used to maintain a constant level of water inside the sensor films. The optical sensors are inexpensive to prepare and can be easily coupled to fiber optics for remote sensing capabilities. A fiber-optic bundle was used for the gas detection and shown to work as part of a multianalyte platform for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The studies reported here resulted in the development of sol?gel optical fluorescent sensors for CO{sub 2} gas with sensitivity below that in the atmosphere (ca. 387 ppm). These sensors are a complementary approach to current FT-IR measurements for real-time carbon dioxide detection in environmental applications.

  14. A Transient Diffusion Model Yields Unitary Gap Junctional Permeabilities from Images of Cell-to-Cell Fluorescent Dye Transfer Between Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Johannes M.; Chang, Hou-Chien; Weber, Paul A.; Nicholson, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    As ubiquitous conduits for intercellular transport and communication, gap junctional pores have been the subject of numerous investigations aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying permeability and selectivity. Dye transfer studies provide a broadly useful means of detecting coupling and assessing these properties. However, given evidence for selective permeability of gap junctions and some anomalous correlations between junctional electrical conductance and dye permeability by passive diffusion, the need exists to give such studies a more quantitative basis. This article develops a detailed diffusion model describing experiments (reported separately) involving transport of fluorescent dye from a “donor” region to an “acceptor” region within a pair of Xenopus oocytes coupled by gap junctions. Analysis of transport within a single oocyte is used to determine the diffusion and binding characteristics of the cellular cytoplasm. Subsequent double-cell calculations then yield the intercellular junction permeability, which is translated into a single-channel permeability using concomitant measurements of intercellular conductance, and known single-channel conductances of gap junctions made up of specific connexins, to count channels. The preceding strategy, combined with use of a graded size series of Alexa dyes, permits a determination of absolute values of gap junctional permeability as a function of dye size and connexin type. Interpretation of the results in terms of pore theory suggests significant levels of dye-pore affinity consistent with the expected order of magnitude of typical (e.g., van der Waals) intermolecular attractions. PMID:15041648

  15. Improved Tracking and Resolution of Bacteria in Holographic Microscopy Using Dye and Fluorescent Protein Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Jay L.; Cho, Yong Bin; Kühn, Jonas; Liewer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is an emerging imaging technique that permits instantaneous capture of a relatively large sample volume. However, large volumes usually come at the expense of lower spatial resolution, and the technique has rarely been used with prokaryotic cells due to their small size and low contrast. In this paper we demonstrate the use of a Mach-Zehnder dual-beam instrument for imaging of labeled and unlabeled bacteria and microalgae. Spatial resolution of 0.3 μm is achieved, providing a sampling of several pixels across a typical prokaryotic cell. Both cellular motility and morphology are readily recorded. The use of dyes provides both amplitude and phase contrast improvement and is of use to identify cells in dense samples.

  16. High-precision recording of the action potential in isolated cardiomyocytes using the near-infrared fluorescent dye di-4-ANBDQBS

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Kenneth W.; Steadman, Bruce W.; Rees, Tyler D.; Venable, Paul; Taylor, Tyson; Shibayama, Junko; Yan, Ping; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Zaitsev, Alexey V.

    2010-01-01

    The use of voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes (VSD) for noninvasive measurement of the action potential (AP) in isolated cells has been hindered by low-photon yield of the preparation, dye toxicity, and photodynamic damage. Here we used a new red-shifted VSD, di-4-ANBDQBS, and a fast electron-multiplied charge-coupled device camera for optical AP (OAP) recording in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Loading di-4-ANBDQBS did not alter APs recorded with micropipette. With short laser exposures (just enough to record one OAP every 1–5 min), di-4-ANBDQBS yielded fluorescent signals with very high signal-to-background ratios (change in fluorescence on depolarization/fluorescence at resting potential: 19.2 ± 4.1%) and signal-to-noise ratios (40 ± 13.2). Quantum chemical calculations comparing the ANBDQ chromophore to the conventional ANEP chromophore showed that the higher wavelength and the greater voltage sensitivity of the former have the same electro-optical origin: a longer path for electron redistribution in the excited state. OAP closely tracked simultaneously recorded electrical APs, permitting measurement of AP duration within 1% error. Prolonged laser exposure caused progressive AP duration prolongation and instability. However, these effects were alleviated or abolished by reducing the dye concentration and by perfusion with antioxidants. Thus the presented technique provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive AP recording in single cardiomyocytes. PMID:20601458

  17. High-precision recording of the action potential in isolated cardiomyocytes using the near-infrared fluorescent dye di-4-ANBDQBS.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mark; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Steadman, Bruce W; Rees, Tyler D; Venable, Paul; Taylor, Tyson; Shibayama, Junko; Yan, Ping; Wuskell, Joseph P; Loew, Leslie M; Zaitsev, Alexey V

    2010-10-01

    The use of voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes (VSD) for noninvasive measurement of the action potential (AP) in isolated cells has been hindered by low-photon yield of the preparation, dye toxicity, and photodynamic damage. Here we used a new red-shifted VSD, di-4-ANBDQBS, and a fast electron-multiplied charge-coupled device camera for optical AP (OAP) recording in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Loading di-4-ANBDQBS did not alter APs recorded with micropipette. With short laser exposures (just enough to record one OAP every 1-5 min), di-4-ANBDQBS yielded fluorescent signals with very high signal-to-background ratios (change in fluorescence on depolarization/fluorescence at resting potential: 19.2 4.1%) and signal-to-noise ratios (40 13.2). Quantum chemical calculations comparing the ANBDQ chromophore to the conventional ANEP chromophore showed that the higher wavelength and the greater voltage sensitivity of the former have the same electro-optical origin: a longer path for electron redistribution in the excited state. OAP closely tracked simultaneously recorded electrical APs, permitting measurement of AP duration within 1% error. Prolonged laser exposure caused progressive AP duration prolongation and instability. However, these effects were alleviated or abolished by reducing the dye concentration and by perfusion with antioxidants. Thus the presented technique provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive AP recording in single cardiomyocytes. PMID:20601458

  18. “Turn-On” Protein Fluorescence: In Situ Formation of Cyanine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein reengineering of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII) has yielded a genetically addressable system, capable of binding a profluorophoric chromophore that results in fluorescent protein/chromophore complexes. These complexes exhibit far-red emission, with high quantum efficiencies and brightness and also exhibit excellent pH stability spanning the range of 2–11. In the course of this study, it became evident that single mutations of L121E and R59W were most effective in improving the fluorescent characteristics of CRABPII mutants as well as the kinetics of complex formation. The readily crystallizable nature of these proteins was invaluable to provide clues for the observed spectroscopic behavior that results from single mutation of key residues. PMID:25534273

  19. "Turn-on" protein fluorescence: in situ formation of cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Yapici, Ipek; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Berbasova, Tetyana; Nosrati, Meisam; Jia, Xiaofei; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Wang, Wenjing; Santos, Elizabeth M; Geiger, James H; Borhan, Babak

    2015-01-28

    Protein reengineering of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII) has yielded a genetically addressable system, capable of binding a profluorophoric chromophore that results in fluorescent protein/chromophore complexes. These complexes exhibit far-red emission, with high quantum efficiencies and brightness and also exhibit excellent pH stability spanning the range of 2-11. In the course of this study, it became evident that single mutations of L121E and R59W were most effective in improving the fluorescent characteristics of CRABPII mutants as well as the kinetics of complex formation. The readily crystallizable nature of these proteins was invaluable to provide clues for the observed spectroscopic behavior that results from single mutation of key residues. PMID:25534273

  20. Measurement method for photoluminescent quantum yields of fluorescent organic dyes in polymethyl methacrylate for luminescent solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L R; Richards, B S

    2009-01-10

    A method for measuring the photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQY) of luminescent organic dyes is presented. The self-absorption probability calculated at different dye concentrations is used to determine the absolute quantum yield from the observed values. The results for a range of commercially available dyes show high quantum yields, even at high concentrations, and an absence of quenching. The PLQY of several dye mixtures are also presented. The results indicate an absence of any reduction of PLQY in a dye mixture as compared with the individual PLQY of the dyes. PMID:19137031

  1. Development of highly fluorescent silica nanoparticles chemically doped with organic dye for sensitive DNA microarray detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aihua; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-10-01

    Increasing the sensitivity in DNA microarray hybridization can significantly enhance the capability of microarray technology for a wide range of research and clinical diagnostic applications, especially for those with limited sample biomass. To address this issue, using reverse microemulsion method and surface chemistry, a novel class of homogenous, photostable, highly fluorescent streptavidin-functionalized silica nanoparticles was developed, in which Alexa Fluor 647 (AF647) molecules were covalently embedded. The coating of bovine serum albumin on the resultant fluorescent particles can greatly eliminate nonspecific background signal interference. The thus-synthesized fluorescent nanoparticles can specifically recognize biotin-labeled target DNA hybridized to the microarray via streptavidin-biotin interaction. The response of this DNA microarray technology exhibited a linear range within 0.2 to 10 pM complementary DNA and limit of detection of 0.1 pM, enhancing microarray hybridization sensitivity over tenfold. This promising technology may be potentially applied to other binding events such as specific interactions between proteins. PMID:21822973

  2. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  3. Retrograde Labeling of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Adult Zebrafish with Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Su-Qi; Tian, Chen; Du, Su-Tie; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    As retrograde labeling retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can isolate RGCs somata from dying sites, it has become the gold standard for counting RGCs in RGCs survival and regeneration experiments. Many studies have been performed in mammalian animals to research RGCs survival after optic nerve injury. However, retrograde labeling of RGCs in adult zebrafish has not yet been reported, though some alternative methods can count cell numbers in retinal ganglion cell layers (RGCL). Considering the small size of the adult zebrafish skull and the high risk of death after drilling on the skull, we open the skull with the help of acid-etching and seal the hole with a light curing bond, which could significantly improve the survival rate. After absorbing the dyes for 5 days, almost all the RGCs are labeled. As this method does not need to transect the optic nerve, it is irreplaceable in the research of RGCs survival after optic nerve crush in adult zebrafish. Here, we introduce this method step by step and provide representative results. PMID:24837333

  4. A simple system for the identification of fluorescent dyes capable of reporting differences in secondary structure and hydrophobicity among amyloidogenic protein oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Thioflavin T and Congo Red are fluorescent dyes that are commonly used to identify the presence of amyloid structures, ordered protein aggregates. Despite the ubiquity of their use, little is known about their mechanism of interaction with amyloid fibrils, or whether other dyes, whose photophysics indicate that they may be more responsive to differences in macromolecular secondary structure and hydrophobicity, would be better suited to the identification of pathologically relevant oligomeric species in amyloid diseases. In order to systematically address this question, we have designed a strategy that discretely introduces differences in secondary structure and hydrophobicity amidst otherwise identical polyamino acids. This strategy will enable us to quantify and compare the affinities of Thioflavin T, Congo Red, and other, incompletely explored, fluorescent dyes for different secondary structural elements and hydrophobic motifs. With this information, we will identify dyes that give the most robust and quantitative information about structural differences among the complex population of oligomeric species present along an aggregation pathway between soluble monomers and amyloid fibrils, and correlate the resulting structural information with differential oligomeric toxicity.

  5. Label-free and sensitive fluorescence detection of nucleic acid, based on combination of a graphene oxid /SYBR green I dye platform and polymerase assisted signal amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao; Xing, Da

    2012-12-01

    A new label-free isothermal fluorescence amplification detection for nucleic acid has been developed. In this paper, we first developed a novel sensitive and specific detection platform with an unmodified hairpin probe (HP) combination of the graphene oxid (GO)/ SYBR green I dye (SG), which was relied on the selective principle of adsorption and the high quenching efficiency of GO. Then for the application of this new strategy, we used Mirco RNA-21 (Mir-21) as the target to evaluate this working principle of our design. When the target was hybridizing with the HP and inducing its conformation of change, an efficient isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction was activating to assist the first signal amplification. In this format, the formed complex conformation of DNA would interact with its high affinity dye, then detached from the surface of GO after incubating with the platform of GO/intercalating dye. This reaction would accompany with obvious fluorescence recovery, and accomplish farther signal enhancement by a mass of intercalating dye inserting into the minor groove of the long duplex replication product. By taking advantage of the multiple amplification of signal, this method exerted substantial enhancement in sensitivity and could be used for rapid and selective detection of Mir-21 with attomole range. It is expected that this cost-effective GO based sensor might hold considerable potential to apply in bioanalysis studies.

  6. Complexation induced fluorescence and acid-base properties of dapoxyl dye with γ-cyclodextrin: a drug-binding application using displacement assays.

    PubMed

    Pal, Kaushik; Mallick, Suman; Koner, Apurba L

    2015-06-28

    Host-guest complexation of dapoxyl sodium sulphonate (DSS), an intramolecular charge transfer dye with water-soluble and non-toxic macrocycle γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), has been investigated in a wide pH range. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements confirm the positioning of DSS into the hydrophobic cavity of γ-CD. A large fluorescence enhancement ca. 30 times, due to 1 : 2 complex formation and host-assisted guest-protonation have been utilised for developing a method for the utilisation of CD based drug-delivery applications. A simple fluorescence-displacement based approach is implemented at physiological pH for the assessment of binding strength of pharmaceutically useful small drug molecules (ibuprofen, paracetamol, methyl salicylate, salicylic acid, aspirin, and piroxicam) and six important antibiotic drugs (resazurin, thiamphenicol, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, and sorbic acid) with γ-CD. PMID:26028009

  7. Integrating fluorescent dye flow-curve testing and acoustic Doppler velocimetry profiling for in situ hydraulic evaluation and improvement of clarifier performance.

    PubMed

    Tarud, F; Aybar, M; Pizarro, G; Cienfuegos, R; Pastén, P

    2010-08-01

    Enhancing the performance of clarifiers requires a thorough understanding of their hydraulics. Fluorescence spectroscopy and acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) profiling generally have been used separately to evaluate secondary settlers. We propose that simultaneous use of these techniques is needed to obtain a more reliable and useful evaluation. Experiments were performed on laboratory- and full-scale clarifiers. Factors affecting Fluorescein and Rhodamine 6G properties were identified. Underestimations up to 500% in fluorescence intensities may be derived from differential fluorescence quenching by oxygen. A careful control and interpretation of fluorescent dye experiments is needed to minimize artifacts in real settings. While flow-curve tests constructed under controlled conditions provided a more accurate overall quantitative estimation of the hydraulic performance, ADV velocity and turbulence profiling provided a detailed spatial understanding of flow patterns that was used to troubleshoot and fix the causes of hydraulic short-circuits. PMID:20853746

  8. Efficient enzymatic synthesis and dual-colour fluorescent labelling of DNA probes using long chain azido-dUTP and BCN dyes

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaomei; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2016-01-01

    A sterically undemanding azide analogue of dTTP (AHP dUTP) with an alkyl chain and ethynyl attachment to the nucleobase was designed and incorporated into DNA by primer extension, reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An azide-modified 523 bp PCR amplicon with all 335 thymidines replaced by AHP dU was shown to be a perfect copy of the template from which it was amplified. Replacement of thymidine with AHP dU increases duplex stability, accounting in part for the high incorporation efficiency of the azide-modified triphosphate. Single-stranded azide-labelled DNA was conveniently prepared from PCR products by λ-exonuclease digestion and streptavidin magnetic bead isolation. Efficient fluorescent labelling of single and double-stranded DNA was carried out using dyes functionalized with bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yne (BCN) via the strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction. This revealed that the degree of labelling must be carefully controlled to achieve optimum fluorescence and avoid fluorescence quenching. Dual-coloured probes were obtained in a single tube fluorescent labelling reaction; and varying the ratios of the two dyes provides a simple method to prepare DNA probes with unique fluorescent signatures. AHP dUTP is a versatile clickable nucleotide with potentially wide applications in biology and nanotechnology including single molecule studies and synthesis of modified aptamer libraries via SELEX. PMID:26819406

  9. Efficient enzymatic synthesis and dual-colour fluorescent labelling of DNA probes using long chain azido-dUTP and BCN dyes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaomei; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2016-05-01

    A sterically undemanding azide analogue of dTTP (AHP dUTP) with an alkyl chain and ethynyl attachment to the nucleobase was designed and incorporated into DNA by primer extension, reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An azide-modified 523 bp PCR amplicon with all 335 thymidines replaced by AHP dU was shown to be a perfect copy of the template from which it was amplified. Replacement of thymidine with AHP dU increases duplex stability, accounting in part for the high incorporation efficiency of the azide-modified triphosphate. Single-stranded azide-labelled DNA was conveniently prepared from PCR products by λ-exonuclease digestion and streptavidin magnetic bead isolation. Efficient fluorescent labelling of single and double-stranded DNA was carried out using dyes functionalized with bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yne (BCN) via the strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction. This revealed that the degree of labelling must be carefully controlled to achieve optimum fluorescence and avoid fluorescence quenching. Dual-coloured probes were obtained in a single tube fluorescent labelling reaction; and varying the ratios of the two dyes provides a simple method to prepare DNA probes with unique fluorescent signatures. AHP dUTP is a versatile clickable nucleotide with potentially wide applications in biology and nanotechnology including single molecule studies and synthesis of modified aptamer libraries via SELEX. PMID:26819406

  10. Quantitative evaluation of in vivo vital-dye fluorescence endoscopic imaging for the detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Rosen, Daniel G.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-05-01

    Current imaging tools are associated with inconsistent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Optical imaging has shown promise in improving the classification of neoplasia in vivo. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether in vivo vital dye fluorescence imaging (VFI) has the potential to improve the accuracy of early-detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. In vivo endoscopic VFI images were collected from 65 sites in 14 patients with confirmed Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplasia, or esophageal adenocarcinoma using a modular video endoscope and a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME). Qualitative image features were compared to histology; VFI and HRME images show changes in glandular structure associated with neoplastic progression. Quantitative image features in VFI images were identified for objective image classification of metaplasia and neoplasia, and a diagnostic algorithm was developed using leave-one-out cross validation. Three image features extracted from VFI images were used to classify tissue as neoplastic or not with a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 77.6% (AUC=0.878). A multimodal approach incorporating VFI and HRME imaging can delineate epithelial changes present in Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Quantitative analysis of VFI images may provide a means for objective interpretation of BE during surveillance.

  11. A method for the general identification of protein crystals in crystallization experiments using a noncovalent fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Groves, Matthew R; Müller, Ingrid B; Kreplin, Xandra; Müller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2007-04-01

    A technique is described whereby the addition of low concentrations (millimolar to micromolar) of the fluorescent dye 1,8-ANS to the protein solution prior to crystallization results in crystallization experiments in which protein crystals are strongly contrasted above background artifacts when exposed to low-intensity UV radiation. As 1,8-ANS does not covalently modify the protein sample, no further handling or purification steps are necessary. The system has been tested on a wide variety of protein samples and it has been shown that the addition of 1,8-ANS has no discernible effect on the crystallization frequencies or crystallization conditions of these proteins. As 1,8-ANS interacts with a wide variety of proteins, this is proposed to be a general solution for the automated classification of protein crystallization images and the detection of protein crystals. The results also demonstrate the expected discrimination between salt and protein crystals, as well as allowing the straightforward identification of small crystals that grow in precipitate or under a protein skin. PMID:17372358

  12. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the Cy7 molecule whose indolenine-N residues were substituted with a propylene linker are described. Methylating agent temozolomide is functionalized with a tetrazine as a diene component whereas Cy7-cell penetrating peptide conjugate acts as a dienophilic reaction partner for the inverse Diels-Alder click chemistry-mediated ligation route yielding a theranostic conjugate, 3-mercapto-propionic-cyclohexenyl-Cy7-bis-temozolomide-bromide-cell penetrating peptide. Synthesis route described here may facilitate targeted delivery of the therapeutic compound to achieve sufficient local concentrations at the target site or tissue. Its versatility allows a choice of adequate imaging tags applicable in e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, near-infrared imaging, and therapeutic substances including cytotoxic agents. Imaging tags and therapeutics may be simultaneously bound to the conjugate applying click chemistry. Theranostic compound presented here offers a solid basis for a further improvement of cancer management in a precise, patient-specific manner. PMID:26722379

  13. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the Cy7 molecule whose indolenine-N residues were substituted with a propylene linker are described. Methylating agent temozolomide is functionalized with a tetrazine as a diene component whereas Cy7-cell penetrating peptide conjugate acts as a dienophilic reaction partner for the inverse Diels-Alder click chemistry-mediated ligation route yielding a theranostic conjugate, 3-mercapto-propionic-cyclohexenyl-Cy7-bis-temozolomide-bromide-cell penetrating peptide. Synthesis route described here may facilitate targeted delivery of the therapeutic compound to achieve sufficient local concentrations at the target site or tissue. Its versatility allows a choice of adequate imaging tags applicable in e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, near-infrared imaging, and therapeutic substances including cytotoxic agents. Imaging tags and therapeutics may be simultaneously bound to the conjugate applying click chemistry. Theranostic compound presented here offers a solid basis for a further improvement of cancer management in a precise, patient-specific manner. PMID:26722379

  14. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  15. The use of vitamins as tracer dyes for laser-induced fluorescence in liquid flow applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zähringer, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Tracers commonly used in experimental flow studies are mostly nocuous to the environment and human health. Particularly, in large flow installations, this can become a problem. In this study, a solution of this problem is presented, based on using water-soluble vitamins. Five of them are examined here for their applicability in flow studies. Vitamins B2 and B6 turned out to be the most promising candidates, and the dependency of their fluorescence intensity on parameters like concentration, laser energy, temperature, and pH are determined for two commonly used laser excitation wavelengths (532, 355 nm). Two examples of application in a static mixer and a spray flow are shown and demonstrate the applicability of the vitamin tracers.

  16. An imidazole functionalized pentameric thiophene displays different staining patterns in normal and malignant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Peter; Magnusson, Karin; Appelqvist, Hanna; Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Kågedal, Bertil; Jonasson, Jon; Los, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of cells and their components are vital for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report an imidazole functionalized pentameric oligothiophene, p-HTIm, that can be utilized for fluorescent imaging of cells. p-HTIm fluorescence in normal cells appeared in a peripheral punctate pattern partially co-localized with lysosomes, whereas a one-sided perinuclear Golgi associated localization of the dye was observed in malignant cells. The uptake of p-HTIm was temperature dependent and the intracellular target was reached within 1 h after staining. The ability of p-HTIm to stain cells was reduced when the imidazole side chain was chemically altered, verifying that specific imidazole side-chain functionalities are necessary for achieving the observed cellular staining. Our findings confirm that properly functionalized oligothiophenes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells and that the selectivity towards distinct intracellular targets are highly dependent on the side-chain functionalities along the conjugated thiophene backbone.

  17. An imidazole functionalized pentameric thiophene displays different staining patterns in normal and malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Karin; Appelqvist, Hanna; Cieślar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Kågedal, Bertil; Jonasson, Jon A.; Los, Marek J.; Nilsson, K. Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of cells and their components are vital for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report an imidazole functionalized pentameric oligothiophene, p-HTIm, that can be utilized for fluorescent imaging of cells. p-HTIm fluorescence in normal cells appeared in a peripheral punctate pattern partially co-localized with lysosomes, whereas a one-sided perinuclear Golgi associated localization of the dye was observed in malignant cells. The uptake of p-HTIm was temperature dependent and the intracellular target was reached within 1 h after staining. The ability of p-HTIm to stain cells was reduced when the imidazole side chain was chemically altered, verifying that specific imidazole side-chain functionalities are necessary for achieving the observed cellular staining. Our findings confirm that properly functionalized oligothiophenes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells and that the selectivity toward distinct intracellular targets are highly dependent on the side-chain functionalities along the conjugated thiophene backbone. PMID:26501054

  18. An imidazole functionalized pentameric thiophene displays different staining patterns in normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Karin; Appelqvist, Hanna; Cie?lar-Pobuda, Artur; Bck, Marcus; Kgedal, Bertil; Jonasson, Jon A; Los, Marek J; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of cells and their components are vital for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report an imidazole functionalized pentameric oligothiophene, p-HTIm, that can be utilized for fluorescent imaging of cells. p-HTIm fluorescence in normal cells appeared in a peripheral punctate pattern partially co-localized with lysosomes, whereas a one-sided perinuclear Golgi associated localization of the dye was observed in malignant cells. The uptake of p-HTIm was temperature dependent and the intracellular target was reached within 1 h after staining. The ability of p-HTIm to stain cells was reduced when the imidazole side chain was chemically altered, verifying that specific imidazole side-chain functionalities are necessary for achieving the observed cellular staining. Our findings confirm that properly functionalized oligothiophenes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells and that the selectivity toward distinct intracellular targets are highly dependent on the side-chain functionalities along the conjugated thiophene backbone. PMID:26501054

  19. A Novel Styryldehydropyridocolinium Homodimer: Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties Upon Interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huirong; Chang, Lifang; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Xiaojie; He, Song; Liu, Haijun; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-11-01

    A novel homodimer of the styryldehydropyridocolinium dye (TPTP) has been synthesized and characterized. Free TPTP exhibited low fluorescence quantum yield and large Stokes shift (over 160 nm) in water. However, it showed a significant fluorescence turn-on effect upon intercalation into DNA base pairs. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity of the intercalated structures formed by TPTP and DNA decreased quickly upon addition of deoxyribonuclease I, indicating that the dye can be used to monitor deoxyribonuclease I activity and DNA hydrolysis. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the dye had intercalative binding to DNA and can potentially be used for DNA staining in electrophoresis. Thus, the innate nature of large Stokes shift and excellent fluorescence turn on effect upon interaction with DNA endue the dye with a wide range of applications. PMID:26384336

  20. The congo red stain revisited.

    PubMed

    Elghetany, M T; Saleem, A; Barr, K

    1989-01-01

    The Congo red stain has undergone several modifications since it was first used by Bennhold in 1922 in order to increase the specificity for staining amyloid. Most of the laboratories in the United States use the method of Puchtler which uses alkaline Congo red solution. Some of the variables associated with the procedure were investigated by us. Our results showed the following: (1) amyloid showed green birefringence at all levels between 4 to 12 mu thick sections with better visualization of small deposits with increased thickness. Best results were obtained with 8 mu thick sections; (2) omission of the pretreatment with alkaline alcoholic solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) did not affect the sensitivity of the method; (3) the use of polar mounting media had no effect on amyloid and collagen birefringence; (4) 50 percent saturation of the Congo red staining solution with NaCl caused strong staining of collagen, elastic fibers and eosinophilic granules. In addition, collagen showed green birefringence and dichroism and its differentiation from amyloid became difficult; and (5) using the staining solution fully saturated with NaCl, no positive staining was seen with tissues other than amyloid. Collagen and elastic fibers showed red fluorescence which was of less intensity than amyloid. It is our conclusion that the method of Puchtler for detecting amyloid gives better results if the staining solution is fully saturated with NaCl. The pretreatment step may be deleted without compromising the quality of staining. Improved staining of amyloid enhances the specificity of green birefringence, dichroism, and red fluorescence. PMID:2471435

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DFT studies of novel fluorescent dyes: 3-Aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines possessing 4-pyrone moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrisa, Aziz; Safa, Kazem Dindar; Esmati, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines possessing 4-pyrone ring were synthesized by three-component condensation of 4-pyrone carbaldehydes, 2-aminopyridines and isocyanides. Bismuth (III) chloride was used as a catalyst in these reactions and desired products were synthesized in good yields at a very short period of time under solvent free conditions. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of these compounds were investigated. It shown that two of these compounds (10f and 10g) exhibit intense fluorescence in dichloromethane. Optimized ground-state molecular geometries and orbital distributions of these two fluorescent dyes were obtained using density functional theory (DFT). Thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical properties of these compounds were also studied.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DFT studies of novel fluorescent dyes: 3-aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines possessing 4-pyrone moieties.

    PubMed

    Shahrisa, Aziz; Safa, Kazem Dindar; Esmati, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines possessing 4-pyrone ring were synthesized by three-component condensation of 4-pyrone carbaldehydes, 2-aminopyridines and isocyanides. Bismuth (III) chloride was used as a catalyst in these reactions and desired products were synthesized in good yields at a very short period of time under solvent free conditions. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of these compounds were investigated. It shown that two of these compounds (10f and 10g) exhibit intense fluorescence in dichloromethane. Optimized ground-state molecular geometries and orbital distributions of these two fluorescent dyes were obtained using density functional theory (DFT). Thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical properties of these compounds were also studied. PMID:24113013

  3. Standard specimens for stain calibration: application to Romanowsky-Giemsa staining.

    PubMed

    Turner, J N; Weir, B; Collins, D N

    1990-01-01

    Standardized specimens with reproducible staining properties were fabricated from extracts of biological objects (bovine liver, nucleoprotamine and defatted muscle). The standard specimens were stained with two formulations of the Romanowsky-Giemsa stain (RG), using the same azure B and eosin Y. One formulation used methanol and Sorensen's buffer and the other DMSO and Hepes buffer as solvents. The standard specimens were stained either in the composite stain or in the individual dyes dissolved in the same solvents and at the same concentration as the composite stain. Solution spectroscopy demonstrated different spectra for the two formulations with some wavelength regions varying by more than an order of magnitude. The RG spectra were also very different from those of the individual dyes dissolved at the RG concentration in the respective solvents. The stained standard specimens were analyzed by microspectrophotometry and were found to have spectra similar to those of cell smears. Furthermore, the standard specimens were shown to be a repeatable substrate for stain uptake. The transmitted light intensity from random fields of the same standardized specimen varied +/- 5%. When specimens were stained at the same time, the specimen-to-specimen variation depended on preparation conditions and the measurement wavelength, but was as good as +/- 5% for some conditions. The quantitative stain performance of both formulations was studied and compared. The standardized specimens provide a tool for the quantitative study of staining processes and specimen preparation procedures and for stain calibration. PMID:1694314

  4. Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Cyanine Dye J-Aggregates and Its Genesis: Fluorescence Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Valery V; Perelygina, Olga M; Pozin, Sergey I; Mal'tsev, Eugene I; Vannikov, Anatoly V

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphic J-aggregates of monomethine cyanine dye 3,3'-di(?-sulfopropyl)-5,5'-dichlorotiamonomethinecyanine (TC) have been studied by fluorescence optical microscopy (FOM) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in situ FOM observations in a solution drop distinguish two J-aggregate morphology classes: flexible strips and rigid rods. The AFM imaging of dried samples reveals a strong J-aggregate structural rearrangement under adsorption on a mica surface with the strips self-folding and the rods squashing into rectangular bilayers and much deeper destruction. In the present work, the following structural conclusions have been drawn on the basis of careful consideration of strip crystal habits and various structural features of squashed/destructed rods: (1) the tubular morphology of TC rods is directly proved by FOM measurements in the solution bulk; (2) the staircase model of molecular arrangement in strips is proposed explaining the characteristic ?44 skew angle in strip vertices; (3) a model of tube formation by a close-packed helical winding of flexible monolayer strips is proposed and justified which explains the observed J-aggregate polymorphism and strip-to-rod polymorphic transformations in a wide spatiotemporal scale; (4) at a nanoscale, an unexpectedly complex quasi-one-dimensional organization in J-aggregate two-dimensional monolayers is observed by high-resolution AFM imaging of constituent nanostrips separated by a characteristic distance in the range of 6-10 nm. The obtained results indicate that the underlying monolayer structure is the same for all J-aggregate polymorphs. PMID:26488202

  5. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  6. Real-time probing of β-amyloid self-assembly and inhibition using fluorescence self-quenching between neighbouring dyes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Steven D; Dalgarno, Paul A; Cameron, Ryan T; Hedley, Gordon J; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John M; Baillie, George S; Samuel, Ifor D W; Penedo, J Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence response of the Thioflavin-T (ThT) dye and derivatives has become the standard tool for detecting β-amyloid aggregates (Aβ) in solution. However, it is accepted that ThT-based methods suffer from important drawbacks. Some of these are due to the cationic structure of ThT, which limits its application at slightly acidic conditions; whereas some limitations are related to the general use of an extrinsic-dye sensing strategy and its intrinsic requirement for the formation of a sensor-binding site during the aggregation process. Here, we introduce fluorescence-self-quenching (FSQ) between N-terminally tagged peptides as a strategy to overcome some of these limitations. Using a combination of steady-state, picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, we characterize the fluorescence response of HiLyte fluor 555-labelled Aβ peptides and demonstrate that Aβ self-assembly organizes the covalently attached probes in close proximity to trigger the self-quenching sensing process over a broad range of conditions. Importantly, we prove that N-terminal tagging of β-amyloid peptides does not alter the self-assembly kinetics or the resulting aggregated structures. We also tested the ability of FSQ-based methods to monitor the inhibition of Aβ1-42 aggregation using the small heat-shock protein Hsp20 as a model system. Overall, FSQ-based strategies for amyloid-sensing fill the gap between current morphology-specific protocols using extrinsic dyes, and highly-specialized single-molecule techniques that are difficult to implement in high-throughput analytical determinations. When performed in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) format, the method becomes a ratiometric platform to gain insights into amyloid structure and for standardizing in vitro studies of amyloid aggregation. PMID:24170094

  7. New fluorescence reactions in DNA cytochemistry. 2. Microscopic and spectroscopic studies on fluorescent aluminum complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Del Castillo, P.; Llorente, A.R.; Gomez, A.; Gosalvez, J.; Goyanes, V.J.; Stockert, J.C. )

    1990-02-01

    Metal-dye complexes are widely applied in light microscopic techniques for chromatin staining (e.g., hematoxylin and carmine), but fluorescent complexes between phosphate-binding cations and suitable ligands have been little used. Preformed and postformed Al complexes with different anionic dyes induced strong and selective fluorescence reactions in nuclei from chicken blood smears, frozen sections, paraffin-embedded sections and Epon-embedded sections of mouse and rat tissues, mitotic chromosomes, meiotic chromosomes and kinetoplasts of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. The DNA-dependent fluorescence of these structures showed a very low fading rate. The emission colors were related to the ligand. The most suitable compounds for forming fluorescent Al chelates were 8-hydroxyquinoline, morin, nuclear fast red and purpurin. Staining with diluted carmine solutions and InCl3 mordanting, followed by 8-hydroxyquinoline, also induced chromatin fluorescence. After treating isolated mouse chromosomes with the preformed complex Al-nuclear fast red, x-ray microanalysis indicated a P:Al:dye binding ratio of about 40:15:1. The selectivity, stability and easy formation of these fluorescent Al complexes are obvious advantages for their use as new cytochemical probes in cytologic studies.

  8. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moment of laser dyes C504T and C521T using solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaraja, Jana; Suresh Kumar, H. M.; Inamdar, S. R.; Wari, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of laser dyes: coumarin 504T (C504T) and coumarin 521T (C521T) have been recorded at room temperature in a series of non-polar and polar solvents. The spectra of these dyes showed bathochromic shift with increasing in solvent polarity indicating the involvement of π → π* transition. Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent parameters were used to analyze the effect of solvents on C504T and C521T molecules. The study reveals that both general solute-solvent interactions and specific interactions are operative in these two systems. The ground state dipole moment was estimated using Guggenheim's method and also by quantum mechanical calculations. The solvatochromic data were used to determine the excited state dipole moment (μe). It is observed that dipole moment value of excited state (μe) is higher than that of the ground state in both the laser dyes indicating that these dyes are more polar in nature in the excited state than in the ground state.

  9. Evaluation of quantum dot immunofluorescence and a digital CMOS imaging system as an alternative to conventional organic fluorescence dyes and laser scanning for quantifying protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aarti; Taghavian, Omid; Vallejo, Derek; Dotsey, Emmanuel; Schwartz, Dan; Bell, Florian G; Greef, Chad; Davies, D Huw; Grudzien, Jennipher; Lee, Abraham P; Felgner, Philip L; Liang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Organic fluorescent dyes are widely used for the visualization of bound antibody in a variety of immunofluorescence assays. However, the detection equipment is often expensive, fragile, and hard to deploy widely. Quantum dots (Qdot) are nanocrystals made of semiconductor materials that emit light at different wavelengths according to the size of the crystal, with increased brightness and stability. Here, we have evaluated a small benchtop "personal" optical imager (ArrayCAM) developed for quantification of protein arrays probed by Qdot-based indirect immunofluorescence. The aim was to determine if the Qdot imager system provides equivalent data to the conventional organic dye-labeled antibody/laser scanner system. To do this, duplicate proteome microarrays of Vaccinia virus, Brucella melitensis and Plasmodium falciparum were probed with identical samples of immune sera, and IgG, IgA, and IgM profiles visualized using biotinylated secondary antibodies followed by a tertiary reagent of streptavidin coupled to either P3 (an organic cyanine dye typically used for microarrays) or Q800 (Qdot). The data show excellent correlation for all samples tested (R > 0.8) with no significant change of antibody reactivity profiles. We conclude that Qdot detection provides data equivalent to that obtained using conventional organic dye detection. The portable imager offers an economical, more robust, and deployable alternative to conventional laser array scanners. PMID:26842269

  10. Stem cell marker upregulation in normal cutaneous vessels following pulsed-dye laser exposure and its abrogation by concurrent rapamycin administration: implications for treatment of port-wine stain birthmarks

    PubMed Central

    Loewe, Robert; Oble, Darryl A.; Valero, Teresa; Zukerberg, Lawrence; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) represent a group of vascular malformations that are usually accompanied by psychological distress for affected patients, often reflected in high treatment demand. Although the pulsed-dye laser (PDL) was established as standard therapy for PWS more than a decade ago, therapeutic outcome may be unsatisfactory. One of the main drawbacks to successful PDL therapy is PWS revascularization shortly after laser exposure. Therefore, inhibition of revascularization should improve therapeutic outcome of PDL therapy. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of various light energies on normal cutaneous vessels over a period of 14 days, particularly the proliferation and stem cell marker expression of dermal endothelial cells, which were found to be highest 8 days following laser exposure. We found that PDL exposure induced dose-dependent damage of dermal vessels up to energy densities of 6 J/cm2, above which no increase in PDL-induced effects were observed with the energies employed in this study. In dermal endothelial cells of PDL-exposed skin, we found strong expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 as well as the stem cell marker nestin but not other stem cell markers such as CD133 and CD166. The influence of rapamycin (RPM), used as an adjuvant to PDL exposure, was also investigated. RPM administration reduced Ki-67 and nestin expression in dermal endothelial cells and increased PDL-induced destruction of dermal vessels, indicating that the use of RPM after PDL exposure may be an interesting new approach for prolonging and improving PWS laser therapeutic outcome. PMID:20482679

  11. Uniform mesoporous dye-doped silica nanoparticles decorated with multiple magnetite nanocrystals for simultaneous enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence imaging, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Nohyun; Kim, Hyoungsu; Kim, Jaeyun; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Taeho; Song, In Chan; Park, Seung Pyo; Moon, Woo Kyung; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2010-01-20

    Highly versatile nanocomposite nanoparticles were synthesized by decorating the surface of mesoporous dye-doped silica nanoparticles with multiple magnetite nanocrystals. The superparamagnetic property of the magnetite nanocrystals enabled the nanoparticles to be used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the dye molecule in the silica framework imparted optical imaging modality. Integrating a multitude of magnetite nanocrystals on the silica surface resulted in remarkable enhancement of MR signal due to the synergistic magnetism. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), could be loaded in the pores and induced efficient cell death. In vivo passive targeting and accumulation of the nanoparticles at the tumor sites was confirmed by both T2 MR and fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, apoptotic morphology was clearly detected in tumor tissues of mice treated with DOX loaded nanocomposite nanoparticles, demonstrating that DOX was successfully delivered to the tumor sites and its anticancer activity was retained. PMID:20017538

  12. Labeling the oily core of nanocapsules and lipid-core nanocapsules with a triglyceride conjugated to a fluorescent dye as a strategy to particle tracking in biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiel, Luana Almeida; Contri, Renata Vidor; Bica, Juliane Freitas; Figueiró, Fabrício; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter ( D 4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) ( z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was detected around the cell nucleus. We demonstrated that the rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride is a promising new material to obtain versatile dye-labeled nanocarriers presenting different chemical nature in their surfaces.

  13. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe.

  14. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange.

    PubMed

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe. PMID:26722674

  15. Influence of dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid on charge transport and luminescent properties of polymer light-emitting diodes with fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Lei; Bera, Debasis; Jin, Zhen-Sheng; Du, Zu-Liang; Xu, Zheng; Teng, Feng; Liu, Wei

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss the influence of dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) on charge transport and luminescent properties of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) doped with fluorescent dye. Photoluminescence results confirm the efficient energy transfer from PVK to 4-(dicyanom-ethylene)-2- t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) and tris-(8-hydroxtquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) in a DNTA-doped device. The device showed lower turn-on voltages and higher charge current by doping with DNTA, which also caused a shift in the exciton's recombination region.

  16. Structurally Rigid 9-Amino-benzo[c]cinnoliniums Make Up a Class of Compact and Large Stokes-Shift Fluorescent Dyes for Cell-Based Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanming; Shang, Zhihao; Yang, Yanhong; Zhu, Shaojia; Qian, Xuhong; Shi, Ping; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Youjun

    2015-06-01

    Classic fluorescent dyes, such as coumarin, naphthalimide, fluorescein, BODIPY, rhodamine, and cyanines, are cornerstones of various spectroscopic and microscopic methods, which hold a prominent position in biological studies. We recently found that 9-amino-benzo[c]cinnoliniums make up a novel group of fluorophores that can be used in biological studies. They are featured with a succinct conjugative push-pull backbone, a broad absorption band, and a large Stokes shift. They are potentially useful as a small-molecule alternative to R-phycoerythrin to pair with fluorescein in multiplexing applications. PMID:25951429

  17. A novel, simple and efficient dye laser with low amplified spontaneous emission background for analytical fluorescence and ionization spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, Oleg I.; Omenetto, Nicolo'

    1995-04-01

    A new, simple, compact and efficient, grazing- incidence type of dye laser is suggested which has a low level of Amplified Spontaneous Emission. By using a Coumarin dye (LD 5000) pumped with a 20 mJ XeCl excimer laser, and a diffraction grating with 3000 grooves/mm, an efficiency of 11%, a spectral bandwidth of 0.6 cm{sup -1} and a tuning range from 458 to 517 nm have been obtained.

  18. Port-Wine Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Port-Wine Stain A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a three-month-old infant with a port-wine stain. Overview A port-wine stain is a ...

  19. Quantum dot-based, quantitative, and multiplexed assay for tissue staining.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Xu; Wu, Daqing; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Wang, Andrew Y

    2013-04-24

    The excellent optical properties of quantum dots (QDs), such as high brightness, high photostability, continuous absorption, and narrow emission bandwidth, make them ideal as optical labels to develop QD-based immunohistofluorescence (IHF) imaging for multiplexing cancer biomarker detection on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. IHF is very important for the prediction of a patient's response to cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. QD-based IHF faces several challenges that differ from those encountered by organic dye based IHF for clinical assays. The current work addresses some of these issues. Initially, the chemical stability of QDs and organic dyes were compared. The results showed that QDs were stable for at least 5 months on FFPE tissue, whereas organic dyes were photobleached shortly after exposure to light. Various staining methods were also studied. QD fluorescence intensity on the tissue stained with primary antibody (Ab, p16, survivin, EF1?) conjugated QDs from our company was comparable to the signal from a commercially available method in which the tissue was stained with a primary p16 Ab and a QD-labeled secondary goat anti mouse Ab respectively. Finally, the effect of the amount of Ab conjugated to QD on tissue imaging was also studied. There was no significant increase in the QD fluorescence signal on tissues when the Ab:QD ratio increased from 5 to 30. In addition, protein G was tested as an adaptor protein to link Ab to QDs for IHF staining. However, the proper blocking of the protein G on QDs was necessary to reduce crosstalk. The biomarker quantification in QD-based IHF was validated by conventional Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results contained herein demonstrate a promising application of QDs in multiplex detection and quantification of biomarkers. PMID:23551017

  20. Fluorescence detection of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using environmentally benign, nonfixative, saline solution.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, T H; Lauber, W M; Berggren, K; Kemper, C; Yue, S; Patton, W F

    2000-02-01

    SYPRO Tangerine stain is an environmentally benign alternative to conventional protein stains that does not require solvents such as methanol or acetic acid for effective protein visualization. Instead, proteins can be stained in a wide range of buffers, including phosphate-buffered saline or simply 150 mM NaCl using an easy, one-step procedure that does not require destaining. Stained proteins can be excited by ultraviolet light of about 300 nm or with visible light of about 490 nm. The fluorescence emission maximum of the dye is approximately 640 nm. Noncovalent binding of SYPRO Tangerine dye is mediated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and to a lesser extent by hydrophobic amino acid residues in proteins. This is in stark contrast to acidic silver nitrate staining, which interacts predominantly with lysine residues or Coomassie Blue R, which in turn interacts primarily with arginine and lysine residues. The sensitivity of SYPRO Tangerine stain is similar to that of the SYPRO Red and SYPRO Orange stains - about 4-10 ng per protein band. This detection sensitivity is comparable to colloidal Coomassie blue staining and rapid silver staining procedures. Since proteins stained with SYPRO Tangerine dye are not fixed, they can easily be eluted from gels or utilized in zymographic assays, provided that SDS does not inactivate the protein of interest. This is demonstrated with in-gel detection of rabbit liver esterase activity using alpha-naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue BB dye as well as Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase activity using ELF-97 beta-D-glucuronide. The dye is also suitable for staining proteins in gels prior to their transfer to membranes by electroblotting. Gentle staining conditions are expected to improve protein recovery after electroelution and to reduce the potential for artifactual protein modifications such as the alkylation of lysine and esterification of glutamate residues, which complicate interpretation of peptide fragment profiles generated by mass spectrometry. PMID:10726749

  1. Fast and sensitive colloidal coomassie G-250 staining for proteins in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Dyballa, Nadine; Metzger, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) is a dye commonly used for the visualization of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE, offering a simple staining procedure and high quantitation. Furthermore, it is completely compatible with mass spectrometric protein identification. But despite these advantages, CBB is regarded to be less sensitive than silver or fluorescence stainings and therefore rarely used for the detection of proteins in analytical gel-based proteomic approaches. Several improvements of the original Coomassie protocol(1) have been made to increase the sensitivity of CBB. Two major modifications were introduced to enhance the detection of low-abundant proteins by converting the dye molecules into colloidal particles: In 1988, Neuhoff and colleagues applied 20% methanol and higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate into the CBB G-250 based staining solution(2), and in 2004 Candiano et al. established Blue Silver using CBB G-250 with phosphoric acid in the presence of ammonium sulfate and methanol(3). Nevertheless, all these modifications just allow a detection of approximately 10 ng protein. A widely fameless protocol for colloidal Coomassie staining was published by Kang et al. in 2002 where they modified Neuhoff's colloidal CBB staining protocol regarding the complexing substances. Instead of ammonium sulfate they used aluminum sulfate and methanol was replaced by the less toxic ethanol(4). The novel aluminum-based staining in Kang's study showed superior sensitivity that detects as low as 1 ng/band (phosphorylase b) with little sensitivity variation depending on proteins. Here, we demonstrate application of Kang's protocol for fast and sensitive colloidal Coomassie staining of proteins in analytical purposes. We will illustrate the quick and easy protocol using two-dimensional gels routinely performed in our working group. PMID:19684561

  2. Bench-Top Antigen Detection Technique that Utilizes Nanofiltration and Fluorescent Dyes which Emit and Absorb Light in the Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaljay-Spence, Vanessa A.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a bench-top technique to detect antigens in fluids. The technique involves the use of near infrared NIR fluorescent dyes conjugated to antibodies, centrifugation, nanofilters, and spectrometry. The system used to detect the antigens utilizes a spectrometer, fiber optic cables, NIR laser, and laptop computer thus making it portable and ideally suited for desk top analysis. Using IgM as an antigen and the secondary antibody, anti-IgM conjugated to the near infrared dye, IRDye (trademark) 800, for detection, we show that nanofiltration can efficiently and specifically separate antibody-antigen complexes in solution and that the complexes can be detected by a spectrometer and software using NIR laser excitation at 778 nm and NIR dye offset emission at 804 nm. The peak power detected at 778 nm for the excitation emission and at 804 nm for the offset emission is 879 pW (-60.06 dBm) and 35.7 pW (-74.5 dBm), respectively.

  3. Differential staining of actin in metaphase spindles with 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin and fluorescent DNase: is actin involved in chromosomal movement?

    PubMed Central

    Barak, L S; Nothnagel, E A; DeMarco, E F; Webb, W W

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and polymerization state of actin in metaphase rat kangaroo cells was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Formaldehyde-fixed, acetone-extracted cells were labeled with either of two types of actin probes. The first, 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phallacidin, has high affinity for F actin and does not bind monomeric G actin. The second was a conjugate of DNase I labeled with either tetramethylrhodamine or fluorescein. DNase binds with high affinity to G actin and with lesser affinity to F actin. The polymerization state of actin was deduced by comparing the fluorescence distribution of the phallacidin derivative with that of the fluorescent DNase. The results indicate that the pole-to-chromosome region of the metaphase spindle contains G actin but little if any conventional F actin. F actin is found concentrated in a diffuse distribution outside the spindle region in metaphase cells and returns to the interzone area between the chromosomes by early telophase. These results exclude spindle models for chromosomal movement that require more than about five F actin filaments per chromosome, support the hypothesis that F actin is involved in force generation for cell cleavage, and are not inconsistent with the possibility that actin outside the spindle may be involved in chromosomal movement. Images PMID:6265933

  4. The Use of Lysosomotropic Dyes to Exclude Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Česen, Maruša Hafner; Turk, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Progressive lowering of pH is characteristic for the endocytic pathway and enables efficient degradation of molecules by hydrolytic enzymes at its distal end. The existence of the proton gradient over the endosomal/lysosomal membranes depends on the action of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase). During lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), protons leak through the destabilized membrane, resulting in loss of the pH gradient. Here, we present a protocol showing how this effect can be detected by staining cells with lysosomotropic dyes, which accumulate in acidic organelles after protonation. During LMP, cells lose the ability to retain these dyes and therefore appear pale. Among the most commonly used lysosomotropic dyes are LysoTracker reagents and acridine orange. Cells can be analyzed with a fluorescence microscope; however, flow-cytometric analysis enables fast, objective, and reliable evaluation of differences between samples. Advantages of the technique include the fact that sample preparation is relatively simple and can be scaled-up to test several different compounds or conditions. However, as we will discuss, cells treated with v-ATPase inhibitors also lose the pH gradient across lysosomal membranes and cannot be stained with lysosomotropic dyes, although this is not accompanied by LMP. Therefore, merely observing loss of staining is not in itself a proof of LMP. PMID:27140914

  5. Organic fluorescent dyes supported on activated boron nitride: a promising blue light excited phosphors for high-performance white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W(-1). Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  6. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm·W−1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  7. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (αBN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500-650 nm under the 466 nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36 W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6 lm.W-1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs.

  8. Wavelength Dependence of the Fluorescence Quenching Efficiency of Nearby Dyes by Gold Nanoclusters and Nanoparticles: The Roles of Spectral Overlap and Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sanchari; Wu, Zhikun; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea; Liu, Shengpeng; Dembska, Anna; Armitage, Bruce A.; Jin, Rongchao; Peteanu, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of the glutathione monolayer-protected gold nanocluster (NC) Au25 (1.2 nm metal core diameter (d)) in quenching the emission of dyes intercalated into DNA is compared to that of 2 and 4 nm gold nanoparticles (NPs). In all cases, the DNA/dye moieties and the gold particles are not covalently attached but rather form non-covalent ground state complexes. Under these conditions, steady-state measurements reveal that the quenching efficiency of Au25 is a factor of 10 lower than that of plasmonic 4 nm gold NPs but comparable to that of 2 nm particles which do not show a distinct plasmon band. Nonetheless, significant emission quenching is observed even at very low (nM) concentrations of Au25. The quenching efficiency of the 4 nm NPs is significantly higher for dyes emitting near the wavelength of the plasmon peak whereas that of the 2 nm gold NPs is well described by the nano-surface energy transfer (NSET) model proposed by the Strouse group (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 3115 2005). Interestingly, for Au25 the maximum quenching efficiency occurs for dyes emitting in the same wavelength range as that of the 2 and 4 nm NPs (490-560 nm), where it shows no discrete absorption features, rather than for wavelengths coincident with its HOMO-LUMO, intra-band or inter-band transitions. The fluorescence quenching properties of Au25 NCs are therefore found to be distinct from those of larger NCs and NPs but do not appear to conform to theoretical predictions advanced thus far. PMID:22924090

  9. A novel water-soluble fluorescent polymer based on perylene bisimides dyes: one-pot preparation and its bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haijian; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Yaojun; Duan, Wenfeng; Yi, Xuegang; Wu, Yonggang; Zhao, Hongchi; Bai, Libin

    2016-04-01

    Perylene bisimides dye-based water-soluble fluorescent polymer P3, N,N'-bis(3-amyl)-1-bromo-7-{4'-[3''-(S-poly(N-acryloyl ethylene diamine hydrochloride)-2'''-methyl propionic acid)propionyloxy hexyloxy]phenyl} perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic bisimides, was synthesized with polyelectrolyte modification via one-pot reaction (the reduction reaction of trithioester and click reaction between the thiol group and carbon-carbon double bond were simultaneously conducted in one pot with high conversion). One-pot method can overcome the limitation that usual click reaction between thiol and other groups has low conversion because thiol group is subject to rapid oxidation during purification and storage. Chemical, structural, and optical properties of P3 and intermediate products were fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, gel permeation chromatograph, UV-vis spectra, and fluorescence spectra, respectively. The results revealed that P3 displayed excellent water solubility and not only exhibited red strong fluorescence emission band in water but also had the similar photoluminescent spectra to those of intermediate products (M4 and P2) in chloroform. Allowing for the potential application in biological detection field, cell viability and live cell imaging with the presence of P3 were further investigated with Hela cells. The results showed that P3 had low cytotoxicity with strong intracellular fluorescence entry. Meanwhile, with the augment of concentration of P3 (0-0.500 mg mL(-1)), the cell uptake and accumulation of P3 increased and thereby result in enhancement of the intracellular fluorescence. These experiment results suggested that P3 had enormous potential as a fluorescence probe to be an important component in biological detection field. PMID:26719068

  10. Phase-0/phase-I study of dye-loaded lipid nanoparticles for near-infrared fluorescence imaging in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Sayag, David; Cabon, Quentin; Texier, Isabelle; Navarro, Fabrice P; Boisgard, Raphaël; Virieux-Watrelot, Dorothée; Carozzo, Claude; Ponce, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG) has been the subject of numerous studies during the past few years. It could constitute a potentially exciting new paradigm shift in veterinary oncology, especially to develop in vivo fluorescence imaging diagnostics and surgery guidance methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacologic and toxicological characteristics in healthy beagle dogs of LipImage™ 815, a formulation made of NIR-dye-loaded lipid nanoparticles. The initial dosage for the evaluation of biodistribution was extrapolated from data in mice and then adapted to define the more adapted dose (MAD) according to the fluorescence results obtained in 5 dogs using a Fluobeam® 800 imaging device (phase 0 study). A single dose acute toxicity study was then performed (3 dogs, phase I study). Before the systemic administration of LipImage™ 815, the dogs presented a very mild residual fluorescence, particularly in the liver and kidneys. After injection, the plasma fluorescence continuously decreased, and the signal was relatively homogeneously distributed throughout the different organs, though more pronounced in the liver and to a lesser extent in the steroid-rich organs (adrenal, ovaries), intestines, lymph nodes and kidneys. A MAD of 2.0μg/kg was found. No evidence of acute or delayed general, hepatic, renal or hematologic toxicity was observed at 1-fold, 5-fold or 10-fold MAD. The results of this phase-0/phase-I study showed that an optimal dosage of LipImage™ 815 of 2.0μg/kg allowed the achievement of a fluorescence signal suitable for surgery guidance application without any acute side effects. PMID:26777342

  11. Dye lasing in optically manipulated liquid aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadag, Yasin; Aas, Mehdi; Jonáš, Alexandr; Anand, Suman; McGloin, David; Kiraz, Alper

    2013-09-01

    We present dye lasing from optically manipulated glycerol-water aerosols with diameters ranging between 7.7 and 11.0 μm confined in optical tweezers. While being optically trapped near the focal point of an infrared laser, the droplets stained with Rhodamine B were pumped with a Q-switched green laser and their fluorescence emission spectra featuring whispering gallery modes (WGMs) were recorded with a spectrograph. Nonlinear dependence of the intensity of the droplet WGMs on the pump laser fluence indicates dye lasing. The average wavelength of the lasing WGMs could be tuned between 600 and 630 nm by adjusting the droplet size. These results may lead to new ways of probing airborne particles, exploiting the high sensitivity of stimulated emission to small perturbations in the droplet laser cavity and the gain medium.

  12. Fluorescent Gage Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, C. E.; Gilbaugh, B. L.; Gin, B.; Holt, W. L.; Lesak, P.; Mancini, R.; Spencer, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of dye shows quality of contact between two mating parts. Mating parts checked for fit by spreading fluorescent dye on one, making brief light contact with other, and looking (under UV light) for transferred dye. Dye offers greater visibility under ultraviolet illumination, allowing better indication of how precisely parts match and what areas interfere.

  13. Localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant(®) DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe: A new approach to study nuclear nanostructure at single molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Szczurek, Aleksander T; Prakash, Kirti; Mohana, Giriram K; Lee, Hyun-Keun; Roignant, Jean-Yves; Birk, Udo J; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Cremer, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Higher order chromatin structure is not only required to compact and spatially arrange long chromatids within a nucleus, but have also important functional roles, including control of gene expression and DNA processing. However, studies of chromatin nanostructures cannot be performed using conventional widefield and confocal microscopy because of the limited optical resolution. Various methods of superresolution microscopy have been described to overcome this difficulty, like structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy. We report here that the standard DNA dye Vybrant(®) DyeCycle™ Violet can be used to provide single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) images of DNA in nuclei of fixed mammalian cells. This SMLM method enabled optical isolation and localization of large numbers of DNA-bound molecules, usually in excess of 10(6) signals in one cell nucleus. The technique yielded high-quality images of nuclear DNA density, revealing subdiffraction chromatin structures of the size in the order of 100nm; the interchromatin compartment was visualized at unprecedented optical resolution. The approach offers several advantages over previously described high resolution DNA imaging methods, including high specificity, an ability to record images using a single wavelength excitation, and a higher density of single molecule signals than reported in previous SMLM studies. The method is compatible with DNA/multicolor SMLM imaging which employs simple staining methods suited also for conventional optical microscopy. PMID:26341267

  14. Two-stage desorption-controlled release of fluorescent dye and vitamin from solution-blown and electrospun nanofiber mats containing porogens.

    PubMed

    Khansari, S; Duzyer, S; Sinha-Ray, S; Hockenberger, A; Yarin, A L; Pourdeyhimi, B

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, a systematic study of the release kinetics of two embedded model drugs (one completely water soluble and one partially water soluble) from hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofiber mats was conducted. Fluorescent dye Rhodamine B was used as a model hydrophilic drug in controlled release experiments after it was encapsulated in solution-blown soy-protein-containing hydrophilic nanofibers as well as in electrospun hydrophobic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-containing nanofibers. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), a partially water-soluble model drug, was also encapsulated in hydrophobic PET-containing nanofiber mats, and its release kinetics was studied. The nanofiber mats were submerged in water, and the amount of drug released was tracked by fluorescence intensity. It was found that the release process saturates well below 100% release of the embedded compound. This is attributed to the fact that desorption is the limiting process in the release from biopolymer-containing nanofibers similar to the previously reported release from petroleum-derived polymer nanofibers. Release from monolithic as well as core-shell nanofibers was studied in the present work. Moreover, to facilitate the release and ultimately to approach 100% release, we also incorporated porogens, for example, poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. It was also found that the release rate can be controlled by the porogen choice in nanofibers. The effect of nanocracks created by leaching porogens on drug release was studied experimentally and evaluated theoretically, and the physical parameters characterizing the release process were established. The objective of the present work is a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of controlled drug release from nanofibers facilitated by the presence of porogens. The novelty of this work is in forming nanofibers containing biodegradable and biocompatible soy proteins to facilitate controlled drug release as well as in measuring detailed quantitative characteristics of the desorption processes responsible for release of the model substance (fluorescent dye) and the vitamin (riboflavin) in the presence of porogens. PMID:24191694

  15. A review of the chemistry and uses of crocins and crocetin, the carotenoid natural dyes in saffron, with particular emphasis on applications as colorants including their use as biological stains.

    PubMed

    Bathaie, S Z; Farajzade, A; Hoshyar, R

    2014-08-01

    The perennial flowering plant, saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.), is the source of the most expensive spice in the world. The dried stigmas of saffron flowers are the source of a natural dye, saffron, which has been used from ancient times for dyeing silk and fabric rugs, and for painting; it also has been used for cooking and in medicine. The yellow compounds present in the dye include crocins, which are 20-carbon water soluble glycosyl derivatives of the carotenoid, crocetin, and the dicarboxylic acid itself. We review the chemistry of these compounds and discuss various applications of saffron as a natural dye. We review in particular the use of saffron or its constituents in histopathologic techniques. PMID:24665936

  16. A symmetrical fluorous dendron-cyanine dye-conjugated bimodal nanoprobe for quantitative 19F MRI and NIR fluorescence bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Yue, Xuyi; Wang, Yu; Qian, Chunqi; Huang, Peng; Lizak, Marty; Niu, Gang; Wang, Fu; Rong, Pengfei; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ma, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-08-01

    (19)F MRI and optical imaging are two powerful noninvasive molecular imaging modalities in biomedical applications. (19)F MRI has great potential for high resolution in vivo imaging, while fluorescent probes enable ultracontrast cellular/tissue imaging with high accuracy and sensitivity. A bimodal nanoprobe is developed, integrating the merits of (19)F MRI and fluorescence imaging into a single synthetic molecule, which is further engineered into nanoprobe, by addressing shortcomings of conventional contrast agents to explore the quantitative (19)F MRI and fluorescence imaging and cell tracking. Results show that this bimodal imaging nanoprobe presents high correlation of (19)F MR signal and NIR fluorescence intensity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, this nanoprobe enables quantitative (19)F MR analysis, confirmed by a complementary fluorescence analysis. This unique feature can hardly be obtained by traditional (19)F MRI contrast agents. It is envisioned that this nanoprobe can hold great potential for quantitative and sensitive multi-modal molecular imaging. PMID:24789108

  17. Using Microcontact Printing as a Novel Method for Patterned Dyeing of Surface-adsorbed DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Emily; Budassi, Julia; Zhu, Ke; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    We use microcontact printing (MCP)^1 to stain individual DNA molecules adsorbed and combed onto a polymer-coated silicon surface. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with micron-sized features have been used to selectively stain lambda DNA molecules with SyBr Gold dye. DNA was deposited out of dilute solution onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layers, 70nm thick, spun-coated on Si wafers, producing linearly stretched and aligned molecules. The stamps were soaked in dye solutions for one minute, followed by wiping of excess solution with a swap. The stamp was pressed onto the surface, varying the pressure and time of application (typically 5-10 minutes) to control the staining. The DNA molecules were imaged with a fluorescence microscope equipped with a cooled CCD camera. Single molecules of DNA were successfully dyed and imaged with stamps having a grating pattern either parallel to or perpendicular to the DNA orientation. Supported by NSF-DMR MRSEC program.

  18. Immunofluorescence staining of paraffin sections: creating DAB staining like virtual digital images using CMYK color conversion.

    PubMed

    Buchynska, L; Kashuba, E; Szekely, L

    2008-12-01

    Crystal violet treatment of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue slides greatly reduces the endogenous autofluorescence, and allows immunofluorescence (IF) staining with FITC or Alexa488 conjugated antibodies. Using cold CCD camera to capture the fluorescence images makes this staining method very sensitive. Here we show that combination of IF with the simultaneous recording of crystal violet induced red and Hoechst 33258 induced blue fluorescence permits the localization of the IF signal over a cytoplasmic: nuclear red:blue stain that visualizes the microscopic anatomy of the underlying tissue. To make the visual interpretation of the IF staining easier for microscopists, who are used to DAB staining over weak hematoxilin-eosin background, we created a simple color conversion procedure that turns the captured three-color fluorescence RGB (red, green, blue) images over a black background into four color CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, key color (black)) images. PMID:19112433

  19. DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Mark L.; Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Martin, John C.

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

  20. Water-Soluble NIR-Absorbing Rylene Chromophores for Selective Staining of Cellular Organelles.

    PubMed

    Kaloyanova, Stefka; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Ritz, Sandra; Hanulová, Mária; Koynov, Kaloian; Vonderheit, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Peneva, Kalina

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible organic dyes emitting in the near-infrared are highly desirable in fluorescence imaging techniques. Herein we report a synthetic approach for building novel small peri-guanidine-fused naphthalene monoimide and perylene monoimide chromophores. The presented structures possess near-infrared absorption and emission, high photostability, and good water solubility. After a fast cellular uptake, they selectively stain mitochondria with a low background in live and fixed cells. They can be additionally modified in a one-step reaction with functional groups for covalent labeling of proteins. The low cytotoxicity allows a long time exposure of live cells to the dyes without the necessity of washing. Successful application in localization super-resolution microscopy was demonstrated in phosphate-buffered saline without any reducing or oxidizing additives. PMID:26891229

  1. Fluorescent Styryl Dyes from 4-Chloro-2-(Diphenylamino)-1, 3-Thiazole-5-Carbaldehyde-Synthesis, Optical Properties and TDDFT Computations.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Nagaiyan; Umape, Prashant G; Patil, Sharad R

    2015-11-01

    4-Chloro-2-(diphenylamino)-1,3-thiazole-5-carbaldehyde was reacted with an active methylene compounds, cyanomethyl benzimidazole, cyanomethyl benzothiazole, barbituric acid and Meldrum's acid under Knoevenagel conditions to give novel push-pull styryl chromophores 8a-8d. The synthesized styryl chromophores were characterized by FT-IR, Mass and (1)H NMR spectral analysis. The photophysical characteristics of these styryl chromophores were evaluated. The effect of solvent polarity and viscosity on the absorption and emission properties of these chromophores was studied. The structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical parameters of the push-pull dyes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computations. The ratio of the ground to the excited state dipole moment of the synthesized novel styryl dyes were calculated by Bakhshiev and Bilot-Kawski correlations. PMID:26467548

  2. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the...

  4. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    A port-wine stain is a birthmark in which swollen blood vessels create a reddish-purplish discoloration of the skin. ... Port-wine stains occur in about 3 out of 1,000 people. In rare cases, port-wine stains are ...

  5. An improved flow cytometry-based natural killer cytotoxicity assay involving calcein AM staining of effector cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Youn-Young; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki; Shin, Dong-Jun; Park, Min-Ho; Lee, Je-Jung; Shin, Myung-Geun; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for measuring natural killer cell activity have been developed. Commonly used protocols involve the staining of target cells with various fluorescent dyes. However, these protocols are not applicable to certain experimental settings. Therefore, we used Calcein AM (CAM), which has been reported to be the most suitable dye for use in target cell staining protocols, as a means of developing an improved flow cytometry-based NK cytotoxicity assay involving effector cell staining. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated by gradient density centrifugation and expanded NK cells were used as effector cells. Cytotoxicity against K562 cells and several hematologic cancer cell lines was measured by a flow cytometry-based method using CAM and propidium iodide. The new assay was compared with a standard (51)Cr release assay (CRA) in terms of its ability to measure the cytotoxicity of NK cells in PBMCs and expanded NK cells against K562 cells. The optimal concentration of CAM for staining effector cells was 0.05 μM, and CAM fluorescence intensity in effector cells was maintained for 4 hours. CAM staining had no significant effect on NK cell activity in human PBMCs or expanded NK cells. Comparison of the CRA and this new assay using K562 cells revealed a good correlation (PBMCs, r = 0.894; expanded NK cells, r = 0.887). Distinct separation between target tumor cells (Daudi, Raji, RPMI8226, U266, U937, and K562 cells) and CAM-stained PBMCs (E:T ratio, 12.5:1 to 50:1) or expanded NK cells (E:T ratio, 0.5 to 4:1) was observed after incubation for 1 or 4 hours. In summary, we successfully developed an effective flow cytometry-based assay for assessing the activity of NK cells in PBMCs and expanded NK cells against K562 cells and various types of hematologic cancer cells. PMID:22371909

  6. An improved flow cytometry-based natural killer cytotoxicity assay involving calcein AM staining of effector cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Jang YY; Cho D; Kim SK; Shin DJ; Park MH; Lee JJ; Shin MG; Shin JH; Suh SP; Ryang DW

    2012-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for measuring natural killer cell activity have been developed. Commonly used protocols involve the staining of target cells with various fluorescent dyes. However, these protocols are not applicable to certain experimental settings. Therefore, we used Calcein AM (CAM), which has been reported to be the most suitable dye for use in target cell staining protocols, as a means of developing an improved flow cytometry-based NK cytotoxicity assay involving effector cell staining. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated by gradient density centrifugation and expanded NK cells were used as effector cells. Cytotoxicity against K562 cells and several hematologic cancer cell lines was measured by a flow cytometry-based method using CAM and propidium iodide. The new assay was compared with a standard (51)Cr release assay (CRA) in terms of its ability to measure the cytotoxicity of NK cells in PBMCs and expanded NK cells against K562 cells. The optimal concentration of CAM for staining effector cells was 0.05 μM, and CAM fluorescence intensity in effector cells was maintained for 4 hours. CAM staining had no significant effect on NK cell activity in human PBMCs or expanded NK cells. Comparison of the CRA and this new assay using K562 cells revealed a good correlation (PBMCs, r = 0.894; expanded NK cells, r = 0.887). Distinct separation between target tumor cells (Daudi, Raji, RPMI8226, U266, U937, and K562 cells) and CAM-stained PBMCs (E:T ratio, 12.5:1 to 50:1) or expanded NK cells (E:T ratio, 0.5 to 4:1) was observed after incubation for 1 or 4 hours. In summary, we successfully developed an effective flow cytometry-based assay for assessing the activity of NK cells in PBMCs and expanded NK cells against K562 cells and various types of hematologic cancer cells.

  7. Gram stain of urethral discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Urethral discharge Gram stain ... microscope slide. A series of stains called a Gram stain is applied to the specimen. The stained ... culture ) should be performed in addition to the gram stain. More sophisticated diagnostic tests (such as PCR ...

  8. Structure and functional connections of presynaptic terminals in the vertebrate retina revealed by activity-dependent dyes and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miller, R F; Fagerson, M H; Staff, N P; Wolfe, R; Doerr, T; Gottesman, J; Sikora, M A; Schuneman, R

    2001-08-20

    The fluorescent dyes sulforhodamine 101 (SR 101) and FM1-43 were used as activity-dependent dyes (ADDs) to label presynaptic terminals in the retinas of a broad range of animals, including amphibians, mammals, fish, and turtles. The pattern of dye uptake was studied in live retinal preparations by using brightfield, fluorescence, and confocal microscopy. When bath-applied to the retina-eyecup, these dyes were avidly sequestered by the presynaptic terminals of virtually all rods, cones, and bipolar and amacrine cells; ganglion cell dendrites and horizontal cells lacked significant dye accumulation. Other structures stained with these dyes included pigment epithelial cells, cone outer segments, and Müller cell end-feet. Studies of dye uptake in dark- and light-adapted preparations showed significant differences in the dye accumulation pattern in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), suggesting a dynamic, light-modulated control of endocytotic activity. Presynaptic terminals in the IPL could be segregated on the basis of volume: bipolar varicosities in the IPL were typically larger than those of amacrine cells. The combination of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells and presynaptic terminal labeling with ADDs served as the experimental preparation for three-dimensional reconstruction of both structures, based on dual detector, confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate a new approach for studying synaptic interactions in retinal function. These findings provide new insights into the likely number and position of functional connections from amacrine and bipolar cell terminals onto ganglion cell dendrites. PMID:11494248

  9. [Histochemical staining methods for lanthanum].

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    In recent years lanthanum compounds have been widely used in the optical and electronic industries. Although release of lanthanum (La) into the environment and exposure to humans are feared, acute or chronic biologic effects of La remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model for La toxicity and histological staining methods for La. After intraperitoneal injections of lanthanum chloride, white precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Existence of La in the precipitates was confirmed by a X-ray fluorescent microanalysis. Liver tissues from La treated rats were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as a La containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for metals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for La. Alizarin complexone (ALC) was found of capable of staining La in tissue. A simple new technique used was described for light microscopic detection of La. PMID:22111301

  10. [Histochemical staining methods for lanthanum].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Miyagawa M

    2011-09-01

    In recent years lanthanum compounds have been widely used in the optical and electronic industries. Although release of lanthanum (La) into the environment and exposure to humans are feared, acute or chronic biologic effects of La remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model for La toxicity and histological staining methods for La. After intraperitoneal injections of lanthanum chloride, white precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Existence of La in the precipitates was confirmed by a X-ray fluorescent microanalysis. Liver tissues from La treated rats were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as a La containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for metals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for La. Alizarin complexone (ALC) was found of capable of staining La in tissue. A simple new technique used was described for light microscopic detection of La.

  11. Investigation of Quenching Mechanism in Thermoreversible Fluorescent Recording Materials of Fluorescence Using Thermochromic Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Vacha, Martin; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrated reversible thermosensitive recording of a fluorescent image (TRF) using a low-molecular-weight mixture consisting of a fluorescent dye, a fluoran dye, a developer, and a reversible matrix. In this material, reversible thermoresponsive disorder-crystal transition triggers a cyclical colorless-color change of a fluoran dye, which induces on-off switching of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a fluorescent dye to a fluoran dye. On-off switching of fluorescence is induced by heat-promoted off-on switching of FRET. Modulation of fluorescence is held at room temperature by utilizing thermal hysteresis, and nondestructive readout of the fluorescent image is accomplished in the presence of excitation light. Here, we investigate the on-off switching mechanism of fluorescence in this recording material. We analyzed the theoretical factor of emission quenching in the erasing state by comparing the theoretical overlap integral Ω between fluorescent dyes and fluoran dyes on the basis of the FRET theory with experimental emission contrast for various combinations of fluorescent dyes and fluoran dyes. It was proved that fluorescence on-off switching occurs mainly by concentration quenching due to the aggregation of fluorescent dyes and FRET from isolated fluorescent dyes to colored fluoran dyes. The key issue to obtain both high-contrast fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield is to control these two factors.

  12. A water-soluble fluorescent pH probe based on perylene dyes and its application to cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongshan; Zhang, Fengxia; Zhang, Jinfeng; Jiang, Tianyi; Li, Xuemei; Wu, Junsen; Ren, Huixue

    2016-02-01

    A fluorescent pH probe, N,N'-bi( l-phenylalanine amine)-perylene-3,4;9,10-dicarboxylic diimide (PDCDA) was synthesized and used for pH sensing in living cells. A significant fluorescence intensity change was observed over a pH range from 7.0 to 4.0. Electrostatic potential maps (MEP) suggested that the electronic repulsion between PDCDAs was increased by the high negative electrostatic potential which resulted in a high water solubility of PDCDA. PDCDA was successfully applied as a high-performance fluorochrome for living HeLa cell imaging. The results demonstrate that the probe PDCDA is a good candidate for monitoring pH fluctuations in living cells with good water solubility, low cytotoxicity, high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26009881

  13. Proflavine Hemisulfate as a Fluorescent Contrast Agent for Point-of-Care Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Boice, Jackson W.; Sharma, Shree G.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate, an acridine-derived fluorescent dye, can be used as a rapid stain for cytologic examination of biological specimens. Proflavine fluorescently stains cell nuclei and cytoplasmic structures, owing to its small amphipathic structure and ability to intercalate DNA. In this manuscript, we demonstrated the use of proflavine as a rapid cytologic dye on a number of specimens, including normal exfoliated oral squamous cells, cultured human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and leukocytes derived from whole blood specimens using a custom-built, portable, LED-illuminated fluorescence microscope. No incubation time was needed after suspending cells in 0.01% (w/v) proflavine diluted in saline. Images of proflavine stained oral cells had clearly visible nuclei as well as granular cytoplasm, while stained leukocytes exhibited bright nuclei, and highlighted the multilobar nature of nuclei in neutrophils. We also demonstrated the utility of quantitative analysis of digital images of proflavine stained cells, which can be used to detect significant morphological differences between different cell types. Proflavine stained oral cells have well-defined nuclei and cell membranes which allowed for quantitative analysis of nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, as well as image texture analysis to extract quantitative image features. PMID:25962131

  14. Simultaneous Enhancement of Intracellular Optical Imaging and Photothermal Therapeutic Response by Octaarginine-Modified Fluorescent Dye Doped Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC) Multifunctional Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Saige; Zhu, Xianglong; Huang, Yizhuan; Jiang, Mengying; Zhao, Zengxia; Chen, Xiaolan

    2015-02-01

    In the work, a novel multifunctional silica-based nanoplatform (Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC)-R8) for bioimaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells has been developed. The Pd@Ag nanosheets encapsulated inside silica can act as effective near-infrared (NIR) absorbers for cancer photothermal therapy. Fluorescent dye, rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC), was covalently doped into the silica network to provide the capacity for optical imaging. After amine modification, the Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC)-NH2 can be further conjugated with octaarginine (R8, a cell penetrating peptide) for enhancing the uptake of nanoparticles by cells. Confocal fluorescent images and flow cytometry analysis revealed that R8-conjugated nanoparticles (Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC)-R8) were taken up by cells more efficiently. Correspondingly, the optical imaging and photothermal therapeutic efficiency of Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC)-R8 upon cancer cells were also raised due to their higher cellular uptake when compared with that of Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC)-NH2. Our results indicate that these multifunctional Pd@Ag@SiO2(RITC)-R8 may have great potential for applications in imaging-guided cancer photothermal therapy. PMID:26353642

  15. pH-induced vesicle-to-micelle transition in amphiphilic diblock copolymer: investigation by energy transfer between in situ formed polymer embedded gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Chiranjit; Banerjee, Rakesh; Maiti, Saikat; Dhara, Dibakar

    2015-01-01

    The ability to regulate the formation of nanostructures through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers is of immense significance in the field of biology and medicine. In this work, a new block copolymer synthesized by using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization technique from poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether acrylate (PEGMA) and Boc-l-tryptophan acryloyloxyethyl ester (Boc-l-trp-HEA) was found to spontaneously form pH-responsive water-soluble nanostructures after removal of the Boc group. While polymer vesicles or polymerosomes were formed at physiological pH, the micelles were formed at acidic pH (< 5.2), and this facilitated a pH-induced reversible vesicle-to-micelle transition. Formation of these nanostructures was confirmed by different characterization techniques, viz. transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and steady-state fluorescence measurements. Further, these vesicles were successfully utilized to reduce HAuCl4 and stabilize the resulting gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These AuNPs, confined within the hydrophobic shell of the vesicles, could participate in energy transfer process with fluorescent dye molecules encapsulated in the core of the vesicles, thus forming a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) pair. Subsequently, following the efficiency of energy transfer between this pair, it was possible to monitor the process of transition from vesicles to micelles. Thus, in this work, we have successfully demonstrated that NSET can be used to follow the transition between nanostructures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers. PMID:25494810

  16. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large me