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Sample records for fluorescent dye staining

  1. Natural fruit extracts as non-toxic fluorescent dyes for staining fungal chlamydospores.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Silva; Goh, Yit Kheng; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most synthetic dyes utilized for fungal fluorescent staining are toxic, carcinogenic, or harmful to animals, humans, and the environment. This study proposes non-toxic extracts of fruits from the genera Rhamnus, Ribes, Sambucus, Viburnum, Sorbus and Beta as simple, safe, and ecological alternatives to chemical fluorescent dye for efficient staining of Fusarium chlamydospore cells using, as test strains, five different pathogenic Fusarium species. PMID:22806815

  2. CD133+ human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells are resistant to staining with fluorescent dyes used for analysis of ABC transporter activities.

    PubMed

    Gisina, A M; Lupatov, A Yu; Karalkin, P A; Mainovskaya, O A; Petrov, L O; Sidorov, D V; Frank, G A; Yarygin, K N

    2014-11-01

    Flow cytometry measurement of the expression of surface marker CD133 simultaneously with the analysis of fluorescent dye exclusion was performed in order to develop new methods for detection of cancer stem cell populations in tumor tissue samples from patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. No correlation was found between the count of CD133(+) cancer cells and the volume of the "population" formed from cells actively pumping off the fluorescent dye. On the other hand, the fluorescence distribution plot showed predominant location of CD133(+) cancer cells among cells stained with neither DyeCycle Violet DNA-binding dye, nor rhodamine 123 mitochondrial dye. These cells did not show the properties of the classical "side population", because they did not shift to the area of stained cell after treatment with ionic channel blocker verapamil. PMID:25403403

  3. A Novel Staining Protocol for Multiparameter Assessment of Cell Heterogeneity in Phormidium Populations (Cyanobacteria) Employing Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Tashyreva, Daria; Elster, Josef; Billi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial populations display high heterogeneity in viability and physiological activity at the single-cell level, especially under stressful conditions. We demonstrate a novel staining protocol for multiparameter assessment of individual cells in physiologically heterogeneous populations of cyanobacteria. The protocol employs fluorescent probes, i.e., redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, ‘dead cell’ nucleic acid stain SYTOX Green, and DNA-specific fluorochrome 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, combined with microscopy image analysis. Our method allows simultaneous estimates of cellular respiration activity, membrane and nucleoid integrity, and allows the detection of photosynthetic pigments fluorescence along with morphological observations. The staining protocol has been adjusted for, both, laboratory and natural populations of the genus Phormidium (Oscillatoriales), and tested on 4 field-collected samples and 12 laboratory strains of cyanobacteria. Based on the mentioned cellular functions we suggest classification of cells in cyanobacterial populations into four categories: (i) active and intact; (ii) injured but active; (iii) metabolically inactive but intact; (iv) inactive and injured, or dead. PMID:23437052

  4. Exploring the dynamics of fluorescence staining of bacteria with cyanine dyes for the development of kinetic assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Marlon Sheldon

    Bacterial infections continue to be one of the major health risks in the United States. The common occurrence of such infection is one of the major contributors to the high cost of health care and significant patient mortality. The work presented in this thesis describes spectroscopic studies that will contribute to the development of a fluorescent assay that may allow the rapid identification of bacterial species. Herein, the optical interactions between six bacterial species and a series of thiacyanine dyes are investigated. The interactions between the dyes and the bacterial species are hypothesized to be species-specific. For this thesis, two Gram-negative strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) TOP10 and Enterobacter aerogenes; two Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis; and two Bacillus endospores, B. globigii and B. thuringiensis, were used to test the proposed hypothesis. A series of three thiacyanine dyes---3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide (THIA), 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide (THC) and thiazole orange (THO)---were used as fluorescent probes. The basis of our spectroscopic study was to explore the bacterium-induced interactions of the bacterial cells with the individual thiacyanine dyes or with a mixture of the three dyes. Steady-state absorption spectroscopy revealed that the different bacterial species altered the absorption properties of the dyes. Mixed-dye solutions gave unique absorption patterns for each bacteria tested, with competitive binding observed between the bacteria and spectrophotometric probes (thiacyanine dyes). Emission spectroscopy recorded changes in the emission spectra of THIA following the introduction of bacterial cells. Experimental results revealed that the emission enhancement of the dyes resulted from increases in the emission quantum yield of the thiacyanine dyes upon binding to the bacteria cellular components. The recorded emission enhancement data were fitted to an exponential (mono-exponential or bi-exponential) function, and time constants were extracted by regressing on the experimental data. The addition of the TWEEN surfactants decreased the rate at which the dyes interacted with the bacterial cells, which typically resulted in larger time constants derived from an exponential fit. ANOVA analysis of the time constants confirmed that the values of the time constants clustered in a narrow range and were independent of dye concentration and weakly dependent on cell density.

  5. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains...

  6. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains...

  7. Chromosome characterization using single fluorescent dye

    DOEpatents

    Crissman, Harry A. (Los Alamos, NM); Hirons, Gregory T. (Irvine, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomes are characterized by fluorescent emissions from a single fluorescent dye that is excited over two different wavelengths. A mixture containing chromosomes is stained with a single dye selected from the group consisting of TOTO and YOYO and the stained chromosomes are placed in a flow cytometer. The fluorescent dye is excited sequentially by a first light having a wavelength in the ultraviolet range to excite the TOTO or YOYO to fluoresce at a first intensity and by a second light having a wavelength effective to excite the TOTO or YOYO dye to fluoresce at a second intensity. Specific chromosomes may be identified and sorted by intensity relationships between the first and second fluorescence emissions.

  8. STUDIES ON FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY STAINING

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Gerald; Slizys, Irene S.; Chase, Merrill W.

    1961-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the non-specific fluorescent staining of splenic imprints treated with fluorescent sheep antibody globulins. 2. In tissue imprints made with the spleens of antigen-stimulated animals, no morphological distinction was evident between areas showing non-specific fluorescence and specific fluorescence. 3. Elimination of non-specific fluorescence was not achieved by any one, or any combination of the following: (a) conjugating only gamma globulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate; (b) removal of dialyzable fluorescent products on sephadex, followed by concentration through the use of pressure dialysis; (c) use of crystalline preparations of fluorescein isothiocyanate. 4. Individual preparations of fluorescent antibodies were separated by gradient elution chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose into fractions possessing different numbers of fluorescein radicals per molecule of globulin. 5. The coupling ratio of 50 mg fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) per gm of protein, as commonly advocated, can not be recommended for the precise localization of antibody globulin in tissues owing to the capacity of the coupled products to give non-specific fluorescent staining. When crystalline preparations of FITC are used instead of the amorphous product at 50 mg/gm protein, far too high non-specific fluorescence results. 6. A fraction with bright specific fluorescence and no or negligible nonspecific fluorescence was obtained from each fluorescent antibody that was prepared by using 6 to 8 mg of crystalline fluorescein isothiocyanate per gm of globulin and was then subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gradient elution to eliminate the most highly coupled molecules. PMID:13706641

  9. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  10. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  11. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  12. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  13. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  14. Real-time histological imaging of kidneys stained with food dyes using multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yasuaki; Kimura, Kazushi; Wang, Shujie; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a real-time imaging technique for diagnosis of kidney diseases which is composed of two steps, staining renal cells safely with food dyes and optical sectioning of living renal tissue to obtain histological images by multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Here, we demonstrated that the MPM imaging with food dyes, including erythrosine and indigo carmine, could be used as fluorescent agents to visualize renal functions and structures such as glomerular bloodstreams, glomerular filtration, and morphology of glomeruli and renal tubules. We also showed that the kidneys of IgA nephropathy model-mice stained with the food dyes presented histopathological characteristics different from those observed in normal kidneys. The use of the food dyes enhances the quality of tissue images obtained by MPM and offers the potential to contribute to a clinical real-time diagnosis of kidney diseases. PMID:26260138

  15. Investigating Fluorescence Dyes in Fluorescence-Assisted Screenings

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Joo-Eun; Lim, Jaehong; Hyun, Hoon; Oon, Jessica; Ong, Yong Siang; Massif, Cedrik; Chang, Young-Tae; Choi, Hak Soo; Lee, Su Seong

    2014-01-01

    Screening of bead-based peptide libraries against fluorescence-labeled target proteins was found significantly influenced by the dye characteristics. Commercially available red fluorescence dyes with net negative charges adversely showed strong interactions with library beads. The introduction of zwitterionic dyes significantly reduced the unwanted interactions, which sheds light upon using the right fluorescence probe for acquisition of reliable results in various fluorescence-assisted applications. PMID:25340456

  16. Dimeric fluorescent energy transfer dyes comprising asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Albany, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Novel fluorescent DNA-staining dyes are provided combining asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine dyes, which provide for strong DNA affinity, large Stokes shifts and emission in the red region of the spectrum. The dyes find particular application in gel electrophoresis and for labels which may be bound to a variety of compositions in a variety of contexts.

  17. A method for determining supernatant-free spectra generated from fluorescently stained cells in suspension.

    PubMed

    Plášek, Jaromír; Gášková, Dana

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a fluorometric method for direct determination of supernatant-free fluorescence spectra generated from fluorescently stained cells in suspension. The key element in the new technique is the design of an adapter to a standard cuvette holder that makes it possible to measure front-face fluorescence spectra from thin layers of cells spun down to the bottom of a spectrofluorometric cuvette. We have demonstrated the applicability of this approach and its analytical potential using the suspensions of yeast cells stained with the potentiometric dye of 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine, diS-C3(3), and with the specific cell-wall marker calcofluor. PMID:25463661

  18. Sizing of single fluorescently stained DNA fragments by scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Laib, Stephan; Rankl, Michael; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Seeger, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We describe an approach to determine DNA fragment sizes based on the fluorescence detection of single adsorbed fragments on specifically coated glass cover slips. The brightness of single fragments stained with the DNA bisintercalation dye TOTO-1 is determined by scanning the surface with a confocal microscope. The brightness of adsorbed fragments is found to be proportional to the fragment length. The method needs only minute amount of DNA, beyond inexpensive and easily available surface coatings, like poly-l-lysine, 3-aminoproyltriethoxysilane and polyornithine, are utilizable. We performed DNA-sizing of fragment lengths between 2 and 14 kb. Further, we resolved the size distribution before and after an enzymatic restriction digest. At this a separation of buffers or enzymes was unnecessary. DNA sizes were determined within an uncertainty of 7–14%. The proposed method is straightforward and can be applied to standardized microtiter plates. PMID:14602931

  19. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  20. Image analysis of dye stained patterns in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Christina; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Quality of surface water and groundwater is directly affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. In general, it is difficult to measure or model water flow. Indeed, parametrization of hydrological models is problematic and often no unique solution exists. To visualise flow patterns in soils directly dye tracer studies can be done. These experiments provide images of stained soil profiles and their evaluation demands knowledge in hydrology as well as in image analysis and statistics. First, these photographs are converted to binary images classifying the pixels in dye stained and non-stained ones. Then, some feature extraction is necessary to discern relevant hydrological information. In our study we propose to use several index functions to extract different (ideally complementary) features. We associate each image row with a feature vector (i.e. a certain number of image function values) and use these features to cluster the image rows to identify similar image areas. Because images of stained profiles might have different reasonable clusterings, we calculate multiple consensus clusterings. An expert can explore these different solutions and base his/her interpretation of predominant flow mechanisms on quantitative (objective) criteria. The complete workflow from reading-in binary images to final clusterings has been implemented in the free R system, a language and environment for statistical computing. The calculation of image indices is part of our own package Indigo, manipulation of binary images, clustering and visualization of results are done using either build-in facilities in R, additional R packages or the LATEX system.

  1. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  2. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  3. Rapid and easy protein staining for SDS-PAGE using an intramolecular charge transfer-based fluorescent reagent.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Kenji; Namatame, Ichiji

    2006-09-01

    High-performance staining for 1-D and 2-D SDS-PAGE was carried out using a novel protein-binding fluorophore (Dye 1), which noncovalently interacts with proteins and provides a fluorescence emission response to proteins by intramolecular charge transfer. In order to achieve the high-throughput analysis of proteins for SDS-PAGE, the general protocols for in-gel protein staining (SDS-PAGE, fixation, staining, washing, and detection) were simplified to produce an easy and rapid protocol (SDS-PAGE together with staining, washing, and detection). This method was performed by preparation of an electrophoresis buffer containing Dye 1 under optimum conditions, and by the binding of Dye 1 to proteins in the gel during the SDS-PAGE. As a result, this study required only 15 min for protein staining as a minimum time. On the other hand, it takes several hours for the general protein staining method, such as SYPRO Ruby staining (18 h) and CBB staining (105 min). Moreover, the protein-to-protein variation was low, and the detection limit was 7.0 ng/band of BSA (S/N = 3.0) in this method, which was as sensitive as the short-protocol silver staining methods. On the basis of these results, this rapid and easy protocol for SDS-PAGE using Dye 1 may be widely applicable and convenient for users in the various scientific and medical fields. PMID:16944465

  4. Fluorescent indicator dyes for calcium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsien, Roger Y. (Inventor); Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new class of highly fluorescent indicator dyes that are specific for calcium ions. The new fluorescent indicator dyes combine a stilbene-type fluorophore with a tetracarboxylate parent Ca.sup.2+ chelating compound having the octacoordinate pattern of liganding groups characteristic of EGTA and BAPTA. Preferred forms contain extra heterocyclic bridges to reinforce the ethylenic bond of the stilbene and to reduce hydrophobicity. Compared to their widely used predecessor, quin2, the new dyes offer up to thirty-fold brighter fluorescence, major changes in wavelength (not just intensity) upon Ca.sup.2+ binding, slightly lower affinities for Ca.sup.2+, slightly longer wavelengths of excitation, and considerably improved selectivity for Ca.sup.2+ over other divalent cations. These properties, particularly the wavelength sensitivity to Ca.sup.2+, make the dyes useful indicators for many intracellular applications, especially in single cells, adherent cell layers, or bulk tissues. The present invention also discloses an improved method for synthesizing alpha-acyloxyalkyl bromides wherein the bromides so synthesized are free of contaminating bis(1-bromoalkyl)ether. The improved method is exemplified herein in the synthesis of acetoxymethyl bromide, a compound useful in preparing the acetoxymethyl esters disclosed herein as novel Ca.sup.2+ specific fluorescent indicators.

  5. Shock wave diagnostics using fluorescent dye probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, Alexandr; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent probes are highly developed, and have found increasing use in a wide variety of applications. We have studied shock compression of various materials with embedded dye probes used as high speed probes of pressure and temperature. Under the right conditions, dye emission can be used to make a map of the pressure distribution in shocked microstructured materials with high time (1 ns) and space (1 micrometer) resolution. In order to accomplish this goal, we started by studying shock compression of PMMA polymer with rhodamine 6G dye (R6G), as a function of shock pressure and shock duration. We observed the shock-induced spectral redshift and the shock-induced intensity loss. We investigated the fundamental mechanisms of R6G response to pressure. We showed that the time response of a dye probe is limited by its photophysical behavior under shock. We developed superemissive ultrafast dye probes by embedding R6G in a silica nanoparticle. More recently, we have searched for dye probes that have better responses. For instance, we have found that the dye Nile Red embedded in the right polymer matrix has 1.7 times larger pressure-induced redshift than R6G.

  6. Influence of some aldehyde blocking agents on staining of depurinized DNA with cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, J; Freivalds, T

    1979-01-01

    Rat liver, spleen and Walker carcinosarcoma imprints were subjected to depurinizing Feulgen hydrolysis and then treated with blocking agents of aldehyde groups. Such blockators as sodium bisulfite and hydroxylamine which multiplay additionally anionic groups in DNA and intensify the reactions with cationic dyes, ensuring anisotropic staining. Hydrazine lowers the binding of carionic dyes to DNA, instead phenylhydrazine, completely blocks both aldehyde and phosphate groups. When the imprints were treated with 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, aldehyde and phosphate groups of apurinic acid were blocked, and DNA staining by cationic dyes occurred only on account of nitrogroups of the blocking agents which have been used. The staining reaction of cationic dyes after the use of anionogenic blocking agents of aldehyde groups is prospective not only for revealing DNA but also for several other compounds with natural or potential aldo- and ketogroups. However the reaction with phenylhydrazine can serve as a staining without removal of DNA prior to staining as an optional procedure. PMID:86483

  7. Hair ignition by dye laser for port-wine stain: risk factors evaluated.

    PubMed

    Molin, L; Hallgren, S

    1999-04-01

    Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is the preferred treatment for port-wine stain. Vascular hemoglobin and epidermal melanin are competing sites for dye laser absorption and damage. The case presented illustrates the potential hazard of ignition induced by dye laser treatment on the face of a patient receiving inhalation anesthesia. A 6-year-old girl with almost black hair was treated for a port-wine stain covering most of the right half of her face. She was treated with dye laser under general anesthesia administered by mask. A laser pulse close to the upper part of the eyebrow induced a blaze and the eyebrow was instantly destroyed by the fire. Regrowth of the eyebrow was complete after a few months. Hair specimens of various colors were exposed experimentally to dye laser irradiation in room and oxygen-saturated atmospheres. Risk factors of ignition are high laser dosage, a high oxygen level, repeated pulses and dark colored hair. PMID:11357290

  8. A Method for the Direct Identification of Differentiating Muscle Cells by a Fluorescent Mitochondrial Dye

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tetsuaki; McDermott, John C.; Gramolini, Anthony O.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of differentiating muscle cells generally requires fixation, antibodies directed against muscle specific proteins, and lengthy staining processes or, alternatively, transfection of muscle specific reporter genes driving GFP expression. In this study, we examined the possibility of using the robust mitochondrial network seen in maturing muscle cells as a marker of cellular differentiation. The mitochondrial fluorescent tracking dye, MitoTracker, which is a cell-permeable, low toxicity, fluorescent dye, allowed us to distinguish and track living differentiating muscle cells visually by epi-fluorescence microscopy. MitoTracker staining provides a robust and simple detection strategy for living differentiating cells in culture without the need for fixation or biochemical processing. PMID:22174849

  9. Uniform silica nanoparticles encapsulating two-photon absorbing fluorescent dye

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weibing; Liu Chang; Wang Mingliang; Huang Wei; Zhou Shengrui; Jiang Wei; Sun Yueming; Cui Yiping; Xu Chunxinag

    2009-04-15

    We have prepared uniform silica nanoparticles (NPs) doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye by reverse microemulsion method. Obvious solvatochromism on the absorption spectra of dye-doped NPs indicates that solvents can partly penetrate into the silica matrix and then affect the ground and excited state of dye molecules. For dye-doped NP suspensions, both one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence are much stronger and recorded at shorter wavelength compared to those of free dye solutions with comparative overall dye concentration. This behavior is possibly attributed to the restricted twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), which reduces fluorescence quenching when dye molecules are trapped in the silica matrix. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells with low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: Water-soluble silica NPs doped with a two-photon absorbing zwitterionic hemicyanine dye were prepared. They were found of enhanced one-photon and two-photon excited fluorescence compared to free dye solutions. Images from two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the dye-doped silica NPs can be actively uptaken by Hela cells.

  10. Facile and eco-friendly synthesis of green fluorescent carbon nanodots for applications in bioimaging, patterning and staining.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lihong; Li, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofeng; Wen, Xiangping; Zhang, Guomei; Yang, Jun; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2015-04-28

    We report a facile and eco-friendly strategy for the fabrication of green fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for bio-imaging, patterning, and staining. A one-pot hydrothermal method using various plant petals yields bright green-emitting CDs, providing an easy way for the production of green fluorescent CDs without the need for a tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. The as-prepared CDs show small size distribution and excellent dispersibility. Their strong green fluorescence is observed when the excitation wavelength is between 430 nm and 490 nm. Moreover, they exhibit high tolerance to various external conditions, such as pH values, external cations, and continuous excitation. Due to minimum toxicity as well as good photoluminescence properties, these CDs can be applied to in vitro and in vivo imaging, patterning, and staining. According to confocal fluorescence imaging of human uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, CDs penetrate into the cell and enter the cytoplasm and the nucleus. More strikingly, carp is directly fed with CDs for in vivo imaging and shows bright green fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 470 nm. In addition, the obtained CDs are used as fluorescent inks for drawing luminescence patterns. Finally, we also apply the CDs as a fluorescent dye. Interestingly, the absorbent filter paper with staining emits dramatic fluorescence under 470 nm excitation. PMID:25826612

  11. Apoptotic cell nuclei favour aggregation and fluorescence quenching of DNA dyes.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, J; Freivalds, T; Roach, H; Alston, R

    1997-07-01

    Apoptotic cell nuclei are known to stain hyperchromatically with absorption dyes and dimly with many DNA fluorochromes. We hypothesised that both optical phenomena have the same cause--the ability of apoptotic chromatin to aggregate cationic dyes. This hypothesis was tested using prednisolone-primed rat thymus, which is known to contain apoptotic cells. The apoptotic cells were classified as early and late, based on their morphology, in thin and semithin sections and in thymus imprints on slides. Direct reaction for DNA strand breaks (TUNEL) indicated the presence of breaks in both categories of cells, with more intense labelling in late apoptosis. The chromatin ultrastructure of early apoptotic cells initially retained the supranucleosomal order of packaging which characterises control cells, whereas the dense chromatin of late apoptotic cells possessed the degraded structure. Absorption spectra of the toluidine blue-stained early apoptotic cell chromatin revealed a metachromatic shift, indicating a change of DNA conformation and polymerisation of the dye. When the staining was performed by acridine orange (preceded by a short acid treatment), a paradoxical several-fold increase of fluorescence intensity at a several-fold dilution of the dye was found. The simultaneous reduction of the ratio of red to green components of fluorescence confirmed that the concentration-dependent fluorescence quenching was due to aggregation of the dye. The results suggest that the enhanced affinity of the chromatin of early apoptotic cells for cationic dyes is associated with conformational relaxation rather than degradation of DNA. In late apoptotic cells, the very dense packaging of degraded DNA promotes further aggregation of dyes. The results suggest alternative methods for detection and discrimination of early and late apoptotic cells. PMID:9377226

  12. The use of two fluorescent dyes to identify sperm in a competitive binding assay to oocytes.

    PubMed

    Miller, D J; Demers, J M; Braundmeier, A G; Behrens, M L

    1998-01-01

    The relationship of most sperm laboratory assays to male fertility is inconsistent. Assays that measure traits required to fertilize oocytes are expected to have the most predictive value. A new assay that measures the competitive ability of two sperm samples to bind to oocytes was developed. Two populations of sperm were labeled using a pair of lipophilic dyes. A concentration of 75 microM of the two dyes, DiQ (4-[4-(dihexadecylamino)styryl]-N-methylquinolinium iodide; an orange-red dye) and DiOC16 (3,3'-dihexadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate; a yellow-green dye), intensely stained 66 and 73% of sperm, respectively, without affecting sperm motility or oocyte-binding ability. Because sperm could be stained with fluorescent dyes, sperm from two semen samples were mixed together in a droplet, and oocytes were added to allow sperm to bind oocytes competitively. Oocyte-bound sperm from each sample were counted. Binding was specific; nonspecific sperm binding was estimated by sperm bound to two-cell mouse embryos and averaged one to three sperm per embryo. Staining with DiQ or DiOC16 did not affect oocyte-binding ability since more than 80% of the sperm bound were stained with either dye. Furthermore, if different ratios of DiQ- or DiOC16-stained sperm from the same ejaculate were prepared in droplets and oocytes were added, the percentage of sperm bound to the oocytes reflected the percentage of sperm in the droplet; there was no differential effect of either dye. This assay used fixed oocytes because sperm bound equally to fixed and fresh bovine oocytes. This competitive oocyte-binding assay allows one to make a series of pairwise comparisons between a group of males or to include an internal control sample in sperm-oocyte binding assays. This assay may allow more accurate prediction of the oocyte-binding ability of sperm. PMID:9876016

  13. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its sulfonic acid moiety is modified to less water soluble moiety was identified. In polar solvents, these water soluble compounds are strongly fluorescent, however form the less soluble aggregated species with virtual loss of fluorescence when the sulfonate groups are cleaved by enzymatic activity to form the corresponding straight chain alkyl aldehyde derivatives. To achieve this conversion in vitro photo-reduced riboflavin mononucleotide (FMN) with a glucose/ glucose-oxygenase oxygen scavenging system was utilized. The reduced FMN serves as a key substrate in the enzymatic desulfonation. Once the FMNH2 was produced the desulfonation reaction was characterized by using Laser Induced Fluorescence Capillary Zone Electropheresis (LIF-CZE). This method can be utilized as an assay to detect the enzyme activity in vitro with the possibilities of in vivo applications.

  14. Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in Saliva using Papanicolaou Stain Induced Fluorescence Method Versus Fluorochrome Staining: An Evaluative Study

    PubMed Central

    (Munot), Priya P Lunawat; Mhapuskar, Amit A; Ganvir, S M; Hazarey, Vinay K; Mhapuskar, Madhavi A; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fifty years after effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) still remains leading infectious cause of adult mortality. The aim of present study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of papanicolaou (Pap) stain induced fluorescence microscopic examination of salivary smears in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 individuals clinically suspected of suffering from active pulmonary TB. Control group – 50 individuals are suffering from any pulmonary disease other than TB such as pneumonia or bronchiogenic carcinoma. Fluorescence microscopic examination of two salivary smears stained by Pap stain and auramine-rhodamine (A-R) stain respectively for each patient. Ziehl–Neelsen stained sputum smear examined under the light microscope for each patient. Culture was done in all the patients for microbiological confirmation. McNemar's Chi-square analysis, Kappa test, and Z-test. Results: The sensitivities of the three staining methods using culture as a reference method were 93.02%, 88.37% and 87.20% for Pap, A-R and Ziehl–Neelson respectively. Conclusion: Pap-induced fluorescence of salivary smears is a safe, reliable and rapid method, which can prove as a valuable diagnostic tool for diagnosis of TB. PMID:26229384

  15. Facile and eco-friendly synthesis of green fluorescent carbon nanodots for applications in bioimaging, patterning and staining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lihong; Li, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofeng; Wen, Xiangping; Zhang, Guomei; Yang, Jun; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2015-04-01

    We report a facile and eco-friendly strategy for the fabrication of green fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for bio-imaging, patterning, and staining. A one-pot hydrothermal method using various plant petals yields bright green-emitting CDs, providing an easy way for the production of green fluorescent CDs without the need for a tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. The as-prepared CDs show small size distribution and excellent dispersibility. Their strong green fluorescence is observed when the excitation wavelength is between 430 nm and 490 nm. Moreover, they exhibit high tolerance to various external conditions, such as pH values, external cations, and continuous excitation. Due to minimum toxicity as well as good photoluminescence properties, these CDs can be applied to in vitro and in vivo imaging, patterning, and staining. According to confocal fluorescence imaging of human uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, CDs penetrate into the cell and enter the cytoplasm and the nucleus. More strikingly, carp is directly fed with CDs for in vivo imaging and shows bright green fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 470 nm. In addition, the obtained CDs are used as fluorescent inks for drawing luminescence patterns. Finally, we also apply the CDs as a fluorescent dye. Interestingly, the absorbent filter paper with staining emits dramatic fluorescence under 470 nm excitation.We report a facile and eco-friendly strategy for the fabrication of green fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for bio-imaging, patterning, and staining. A one-pot hydrothermal method using various plant petals yields bright green-emitting CDs, providing an easy way for the production of green fluorescent CDs without the need for a tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. The as-prepared CDs show small size distribution and excellent dispersibility. Their strong green fluorescence is observed when the excitation wavelength is between 430 nm and 490 nm. Moreover, they exhibit high tolerance to various external conditions, such as pH values, external cations, and continuous excitation. Due to minimum toxicity as well as good photoluminescence properties, these CDs can be applied to in vitro and in vivo imaging, patterning, and staining. According to confocal fluorescence imaging of human uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, CDs penetrate into the cell and enter the cytoplasm and the nucleus. More strikingly, carp is directly fed with CDs for in vivo imaging and shows bright green fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 470 nm. In addition, the obtained CDs are used as fluorescent inks for drawing luminescence patterns. Finally, we also apply the CDs as a fluorescent dye. Interestingly, the absorbent filter paper with staining emits dramatic fluorescence under 470 nm excitation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00783f

  16. Fluorescent dyes with directly connected xanthone and xanthene units.

    PubMed

    Katori, Akane; Azuma, Eriko; Ishimura, Hina; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori

    2015-05-01

    Unexpected dimerization of a methoxymethyl-protected xanthone occurred upon treatment with an aryl lithium reagent generated from 2-bromo-1,3-dimethylbenzene and n-butyllithium. The hydrogen between two directing ethereal oxygen atoms was not abstracted, but that adjacent to the carbonyl group was removed to afford a dimeric compound containing two directly connected fluorescent xanthone and xanthene units. Starting from this discovery, three dimeric dyes were constructed, and their optical properties were examined. Although the two fluorescent units were orthogonal in each dye, efficient energy transfer was observed in dimeric dye 16 in three solvent systems. In contrast, solvent-dependent energy transfer was detected for another dimeric dye, 5. After close investigation, we found that the orientation factor (?) is the main factor influencing Förster resonance energy transfer in these dyes. PMID:25867283

  17. Highly fluorescent and water-soluble diketopyrrolopyrrole dyes for bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Elodie; Lory, Pauline; Leprince, Jérôme; Moreau, Mathieu; Romieu, Anthony; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo; Ziessel, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    The preparation of highly water-soluble and strongly fluorescent diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) dyes using an unusual taurine-like sulfonated linker has been achieved. Exchanging a phenyl for a thienyl substituent shifts the emission wavelength to near ?=600?nm. The free carboxylic acid group present in these new derivatives was readily activated and the dyes were subsequently covalently linked to a model protein (bovine serum albumin; BSA). The bioconjugates were characterized by electronic absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, thus enabling precise determination of the labeling density (ratio DPP/BSA about 3 to 8). Outstanding values of fluorescence quantum yield (30% to 59%) for these bioconjugates are obtained. The photostability of these DPP dyes is considerably greater than that of fluorescein under the same irradiation conditions. Remarkably low detection limits between 80 and 300?molecules/?m(2) were found for the BSA bioconjugates by fluorescence imaging with a epifluorescence microscope. PMID:25630532

  18. Dimeric fluorescent energy transfer dyes comprising asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine chromophores

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel fluorescent heterodimeric DNA-staining energy transfer dyes are provided combining asymmetric cyanine azole-indolenine dyes, which provide for strong DNA affinity, large Stokes shifts and emission in the red region of the spectrum. The dyes find particular application in gel electrophoresis and for labels which may be bound to a variety of compositions in a variety of contexts. Kits and individual compounds are provided, where the kits find use for simultaneous detection of a variety of moieties, particularly using a single narrow wavelength irradiation source. The individual compounds are characterized by high donor quenching and high affinity to dsDNA as a result of optimizing the length of the linking group separating the two chromophores.

  19. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W

    2015-11-01

    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  20. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tony J.; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose–response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  1. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the appropriate amount of tracers was found according to the flowrate of the spring. The amount of dye is very important for the consistency of the results and the applicability of the tests. For example if the amount of tracer that is estimated is found to be inadequate, any field readings and data could be lost. Most importantly tracer dye is costly and hard to prepare, transport and will follow a torturous path through the cave to the underground river.

  2. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-? estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  3. Design, Syntheses and Applications of Fluorescent Dyes 

    E-print Network

    Wu, Liangxing

    2010-10-12

    OH (10 -6 M for absorbance; 10 -7 M for fluorescence)...................................................... 141 6.9. Normalized (a) absorbance, (b) fluorescence in MeOH; (c) absorbance, (d) fluorescence in 0.1 M phosphoate buffer (pH 7... wavelength (Figure 1.3.). a b 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 re l. in te n s ity wavelength (nm) c d 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 450 500 550 600 650...

  4. Designer metal-nanoantennae/dye complexes for maximum fluorescence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang; Yang, Hao; Grote, Richard R.; Dadap, Jerry I.; Panoiu, Nicolae C.; Osgood, Richard M.

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the fluorescence enhancement of a representative set of dye-molecules excited by three classes of nanoantennae, using a fully vectorial three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) method. Through these 3D FDTD calculations, in conjunction with analytic guidance using temporal coupled-mode (TCM) theory, we develop a design procedure for antennae assemblies that allow achieving fluorescence enhancements of 200-900 over the emission intensity in the bare dye molecule. The enhancement from these commercially available fluorochrome conjugates, namely, CFTM568, CFTM660R and CFTM790 are fully investigated using spherical-dimer, elliptical-dimer, and bowtie nanoantennae. These results demonstrate a method for rationally designing arbitrary metallic nanoparticle/emitter assemblies prior to their synthesis and assembly to achieve optimum fluorescence enhancement.

  5. Near?infrared fluorescence imaging of prostate cancer using heptamethine carbocyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianlin; Yi, Xiaomin; Yan, Fei; Wang, Fuli; Qin, Weijun; Wu, Guojun; Yang, Xiaojian; Shao, Chen; Chung, Leland W K

    2015-02-01

    Near?infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is an attractive novel modality for the detection of cancer. A previous study defined two organic polymethine cyanine dyes as ideal NIRF probes, IR?783 and its derivative MHI?148, which have excellent optical characteristics, superior biocompatibility and cancer targeting abilities. To investigate the feasibility of NIRF dye?mediated prostate cancer imaging, dye uptake and subcellular co?localization were investigated in PC?3, DU?145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells and RWPE?1 normal prostate epithelial cells. Different organic anion transporting peptide (OATP) inhibitors were utilized to explore the potential role of the OATP subtype, including the nonspecific OATP inhibitor bromosulfophthalein, the OATP1 inhibitor 17??estradiol, the selective OATP1B1 inhibitor rifampicin and the selective OATP1B3 inhibitor cholecystokinin octapeptide. NIRF dyes were also used for the simulated detection of circulating tumor cells and the rapid detection of prostate cancer in human prostate cancer tissues and prostate cancer xenografts in mouse models. The results revealed that the cancer?specific uptake of these organic dyes in prostate cancer cells occurred primarily via OATP1B3. A strong NIRF signal was detected in prostate cancer tissues, but not in normal tissues that were stained with IR?783. Prostate cancer cells were recognized with particular NIR fluorescence in isolated mononuclear cell mixtures. The results of the present study demonstrated that NIRF dye?mediated imaging is a feasible and practicable method for prostate cancer detection, although further investigative studies are required before clinical translation. PMID:25354708

  6. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonaro, Carlo M. Corpino, Riccardo Ricci, Pier Carlo Chiriu, Daniele; Cannas, Carla

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Fluorescent Dyes as a Protein Conjugation Partner for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab) fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph) and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac). These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye?protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green), Cy3 (red), and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red). PMID:25184362

  8. Fluorescent labeling of dendritic spines in cell cultures with the carbocyanine dye “DiI”

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Connie; Trzcinski, Olivia; Doering, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing cell morphology is a key component to understand neuronal function. Several staining techniques have been developed to facilitate the morphological analysis of neurons, including the use of fluorescent markers, such as DiI (1,1?-dioctadecyl-3,3,3?,3?-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate). DiI is a carbocyanine membrane dye that exhibits enhanced fluorescence upon insertion of its lipophilic hydrocarbon chains into the lipid membrane of cells. The high photostability and prominent fluorescence of the dye serves as an effective means of illuminating cellular architecture in individual neurons, including detailed dendritic arborizations and spines in cell culture and tissue sections. Here, we specifically optimized a simple and reliable method to fluorescently label and visualize dissociated hippocampal neurons using DiI and high-resolution confocal microscopic imaging. With high efficacy, this method accurately labels neuronal and synaptic morphology to permit quantitative analysis of dendritic spines. Accurate imaging techniques of these fine neuronal specializations are vital to the study of their morphology and can help delineate structure-function relationships in the central nervous system. PMID:24847216

  9. Assessment of gamete quality for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) by use of fluorescent dyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paniagua-Chavez, C. G.; Jenkins, J.; Segovia, M.; Tiersch, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of sperm motility is the single most widely used parameter to determine semen quality in mammals and aquatic species. While a good indicator for fresh sperm viability, post-thaw motility is not always effective at predicting fertilizing ability. Techniques using fluorescent dyes can assess functionality of mammalian sperm, but have not been widely applied in aquatic organisms. The eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica is an important mollusk in the United States, and cryopreservation protocols have been developed to preserve sperm and larvae to assist research and hatchery production. In this study, protocols were developed to assess sperm cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial function by flow cytometry and to assess viability of eggs by fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescent dyes SYBR 14 and propidium iodide (PI) (to assess membrane integrity) and rhodamine 123 (R123) (to assess mitochondrial membrane potential) were used to evaluate the quality of thawed oyster sperm previously cryopreserved with different cryoprotectant and thawing treatments. Membrane integrity results were correlated with motility of thawed sperm and mitochondrial membrane potential with fertilizing ability. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used to assess cytotoxicity of cryoprotectant solutions and post-thaw damage to oyster eggs. The results indicated that membrane integrity (P = 0.004) and thawing treatments (P = 0.04), and mitochondrial membrane potential (P = 0.0015) were correlated with motility. Fertilizing ability was correlated with cryoprotectant treatments (P = 0.0258) and with mitochondrial membrane potential (P = 0.001). The dye FDA was useful in indicating structural integrity of fresh and thawed eggs. Exposure of eggs, without freezing, to dimethyl sulfoxide yielded higher percentages of stained eggs and fertilization rate than did exposure to propylene glycol (P = 0.002). Thawed eggs were not stained with FDA (<1%) and larvae were not produced. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowi?ski, Pawe?; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  11. Two-photon fluorescence and fluorescence imaging of two styryl heterocyclic dyes combined with DNA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Liu, Shu-Yao; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Ying-Kai; Qiao, Cong-de; Liu, Zhao-E

    2016-03-01

    Two new styryl heterocyclic two-photon (TP) materials, 4-[4-(N-methyl)styrene]-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-benzene iodated salt (probe-1) and 4,4- [4-(N-methyl)styrene] -benzene iodated salt (probe-2) were successfully synthesized and studied as potential fluorescent probes of DNA detection. The linear and nonlinear photophysical properties of two compounds in different solvents were investigated. The absorption, one- and two-photon fluorescent spectra of the free dye and dye-DNA complex were also examined to evaluate their photophysical properties. The binding constants of dye-DNA were obtained according to Scatchard equation with good values. The results showed that two probes could be used as fluorescent DNA probes by two-photon excitation, and TP fluorescent properties of probe-1 are superior to that of probe-2. The fluorescent method date indicated that the mechanisms of dye-DNA complex interaction may be groove binding for probe-1 and electrostatic interaction for probe-2, respectively. The MTT assay experiments showed two probes are low toxicity. Moreover, the TP fluorescence imaging of DNA detection in living cells at 800nm indicated that the ability to locate in cell nuclei of probe-1 is better than that of probe-2. PMID:26629954

  12. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  13. Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2013-04-01

    A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

  14. Particle Image Velocimetry Applications Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Brian J.; Maisto, Pietro; Lowe, K. Todd; Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Tiemsin, Patsy I.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene latex sphere particles are widely used to seed flows for velocimetry techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). These particles may be doped with fluorescent dyes such that signals spectrally shifted from the incident laser wavelength may be detected via Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). An attractive application of the LIF signal is achieving velocimetry in the presence of strong interference from laser scatter, opening up new research possibilities very near solid surfaces or at liquid/gas interfaces. Additionally, LIF signals can be used to tag different fluid streams to study mixing. While fluorescence-based PIV has been performed by many researchers for particles dispersed in water flows, the current work is among the first in applying the technique to micron-scale particles dispersed in a gas. A key requirement for such an application is addressing potential health hazards from fluorescent dyes; successful doping of Kiton Red 620 (KR620) has enabled the use of this relatively safe dye for fluorescence PIV for the first time. In this paper, basic applications proving the concept of PIV using the LIF signal from KR620-doped particles are exhibited for a free jet and a twophase flow apparatus. Results indicate that while the fluorescence PIV techniques are roughly 2 orders of magnitude weaker than Mie scattering, they provide a viable method for obtaining data in flow regions previously inaccessible via standard PIV. These techniques have the potential to also complement Mie scattering signals, for example in multi-stream and/or multi-phase experiments.

  15. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  16. Bright and photostable cyanine-styryl chromophores with green and red fluorescence colour for DNA staining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohländer, Peggy R.; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and optical characterisation of a series of green- and red-emitting cyanine and cyanine-styryl dyes is presented that were developed based on the cyanine-indole-quinolinium and based on the thiazole red type structure. For the green emitting fluorophores the quinolinium part was replaced by a pyridinium group. The bridge to the indole group was attached either to the 2-position or to the 4-position of the pyridinium moiety. For the red-emitting dyes the connection to the indole moiety is at the 4-position of the quinolinium part. In each set of dyes a methyl group at the indole-NH and/or a phenyl group at the 2-position of the indole part were introduced to tune the optical properties and photostability. Additionally, two dyes were modified with a cyano group to tune the photophysical properties and to enhance the photostabilities. The developed dyes show good photostabilities and bright green or red fluorescence intensities in the presence of DNA. Thus, these dyes represent important and promising candidates for fluorescent molecular imaging of nucleic acids inside living cells.

  17. Monitoring cell proliferation in vitro with different cellular fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Zolnierowicz, Joanna; Ambrozek-Latecka, Magdalena; Kawiak, Jerzy; Wasilewska, Danuta; Hoser, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    There are few methods for quantifying cell proliferation. Those tests describe the proliferation kinetics of a cell population, but they do not report the history of single cells, the number and frequency of cell divisions, or the precursor cell frequency. Cell-tracking assays based on dilution of the green fluorescent protein labelling dye, CFSE, has become the standard for monitoring cell proliferation. Other labelling dyes, e.g. CellTrace Violet and CellVue Claret, are also used for the same purpose. This study aimed to compare these three cell labelling methods for analysing the kinetics of cell viability, proliferation, and precursor cell frequency. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Concanavalin A (ConA) were used as a model system. After labelling with a cell-tracking dye cells were divided into groups with and without ConA stimulation. From the 5th to 8th day, cells were collected and analysed with flow cytometry. Cell viability was not significantly different between labelled and unlabelled cells that received ConA stimulation. The proliferative fraction, proliferation index, and nonproliferative fraction were not significantly different among lymphocytes labelled with different dyes. Precursor cell frequency was also similar among cells labelled with the three cell-tracing dyes. The practical conclusion from our observations is that the results from cells labelled with different tracers may be compared directly and discussed jointly. PMID:24203624

  18. Ethidium bromide: a fast fluorescent staining procedure for the detection of symbiotic partnership of flagellates and prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, J; König, H

    1999-03-01

    The hindgut of 'lower' termites harbors a dense population of flagellates and bacteria. The flagellates possess ecto- and endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Most of them are hardly visible in the phase contrast microscope. Staining with the DNA-intercalating agent ethidium bromide visualizes the nuclei of the flagellates as well as the ecto- and endosymbiotic bacteria as red objects. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between endosymbiotic methanogens and other bacteria. Following UV excitation, the blue-green autofluorescence of the methanogenic bacteria eclipses the red fluorescence light of the intercalated ethidium bromide. The dye facilitates the observation of symbiotic bacteria and helps identify the number, shape, localization, and dividing status of the nuclei. Thus, it is a powerful tool for the examination of microorganisms in complex habitats, which are rich in strongly autofluorescent material, like wood. PMID:10192044

  19. Application of the DNA-specific stain methyl green in the fluorescent labeling of embryos.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Daniel; Aparicio, Gonzalo; Machado, Matías; Zolessi, Flavio R

    2015-01-01

    Methyl green has long been known as a histological stain with a specific affinity for DNA, although its fluorescent properties have remained unexplored until recently. In this article, we illustrate the method for preparing a methyl green aqueous stock solution, that when diluted can be used as a very convenient fluorescent nuclear label for fixed cells and tissues. Easy procedures to label whole zebrafish and chick embryos are detailed, and examples of images obtained shown. Methyl green is maximally excited by red light, at 633 nm, and emits with a relatively sharp spectrum that peaks at 677 nm. It is very inexpensive, non-toxic, highly stable in solution and very resistant to photobleaching when bound to DNA. Its red emission allows for unaltered high resolution scanning confocal imaging of nuclei in thick specimens. Finally, this methyl green staining protocol is compatible with other cell staining procedures, such as antibody labeling, or actin filaments labeling with fluorophore-conjugated phalloidin. PMID:25993383

  20. Exploration of the two-photon excitation spectrum of fluorescent dyes at wavelengths below the range of the Ti:Sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, J; Robb, G; Amor, R; Amos, W B; Dempster, J; McConnell, G

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the wavelength dependence of the two-photon excitation efficiency for a number of common UV excitable fluorescent dyes; the nuclear stains DAPI, Hoechst and SYTOX Green, chitin- and cellulose-staining dye Calcofluor White and Alexa Fluor 350, in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (540-800 nm). For several of the dyes, we observe a substantial increase in the fluorescence emission intensity for shorter excitation wavelengths than the 680 nm which is the shortest wavelength usually available for two-photon microscopy. We also find that although the rate of photo-bleaching increases at shorter wavelengths, it is still possible to acquire many images with higher fluorescence intensity. This is particularly useful for applications where the aim is to image the structure, rather than monitoring changes in emission intensity over extended periods of time. We measure the excitation spectrum when the dyes are used to stain biological specimens to get a more accurate representation of the spectrum of the dye in a cell environment as compared to solution-based measurements. PMID:25946127

  1. Identification of malaria parasites by fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange staining

    PubMed Central

    Shute, G. T.; Sodeman, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    The need for a technique that is more sensitive than the use of Romanowsky-stained thick blood films for detecting malaria parasites at low concentration in the blood is well recognized. One of the more promising methods appeared to be fluorochrome staining with acridine orange. However, reports on the efficacy of the technique were contradictory and it was not clear to what extent blood films taken under survey conditions would contain fluorescing artefacts that might confuse diagnosis. An investigation indicated that, provided reasonable care was taken, blood films made under survey conditions contained few confusing artefacts. However, it was found that, while acridine orange staining might have a slight advantage when large malaria parasites were present, it was inferior to routine Romanowsky staining for the detection of young trophozoites, the inferiority becoming more pronounced as the parasite concentration decreased. PMID:4130021

  2. Anatomical differences in response to treatment of port-wine stains by the pulsed dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renfro, Lisa; Geronemus, Roy G.

    1992-06-01

    Two-hundred and fifty-seven patients (136 adults and 121 children) with port-wine stains of the head and neck were treated with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser. The head and neck was subdivided into 8 anatomical regions (forehead/temple, periorbital, medial cheek, nose, upper cutaneous lip, lateral cheek, chin and neck) which were independently evaluated for response. Response to treatment was found to be associated with the anatomical location of the lesion; in both adults and children the mid-facial region (medial cheek, nose and upper cutaneous lip) responded less favorably to treatment than the other regions of the head and neck (periorbital, forehead/temple, lateral cheek, neck and chin). In adults and children, mean percent lesional lightening of the mid-facial regions was 70.7% compared to 82.3% of the other regions of the head and neck with an estimated difference of 11.6% (95% confidence interval: 8.7% - 14.6%). The mean number of treatments for adults was 3.7, while this number in children was 3.9. All side effects were transient, and included cutaneous depressions, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation.

  3. Laser velocimetry with fluorescent dye-doped polystyrene microspheres.

    PubMed

    Lowe, K Todd; Maisto, Pietro; Byun, Gwibo; Simpson, Roger L; Verkamp, Max; Danehy, Paul M; Tiemsin, Pacita I; Wohl, Christopher J

    2013-04-15

    Simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals are obtained from individual polystyrene latex microspheres dispersed in an air flow. Microspheres less than 1 ?m mean diameter were doped with two organic fluorescent dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB) and dichlorofluorescein (DCF), intended either to provide improved particle-based flow velocimetry in the vicinity of surfaces or to provide scalar flow information (e.g., marking one of two fluid streams). Both dyes exhibit measureable fluorescence signals that are on the order of 10(-3) to 10(-4) times weaker than the simultaneously measured Mie signals. It is determined that at the conditions measured, 95.5% of RhB LIF signals and 32.2% of DCF signals provide valid laser-Doppler velocimetry measurements compared with the Mie scattering validation rate with 6.5 W of 532 nm excitation, while RhB excited with 1.0 W incident laser power still exhibits 95.4% valid velocimetry signals from the LIF channel. The results suggest that the method is applicable to wind tunnel measurements near walls where laser flare can be a limiting factor and monodisperse particles are essential. PMID:23595429

  4. Cell-death assessment by fluorescent and nonfluorescent cytosolic and nuclear staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Atale, N; Gupta, S; Yadav, U C S; Rani, V

    2014-07-01

    Apoptosis, a genetically programmed cellular event leads to biochemical and morphological changes in cells. Alterations in DNA caused by several factors affect nucleus and ultimately the entire cell leading to compromised function of the organ and organism. DNA, a master regulator of the cellular events, is an important biomolecule with regards to cell growth, cell death, cell migration and cell differentiation. It is therefore imperative to develop the staining techniques that may lead to visualize the changes in nucleus where DNA is housed, to comprehend the cellular pathophysiology. Over the years a number of nuclear staining techniques such as propidium iodide, Hoechst-33342, 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), Acridine orange-Ethidium bromide staining, among others have been developed to assess the changes in DNA. Some nonnuclear staining techniques such as Annexin-V staining, which although does not stain DNA, but helps to identify the events that result from DNA alteration and leads to initiation of apoptotic cell death. In this review, we have briefly discussed some of the most commonly used fluorescent and nonfluorescent staining techniques that identify apoptotic changes in cell, DNA and the nucleus. These techniques help in differentiating several cellular and nuclear phenotypes that result from DNA damage and have been identified as specific to necrosis or early and late apoptosis as well as scores of other nuclear deformities occurring inside the cells. PMID:24831993

  5. Influence of pulsewidth on the efficiency of pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of port-wine stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strempel, Hartmut; Klein, Guy

    1996-12-01

    In order to destroy selectively cutaneous vessels with a dye laser, the exposition time has to be shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target tissue. Within this frame of time longer pulses are found to be more efficient in bleaching portwine stains than shorter ones. Two pulses of different length but with identical power density are compared in their therapeutical efficiency by means of reflectometry. There were no relevant differences neither in terms of lightness, redness nor in yellowness. If the increment and the irradiance is the same, a pulse stretching form 200 microsecond(s) to 260 microsecond(s) does not influence decisively the therapeutical effect in portwine stains.

  6. Topography and Response Timing of Intact Cerebellum Stained With Absorbance Voltage-Sensitive Dye

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Michael E.; Ariel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Physiological activity of the turtle cerebellar cortex (Cb), maintained in vitro, was recorded during microstimulation of inferior olive (IO). Previous single-electrode responses to such stimulation showed similar latencies across a limited region of Cb, yet those recordings lacked spatial and temporal resolution and the recording depth was variable. The topography and timing of those responses were reexamined using photodiode optical recordings. Because turtle Cb is thin and unfoliated, its entire surface can be stained by a voltage-sensitive dye and transilluminated to measure changes in its local absorbance. Microstimulation of the IO evoked widespread depolarization from the rostral to the caudal edge of the contralateral Cb. The time course of responses measured at a single photodiode matched that of single-microelectrode responses in the corresponding Cb locus. The largest and most readily evoked response was a sagittal band centered about 0.7 mm from the midline. Focal white-matter (WM) microstimulation on the ventricular surface also activated sagittal bands, whereas stimulation of adjacent granule cells evoked a radial patch of activation. In contrast, molecular-layer (ML) microstimulation evoked transverse beams of activation, centered on the rostrocaudal stimulus position, which traveled bidirectionally across the midline to the lateral edges of the Cb. A timing analysis demonstrated that both IO and WM microstimulation evoked responses with a nearly simultaneous onset along a sagittal band, whereas ML microstimulation evoked a slowly propagating wave traveling about 25 cm/s. The response similarity to IO and WM microstimulation suggests that the responses to WM microstimulation are dominated by activation of its climbing fibers. The Cb's role in the generation of precise motor control may result from these temporal and topographic differences in orthogonally oriented pathways. Optical recordings of the turtle's thin flat Cb can provide insights into that role. PMID:19004999

  7. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence studies of novel tetrachloroperylene-azo hybrid dyes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Shabir, Ghulam

    2014-07-01

    Novel rylene-azo hybrid dyes have been synthesized by condensation of azo-dyes with tetrachloroperylene dianhydride, possessing stupendous thermal, chemical and photochemical stability. Phenolic azo dyes are used for the nucleophilic replacement of chlorine substituents at 1,6,7,12-positions of perylene 3,4,9,10-dianhydride system. The absorption maxima (?(max)) of these dyes have been determined in diverse solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and N, N-dimethylformamide. Fluorescence spectra are taken in water and highest fluorescence was exhibited by dyes containing carboxylic groups. The ?(max) and fluorescence of these dyes is greatly affected by polarity of solvents. The structures of newly synthesized rylene-azo hybrid dyes have been confirmed by UV, FTIR and (1)HNMR spectroscopy. PMID:24912451

  8. Clinical approved fluorescent dyes coupled to endomicroscopy for in vivo diagnostic of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaci, Muriel; Dartigues, Peggy; Soufan, Ranya; De Leeuw, Frederic; Fabre, Monique; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is metastatic stage aggravating digestive, gynecological or bladder cancer dissemination and the preoperative evaluation of lesions remains difficult. There is therefore a need for minimal invasive innovative techniques to establish a precise preoperative assessment of cancer peritoneal cavity. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) provides dynamic images of the microarchitecture of tissues during an endoscopy. The PERSEE project proposes new developments in robotics and pCLE for the exploration of the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopy. Two fluorescent dyes, Patent blue V and Indocyanine green have been evaluated on human ex vivo samples to improve the contrast of pCLE images. For a future implementation in clinical study, two topically staining protocols operable in vivo have been validated on 70 specimens from 25 patients with a peritoneal carcinomatosis. The specimens were then imaged by pCLE with an optical probe designed for the application. A histo-morphological correlative study was performed on 350 pCLE images and 70 standard histological preparations. All images were interpreted in a random way by two pathologists. Differential histological diagnostics such as normal peritoneum or pseudomyxoma could be recognized on fluorescence images. The statistical analysis of the correlative study is underway. These dyes already approved for human use are interesting for pCLE imaging because some micromorphological criteria look like to conventional histology and are readable by pathologist. Thus pCLE images using both dyes do not require a specific semiology unlike to what is described in the literature, for pCLE associated with fluorescein for the in vivo imaging of pancreatic cysts.

  9. Evaluation of fluorescent dye degradation indirectly induced by x-ray ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Clayton Augusto; Duarte de Menezes, Frederico; de Araujo, Renato E

    2015-08-01

    This work evaluated the fluorescent dye degradation indirectly induced by ionizing radiation with high energy photons (50 keV). Aqueous gels of agarose with low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G and Fluorescein were submitted to doses of x-ray radiation up to 200 Gy. The dye degradation was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, using an excitation light-emitting diode with a peak wavelength of 462 nm. A rate equation model of fluorophores and radicals' species populations was developed to describe the degradation time behavior of the fluorescent solutions. The model suggests fluorescent dyes should be used in dosimetry. PMID:26368112

  10. A new probe using hybrid virus-dye nanoparticles for near-infrared fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changfeng; Barnhill, Hannah; Liang, Xiaoping; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Huabei

    2005-11-01

    A fluorescent probe based on bionanoparticle cowpea mosaic virus has been developed for near-infrared fluorescence tomography. A unique advantage of this probe is that over 30 dye molecules can be loaded onto each viral nanoparticle with an average diameter of 30 nm, making high local dye concentration (?1.8 mM) possible without significant fluorescence quenching. This ability of high loading of local dye concentration would increase the signal-to-noise ratio considerably, thus sensitivity for detection. We demonstrate successful tomographic fluorescence imaging of a target containing the virus-dye nanoparticles embedded in a tissue-like phantom. Tomographic fluorescence data were obtained through a multi-channel frequency-domain system and the spatial maps of fluorescence quantum yield were recovered with a finite-element-based reconstruction algorithm.

  11. Development of fluorescent probes that bind and stain amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Eun Je; Park, Jeong Hoon; Kong, Young Bae; Rho, Jong Kook; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Park, Yong Dae

    2015-11-01

    ?-amyloid (A?) plaques in the brain are composed of A?40 and A?42 peptides, and are the defining pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluorescent probes that can detect A? plaques have gained increasing interest as potential tools for in vitro and in vivo monitoring of the progression of AD. In this study, chalcone-mimic fluorescent probe 5 was designed and prepared. Probe 5 exhibited an approximately 50-fold increase in emission intensity after mixing with A?42 aggregates, a high affinity for A?42 aggregates (K D = 1.59 ?M), and reasonable lipophilicity (log P value = 2.55). Probe 5 also exhibited specific staining of A? plaques in the transgenic mice (APP/PS1) brain sections. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging of the brain from normal and TG mice revealed that probe 5 was able to penetrate the BBB and stain the A? plaques. These results suggest that chalcone-mimic probe 5 possessed the requirements of a fluorescent probe for A? plaques and may be useful in AD research. PMID:26012373

  12. Modelling of microcracks image treated with fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, Victor; Lashmanov, Oleg U.

    2015-06-01

    The main reasons of catastrophes and accidents are high level of wear of equipment and violation of the production technology. The methods of nondestructive testing are designed to find out defects timely and to prevent break down of aggregates. These methods allow determining compliance of object parameters with technical requirements without destroying it. This work will discuss dye penetrant inspection or liquid penetrant inspection (DPI or LPI) methods and computer model of microcracks image treated with fluorescent dye. Usually cracks on image look like broken extended lines with small width (about 1 to 10 pixels) and ragged edges. The used method of inspection allows to detect microcracks with depth about 10 or more micrometers. During the work the mathematical model of image of randomly located microcracks treated with fluorescent dye was created in MATLAB environment. Background noises and distortions introduced by the optical systems are considered in the model. The factors that have influence on the image are listed below: 1. Background noise. Background noise is caused by the bright light from external sources and it reduces contrast on the objects edges. 2. Noises on the image sensor. Digital noise manifests itself in the form of randomly located points that are differing in their brightness and color. 3. Distortions caused by aberrations of optical system. After passing through the real optical system the homocentricity of the bundle of rays is violated or homocentricity remains but rays intersect at the point that doesn't coincide with the point of the ideal image. The stronger the influence of the above-listed factors, the worse the image quality and therefore the analysis of the image for control of the item finds difficulty. The mathematical model is created using the following algorithm: at the beginning the number of cracks that will be modeled is entered from keyboard. Then the point with random position is choosing on the matrix whose size is 1024x1024 pixels (result image size). This random pixel and two adjacent points are painted with random brightness, the points, located at the edges have lower brightness than the central pixel. The width of the paintbrush is 3 pixels. Further one of the eight possible directions is chosen and the painting continues in this direction. The number of `steps' is also entered at the beginning of the program. This method of cracks simulating is based on theory A.N. Galybin and A.V. Dyskin, which describe cracks propagation as random walk process. These operations are repeated as many times as many cracks it's necessary to simulate. After that background noises and Gaussian blur (for simulating bad focusing of optical system) are applied.

  13. AMBER-DYES: Characterization of Charge Fluctuations and Force Field Parameterization of Fluorescent Dyes for Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Graen, Timo; Hoefling, Martin; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in single molecule fluorescence experiments and theory allow a direct comparison and improved interpretation of experiment and simulation. To this end, force fields for a larger number of dyes are required which are compatible with and can be integrated into existing biomolecular force fields. Here, we developed, characterized, and implemented AMBER-DYES, a modular fluorescent label force field, for a set of 22 fluorescent dyes and their linkers from the Alexa, Atto, and Cy families, which are in common use for single molecule spectroscopy experiments. The force field is compatible with the AMBER protein force fields and the GROMACS molecular dynamics simulation program. The high electronic polarizability of the delocalized ?-electron orbitals, as found in many fluorescent dyes, poses a particular challenge to point charge based force fields such as AMBER. To quantify the charge fluctuations due to the electronic polarizability, we simulated the 22 dyes in explicit solvent and sampled the charge fluctuations using QM/MM simulations at the B3LYP/6-31G*//TIP3P level of theory. The analysis of the simulations enabled us to derive ensemble fitted RESP charges from the solvated charge distributions of multiple trajectories. We observed broad, single peaked charge distributions for the conjugated ring atoms with well-defined mean values. The charge fitting procedure was validated against published charges of the dyelike amino acid tryptophan, which showed good agreement with existing tryptophan parameters from the AMBER, CHARMM, and OPLS force field families. A principal component analysis of the charge fluctuations revealed that a small number of collective coordinates suffices to describe most of the in-plane dye polarizability. The AMBER-DYES force field allows the rapid preparation of all atom molecular dynamics simulations of fluorescent systems for state of the art multi microsecond trajectories. PMID:26583233

  14. Estrogen receptor-targeted optical imaging of breast cancer cells with near-infrared fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Iven; Deodhar, Kodand; Chiplunkar, Shuba V.; Patkar, Meena

    2010-02-01

    Molecular imaging provides the in vivo characterization of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. With the advent of optical molecular imaging, specific molecules, proteins and genes may be tagged with a luminescent reporter and visualized in small animals. This powerful new tool has pushed in vivo optical imaging to the forefront as it allows for direct determination of drug bio-distribution and uptake kinetics as well as an indicator of biochemical activity and drug efficacy. Although optical imaging encompasses diverse techniques and makes use of various wavelengths of light, a great deal of excitement in molecular research lies in the use of tomographic and fluorescence techniques to image living tissues with near-infrared (NIR) light. Nonionizing, noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging has great potential to become promising alternative for breast cancer detection. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies of human tissue suggest that a variety of lesions show distinct fluorescence spectra compared to those of normal tissue. It has also been shown that exogenous dyes exhibit selective uptake in neoplastic lesions and may offer the best contrast for optical imaging. Use of exogenous agents would provide fluorescent markers, which could serve to detect embedded tumors in the breast. In particular, the ability to monitor the fluorescent yield and lifetime may also enable biochemical specificity if the fluorophore is sensitive to a specific metabolite, such as oxygen. As a first step, we have synthesized and characterized one such NIR fluorescent dye conjugate, which could potentially be used to detect estrogen receptors (ER)[2] . The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-? estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1, 1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5- carboxylic acid, sodium salt. The ester formed was found to have an extra binding ability with the receptor cites as compared to ICG, which was established by the partition coefficient studies. The replacement of the sodium ion in the ester by a larger glucosammonium ion was found to enhance the hydrophilicity and reduce the toxic effect on the cell lines. The excitation and emission peaks for the conjugate were recorded in the NIR region as 750nm and 788nm respectively. The ester was found nontoxic on adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/MDA-MB-231. Specific binding and endocytosis of the estrogen-labeled conjugate was studied on the MCF-7 (ER positive) and MDA-MB-231 (ER negative). Conjugate staining of MCF-7 cells showed ~ 4-fold increase in signal intensity compared to MDA-MB- 231. Further, estrogen molecules were found to be specifically localized to the nuclear region of MCF-7 cells, whereas MDA-MB-231 showed plasma membrane staining. This technique offers the potential of noninvasive detection of hormone receptor status in breast cancer cells and would help in decreasing the load of unnecessary biopsies. Here, we have reported the progress made in the development of a novel NIR external contrast agent and the work is in progress to use this conjugate for the molecular based, diagnostic imaging of breast cancer.

  15. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  16. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  17. Enhancement of the fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes caused by their interaction with nanoparticles from ?-diketonate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet in aqueous and alcoholic-aqueous solutions in which nanoparticles from Ln(III) and Sc(III) diketonates are formed at concentrations of complexes in a solution of 5-30 ?M. We have shown that, if the concentrations of the dyes in the solution are lower than 0.5 ?M, dye molecules are incorporated completely into nanoparticles or are precipitated onto their surface. The fluorescence intensity of these incorporated and adsorbed Malachite Green and Crystal Violet molecules increases by several orders of magnitude compared to the solution, which takes place because of a sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yields of these dyes and at the expense of the sensitization of their fluorescence upon energy transfer from ?-diketonate complexes entering into the composition of nanoparticles. We have shown that, if there is no concentration quenching, the values of the fluorescence quantum yield of the Crystal Violet dye incorporated into nanoparticles and adsorbed on their surface vary from 0.06 to 0.13, i.e., are close to the fluorescence quantum yield of this dye in solid solutions of sucrose acetate at room temperature. The independence of the fluorescence quantum yield of Crystal Violet on the morphology of nanoparticles testifies to a high binding constant of complexes and the dye. The considerable fluorescence quantum yields of triphenylmethane dyes in nanoparticles and sensitization of their fluorescence by nanoparticle-forming complexes make it possible to determine the concentration of these dyes in aqueous solutions by the luminescent method in the range of up to 1 nM.

  18. Molecular design and synthesis of a pH independent and cell permeant fluorescent dye and its applications.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaojie; Liu, Chang; Huang, Kun; Zhang, Siwen; He, Song; Zhao, Liancheng; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-06-21

    Fluorescent dyes have played crucial roles in the field of molecular imaging as fluorescent fluorophores. In this work, a novel water-soluble and pH-independent fluorescent xanthene dye, a hydroxyl regioisomeric 3',4'-benzorhodol, has been designed and synthesized. Compared with those of rhodol dyes, the absorption (ca. 570 nm) and maximum emission (ca. 620 nm) of the dye are largely red-shifted. Due to its ring-opened zwitterion structure in water media, the dye showed good membrane permeability and distributed in the whole cell cytoplasm upon incubation with live cells. Meanwhile, the dye could be easily modified to probes. The hydrazide derivative of the dye exhibited an excellent Hg(2+) selectivity over other relevant metal ions with a detection limit down to 3 nM. Thus, the excellent fluorescence properties and chemical properties of the dye allow it to be designed as a fluorescent chemosensor and biomarker for biological applications. PMID:25990913

  19. Staining diatoms with rhodamine dyes: control of emission colour in photonic biocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kucki, Melanie; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of rhodamine dyes in the cell wall of diatoms Coscinodiscus granii and Coscinodiscus wailesii for the production of luminescent hybrid nanostructures is investigated. By systematic variation of the substitution pattern of the rhodamine core, we found that carbonic acids are considerably better suited than esters because of their physiological compatibility. The amino substitution pattern that controls the optical properties of the chromophore has no critical influence on dye uptake and incorporation, thus a variety of biocomposites with different emission maxima can be prepared. Applications in biomineralization studies as well as in materials science are envisioned. PMID:21865248

  20. White light-emitting diode with quasisolar spectrum based on organic fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Shuang-Chao; Li, Ming-Chia; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using organic fluorescent dyes to replace the general phosphor. The blue die with a specific organic fluorescent dye gives the LED a single color appearance. Through a color-mixing cavity, multiple LEDs are used to produce a quasisolar spectrum at a certain band and white light with a color rendering index as high as 97 at around 2800 K.

  1. Ultralow detection limits for an organic dye determined by fluorescence spectroscopy with laser diode excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Barber, T.E.; Smith, B.W.; Winefordner, J.D. )

    1989-04-15

    Fluorescence of IR-140, a laser dye in methanol solution, is excited by a semiconductor laser diode. Analytical figures of merit are compared for three different instrumental configurations, with the dye measured in a cuvette, a liquid jet, and a compact instrument. The best limit of detection, 46,000 molecules, was achieved with a liquid jet. Linear dynamic range was 6 orders of magnitude. The laser diode operates in the near-infrared region, resulting in low background fluorescence.

  2. Method and apparatus for staining immobilized nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jacobson, Stephen C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method for staining immobilized nucleic acids includes the steps of affixing DNA probes to a solid substrate, moving target DNA material into proximity with the DNA probes, whereby the target DNA hybridized with specific ones of the DNA probes, and moving a fluorescent dye into proximity with the hybridized target DNA, whereby the fluorescent dye binds to the hybridized DNA to enable subsequent detection of fluorescence.

  3. On the circular polarization of fluorescence from dyes dissolved in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Monika; Chambers, Martin; Grell, Martin

    2001-10-01

    The sense of circular polarization of the fluorescence from dyes dissolved in chiral nematic liquid crystals (CNLCs) with a photonic stopband overlapping the dye emission (`resonance regime') displays a peculiar reversal as a function of wavelength, which so far is not satisfactorily explained. We systematically study this phenomenon and show that theories based on the guest/host alignment of the fluorescent dye in the CNLC matrix are not adequate in the resonance regime. We instead propose a consistent explanation of sign reversal based on the description of CNLCs as one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals.

  4. Fluorescent dyes as a reliable tool in P2X7 receptor-associated pore studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Pereira, Luíza; Faria, Robson

    2015-08-01

    Since the nineteenth century, a great amount of different biological structures and processes have been assessed by fluorescent dyes. Along with the uses of these compounds as vital and histological dyes, some fluorescent dyes have become valuable tools for the study of the pore phenomenon in plasma membranes. Some ion channels capable of forming large conductance channels, such as P2X7, TRPV1, VDAC-1 and the maxi-anion channels transiently alter the plasma membrane permeability, producing pores, which permit the passage of molecules of up to 1,000 Da. In this review, we discuss the uses of the fluorescent dyes chosen in diverse studies of this topic up to now. PMID:26076670

  5. Time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectroscopy of visible and near infrared dyes in picosecond dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) dyes absorb and emit light within the range from 700 to 900 nm have several benefits in biological studies for one- and/or two-photon excitation for deeper penetration of tissues. These molecules undergo vibrational and rotational motion in the relaxation of the excited electronic states, Due to the less than ideal anisotropy behavior of NIR dyes stemming from the fluorophores elongated structures and short fluorescence lifetime in picosecond range, no significant efforts have been made to recognize the theory of these dyes in time-resolved polarization dynamics. In this study, the depolarization of the fluorescence due to emission from rotational deactivation in solution will be measured with the excitation of a linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse and a streak camera. The theory, experiment and application of the ultrafast fluorescence polarization dynamics and anisotropy are illustrated with examples of two of the most important medical based dyes. One is NIR dye, namely Indocyanine Green (ICG) and is compared with Fluorescein which is in visible range with much longer lifetime. A set of first-order linear differential equations was developed to model fluorescence polarization dynamics of NIR dye in picosecond range. Using this model, the important parameters of ultrafast polarization spectroscopy were identified: risetime, initial time, fluorescence lifetime, and rotation times.

  6. Far-Red Emitting Fluorescent Dyes for Optical Nanoscopy: Fluorinated Silicon-Rhodamines (SiRF Dyes) and Phosphorylated Oxazines.

    PubMed

    Kolmakov, Kirill; Hebisch, Elke; Wolfram, Thomas; Nordwig, Lars A; Wurm, Christian A; Ta, Haisen; Westphal, Volker; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-09-14

    Far-red emitting fluorescent dyes for optical microscopy, stimulated emission depletion (STED), and ground-state depletion (GSDIM) super-resolution microscopy are presented. Fluorinated silicon-rhodamines (SiRF dyes) and phosphorylated oxazines have absorption and emission maxima at about ??660 and 680?nm, respectively, possess high photostability, and large fluorescence quantum yields in water. A high-yielding synthetic path to introduce three aromatic fluorine atoms and unconventional conjugation/solubilization spacers into the scaffold of a silicon-rhodamine is described. The bathochromic shift in SiRF dyes is achieved without additional fused rings or double bonds. As a result, the molecular size and molecular mass stay quite small (<600?Da). The use of the ?=800?nm STED beam instead of the commonly used one at ?=750-775?nm provides excellent imaging performance and suppresses re-excitation of SiRF and the oxazine dyes. The photophysical properties and immunofluorescence imaging performance of these new far-red emitting dyes (photobleaching, optical resolution, and switch-off behavior) are discussed in detail and compared with those of some well-established fluorophores with similar spectral properties. PMID:26272226

  7. Argon-pumped tunable dye laser therapy for facial port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults--a new technique using small spot size and minimal power

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibner, A.; Wheeland, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    A low power, argon-pumped tunable dye laser was used to deliver yellow light of 577 nm. Individual blood vessels within port-wine stain hemangiomas were treated with a 0.1-mm beam of light using 8 X magnification. This technique permits excellent resolution of facial and nuchal port-wine stain hemangiomas in adults without the adverse complications of textural change, permanent pigmentation abnormality, or hypertrophic scarring.

  8. Spectral Properties of a Water-Soluble Squaraine Dye and Its Application in Cell Fluorescent Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Yuan, H.; Li, Q. Q.; Jin, J. C.; Chang, W. G.; Yan, Z. Q.

    2015-09-01

    A water-soluble bis-1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene squaraine dye (t-OH-SQ) with a D-?-A-?-D conjugated structure was identified and prepared. After its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis, the UV-Vis absorption and fluorescent spectra of the target dye were studied in detail. The results showed that t-OH-SQ combining multi-hydroxyl groups possessed excellent optical properties changing with pH and solvents. In aqueous solution under physiological pH ~ 7-8, it had especially high near-infrared fluorescence, which might be a latent application for cell fluorescent imaging.

  9. Fluorescent detection of differentially expressed cDNA using SYBR gold nucleic acid gel stain.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Keith G; Kanthala, Shirisha; Tuli, Richard; Tuan, Rocky S

    2004-09-01

    We describe herein a modified differential gene display (DGD) technique that can be rapidly and simply performed and that eliminates the need for radioactivity by fluorescent visualization of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) bands with SYBR gold nucleic acid gel stain. To streamline the DGD procedure, a number of modifications were employed. Ribonucleic acid isolated from differentially treated populations of human trabecular bone-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells was reverse-transcribed into cDNA using oligo-dT primer, and subsequent amplification of differentially expressed cDNAs was done using arbitrary 25-mer primers and oligo-dT9 30-mer primers. Moderate-sized nondenaturing 6% polyacrylamide gels (30 x 20 cm) of 1.5-mm thickness were used for easier handling and increased sample loading capacity. Gels were subjected to electrophoresis overnight, stained with SYBR gold, and visualized and photographed using a commercially available gel imager. DNA bands ranging in size from 100 to 400 bp were visualized directly on an ultraviolet transilluminator, excised from the gel, and reamplified. The cDNA amplicons were subcloned, sequenced, and gene sequences were identified by a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of genomic databases. Overall, this rapid and functional method proved quite effective for identification of novel genes that may be of interest in studies of cartilage and bone differentiation. PMID:15456962

  10. Use of fluorescent NIR dyes in silica nanoparticles and as enzyme substrates in bioanalytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged; Ellis, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) absorbing carbocyanine dyes have been increasingly used in analytical, biological and medical fields as they can be useful for developing bioanalytical and biomedical methods. The utilization of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous and is due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. NIR dyes typically have relatively lower fluorescent quantum yield as compared to visible fluorophores, but much higher molar absorptivities which more than compensates for the lower quantum yields regarding detection limits. Fluorescence intensity of NIR dyes significantly increases by enclosing several dye molecules in silica nanoparticles. Self quenching may become a problem for carbocyanines at such high concentrations that may be present in the silica nanoparticles. Dyes that have large Stokes' shift can significantly decrease this problem. Increased Stokes' shift for carbocyanines dyes can be achieved by substituting meso position halogens with a linker containing aliphatic or aromatic amino moiety which also serves as a covalent linker for attaching the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. The primary applications of these particles are for bright fluorescent labels to be used in bioanalytical applications such as immunochemistry, flow cytometry, etc. This work also discusses the use of NIR dyes as enzyme substrates. NIR dyes can be used as enzyme substrates and hence for characterization of enzyme activity. The well characterized alkenesulfonate monooxygenase enzyme was chosen for these studies. Carbocyanines containing alkylsulfonate moieties do not exhibit significant fluorescence change upon binding to biomolecules however otherwise identical NIR dye analogs that contain alkylaldehyde moiety at the same position do exhibit changes which can be utilized for characterization of alkenesulfonate monooxygenase enzyme activity using near infrared dyes as substrates. In this study a new class of sulfonated penta- and heptamethine dyes were used as substrates in vitro utilizing a photo-reduced riboflavin mononucleotide (FMN) with a glucose/ glucose-oxygenase oxygen scavenging system. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) detected CZE was utilized to detect the sulfonated and de-sulfonated carbocyanines. The lower fluorescence quantum yield of the less water soluble alkylaldehyde analogs was detected and enzyme activity was characterized.

  11. Base-content dependence of emission enhancements, quantumyields, and lifetimes of cyanine dyes bound to double-strand DNA: Photophysical properties of monomeric and bichromophoric DNA stains

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, T.L.; Nafisi, K.; Zhao, M.; Lenhard, J.R.; Johnson, I.

    1995-12-21

    This paper reports fluorescence quantum yield, emission enhancement, and emission lifetime measurements for 10 cyanine dyes complexed to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), (dAdT){sub 10}, and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. Six of the dyes are linked bichromophores with four cationic charges per molecule, and four are monomers with two cationic charges per molecule. All of the dyes exhibit either bi- or triexponential emission decay kinetics reflecting different dye/ds DNA modes of binding, and the average radiative lifetime for the bichromophores bound to ds DNA is 5.1{+-}0.8 ns. These results are consistent with expectations that binding-induced restriction of torsion about the central methine bridge is responsible for the large emission enhancements of these dyes. Scrutiny of the lengths of average emission lifetime for these 10 dyes on (dAdT){sub 10} and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes finds that they do not vary as expected if electron transfer (ET) emission quenching were an important process. There are also differences in emission quantum yield between dyes with pyridinium and quinolinium structural components when bound to (dAdT){sub 10} and (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. These differences are very distinct for the monomeric dyes where pyridinium dyes have 4-fold greater emission yields on (dAdT){sub 10} duplexes and quinolinium dyes have 2-fold greater emission yields on (dGdC){sub 6} duplexes. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Photostabilizing effects of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum on organic fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisk, Wade N.

    2003-07-01

    The photostabilization efficacy of lidocaine and tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminum (Alq3) was determined for methanol solutions of the fluorescent laser dyes 1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethylpyrromethene-difluoroborate complex (PM-567) and rhodamine 590 (R590) by evaluation with the , rose bengal (RB). The photostability was measured by noting the decrease in fluorescence with accumulated 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Rose bengal demonstrated dramatic photostability enhancement upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition; whereas nominal photostability enhancement was observed for PM-567 and R590 upon lidocaine or Alq3 addition. A geminate dye-singlet oxygen complex is proposed to explain the disparity in dye photostability enhancement between rose bengal and the laser dyes.

  13. Determination of torasemide by fluorescence quenching method with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhiping; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Li, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing

    2013-10-01

    A novel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of torasemide (TOR) with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes as fluorescence probes was developed. In acidulous medium, TOR could interact with some dihalogenated fluorescein dyes such as dichlorofluorescein (DCF), dibromofluorescein (DBF) and diiodofluorescein (DIF) to form binary complexes, which could lead to fluorescence quenching of above dihalogenated fluorescein dyes. The maximum fluorescence emission wavelengths were located at 532 nm (TOR-DCF), 535 nm (TOR-DBF) and 554 nm (TOR-DIF). The relative fluorescence intensities (?F = F0 - F) were proportional to the concentration of TOR in certain ranges. The detection limits were 4.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DCF system, 9.8 ng mL-1 for TOR-DBF system and 35.1 ng mL-1 for TOR-DIF system. The optimum reaction conditions, influencing factors were studied; and the effect of coexisting substances was investigated owing to the highest sensitivity of TOR-DCF system. In addition, the reaction mechanism, composition and structure of the complex were discussed by quantum chemical calculation and Job's method. The fluorescence quenching of dihalogenated fluorescein dyes by TOR was a static quenching process judging from the effect of temperature and the Stern-Volmer plots. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TOR in tablets and human urine samples.

  14. Diketopyrrolopyrrole: brilliant red pigment dye-based fluorescent probes and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Matinder; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The development of fluorescent probes for the detection of biologically relevant species is a burgeoning topic in the field of supramolecular chemistry. A number of available dyes such as rhodamine, coumarin, fluorescein, and cyanine have been employed in the design and synthesis of new fluorescent probes. However, diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) and its derivatives have a distinguished role in supramolecular chemistry for the design of fluorescent dyes. DPP dyes offer distinctive advantages relative to other organic dyes, including high fluorescence quantum yields and good light and thermal stability. Significant advancements have been made in the development of new fluorescent probes based on DPP in recent years as a result of tireless research efforts by the chemistry scientific community. In this tutorial review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of DPP-based fluorescent probes for the period spanning 2009 to the present time and the applications of these probes to recognition of biologically relevant species including anions, cations, reactive oxygen species, thiols, gases and other miscellaneous applications. This review is targeted toward providing the readers with deeper understanding for the future design of DPP-based fluorogenic probes for chemical and biological applications. PMID:25186723

  15. Sensitive Structural Control of Macrocycle Threading by a Fluorescent Squaraine Dye Flanked by Polymer Chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqi; Peck, Evan M; Hendzel, Kevin D; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-11-01

    A macrocyclic tetralactam is threaded by a complementary squaraine dye that is flanked by two polyethylene glycol chains to produce a pseudorotaxane complex with favorable near-infrared fluorescence properties. The association thermodynamics and kinetics were measured for a homologous series of squaraines with different N-alkyl substituents at both ends of the dye. The results show that subtle changes in substituent steric size have profound effects on threading kinetics without greatly altering the very high association constant. PMID:26452041

  16. Sensitive Structural Control of Macrocycle Threading by a Fluorescent Squaraine Dye Flanked by Polymer Chains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenqi; Peck, Evan M.; Hendzel, Kevin D.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    A macrocyclic tetralactam is threaded by a complementary squaraine dye that is flanked by two polyethylene glycol chains to produce a pseudorotaxane complex with favorable near-infrared fluorescence properties. The association thermodynamics and kinetics were measured for a homologous series of squaraines with different N-alkyl substituents at both ends of the dye. The results show that subtle changes in substituent steric size have profound effects on threading kinetics without greatly altering the very high association constant. PMID:26452041

  17. A double fluorescence staining protocol to determine the cross-sectional area of myofibers using image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Fassel, T. A.; Schultz, E.; Greaser, M. L.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A double fluorescence staining protocol was developed to facilitate computer based image analysis. Myofibers from experimentally treated (irradiated) and control growing turkey skeletal muscle were labeled with the anti-myosin antibody MF-20 and detected using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC). Extracellular material was stained with concanavalin A (ConA)-Texas red. The cross-sectional area of the myofibers was determined by calculating the number of pixels (0.83 mu m(2)) overlying each myofiber after subtracting the ConA-Texas red image from the MF-20-FITC image for each region of interest. As expected, myofibers in the irradiated muscle were smaller (P < 0.05) than those in the non-irradiated muscle. This double fluorescence staining protocol combined with image analysis is accurate and less labor-intensive than classical procedures for determining the cross-sectional area of myofibers.

  18. Dye distance mapping using waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy and its application to cell biology.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, Frederik; Morawitz, Michael; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Langbein, Uwe; Mittler, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have measured the distance between cells and the substratum at sites of adhesion via the emission of a fluorescent dye and waveguide methods. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to measure the position of fluorescent dyes above a waveguide surface in the 10-200 nm distance range throughout an entire area, yielding a 2D dye distance map or a 3D contour plot. The dye is located in a multilayered Langmuir Blodgett (LB) film or in the plasma membrane of a cell. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) images obtained using two different waveguide modes are employed allowing, with a simple mathematical approach, the calculation of dye distance maps. Ultra-thin steps made using LB technology, adhesion distances and the bending of the plasma membrane between focal adhesions of osteoblastic cells are shown as examples. The errors are discussed. False color representation of a dye distance map with four osteoblasts. The inset represents an overexposed WEFF image of the same field of view. PMID:25401699

  19. Selection of fluorescent DNA dyes for real-time LAMP with portable and simple optics.

    PubMed

    Seyrig, Gregoire; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tourlousse, Dieter M; Ahmad, Farhan; Towery, Keara; Cupples, Alison M; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is increasingly used for point-of-care nucleic acid based diagnostics. LAMP can be monitored in real-time by measuring the increase in fluorescence of DNA binding dyes. However, there is little information comparing the effect of various fluorescent dyes on signal to noise ratio (SNR) or threshold time (Tt). This information is critical for implementation with field deployable diagnostic tools that require small, low power consumption, robust, and inexpensive optical components with reagent saving low volume reactions. In this study, SNR and Tt during real-time LAMP was evaluated with eleven fluorescent dyes. Of all dyes tested, SYTO-82, SYTO-84, and SYTOX Orange resulted in the shortest Tt, and SYTO-81 had the widest range of working concentrations. The optimized protocol detected 10 genome copies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in less than 10min, 10 copies of Giardia intestinalis in ~20min, and 10 copies of Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella enterica in less than 15min. Results demonstrate that reaction efficiency depends on both dye type and concentration and the selected polymerase. The optimized protocol was evaluated in the Gene-Z™ device, a hand-held battery operated platform characterized via simple and low cost optics, and a multiple assay microfluidic chip with micron volume reaction wells. Compared to the more conventional intercalating dye (SYBR Green), reliable amplification was only observed in the Gene-Z™ when using higher concentrations of SYTO-81. PMID:26554941

  20. A Dark Excited State of Fluorescent Protein Chromophores, Considered as Brooker Dyes

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Seth

    2010-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore is an asymmetric monomethine dye system. In the resonance color theory of dyes, a strong optical excitation arises from interactions of two valence-bond structures with a third, higher structure. We use correlated quantum chemistry to show that the anionic chromophore is a resonant Brooker dye, and that the third structure corresponds to a higher stationary electronic state of this species. The excitation energy of this state should be just below the first excitation energy of the neutral form. This has implications for excited state mechanism in GFPs, which we discuss.

  1. Fluorescence switch of dye-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal based on acid-base vapors or light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Shang, Y. L.; Song, Y. L.; Jiang, L.

    2011-03-01

    The acid-base vapors/light double responsive dye-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated by sacrificial template method and a subsequent infiltration of spiropyran derivative dye molecules. The fluorescence of ring-open dye molecules infiltrated in PCs can be switched on/off based on different fluorescence properties of spiropyran dye under stimuli of acid-base vapors or light, when PCs with suitable stopband were selected. The fluorescence switch behavior based on PCs has potential applications in data storage, color displays, chemical and biological sensors.

  2. DOI: 10.1002/chem.200501541 Squaraine-Derived Rotaxanes: Highly Stable, Fluorescent Near-IR Dyes

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    DOI: 10.1002/chem.200501541 Squaraine-Derived Rotaxanes: Highly Stable, Fluorescent Near-IR Dyes with optical imaging is restricted tissue penetration, however, it is pre- dicted that low-energy, near-IR (NIR, there is no organic NIR dye that has all of these desirable properties.[5] Abstract: Squaraines are fluorescent, near-IR

  3. Comparative analysis of heterochromatin distribution in wild and cultivated Abelmoschus species based on fluorescent staining methods.

    PubMed

    Merita, Keisham; Kattukunnel, Joseph John; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Bhat, Kangila Venkataramana; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2015-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fluorochrome-binding pattern in nine taxa of Abelmoschus had shown that the type, amount and distribution pattern of heterochromatin were characteristic for each taxa. The fluorescent chromosome-binding sites obtained by chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining in all the nine species showed constitutive heterochromatin CMA(+), DAPI(+) and CMA(+)/DAPI(+). Large amount of heterozygosity was observed with regard to heterochromatin distribution pattern in all the taxa studied. The CMA(+)-binding sites are comparatively less than DAPI(+)-binding sites which is clearly evident as AT-rich regions are more than GC-rich regions in all the nine taxa analysed in Abelmoschus. These CMA(+) and DAPI(+)-binding sites apparently rise with the increased in chromosome numbers of the different species. This pattern of heterochromatin heterogeneity seems to be a general characteristic feature. Therefore, the differential pattern of distribution of GC- and AT-rich sequences might have played an important role in diversification of the genus Abelmoschus. Polyploidy is an important factor in the evolution of Abelmoschus and the sole reason for range in chromosome numbers in this genus. It may be noted that, though often, but not always, the increase of DNA is caused by an increase in the amount of heterochromatin, i.e. increase of non-coding sections indicating restructuring of the heterochromatin. Thus, cumulative small and direct numerical changes might have played a role in the speciation of Abelmoschus. PMID:25300590

  4. Testing the Fraunhofer line discriminator by sensing fluorescent dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoertz, G. E.

    1969-01-01

    The experimental Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) has detected increments of Rhodamine WT dye as small as 1 ppb in 1/2 meter depths. It can be inferred that increments considerably smaller than 1 ppb will be detectable in depths considerably greater than 1/2 meter. Turbidity of the water drastically reduces luminescence or even completely blocks the transmission of detectable luminescence to the FLD. Attenuation of light within the water by turbidity and by the dye itself are the major factors to be considered in interpreting FLD records and in relating luminescence coefficient to dye concentration. An airborne test in an H-19 helicopter established feasibility of operating the FLD from the aircraft power supply, and established that the rotor blades do not visibly affect the monitoring of incident solar radiation.

  5. Polarization and Symmetry of Electronic Transitions in Long Fluorescence Lifetime Triangulenium Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-01-01

    To fully exploit the capabilities of fluorescence probes in modern experiments, where advanced instrumentation is used to probe complex environments, other photophysical properties than emission color and emission intensity are monitored. Each dye property can be addressed individually as well as collectively to provide in-depth information unavailable from the standard intensity measurements. Dyes with long emission lifetimes and strongly polarized transitions enable the monitoring of lifetime changes as well as emission polarization (or anisotropy). Thus experiments can be designed to follow slow dynamics. In this article the UV and visible electronic transitions of a series of red emitting dyes based on the triangulenium motif are investigated. We resolve overlapping features in the spectra and assign transition moment of the molecular axes. The result is the complete Jablonski diagram for the UV and visible spectral region. The symmetries of the studied dyes are shown to have a large influence on the optical response and they are clearly separated into two groups of symmetry by their photophysical properties. The C2v symmetric dyes: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) and diazaoxatriangulenium (DAOTA+) have high emission anisotropies, fluorescence lifetimes around 20 ns, and fluorescence quantum yields of ~50%. The trioxatriangulenium (TOTA+) and triazatriangulenium (TATA+) dyes—nominally of D3h symmetry—have fluorescence lifetimes around 10 ns lifetimes and fluorescence quantum yields of 10-15%. However, the D3h-symmetry is shown to be lowered to a point group, where the axes transform uniquely such that the degeneracy of the E’-states is lifted. PMID:23391292

  6. Improvements in laser flare removal for particle image velocimetry using fluorescent dye-doped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosky, B. J.; Lowe, K. T.; Danehy, P. M.; Wohl, C. J.; Tiemsin, P. I.

    2015-11-01

    Laser flare, or scattering of laser light from a surface, can often be a major issue in particle image velocimetry (PIV) involving solid boundaries in the flow or a gas-liquid interface. The use of fluorescent light from dye-doped particles has been demonstrated in water applications, but reproducing the technique in an airflow is more difficult due to particle size constraints and safety concerns. The following work presents fluorescent Kiton Red 620 (KR620)-doped polystyrene latex microspheres as a solution to this issue. The particles are small and narrowly distributed, with a mean diameter of 0.87 ? \\text{m} and diameter distribution standard deviation of 0.30 ? \\text{m} . Furthermore, the KR620 dye exhibits much lower toxicity than other common fluorescent dyes, and would be safe to use in large flow facilities. The fluorescent signal from the particles is measured on average to be 320??±??10 times weaker than the Mie scattering signal from the particles. This reduction in signal is counterbalanced by greatly enhanced contrast via optical rejection of the incident laser wavelength. Fluorescent PIV with these particles is shown to eliminate laser flare near surfaces, allowing for velocity measurements as close as 100 ? \\text{m} to the surface. In one case, fluorescent PIV led to velocity vector validation rates more than 20 times that of the Mie scattering results in the boundary layer region of an angled surface.

  7. Differential fluorescent staining of Listeria monocytogenes and a whey food soil for quantitative analysis of surface hygiene.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Kathryn A; Benson, Paul; Verran, Joanna

    2009-09-30

    The accurate monitoring of surface cleanliness in terms of bacterial contamination is usually carried out using methods such as plate counts or replica plating. However these methods take at least eighteen hours to obtain results and do not determine the presence or amount of residual organic material on a surface, which may interfere with cleaning and disinfection. This work describes the application of fluorescent stains to cells (Listeria monocytogenes) and food soil (solubilized whey) to optimize a dual staining method that can be used in the quantitative analysis of surface cleanability. Seven different stains were tested at a range of concentrations (0.3%-0.001 mg/ml) and application methods. The best stain combination for differential staining of L. monocytogenes and whey food soil was 0.1 mg/ml rhodamine B with 0.1 g/ml DAPI. Differential staining of the cells and soil occurred regardless of the application method. This method has been successfully used to demonstrate the hygienic status of surfaces in an industrial situation. This novel work enables quantitative assessment of soils and cells on surfaces. PMID:19654071

  8. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  9. Computational and Experimental Characterization of a Fluorescent Dye for Detection of Potassium Ion Concentration

    E-print Network

    Yaron, David

    1 Computational and Experimental Characterization of a Fluorescent Dye for Detection of Potassium that binds the potassium ion, and a chromophore that signals the presence of the ion. We use quantum chemical. The potassium ion preferentially destabilizes the charge-transfer state, thereby altering the quantum yield

  10. New epifluorescence microscope providing pairs of specific fluorescence images of double-stained cells for simultaneous visual perception and for quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, Thomas; Tribukait, Bernhard

    1996-05-01

    A new epi-fluorescence microscope for analysis of cells stained with two fluorochromes which can be spectrally isolated is described. The system makes it possible to perform independent and specific spectral selection of each dye (e.g. DAPI and CY3) while perceiving the two specific images simultaneously by eye. The optics uses splitting of the primary excitation and emission light beams, independent modification of the separated beams, and their reunification. Modifications in the separated beams comprise: (1) isolation of specific wavelengths (365 nm and 546 nm in the excitation light path, 435 - 500 nm and 590 - 750 nm in the emission light beams), (2) wavelength switching without image displacement and blur by means of a light chopper alternating between ultraviolet-excitation/blue-detection and green-excitation/red-detection at frequencies of up to 140 Hz for observation by eye without image flicker, and (3) the possible separate positioning of lenses for compensation of chromatic aberrations. The system demonstrates a good transmission of the chosen wavelengths. A high specificity of double fluorescence analysis with minimal effects of spectral overlap was attained with good temporal resolution. It has been shown that it is feasible to obtain separate chromatic compensations for the use of a microscope objective in spectral regions outside the range for which the objective is corrected. Quantitative and independent measurements of the two fluorescence images by a CCD camera synchronized with the light chopper are feasible. In conclusion, this imaging system is outlined for highly specific visual analysis and exact quantitative measurement of double fluorescence labeled specimens in cytology and histology.

  11. Development of Thermally Stable and Highly Fluorescent IR Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bu, Xiu R.

    2004-01-01

    Fluorophores are the core component in various optical applications such as sensors and probes. Fluorphores with low-energy or long wavelength emission, in particular, in NIR region, possess advantages of low interference and high sensitivity. In this study, we has explored several classes of imidazole-based compounds for NIR fluorescent properties and concluded: (1) thiazole-based imidazole compounds are fluorescent; (2) emission energy is tunable by additional donor groups; (3) they also possess impressive two- photon absorption properties; and (4) fluorescence emission can be induced by two- photon input. This report summarizes (1) synthesis of new series of fluorophore; (2) impact of electron-withdrawing groups on fluorescent property; (3) unique property of two-photon absorption; and (4) on-going development.

  12. Interactions of dissolved humic substances with oppositely charged fluorescent dyes for tracer techniques.

    PubMed

    Hafuka, Akira; Ding, Qing; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koji; Satoh, Hisashi

    2015-11-15

    To investigate interactions between oppositely charged fluorescent dyes and dissolved humic substances, fluorescence quenching of fluorescein and rhodamine 6G with dissolved humic substances was performed. Binding coefficients were obtained by the Stern-Volmer equation. The fluorescence of rhodamine 6G was largely quenched by the addition of humic acid and a non-linear Stern-Volmer plot was obtained. This strong quenching may be caused by the electrostatic interaction between cationic rhodamine 6G and humic acid and strengthened by the hydrophobic repulsion. In contrast, the quenching and interactive effects of dissolved humic substances for fluorescein were relatively weak. PMID:26318652

  13. Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elson, D. S.; Jo, J. A.; Marcu, L.

    2007-05-01

    We report a side viewing fibre-based endoscope that is compatible with intravascular imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The instrument has been validated through testing with fluorescent dyes and collagen and elastin powders using the Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique to calculate the fluorescence lifetimes. The instrument has also been tested on freshly excised unstained animal vascular tissues.

  14. Multifunctional particles: Magnetic nanocrystals and gold nanorods coated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells

    SciTech Connect

    Heitsch, Andrew T.; Smith, Danielle K.; Patel, Reken N.; Ress, David; Korgel, Brian A.

    2008-07-15

    Multifunctional colloidal core-shell nanoparticles of magnetic nanocrystals (of iron oxide or FePt) or gold nanorods encapsulated in silica shells doped with the fluorescent dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (Rubpy) were synthesized. The as-prepared magnetic nanocrystals are initially hydrophobic and were coated with silica using a microemulsion approach, while the as-prepared gold nanorods are hydrophilic and were coated with silica using a Stoeber type of process. Each approach yielded monodisperse nanoparticles with uniform fluorescent dye-doped silica shells. These colloidal heterostructures have the potential to be used as dual-purpose tags-exhibiting a fluorescent signal that could be combined with either dark-field optical contrast (in the case of the gold nanorods), or enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance images (in the case of magnetic nanocrystal cores). The optical and magnetic properties of the fluorescent silica-coated gold nanorods and magnetic nanocrystals are reported. - Graphical abstract: Colloidal gold nanorods and iron platinum and iron oxide nanocrystals were encapsulated with fluorescent dye-doped silica shells using a generic coating strategy. These heterostructures are promising contrast agents for dual-mode medical imaging. Their optical and magnetic properties were studied and are reported here.

  15. Photonic effects on the fluorescence lifetimes of dyes in thin PVA layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prangsma, Jord C.; Molenaar, Robert; Subramaniam, Vinod; Blum, Christian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the expected change in fluorescent decay rate when a fluorophore in aqueous solution is moved to a thin spin-coated layer of poly(vinyl alcohol). We take into account the local field effect due to the change in the refractive index of the medium around the fluorophore and the photonic effect due to the layers. The obtained results are compared with experimental results for the organic dye Atto565 and the fluorescent protein mCherry. We find that the effects for the organic dye can be well described with the model, for the fluorescent protein (FP) the model is less accurate. We discuss the possible explanations for this.

  16. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic study of solvatochromic curcumin dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Digambara; Barakat, Christelle

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin, the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric, has recently acquired attention by chemists due its wide range of potential biological applications as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-carcinogenic agent. This molecule fluoresces weakly and poorly soluble in water. In this detailed study of curcumin in thirteen different solvents, both the absorption and fluorescence spectra of curcumin was found to be broad, however, a narrower and simple synchronous fluorescence spectrum of curcumin was obtained at ? ? = 10-20 nm. Lippert-Mataga plot of curcumin in different solvents illustrated two sets of linearity which is consistent with the plot of Stokes' shift vs. the ET30. When Stokes's shift in wavenumber scale was replaced by synchronous fluorescence maximum in nanometer scale, the solvent polarity dependency measured by ?SFSmax vs. Lippert-Mataga plot or ET30 values offered similar trends as measured via Stokes' shift for protic and aprotic solvents for curcumin. Better linear correlation of ?SFSmax vs. ?* scale of solvent polarity was found compared to ?absmax or ?emmax or Stokes' shift measurements. In Stokes' shift measurement both absorption/excitation as well as emission (fluorescence) spectra are required to compute the Stokes' shift in wavenumber scale, but measurement could be done in a very fast and simple way by taking a single scan of SFS avoiding calculation and obtain information about polarity of the solvent. Curcumin decay properties in all the solvents could be fitted well to a double-exponential decay function.

  17. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  18. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-06-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  19. Azido-Substituted BODIPY Dyes for the Production of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Stefano; Paoli, Paolo; Brandi, Alberto; Venturini, Lorenzo; Giambastiani, Giuliano; Tuci, Giulia; Cicchi, Stefano

    2015-10-19

    A series of azido-dyes were synthesized through Knoevenagel reactions of an azido-BODIPY with aromatic aldehydes. The nature of the substituents allowed the fine tuning of their spectroscopic properties. The dyes were used to decorate oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs), bearing terminal triple bond groups, by CuAAC reactions, affording fluorescent materials. This decoration allowed the efficient determination of the internalization of the ox-MWCNT derivatives by different model cancer cells, such as MCF7. PMID:26332894

  20. Using Fluorescent Dyes to Demonstrate Solution-Mixing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian; Shmaefsky, Mary Jo

    1994-01-01

    Describes a demonstration using a variety of clear solutions in which the instructor asks students whether the solutions appear homogeneous or inadequately mixed. The solutions are then induced to fluoresce with ultraviolet light to provide visible evidence of homogeneity or nonhomogeneity. (PR)

  1. Research Focus High-throughput screens for fluorescent dye discovery

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Anne E.

    of mitosis, phosphory- lated histone H3, was chosen to screen for mitosis regula- tors [1]. Often, however fluorescent protein (GFP) is an alternative approach that has the important advantage of being compatible. The most important advantage, namely that a target need not be known, is also a disad- vantage

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Far-Red/NIR-Fluorescent BODIPY Dyes, Solid-State Fluorescence, and Application as Fluorescent Tags Attached to Carbon Nano-onions.

    PubMed

    Bartelmess, Juergen; Baldrighi, Michele; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Buck, David; Echegoyen, Luis; Giordani, Silvia

    2015-06-26

    A series of ?-extended distyryl-substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivatives with intense far-red/near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence was synthesized and characterized, with a view to enhance the dye's performance for fluorescence labeling. An enhanced brightness was achieved by the introduction of two methyl substituents in the meso positions on the phenyl group of the BODIPY molecule; these substituents resulted in increased structural rigidity. Solid-state fluorescence was observed for one of the distyryl-substituted BODIPY derivatives. The introduction of a terminal bromo substituent allows for the subsequent immobilization of the BODIPY fluorophore on the surface of carbon nano-onions (CNOs), which leads to potential imaging agents for biological and biomedical applications. The far-red/NIR-fluorescent CNO nanoparticles were characterized by absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies, as well as by thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. PMID:26015289

  3. Benchtop Antigen Detection Technique using Nanofiltration and Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Varaljay, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    The designed benchtop technique is primed to detect bacteria and viruses from antigenic surface marker proteins in solutions, initially water. This inclusive bio-immunoassay uniquely combines nanofiltration and near infrared (NIR) dyes conjugated to antibodies to isolate and distinguish microbial antigens, using laser excitation and spectrometric analysis. The project goals include detecting microorganisms aboard the International Space Station, space shuttle, Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), and human habitats on future Moon and Mars missions, ensuring astronaut safety. The technique is intended to improve and advance water contamination testing both commercially and environmentally as well. Lastly, this streamlined technique poses to greatly simplify and expedite testing of pathogens in complex matrices, such as blood, in hospital and laboratory clinics.

  4. Targeting tumor hypoxia: a third generation 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine dye-conjugate with improved fluorescent yield.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feifei; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Dietz, Christopher; Abuteen, Akram; Smith, Michael B; Zhu, Quing

    2015-12-14

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with the rapid proliferation and growth of malignant tumors, and the ability to detect tumor hypoxia is important for predicting tumor response to anti-cancer treatments. We have developed a class of dye-conjugates that are related to indocyanine green (ICG, ) to target tumor hypoxia, based on in vivo infrared fluorescence imaging using nitroimidazole moieties linked to indocyanine fluorescent dyes. We previously reported that linking 2-nitroimidazole to an indocyanine dicarboxylic acid dye derivative () using an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG, ), led to a dye-conjugate that gave promising results for targeting cancer hypoxia in vivo. Structural modification of the dye conjugate replaced the ethanolamine unit with a piperazineacetyl unit and led a second generation dye conjugate, piperzine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG (). This second generation dye-conjugate showed improved targeting of tumor hypoxia when compared with . Based on the hypothesis that molecules with more planar and rigid structures have a higher fluorescence yield, as they could release less absorbed energy through molecular vibration or collision, we have developed a new 2-nitroimidazole ICG conjugate, , with two carbon atoms less in the polyene linker. Dye-conjugate was prepared from our new dye (), and coupled to 2-nitroimidazole using a piperazine linker to produce this third-generation dye-conjugate. Spectral measurements showed that the absorption/emission wavelengths of 657/670 were shifted ?100 nm from the second-generation hypoxia dye of 755/780 nm. Its fluorescence quantum yield was measured to be 0.467, which is about 5 times higher than that of (0.083). In vivo experiments were conducted with balb/c mice and showed more than twice the average in vivo fluorescence intensity in the tumor beyond two hours post retro-orbital injection as compared with . These initial results suggest that may significantly improve in vivo tumor hypoxia targeting. PMID:26403518

  5. Measurement of atmospheric OH by titration of near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betterton, Eric A.; Gast, Karl

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has shown that certain polymethine dyes can be detected at ultratrace levels (greater than or equal to 6x10(exp -14) M) in solution by fluorimetry. These detection limits are possible because of the inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, because the dyes fluoresce in the near infrared region where background interference is negligible, and because powerful infrared diode lasers are now available to improve the signal to noise ratio. Other work has shown that the hydroxyl radical destroys the ability of polymethine dyes to fluoresce. These observations form the basis for a new hydroxyl radical detector that is essentially a fluorometric titrator. Theoretically, the detector should show an acceptable sensitivity and response time. Assuming that the atmospheric HO concentration is about 10(exp -11) moles m(exp -3) (i.e. 10(exp 6) molecules cm(exp -3)), then 10 L of air 'titrated' with 20 mL of 10(exp -11) M dye solution (an easily detected concentration) should result in a drop in the fluorescent signal of 50 percent - a readily detectable change. At a flow rate of 3 L min(exp -1) the sampling time would be 3 minutes. The biggest potential problem is selectivity: other oxidants may also cause the fluorescence signal to be lost. The chemistry of polymethine dyes has not been studied in detail and so no quantitative data are available. However, a survey of the literature suggests that in general HO should react up to six orders of magnitude faster than HO2 and other radicals such as RO2 and RO. It should also react much more rapidly than H2O2 and O3. Thus it may be possible to discriminate kinetically against potential interfering substances. It was shown in the laboratory that 10(exp -4) M H2O2 has little effect on the absorption spectrum of the dye IR125 over a period of hours but that the band at 780 nm is slowly lost in water over a period of days even under argon in the dark. By contrast, DMSO solutions of IR125 are stable.

  6. Dye-biomolecule conjugates and NIR-fluorescent particles for targeting of disease-related biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, J.; Brehm, R.; Grabolle, M.; Behnke, T.; Mathejczyk, J.; Hamann, F.; Alves, F.; Hilger, I.; Resch-Genger, U.

    2011-03-01

    Indispensable for fluorescence imaging are highly specific and sensitive molecular probes that absorb and emit in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and respond to or target molecular species or processes. Here, we present approaches to targeted fluorescent probes for in vivo imaging in the intensity and lifetime domain exploiting NIR dyes. Screening schemes for the fast identification of suitable fluorophores are derived and design criteria for highly emissive optical probes. In addition, as a signal amplification strategy that enables also the use of hydrophobic NIR fluorophores as fluorescent reporters, first steps towards versatile strategies for the preparation of NIR-fluorescent polymeric particles are presented that can be utilized also for the design of targeted and analyte-responsive probes.

  7. Charged solvatochromic dyes as signal transducers in pH independent fluorescent and colorimetric ion selective nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaojiang; Gutiérrez, Agustín; Trofimov, Valentin; Szilagyi, Istvan; Soldati, Thierry; Bakker, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Ionophore-based ion selective optical nanosensors that operate independently of the sample pH are developed here by the use of electrically charged solvatochromic dyes as signal transducers. A series of dye molecules with a D-?-A structure was synthesized and characterized in various solvents and incorporated into ion selective nanospheres for K(+), Na(+), and H(+). Since dye leakage was greatly suppressed when the solvatochromic dyes were encapsulated in the nanosphere core, ion sensing nanospheres were explored for cellular ion imaging in Dictyostelium discoideum live cells but spontaneous dye loss resulted in undesired staining of cells. The in vitro analysis of potassium in human plasma was successfully demonstrated with this approach. A theoretical model was developed for the response of the ion selective nanosensors containing charged solvatochromic dyes. The nanosensors exhibited a tunable response range, high sensitivity, and good stability. PMID:26352133

  8. Macrocyclic host-dye reporter for sensitive sandwich-type fluorescent aptamer sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Spinelli, Nicolas; Perrier, Sandrine; Defrancq, Eric; Peyrin, Eric

    2015-03-17

    We describe herein a novel approach for the fluorescent detection of small molecules using a sandwich-type aptamer strategy based on a signaling macrocyclic host-dye system. One split adenosine aptamer fragment was 5'-conjugated to a ?-cylodextrin (CD) molecule while the other nucleic acid fragment was labeled at the 3'-end by a dansyl molecule prone to be included into the macrocycle. The presence of the small target analyte governed the assembly of the two fragments, bringing the dye molecule and its specific receptor in close proximity and promoting the inclusion interaction. Upon the inclusion complex formation, the microenvironment of dansyl was modified in such a way that the fluorescent intensity increased. Concomitantly, this supplementary interaction at the aptamer extremities induced stabilizing effects on the ternary complex. We next proposed a bivalent signaling design where the two extremities of one split aptamer fragment were conjugated to the ?-CD molecule while those of the other fragment were tagged by the dansyl dye. The dual reporting dye inclusion promoted an improvement of both the signal-to-background change and the assay sensitivity. Owing to the vast diversity of responsive host-macrocycle systems available, this aptasensor strategy has potential to be extended to the multiplexed analysis and to other kinds of transducers (such as electrochemical). PMID:25738735

  9. Selective fluorescence functionalization of dye-doped polymerized structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) lithography.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Duocastella, Martí; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-12-21

    The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated with Direct Laser Writing (DLW) lithography. Well-defined fluorescent pixels (area = 0.24 ?m(2)) were written inside a polymer matrix with the help of a femtosecond pulsed laser (multiphoton absorption) via a thermally-induced di-aggregation of a fluorescent dye. Moreover, we have accomplished a fine control of the fluorescence intensity which can increase the storage capacity of ODS systems fabricated with this approach. PMID:26572098

  10. A near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine indocyanine dye with preferential tumor accumulation for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Tao; Su, Yongping; Luo, Shenglin; Zhu, Ying; Tan, Xu; Fan, Song; Zhang, Lilong; Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2010-09-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging holds great promise for tumor imaging due to low tissue autofluorescence and deep tissue penetration. However, most tumor-targeting fluorescent probes require combination of targeting agents and fluorescent reporters. In this study, we described a NIR heptamethine cyanine dye, IR-780 iodide, with preferential accumulation in multiple tumor cells without the necessity of chemical conjugation. The IR-780 iodide was found to retain in tumors but not normal cells in multiple tumor xenografts in nude mice and chemically-induced lung tumors in C57BL/6 mice. The fluorescent signal of tumors could persist at least 20 days with a significant signal-to-background ratio. As a lipophilic cation, a predominant accumulation of IR-780 iodide was shown in the mitochondria of tumor cells owing to the high magnitude of mitochondrial membrane potential in tumor cells than normal cells. We further showed that the transportation of IR-780 iodide into tumor cells was mediated by the organic anion transporter peptides (OATPs) because the dye accumulation was significantly inhibited by sulfobromophthalein (BSP), a competitive inhibitor of OATPs. Our study shows that IR-780 iodide that preferentially accumulates in tumor cells and is natively NIR fluorescent would be useful in tumor detection. PMID:20542559

  11. Physical markers for landmarking fluorescently stained gels that facilitate automated spot-picking.

    PubMed

    Fehring, V; Wandschneider, S; Löhr, M

    2001-08-01

    The quantitative comparison of spot patterns relies heavily on protein stains that do provide an appropriate dynamic range. Unfortunately most spot picking robot devices are still limited to nonfluorescent protein stains and the appropriate equipment is still quite expensive. These problems are solved by the application of a newly developed "GelMarker" that combines a spot picking robot device and a UV scanner. The "GelMarkers" are detectable in both the visible and UV range of light and permit the comparison of gel pictures taken by such different devices. The application of these "GelMarkers" together with the transformation of spot coordinates by using a "spot matching" procedure allows the automated excision of selected protein spots. The obtained picking accuracies are as good as those obtainable from visible stained gels due to the shape stability of the gels even over a longer time period. PMID:11565786

  12. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  13. Self-quenching DNA probes based on aggregation of fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Gabriela; Muller, Matthias; Hafner, Bernhard; Habl, Gregor; Nolte, Oliver; Marme, Nicole; Knemeyer, Jens-Peter

    2005-04-01

    Here we present a novel class of self-quenching, double-labeled DNA probes based on the formation of non fluorescent H-type dye dimers. We therefore investigated the aggregation behavior of the red-absorbing oxazine derivative MR121 and found a dimerization constant of about 3000 M-1. This dye was successfully used to develop hairpin-structured as well as linear self-quenching DNA probes that report the presence of the target DNA by an increase of the fluorescence intensity by a factor of 3 to 12. Generally fluorescence quenching of the hairpin-structure probes is more efficient compared to the linear probes, whereas the kinetic of the fluorescence increase is significantly slower. The new probes were used for the identification of different mycobacteria and their antibiotic resistant species. As a test system a probe for the identification of a DNA sequence specific for the Mycobacterium xenopi was synthesized differing from the sequence of the Mycobacterium fortuitum by 6 nucleotides. Furthermore we developed a method for the discrimination between the sequences of the wild type and an antibiotic resistant species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both sequences differ by just 2 nucleotides and were detected specifically by the use of competing olignonucleotides.

  14. Detection of acid moisture in photovoltaic modules using a dual wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takashi; Iwami, Kentaro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro; Masuda, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The formation of acetic acid via the penetration of moisture into ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) in photovoltaic (PV) modules is cited as the main reason for PV modules’ degradation. Currently, there is no effective method for detecting acetic moisture in PV modules. We proposed a simple method for detecting acid moisture in PV modules using a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye that measures pH by the ratio of the intensities of two peaks in the fluorescence spectra of the dye. We detected the pH change caused by acetic acid with the change in the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectra of the dried dye. Furthermore, we observed that the dry fluorescent dye is heat resistant to withstand the lamination process for the manufacturing of PV modules, and has good long-term durability.

  15. Fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium dyes induced by two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guibao; Hu, Dawei; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Liu, Huijun; Tian, Yupeng

    2007-06-01

    We report the fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium toluene- p-sulfonates having donor- ?-acceptor (D- ?-A) structure under two-photon excitation at 1064 nm. The experimental results show that both the two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence lifetime and the two-photon pumped (TPP) energy upconversion efficiency were increased with the enhancement of electron-donating capability of the donor in the molecule. It is also indicated that an overlong alkyl group tends to result in a weakened molecular conjugation, leading to a decreased two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section. By choosing the donor, we can obtain a longest fluorescence lifetime of 837 ps, a highest energy upconversion efficiency of ˜6.1%, and a maximum TPA cross-section of 8.74×10 -48 cm 4 s/photon in these dyes.

  16. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; Nicolau, José

    2006-01-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions. PMID:16674197

  17. Magneto-fluorescent hybrid of dye and SPION with ordered and radially distributed porous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Madhulekha; Deb, Pritam

    2014-04-01

    We have reported the development of a silica based magneto-fluorescent hybrid of a newly synthesized dye and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with ordered and radially distributed porous structure. The dye is synthesized by a novel yet simple synthetic approach based on Michael addition between dimer of glutaraldehyde and oleylamine molecule. The surfactant used for phase transformation of the dye from organic to aqueous phase, also acts as a structure directing agent for the porous structure evolution of the hybrid with radial distribution. The evolution of the radially distributed pores in the hybrids can be attributed to the formation of rod-like micelles containing nanoparticles, for concentration of micelles greater than critical micelle concentration. A novel water extraction method is applied to remove the surfactants resulting in the characteristic porous structure of the hybrid. Adsorption isotherm analysis confirms the porous nature of the hybrids with pore diameter ?2.4 nm. A distinct modification in optical and magnetic property is observed due to interaction of the dye and SPION within the silica matrix. The integration of multiple structural components in the so developed hybrid nanosystem results into a potential agent for multifunctional biomedical application.

  18. Development of a wavelength-shifting fluorescent module for the adenosine aptamer using photostable cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bohländer, Peggy R; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-04-01

    DNA-based aptamers are commonly used recognition elements in biosensors for a range of target molecules. Here, the development of a wavelength-shifting optical module for a DNA-based adenosine-binding aptamer is described. It applies the combination of two photostable cyanine-styryl dyes as covalent modifications. This energy-transfer pair is postsynthetically attached to oligonucleotides via a copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition by two structurally different approaches: 1)?as nucleotide modifications at the 2'-position of uridines and 2)?as nucleotide substitutions using (S)-amino-1,2-propanediol as acyclic linker between the phosphodiester bridges. Both dyes exhibit a remarkable photostability. A library of DNA aptamers consisting of different combinations of the two dyes in diagonal orientations were evaluated by their emission color contrast as readout. Further optimization led to aptasensors with improved fluorescent readout as compared with previously reported aptasensors. This approach described is synthetically facile using simple propargylated phosphoramidites as DNA building blocks. As such, this approach could be applied for other dyes and other chemical/biological applications. PMID:25969803

  19. Development of a Wavelength-Shifting Fluorescent Module for the Adenosine Aptamer Using Photostable Cyanine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bohländer, Peggy R; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-01-01

    DNA-based aptamers are commonly used recognition elements in biosensors for a range of target molecules. Here, the development of a wavelength-shifting optical module for a DNA-based adenosine-binding aptamer is described. It applies the combination of two photostable cyanine-styryl dyes as covalent modifications. This energy-transfer pair is postsynthetically attached to oligonucleotides via a copper(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition by two structurally different approaches: 1)?as nucleotide modifications at the 2?-position of uridines and 2)?as nucleotide substitutions using (S)-amino-1,2-propanediol as acyclic linker between the phosphodiester bridges. Both dyes exhibit a remarkable photostability. A library of DNA aptamers consisting of different combinations of the two dyes in diagonal orientations were evaluated by their emission color contrast as readout. Further optimization led to aptasensors with improved fluorescent readout as compared with previously reported aptasensors. This approach described is synthetically facile using simple propargylated phosphoramidites as DNA building blocks. As such, this approach could be applied for other dyes and other chemical/biological applications. PMID:25969803

  20. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOEpatents

    Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  1. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOEpatents

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1986-03-04

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle. 8 figs.

  2. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOEpatents

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1984-01-06

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  3. Using lysine-reactive fluorescent dye for surface characterization of a mAb.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Schöneich, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The biopharmaceutical industry increasingly demands thorough characterization of protein conformation and conformational dynamics to ensure product quality and consistency. Here, we present a chromatography-based method that is able to characterize protein conformation and conformational dynamics at peptide level resolution in a high-throughput manner. The surface lysine residues of the protein were labeled with a fluorescent dye prior to enzyme digestion. The resulting peptide maps were monitored by fluorescence detection where fluorescence peak area indicates higher solvent accessibility at a specific site. The peptides of reactivity difference and the extent of the difference can be detected by HPLC with fluorescent detector alone, whereas the identity of these peptides can then be determined by mass spectrometry if desired. We first demonstrated this method is suitable for probing protein surface/conformation by studying the effect of deglycosylation on a recombinant mAb, IgG 1. We then applied our method to study the interaction of the mAb with a common excipient, polysorbate-20 (PS-20). The presence of PS-20 increased the fluorescent labeling of several lysine residues on the mAb. This result provides a first insight into PS20-mAb interaction at peptide level resolution. PMID:25538029

  4. A dark excited state of fluorescent protein chromophores, considered as Brooker dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Seth; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2010-05-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore is a dihydroxyarylmethine (oxonol) dye. Resonance and molecular orbital theories predict two low-lying excitations with distinct oscillator strength and polarization in these systems. Using a variational quantum-chemical model that reflects both theories, we estimate the energy of both states in resonant anionic and cationic forms of the chromophore. The energy of the higher, dark state in these forms is in the same range as the bright transition of the non-resonant neutral form, estimated by similar methods. This suggests interesting roles for the dark state in GFP photophysics.

  5. Critical tonicity determination of sperm using fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Noiles, E.E.; Ruffing, N.A.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Mark, L.A.; Watson, P.F.; Critser, J.K. ); Horstman, L. . School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. )

    1990-01-01

    The use of cryopreserved, rather than fresh, mammalian semen for artificial insemination confers several important medical and/or economic advantages. However, current methods for cryopreservation of both human and bovine spermatozoa result in approximately only a 50% survival rate with thawing, obviously reducing the fertilizing capacity of the semen. A primary consideration during the cooling process is to avoid intracellular ice crystal formation with its lethal consequences to the cell. Current techniques achieve this by controlling the cooling rate. Computation of the time necessary for this dehydration, and hence, the cooling rate, is dependent upon knowledge of the water permeability coefficient (L{sub {rho}}) and its activation energy. The fluorophore, 6-carboxyfluoroscein diacetate (CFDA), which is nonfluorescent, readily crosses the intact plasma membrane. Intracellular esterases hydrolyze CFDA to 6-carboxyfluoroscein, a fluorescent, membrane-impermeable fluorophore. Consequently, spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes fluoresce bright green (Garner et. al., 1986), but those with disrupted membranes do not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use loss of CFDA fluorescence to determine the osmolality at which 50% of the spermatozoa will swell and lyse (critical tonicity, CT). These data will then be used to determine the L{sub {rho}} and its activation energy for sperm, thus increasing the knowledge available in cellular cryopreservation. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Synthesis of New Styrylquinoline Cellular Dyes, Fluorescent Properties, Cellular Localization and Cytotoxic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dulski, Mateusz; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Cieslik, Wioleta; Spaczy?ska, Ewelina; Bartczak, Piotr; Ratuszna, Alicja; Polanski, Jaroslaw; Musiol, Robert

    2015-01-01

    New styrylquinoline derivatives with their photophysical constants are described. The synthesis was achieved via Sonogashira coupling using the newly developed heterogeneous nano-Pd/Cu catalyst system, which provides an efficient synthesis of high purity products. The compounds were tested in preliminary fluorescent microscopy studies to in order to identify their preferable cellular localization, which appeared to be in the lipid cellular organelles. The spectroscopic properties of the compounds were measured and theoretical TD-DFT calculations were performed. A biological analysis of the quinolines that were tested consisted of cytotoxicity assays against normal human fibroblasts and colon adenocarcinoma cells. All of the compounds that were studied appeared to be safe and indifferent to cells in a high concentration range. The presented results suggest that the quinoline compounds that were investigated in this study may be valuable structures for development as fluorescent dyes that could have biological applications. PMID:26114446

  7. Quantification of AAV Particle Titers by Infrared Fluorescence Scanning of Coomassie-Stained Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gels

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E.; Linden, R. Michael; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two—for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons—a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS–PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity. PMID:22816378

  8. Tumor detection by exogenous fluorescent dyes using new generation photo-multiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, I.; Mantareva, Vanya; Petrova, D.; Townsend, Peter; Valberg, L.; Avramov, Lachezar

    2005-04-01

    The easy and non-destructive fluorescence method for quantification of early changes in biological tissues improves the possibilities of the clinical research and diagnostics. Developments in this area are moving very rapidly in part because of advances in the technology and in part because of the numerous successful examples which are appearing. New family of photomultiplier tubes with a high detection sensitivity for near-infra red light (700-900 nm) were developed as a result of project IMPECABLE, which are valuable tools for early diagnosis of cutaneous pigmented melanoma using long-wave fluorescence dyes. Several phthalocyanines that are promising fluorophores for photodiagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma have been studied in different solvents for concentrations from 10-5 to 10-15 mol. Argon pumped dye laser as an excitation source was used. Three different wavelengths (613, 633 and 660 nm) in the red region, corresponding to first absorption peak, minimum of the absorption and near to the Q-band maximum of Pcs were applied. Fluorescence signals in the region of 700 to 800 nm were detected using spectrometric systems (Perkin-Elmer, UK-with conventional PMT as a detector, and PC2000, Ocean Optics, USA-with CCD-array as a detector) and a newly developed red-sensitive PMT. Detectable signal from other spectrometric systems was obtain up to 10-8 mol concentrations, which could be used for significant reduction of concentrations applied for in vivo applications. Fluorescence is a highly sensitive method of distinguishing between healthy and unhealthy tissue. The results demonstrate that extremely low concentrations of photosensitizers could be used to determine initial stages of melanoma. This application of PMT detectors will reduce extremely the negative side effects of higher concentrations of these drugs applied in the skin tissue. One can achieve high accuracy in the determination of pigmented malignant melanoma lesions with wide clinical applications.

  9. On the incorporation of Rhodamine B and 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein dyes in silica: Synthesis of fluorescent nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Elis C. C.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.; Diógenes, Izaura C. N.; de Sousa, Eduardo H. S.; Longhinotti, Elisane

    2014-05-01

    The present paper reports the incorporation of 2?,7?-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and Rhodamine B (RhB) dyes in silica nanoparticles by using the Stöber's method with some modifications. Based on infrared and electronic spectroscopies, these dyes were successfully incorporated resulting in fluorescent nanomaterials of an average size of 80 nm. A composite fluorescent nanomaterial containing both dyes was also synthesized and showed the occurrence of Förster resonant energy transfer process (FRET) with the average distance between the donor (DCF) and acceptor (RhB) of 3.6 nm. Furthermore, these fluorescent nanoparticles were modified with folic acid producing nanomaterials whose Zeta potential values were in the range of -2 to -13 mV. These values are consistent with the low dispersivity observed by TEM micrographs. Altogether, these suitable properties can lead to the development of nanomaterials for cancer bioimaging and drug release.

  10. Minimization of self-quenching fluorescence on dyes conjugated to biomolecules with multiple labeling sites via asymmetrically charged NIR fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Zhegalova, Natalia G.; He, Shawn; Zhou, Haiying; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2014-01-01

    Self-aggregation of dyes even at low concentrations pose a considerable challenge in preparing sufficiently bright molecular probes for in vivo imaging, particularly in the conjugation of near infrared cyanine dyes to polypeptides with multiple labeling sites. Such self-aggregation leads to a significant energy transfer between the dyes resulting in severe quenching and low brightness of the targeted probe. To address this problem, we designed a novel type of dye with an asymmetrical distribution of charge. Asymmetrical distribution prevents the chromophores from ?-stacking thus minimizing the energy transfer and fluorescence quenching. The conjugation of the dye to polypeptides showed only a small presence of an H-aggregate band in the absorption spectra and, hence, a relatively high quantum efficiency. PMID:24764130

  11. Detection of microlesions induced by heavy ions using liposomes filled with fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniarek, J. P.; Thomas, J. L.; Vazquez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In cells irradiation by heavy ions has been hypothesized to produce microlesions, regions of local damage. In cell membranes this damage is thought to manifest itself in the form of holes. The primary evidence for microlesions comes from morphological studies of cell membranes, but this evidence is still controversial, especially since holes also have been observed in membranes of normal, nonirradiated, cells. However, it is possible that damage not associated with histologically discernable disruptions may still occur. In order to resolve this issue, we developed a system for detecting microlesions based on liposomes filled with fluorescent dye. We hypothesized that if microlesions form in these liposomes as the result of irradiation, then the entrapped dye will leak out into the surrounding medium in a measurable way. Polypropylene vials containing suspensions of vesicles composed of either dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, or a combination of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were irradiated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory using 56Fe ions at 1 GeV/amu. In several cases we obtained a significant loss of the entrapped dye above the background level. Our results suggest that holes may form in liposomes as the result of heavy ion irradiation, and that these holes are large enough to allow leakage of cell internal contents that are at least as large as a 1 nm diameter calcein molecule.

  12. Detection of microlesions induced by heavy ions using liposomes filled with fluorescent dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koniarek, J. P.; Thomas, J. L.; Vazquez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In cells irradiation by heavy ions has been hypothesized to produce microlesions, regions of local damage. In cell membranes this damage is thought to manifest itself in the form of holes. The primary evidence for microlesions comes from morphological studies of cell membranes, but this evidence is still controversial, especially since holes also have been observed in membranes of normal, nonirradiated, cells. However, it is possible that damage not associated with histologically discernable disruptions may still occur. In order to resolve this issue, we developed a system for detecting microlesions based on liposomes filled with fluorescent dye. We hypothesized that if microlesions form in these liposomes as the result of irradiation, then the entrapped dye will leak out into the surrounding medium in a measurable way. Polypropylene vials containing suspensions of vesicles composed of either dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, or a combination of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were irradiated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory using 56Fe ions at 1 GeV/amu. In several cases we obtained a significant loss of the entrapped dye above the background level. Our results suggest that holes may form in liposomes as the result of heavy ion irradiation, and that these holes are large enough to allow leakage of cell internal contents that are at least as large as a 1 nm diameter calcein molecule. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo effects of focused shock waves on tumor tissue visualized by fluorescence staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Lukes, Petr; Zeman, Jan; Horak, Vratislav; Hoffer, Petr; Pouckova, Pavla; Holubova, Monika; Hosseini, S Hamid R; Akiyama, Hidenori; Sunka, Pavel; Benes, Jiri

    2015-06-01

    Shock waves can cause significant cytotoxic effects in tumor cells and tissues both in vitro and in vivo. However, understanding the mechanisms of shock wave interaction with tissues is limited. We have studied in vivo effects of focused shock waves induced in the syngeneic sarcoma tumor model using the TUNEL assay, immunohistochemical detection of caspase-3 and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Shock waves were produced by a multichannel pulsed-electrohydraulic discharge generator with a cylindrical ceramic-coated electrode. In tumors treated with shock waves, a large area of damaged tissue was detected which was clearly differentiated from intact tissue. Localization and a cone-shaped region of tissue damage visualized by TUNEL reaction apparently correlated with the conical shape and direction of shock wave propagation determined by high-speed shadowgraphy. A strong TUNEL reaction of nuclei and nucleus fragments in tissue exposed to shock waves suggested apoptosis in this destroyed tumor area. However, specificity of the TUNEL technique to apoptotic cells is ambiguous and other apoptotic markers (caspase-3) that we used in our study did not confirmed this observation. Thus, the generated fragments of nuclei gave rise to a false TUNEL reaction not associated with apoptosis. Mechanical stress from high overpressure shock wave was likely the dominant pathway of tumor damage. PMID:25200989

  14. Flow cytometric enumeration of bacteria using TO-PRO®-3 iodide as a single-stain viability dye.

    PubMed

    Kerstens, Monique; Boulet, Gaëlle; Tritsmans, Christian; Horemans, Tessa; Hellings, Mario; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of bacteria using conventional viable plate counting (VPC) is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Flow cytometry (FCM) can be proposed as a faster alternative. This study aimed to develop a flow cytometric, single-stain approach using TO-PRO®-3 iodide (TP3) for the quantification of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis cells. Live or dead bacterial suspensions were stained with TP3 and analyzed using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. After optimization of staining parameters and instrument settings, an excellent separation of viable and dead cells was achieved for all species. The quantitative performance of the technique was assessed by analyzing serial dilutions of bacterial suspensions using FCM and VPC. A highly linear correlation (r2 > 0.99) was observed between the colony forming units (CFU)/mL as determined by FCM and by VPC over a concentration range of about 104 to 108 CFU/mL. As such, FCM quantification of viable bacteria using TP3 can be considered as an accurate and reliable alternative for VPC. The monostain procedure is easy to apply and cost-effective, and it allows bacterial enumeration in a broad variety of samples. PMID:25124156

  15. Evaluation of slide based cytometry (SBC) for concentration measurements of fluorescent dyes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Müller, Hans-Willy; Bocsi, József; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Flow cytometers (FCM) are built for particle measurements. In principle, concentration measurement of a homogeneous solution is not possible with FCM due to the lack of a trigger signal. In contrast to FCM slide based cytometry systems could act as tools for the measurement of concentrations using volume defined cell counting chambers. These chambers enable to analyze a well defined volume. Sensovation AG (Stockach, Germany) introduced an automated imaging system that combines imaging with cytometric features analysis. Aim of this study was to apply this imaging system to quantify the fluorescent molecule concentrations. The Lumisens (Sensovation AG) slide-based technology based on fluorescence digital imaging microscopy was used. The instrument is equipped with an inverted microscope, blue and red LEDs, double band-pass filters and a high-resolution cooled 16-bit digital camera. The instrument was focussed on the bottom of 400?m deep 6 chamber slides (IBIDI GmbH, Martinsried, Germany) or flat bottom 96 well plates (Greiner Bio One GmbH, Frickenhausen, Germany). Fluorescent solutions were imaged under 90% pixel saturation in a broad concentration range (FITC: 0.0002-250 ?g/ml, methylene blue (MethB): 0.0002-250 ?g/ml). Exposition times were recorded. Images were analysed by the iCys (CompuCyte Corp., Cambridge, MA, USA) image analysis software with the phantom contour function. Relative fluorescence intensities were calculated from mean fluorescence intensities per phantom contours divided by the exposition time. Solution concentrations could be distinguished over a broad dynamic range of 3.5 to 5.5 decades log (range FITC: 0.0002-31.25?g/ml, MethB: 0.0076-31.25?g/ml) with a good linear relationship between dye concentration and relative fluorescence intensity. The minimal number of fluorescent molecules per pixel as determined by the mean fluorescence intensity and the molecular weight of the fluorochrome were about 800 molecules FITC and ~2.000 MethB. The novel slide-based imaging system is suitable for detection of fluorescence differences over a broad range of concentrations. This approach may lead to novel assays for measuring concentration differences in cell free solutions and cell cultures e.g. in secretion assays.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse, mesoporous, and magnetic sub-micron particles doped with a near-infrared fluorescent dye

    SciTech Connect

    Le Guevel, Xavier; Nooney, Robert; McDonagh, Colette; MacCraith, Brian D.

    2011-06-15

    Recently, multifunctional silica nanoparticles have been investigated extensively for their potential use in biomedical applications. We have prepared sub-micron monodisperse and stable multifunctional mesoporous silica particles with a high level of magnetization and fluorescence in the near infrared region using an one-pot synthesis technique. Commercial magnetite nanocrystals and a conjugated-NIR-dye were incorporated inside the particles during the silica condensation reaction. The particles were then coated with polyethyleneglycol to stop aggregation. X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption analysis, TEM, fluorescence and absorbance measurements were used to structurally characterize the particles. These mesoporous silica spheres have a large surface area (1978 m{sup 2}/g) with 3.40 nm pore diameter and a high fluorescence in the near infrared region at {lambda}=700 nm. To explore the potential of these particles for drug delivery applications, the pore accessibility to hydrophobic drugs was simulated by successfully trapping a hydrophobic ruthenium dye complex inside the particle with an estimated concentration of 3 wt%. Fluorescence imaging confirmed the presence of both NIR dye and the post-grafted ruthenium dye complex inside the particles. These particles moved at approximately 150 {mu}m/s under the influence of a magnetic field, hence demonstrating the multifunctionality and potential for biomedical applications in targeting and imaging. - Graphical Abstract: Hydrophobic fluorescent Ruthenium complex has been loaded into the mesopores as a surrogate drug to simulate drug delivery and to enhance the multifunctionality of the magnetic NIR emitting particles. Highlights: > Monodisperse magnetic mesoporous silica particles emitting in the near infrared region are obtained in one-pot synthesis. > We prove the capacity of such particles to uptake hydrophobic dye to mimic drug loading. > Loaded fluorescent particles can be moved under a magnetic field in a microfluidic device.

  17. Manipulating Nanoscale Features on the Surface of Dye-Loaded Microbubbles to Increase their Ultrasound-Modulated Fluorescence Output

    PubMed Central

    Ibsen, Stuart D.; Benchimol, Michael J.; Hsu, Mark J.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2014-01-01

    The nanoscale surface features of lipid-coated microbubbles can dramatically affect how the lipids interact with one another as the microbubble diameter expands and contracts under the influence of ultrasound. During microbubble manufacturing, the different lipid shell species naturally partition forming concentrated lipid islands. In this study the dynamics of how these nanoscale islands accommodate the expansion of the microbubbles are monitored by measuring the fluorescence intensity changes that occur as self-quenching lipophilic dye molecules embedded in the lipid layer change their distance from one another. It was found that when the dye molecules were concentrated in islands, less than 5% of the microbubbles displayed measurable fluorescence intensity modulation indicating the islands were not able to expand sufficiently for the dye molecules to separate from one another. When the microbubbles were heated and cooled rapidly through the lipid transition temperature the islands were melted creating an even distribution of dye about the surface. This resulted in over 50% of the microbubbles displaying the fluorescence-modulated signal indicating that the dye molecules could now separate sufficiently to change their self-quenching efficiency. The separation of the surface lipids in these different formations has significant implications for microbubble development as ultrasound and optical contrast agents. PMID:24839198

  18. Characterization of the vitreous body of the human eye using a cyanine dye as a spectral and fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.

    2009-02-01

    We used one of cyanine dyes as a spectral and fluorescent probe in the study of the composition of the extracellular matrix of the human eye (its vitreous body). Owing to the unique ability of the dye to bind to collagens and human serum albumin, we revealed the simultaneous presence of both types of biomacromolecules in the vitreous body. The formation of the dye complex with human serum albumin leads to appearance of a long-wavelength absorption band (~612 nm) and a steep rise of fluorescence, whereas in the presence of collagens the dye forms J-aggregates with a longer-wavelength absorption band (640-660 nm) and moderate fluorescence. In this work we studied the composition of the human fetus vitreous body and its dynamics from 9 to 31 gestation weeks. On the basis of the data obtained by this method, we may assume that albumin, being a carrier protein, probably provides the vitreous body and surrounding tissues with necessary growth factors, hormones, lipids, vitamins, and some other biomolecules. The data show that the dye is promising not only for study of albumin functions in eye development, but also for characterization of some eye diseases and for analysis of other extracellular media.

  19. Application of photoacoustic, photothermal and fluorescence spectroscopies in signal enhancement and the kinetics, chemistry and photophysics of several dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Isak, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Modified photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies are applied in analytical studies of liquid and solid systems. Quenching of benzophenone by potassium iodide is used to demonstrate application of time resolved photothermal spectroscopies in study of fast (submicrosecond) deexcitation processes. Inherently weak X-ray photoacoustic signals at a synchrotron are enhanced by the introduction of a volatile liquid into a gas-microphone photoacoustic cell. Traditionally, photoacoustic signals have been detected either by gas coupling with a microphone or with a piezoelectric detector. However, optically detected photoacoustic signals have been used in the determination of physical properties of a liquid sample system and are successfully applied to the study of deexcitation processes of a number of dye molecules. Photothermal beam deflection photoacoustic (PBDPA), fluorescence and absorbance measurements are utilized to study the chemistry and photophysics of cresyl violet in aqueous, aqueous micellar and methanolic solutions. A concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of cresyl violet is investigated. Aspects of chemistry and photophysics relating to potential use of several diazo dyes as photothermal sensitizing dyes in photodynamic therapy are explored experimentally and discussed. Photothermal beam deflection, fluorescence and absorbance measurements are again utilized. The dyes are found to have a number of interesting chemical and photophysical properties. They are also determined to be ideal photothermal sensitizing dye candidates.

  20. Suitability of Mixing Fluorescent Dye in Adulticides and its Impact on Droplet Characteristics and Pesticide Efficacy (1).

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Waits, Christy

    2015-12-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used to help visualize insecticidal droplets or to trace movement of insecticides; however, the effect these dyes have on the insecticide's efficacy and droplet characteristics is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of mixing Uvitex OB fluorescent dye with 5 adulticides on their efficacy in a wind tunnel. Efficacy was determined via droplet size characteristics, spray flux (active ingredient [AI] deposition), and female adult Aedes aegypti mortality. Fyfanon® ULV, Anvil® 10+10, Duet™, Aqualuer® 20-20, and Zenivex® E20, diluted with corn oil, were tested with and without the dye at maximum, minimum, and half-minimum label rates. Adulticide droplet size was not affected by the addition of dye to any of the 5 pesticides tested. Mosquito mortality was strongly correlated with AI deposition for all pesticides except Duet. There was no difference among correlation coefficients of the 5 pesticides and between coefficients of any pesticide pairs, indicating that all correlations were similar. The addition of dye slightly but nonsignificantly and nonconsistently affected mortality. It was found that the source of this variability was due to large variation in mortality among different replicates of the same treatment. PMID:26675457

  1. Fluorescent nanomicelles for selective detection of Sudan dye in Pluronic F127 aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinliang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Fei

    2014-04-01

    Novel self-assembled water-soluble nanomicelles that contain fluorescent conjugated polymers (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) or poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-4,4'-phenylether] (PF-PE)) have been obtained and used as the highly sensitive/selective platform for Sudan dye detection. The Fluorescent nanomicelles exhibited a highly selective fluorescence quenching by the prohibited food additive Sudan I, while not for the natural pigments: Capsanthin and Beta-carotene, due to the more suitable matching of the LUMOs (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the conjugated polymers with that of Sudan I molecules. The Stern-Volmer constants (K(SV)) of PF-PE/F127 and PFO/F127 for Sudan I were 1,040,480 and 665,000 M(-1), respectively, which were more than 100 times higher than those of the same conjugated polymers in the orgainc solvents. The significantly enhanced sensitivity was due to the collective effect of the F127 micelles to both chromophore and analyte, through which the fluorophone-analyte binding interaction is significantly strengthened and efficient photoinduced charge transfer occurs. The as-proposed materials and approach may be potentially applied in the real-time food safety screening. PMID:24625370

  2. The relation between dicarbocyanine dye fluorescence and the membrane potential of human red blood cells set at varying Donnan equilibria

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The fluorescence, F, of two dicarbocyanine dyes, diS-C3(5) and diI- C3(5), depends both on the membrane potential, E, and on the intracellular pH, pHc, or human red blood cells. Compositions of isotonic media have been devised in which the equilibrium Donnan potential, E, varies at constant pHc and in which pHc varies at constant E. Dye fluorescence measurements in these suspensions yield calibrations of +1.7 % delta F/mV for diS-C3(5) and +0.6 % delta F/mV for diI-C3 (5). While pHo does not affect F of either dye, changes in pHc of 0.1 unit at constant E cause changes of F equivalent to those induced by 2--3mV. Based on these results, a method is given for estimating changes in E from dye fluorescence in experiments in which E and pHc co-vary. The relation of F to E also depends in a complex way on the type and concentration of cells and dye, and the wavelengths employed. The equilibrium calibration of dye fluorescence, when applied to diffusion potentials induced by 1 microM valinomycin, yields a value for the permeability ratio, PK.VAL/PCl, of 20 +/- 5, in agreement with previous estimates by other methods. The calibration of F is identical both for diffusion potentials and for equilibrium potentials, implying that diC-C3(5) responds to changes in voltage independently of ionic fluxes across the red cell membrane. Changes in the absorption spectra of dye in the presence of red cells in response to changes in E show that formation of nonfluorescent dimers contributes to fluorescence quenching of diS-C3(5). In contrast, only a hydrophobic interaction of dye monomers need be considered for diI-C3(5), indicating the occurrence of a simpler mechanism of fluorescence quenching. PMID:39969

  3. AIRBORNE LIDAR MONITORING OF FLUORESCENT DYE PARTICLES AS A TRACER TO CHARACTERIZE TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION: A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of using airborne lidar to observe the three-dimensional distribution of fluorescent dye particle (FDP) tracers in long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion studies has been successfully demonstrated in field experiments conducted in the North East U.S. duri...

  4. Fluorescence enhancement through modified dye molecule absorption associated with the localized surface plasmon resonances of metallic dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriniants, George; Barnes, William L.

    2008-10-01

    Nano-antennae consisting of gold particle dimers were fabricated by electron-beam lithography. Dark-field scattering spectroscopy was used to probe the plasmonic response of individual nano-antennae and to characterize the localized surface plasmon resonances they support. Fluorescence from dye molecules dispersed in a thin polymer film that covered the dimers was used to probe the interaction between fluorophores and the nano-antennae. Through a suitable choice of dye emission spectrum and spectral position of the dimer resonance, we were able to focus on the way the plasmon resonances may mediate absorption of incident light by the dye. We separated out the role of plasmon resonances on absorption from emission. This was done using energy transfer in a donor acceptor pair of dyes.

  5. Static and dynamic model fluorescence quenching of laser dye by carbon tetrachloride in binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadadevarmath, J. S.; Malimath, G. H.; Melavanki, R. M.; Patil, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence quenching of laser dye namely 4,4?-Bis (2-butyloctyl-oxy)-p-quaterphenyl [BIBUQ] by carbon tetrachloride has been studied in different solvent mixtures of 1-4 dioxane (DN) and acetonitrile (AN) at room temperature. The quenching is found to be appreciable and a positive deviation from linearity was observed in the Stern-Volmer plot in all the solvent mixtures. Various parameters for the quenching process have been determined by sphere of action static quenching model and finite sink approximation model. The magnitudes of these rate parameters indicate that positive deviation in the Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot is both due to static and dynamic processes.

  6. Fluorescence enhancement of dyes embedded in nanoparticles of Lu, Eu, Al, and Sc diketonates of different composition and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the effect of central ions (Lu(III), Eu(III), Sc(III), and Al(III)), organic ligands (2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (NTA) and p-phenylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (PhBTA)), and their concentration in a water-alcohol solution on the fluorescence of ?-diketonate complexes formed and nanoparticles (NPs) generated by the self-assembly of these complexes. The fluorescence quenching of ligands of the complexes of nanoparticles because of the introduction of molecules of dyes, such as Nile Blue (NB), Lissamine Rhodamine RB-200 (RB), and Crystal Violet (CV), in these nanoparticles is investigated, and the NP-sensitization of the fluorescence of these dyes is explored. The dependence of the intensity of the NP-sensitized fluorescence of NB on its concentration in nanoparticles consisting of complexes that differ in composition and concentration is studied. By analyzing this dependence for the nanoparticles consisting of Sc(NTA)3, the size of the studied nanoparticles is evaluated. It is shown that the nature of this dependence is determined by a competition of two processes: the migration of the excitation energy over complexes to dyes and the migration of the excitation energy of dyes to impurities or dimer of dyes. The size of nanoparticles is compared to the estimated values of the exciton diffusion length and the critical radius of energy transfer from complexes to NB. An energy transfer of close to 100% from the nanoparticles formed of 10 ?M of Sc(NTA)3 to 50 nM of NB molecules embedded therein is observed. The introduction of NB molecules into nanoparticles leads to a 200-fold increase in fluorescence intensity compared to their direct excitation in solution.

  7. Fluorescent viability stains to probe the metabolic status of aflatoxigenic fungus in dual culture of Aspergillus flavus and Pichia anomala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic activity of aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala was examined using several vital stains. Both the FUN-1 stain and the combined use of DiBAC4(5) with CDFA-AM stains demonstrated that P. anomala inactivated the ATP generating syst...

  8. Fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts for super-resolution optical microscopy of biological objects: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sednev, Maksim V.; Belov, Vladimir N.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-12-01

    The review deals with commercially available organic dyes possessing large Stokes shifts and their applications as fluorescent labels in optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED). STED microscopy breaks Abbe’s diffraction barrier and provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. STED microscopy is non-invasive and requires photostable fluorescent markers attached to biomolecules or other objects of interest. Up to now, in most biology-related STED experiments, bright and photoresistant dyes with small Stokes shifts of 20–40?nm were used. The rapid progress in STED microscopy showed that organic fluorophores possessing large Stokes shifts are indispensable in multi-color super-resolution techniques. The ultimate result of the imaging relies on the optimal combination of a dye, the bio-conjugation procedure and the performance of the optical microscope. Modern bioconjugation methods, basics of STED microscopy, as well as structures and spectral properties of the presently available fluorescent markers are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the spectral properties of the commercial dyes are tabulated and correlated with the available depletion wavelengths found in STED microscopes produced by LEICA Microsytems, Abberior Instruments and Picoquant GmbH.

  9. Accurate Diffusion Coefficients of Organosoluble Reference Dyes in Organic Media Measured by Dual-Focus Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Karel; Prior, Mira; Pacheco, Victor; Willbold, Dieter; Müllen, Klaus; Enderlein, Jörg; Hofkens, Johan; Gregor, Ingo

    2015-07-28

    Dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (2fFCS) is a versatile method to determine accurate diffusion coefficients of fluorescent species in an absolute, reference-free manner. Whereas (either classical or dual-focus) FCS has been employed primarily in the life sciences and thus in aqueous environments, it is increasingly being used in materials chemistry, as well. These measurements are often performed in nonaqueous media such as organic solvents. However, the diffusion coefficients of reference dyes in organic solvents are not readily available. For this reason we determined the translational diffusion coefficients of several commercially available organosoluble fluorescent dyes by means of 2fFCS. The selected dyes and organic solvents span the visible spectrum and a broad range of refractive indices, respectively. The diffusion coefficients can be used as absolute reference values for the calibration of experimental FCS setups, allowing quantitative measurements to be performed. We show that reliable information about the hydrodynamic dimensions of the fluorescent species (including noncommercial compounds) within organic media can be extracted from the 2fFCS data. PMID:26144863

  10. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 5. Rhodamines.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodamines were first produced in the late 19(th) century, when they constituted a new class of synthetic dyes. These compounds since have been used to color many things including cosmetics, inks, textiles, and in some countries, food products. Certain rhodamine dyes also have been used to stain biological specimens and currently are widely used as fluorescent probes for mitochondria in living cells. The early history and current biological applications are sketched briefly and an account of the ambiguities, complications and confusions concerning dye identification and nomenclature are discussed. PMID:26529223

  11. SELECTIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF SMALL MOLECULE FLUORESCENT DYES/PROBES USED FOR THE DETECTION OF Zn2+ AND Ca2+ IN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Landero-Figueroa, Julio A.; Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Deepe, George; Caruso, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes are widely used in the detection of labile (free or exchangeable) Zn2+ and Ca2+ in living cells. However, their specificity over other cations and selectivity for detection of labile vs. protein-bound metal in cells remains unclear. We characterized these important properties for commonly used Zn2+ and Ca2+ dyes in a cellular environment. By tracing the fluorescence emission signal along with UV-Vis and size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) in tandem, we demonstrated that among the dyes used for Zn2+, Zinpyr-1 fluoresces in the low molecular mass (LMM) region containing labile Zn2+, but also fluoresces in different molecular mass regions where zinc ion is detected. However, FluoZin™-3 AM, Newport Green™ DCF and Zinquin ethyl ester display weak fluorescence, lack of metal specificity and respond strongly in the high molecular mass (HMM) region. Four Ca2+ dyes were studied in an unperturbed cellular environment, and two of these were tested for binding behavior under an intracellular Ca2+ release stimulus. A majority of Ca2+ was in the labile form as tested by SEC-ICP-MS, but the fluorescence from Calcium Green-1™ AM, Oregon Green® 488 BAPTA-1, Fura red™ AM and Fluo-4 NW dyes in cells did not correspond to free Ca2+ detection. Instead, the dyes showed non-specific fluorescence in the mid- and high-molecular mass regions containing Zn, Fe and Cu. Proteomic analysis of one of the commonly seen fluorescing regions showed the possibility for some dyes to recognize Zn and Cu bound to metallothionein-2. These studies indicate that Zn2+ and Ca2+ binding dyes manifest fluorescence responses that are not unique to recognition of labile metals and bind other metals, leading to suboptimal specificity and selectivity. PMID:24356796

  12. Development of a pH sensor based on a nanostructured filter adding pH-sensitive fluorescent dye for detecting acetic acid in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takashi; Itayama, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Iwami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Hara, Yukiko; Masuda, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid formed via the hydrolysis of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as an encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules causes a decrease in the conversion efficiency of such modules by grid corrosion. Here, a nondestructive and simple optical method for evaluating the condition of PV modules is proposed. This method uses a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye to detect acetic acid in PV modules using a change in pH. The change in pH induced by the formation of acetic acid is detected by the change in the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of two peaks of the dye. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye showed sensitivity for small amounts of acetic acid such as that produced from EVA. Furthermore, a membrane filter dyed with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye was confirmed to detect acetic acid in aged EVA after a damp-heat test (85 °C, 85%) for 5000 h in PV modules.

  13. Reduced Fluorescence Quenching of Cyclodextrin-Acetylene Dye Rotaxanes Jong S. Park, James N. Wilson, Kenneth I. Hardcastle, Uwe H. F. Bunz,*, and

    E-print Network

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    . Wilson, Kenneth I. Hardcastle,¶ Uwe H. F. Bunz,*, and Mohan Srinivasarao*,,,§ School of Polymer, Textile.bunz@chemistry.gatech.edu; mohan@ptfe.gatech.edu Fluorescent dyes behave differently when trapped inside the cavity

  14. Selective staining by 4', 6-diamidine-2-phenylindole of nanogram quantities of DNA in the presence of RNA on gels.

    PubMed

    Kapu?ci?ski, J; Yanagi, K

    1979-08-10

    4', 6-Diamidine-2-phenylindole.2HCl (DAPI) forms fluorescent complexes with double-stranded (ds) DNA but not with ds RNA as shown by fluorescence titration. The widely used dye ethidium bromide (EB) forms fluorescent complexes with both types of nucleic acids. Also, in contrast to EB, DAPI forms much weaker fluorescent complexes with single-stranded DNA than with ds DNA. These observations were utilized to develop staining procedures for the selective visualization of ds DNA on gels. The use of DAPI in addition to EB for staining makes possible the localization of ds DNA and other species of nucleic acids on a single gel. PMID:493114

  15. Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals Lydia Bechger,* Peter Lodahl, and Willem L. Vos

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals Lydia polystyrene opals and alumina inverse opals are studied, allowing us to compare direct and inverted structures emission was first reported in refs 6 and 7: titania inverse opals doped with laser dye showed a broadband

  16. Ionic comonomer effect of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer containing D-?-A type pyran-based fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Gwon, Seon-Young; Hwang, In-Jeong; Son, Young-A.; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-06-01

    Temperature and pH responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAM)) copolymer containing D-?-A type pyran-based fluorescent dye (fluorophore) and basic comonomer, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-methacrylamide (DMAPAM) was prepared by free radical polymerization. With increase of pH values, aqueous poly(NIPAM-co-DMAPAM-co-fluorophore) solution showed decrease of a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and increase of fluorescence intensity, due to a change in the ionization state. And also hydrodynamic radius of poly(NIPAM-co-DMAPAM-co-fluorophore) changed correspondingly to changes of temperature and pH values.

  17. Fluorescence Quenching of (Dimethylamino)naphthalene Dyes Badan and Prodan by Tryptophan in Cytochromes P450 and Micelles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-6-propionylnaphthalene dyes Badan and Prodan is quenched by tryptophan in Brij 58 micelles as well as in two cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP102, CYP119) with Badan covalently attached to a cysteine residue. Formation of nonemissive complexes between a dye molecule and tryptophan accounts for about 76% of the fluorescence intensity quenching in micelles, the rest is due to diffusive encounters. In the absence of tryptophan, fluorescence of Badan-labeled cytochromes decays with triexponential kinetics characterized by lifetimes of about 100 ps, 700–800 ps, and 3 ns. Site mutation of a histidine residue in the vicinity of the Badan label by tryptophan results in shortening of all three decay lifetimes. The relative amplitude of the fastest component increases at the expense of the two slower ones. The average quenching rate constants are 4.5 × 108 s–1 (CYP102) and 3.7 × 108 s–1 (CYP119), at 288 K. Cyclic voltammetry of Prodan in MeCN shows a reversible reduction peak at ?1.85 V vs NHE that becomes chemically irreversible and shifts positively upon addition of water. A quasireversible reduction at ?0.88 V was observed in an aqueous buffer (pH 7.3). The excited-state reduction potential of Prodan (and Badan) is estimated to vary from about +0.6 V (vs NHE) in polar aprotic media (MeCN) to approximately +1.6 V in water. Tryptophan quenching of Badan/Prodan fluorescence in CYPs and Brij 58 micelles is exergonic by ?0.5 V and involves tryptophan oxidation by excited Badan/Prodan, coupled with a fast reaction between the reduced dye and water. Photoreduction is a new quenching mechanism for 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-6-propionylnaphthalene dyes that are often used as solvatochromic polarity probes, FRET donors and acceptors, as well as reporters of solvation dynamics. PMID:25079965

  18. Charge-recombination fluorescence from push-pull electronic systems constructed around amino-substituted styryl-BODIPY dyes.

    PubMed

    Nano, Adela; Ziessel, Raymond; Stachelek, Patrycya; Harriman, Anthony

    2013-09-27

    A small series of donor-acceptor molecular dyads has been synthesized and fully characterized. In each case, the acceptor is a dicyanovinyl unit and the donor is a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye equipped with a single styryl arm bearing a terminal amino group. In the absence of the acceptor, the BODIPY-based dyes are strongly fluorescent in the far-red region and the relaxed excited-singlet states possess significant charge-transfer character. As such, the emission maxima depend on both the solvent polarity and temperature. With the corresponding push-pull molecules, there is a low-energy charge-transfer state that can be observed by both absorption and emission spectroscopy. Here, charge-recombination fluorescence is weak and decays over a few hundred picoseconds or so to recover the ground state. Overall, these results permit evaluation of the factors affecting the probability of charge-recombination fluorescence in push-pull dyes. The photophysical studies are supported by cyclic voltammetry and DFT calculations. PMID:24038505

  19. DFT/TDDFT investigation on the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence properties of alizarin dye.

    PubMed

    Amat, Anna; Miliani, Costanza; Romani, Aldo; Fantacci, Simona

    2015-03-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of alizarin, a fluorescent organic red dye of the family of the anthraquinones, have been theoretically investigated by focusing our attention on its emission properties in relation to an excited-state internal proton transfers from the phenolic hydroxyl group to the carbonyl oxygen. The potential energy curve of the proton transfer in the first excited state has been computed in solvents of different polarity and the emission spectra of both tautomers simulated, including the vibronic effects, using the Franck-Condon approximation. Calculations performed by equilibrating the solvent with the excited-state geometry and electron density using a self-consistent procedure have led to interesting differences with respect to their linear response counterpart. The results obtained point out that, while the emission energy of alizarin is sensitive to solvent polarity, that of the proton-transfer tautomer is computed at similar wavelengths independently of the solvent. Comparison between computed and experimental data has allowed us to rationalize the alizarin double emission measured in non-polar solvents. PMID:25651191

  20. REDUCING INCIDENTAL FLUORESCENCE IN LIVE CELL IMAGING A. Altinok 1

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    acquisition tech- nique in cell biology research. A problem of this method is the incidental fluorescence in fluorescent dyes facilitated research on cellular processes through time lapse imaging [2]. Conceptually edges around stained cellular structures, Fig.1. Often, recorded intensity levels be- come very close

  1. A near-infrared fluorescent probe for selective detection of HClO based on Se-sensitized aggregation of heptamethine cyanine dye.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guanghui; Fan, Jiangli; Sun, Wen; Cao, Jianfang; Hu, Chong; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-01-28

    A Se-containing heptamethine cyanine dye based fluorescent probe was successfully developed and used for HClO detection with rapid response and high selectivity based on aggregation behavior. The probe could react with HClO with significant change in its fluorescence profile, which makes it practical for detecting HClO in fetal bovine serum and in living mice. PMID:24310167

  2. Real-time probing of ?-amyloid self-assembly and inhibition using fluorescence self-quenching between neighbouring dyes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Steven D; Dalgarno, Paul A; Cameron, Ryan T; Hedley, Gordon J; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John M; Baillie, George S; Samuel, Ifor D W; Penedo, J Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence response of the Thioflavin-T (ThT) dye and derivatives has become the standard tool for detecting ?-amyloid aggregates (A?) in solution. However, it is accepted that ThT-based methods suffer from important drawbacks. Some of these are due to the cationic structure of ThT, which limits its application at slightly acidic conditions; whereas some limitations are related to the general use of an extrinsic-dye sensing strategy and its intrinsic requirement for the formation of a sensor-binding site during the aggregation process. Here, we introduce fluorescence-self-quenching (FSQ) between N-terminally tagged peptides as a strategy to overcome some of these limitations. Using a combination of steady-state, picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, we characterize the fluorescence response of HiLyte fluor 555-labelled A? peptides and demonstrate that A? self-assembly organizes the covalently attached probes in close proximity to trigger the self-quenching sensing process over a broad range of conditions. Importantly, we prove that N-terminal tagging of ?-amyloid peptides does not alter the self-assembly kinetics or the resulting aggregated structures. We also tested the ability of FSQ-based methods to monitor the inhibition of A?1-42 aggregation using the small heat-shock protein Hsp20 as a model system. Overall, FSQ-based strategies for amyloid-sensing fill the gap between current morphology-specific protocols using extrinsic dyes, and highly-specialized single-molecule techniques that are difficult to implement in high-throughput analytical determinations. When performed in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) format, the method becomes a ratiometric platform to gain insights into amyloid structure and for standardizing in vitro studies of amyloid aggregation. PMID:24170094

  3. In vivo fluorescence imaging of lysosomes: a potential technique to follow dye accumulation in the context of PDT?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1995-03-01

    Lysosomes and intracellular acidic compartments seem to play an important role in the context of PDT. Some photosensitizers are localized in the lysosomes of tumor-associated macrophages. Liposomes, which are lysosomotropic drug carriers, are used to deliver photosensitizers in tumors. Liposomes are taken up by the liver cells after intravenous injection. Intracellular pathway and liposomes localization in the different liver cells require sacrifice of the animals, cell separation, and observation by electronic microscopy. Little is known about liposomes kinetic uptake by the acidic intracellular compartments in vivo. We propose in this study a new method to follow liposomes uptake in the liver in vivo using a fluorescent pH-sensitive probe. We have already demonstrated the ability of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging using a pH-dependent probe to monitor pH in living tissues. As pH of lysosome is very low, the kinetic of liposome uptake in this intracellular acidic compartment is followed by monitoring the pH of the whole liver in vivo and ex vivo. Liposomes-encapsulated carboxyfluorescein are prepared by the sonication procedure. Carboxyfluorescein is used at high concentration (100 mM) in order to quench its fluorescence. Liposomes are injected to Wistar rats into the peinil vein. After laparotomy, fluorescence spectra and images are recorded during two hours. Results show a rapid fluorescence increase followed by a slow phase of fluorescence decrease. pH decreases from physiological value to 6.0. After sacrifice and flush with cold saline solution, pH of liver ex vivo is found to be 5.0 - 5.5. These data show a rapid clearance of released dye and an uptake of liposomes by the liver cells and, as liposomes penetrate in the acidic compartment, dye is released from liposomes and is delivered in lysosomes leading to the decrease of pH.

  4. Isolation of full-size mRNA from ethanol-fixed cells after cellular immunofluorescence staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).

    PubMed

    Esser, C; Göttlinger, C; Kremer, J; Hundeiker, C; Radbruch, A

    1995-12-01

    Preparation of intact, full-size RNA from tissues or cells requires stringent precautions against ubiquitous and rather stable RNases. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) usually aims at the isolation of cells according to cell surface markers on living cells, from which RNA can be obtained by standard protocols. The separation of cells according to intracellular immunofluorescence markers, such as intranuclear, intracytoplasmic, or secreted molecules, requires permeation of the cell membrane for the staining antibodies, which is usually achieved by fixation. However, commonly used fixatives such as ethanol, methanol, or formaldehyde do not inactivate RNases completely, thereby hampering the analysis of complete RNA molecules from fixed cells. We report isolation of intact, full-size RNA suitable for Northern blotting from cells that were fixed by 95% ethanol/5% acetic acid containing RNase inhibitors, stained intracellularly, and sorted by FACS. PMID:8608737

  5. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface of the cornea will be stained by the dye and appear green under the blue light. The provider can determine the location and ...

  6. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    PubMed Central

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 ?M and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity. PMID:25709579

  7. Strategy to control the chromism and fluorescence emission of a perylene dye in composite organogel phases.

    PubMed

    Simalou, Oudjaniyobi; Zhao, Xiaogang; Lu, Ran; Xue, Pengchong; Yang, Xinchun; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2009-10-01

    Composite organogels based on 1,3,5-tris(4-dodecyloxybenzoylamino)phenylbenzene (DBAPB), a known gelator, and N,N'-di(octadecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (C18PTCDI), a nongelator dye, have been achieved, leading to controllable color and emitting color changes. SEM images and XRD patterns revealed that the packing of the DBAPB-based gelator could almost be maintained in the composite gels. The temperature-dependent UV-vis absorption and temperature-dependent fluorescence emission spectra illustrated that the color and emitting color of the composite gels could be controlled by the content of C18PTCDI as well as the temperature in the gel phases. When the content of C18PTCDI was 1 mol %, C18PTCDI could be isolated as unimolecules in the composite gel, which was yellow and gave bright greenish-yellow emission under 365 nm light. For the mixed systems containing 2-10 mol % C18PTCDI, the fresh gels, which were obtained after cooling the hot solutions for a short time, were yellow and produced greenish-yellow emission under 365 nm illumination. However, the corresponding stable composite gels, which were obtained via prolonging the cooling time, were red and emitted weak red emission excited by UV light as a result of the formation of C18PTCDI aggregates. The reversible color and emitting color changes could be realized in the gel phases over a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the excitation energy of DBAPB could be transferred to C18PTCDI in the composite gels, leading to obvious emission quenching of the former. PMID:19739637

  8. The mitochondrial fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for organic cation transporters (OCTs) 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vee, Marc; Denizot, Claire; Da Violante, Georges; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent cationic dye commonly used as a mitochondrial probe and known or suspected to be transported by certain drug membrane transporters. The present study was designed to characterize the putative interactions of rhodamine 123 with human organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2. Intracellular uptake of the dye was demonstrated to be enhanced in both hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells when compared with control HEK293 cells. This increase of rhodamine 123 influxes was found to be a saturable carrier-mediated process, with low K(m) values (K(m) = 0.54 ?m and K(m) = 0.61 ?m for transport of the dye in hOCT1- and hOCT2-positive HEK293 cells, respectively). Known inhibitors of hOCT1 and hOCT2 activities such as verapamil, amitriptyline, prazosin, and quinine were next demonstrated to decrease rhodamine 123 accumulation in hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In addition, the dye was found to inhibit hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a model substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2; rhodamine 123 appeared nevertheless to be a more potent inhibitor of hOCT1-mediated TEA transport (IC?? = 0.37 ?m) than of that mediated by hOCT2 (IC?? = 61.5 ?m). Taken together, these data demonstrate that rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2. This dye may be therefore useful for fluorimetrically investigating cellular hOCT1 or hOCT2 activity, knowing, however, that other factors potentially contributing to cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, including mitochondrial membrane potential or expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, have also to be considered. PMID:22913740

  9. One-pot preparation of cross-linked amphiphilic fluorescent polymer based on aggregation induced emission dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Xiqi; Yang, Bin; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qingsong; Huang, Zengfang; Wei, Yen

    2015-02-01

    Facile one-pot preparation of cross-linked amphiphilic fluorescent polymer based on aggregation induced emission (AIE) dyes and 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (IM) has been developed. This was carried out first by free radical polymerization between AIE monomer (PhE) and IM, and then polyethyleneimine (PEI) was introduced to obtain the cross-linked fluorescent polymer. The resulted cross-linked amphiphilic polymer was prone to self-assemble into stable nanoparticles in aqueous solution with surplus amino groups on the surface which made them highly water dispersible and can be further functionalized. The as-prepared fluorescent polymer nanoparticles (PhE-IM-PEI FPNs) were fully characterized by a series of techniques including (1)H NMR spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, UV-vis absorption spectrum, and fluorescence spectra. Such FPNs demonstrated intense orange fluorescence with a high quantum yield of about 40%. Biocompatibility evaluation and cell uptake behavior of the nanoparticles were further investigated to explore their potential biomedical applications; the demonstrated excellent biocompatibility made them promising for cell imaging. PMID:25576817

  10. Highly directional fluorescence emission from dye molecules embedded in a dielectric layer adjacent to a silver film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, L.; Sievert, P. R.; Mu, W.; Hong, Z.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2008-07-01

    We report measurements on the angular radiation patterns from dye molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate thin film spin-coated on a thin silver film. We systematically studied the influence of the thickness of the silver films and the thickness of the dielectric layers on the radiation pattern. We present the detailed radiation patterns over a large angular range showing highly polarized fluorescence emission coupled into the surface plasmon modes or waveguide modes. We also studied the influence of the polarization of the excitation beam on the radiation patterns. The experimental data are compared with numerical simulations using an asymptotic approach based on the Lorentz reciprocity theorem.

  11. Structure, Dynamic and Photophysical Properties of a Fluorescent Dye Incorporated in an Amorphous Hydrophobic Polymer Bundle

    PubMed Central

    De Mitri, N.; Monti, S.; Barone, V.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a low molecular weight organic dye, namely 4-naphtoyloxy-1-methoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, covalently bound to an apolar polyolefin are investigated by means of a multi-level approach, combining classical molecular dynamics simulations, based on an purposely parameterized force fields, and quantum mechanical calculations, based on density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT). The structure and dynamics of the dye in its embedding medium is analyzed and discussed in the light of the entangling effect of the surrounding polymer, also by comparing it to the results obtained for a different environment, i.e. toluene solution. The influence on photophysical properties of long lived cages, found in the polymeric embedding is eventually investigated in terms of slow and fast dye’s internal dynamics, by comparing computed IR and UV spectra with their experimental counterparts. PMID:24988373

  12. Electron transfer dynamics of dye-55026 J-aggregate to AgBr grains studied by ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaopeng; Fan, Guozhi; Cao, Ning; Li, Xiaowei; Fu, Guangsheng

    2006-02-01

    Direct detection of the dynamics of photo-induced electrons in AgBr photographic system sensitized by dye-55026 was performed using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The dependence of the electron transfer rate on different conditions and microcosmic mechanism of electron transfer were analyzed. The experiment setup in our work was a system of high-speed streak photography (Streak Cameras) with a time-resolution of 5 ps. With stead spectroscopy, the peak of absorption and fluorescence of J-aggregation on AgBr grains both have a red shift contrast to monomer. On the same time the absorption spectrum band of J-aggregation becomes narrow. The fluorescence decay curves of J-aggregation on both the cubic and tabular AgBr grains (T-grains) were gained with different dye concentrations. These curves are fitted well by a sum of double exponential functions, which includes a fast and a slow component. Because of large amplitudes (68-99% for T-grains and 68-80% for cubic grains) of the fast decay (2.4-12.1ps for T-grains and 4.1-5.8ps for cubic grains) and the estimated quantum yield of the electron injection, this fast decay should be mainly attributable to the electron transfer from excited J-aggregation to conduction band of AgBr. At low concentration (<4.51mmol/molAg), the fluorescence decay lifetime for T-grains is longer than that for cubic grains. As the increase of the concentration, it will become more rapidly for T-grains than that for cubic grains.

  13. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  14. Consideration of fluorescence properties for the direct determination of erythrosine in saffron in the presence of other synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z

    2011-04-01

    Direct selective detection of erythrosine in saffron in the presence of other synthetic dyes considers its fluorescence at 532 nm excitation/548 nm emission. Saffron pre-treatment was according to the ISO 3632-2 trade standard test methods. On account of calculated quantum yield values, none of the yellow dyes is expected to interfere. Among red ones, reservations about allura red AC, azorubine and red 2G were not verified by experimentation, signifying excellent method specificity. Detection and quantification limits (0.56 and 1.70 nM) were of the same magnitude as those reported in the literature after chromatographic separation of erythrosine. The percentage recovery from spiked saffron samples ranging from 63 to 141 was acceptable for residue levels in foods. The matrix effect from crocins (saffron pigments) was evidenced only at a lower spiking level (0.02 mg kg(-1)). The minimum required performance limit (MRPL) was 0.04 mg kg(-1), indicating that the method is appropriate for determining traces of erythrosine in saffron. The approach offers improved sensitivity (by three orders of magnitude) and specificity than the direct spectrophotometric detection of certain synthetic dyes in saffron and deserves attention by the ISO Technical Committee for 'Herbs, culinary spices and condiments'. PMID:21337237

  15. A highly sensitive fluorescent indicator dye for calcium imaging of neural activity in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Atsuya; Hashizume, Miki; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium imaging of individual neurons is widely used for monitoring their activity in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic fluorescent calcium indicator dyes are commonly used, but the resulting calcium signals sometimes suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, it is difficult to detect signals caused by single action potentials (APs) particularly from neurons in vivo. Here we showed that a recently developed calcium indicator dye, Cal-520, is sufficiently sensitive to reliably detect single APs both in vitro and in vivo. In neocortical neurons, calcium signals were linearly correlated with the number of APs, and the SNR was > 6 for in vitro slice preparations and > 1.6 for in vivo anesthetised mice. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, dendritic calcium transients evoked by climbing fiber inputs were clearly observed in anesthetised mice with a high SNR and fast decay time. These characteristics of Cal-520 are a great advantage over those of Oregon Green BAPTA-1, the most commonly used calcium indicator dye, for monitoring the activity of individual neurons both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24405482

  16. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1997-07-08

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated. 4 figs.

  17. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1995-03-28

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated. 4 figures.

  18. DNA complexes with dyes designed for energy transfer as fluorescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.M.; Benson, S.C.

    1998-06-16

    Heteromultimeric fluorophores are provided for binding to DNA, which allow for the detection of DNA in electrical separations and preparation of probes having high-fluorescent efficiencies and large Stokes shifts. In addition, by appropriate choice of fluorescent molecules, one can use a single narrow wavelength band excitation light source, while obtaining fluorescent emissions having sufficient separation to be readily discriminated. 4 figs.

  19. Spectroscopic and electrochemical behavior of newly synthesized high fluorescent symmetric 4'-nitrophenyl-3,4,9,10-perylenebisdiimide-azo hybrid dyes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Shabir, Ghulam; Mahar, Jamaluddin; Irfan, Madiha

    2015-12-01

    The investigation has been made in the synthesis of azo hybrid rylene dyes. The hybridization of perylene bis-diimide with phenolic azo-dyes was carried out by the nucleophilic substitution (SNAr) reaction of tetrachloroperylene-3,4,9,10-bisdiimide 3 with phenolic azo-dyes 4a-g in basic medium. The hybrid dyes exhibited two absorption maxima ?max in the range 300-350, 426-438 nm in ethanol due to presence of azo linkage and highly conjugated framework of ? bonds. Fluorescence spectra of these dyes in water showed sharp emission peaks with small bandwidths in the range 490-495 nm, and fluorescence quantum yield was 0.71-0.83 in comparison with standard reference fluorescein. The structures of perylene-azo dyes were elucidated by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Luminescence was determined by LS-100 meter which was found to be excellent in limits 0.208-0.239 cd/m(2). Cyclic voltammetric studies were made by Electrochemical Analyzer CH1830C which showed the oxidation chemical potential of these hybrid dyes. PMID:26125985

  20. In vivo tumor-targeted dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging using a nanoprobe co-loaded with an aggregation-induced emission dye and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jimei; Li, Chan; Zhang, Xu; Huo, Shuaidong; Jin, Shubin; An, Fei-Fei; Wang, Xiaodan; Xue, Xiangdong; Okeke, C I; Duan, Guiyun; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hao, Jifu; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    As an intensely studied computed tomography (CT) contrast agent, gold nanoparticle has been suggested to be combined with fluorescence imaging modality to offset the low sensitivity of CT. However, the strong quenching of gold nanoparticle on fluorescent dyes requires complicated design and shielding to overcome. Herein, we report a unique nanoprobe (M-NPAPF-Au) co-loading an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) red dye and gold nanoparticles into DSPE-PEG(2000) micelles for dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging. The nanoprobe was prepared based on a facile method of "one-pot ultrasonic emulsification". Surprisingly, in the micelles system, fluorescence dye (NPAPF) efficiently overcame the strong fluorescence quenching of shielding-free gold nanoparticles and retained the crucial AIE feature. In vivo studies demonstrated the nanoprobe had superior tumor-targeting ability, excellent fluorescence and CT imaging effects. The totality of present studies clearly indicates the significant potential application of M-NPAPF-Au as a dual-modal non-invasive fluorescence/X-ray CT nanoprobe for in vivo tumor-targeted imaging and diagnosis. PMID:25542798

  1. Fluorescent Dye Encapsulated ZnO Particles with Cell-specific Toxicity for Potential use in Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Wingett, Denise; Engelhard, Mark H.; Feris, Kevin; Reddy, K. M.; Turner, Paul; Layne, Janet; Hanley, Cory; Bell, Jason; Tenne, Dmitri; Wang, Chong M.; Punnoose, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-encapsulated core-shell particles with a nanoscale ZnO finishing layer have been synthesized for the first time as multifunctional “smart” nanostructures for particle tracking and cell imaging using the visible fluorescence emission of the dye or UV fluorescence emission of ZnO, and anti-cancer/antibacterial treatments using the selective toxicity of the nanoscale ZnO outer surface. The chemical phase composition, morphology, size, and the layered core-shell architecture of the particles were characterized using detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry. Systematic XPS studies after removing nanometer thick layers confirmed the expected layered structure in the order ZnO-SiO2-APTMS-FITC proceeding from the surface to the core of the ~200 nm sized particles. Detailed investigation of the fluorescence properties of these hydrophilic particles in bio-compatible media using fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy demonstrated that the silica/ZnO outer layer offers considerable protection to the encapsulated dye molecules from photobleaching and quenching due to reactive species such as oxygen in the solvent. These particles showed promise toward cell imaging, for example when the bacterium Escherichia coli was used as a test system, the green fluorescence of the particles allowed confocal microscopy to image the cells. The FITC encapsulated ZnO (FITC-ZnO) particles demonstrated excellent selectivity in preferentially killing Jurkat cancer cells (18% cell viability) without any significant toxicity to normal primary immune cells (75% cell viability) at 60 ?g/mL concentrations and inhibited the growth of both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria at concentrations ? 250-500 ?g/mL (for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively). These results indicate that the novel FITC encapsulated multifunctional particles with nanoscale ZnO surface layer are smart nanostructures for particle tracking, cell imaging, antibacterial treatments and cancer therapy.

  2. Flow cytometric detection of micronuclei by combined staining of DNA and membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wessels, J.M.; Nuesse, M.

    1995-03-01

    A new staining method is presented for flow cytometric measurement of micronuclei (MN) in cell cultures and human lymphocytes using membrane-specific fluorescent dyes in addition to DNA staining. Several combinations of fluorescent membrane and DNA dyes were studied for a better discrimination of MN from debris in a suspension of nuclei and micronuclei. For staining of membranes, the lipophilic dyes 2-hydroxyethyl-7,12,17-tris(methoxyethyl)porphycene (HEPn) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) were used in combination with ethidium bromide (EB), proflavine (PF), and Hoechst 33258 (HO). Due to their spectral properties, HO or EB combined with HEPn were not as suitable for the discrimination of MN from debris as was HEPn in combination with PF. With HEPn in combination with PF, however, additional noise was found at low fluorescence intensities, probably due to free fluorescent dye molecules in the solution. The optimal simultaneous staining of membranes and DNA was obtained using a combination of DPH and EB. The induction of MN in Chinese hamster and mouse NIH-3T3 cells by UV-B illumination was studied with this new staining technique. UV-B illumination (280-360 nm) induced MN in both cell lines. Chinese hamster cells were found to be more sensitive to these wavelengths. Illumination with wavelengths above 360 nm did not induce MN in either cell line. The results obtained from human lymphocytes using the combination of EB or DPH were comparable to the results obtained with the combination of EB and HO. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Mixed-Dye-Based Label-Free and Sensitive Dual Fluorescence for the Product Detection of Nucleic Acid Isothermal Multiple-Self-Matching-Initiated Amplification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiong; Wu, Wenshuai; Zhu, Qiangyuan; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Mu, Ying

    2015-10-20

    Visual detections based on fluorescence and the color changes under natural light are two promising product detections for isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (INAAs) such as the isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (IMSA) as point-of-care testing techniques. However, the currently used approaches have shortcomings in application. For the former, fluorescence changes recognized by naked eye may be indistinguishable because of single fluorescence emitted and strong background noise, which requires empirical preset of cutoff intensity values. For the latter, visual detection sensitivity under natural light is not comparable to that based on fluorescence. Herein, hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) and SYBR Green I (SG) were coupled to acquire a label-free dual fluorescence for the visual product detection of IMSA. The mixed-dye-loaded off-chip (tube-based) and on-chip (microfluidic chip-based) IMSAs for the detection of hepatitis B virus were conducted. The results demonstrated that this dual fluorescence could realize distinguishable fluorescent color changes to improve visual detection sensitivity and avoid the preset of cutoff values. Moreover, the mixed dye is stable when kept at room temperature and compatible with the IMSA's reagents without a contamination-prone step of opening tubes after amplification. Also, this coupled dye inherits the advantages of achieving color changes under natural light from HNB and real-time detection from SG. In conclusion, the mixed-dye-based dual fluorescence has a potential in the point-of-care testing application for realizing off-chip and on-chip product detection of IMSA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), or other INAAs. PMID:26383158

  4. Stain Reagent Reversible Stain Kits

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    further diluted serially in 1X SDS-PAGE buffer (50 mM Tris·HCl, pH 6.8, 100 mM dithiothreitol, 2% SDS, 0 during the staining process. 1 Water Wash-Enhanced Protein Staining With GelCode ® Blue Stain Reagent to the nanogram level. The main drawbacks of this method is that it requires long (12-hour) staining times

  5. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Consiglio, A.; Meucci, A.; Cremonesi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’ tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r2>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  6. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Wlilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The study describes and compares the size-dependent optical properties of organic dyes with those of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). The analysis shows that mixtures of QDs contain emission colors that are sum of the individual QD components.

  7. Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    Baker, B. J.; Mutoh, H.; Dimitrov, D.; Akemann, W.; Perron, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Jin, L.; Cohen, L. B.; Isacoff, E. Y.; Pieribone, V. A.; Hughes, T.; Knöpfel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging activity of neurons in intact brain tissue was conceived several decades ago and, after many years of development, voltage-sensitive dyes now offer the highest spatial and temporal resolution for imaging neuronal functions in the living brain. Further progress in this field is expected from the emergent development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential. These fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors overcome the drawbacks of organic voltage sensitive dyes such as non-specificity of cell staining and the low accessibility of the dye to some cell types. In a transgenic animal, a genetically encoded sensor could in principle be expressed specifically in any cell type and would have the advantage of staining only the cell population determined by the specificity of the promoter used to drive expression. Here we critically review the current status of these developments. PMID:18679801

  8. Development of indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay using DNA/dye conjugate as antibody multiple labels was developed on 96-well plates for the identification and quantification of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in aqueous samples. A hapten, 2,4,2'-tribromodiphenyl ether-4’-aldehyde was sy...

  9. Criteria for selecting fluorescent dye tracers for soil hydrological applications using Uranine as an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calibrating and verifying 2-D and 3-D vadose zone flow and transport models requires detailed information on water and solute redistribution. Among the different water flow and mass transfer determination methods, staining tracers have the best spatial resolution allowing visuali...

  10. A multifunctional magnetic nanocarrier bearing fluorescent dye for targeted drug delivery by enhanced two-photon triggered release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S.; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2009-05-01

    We report a novel nanoformulation for targeted drug delivery which utilizes nanophotonics through the fusion of nanotechnology with biomedical application. The approach involves an energy-transferring magnetic nanoscopic co-assembly fabricated of rhodamine B (RDB) fluorescent dye grafted gum arabic modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle and photosensitive linker by which dexamethasone drug is conjugated to the magnetic nano-assembly. The advantage offered by this nanoformulation is the indirect photo-triggered-on-demand drug release by efficient up-converting energy of the near-IR (NIR) light to higher energy and intraparticle energy transfer from the dye grafted magnetic nanoparticle to the linker for drug release by cleavage. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be of ultra-small size (13.33 nm) and are monodispersed in an aqueous suspension. Dexamethasone (Dexa) drug conjugated to RDB-GAMNP by photosensitive linker showed appreciable release of Dexa by photo-triggered response on exposure to radiation having a wavelength in the NIR region whereas no detectable release was observed in the dark. Photo-triggered response for the nanoformulation not bearing the rhodamine B dye was drastically less as less Dexa was released on exposure to NIR radiation which suggest that the photo-cleavage of linker and release of Dexa mainly originated from the indirect excitation through the uphill energy conversions based on donor-acceptor model FRET. The promising pathway of nanophotonics for the on-demand release of the drug makes this nanocarrier very promising for applications in nanomedicine.

  11. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  12. Palladium complexes of perylene diimides: strong fluorescence despite direct attachment of late transition metals to organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Haim; Shirman, Elijah; Ben-Moshe, Tal; Cohen, Revital; Leitus, Gregory; Shimon, Linda J W; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2007-06-11

    We prepared the first sigma-bonded metal complexes of widely utilized organic dyes, perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimides (PDIs). These 1,7-dipalladium PDI complexes were synthesized by C-Br oxidative addition of 1,7-dibromo-N,N'-dicyclohexyl PDI (Br2PDI) to Pd(0) phosphine complexes bearing triphenylphosphine and bischelating 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe). The structures of Pd-PDI complexes were elucidated by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Surprisingly, despite direct attachement of two late transition metal centers, Pd-PDI systems are highly fluorescent (Phi=0.65 and 0.22 for triphenylphosphine and dppe systems, respectively). This is rationalized in terms of weak electronic interactions between the metal centers and PDI pi-system, as revealed by TD-DFT calculations. PMID:17503813

  13. Dual-Modality Noninvasive Mapping of Sentinel Lymph Node by Photoacoustic and Near-Infrared Fluorescent Imaging Using Dye-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Rong, Pengfei; Yu, Lun; Zhang, Xintong; Yang, Cejun; Guo, Fei; Zhao, Yanzhong; Zhou, Kechao; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), the first defense against primary tumor metastasis, has been considered as an important strategy for noninvasive tracking tumor metastasis in clinics. In this study, we developed an imaging contrast system based on fluorescent dye-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) that integrate near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent and photoacoustic (PA) imaging modalities for efficient SLN mapping. By balancing the ratio of dye and nanoparticles for simultaneous optimization of dual-modality imaging (NIR and PA), the dye encapsulated MSNP platform was set up to generate both a moderate NIR emission and PA signals simultaneously. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of the relevance between optical and PA properties were discovered. Subsequently, dual-modality imaging was achieved to visualize tumor draining SLNs up to 2 weeks in a 4T1 tumor metastatic model. Obvious differences in uptake rate and contrast between metastatic and normal SLNs were observed both in vivo and ex vivo. Based on all these imaging data, it was demonstrated that the dye-loaded MSNPs allow detection of regional lymph nodes in vivo with time-domain NIR fluorescent and PA imaging methods efficiently. PMID:26132789

  14. Improved diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swabs and urine specimens compared to diagnosis by wet mount microscopy, culture, and fluorescent staining.

    PubMed

    van Der Schee, C; van Belkum, A; Zwijgers, L; van Der Brugge, E; O'neill, E L; Luijendijk, A; van Rijsoort-Vos, T; van Der Meijden, W I; Verbrugh, H; Sluiters, H J

    1999-12-01

    Four vaginal cotton swab specimens were obtained from each of 804 women visiting the outpatient sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for validation of various forms of Trichomonas vaginalis diagnostic procedures. One swab specimen was immediately examined by wet mount microscopy, a second swab was placed in Kupferberg's Trichosel medium for cultivation, and two swabs were placed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2. The resulting PBS suspension was used for direct staining with acridine orange and fluorescence microscopy, inoculation of modified Diamond's culture medium, and a PCR specific for T. vaginalis. A total of 70 samples positive in one or more of the tests were identified: 31 (3.8%) infections were detected by wet mount microscopy, and 36 (4.4%) were identified by acridine orange staining, as opposed to 40 (4.9%) and 46 (5.7%) positives in modified Diamond's and Trichosel media, respectively. PCR was positive for 61 (7.5%) samples. Secondly, from each of 200 women were obtained a urine sample and a vaginal cotton swab specimen, and 200 urine samples were obtained from men. For the women, 15 (7.4%) of the samples showed a positive result for either the wet mount (n = 1), Trichosel culture (n = 6), PCR on the vaginal swab sample (n = 10), or PCR on the urine specimen (n = 11). Four men (2%) were diagnosed with a T. vaginalis infection. Thus, PCR appears to be the method of choice for the detection of genital infections with T. vaginalis. PMID:10565943

  15. Improved Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection by PCR Using Vaginal Swabs and Urine Specimens Compared to Diagnosis by Wet Mount Microscopy, Culture, and Fluorescent Staining

    PubMed Central

    van der Schee, Cindy; van Belkum, Alex; Zwijgers, Lisette; van der Brugge, Esther; O'neill, Errol L.; Luijendijk, Ad; van Rijsoort-Vos, Tineke; van der Meijden, Willem I.; Verbrugh, Henri; Sluiters, Hans J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Four vaginal cotton swab specimens were obtained from each of 804 women visiting the outpatient sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, for validation of various forms of Trichomonas vaginalis diagnostic procedures. One swab specimen was immediately examined by wet mount microscopy, a second swab was placed in Kupferberg's Trichosel medium for cultivation, and two swabs were placed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2. The resulting PBS suspension was used for direct staining with acridine orange and fluorescence microscopy, inoculation of modified Diamond's culture medium, and a PCR specific for T. vaginalis. A total of 70 samples positive in one or more of the tests were identified: 31 (3.8%) infections were detected by wet mount microscopy, and 36 (4.4%) were identified by acridine orange staining, as opposed to 40 (4.9%) and 46 (5.7%) positives in modified Diamond's and Trichosel media, respectively. PCR was positive for 61 (7.5%) samples. Secondly, from each of 200 women were obtained a urine sample and a vaginal cotton swab specimen, and 200 urine samples were obtained from men. For the women, 15 (7.4%) of the samples showed a positive result for either the wet mount (n = 1), Trichosel culture (n = 6), PCR on the vaginal swab sample (n = 10), or PCR on the urine specimen (n = 11). Four men (2%) were diagnosed with a T. vaginalis infection. Thus, PCR appears to be the method of choice for the detection of genital infections with T. vaginalis. PMID:10565943

  16. Spectral studies of multi-branched fluorescence dyes based on triphenylpyridine core.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Liang-Feng; Zhu, Xiu-Ling; Wang, Chao; Wan, Yu; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel triphenylpyridine-containing triphenylamine derivatives have been carefully designed and prepared in good yields using the stepwise route reactions. The relationship of photoluminescence property and structure of compounds 9-13 was systematically investigated via UV-vis, fluorescence, thermogravimetric and electrochemical analyzer. The highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital distributions of compounds 9-13 were calculated by density functional theory method. The high fluorescence quantum yields, desirable the highest occupied molecular orbital levels and high thermal stability of compounds 9-13 indicate that the linkage of triphenylpyridine and triphenylamine is an efficient means to enhance hole-transporting ability and fluorescent quantum yield. PMID:24287048

  17. An accurate and efficient method to predict the electronic excitation energies of BODIPY fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Nan; Jin, Jun-Ling; Geng, Yun; Sun, Shi-Ling; Xu, Hong-Liang; Lu, Ying-Hua; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-03-15

    Recently, the extreme learning machine neural network (ELMNN) as a valid computing method has been proposed to predict the nonlinear optical property successfully (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2012, 33, 231). In this work, first, we follow this line of work to predict the electronic excitation energies using the ELMNN method. Significantly, the root mean square deviation of the predicted electronic excitation energies of 90 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) derivatives between the predicted and experimental values has been reduced to 0.13 eV. Second, four groups of molecule descriptors are considered when building the computing models. The results show that the quantum chemical descriptions have the closest intrinsic relation with the electronic excitation energy values. Finally, a user-friendly web server (EEEBPre: Prediction of electronic excitation energies for BODIPY dyes), which is freely accessible to public at the web site: http://202.198.129.218, has been built for prediction. This web server can return the predicted electronic excitation energy values of BODIPY dyes that are high consistent with the experimental values. We hope that this web server would be helpful to theoretical and experimental chemists in related research. PMID:23115129

  18. Gram Stain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... definitively identify the cause of infection. Fungi , including yeast, may also be detected with a Gram stain. ^ ... white blood cells Fungi (in the form of yeasts or molds) may be seen on a Gram ...

  19. FM1-43 dye ultrastructural localization in and release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Henkel, A W; Lübke, J; Betz, W J

    1996-03-01

    Previous work has shown that the fluorescent styryl dye FM1-43 stains nerve terminals in an activity-dependent fashion. This dye appears to label the membranes of recycled synaptic vesicles by being trapped during endocytosis. Stained terminals can subsequently be destained by repeating nerve stimulation in the absence of dye; the destaining evidently reflects escape of dye into the bathing medium from membranes of exocytosing synaptic vesicles. In the present study we tested two key aspects of this interpretation of FM1-43 behavior, namely: (i) that the dye is localized in synaptic vesicles, and (ii) that it is actually released into the bathing medium during destaining. To accomplish this, we first photolyzed the internalized dye in the presence of diaminobenzidine. This created an electron-dense reaction product that could be visualized in the electron microscope. Reaction product was confined to synaptic vesicles, as predicted. Second, using spectrofluorometry, we quantified the release of dye liberated into the medium from tubocurarine-treated nerve-muscle preparations. Nerve stimulation increased the amount of FM1-43 released, and we estimate that normally a stained synaptic vesicle contains a few hundred molecules of the dye. The key to the successful detection of released FM1-43 was to add the micelle-forming detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), which increased FM1-43 quantum yield by more than two orders of magnitude. PMID:8700859

  20. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurement of SiH2 in Silane Plasmas Using a CW Ring Dye Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, A.; Hirose, S.; Goto, T.; Kinoshita, K.

    1997-10-01

    Low density SiH2 in silane plasmas was detected using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique with a cw ring dye laser. The method enabled us to study the translational temperature and also to obtain a higher S/N ratio in measuring the dynamic behavior of the radical as compared with measurements by use of a pulsed dye laser.(A. Kono et al.) Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1995) 307. The translational temperature of SiH2 was measured in a 40-mTorr rf SiH_4/Ar plasma with varying mixing ratio. The temperature was ~300 K and no dependence on the mixing ratio was detected; the result makes a marked contrast to the case of Si, whose temperature was high in a pure SiH4 plasma and decreased with increasing Ar dilution. The behavior of SiH2 in a 40-mTorr SiH_4/SiH_2Cl2 plasma was also studied. The use of a cw laser was essential to study the transient behavior of the SiH2 density in the afterglow because high repetition-rate signal averaging was necessary to eliminate the effect of relatively strong interfering emission from long-life SiCl_2(tildea ^3B_1). It was found that SiH_2Cl2 plays a minor role both in production and destruction of SiH2 in the SiH_4/SiH_2Cl2 plasma. (A part of this work was supported by NEDO.)

  1. Evaluation of impermeant, DNA-binding dye fluorescence as a real-time readout of eukaryotic cell toxicity in a high throughput screening format.

    PubMed

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Kirby, James E

    2014-05-01

    Interpretation of high throughput screening (HTS) data in cell-based assays may be confounded by cytotoxic properties of screening compounds. Therefore, assessing cell toxicity in real time during the HTS process itself would be highly advantageous. Here, we investigate the potential of putatively impermeant, fluorescent, DNA-binding dyes to give cell toxicity readout during HTS. Amongst 19 DNA-binding dyes examined, three classes were identified that were (1) permeant, (2) cytotoxic, or (3) neither permeant nor cytotoxic during 3-day incubation with a macrophage cell line. In the last class, four dyes (SYTOX Green, CellTox Green, GelGreen, and EvaGreen) gave highly robust cytotoxicity data in 384-well screening plates. As proof of principle, successful combination with a luminescence-based assay in HTS format was demonstrated. Here, both intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila (luminescence) and host cell viability (SYTOX Green exclusion) were assayed in the same screening well. Incorporation of membrane-impermeant, DNA-binding, fluorescent dyes in HTS assays should prove useful by allowing evaluation of cytotoxicity in real time, eliminating reagent addition steps and effort associated with endpoint cell viability analysis, and reducing the need for follow-up cytotoxicity screening. PMID:24831788

  2. Modulation of dual fluorescence in a 3-hydroxyquinolone dye by perturbation of its intramolecular proton transfer with solvent polarity and basicity.

    PubMed

    Yushchenko, Dmytro A; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V; Bilokin', Mykhailo D; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves; Pivovarenko, Vasyl G

    2006-11-01

    A representative of a new class of dyes with dual fluorescence due to an excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction, namely 1-methyl-2-(4-methoxy)phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (QMOM), has been studied in a series of solvents covering a large range of polarity and basicity. A linear dependence of the logarithm of its two bands intensity ratio, log(I(N*)/I(T*)), upon the solvent polarity expressed as a function of the dielectric constant, (epsilon- 1)/(2epsilon + 1), is observed for a series of protic solvents. A linear dependence for log(I(N*)/I(T*)) is also found in aprotic solvents after taking into account the solvent basicity. In contrast, the positions of the absorption and the two emission bands of QMOM do not noticeably depend on the solvent polarity and basicity, indicating relatively small changes in the transition moment of QMOM upon excitation and emission. Time-resolved experiments in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and dimethylformamide suggest an irreversible ESIPT reaction for this dye. According to the time-resolved data, an increase of solvent basicity results in a dramatic decrease of the ESIPT rate constant, probably due to the disruption of the intramolecular H-bond of the dye by the basic solvent. Due to this new sensor property, 3-hydroxyquinolones are promising candidates for the development of a new generation of environment-sensitive fluorescence dyes for probing interactions of biomolecules. PMID:17077900

  3. Fluorescence Ratiometric Properties Induced by Nanoparticle Plasmonics and Nanoscale Dye Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale transport of merocyanine 540 within/near the plasmon field of gold nanoparticles was recognized as an effective inducer of single-excitation dual-emission ratiometric properties. With a high concentration of the signal transducer (ammonium), a 700% increase in fluorescence was observed at the new red-shifted emission maximum, compared to a nanoparticle free sensor membrane. A previously nonrecognized isosbestic point is demonstrated at 581.4 ± 0.1?nm. The mechanism can be utilized for enhanced and simplified ratiometric optical chemical sensors and potentially for thin film engineering to make solar cells more effective and stable by a broader and more regulated absorption. PMID:23781159

  4. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  5. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the Cy7 molecule whose indolenine-N residues were substituted with a propylene linker are described. Methylating agent temozolomide is functionalized with a tetrazine as a diene component whereas Cy7-cell penetrating peptide conjugate acts as a dienophilic reaction partner for the inverse Diels-Alder click chemistry-mediated ligation route yielding a theranostic conjugate, 3-mercapto-propionic-cyclohexenyl-Cy7-bis-temozolomide-bromide-cell penetrating peptide. Synthesis route described here may facilitate targeted delivery of the therapeutic compound to achieve sufficient local concentrations at the target site or tissue. Its versatility allows a choice of adequate imaging tags applicable in e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, near-infrared imaging, and therapeutic substances including cytotoxic agents. Imaging tags and therapeutics may be simultaneously bound to the conjugate applying click chemistry. Theranostic compound presented here offers a solid basis for a further improvement of cancer management in a precise, patient-specific manner. PMID:26722379

  6. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the Cy7 molecule whose indolenine-N residues were substituted with a propylene linker are described. Methylating agent temozolomide is functionalized with a tetrazine as a diene component whereas Cy7-cell penetrating peptide conjugate acts as a dienophilic reaction partner for the inverse Diels-Alder click chemistry-mediated ligation route yielding a theranostic conjugate, 3-mercapto-propionic-cyclohexenyl-Cy7-bis-temozolomide-bromide-cell penetrating peptide. Synthesis route described here may facilitate targeted delivery of the therapeutic compound to achieve sufficient local concentrations at the target site or tissue. Its versatility allows a choice of adequate imaging tags applicable in e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, near-infrared imaging, and therapeutic substances including cytotoxic agents. Imaging tags and therapeutics may be simultaneously bound to the conjugate applying click chemistry. Theranostic compound presented here offers a solid basis for a further improvement of cancer management in a precise, patient-specific manner. PMID:26722379

  7. Quantitative evaluation of in vivo vital-dye fluorescence endoscopic imaging for the detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Rosen, Daniel G.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-05-01

    Current imaging tools are associated with inconsistent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Optical imaging has shown promise in improving the classification of neoplasia in vivo. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether in vivo vital dye fluorescence imaging (VFI) has the potential to improve the accuracy of early-detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. In vivo endoscopic VFI images were collected from 65 sites in 14 patients with confirmed Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplasia, or esophageal adenocarcinoma using a modular video endoscope and a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME). Qualitative image features were compared to histology; VFI and HRME images show changes in glandular structure associated with neoplastic progression. Quantitative image features in VFI images were identified for objective image classification of metaplasia and neoplasia, and a diagnostic algorithm was developed using leave-one-out cross validation. Three image features extracted from VFI images were used to classify tissue as neoplastic or not with a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 77.6% (AUC=0.878). A multimodal approach incorporating VFI and HRME imaging can delineate epithelial changes present in Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Quantitative analysis of VFI images may provide a means for objective interpretation of BE during surveillance.

  8. A Novel Styryldehydropyridocolinium Homodimer: Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties Upon Interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huirong; Chang, Lifang; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Xiaojie; He, Song; Liu, Haijun; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-11-01

    A novel homodimer of the styryldehydropyridocolinium dye (TPTP) has been synthesized and characterized. Free TPTP exhibited low fluorescence quantum yield and large Stokes shift (over 160 nm) in water. However, it showed a significant fluorescence turn-on effect upon intercalation into DNA base pairs. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity of the intercalated structures formed by TPTP and DNA decreased quickly upon addition of deoxyribonuclease I, indicating that the dye can be used to monitor deoxyribonuclease I activity and DNA hydrolysis. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the dye had intercalative binding to DNA and can potentially be used for DNA staining in electrophoresis. Thus, the innate nature of large Stokes shift and excellent fluorescence turn on effect upon interaction with DNA endue the dye with a wide range of applications. PMID:26384336

  9. The use of vitamins as tracer dyes for laser-induced fluorescence in liquid flow applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zähringer, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Tracers commonly used in experimental flow studies are mostly nocuous to the environment and human health. Particularly, in large flow installations, this can become a problem. In this study, a solution of this problem is presented, based on using water-soluble vitamins. Five of them are examined here for their applicability in flow studies. Vitamins B2 and B6 turned out to be the most promising candidates, and the dependency of their fluorescence intensity on parameters like concentration, laser energy, temperature, and pH are determined for two commonly used laser excitation wavelengths (532, 355 nm). Two examples of application in a static mixer and a spray flow are shown and demonstrate the applicability of the vitamin tracers.

  10. Simultaneous probing of hydration and polarity of lipid bilayers with 3-hydroxyflavone fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Klymchenko, Andrey S; Mély, Yves; Demchenko, Alexander P; Duportail, Guy

    2004-10-11

    The penetration of water into the hydrophobic interior leads to polarity and hydration profiles across lipid membranes which are fundamental in the maintenance of membrane architecture as well as in transport and insertion processes into the membrane. The present paper is an original attempt to evaluate simultaneously polarity and hydration properties of lipid bilayers by a fluorescence approach. We applied two 3-hydroxyflavone probes anchored in lipid bilayers at a relatively precise depth through their attached ammonium groups. They are present in two forms: either in H-bond-free form displaying a two-band emission due to an excited state intramolecular proton transfer reaction (ESIPT), or in H-bonded form displaying a single-band emission with no ESIPT. The individual emission profiles of these forms were obtained by deconvolution of the probes' fluorescence spectra. The polarity of the probe surrounding the bilayer was estimated from the two-band spectra of the H-bond-free form, while the local hydration was estimated from the relative contribution of the two forms. Our results confirm that by increasing the lipid order (phase transition from fluid to gel phase, addition of cholesterol or decrease in the lipid unsaturation), the polarity and to a lesser extent, the hydration of the bilayers decrease simultaneously. In contrast, when fluidity (i.e. lipid order) is kept invariant, increase of temperature and of bilayer curvature leads to a higher bilayer hydration with no effect on the polarity. Furthermore, no correlation was found between dipole potential and the hydration of the bilayers. PMID:15471566

  11. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanospheres Modified by Positively Charged Mesoporous Silica, Loaded with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dye, for in Vivo X-ray Computed Tomography and Fluorescence Dual Mode Imaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Zhao-Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2015-08-12

    We developed a simple and efficient method to synthesize a novel probe for both computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence imaging. Gold nanospheres were coated with positively charged mesoporous silica (Au@mSiO2-TTA) using a one-pot method to cohydrolyze quaternary ammonium silane and tetraethyl orthosilicate. Subsequently, IR-783, a negatively charged and water-soluble near-infrared fluorescent dye, was electrostatically adsorbed into the silica shell. Transmission electron microscopy imaging, X-ray powder diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that Au@mSiO2-TTA had a clear core-shell structure, was monodisperse, had a large surface area (530 m2/g), and had a uniform pore size (2.2 nm). The mesoporous structure could effectively load fluorescent dye. After loading, the zeta potential of the nanoparticle dropped from 48 mV to 30 mV, and after additional modification with polyvinylpyrrolidone, it further reduced to 6 mV. Probe fluorescence was stable over time, and the probe was an effective CT contrast agent and as a near-infrared fluorescent probe. The half-life of the probe in the blood was 1.5 h, and the probe was mainly distributed in the spleen and liver 4 h after injection. Tissue sections showed that major organs were normal and without visible morphological changes, 6 days post injection, indicating the biocompatibility of the probe. PMID:26189815

  12. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  13. New fluorescence reactions in DNA cytochemistry. 2. Microscopic and spectroscopic studies on fluorescent aluminum complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Del Castillo, P.; Llorente, A.R.; Gomez, A.; Gosalvez, J.; Goyanes, V.J.; Stockert, J.C. )

    1990-02-01

    Metal-dye complexes are widely applied in light microscopic techniques for chromatin staining (e.g., hematoxylin and carmine), but fluorescent complexes between phosphate-binding cations and suitable ligands have been little used. Preformed and postformed Al complexes with different anionic dyes induced strong and selective fluorescence reactions in nuclei from chicken blood smears, frozen sections, paraffin-embedded sections and Epon-embedded sections of mouse and rat tissues, mitotic chromosomes, meiotic chromosomes and kinetoplasts of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. The DNA-dependent fluorescence of these structures showed a very low fading rate. The emission colors were related to the ligand. The most suitable compounds for forming fluorescent Al chelates were 8-hydroxyquinoline, morin, nuclear fast red and purpurin. Staining with diluted carmine solutions and InCl3 mordanting, followed by 8-hydroxyquinoline, also induced chromatin fluorescence. After treating isolated mouse chromosomes with the preformed complex Al-nuclear fast red, x-ray microanalysis indicated a P:Al:dye binding ratio of about 40:15:1. The selectivity, stability and easy formation of these fluorescent Al complexes are obvious advantages for their use as new cytochemical probes in cytologic studies.

  14. Mitochondrial staining allows robust elimination of apoptotic and damaged cells during cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Barteneva, Natasha S; Ponomarev, Eugeny D; Tsytsykova, Alla; Armant, Myriam; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2014-04-01

    High-speed fluorescence-activated cell sorting is relevant for a plethora of applications, such as PCR-based techniques, microarrays, cloning, and propagation of selected cell populations. We suggest a simple cell-sorting technique to eliminate early and late apoptotic and necrotic cells, with good signal-to-noise ratio and a high-purity yield. The mitochondrial potential dye, TMRE (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate), was used to separate viable and non-apoptotic cells from the cell sorting samples. TMRE staining is reversible and does not affect cell proliferation and viability. Sorted TMRE(+) cells contained a negligible percentage of apoptotic and damaged cells and had a higher proliferative potential as compared with their counterpart cells, sorted on the basis of staining with DNA viability dye. This novel sorting technique using TMRE does not interfere with subsequent functional assays and is a method of choice for the enrichment of functionally active, unbiased cell populations. PMID:24394470

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DFT studies of novel fluorescent dyes: 3-Aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines possessing 4-pyrone moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrisa, Aziz; Safa, Kazem Dindar; Esmati, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines possessing 4-pyrone ring were synthesized by three-component condensation of 4-pyrone carbaldehydes, 2-aminopyridines and isocyanides. Bismuth (III) chloride was used as a catalyst in these reactions and desired products were synthesized in good yields at a very short period of time under solvent free conditions. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of these compounds were investigated. It shown that two of these compounds (10f and 10g) exhibit intense fluorescence in dichloromethane. Optimized ground-state molecular geometries and orbital distributions of these two fluorescent dyes were obtained using density functional theory (DFT). Thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical properties of these compounds were also studied.

  16. An imidazole functionalized pentameric thiophene displays different staining patterns in normal and malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Karin; Appelqvist, Hanna; Cie?lar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Kågedal, Bertil; Jonasson, Jon A.; Los, Marek J.; Nilsson, K. Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of cells and their components are vital for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report an imidazole functionalized pentameric oligothiophene, p-HTIm, that can be utilized for fluorescent imaging of cells. p-HTIm fluorescence in normal cells appeared in a peripheral punctate pattern partially co-localized with lysosomes, whereas a one-sided perinuclear Golgi associated localization of the dye was observed in malignant cells. The uptake of p-HTIm was temperature dependent and the intracellular target was reached within 1 h after staining. The ability of p-HTIm to stain cells was reduced when the imidazole side chain was chemically altered, verifying that specific imidazole side-chain functionalities are necessary for achieving the observed cellular staining. Our findings confirm that properly functionalized oligothiophenes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells and that the selectivity toward distinct intracellular targets are highly dependent on the side-chain functionalities along the conjugated thiophene backbone. PMID:26501054

  17. Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Cyanine Dye J-Aggregates and Its Genesis: Fluorescence Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Valery V; Perelygina, Olga M; Pozin, Sergey I; Mal'tsev, Eugene I; Vannikov, Anatoly V

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphic J-aggregates of monomethine cyanine dye 3,3'-di(?-sulfopropyl)-5,5'-dichlorotiamonomethinecyanine (TC) have been studied by fluorescence optical microscopy (FOM) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in situ FOM observations in a solution drop distinguish two J-aggregate morphology classes: flexible strips and rigid rods. The AFM imaging of dried samples reveals a strong J-aggregate structural rearrangement under adsorption on a mica surface with the strips self-folding and the rods squashing into rectangular bilayers and much deeper destruction. In the present work, the following structural conclusions have been drawn on the basis of careful consideration of strip crystal habits and various structural features of squashed/destructed rods: (1) the tubular morphology of TC rods is directly proved by FOM measurements in the solution bulk; (2) the staircase model of molecular arrangement in strips is proposed explaining the characteristic ?44° skew angle in strip vertices; (3) a model of tube formation by a close-packed helical winding of flexible monolayer strips is proposed and justified which explains the observed J-aggregate polymorphism and strip-to-rod polymorphic transformations in a wide spatiotemporal scale; (4) at a nanoscale, an unexpectedly complex quasi-one-dimensional organization in J-aggregate two-dimensional monolayers is observed by high-resolution AFM imaging of constituent nanostrips separated by a characteristic distance in the range of 6-10 nm. The obtained results indicate that the underlying monolayer structure is the same for all J-aggregate polymorphs. PMID:26488202

  18. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moment of laser dyes C504T and C521T using solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Basavaraja, Jana; Suresh Kumar, H M; Inamdar, S R; Wari, M N

    2016-02-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of laser dyes: coumarin 504T (C504T) and coumarin 521T (C521T) have been recorded at room temperature in a series of non-polar and polar solvents. The spectra of these dyes showed bathochromic shift with increasing in solvent polarity indicating the involvement of ???(?) transition. Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent parameters were used to analyze the effect of solvents on C504T and C521T molecules. The study reveals that both general solute-solvent interactions and specific interactions are operative in these two systems. The ground state dipole moment was estimated using Guggenheim's method and also by quantum mechanical calculations. The solvatochromic data were used to determine the excited state dipole moment (?e). It is observed that dipole moment value of excited state (?e) is higher than that of the ground state in both the laser dyes indicating that these dyes are more polar in nature in the excited state than in the ground state. PMID:26529635

  19. Labeling the oily core of nanocapsules and lipid-core nanocapsules with a triglyceride conjugated to a fluorescent dye as a strategy to particle tracking in biological studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter (D4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was detected around the cell nucleus. We demonstrated that the rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride is a promising new material to obtain versatile dye-labeled nanocarriers presenting different chemical nature in their surfaces. PMID:24936156

  20. A simple chip free-flow electrophoresis for monosaccharide sensing via supermolecule interaction of boronic acid functionalized quencher and fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Yang; Dong, Jing-Yu; Wang, Hou-Yu; Li, Si; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2013-08-01

    Here, a simple micro free-flow electrophoresis (?FFE) was developed for fluorescence sensing of monosaccharide via supermolecule interaction of synthesized boronic acid functionalized benzyl viologen (?-BBV) and fluorescent dye. The ?FFE contained two open electrode cavities and an ion-exchange membrane was sandwiched between two polymethylmethacrylate plates. The experiments demonstrated the following merits of developed ?FFE: (i) up to 90.5% of voltage efficiency due to high conductivity of ion-exchange membrane; (ii) a strong ability against influence of bubble produced in two electrodes due to open design of electrode cavities; and (iii) reusable and washable separation chamber (45 mm × 17 mm × 100 ?m, 77 ?L) avoiding the discard of ?FFE due to blockage of solute precipitation in chamber. Remarkably, the ?FFE was first designed for the sensing of monosaccharide via the supermolecule interaction of synthesized ?-BBV, fluorescent dye, and monosaccharide. Under the optimized conditions, the minimum concentration of monosaccharide that could be detected was 1 × 10(-11) M. Finally, the developed device was used for the detection of 0.3 mM glucose spiked in human urine. All of the results demonstrated the feasibility of monosaccharide detection via the ?FFE. PMID:23712879

  1. Efficient staining of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma grains using henna extract.

    PubMed

    Batran, S E

    2015-12-01

    The use of natural, nontoxic, convenient and eco-friendly dyes for histopathological diagnosis avoids some of the synthetic dyes' hazards. I used an aqueous extract of henna at a concentration of 20 g/ml and acidified with acetic acid to stain mycetoma grains. Henna stained mycetoma grains orange-red to brown. The engulfed mycetoma grains within inflammatory cells stained well with henna extract compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and hexamine silver. PMID:26052737

  2. Influence of dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid on charge transport and luminescent properties of polymer light-emitting diodes with fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Lei; Bera, Debasis; Jin, Zhen-Sheng; Du, Zu-Liang; Xu, Zheng; Teng, Feng; Liu, Wei

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss the influence of dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA) on charge transport and luminescent properties of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) doped with fluorescent dye. Photoluminescence results confirm the efficient energy transfer from PVK to 4-(dicyanom-ethylene)-2- t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) and tris-(8-hydroxtquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3) in a DNTA-doped device. The device showed lower turn-on voltages and higher charge current by doping with DNTA, which also caused a shift in the exciton's recombination region.

  3. Organic Dye Behavior in PEG Block Copolymer Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    of light Measure the emission spectrum of the sample to determine dye behavior in the particles Nile red of block copolymers To find the optimal concentrations of fluorescent dyes in the nanoparticles To study(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(- caprolactone) #12;Fluorescent dyes Objective: Encapsulate fluorescent dyes

  4. Monitoring the Wet-Heat Inactivation Dynamics of Single Spores of Bacillus Species by Using Raman Tweezers, Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy, and Nucleic Acid Dye Fluorescence Microscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Kong, Lingbo; Wang, Guiwen; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic processes during wet-heat treatment of individual spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and Bacillus subtilis at 80 to 90°C were investigated using dual-trap Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, and nucleic acid stain (SYTO 16) fluorescence microscopy. During spore wet-heat treatment, while the spores' 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ with dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) was released rapidly at a highly variable time Tlag, the levels of spore nucleic acids remained nearly unchanged, and the Tlag times for individual spores from the same preparation were increased somewhat as spore levels of CaDPA increased. The brightness of the spores' DIC image decreased by ?50% in parallel with CaDPA release, and there was no spore cortex hydrolysis observed. The lateral diameters of the spores' DIC image and SYTO 16 fluorescence image also decreased in parallel with CaDPA release. The SYTO 16 fluorescence intensity began to increase during wet-heat treatment at a time before Tlag and reached maximum at a time slightly later than Trelease. However, the fluorescence intensities of wet-heat-inactivated spores were ?15-fold lower than those of nutrient-germinated spores, and this low SYTO 16 fluorescence intensity may be due in part to the low permeability of the dormant spores' inner membranes to SYTO 16 and in part to nucleic acid denaturation during the wet-heat treatment. PMID:21602365

  5. Dye lasing in optically manipulated liquid aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadag, Yasin; Aas, Mehdi; Jonáš, Alexandr; Anand, Suman; McGloin, David; Kiraz, Alper

    2013-09-01

    We present dye lasing from optically manipulated glycerol-water aerosols with diameters ranging between 7.7 and 11.0 ?m confined in optical tweezers. While being optically trapped near the focal point of an infrared laser, the droplets stained with Rhodamine B were pumped with a Q-switched green laser and their fluorescence emission spectra featuring whispering gallery modes (WGMs) were recorded with a spectrograph. Nonlinear dependence of the intensity of the droplet WGMs on the pump laser fluence indicates dye lasing. The average wavelength of the lasing WGMs could be tuned between 600 and 630 nm by adjusting the droplet size. These results may lead to new ways of probing airborne particles, exploiting the high sensitivity of stimulated emission to small perturbations in the droplet laser cavity and the gain medium.

  6. Bench-Top Antigen Detection Technique that Utilizes Nanofiltration and Fluorescent Dyes which Emit and Absorb Light in the Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaljay-Spence, Vanessa A.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a bench-top technique to detect antigens in fluids. The technique involves the use of near infrared NIR fluorescent dyes conjugated to antibodies, centrifugation, nanofilters, and spectrometry. The system used to detect the antigens utilizes a spectrometer, fiber optic cables, NIR laser, and laptop computer thus making it portable and ideally suited for desk top analysis. Using IgM as an antigen and the secondary antibody, anti-IgM conjugated to the near infrared dye, IRDye (trademark) 800, for detection, we show that nanofiltration can efficiently and specifically separate antibody-antigen complexes in solution and that the complexes can be detected by a spectrometer and software using NIR laser excitation at 778 nm and NIR dye offset emission at 804 nm. The peak power detected at 778 nm for the excitation emission and at 804 nm for the offset emission is 879 pW (-60.06 dBm) and 35.7 pW (-74.5 dBm), respectively.

  7. Organic Fluorescent Dyes Supported on Activated Boron Nitride: A Promising Blue Light Excited Phosphors for High-Performance White Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Zhenya; Xue, Yanming; Ding, Xiaoxia; Luo, Han; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun

    2015-01-01

    We report an effective and rare-earth free light conversion material synthesized via a facile fabrication route, in which organic fluorescent dyes, i.e. Rhodamine B (RhB) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are embedded into activated boron nitride (?BN) to form a composite phosphor. The composite phosphor shows highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer and greatly improved thermal stability, and can emit at broad visible wavelengths of 500–650?nm under the 466?nm blue-light excitation. By packaging of the composite phosphors and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) chip with transparent epoxy resin, white LED with excellent thermal conductivity, current stability and optical performance can be realized, i.e. a thermal conductivity of 0.36?W/mk, a Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage color coordinates of (0.32, 0.34), and a luminous efficiency of 21.6?lm·W?1. Our research opens the door toward to the practical long-life organic fluorescent dyes-based white LEDs. PMID:25682730

  8. Sequential double fluorescent detections of total proteins and phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Young; Wang, Xu; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2014-04-01

    A fluorescent staining technique, using selective chelation with fluorophore and metal ion to the phosphate groups of phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE is described. As a fluorescent dye and a metal ion, Fura 2 pentapotassium salt and Al(3+) were employed, respectively. The staining method, Fura 2 stain, has sensitivities of 16-32 ng of ?-casein and ?-casein, 62 ng of ovalbumin, phosvitin, and ?-casein using an ultraviolet transilluminator. Furthermore, Fura 2 stain is able to carry out continuative double detection of total proteins and phosphoproteins on the same gel within 3.5 h. Consequently, selective phosphoprotein and total protein detections could be obtained without other poststaining. Considering the low cost, simplicity, and speed, Fura 2 staining may provide great practicalities in routine phosphoproteomics research. PMID:24488794

  9. DUAL STAINING OF NATURAL BACTERIOPLANKTON WITH 4,6-DIAMINDO-2-PHENYLINDOLE AND FLUORESCENT OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES TARGETING KINGDOM-LEVEL 16S RRNA SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for quantifying eubacterial cell densities in dilute communities of small bacterioplankton is presented. ells in water samples were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), transferred to gelatin-coated slides, and hybridized with rhodamine-labeled oligonucleot...

  10. Fluorescent Gage Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, C. E.; Gilbaugh, B. L.; Gin, B.; Holt, W. L.; Lesak, P.; Mancini, R.; Spencer, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of dye shows quality of contact between two mating parts. Mating parts checked for fit by spreading fluorescent dye on one, making brief light contact with other, and looking (under UV light) for transferred dye. Dye offers greater visibility under ultraviolet illumination, allowing better indication of how precisely parts match and what areas interfere.

  11. Ruthenium Red Colorimetric and Birefringent Staining of Amyloid-? Aggregates in Vitro and in Tg2576 Mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease most notably characterized by the misfolding of amyloid-? (A?) into fibrils and its accumulation into plaques. In this Article, we utilize the affinity of A? fibrils to bind metal cations and subsequently imprint their chirality to bound molecules to develop novel imaging compounds for staining A? aggregates. Here, we investigate the cationic dye ruthenium red (ammoniated ruthenium oxychloride) that binds calcium-binding proteins, as a labeling agent for A? deposits. Ruthenium red stained amyloid plaques red under light microscopy, and exhibited birefringence under crossed polarizers when bound to A? plaques in brain tissue sections from the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Staining of A? plaques was confirmed via staining of the same sections with the fluorescent amyloid binding dye Thioflavin S. In addition, it was confirmed that divalent cations such as calcium displace ruthenium red, consistent with a mechanism of binding by electrostatic interaction. We further characterized the interaction of ruthenium red with synthetic A? fibrils using independent biophysical techniques. Ruthenium red exhibited birefringence and induced circular dichroic bands at 540 nm upon binding to A? fibrils due to induced chirality. Thus, the chirality and cation binding properties of A? aggregates could be capitalized for the development of novel amyloid labeling methods, adding to the arsenal of AD imaging techniques and diagnostic tools. PMID:23509974

  12. Two-stage desorption-controlled release of fluorescent dye and vitamin from solution-blown and electrospun nanofiber mats containing porogens.

    PubMed

    Khansari, S; Duzyer, S; Sinha-Ray, S; Hockenberger, A; Yarin, A L; Pourdeyhimi, B

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, a systematic study of the release kinetics of two embedded model drugs (one completely water soluble and one partially water soluble) from hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofiber mats was conducted. Fluorescent dye Rhodamine B was used as a model hydrophilic drug in controlled release experiments after it was encapsulated in solution-blown soy-protein-containing hydrophilic nanofibers as well as in electrospun hydrophobic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-containing nanofibers. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), a partially water-soluble model drug, was also encapsulated in hydrophobic PET-containing nanofiber mats, and its release kinetics was studied. The nanofiber mats were submerged in water, and the amount of drug released was tracked by fluorescence intensity. It was found that the release process saturates well below 100% release of the embedded compound. This is attributed to the fact that desorption is the limiting process in the release from biopolymer-containing nanofibers similar to the previously reported release from petroleum-derived polymer nanofibers. Release from monolithic as well as core-shell nanofibers was studied in the present work. Moreover, to facilitate the release and ultimately to approach 100% release, we also incorporated porogens, for example, poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. It was also found that the release rate can be controlled by the porogen choice in nanofibers. The effect of nanocracks created by leaching porogens on drug release was studied experimentally and evaluated theoretically, and the physical parameters characterizing the release process were established. The objective of the present work is a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of controlled drug release from nanofibers facilitated by the presence of porogens. The novelty of this work is in forming nanofibers containing biodegradable and biocompatible soy proteins to facilitate controlled drug release as well as in measuring detailed quantitative characteristics of the desorption processes responsible for release of the model substance (fluorescent dye) and the vitamin (riboflavin) in the presence of porogens. PMID:24191694

  13. DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

  14. Fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 are muscarinic receptor antagonists: intravital visualization of receptor occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Burman, Miriam; Palovich, Michael; Belmonte, Kristen E; Canning, Brendan J

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescent styryl dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 have been used to visualize the endocytic and exocytic processes involved in neurotransmission in a variety of central and peripheral nerve preparations. Their utility is limited to some extent by a poorly understood vesicular-independent labelling of cells and tissues. We show here that one likely cause of this troublesome background labelling is that FM1-43 and FM2-10 are selective and competitive antagonists at both cloned and endogenously expressed muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In radioligand binding studies, FM1-43 and FM2-10 bound with moderate affinity (23–220 nm) to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing cloned human muscarinic receptors (M1–M5). In functional studies in vitro, FM1-43 and FM2-10 inhibited electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine-induced cholinergic contractions of guinea-pig tracheal strips (IC50: FM1-43, 0.4 ± 0.1; FM2-10, 1.6 ± 0.1 ?m; concentration of antagonist producing a 2-fold leftward shift in the acetylcholine concentration–response curve (Kb): FM1-43, 0.3 ± 0.1; FM2-10, 15.8 ± 10.1 ?m). Neither compound inhibited EFS-evoked, non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve-mediated relaxations or contractions of the airways, or contractions mediated by histamine H1 receptor or tachykinin NK2 receptor activation. Incubating freshly excised tracheal whole-mount preparations with 5 ?m FM1-43 resulted in intense fluorescence labelling of the smooth muscle that was reduced by up to 90% in the presence of selective M2 and M3 receptor antagonists. The potency of the FM dyes as muscarinic receptor antagonists is within the concentration range used to study vesicular cycling at nerve terminals. Given that muscarinic receptors play a key role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release from a variety of neurones, the anticholinergic properties of FM dyes may have important implications when studying vesicular events in the nervous system. In addition, these dyes may provide a novel tool for visualizing muscarinic receptor occupancy in living tissue or cell preparations. PMID:16728454

  15. Detection of fluorescence dye-labeled proteins in 2-D gels using an Arthur 1442 Multiwavelength Fluoroimager.

    PubMed

    Herick, K; Jackson, P; Wersch, G; Burkovski, A

    2001-07-01

    Labeling of proteins with SYPRO Orange, SYPRO Red, and SYPRO Ruby after 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using plastic-backed immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips and precast SDS polyacrylamide gels was tested. Protein spots were detected using an Arthur 1442 Multiwavelength Fluoroimager. The labeling methods described allow detection of proteins both after isoelectric focusing (IEF) and PAGE with a sensitivity higher than or comparable to standard silver staining methods. In addition to the post-labeling methods mentioned above, pre-labeling with the cysteine-specific fluorophore monobromobimane before 2-D PAGE is a sensitive, fast, and cost-effective alternative to existing staining protocols. PMID:11464508

  16. Proflavine Hemisulfate as a Fluorescent Contrast Agent for Point-of-Care Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Boice, Jackson W.; Sharma, Shree G.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate, an acridine-derived fluorescent dye, can be used as a rapid stain for cytologic examination of biological specimens. Proflavine fluorescently stains cell nuclei and cytoplasmic structures, owing to its small amphipathic structure and ability to intercalate DNA. In this manuscript, we demonstrated the use of proflavine as a rapid cytologic dye on a number of specimens, including normal exfoliated oral squamous cells, cultured human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and leukocytes derived from whole blood specimens using a custom-built, portable, LED-illuminated fluorescence microscope. No incubation time was needed after suspending cells in 0.01% (w/v) proflavine diluted in saline. Images of proflavine stained oral cells had clearly visible nuclei as well as granular cytoplasm, while stained leukocytes exhibited bright nuclei, and highlighted the multilobar nature of nuclei in neutrophils. We also demonstrated the utility of quantitative analysis of digital images of proflavine stained cells, which can be used to detect significant morphological differences between different cell types. Proflavine stained oral cells have well-defined nuclei and cell membranes which allowed for quantitative analysis of nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, as well as image texture analysis to extract quantitative image features. PMID:25962131

  17. Evaluation of a cholecystokinin 2 receptor-targeted near-infrared dye for fluorescence-guided surgery of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wayua, Charity; Low, Philip S

    2014-02-01

    Surgical resection of malignant disease remains one of the most effective tools for treating cancer. Tumor-targeted near-infrared dyes have the potential to improve contrast between normal and malignant tissues, thereby enabling surgeons to more quantitatively resect malignant disease. Because the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R and its tumor-specific splice variant CCK2i4svR) is overexpressed in cancers of the lungs, colon, thyroid, pancreas, and stomach, but absent or inaccessible to parenterally administered drugs in most normal tissues, we have undertaken to design a targeting ligand that can deliver attached near-infrared dyes to CCK2R+ tumors. We report here the synthesis and biological characterization of a CCK2R-targeted conjugate of the near-infrared dye, LS-288 (CRL-LS288). We demonstrate that CRL-LS288 binds selectively to CCK2R+ cancer cells with low nanomolar affinity (Kd = 7 × 10(-9) M). We further show that CRL-LS288 localizes primarily to CCK2R-expressing HEK 293 murine tumor xenografts and that dye uptake in these xenografts is significantly reduced when CCK2R are blocked by preinjection of excess ligand (CRL) or when mice are implanted with CCK2R-negative tumors. Because CRL-LS288 is also found to reveal the locations of distant tumor metastases, we suggest that CRL-LS288 has the potential to facilitate intraoperative identification of malignant disease during a variety of cancer debulking surgeries. PMID:24325469

  18. FISH and Calcofluor staining techniques to detect in situ filamentous fungal biofilms in water.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana B; Santos, Isabel M; Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2006-09-01

    Filamentous fungi are a ubiquitous and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms and may contribute, along with bacteria, yeasts, protozoa and viruses, to the formation of biofilms in water distribution systems. However, fungal involvement in biofilms has not been demonstrated unambiguously. Furthermore, these fungi may be responsible for the production of tastes, odours and mycotoxins in drinking water making their early detection important. The detection of fme these problems a combination of two fluorescent techniques for direct detection was tested: (a) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) employing the universal rRNA probe EUK516, labelled with the red Cy3, followed by (b) staining with Calcofluor White MR2 fluorescent dye which stains fungal cell walls blue. Pure cultures of Penicillium brevicompactum were used to establish the methods followed by separate experiments with real water biofilm samples in PVC-C and cast iron coupons. FISH demonstrated eukaryotic microrganisms after approximately 5 h while the calcofluor method revealed chitinous filamentous structures in less than one hour. When the two methods were combined, additional resolution was obtained from the images of filamentous walls (blue) with intact protoplasm (red). In conclusion, FISH and Calcofluor staining provide rapid, direct and unambiguous information on the involvement of ff in biofilms which form in water. PMID:17196030

  19. Accomplishments of the Trustees and laboratory staff of the Biological Stain Commission, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W

    2014-08-01

    During the 12 years from 2002 to 2013, the Trustees and laboratory personnel of the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) can claim many accomplishments. These accomplishments are itemized under 11 categories: continuous publication of the official journal, Biotechnic & Histochemistry; production of four special issues of Biotechnic & Histochemistry devoted to specific dyes or stains; standardization of staining and dye purity; mechanisms of staining and prediction of dye behavior; publication of books or book chapters; effects of fixation and processing on staining; cancer research; immunohistochemistry; BSC Laboratory activities; miscellaneous publications; and administrative accomplishments. PMID:24665939

  20. SYPRO Orange and Red protein gel stains provide the following advantages over

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    SYPRO Orange and Red protein gel stains provide the following advantages over conventional and Orange dyes interact with the SDS coat around proteins in the gel they give more consistent staining. SYPRO Orange and Red protein gel stains SYPROTM Orange and Red protein gel stains enabling fast, simple

  1. Synthesis of a red fluorescent dye-conjugated Ag@SiO2 nanocomposite for cell immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meicong; Tian, Yu; Pappas, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    In this work we describe a one-step approach for incorporating a red fluorophore (2SBPO) into core-shell nanoparticles for metal-enhanced fluorescence immunolabels. The 2SBPO-MEF nanoparticles are particularly attractive as cell labels because their ? 670 nm emission has minimal overlap with cell autofluorescence and from overlap with many conventional probes. 2SBPO was incorporated through physical entrapment during the Stöber process. Antibody-based cell labels were then synthesized using covalent linkage. The nanoparticle fluorescence was 7.5-fold higher than control nanoparticles lacking a metal core. We demonstrated labeling of CD4 + HuT 78 T lymphocytes using anti-CD4-conjugated nanoparticle labels. Cells labeled with anti-CD4 nanoparticles showed a 35-fold fluorescence signal compared to anti-CD4 coreless controls. This simple synthesis protocol can be applied to a variety of hydrophilic fluorophore types and has broad potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. PMID:25587713

  2. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

  3. Dye-Enhanced Multimodal Confocal Imaging of Brain Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Dennis; Snuderl, Matija; Sheth, Sameer; Curry, William; Yaroslavsky, Anna

    2011-04-01

    Background and Significance: Accurate high resolution intraoperative detection of brain tumors may result in improved patient survival and better quality of life. The goal of this study was to evaluate dye enhanced multimodal confocal imaging for discriminating normal and cancerous brain tissue. Materials and Methods: Fresh thick brain specimens were obtained from the surgeries. Normal and cancer tissues were investigated. Samples were stained in methylene blue and imaged. Reflectance and fluorescence signals were excited at 658nm. Fluorescence emission and polarization were registered from 670 nm to 710 nm. The system provided lateral resolution of 0.6 ?m and axial resolution of 7 ?m. Normal and cancer specimens exhibited distinctively different characteristics. H&E histopathology was processed from each imaged sample. Results and Conclusions: The analysis of normal and cancerous tissues indicated clear differences in appearance in both the reflectance and fluorescence responses. These results confirm the feasibility of multimodal confocal imaging for intraoperative detection of small cancer nests and cells.

  4. Immunofluorescence analysis of cytokeratin 8/18 staining is a sensitive assay for the detection of cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    DONG, QIAO-MEI; LING, CHUN; ZHAO, LI

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the major types of programmed cell death. During this process, cells experience a series of morphological and biochemical changes. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining of cell surface phosphatidylserine, in combination with a DNA-staining dye to probe the permeability of the cell membrane, is an established method for detecting apoptosis. The present study aimed to show that the immunofluorescence analysis of cytokeratin (CK) 8/18 staining may provide a new and sensitive assay for the detection of apoptotic cells. Tumor cells were treated with 20 ?M cisplatin to induce apoptosis. Following 12 and 24 h of cisplatin treatment, cells were collected and stained with 4?,6-diamidine-2?-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) and fluorescein-labeled anti-CK8/18 antibody. The apoptotic cells were subsequently examined by fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cisplatin was able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that apoptotic cells had a distinct CK8/18 staining pattern. In living cells, CK8/18 was uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm and cytosol; however in the apoptotic cells with a condensed and/or fragmented apoptotic nucleus (as identified by DAPI staining), fluorescein-labeled anti-CK8/18 antibody exhibited unusual punctate and/or bubbly staining in the cytosol. In the apoptotic cells that could not be identified by DAPI staining, fluorescein-labeled CK8/18 displayed polarized aggregated staining in the cytosol. These results indicate that fluorescein-conjugated CK8/18 may be a useful and sensitive indicator of cell apoptosis. PMID:25663887

  5. Cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared imaging in vivo: acute tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Bernd; Riefke, Björn; Sukowski, Uwe; Licha, Kai

    2011-06-01

    We compare pharmacokinetic, tolerance, and imaging properties of two near-IR contrast agents, indocyanine green (ICG) and 1,1'-bis-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid diglucamide monosodium salt (SIDAG). ICG is a clinically approved imaging agent, and its derivative SIDAG is a more hydrophilic counterpart that has recently shown promising imaging properties in preclinical studies. The rather lipophilic ICG has a very short plasma half-life, thus limiting the time available to image body regions during its vascular circulation (e.g., the breast in optical mammography where scanning over several minutes is required). In order to change the physicochemical properties of the indotricarbocyanine dye backbone, several derivatives were synthesized with increasing hydrophilicity. The most hydrophilic dye SIDAG is selected for further biological characterization. The acute tolerance of SIDAG in mice is increased up to 60-fold compared to ICG. Contrary to ICG, the pharmacokinetic properties of SIDAG are shifted toward renal elimination, caused by the high hydrophilicity of the molecule. N-Nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced rat breast carcinomas are clearly demarcated, both immediately and 24 h after intravenous administration of SIDAG, whereas ICG shows a weak tumor contrast under the same conditions. Our findings demonstrate that SIDAG is a high potential contrast agent for optical imaging, which could increase the sensitivity for detection of inflamed regions and tumors.

  6. Single Fluorescence Channel-based Multiplex Detection of Avian Influenza Virus by Quantitative PCR with Intercalating Dye.

    PubMed

    Ahberg, Christian D; Manz, Andreas; Neuzil, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention in 1985 the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a well-established method for amplification and detection of segments of double-stranded DNA. Incorporation of fluorogenic probe or DNA intercalating dyes (such as SYBR Green) into the PCR mixture allowed real-time reaction monitoring and extraction of quantitative information (qPCR). Probes with different excitation spectra enable multiplex qPCR of several DNA segments using multi-channel optical detection systems. Here we show multiplex qPCR using an economical EvaGreen-based system with single optical channel detection. Previously reported non quantitative multiplex real-time PCR techniques based on intercalating dyes were conducted once the PCR is completed by performing melting curve analysis (MCA). The technique presented in this paper is both qualitative and quantitative as it provides information about the presence of multiple DNA strands as well as the number of starting copies in the tested sample. Besides important internal control, multiplex qPCR also allows detecting concentrations of more than one DNA strand within the same sample. Detection of the avian influenza virus H7N9 by PCR is a well established method. Multiplex qPCR greatly enhances its specificity as it is capable of distinguishing both haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes as well as their ratio. PMID:26088868

  7. Sensitive immunoassay detection of multiple environmental chemicals on protein microarrays using DNA/dye conjugate as a fluorescent label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indirect competitive immunoassays were developed on protein microarrays for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple environmental chemicals in one sample. In this assay, a DNA/SYTOX Orange conjugate was employed as antibody labels to increase the fluorescence signal and sensitivity. Ep...

  8. Selective recognition of parallel and anti-parallel thrombin-binding aptamer G-quadruplexes by different fluorescent dyes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Dong, Xiongwei; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Changlin

    2014-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) have been found increasing potential in applications, such as molecular therapeutics, diagnostics and sensing. Both Thio?avin T (ThT) and N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) become fluorescent in the presence of most G4, but thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) has been reported as the only exception of the known G4-forming oligonucleotides when ThT is used as a high-throughput assay to identify G4 formation. Here, we investigate the interactions between ThT/NMM and TBA through fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking simulation experiments in the absence or presence of cations. The results display that a large ThT ?uorescence enhancement can be observed only when ThT bind to the parallel TBA quadruplex, which is induced to form by ThT in the absence of cations. On the other hand, great promotion in NMM fluorescence can be obtained only in the presence of anti-parallel TBA quadruplex, which is induced to fold by K+ or thrombin. The highly selective recognition of TBA quadruplex with different topologies by the two probes may be useful to investigate the interactions between conformation-specific G4 and the associated proteins, and could also be applied in label-free fluorescent sensing of other biomolecules. PMID:25245945

  9. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the...

  11. Application of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole in analysis: Fluorescent dyes and unexpected reaction with tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Annenkov, Vadim V; Verkhozina, Olga N; Shishlyannikova, Tatyana A; Danilovtseva, Elena N

    2015-10-01

    4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl) is widely applied as a fluorescent tagging reagent in biochemistry, as a derivatization agent in analytical chemistry, and as a component for design of fluorescent nanoparticles. Four new 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD)-tagged polyamines containing two to four amine moieties were synthesized and used as an effective tool for staining of siliceous frustules of the diatom algae and spicules of the siliceous sponges, including fossilized samples. An unexpected reaction between NBD-Cl and tertiary amine groups was found, giving rise to NBD-tagged amines with elimination of an alkyl group. The reaction proceeds through the Meisenheimer complex and quaternary salt, which transform to the product by Hofmann reaction (alkene elimination) or nucleophilic substitution (halogenated compound formation). In the case of polyamines, NBD-Cl causes chain scissoring, giving a set of NBD-tagged amines. The found NBD-Cl reaction with tertiary amines must be taken into account when using NBD-Cl and similar activated aromatic systems for amine derivatization in analytical and biochemistry applications. The reaction with polyamines opens the way to libraries of NBD-tagged compounds. PMID:26103595

  12. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging of Nile red for measurements of intracellular polarity.

    PubMed

    Levitt, James A; Chung, Pei-Hua; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging have been used to measure the polarity of lipid-rich regions in living HeLa cells stained with Nile red. The emission peak from the solvatochromic dye in lipid droplets is at a shorter wavelength than other, more polar, stained internal membranes, and this is indicative of a low polarity environment. We estimate that the dielectric constant, ? , is around 5 in lipid droplets and 25fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data show that intracellular Nile red exhibits complex, multiexponential fluorescence decays due to emission from a short lifetime locally excited state and a longer lifetime intramolecular charge transfer state. We measure an increase in the average fluorescence lifetime of the dye with increasing emission wavelength, as shown using phasor plots of the FLIM data. We also show using these phasor plots that the shortest lifetime decay components arise from lipid droplets. Thus, fluorescence lifetime is a viable contrast parameter for distinguishing lipid droplets from other stained lipid-rich regions. Finally, we discuss the FLIM of Nile red as a method for simultaneously mapping both polarity and relative viscosity based on fluorescence lifetime measurements. PMID:26334975

  13. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional cyanine dye single crystals by adsorption at a pre-conditioned fatty acid monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Knoll, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption of water-soluble cyanine dyes (pseudoisocyanine, PIC and "stains all", SA) to monomolecular layers of arachidic acid (AA) at the water-air interface in a Langmuir trough. Upon adsorption the dye molecules organize themselves and form two-dimensional J-aggregates that can easily be observed and characterized in the fluorescence microscope. We show that AA can be "conditioned" by the adsorption of PIC in a lateral order that can be read-out after desorption of this first dye, by the adsorption of another dye, SA in our case. We interpret this memory effect as being caused by a structural and/or orientational modification of the AA monolayer that controls in addition to an electrostatic contribution, details of the crystal morphology and in this sense is a first example of epitaxial growth of two-dimensional organic crystals.

  14. Introduction of impermeable actin-staining molecules to mammalian cells by optoporation

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Kamal; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2014-01-01

    The selective insertion of foreign materials, such as fluorescent markers or plasmids, into living cells has been a challenging problem in cell biology due to the cell membrane's selective permeability. However, it is often necessary that researchers insert such materials into cells for various dynamical and/or drug delivery studies. This problem becomes even more challenging if the study is to be limited to specific cells within a larger population, since other transfection methods, such as viral transfection and lipofection, are not realizable with a high degree of spatial selectivity. Here, we have used a focused femtosecond laser beam to create a small transient hole in the cellular membrane (optoporation) in order to inject nanomolar concentrations of rhodamine phalloidin (an impermeable dye molecule for staining filamentous actin) into targeted living mammalian cells (both HEK and primary cortical neurons). Following optoporation, the dye bound to the intracellular actin network and rise in fluorescence intensity was observed. Theoretical dynamics of the dye's diffusion is discussed, and numerical simulations of diffusion time constants are found to match well with experimental values. PMID:25315642

  15. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  16. DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.H.; Hammond, M.L.; Keller, R.A.; Marrone, B.L.; Martin, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    A method is provided for obtaining DNA fingerprints using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a selected sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is directly proportional to the fragment length. Additional dyes can be bound to the DNA piece and DNA fragments to provide information additional to length information. Oligonucleotide specific dyes and/or hybridization probes can be bound to the DNA fragments to provide information on oligonucleotide distribution or probe hybridization to DNA fragments of different sizes.

  17. Port-Wine Stain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related to port-wine stains are sometimes called salmon patches, which may also be called angel kisses ( ... of the baby's neck). Like port-wine stains, salmon patches start as flat, pink or red patches; ...

  18. High frame rate fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agronskaia, A. V.; Tertoolen, L.; Gerritsen, H. C.

    2003-07-01

    A fast time-domain based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope is presented that can operate at frame rates of hundreds of frames per second. A beam splitter in the detection path of a wide-field fluorescence microscope divides the fluorescence in two parts. One part is optically delayed with respect to the other. Both parts are viewed with a single time-gated intensified CCD camera with a gate width of 5 ns. The fluorescence lifetime image is obtained from the ratio of these two images. The fluorescence lifetime resolution of the FLIM microscope is verified both with dye solutions and fluorescent latex beads. The fluorescence lifetimes obtained from the reference specimens are in good agreement with values obtained from time correlated single photon counting measurements on the same specimens. The acquisition speed of the FLIM system is evaluated with a measurement of the calcium fluxes in neonatal rat myocytes stained with the calcium probe Oregon Green 488-Bapta. Fluorescence lifetime images of the calcium fluxes related to the beating of the myocytes are acquired with frame rates of up to 100 Hz.

  19. The Chemically Synthesized Ageladine A-Derivative LysoGlow84 Stains Lysosomes in Viable Mammalian Brain Cells and Specific Structures in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    PubMed Central

    Mordhorst, Thorsten; Awal, Sushil; Jordan, Sebastian; Petters, Charlotte; Sartoris, Linda; Dringen, Ralf; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Based on the chemical structure and the known chemical synthesis of the marine sponge alkaloid ageladine A, we synthesized the ageladine A-derivative 4-(naphthalene-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine trifluoroacetate (LysoGlow84). The two-step synthesis started with the Pictet-Spengler reaction of histamine and naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde to a tetrahydropyridine intermediate, which was dehydrogenated with activated manganese (IV) oxide to LysoGlow84. Structure and purity of the synthesized LysoGlow84 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The fluorescence intensity emitted by LysoGlow84 depended strongly on the pH of the solvent with highest fluorescence intensity recorded at pH 4. The fluorescence maximum (at 315 nm excitation) was observed at 440 nm. Biocompatibility of LysoGlow84 was investigated using cultured rat brain astrocytes and the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Exposure of the astrocytes for up to 6 h to micromolar concentrations of LysoGlow84 did not compromise cell viability, as demonstrated by several viability assays, but revealed a promising property of this compound for staining of cellular vesicles. Conventional fluorescence microscopy as well as confocal scanning microscopy of LysoGlow84-treated astrocytes revealed co-localization of LysoGlow84 fluorescence with that of LysoTracker® Red DND-99. LysoGlow84 stained unclear structures in Macrostomum lignano, which were identified as lysosomes by co-staining with LysoTracker. Strong fluorescence staining by LysoGlow84 was further observed around the worms’ anterior gut and the female genital pore which were not counterstained by LysoTracker Red. Thus, LysoGlow84 is a new promising dye that stains lysosomes and other acidic compartments in cultured cells and in worms. PMID:25679913

  20. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Strongyloides stercoralis in stool that uses a visual detection method with SYTO-82 fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Watts, Matthew R; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N; Outhred, Alexander C; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J; Iredell, Jonathan R; Chen, Sharon C-A; Lee, Rogan

    2014-02-01

    An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10(-2) dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation. PMID:24323513

  1. Surface InP/In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P quantum dots: Carrier recombination dynamics and their interaction with fluorescent dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Hestroffer, Karine; Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, 2A Max–Born–Str., 12489 Berlin; CEA–CNRS group “Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs,” Institut Néel Braun, Robert; Ugur, Asli; Hackbarth, Steffen; Röder, Beate; Hatami, Fariba; Tomm, Jens W.

    2013-10-28

    We describe the properties and carrier dynamics of surface InP quantum dots (QDs) on In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P, lattice-matched to GaAs (100). The structures were grown using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The average height and lateral size of the dots are in the range of 2–6 and 30–50 nm, respectively. The photoluminescence of the surface dots peaks between 750 and 830 nm, depending on the growth conditions, and is red-shifted compared to the emission of the capped QDs grown under similar conditions. The integrated photoluminescence intensity is comparable to that of the capped QDs. The decay time of both surface and capped QDs is around 1 ns at 15 K. The strong luminescence of surface QDs is explained by the effect of acting vacuum/air as an effective barrier and saturated surface states. Enhancement of the QDs luminescence is observed for the samples coated with a fluorescent dye.

  2. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePLUS

    A port-wine stain is a birthmark in which swollen blood vessels create a reddish-purplish discoloration of the skin. ... Port-wine stains occur in about 3 out of 1,000 people. In rare cases, port-wine stains are ...

  3. Detection Of Concrete Deterioration By Staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Jr., George D. (Santa Fe, NM); Carey, J. William (Santa Fe, NM)

    1999-09-21

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and a rhodamine dye is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and to identify degraded concrete which results in a porous or semi-permeable paste due to carbonation or leaching. These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  4. Detection and quantitation of lipid in the microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis (Wille) Butcher with BODIPY 505/515 staining.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Feng; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ye, Naihao; Mou, Shanli; Liang, Chengwei; Li, Demao

    2013-01-01

    BODIPY 505/515, a lipophilic bright green fluorescent dye was tested for lipid detection in the microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis. A concentration of 0.28 ?g ml(-1) and staining for 6 min was optimal. Lipid bodies stained with BODIPY505/515 had a characteristic green fluorescence. Their volumes were determined using the sphere volume formula. Lipid accumulation under different nitrogen concentrations was analyzed. With an increase in NaNO(3) concentration from 0 to 240 mg L(-1), the maximum algal concentration increased from 8.23 ± 0.62 (× 10(5) cells ml(-1)) to 1.61 ± 0.13 (×10(6) cells ml(-1)), while the maximum volume of intracellular neutral lipid decreased from 9.78 ± 1.77 ?m(3) cell(-1) to 6.00 ± 0.59 ?m(3) cell(-1). A comparison of the lipid contents measured by BODIPY 505/515 staining and the gravimetric method showed a positive correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.93. BODIPY 505/515 staining is a promising method in lipid quantitation in T. subcordiformis. PMID:23138061

  5. Rational design, green synthesis, and initial evaluation of a series of full-color tunable fluorescent dyes enabled by the copper-catalyzed N-arylation of 6-phenyl pyridazinones and their application in cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Xu, Fengrong; Niu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Ping

    2013-10-01

    There is widespread interest in the application, optimization, and evolution of the transition-metal-catalyzed arylation of N-heteroarenes to discover full-color tunable fluorescent core frameworks. Inspired by the versatile roles of pyridazinone in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry, herein, we report a simple and efficient copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction for the N-functionalization of pyridazinones in neat water. To achieve the efficient conversion of pyridazinones and organic halides in aqueous phase, a series of copper-salen complexes composed of different Schiff base ligands were investigated by rational design. A final choice of fine-tuned hydrophilicity balanced with lipophilicity among the candidates was confirmed, which affords excellent activity towards the reaction of a wide range of pyridazinones and organic halides. More importantly, the products as N-substituted pyridazinones were synthesized rationally by this methodology as full-color tunable fluorescent agents (426-612?nm). The N2 position of pyridazinones was modified by different aryl group such as benzothiazole, N,N-dimethylaniline, 3-quinoline, 4-isoquinoline and 2-thiophene, resulting in a series of full-color tunable fluorescent reagents. Meanwhile, the effects of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups of the 6-substituted phenyl ring have also been investigated to optimize the fluorescent properties. These fluorescent core frameworks were studied in several cell lines as fluorescent dyes. Different colors from blue to red were observed by using fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. PMID:24038329

  6. Applying fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy to evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanabe, Satoshi; Araki, Yoshie; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy was applied to evaluate the efficacy of anticancer drugs. A decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of the nucleus in apoptotic cancer cells stained by SYTO 13 dye was detected after treatment with antitumor antibiotics such as doxorubicin or epirubicin. It was confirmed that the change in fluorescence lifetime occurred earlier than morphological changes in the cells. We found that the fluorescence lifetime of the nucleus in the cells treated with epirubicin decreased more rapidly than that of the cells treated with doxorubicin. This implies that epirubicin was more efficacious than doxorubicin in the treatment of cancer cells. The change in fluorescence lifetime was, however, not indicated when the cells were treated with cyclophosphamide. The decrease in fluorescence lifetime was associated with the processes involving caspase activation and chromatin condensation. Therefore, this technique would provide useful information about apoptotic cells, particularly in the early stages.

  7. Twisted Cyanines: A Non-Planar Fluorogenic Dye with Superior Photostability and its Use in a Protein-Based Fluoromodule

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Nathaniel I.; Pham, Ha; Waggoner, Alan S.; Armitage, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The cyanine dye thiazole orange (TO) is a well-known fluorogenic stain for DNA and RNA, but this property precludes its use as an intracellular fluorescent probe for non-nucleic acid biomolecules. Further, as is the case with many cyanines, the dye suffers from low photostability. Here we report the synthesis of a bridge-substituted version of TO named ?-CN-TO, where the central methine hydrogen of TO is replaced by an electron withdrawing cyano group, which was expected to decrease the susceptibility of the dye toward singlet oxygen-mediated degradation. An X-ray crystal structure shows that ?-CN-TO is twisted drastically out of plane, in contrast to TO, which crystallizes in the planar conformation. ?-CN-TO retains the fluorogenic behavior of the parent dye TO in viscous glycerol/water solvent, but direct irradiation and indirect bleaching studies showed that ?-CN-TO is essentially inert to visible light and singlet oxygen. In addition, the twisted conformation of ?-CN-TO mitigates non-specific binding and fluorescence activation by DNA and a previously selected TO-binding protein and exhibits low background fluorescence in HeLa cell culture. ?-CN-TO was then used to select a new protein that binds and activates fluorescence from the dye. The new ?-CN-TO/protein fluoromodule exhibits superior photostability to an analogous TO/protein fluoromodule. These properties indicate that ?-CN-TO will be a useful fluorogenic dye in combination with specific RNA and protein binding partners for both in vitro and cell-based applications. More broadly, structural features that promote nonplanar conformations can provide an effective method for reducing nonspecific binding of cationic dyes to nucleic acids and other biomolecules. PMID:23252842

  8. Epicocconone, a sensitive and specific fluorescent dye for in situ quantification of extracellular proteins within bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Randrianjatovo, I; Girbal-Neuhauser, E; Marcato-Romain, C-E

    2015-06-01

    Biofilms are ecosystems of closely associated bacteria encapsulated in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of polysaccharides and proteins. A novel approach was developed for in situ quantification of extracellular proteins (ePNs) in various bacterial biofilms using epicocconone, a natural, fluorescent compound that binds amine residues of proteins. Six commercial proteins were tested for their reaction with epicocconone, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected for assay optimization. The optimized protocol, performed as a microassay, allowed protein amounts as low as 0.7 ?g to as high as 50 ?g per well to be detected. Addition of monosaccharides or polysaccharides (glucose, dextran or alginate) to the standard BSA solutions (0 to 250 ?g ml(-1)) showed little or no sugar interference up to 2000 ?g ml(-1), thus providing an assessment of the specificity of epicocconone for proteins. The optimized protocol was then applied to three different biofilms, and in situ quantification of ePN showed contrasted protein amounts of 22.1?±?3.1, 38.3?±?7.1 and 0.3?±?0.1 ?g equivalent BSA of proteins for 48-h biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis and Weissella confusa, respectively. Possible interference due to global matrix compounds on the in situ quantification of proteins was also investigated by applying the standard addition method (SAM). Low error percentages were obtained, indicating a correct quantification of both the ePN and the added proteins. For the first time, a specific and sensitive assay has been developed for in situ determination of ePN produced by bacterial cells. This advance should lead to an accurate, rapid tool for further protein labelling and microscopic observation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms. PMID:25913004

  9. Reliable Screening of Dye Phototoxicity by Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Fast Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Javier Ignacio; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Buzz, Lucila Ines; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Simonetta, Sergio Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Phototoxicity consists in the capability of certain innocuous molecules to become toxic when subjected to suitable illumination. In order to discover new photoactive drugs or characterize phototoxic pollutants, it would be advantageous to use simple biological tests of phototoxicy. In this work, we present a pilot screening of 37 dyes to test for phototoxic effects in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Populations of this nematode were treated with different dyes, and subsequently exposed to 30 min of white light. Behavioral outcomes were quantified by recording the global motility using an infrared tracking device (WMicrotracker). Of the tested compounds, 17 dyes were classified as photoactive, being phloxine B, primuline, eosin Y, acridine orange and rose Bengal the most phototoxic. To assess photoactivity after uptake, compounds were retested after washing them out of the medium before light irradiation. Dye uptake into the worms was also analyzed by staining or fluorescence. All the positive drugs were incorporated by animals and produced phototoxic effects after washing. We also tested the stress response being triggered by the treatments through reporter strains. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response (hsp-4::GFP strain) was activated by 22% of phototoxic dyes, and mitochondrial stress response (hsp-6::GFP strain) was induced by 16% of phototoxic dyes. These results point to a phototoxic perturbation of the protein functionality and an oxidative stress similar to that reported in cell cultures. Our work shows for the first time the feasibility of C. elegans for running phototoxic screenings and underscores its application on photoactive drugs and environmental pollutants assessment. PMID:26039060

  10. Shedding light on the photostability of two intermolecular charge-transfer complexes between highly fluorescent bis-1,8-naphthalimide dyes and some ?-acceptors: a spectroscopic study in solution and solid states.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Ismail, Lamia A; Adam, Abdel Majid A

    2015-01-01

    Given the great importance of the various uses of 1,8-naphthalimides in the trends of biology, medicine and industry, the current study focused on extending the scope of these dyes by introducing some of their charge-transfer (CT) complexes. For this purpose, two highly fluorescent bis-1,8-naphthalimide dyes and their complexes with some ?-acceptors have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The ?-acceptors include picric acid (PA), chloranilic acid (CLA), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). The molecular structure, spectroscopic and fluorescence properties as well as the binding modes were deduced from IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectral studies. The binding ratio of complexation was determined to be 1:1 according to the elemental analyses and photometric titrations. It has been found that the order of acceptance ability for the different acceptors is TCNQ>DDQ>CLA>PA. The photostability of 1,8-naphthalimide dye as a donor and its charge-transfer complex doped in polymethyl methacrylate/PMMA were exposed to UV-Vis radiation and the change in the absorption spectra was achieved at different times during irradiation period. PMID:25022501

  11. Descending connections from the brainstem to the spinal cord in the electric fish Eigenmannia. Quantitative description based on retrograde horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent-dye transport.

    PubMed

    Behrend, K; Donicht, M

    1990-01-01

    The descending connections from the brainstem to the spinal cord in Eigenmannia sp. were demonstrated using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The spinal cord was transected and HRP crystals were deposited in the cut. The point of transection was located at varying distances from the head in different specimens. In all experiments, cells were labeled in both the rhombencephalic and mesencephalic tegmentum. No labeled cells were found in the cerebellum, the lateral-line lobes, the torus semicircularis, the tectum mesencephali, the hypothalamus, the diencephalon or the telencephalon. Labeled neurons were found in the ventrolateral column, nucleus formation reticularis (NFR) inferior, NFR medius, NFR superior pars superior and pars suprema, NFR tegmenti mesencephali lateralis, nucleus vestibularis magnocellularis and nucleus fasciculi longitudinalis medialis. Furthermore, the Mauthner cells and the neurons of the pacemaker nucleus were filled with HRP granules. The neurons labeled were predominantly the large ones of more than 25 microns in diameter which are very conspicuous along the brainstem. The number of these neurons in the different nuclei varied from animal to animal, however, the number of labeled neurons increased monotonically at a similar rate in all brainstem nuclei with more rostrally located transection sites. In a second series, the number of neurons terminating in a small number of segments independent of absolute position along the body axis was assessed using two different fluorescent dyes. Within tolerable statistical limits, this number was found to be constant, corroborating the data obtained with HRP. A possible interpretation of the data is placed in the context of physiological data previously presented. PMID:2379082

  12. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken ... microscope slide. The specimen is stained with crystal violet stain and goes through more processing before it ...

  13. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of experimentally collagen-induced arthritis in rats using the nonspecific dye tetrasulfocyanine in comparison with gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and clinical score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemeinhardt, Ines; Puls, Dorothee; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Schnorr, Beatrix; Licha, Kai; Schirner, Michael; Ebert, Bernd; Petzelt, Diethard; Macdonald, Rainer; Schnorr, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Using 15 rats with collagen-induced arthritis (30 joints) and 7 control rats (14 joints), we correlated the intensity of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) of the nonspecific dye tetrasulfocyanine (TSC) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histopathology, and clinical score. Fluorescence images were obtained in reflection geometry using a NIRF camera system. Normalized fluorescence intensity (INF) was determined after intravenous dye administration on different time points up to 120 min. Contrast-enhanced MRI using gadodiamide was performed after NIRF imaging. Analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. Histopathological and clinical scores were determined for each ankle joint. INF of moderate and high-grade arthritic joints were significantly higher (p<0.005) than the values of control and low-grade arthritic joints between 5 and 30 min after TSC-injection. This result correlated well with post-contrast MRI signal intensities at about 5 min after gadodiamide administration. Furthermore, INF and signal increase on contrast-enhanced MRI showed high correlation with clinical and histopathological scores. Sensitivities and specificities for detection of moderate and high-grade arthritic joints were slightly lower for NIRF imaging (89%/81%) than for MRI (100%/91%). NIRF imaging using TSC, which is characterized by slower plasma clearance compared to indocyanine green (ICG), has the potential to improve monitoring of inflamed joints.

  14. Purification and staining of intact yeast DNA chromosomes and real-time observation of their migration during gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Gurrieri, S; Bustamante, C

    1997-01-01

    In the past few years, fluorescence microscopy has been used successfully to characterize the motion of intermediate-size DNA molecules (50-500 kbp) during steady- and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, experimental difficulties had prevented the application of this technique to the direct observation of longer DNA chromosomes (1-2 Mbp). In the present study a particular procedure was followed for the purification and staining of chromosomal yeast DNA to protect it from shear forces. Also, a new highly fluorescent DNA-labelling dye, YOYO-1, was employed to improve brightness and contrast. Finally, the motion of such long DNA molecules (1-2 Mbp) was characterized under steady-field electrophoresis conditions. An accurate description of the molecular mechanisms of motion of such long molecules should provide the basis for a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for DNA trapping. PMID:9337860

  15. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  16. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  17. Preparation of 6-hydroxyindolines and their use for preparation of novel laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.F.; Hammond, P.R.

    1993-10-26

    A novel method is described for the synthesis of 6-hydroxyindolines and new fluorescent dyes produced therefrom, which dyes are ring-constrained indoline-based rhodamine class dyes. These dyes have absorption and emission spectra which make them particularly useful in certain dye laser applications.

  18. Identification of small-scale low and high permeability layers using single well forced-gradient tracer tests: Fluorescent dye imaging and modelling at the laboratory-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barns, Gareth L.; Thornton, Steven F.; Wilson, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in aquifer permeability, which creates paths of varying mass flux and spatially complex contaminant plumes, can complicate the interpretation of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater. Identifying the location of high mass flux paths is critical for the reliable estimation of solute transport parameters and design of groundwater remediation schemes. Dipole flow tracer tests (DFTTs) and push-pull tests (PPTs) are single well forced-gradient tests which have been used at field-scale to estimate aquifer hydraulic and transport properties. In this study, the potential for PPTs and DFTTs to resolve the location of layered high- and low-permeability layers in granular porous media was investigated with a pseudo 2-D bench-scale aquifer model. Finite element fate and transport modelling was also undertaken to identify appropriate set-ups for in situ tests to determine the type, magnitude, location and extent of such layered permeability contrasts at the field-scale. The characteristics of flow patterns created during experiments were evaluated using fluorescent dye imaging and compared with the breakthrough behaviour of an inorganic conservative tracer. The experimental results show that tracer breakthrough during PPTs is not sensitive to minor permeability contrasts for conditions where there is no hydraulic gradient. In contrast, DFTTs are sensitive to the type and location of permeability contrasts in the host media and could potentially be used to establish the presence and location of high or low mass flux paths. Numerical modelling shows that the tracer peak breakthrough time and concentration in a DFTT is sensitive to the magnitude of the permeability contrast (defined as the permeability of the layer over the permeability of the bulk media) between values of 0.01-20. DFTTs are shown to be more sensitive to deducing variations in the contrast, location and size of aquifer layered permeability contrasts when a shorter central packer is used. However, larger packer sizes are more likely to be practical for field-scale applications, with fewer tests required to characterise a given aquifer section. The sensitivity of DFTTs to identify layered permeability contrasts was not affected by test flow rate.

  19. Identification of small-scale low and high permeability layers using single well forced-gradient tracer tests: fluorescent dye imaging and modelling at the laboratory-scale.

    PubMed

    Barns, Gareth L; Thornton, Steven F; Wilson, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in aquifer permeability, which creates paths of varying mass flux and spatially complex contaminant plumes, can complicate the interpretation of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater. Identifying the location of high mass flux paths is critical for the reliable estimation of solute transport parameters and design of groundwater remediation schemes. Dipole flow tracer tests (DFTTs) and push-pull tests (PPTs) are single well forced-gradient tests which have been used at field-scale to estimate aquifer hydraulic and transport properties. In this study, the potential for PPTs and DFTTs to resolve the location of layered high- and low-permeability layers in granular porous media was investigated with a pseudo 2-D bench-scale aquifer model. Finite element fate and transport modelling was also undertaken to identify appropriate set-ups for in situ tests to determine the type, magnitude, location and extent of such layered permeability contrasts at the field-scale. The characteristics of flow patterns created during experiments were evaluated using fluorescent dye imaging and compared with the breakthrough behaviour of an inorganic conservative tracer. The experimental results show that tracer breakthrough during PPTs is not sensitive to minor permeability contrasts for conditions where there is no hydraulic gradient. In contrast, DFTTs are sensitive to the type and location of permeability contrasts in the host media and could potentially be used to establish the presence and location of high or low mass flux paths. Numerical modelling shows that the tracer peak breakthrough time and concentration in a DFTT is sensitive to the magnitude of the permeability contrast (defined as the permeability of the layer over the permeability of the bulk media) between values of 0.01-20. DFTTs are shown to be more sensitive to deducing variations in the contrast, location and size of aquifer layered permeability contrasts when a shorter central packer is used. However, larger packer sizes are more likely to be practical for field-scale applications, with fewer tests required to characterise a given aquifer section. The sensitivity of DFTTs to identify layered permeability contrasts was not affected by test flow rate. PMID:25478669

  20. Time-resolved multicolor two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy of cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Multilabeling which maps the distribution of different targets is an indispensable technique in many biochemical and biophysical studies. Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy of endogenous fluorophores combining with conventional fluorescence labeling techniques such as genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) and fluorescent dyes staining could be a powerful tool for imaging living cells. However, the challenge is that the excitation and emission wavelength of these endogenous fluorophores and fluorescent labels are very different. A multi-color ultrafast source is required for the excitation of multiple fluorescence molecules. In this study, we developed a two-photon imaging system with excitations from the pump femtosecond laser and the selected supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Multiple endogenous fluorophores, fluorescent proteins and fluorescent dyes were excited in their optimal wavelengths simultaneously. A time- and spectral-resolved detection system was used to record the TPEF signals. This detection technique separated the TPEF signals from multiple sources in time and wavelength domains. Cellular organelles such as nucleus, mitochondria, microtubule and endoplasmic reticulum, were clearly revealed in the TPEF images. The simultaneous imaging of multiple fluorophores of cells will greatly aid the study of sub-cellular compartments and protein localization.

  1. Bichromophoric Dyes for Wavelength Shifting of Dye-Protein Fluoromodules

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ha H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Zanotti, Kimberly J.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields. PMID:25679477

  2. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tend to become darker (usually reddish-purple or dark red) as kids grow. Port-wine stains (also ... upsetting for kids, especially if they're large, dark, or on the face. And any birthmark can ...

  3. Quick Stain Removal Guide 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Pamela J.

    1998-07-29

    . ? Sort the clothes into like stacks of colors, construction, fiber content, surface texture and degree of soil. ? Pretreat stains. ? Measure the amount of detergent recommended on the laundry container. ? Avoid overloading the washer... and dirt stains occur on the lower edges of pants and cuffs. Check for colorfastness. Pretreatments can change a garment?s color. Before using, test it in an inconspicuous area on the garment, such as a hem or seam allowance. Apply the pretreat...

  4. A lipophilic fluorescent LipidGreen1-based quantification method for high-throughput screening analysis of intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Eun; Na, Hye Young; Yang, Taek Ho; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2015-12-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most abundant type of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is synthesized inside a variety of microorganisms as a primary candidate for industrial PHB production. Lipophilic dyes such as Nile red and BODIPY have been used to quantify intracellular PHB, but their uses have often been limited in terms of sensitivity and accuracy. In this study, a newly developed lipophilic fluorescent dye LipidGreen1 was used to quantify intracellular PHB. LipidGreen1 stained viable colonies by adding the dye into the medium which enabled the effective selection of PHB-positive cells. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of LipidGreen1 maintained its fluorescence intensity much longer than that of Nile red. The fluorescence intensities of intracellular PHB stained by LipidGreen1 accurately agreed with PHB contents measured by gas chromatography. In addition, internalization of LipidGreen1 in Escherichia coli cell was not necessary to obtain quantitative measurements. PHB-synthase mutants were differentiated by fluorescence intensities with a good correlation to increased levels of PHB production. These results show that LipidGreen1 is sensitive and accurate in high-throughput screening of newly isolated and genetically modified bacteria with enhanced PHB production. PMID:26253390

  5. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  6. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  7. Fluorescence imaging of microbe-containing particles shot from a two-stage Light-gas gun into an aerogel.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Tabata, Makoto; Okudaira, Kyoko; Imai, Eichi; Yano, Hajime; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    We have proposed an experiment (the Tanpopo mission) to capture microbes on the Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station. An ultra low-density silica aerogel will be exposed to space for more than 1 year. After retrieving the aerogel, particle tracks and particles found in it will be visualized by fluorescence microscopy after staining it with a DNA-specific fluorescence dye. In preparation for this study, we simulated particle trapping in an aerogel so that methods could be developed to visualize the particles and their tracks. During the Tanpopo mission, particles that have an orbital velocity of ~8 km/s are expected to collide with the aerogel. To simulate these collisions, we shot Deinococcus radiodurans-containing Lucentite particles into the aerogel from a two-stage light-gas gun (acceleration 4.2 km/s). The shapes of the captured particles, and their tracks and entrance holes were recorded with a microscope/camera system for further analysis. The size distribution of the captured particles was smaller than the original distribution, suggesting that the particles had fragmented. We were able to distinguish between microbial DNA and inorganic compounds after staining the aerogel with the DNA-specific fluorescence dye SYBR green I as the fluorescence of the stained DNA and the autofluorescence of the inorganic particles decay at different rates. The developed methods are suitable to determine if microbes exist at the International Space Station altitude. PMID:25086872

  8. Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan

    2013-03-01

    Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface, - The irradiation time. For each case fresh samples were used and photographed before and after the treatment. The results obtained will be speculated and discussed. This procedure was applied to the cleaning of archaeological oil paintings for the first time to our knowledge. The method could well be considered as a new field of combined science and technology applied to laser stain removal and represents a significant addition to the techniques available to art conservation.

  9. Enhancing analysis of cells and proteins by fluorescence imaging on silk-based biomaterials: modulating the autofluorescence of silk.

    PubMed

    Neo, Puay Yong; Tan, Daryl Jian-An; Shi, Pujiang; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho-Hong

    2015-02-01

    Silk is a versatile and established biomaterial for various tissue engineering purposes. However, it also exhibits strong autofluorescence signals-thereby hindering fluorescence imaging analysis of cells and proteins on silk-derived biomaterials. Sudan Black B (SB) is a lysochrome dye commonly used to stain lipids in histology. It has also been reported to be able to quench autofluorescence of tissues in histology and has been tested on artificial biomedical polymers in recent years. It was hypothesized that SB would exert similar quenching effects on silk, modulating the autofluorescence signals, and thereby enabling improved imaging analysis of cells and molecules of interests. The quenching effect of SB on the intrinsic fluorescence properties of silk and on commercial fluorescent dyes were first investigated in this study. SB was then incorporated into typical fluorescence-based staining protocols to study its effectiveness in improving fluorescence-based imaging of the cells and proteins residing with the silk-based biomaterials. Silk processed into various forms of biomaterials (e.g., films, sponges, fibers, and electrospun mats) was seeded with cells and cultured in vitro. At sacrificial time points, specimens were harvested, fixed, and prepared for fluorescence staining. SB, available commercially as a powder, was dissolved in 70% ethanol (0.3% [w/v]) to form staining solutions. SB treatment was introduced at the last step of typical immunofluorescence staining protocols for 15-120?min. For actin staining protocols by phalloidin toxin, SB staining solutions were added before and after permeabilization with Triton-X for 15-30?min. Results showed that ideal SB treatment duration is about 15?min. Apart from being able to suppress the autofluorescence of silk, this treatment duration was also not too long to adversely affect the fluorescent labeling probes used. The relative improvement brought about by SB treatment was most evident in the blue and green emission wavelengths compared with the red emission wavelength. This study has showed that the use of SB is a cost and time effective approach to enhance fluorescence-based imaging analyses of cell-seeded silk biomaterials, which otherwise would have been hindered by the unmodulated autofluorescence signals. PMID:25050876

  10. A NEW 3D FLUORESCENCE IMAGING METHOD Haiyong Quan and Zhixiong Guo

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    to excite the fluorescent dye concentrated at the tumor region, and the temporal fluorescence light signals are detected around the boundaries of the target tissue. The temporal information of the fluorescence light of fluorescent dye, amplified signal-to-noise intensity, fluorescence spectrum and lifetime. In fluorescence

  11. Aptamer Stainings for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Maria Angela Gomes; Rammner, Burkhard; Opazo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an invaluable tool to visualize molecules in their biological context with ease and flexibility. However, studies using conventional light microscopy have been limited to the resolution that light diffraction allows (i.e., ~200 nm). This limitation has been recently circumvented by several types of advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, which have achieved resolutions of up to ~10 nm. The resulting enhanced imaging precision has helped to find important cellular details that were not visible using diffraction-limited instruments. However, it has also revealed that conventional stainings using large affinity tags, such as antibodies, are not accurate enough for these imaging techniques. Since aptamers are substantially smaller than antibodies, they could provide a real advantage in super-resolution imaging. Here we compare the live staining of transferrin receptors (TfnR) obtained with different fluorescently labeled affinity probes: aptamers, specific monoclonal antibodies, or the natural receptor ligand transferrin. We observed negligible differences between these staining strategies when imaging is performed with conventional light microscopy (i.e., laser scanning confocal microscopy). However, a clear superiority of the aptamer tag over antibodies became apparent in super-resolved images obtained with stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. PMID:26552828

  12. Application of Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescence Staining in Detection of Phospholipase A2 Receptor on Paraffin Section of Renal Biopsy Tissue.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-Rui; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Guo-Qin; Sun, Li-Jun; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Yi-Pu

    2015-10-31

    Objective To evaluate the application of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence staining method in the detection of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) on paraffin section of renal biopsy tissue,and to find an accurate and fast method for the detection of PLA2R in renal tissue. Methods The PLA2R of 193 cases were detected by immunohistochemical staining,and the antigen was repaired by the method of high pressure cooker (HPC) hot repair plus trypsin repair. The 193 samples including 139 cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN),15 cases of membranous lupus nephritis,8 cases of hepatitis B virus associated membranous nephropathy,18 cases of IgA nephropathy,and 13 cases of minimal change diseases. To compare the dyeing effects,22 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 4 different Methods of antigen repairing,which included HPC hot repair,HPC hot repair plus trypsin repair,water bath heat repair,and water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair. To compare the dyeing effects,15 paraffin sections of renal biopsy tissue of IMN cases with positive PLA2R were stained by using 3 different Methods of antigen repairing,which included water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair,protease K digestion repair,and pepsin digestion repair. Results In 193 cases,the positive rate of PLA2R in IMN cases was 90.6% (126/139),and the other 54 patients without IMN were negative. Twenty-two IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using the HPC heat repair plus trypsin repaire or the water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair;while only a few cases of 22 IMN cases were positive by using the HPC hot repair alone or water bath heat repair alone. Fifteen IMN patients were positive for PLA2R by using water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair,protease K digestion repair,and pepsin digestion repair,but the distribution of positive deposits and the background were different. Conclusion s PLA2R immunohistochemical staining can effectively identify IMN and secondary MN. For immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence staining,the preferred method of antigen repair is water bath heat repair plus trypsin repair.
    . PMID:26564508

  13. Fluorescent antibody localization of myosin in the cytoplasm, cleavage furrow, and mitotic spindle of human cells

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of myosin molecules in human cells using myosin-specific antibody coupled with fluorescent dyes. Rabbits were immunized with platelet myosin or myosin rod. They produced antisera which precipitated only myosin among all the components in crude platelet extracts. From these antisera we isolated immunoglobulin- G (IgG) and conjugated it with tetramethylrhodamine or fluorescein. We separated IgG with 2-5 fluorochromes per molecule from both under- and over-conjugated IgG by ion exchange chromatography and used it to stain acetone-treated cells. The following controls established the specificity of the staining patterns: (a) staining with labeled preimmune IgG; (b) staining with labeled immune IgG adsorbed with purified myosin; (c) staining with labeled immune IgG mixed with either unlabeled preimmune or immune serum; and (d) staining with labeled antibody purified by affinity chromatography. In blood smears, only the cytoplasm of platelets and leukocytes stained. In spread Enson and HeLa cells, stress fibers stained strongly in closely spaced 0.5 mum spots. The cytoplasm stained uniformly in those cells presumed to be motile before acetone treatment. In dividing HeLa cells there was a high concentration of myosin-specific staining in the vicinity of the contractole ring and in the mitotic spindle, especially the region between the chromosomes and the poles. We detected no staining of erythrocytes, or nuclei of leukocytes and cultured cells, or the surface of platelets and cultured cells. PMID:62755

  14. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePLUS

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  15. Shimmering Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Gail Murray

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for fifth- and sixth-graders where they create a translucent design of colored cellophane on black paper inspired by the stained-glass windows of the Middle Ages and the artwork of Lewis Comfort Tiffany. Enables the students to become crafts people rather than just observers of the past. (CMK)

  16. Stained-Glass Pastels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The author has always liked the look of stained-glass windows. Usually the designs are simplified and the shapes are easier for younger students to draw. This technique seemed to be the perfect place for her fifth-graders to try their hand at color mixing. The smaller spaces and simple shapes were just what she needed for this group. Her students…

  17. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  18. Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. Brittany; Criss, Alison K.

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells. PMID:24056524

  19. Removing Stains from Washable Fabrics. 

    E-print Network

    Beard, Ann Vanderpoorten

    1988-01-01

    to fabrics labeled "dry clean". Fabrics labeled "dry clean" should be taken to the cleaner as soon as possible after being stained. Identify the fiber content and the type of stain for the cleaner. And remember that not all stains can be removed - by you... or by the dry cleaner. *Extension clothing and textiles specialist, TheTexasA&M Uni versity System. ? Heat sets stains. Do not dry a stained fabric in the dryer or press it until you are sure all of the stain has been removed. ? Treat stains quickly. Old...

  20. High affinity receptor labeling based on basic leucine zipper domain peptides conjugated with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye: Visualization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor endocytosis in living neurons.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayako; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Okabe, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Techniques to visualize receptor trafficking in living neurons are important, but currently available methods are limited in their labeling efficiency, specificity and reliability. Here we report a method for receptor labeling with a basic leucine zipper domain peptide (ZIP) and a binding cassette specific to ZIP. Receptors are tagged with a ZIP-binding cassette at their extracellular domain. Tagged receptors expressed in cultured cells were labeled with exogenously applied fluorescently labeled ZIP with low background and high affinity. To test if ZIP labeling is useful in monitoring endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, we next conjugated ZIP with a pH-sensitive dye RhP-M (ZIP-RhP-M). ZIP binding to its binding cassette was pH-resistant and RhP-M fluorescence dramatically increased in acidic environment. Thus AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) labeled by ZIP-RhP-M can report receptor endocytosis and subsequent intracellular trafficking. Application of ZIP-RhP-M to cultured hippocampal neurons expressing AMPARs tagged with a ZIP-binding cassette resulted in appearance of fluorescent puncta in PSD-95-positive large spines, suggesting local endocytosis and acidification of AMPARs in individual mature spines. This spine pool of AMPARs in acidic environment was distinct from the early endosomes labeled by transferrin uptake. These results suggest that receptor labeling by ZIP-RhP-M is a useful technique for monitoring endocytosis and intracellular trafficking. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'. PMID:26220312

  1. MP 33250 Coomassie FluorTM Orange Protein Gel Stain Product Information

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    MP 33250 Coomassie FluorTM Orange Protein Gel Stain Product Information Storage upon receipt Introduction Molecular Probes proprietary Coomassie FluorTM Orange protein gel stain provides fast, simple-to-protein variability. Because Coomassie Fluor Orange dye interacts with the SDS coat around proteins in the gel

  2. Targeted alteration of real and imaginary refractive index of biological cells by histological staining.

    PubMed

    Cherkezyan, L; Subramanian, H; Stoyneva, V; Rogers, J D; Yang, S; Damania, D; Taflove, A; Backman, V

    2012-05-15

    Various staining techniques are commonly used in biomedical research to investigate cellular morphology. By inducing absorption of light, staining dyes change the intracellular refractive index due to the Kramers-Kronig relationship. We present a method for creating 2D maps of real and imaginary refractive indices of stained biological cells using their thickness and absorptance. We validate our technique on dyed polystyrene microspheres and quantify the alteration in refractive index of stained biological cells. We reveal that specific staining of individual organelles can increase their scattering cross-section by orders of magnitudes, implying a major impact in the field of biophotonics. PMID:22627509

  3. Energy transfer between a biological labelling dye and gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racknor, Chris; Singh, Mahi R.; Zhang, Yinan; Birch, David J. S.; Chen, Yu

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated energy transfer between a biological labelling dye (Alexa Fluor 405) and gold nanorods experimentally and theoretically. The fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and density matrix method are used to study a hybrid system of dye and nanorods under one- and two-photon excitations. Energy transfer between dye and nanorods via the dipole-dipole interaction is found to cause a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime change. Enhanced energy transfer from dye to nanorods is measured in the presence of an increased density of nanorods. This study has potential applications in fluorescence lifetime-based intra-cellular sensing of bio-analytes as well as nuclear targeting cancer therapy.

  4. Radiation Dosimetry via Automated Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R.; Schulze, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A developmental instrument for assessment of radiation-induced damage in human lymphocytes includes an automated fluorescence microscope equipped with a one or more chargecoupled- device (CCD) video camera(s) and circuitry to digitize the video output. The microscope is also equipped with a three-axis translation stage that includes a rotation stage, and a rotary tray that holds as many as thirty specimen slides. The figure depicts one version of the instrument. Once the slides have been prepared and loaded into the tray, the instrument can operate unattended. A computer controls the operation of the stage, tray, and microscope, and processes the digital fluorescence-image data to recognize and count chromosomes that have been broken, presumably by radiation. The design and method of operation of the instrument exploit fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of metaphase chromosome spreads, which is a technique that has been found to be valuable for monitoring the radiation dose to circulating lymphocytes. In the specific FISH protocol used to prepare specimens for this instrument, metaphase lymphocyte cultures are chosen for high mitotic index and highly condensed chromosomes, then several of the largest chromosomes are labeled with three of four differently colored whole-chromosome-staining dyes. The three dyes, which are used both individually and in various combinations, are fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Texas Red (or equivalent), and Cy5 (or equivalent); The fourth dye 4',6-diamidino- 2-phenylindole (DAPI) is used as a counterstain. Under control by the computer, the microscope is automatically focused on the cells and each slide is scanned while the computer analyzes the DAPI-fluorescence images to find the metaphases. Each metaphase field is recentered in the field of view and refocused. Then a four-color image (more precisely, a set of images of the same view in the fluorescent colors of the four dyes) is acquired. By use of pattern-recognition software developed specifically for this instrument, the images in the various colors are processed to recognize the metaphases and count the chromosome fragments of each color within the metaphases. The intermediate results are then further processed to estimate the proportion of cells that have suffered genetic damage. The prototype instrument scans at an average areal rate of 4.7 mm2/h in unattended operation, finding about 14 metaphases per hour. The false-alarm rate is typically less than 3 percent, and the metaphase-miss rate has been estimated to be less than 5 percent. The counts of chromosomes and fragments thereof are 50 to 70 percent accurate.

  5. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin C-terminal domain labeled to fluorescent dyes for in vivo visualization of micrometastatic chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Emiliano; Shapiro, Erik M; Gasparrini, Sara; Lopez, Salvatore; Schwab, Carlton L; Bellone, Stefania; Bortolomai, Ileana; Sumi, Natalia J; Bonazzoli, Elena; Nicoletti, Roberta; Deng, Yang; Saltzman, W Mark; Zeiss, Caroline J; Centritto, Floriana; Black, Jonathan D; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Ratner, Elena; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas J; Schwartz, Peter E; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro D

    2015-12-01

    Identification of micrometastatic disease at the time of surgery remains extremely challenging in ovarian cancer patients. We used fluorescence microscopy, an in vivo imaging system and a fluorescence stereo microscope to evaluate fluorescence distribution in Claudin-3- and -4-overexpressing ovarian tumors, floating tumor clumps isolated from ascites and healthy organs. To do so, mice harboring chemotherapy-naïve and chemotherapy-resistant human ovarian cancer xenografts or patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were treated with the carboxyl-terminal binding domain of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (c-CPE) conjugated to FITC (FITC-c-CPE) or the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent tag IRDye CW800 (CW800-c-CPE) either intraperitoneally (IP) or intravenously (IV). We found tumor fluorescence to plateau at 30 min after IP injection of both the FITC-c-CPE and the CW800-c-CPE peptides and to be significantly higher than in healthy organs (p < 0.01). After IV injection of CW800-c-CPE, tumor fluorescence plateaued at 6 hr while the most favorable tumor-to-background fluorescence ratio (TBR) was found at 48 hr in both mouse models. Importantly, fluorescent c-CPE was highly sensitive for the in vivo visualization of peritoneal micrometastatic tumor implants and the identification of ovarian tumor spheroids floating in malignant ascites that were otherwise not detectable by conventional visual observation. The use of the fluorescent c-CPE peptide may represent a novel and effective optical approach at the time of primary debulking surgery for the real-time detection of micrometastatic ovarian disease overexpressing the Claudin-3 and -4 receptors or the identification of residual disease at the time of interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment. PMID:26060989

  6. Influence of chromatin condensation on the absorption spectra of nuclei stained with toluidine blue.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, J; Freivalds, T; Selivanova, G

    1992-01-01

    To study the influence of chromatin condensation on the absorption spectra of nuclei stained with toluidine blue, DNA staining methods--which favour or prevent dye polymerization--were applied to the imprints of rat tissues that differed greatly in the density of chromatin packing. It is stated that all factors promoting dye polymerization cause a left shift of the spectra while the factors preventing it, a right one. It was found that condensation of the chromatin can raise prerequisites that both enhance and hinder polymerization, and that the final result depends on the staining method, the manner of chromatin folding, and the density of its packing. PMID:1365771

  7. Flow cytometric separation of spectrally overlapping fluorophores using multifrequency fluorescence lifetime analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Patrick L.; Freyer, James P.; Naivar, Mark S.; Arteaga, Alexandra; Houston, Jessica P.

    2011-02-01

    Digital excited state lifetime measurements in cytometry were performed on multi-tagged Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in order to discriminate between spectrally overlapping fluorescent species. Fluorescence lifetime was determined through digital Fourier analysis with a specialized data acquisition system subsequent to multi-frequency intensity modulation by a solid-state laser excitation source. This work demonstrates that square wave modulation coupled with digital lifetime signal processing can lead to separation of ethidium bromide (EB) and propidium iodide (PI), in cells stained with both dyes. By driving the square wave modulation of the laser at 2 MHz, we were able to access the multiple harmonics present within that wave. In an offline analysis, the phase differences of scatter and fluorescence channels were examined at each harmonic of the primary frequency. The phase difference revealed approximate fluorescence lifetimes of 27.1-ns and 13.0-ns for the EB and PI, respectively. Although the absolute lifetime of each species was not resolved to high accuracy, this work shows a clear separation of the lifetime value calculated at each harmonic. The calculated values that most closely corresponded to the single-dye and multiple-dye average lifetimes were found at the fundamental harmonic frequency (2 MHz) as well as the 4th harmonic (14MHz) frequency. At 2 and 14MHz the average lifetime was 27.1ns and 13.0ns, respectively.

  8. A Time Differential Staining Technique Coupled with Full Bilateral Gill Denervation to Study Ionocytes in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Tzaneva, Velislava; Perry, Steve F.

    2015-01-01

    Branchial ionocytes (ICs) are the functional units for ionic regulation in fish. In adults, they are found on the filamental and lamellar epithelia of the gill where they transport ions such as Na+, Cl- and Ca2+ via a variety of ion channels, pumps and exchangers. The teleost gill is extrinsically innervated by the facial (VI), glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) nerves. The IX and X nerves are also the extrinsic source of branchial IC innervation. Here, two techniques used to study the innervation, proliferation and distribution of ICs are described: a time differential staining technique and a full bilateral gill denervation technique. Briefly, goldfish are exposed to a vital mitochondrion-specific dye (e.g., MitoTracker Red) which labels (red fluorescence) pre-existing ICs. Fish were either allowed to recover for 3 - 5 days or immediately underwent a full bilateral gill denervation. After 3 - 5 days of recovery, the gills are harvested and fixed for immunohistochemistry. The tissue is then stained with an ?-5 primary antibody (targets Na+/K+ ATPase containing cells) in conjunction with a secondary antibody that labels all (both new and pre-existing) ICs green. Using confocal imaging, it was demonstrated that pre-existing ICs appear yellow (labelled with both a viable mitochondrion-specific dye and ?-5) and new ICs appear green (labelled with ?-5 only). Both techniques used in tandem can be applied to study the innervation, proliferation and distribution of ICs on the gill filament when fish are exposed to environmental challenges. PMID:25868043

  9. Fluorescence quenching N,N-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (BDPD) laser dye by colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Daly, Samy A; Salem, Ibrahim A; Hussein, Mahmoud A; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescence quenching N,N-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-3,4:9,10-perylenetetra-carboxylic diimide (BDPD) by colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied in methanol and ethylene glycol by steady state fluorescence measurements. The Stern-Volmer quenching rate constant (Ksv) was calculated as 8.1?×?10(8) and 8.22?×?10(8) M(-1) in methanol and ethylene glycol respectively. Taking the fluorescence lifetime of BDPD in the absence of silver nanoparticles as 3.2 ns, the values of the fluorescence quenching rate constants (kq?=?Ksv/?) are calculated as 2.54?×?10(17) and 2.56?×?10(17) M(-1) s(-1) in methanol and ethylene glycol respectively. From the data, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and / or electron transfer processes play a major role in the fluorescence quenching of BDPD by AgNPs in methanol and low concentrations of Ag NPs in ethylene glycol. The static quenching rate constant in ethylene glycol was calculated by modified Stern-Volmer equation as V?=?8.86?×?10(9) M(-1). For dynamic quenching, the radius of quenching sphere volume r values were found to be 68.3 and 70.6 nm in ethanol and ethylene glycol, respectively. For static quenching in ethylene glycol the effective radius of quenching sphere action (kinetic radius) was calculated as r?=?152 nm. PMID:25656068

  10. Orientational Dynamics and Dye-DNA Interactions in a Dye-Labeled DNA Aptamer

    E-print Network

    Wilson, George S.; Unruh, Jay R.; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Lushington, Gerald H.; Johnson, Carey K.

    2005-05-01

    We report the picosecond and nanosecond timescale rotational dynamics of a dye-labeled DNA oligonucleotide or ‘‘aptamer’’ designed to bind specifically to immunoglobulin E. Rotational dynamics in combination with fluorescence ...

  11. Coffee stain technique.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Gerald P

    2002-01-01

    Backgrounds prepared with coffee grounds and Conté dust produce many unexpected patterns. The technique adds interest to artwork and is equally good for a carefully prepared drawing as it is for a quick, casual sketch. A materials list is provided which includes a variety of surface choices. The article provides step-by-step directions for the preparation of an attractive coffee-stained background, gives detailed instructions describing how to transfer a sketch, offers tips for drawing with Conté and carbon pencils and tells how to apply highlights. PMID:12199191

  12. Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tatsushi; Harada, Yoko; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2013-09-01

    A microscopic technique combining spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy with a lipophilic fluorescent dye, Nile red, which can emit trans-polyisoprene specific fluorescence, was developed, and unmixed images of synthesized trans-polyisoprene in situ in Eucommia ulmoides were successfully obtained. The images showed that trans-polyisoprene was initially synthesized as granules in non-articulated laticifers that changed shape to fibers during laticifer maturation. Non-articulated laticifers are developed from single laticiferous cells, which are differentiated from surrounding parenchyma cells in the cambium. Therefore, these observations suggested that trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis first started in laticifer cells as granules and then the granules accumulated and fused in the inner space of the laticifers over time. Finally, laticifers were filled with the synthesized trans-polyisoprene, which formed a fibrous structure fitting the laticifers shape. Both trans- and cis-polyisoprene are among the most important polymers naturally produced by plants, and this microscopic technique combined with histological study should provide useful information in the fields of plant histology, bioindustry and phytochemistry. PMID:23775438

  13. Anisotropic staining of apurinic acid with toluidine blue.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, J; Freivalds, T

    1979-04-12

    Using normal rat liver imprints, studies were carried out on the effects of histone extraction and the formation of aldehyde groups from deoxyribose on anisotropic toluidine blue staining of depurinized DNA after sodium bisulfite treatment. The anisotropic effect of bisulfite was found to be determined by binding of bisulfite ions to the aldehyde groups of apurinic acid which, together with free phosphate groups of DNA ensure coparallel attachment of the dye molecules. It was also shown that at pH 5.0 toluidine blue binds with both the phosphate and aldehyde groups of apurinic acid, to give anisotropic staining. PMID:89109

  14. Spectroscopic studies, fluorescence quenching by molecular oxygen and amplified spontaneous emission of 1,4-bis [2-(2-pyridyl) vinyl] benzene (P2VB) diolefinic laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Daly, Samy A.; Ebeid, E. M.

    2014-04-01

    The UV-visible electronic absorption spectra, molar absorptivity, fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yield and excited state lifetime of 1,4-bis [2-(2-pyridyl) vinyl] benzene P2VB were measured in different solvents. The fluorescence quenching of P2VB by molecular oxygen was also studied using lifetime measurements. A 2 × 10-4 mol dm-3 solution of P2VB in dimethyl formamide (DMF) gave amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in blue spectral region with emission maximum at 420 nm upon pumping by 337.1 nitrogen laser pulse. The photochemical quantum yields (?c) of trans-cis photoisomerization of P2VB were calculated in different organic solvents. The photoreactivity of P2VB are also studied PMMA matrix.

  15. Multiple equilibria of phenothiazine dyes in aqueous cyclodextrin solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Sung, Y.W.; Park, J.W.

    1999-02-04

    A wide variety of applications of the phenothiazine (PN) dyes have been reported, for example, as sensitizers in solar energy conversion. The dimerization and inclusion complexation equilibria of six phenothiazine dyes with cyclodextrins ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-CDs) in aqueous media have been studied using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The PN dyes used in this study are thionine (TH), azure A (AZA), methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue (TB), new methylene blue (NMB), and 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB). The dimerization constants (K{sub D}) of the dyes having two methyl substituents at the phenothiazine ring (NMB and DMMB) are much greater than those of other dyes having unsubstituted rings, and the presence of methyl groups on the amine groups affects little the K{sub D} values. The positions of the monomer/dimer equilibria do not change with the presence of {alpha}-CD, while the addition of {beta}-CD suppresses and {gamma}-CD enhances the dimerization of the dyes except DMMB. The equilibrium constants for the inclusion complexation of the dye monomers and dimers with CDs are determined from the analysis of the dependence of the absorption spectra of the dye solutions on the concentrations of the CDs using a multiple-equilibrium scheme. The results indicated that, except DMMB, which has methyl groups at the 1-position of the fused phenothiazine ring, the dye monomers fit better to {beta}-CD and the dimers fit snugly to {gamma}-CD. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies indicate that the dye dimers are not fluorescent and inclusion of the monomer in {beta}-CD results in a 3--5 times enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The determined equilibrium constants of the multiple-equilibrium scheme of the dyes in CD media and fluorescent properties of the dyes can be used to control the dye aggregation and the photophysical and photochemical properties of the phenothiazine dyes for various applications.

  16. A concentration dependent auto-relay-recognition by the same analyte: a dual fluorescence switch-on by hydrogen sulfide via Michael addition followed by reduction and staining for bio-activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Avijit Kumar; Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Dutta, Gorachand; Maity, Sibaprasad; Mandal, Tarun Kanti; Khanra, Kalyani; Bhattacharyya, Nandan

    2015-12-23

    H2S is shown, for the first time, to play an extraordinary dual role due to its nucleophilicity and reducing property with our single chemosensor, [4-(piperidin-1-yl) naphthalene-1,2-dione]. The initial nucleophilic attack via Michael addition (a lower concentration of H2S, blue fluorescence) is followed by the reduction of the 1,2-diketo functionality (a higher concentration of H2S, green fluorescence). This chemosensor, which also shows biological response, is remarkably effective in sensing the same analyte (H2S) at its different concentrations in a relay pathway via a fluorescence "off-on-on" mechanism, and this is also supported by DFT calculation and Cyclic voltammograms. PMID:26510406

  17. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  18. Fluorescent dye technique as an alternative to gfp-labeled plasmid for visualization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells on romaine lettuce leaves following sanitizer treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The task of imaging Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells on artificially inoculated produce often requires genetic modification of the cells through the introduction of gfp-labeled plasmid. However, these modified cells do not behave as the parent cells and the auto fluorescence of lettuce leaves interfe...

  19. Quantification of alginate by aggregation induced by calcium ions and fluorescent polycations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hewen; Korendovych, Ivan V; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2016-01-01

    For quantification of polysaccharides, including heparins and alginates, the commonly used carbazole assay involves hydrolysis of the polysaccharide to form a mixture of UV-active dye conjugate products. Here, we describe two efficient detection and quantification methods that make use of the negative charges of the alginate polymer and do not involve degradation of the targeted polysaccharide. The first method utilizes calcium ions to induce formation of hydrogel-like aggregates with alginate polymer; the aggregates can be quantified readily by staining with a crystal violet dye. This method does not require purification of alginate from the culture medium and can measure the large amount of alginate that is produced by a mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture. The second method employs polycations tethering a fluorescent dye to form suspension aggregates with the alginate polyanion. Encasing the fluorescent dye in the aggregates provides an increased scattering intensity with a sensitivity comparable to that of the conventional carbazole assay. Both approaches provide efficient methods for monitoring alginate production by mucoid P. aeruginosa. PMID:26408812

  20. Rapid in situ assessment of physiological activities in bacterial biofilms using fluorescent probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, F. P.; McFeters, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two rapid in situ enumeration methods using fluorescent probes were used to assess the physiological activities of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms on stainless steel. Fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and rhodamine 123 (Rh 123), were chosen to perform this study. CTC is a soluble redox indicator which can be reduced by respiring bacteria to fluorescent CTC-formazan crystals. Rh 123 is incorporated into bacteria with respect to cellular proton motive force. The intracellular accumulation of these fluorescent dyes can be determined using epifluorescence microscopy. The results obtained with these two fluorescent probes in situ were compared to the plate count (PC) and in situ direct viable count (DVC) methods. Viable cell densities within biofilms determined by the three in situ methods were comparable and always showed approximately 2-fold higher values than those obtained with the PC method. As an additional advantage, the results were observed after 2 h, which was shorter than the 4 h incubation time required for the DVC method and 24 h for colony formation. The results indicate that staining with CTC and Rh 123 provides rapid information regarding cell numbers and physiological activities of bacteria within biofilms.

  1. Measurement of time of travel in streams by dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Wilson, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The use of fluorescent dyes and tracing techniques provides a means for measuring the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of steady and gradually varied flow in streams. Measurements of the dispersion and concentration of dyes give insight into the behavior of soluble contaminants that may be introduced into a stream. This manual describes methods of measuring time of travel of water and waterborne solutes by dye tracing. The fluorescent dyes, measuring equipment used, and the field and laboratory procedures are also described. Methods of analysis and presentation to illustrate time-oftravel and dispersion characteristics of streams are provided.

  2. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

    1990-12-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  3. The Use of Vital Dyes during Vitreoretinal Surgery - Chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Maurício; Penha, Fernando M; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. It is well known that indocyanine green is toxic to the retina and consequently not the ideal dye for chromovitrectomy. Different vital dyes has been tested for chromovitrectomy including trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein and brilliant blue. Brilliant blue seems to be the ideal dye for internal limiting membrane due to its afinity, lower toxic profile and to reduce the appearance of apoptosis. Besides the dye itself, the injection technique is crucial to avoid additional toxicity, slow injection, far from the retina and protection of the macular hole are some tips. More recently the use of dyes has been applied to stain perfluorcarbon liquids that may enhance its visualization during vitrectomy. PMID:26502062

  4. Treatment of port-wine stains: analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Welch, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    Port-wine stains (PWS) are bluish red skin stains that are caused by enlarged, ectatic blood vessels in the dermis. Laser treatment of PWS is analyzed from computation of the spatial distribution of heat production by direct absorption of the laser light and subsequent heat conduction. The absorption and scattering caused by oxyhemoglobin, epidermis, and dermis as a function of wavelength are utilized in this analysis. Ideal treatment is defined as coagulating the ectatic blood vessels without irreversible damage to the epidermis and dermis. The analysis shows that a millisecond pulsed, yellow dye laser at 577 nm (one of the large absorption bands in blood) is the laser of choice to treat PWS, offering as close to the ''ideal treatment'' as possible. The blue-green argon laser, which is currently the most frequently used laser for this purpose, is strongly recommended with irradiation times in milliseconds. Other lasers that are in clinical use, such as the red ruby and near-infrared Nd-YAG lasers, can provide selective treatment only when the epidermis is cooled concurrently. The CO/sub 2/ laser, on the other hand, can coagulate the blood vessels only through heat conduction from the hot epidermis; hence, it has neither the treatment selectivity nor any other physical option to force this selectivity.

  5. ENHANCED DAPI STAINING FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify the presence of {ital Cryptosporidium} spp. oocysts in water. The protocol consists of concentrating a sample, staining this concentrate with a fluorescent antibody, and examining the sample mi...

  6. Confusion over live/dead stainings for the detection of vital microorganisms in oral biofilms - which stain is suitable?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is confusion over the definition of the term “viability state(s)” of microorganisms. “Viability staining” or “vital staining techniques” are used to distinguish live from dead bacteria. These stainings, first established on planctonic bacteria, may have serious shortcomings when applied to multispecies biofilms. Results of staining techniques should be compared with appropriate microbiological data. Discussion Many terms describe “vitality states” of microorganisms, however, several of them are misleading. Authors define “viable” as “capable to grow”. Accordingly, staining methods are substitutes, since no staining can prove viability. The reliability of a commercial “viability” staining assay (Molecular Probes) is discussed based on the corresponding product information sheet: (I) Staining principle; (II) Concentrations of bacteria; (III) Calculation of live/dead proportions in vitro. Results of the “viability” kit are dependent on the stains’ concentration and on their relation to the number of bacteria in the test. Generally this staining system is not suitable for multispecies biofilms, thus incorrect statements have been published by users of this technique. To compare the results of the staining with bacterial parameters appropriate techniques should be selected. The assessment of Colony Forming Units is insufficient, rather the calculation of Plating Efficiency is necessary. Vital fluorescence staining with Fluorescein Diacetate and Ethidium Bromide seems to be the best proven and suitable method in biofilm research. Regarding the mutagenicity of staining components users should be aware that not only Ethidium Bromide might be harmful, but also a variety of other substances of which the toxicity and mutagenicity is not reported. Summary –?The nomenclature regarding “viability” and “vitality” should be used carefully. –?The manual of the commercial “viability” kit itself points out that the kit is not suitable for natural multispecies biofilm research, as supported by an array of literature. –?Results obtained with various stains are influenced by the relationship between bacterial counts and the amount of stain used in the test. Corresponding vitality data are prone to artificial shifting. –?As microbiological parameter the Plating Efficiency should be used for comparison. –?Ethidium Bromide is mutagenic. Researchers should be aware that alternative staining compounds may also be or even are mutagenic. PMID:24410850

  7. FRET Enhanced Fluorescent Nanodiamonds

    PubMed Central

    Fudala, Rafal; Raut, Sangram; Maliwal, Badri P.; Zerda, T. W.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Simanek, Eric E; Borejdo, Julian; Rich, Ryan; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are one of the new and very promising biocompatible nanomaterials that can be used both as fluorescence imaging agent and a highly versatile platform for controlled functionalization to target and deliver a wide spectrum of therapeutic agents. Among the remarkable fluorescence properties are excellent photo-stability, emission between 600–700nm, quantum yield of 1 and moderately long fluorescence lifetimes. However the low absorption cross section of fluorescent (N-V)? centers limits FNDs' brightness. In this work we show that an approach based on the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) may significantly enhance the fluorescence signal observed from a single ND. We demonstrate that organic dyes (fluorophores) attached to the FND surface can efficiently transfer the excitation energy to (N-V)? centers. Multiple dyes positioned in close proximity to the ND facile surface may serve as harvesting antennas transferring excitation energy to the fluorescent centers. We propose that, with the help of some of the functional groups present on the FND surface, we can either directly link flurophores or use scalable dendrimer chemistry to position many organic dyes at a calibrated distance. Also, the remaining multiple functional groups will be still available for particle targeting and drug delivery. This opens a new way for designing a new type of theranostics particles of ultra-high brightness, high photostability, specific targeting, and high capacity for drug delivery. PMID:22394126

  8. FRET enhanced fluorescent nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Fudala, Rafal; Raut, Sangram; Maliwal, Badri P; Zerda, T W; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Simanek, Eric; Borejdo, Julian; Rich, Ryan; Akopova, Irina; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are one of the new and very promising biocompatible nanomaterials that can be used both as a fluorescence imaging agent and a highly versatile platform for controlled functionalization to target and deliver a wide spectrum of therapeutic agents. Among the remarkable fluorescence properties are excellent photostability, emission between 600-700nm, quantum yield of 1 and moderately long fluorescence lifetimes. However the low absorption cross section of fluorescent (N-V)(-) centers limits FNDs' brightness. In this work we show that an approach based on the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) may significantly enhance the fluorescence signal observed from a single ND. We demonstrate that organic dyes (fluorophores) attached to the FND surface can efficiently transfer the excitation energy to (N-V)(-) centers. Multiple dyes positioned in close proximity to the ND facile surface may serve as harvesting antennas transferring excitation energy to the fluorescent centers. We propose that, with the help of some of the functional groups present on the FND surface, we can either directly link flurophores or use scalable dendrimer chemistry to position many organic dyes at a calibrated distance. Also, the remaining multiple functional groups will be still available for particle targeting and drug delivery. This opens a new way for designing a new type of theranostics particles of ultrahigh brightness, high photostability, specific targeting, and high capacity for drug delivery. PMID:22394126

  9. Application of Partial Least Square (PLS) Analysis on Fluorescence Data of 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-Sulfonic Acid, a Polarity Dye, for Monitoring Water Adulteration in Ethanol Fuel.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence characteristic of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) in ethanol-water mixture in combination with partial least square (PLS) analysis was used to propose a simple and sensitive analytical procedure for monitoring the adulteration of ethanol by water. The proposed analytical procedure was found to be capable of detecting even small adulteration level of ethanol by water. The robustness of the procedure is evident from the statistical parameters such as square of correlation coefficient (R(2)), root mean square of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) that were found to be well with in the acceptable limits. PMID:26104105

  10. Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of crystal violet dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumaran, V. Sindhu; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-03-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this paper, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye crystal violet are studied. The spectral characteristics of crystal violet dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique, by exciting with He-Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye crystal violet show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  11. Biomat flow: fluorescent dye field experiments, pore-scale modeling of flow and transport properties, and field-scale flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, K.; Sidle, R. C.; Mallants, D.; Vasilyev, R.; Karsanina, M.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Korost, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies highlight the important role that the upper litter layer in forest soils (biomat) plays in hillslope and catchment runoff generation. This biomat layer is a very loose material with high porosity and organic content. Direct sampling is usually problematic due to limited layer thickness. Conventional laboratory measurements can mobilize solids or even cause structure failure of the sample thus making measurements unreliable. It is also difficult to assess local variation in soil properties and transition zones using these methods; thus, they may not be applicable to biomat studies. However, if the physics of flow through this layer needs to be quantified and incorporated into a model, a detailed study of hydraulic properties is necessary. Herein we show the significance of biomat flow by staining experiments in the field, study its structure and transition to mineral soil layer using X-ray micro-tomography, assess hydraulic properties and structure differences using a pore-scale modeling approach, and, finally, use conventional variably-saturated flow modeling based on Richards equation to simulate flow in the hillslope. Using staining tracers we show that biomat flow in forested hillslopes can extend long distances (lateral displacement was about 1.2 times larger than for subsurface lateral flow) before infiltration occurs into deeper layers. The three-dimensional structure of an undisturbed sample (4 x 3 x 2.5 cm) of both biomat and deeper consolidated soil was obtained using an X-ray micro-tomography device with a resolution of 15 um. Local hydraulic properties (e.g., permeability and water retention curve) for numerous layers (e.g., transition zones, biomat, mineral soil) were calculated using Stokes flow FDM solution and pore-network modeling. Anisotropy, structure differences, and property fluctuations of different layers were quantified using local porosity analysis and correlation functions. Current results support the hypothesis that small-scale structural differences alone can explain the lateral transport observed in field. Possible water repellent behaviour at the biomat-mineral soil interface may also be contributing to extended surface flow. Based on conventional modeling with HYDRUS-2D we show how pore-scale modelling-derived hydraulic properties can improve large scale simulations and clarify how local heterogeneities in wetting and hydraulic properties affect infiltration into deeper soils and likely magnify preferential flow. This work was partially supported by RFBR grants 12-05-33089, 12-04-32264, 13-04-00409, 13-05-01176 and 12-05-01130.

  12. Multispectral Enhancement towards Digital Staining

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Pinky A.; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-01-01

    Background: Digital staining can be considered as a special form of image enhancement wherein the concern is not only to increase the contrast between the background objects and objects of interest, but to also impart the colors that mark the objects’ unique reactions to a specific stain. In this paper, we extended the previously proposed multispectral enhancement methods such that the colors of the background pixels can also be changed. Methods: In the previous multispectral enhancement methods a shifting factor is provided to the original spectrum. To implement digital staining, a spectral transformation process is introduced prior to spectral shifting. Results: The enhancement method is applied to multispectral images of H&E stained liver tissue. The resulting digitally stained images show good correlation with the serial-section images of the tissue which are physically stained with Masson's trichrome. Conclusion: We have presented a multispectral enhancement method that can be adjusted to produce digitally stained-images. The current experimental results show the viability of the method. However, to achieve robust enhancement performance issues that arise from variations in staining conditions has to be addressed as well. This would be part of our future work. PMID:22002722

  13. Fluorescent radiation converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluorescence radiation converter is described which includes a substantially undoped optically transparent substrate and a waveshifter coating deposited on at least one portion of the substrate for absorption of radiation and conversion of fluorescent radiation. The coating is formed to substantially 1000 g/liter of a solvent, 70 to 200 g/liter of an organic polymer, and 0.2 to 25 g/liter of at least one organic fluorescent dye. The incoming incident radiation impinges on the coating. Radiation is absorbed by the fluorescent dye and is re-emitted as a longer wavelength radiation. Radiation is trapped within the substrate and is totally internally reflected by the boundary surface. Emitted radiation leaves the substrate ends to be detected.

  14. Under-air staining of the anterior capsule using Trypan blue with a 30 G needle.

    PubMed

    Giammaria, Daniele; Giannotti, Michele; Scopelliti, Angelo; Pellegrini, Giacomo; Giannotti, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The original technique of staining the anterior capsule of the lens with Trypan blue involves the injection of an air bubble in the anterior chamber. A drawback of this technique is the possible instability of the anterior chamber caused by the sudden exit of air when the dye is injected with the cannula through the side-port incision. Other staining techniques that use viscoelastic substances to increase the stability of the anterior chamber and to dose the injected dye have been described. The authors present an under-air staining technique of the anterior capsule using one drop of Trypan blue injected with a 30 G needle through the peripheral cornea. This procedure prevents the air bubble from escaping the anterior chamber and allows fast and selective staining of the capsule. PMID:23386783

  15. Identification of an ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein)-positive carfilzomib-resistant myeloma subpopulation by the pluripotent stem cell fluorescent dye CDy1.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Teresa S; Riz, Irene; Yang, Wenjing; Wakabayashi, Yoshiyuki; Depalma, Louis; Chang, Young-Tae; Peng, Weiqun; Zhu, Jun; Hawley, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant expansion of differentiated plasma cells. Although many chemotherapeutic agents display cytotoxic activity toward MM cells, patients inevitably succumb to their disease because the tumor cells become resistant to the anticancer drugs. The cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that a small subpopulation of chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is responsible for propagation of the tumor. Herein we report that efflux of the pluripotent stem cell dye CDy1 identifies a subpopulation in MM cell lines characterized by increased expression of P-glycoprotein, a member of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily of transporters encoded by ABCB1. We also demonstrate that ABCB1-overexpressing MM cells are resistant to the second-generation proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib that recently received accelerated approval for the treatment of therapy-refractive MM by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, increased resistance to carfilzomib in sensitive MM cells following drug selection was associated with upregulation of ABCB1 cell-surface expression which correlated with increased transporter activity as measured by CDy1 efflux. We further show that chemosensitization of MM cells to carfilzomib could be achieved in vitro by cotreatment with vismodegib, a hedgehog pathway antagonist which is currently in MM clinical trials. CDy1 efflux may therefore be a useful assay to determine whether high expression of ABCB1 is predictive of poor clinical responses in MM patients treated with carfilzomib. Our data also suggest that inclusion of vismodegib might be a potential strategy to reverse ABCB1-mediated drug resistance should it occur. PMID:23475625

  16. Lenticular mitoprotection. Part A: Monitoring mitochondrial depolarization with JC-1 and artifactual fluorescence by the glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibitor, SB216763

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Morgan M.; Neelam, Sudha; Fudala, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Dissipation of the electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane results in mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (mMPT), a potential early marker for the onset of apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in regulating mMPT. Using direct inhibition of GSK-3? with the GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763, mitochondria may be prevented from depolarizing (hereafter referred to as mitoprotection). Cells treated with SB216763 showed an artifact of fluorescence similar to the green emission spectrum of the JC-1 dye. We demonstrate the novel use of spectral deconvolution to negate the interfering contributing fluorescence by SB216763, thus allowing an unfettered analysis of the JC-1 dye to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Methods Secondary cultures of virally transfected human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) were exposed to acute hypoxic conditions (approximately 1% O2) followed by exposure to atmospheric oxygen (approximately 21% O2). The fluorescent dye JC-1 was used to monitor the extent of mitochondrial depolarization upon exposure of inhibitor treatment relative to the control cells (mock inhibition) in atmospheric oxygen. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was implemented to determine cell viability. Results Treatment of HLE-B3 cells with SB216763 (12 µM), when challenged by oxidative stress, suppressed mitochondrial depolarization relative to control cells as demonstrated with JC-1 fluorescent dye analysis. Neither the control nor the SB216763-treated HLE-B3 cells tested positive with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining under the conditions of the experiment. Conclusions Inhibition of GSK-3? activity by SB216763 blocked mMPT relative to the slow but consistent depolarization observed with the control cells. We conclude that inhibition of GSK-3? activity by the GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763 provides positive protection against mitochondrial depolarization. PMID:23825920

  17. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  18. Synthesis and application of novel near infrared cyanine dyes and optical imaging agents 

    E-print Network

    Norouzi, Neil

    2014-06-28

    The use of fluorescent imaging probes for the real time detection of cellular malfunctions, such as enzyme over expression has shown promise. Fluorescent dyes with absorption and emission values below 600 nm are limited ...

  19. Trypan Blue Staining to Determine Vaginal Exposure in Two Types of Plastic Vaginal Applicators Containing Two Different Microbicide Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hemmerling, A; Harrison, WG; Brown, JM; Moscicki, AB; Oziemkowska, M; Bukusi, EA; Cohen, CR

    2013-01-01

    Dye staining of applicators has been shown to be a reliable and objective method to test vaginal insertion in clinical microbicide trials, but different plastics, dyes and product formulations may impact the accuracy of this method. Reportedly used applicators returned from three clinical trials were stained with 1% Trypan Blue. In a phase 1 study (VivaGel®), using gel-filled HTI polypropylene applicators, 1271 (97%) of applicators stained positive. In two phase 1 and 2a studies (LACTIN-V) using linear low-density polyethylene applicators to deliver a dry powder formulation, 57 (95%) and 135 (86%) tested positive, respectively. Dye staining of vaginal applicators is an objective, low cost measure suitable for low resource settings. PMID:22902667

  20. Certain tricyclic and pentacyclic-hetero nitrogen rhodol dyes

    DOEpatents

    Haugland, Richard P. (Eugene, OR); Whitaker, James E. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes based on the rhodol structure are provided. The new reagents contain functional groups capable of forming a stable fluorescent product with functional groups typically found in biomolecules or polymers including amines, phenols, thiols, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Reactive groups in the rhodol dyes include activated esters, isothiocyanates, amines, hydrazines, halides, acids, azides, maleimides, aldehydes, alcohols, acrylamides and haloacetamides. The products are detected by their absorbance or fluorescence properties. The spectral properties of the fluorescent dyes are sufficiently similar in wavelengths and intensity to fluorescein or rhodamine derivatives as to permit use of the same equipment. The dyes, however, show less spectral sensitivity to pH in the physiological range than does fluorescein, have higher solubility in non-polar solvents and have improved photostability and quantum yields.

  1. Fluorescence properties of organic dyes: quantum chemical studies on the green/blue neutral and protonated DMA-DPH emitters in polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Kerkines, Ioannis S K; Petsalakis, Ioannis D; Argitis, Panagiotis; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula

    2011-12-28

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the green emitter DMA-DPH {1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene} and its protonated blue-emitter form have been studied theoretically through time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and resolution-of-identity 2nd order perturbative coupled cluster (RI-CC2) calculations with basis sets up to augmented triple-? quality, in the gas phase and in solvents of different polarity. These systems dispersed in a polymer matrix are of interest for applications in organic light emitting diode devices (OLEDs). Calculations show that the observed absorption and emission spectra correspond to transitions between the S(0) and S(1) states, in both systems. The nature and characteristics of these transitions are discussed. Excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained, both for absorption and emission, provided that the state-specific polarized continuum model (SS-PCM) method is employed for the inclusion of the solvent. PMID:22025129

  2. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  3. Spectrophotometric characterization of useful dyes in laser photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaila, Leon; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Popescu, Alina; Pascu, Mihaela O.; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2000-02-01

    This paper present the physico-chemical properties of some synthetic porphyrin dyes obtained at ZECASIN SA. We have measured the absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra of these dyes in different solvents. From them we have concluded that the most reliable due for our studies concerning the photodynamic therapy with UV lasers is Zn II- tetrakis-sulfonatophenyl porphyrin.

  4. The role of the Giemsa stain in cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Dolan, M

    2011-04-01

    In just half a century since the human diploid chromosome number was correctly identified as 46, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of both the genetic foundation of normal human development and the development of various constitutional and acquired abnormalities. The ability to detect numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities was made possible by the Giemsa stain. Despite the recent advent of powerful molecular-based cytogenetic techniques (e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization, array-based comparative genomic hybridization), Giemsa-based chromosomal banding and staining techniques retain their crucial role in cytogenetics. PMID:21395494

  5. Biophysical Letter Real-Time Imaging of Electrical Signals with an Infrared FDA-Approved Dye

    E-print Network

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    Biophysical Letter Real-Time Imaging of Electrical Signals with an Infrared FDA-Approved Dye Jeremy that indocyanine green (ICG), an infrared fluorescent dye with FDA approval as an intravenously administered transdermally with high spatial resolution. As an infrared voltage-sensitive dye with a low toxicity profile

  6. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test. No significant difference was determined between the groups. These data provide preliminary results on determining the effect of these dyes on living tissues. Preliminary results of a clinical trial are presented showing in-vivo use of the CME for imaging of the ovaries. This is the first portion of a two part study to demonstrate the clinical diagnosis potential of the CME system. A mobile version of the bench-top CME was modified to be used in the clinic. Fluorescein sodium is used as an initial contrast agent in these studies to demonstrate fluorescence imaging. Twenty patients were successfully imaged, and results of this study have allowed progression to a clinical validation study showing the diagnostic capabilities of the CME.

  7. Ultrafast tissue staining with chemical tags

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Johannes; Ng, Julian; Cachero, Sebastian; Ciabatti, Ernesto; Dolan, Michael-John; Sutcliffe, Ben; Tozer, Adam; Ruehle, Sabine; Krueger, Daniel; Frechter, Shahar; Branco, Tiago; Tripodi, Marco; Jefferis, Gregory S. X. E.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins and immunostaining are widely used to detect cellular and subcellular structures in fixed biological samples. However, for thick or whole-mount tissue, each approach suffers from limitations, including limited spectral flexibility and lower signal or slow speed, poor penetration, and high background labeling, respectively. We have overcome these limitations by using transgenically expressed chemical tags for rapid, even, high-signal and low-background labeling of thick biological tissues. We first construct a platform of widely applicable transgenic Drosophila reporter lines, demonstrating that chemical labeling can accelerate staining of whole-mount fly brains by a factor of 100. Using viral vectors to deliver chemical tags into the mouse brain, we then demonstrate that this labeling strategy works well in mice. Thus this tag-based approach drastically improves the speed and specificity of labeling genetically marked cells in intact and/or thick biological samples. PMID:25157152

  8. Homogeneous fluorescent specific PCR for the authentication of medicinal snakes using cationic conjugated polymers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Libing; Hou, Jingyi; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-01

    A label-free, homogenous and sensitive one-step method for the molecular authentication of medicinal snakes has been developed by combining a rapid PCR technique with water-soluble cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CCPs). Three medicinal snake materials (Deinagkistrodon acutus, Zaocys dhumnades and Bungarus multicinctus; a total of 35 specimens) and 48 snake specimens with similar morphologies and textures were clearly distinguished by the naked eye by utilizing a CCP-based assay in a high-throughput manner. The identification of medicinal snakes in patented Chinese drugs was successfully performed using this detection system. In contrast to previous fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide detection and direct DNA stain hybridization assays, this method does not require designing dye-labeled primers, and unfavorable dimer fluorescence is avoided in this homogenous method. PMID:26537289

  9. Homogeneous fluorescent specific PCR for the authentication of medicinal snakes using cationic conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Libing; Hou, Jingyi; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-01

    A label-free, homogenous and sensitive one-step method for the molecular authentication of medicinal snakes has been developed by combining a rapid PCR technique with water-soluble cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CCPs). Three medicinal snake materials (Deinagkistrodon acutus, Zaocys dhumnades and Bungarus multicinctus; a total of 35 specimens) and 48 snake specimens with similar morphologies and textures were clearly distinguished by the naked eye by utilizing a CCP-based assay in a high-throughput manner. The identification of medicinal snakes in patented Chinese drugs was successfully performed using this detection system. In contrast to previous fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide detection and direct DNA stain hybridization assays, this method does not require designing dye-labeled primers, and unfavorable dimer fluorescence is avoided in this homogenous method. PMID:26537289

  10. Topical dual-stain difference imaging for rapid intra-operative tumor identification in fresh specimens

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Scott C.; Gibbs, Summer L.; Gunn, Jason R.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing tumor margin status during surgery is critical to ensure complete resection of cancer tissue; however, current approaches are ineffective and often result in repeat surgery. We present a novel optical imaging approach for margin assessment using topical application of two fluorescent stains, one targeted to a tumor biomarker and the other a non-targeted reference, to freshly excised specimens. Computing a normalized difference image from fluorescence images of the targeted and untargeted stains suppresses the confounding effects of non-specific uptake. Applying this approach in excised breast tumor models produced promising tumor-to-normal tissue contrasts that were significantly higher than single-targeted-stain imaging. PMID:24281541

  11. Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-02-01

    We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

  12. PicoGreen dye as an active medium for plastic lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, C.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-08-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid lipid complex thin films are used as a host material for laser dyes. We tested PicoGreen dye, which is commonly used for the quantification of single and double stranded DNA, for its applicability as lasing medium. PicoGreen dye exhibits enhanced fluorescence on intercalation with DNA. This enormous fluorescence emission is amplified in a planar microcavity to achieve yellow lasing. Here the role of DNA is not only a host medium, but also as a fluorescence dequencher. With the obtained results we have ample reasons to propose PicoGreen dye as a lasing medium, which can lead to the development of DNA based bio-lasers.

  13. Computational model to evaluate port wine stain depth profiling using pulsed photothermal radiometry

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    laser therapy of port wine stain PWS lesions, which are congeni- tal vascular malformations present of pulsed dye laser light 585­595 nm , which is absorbed by hemoglo- bin constituents in blood and epidermal% of patients.5­8 A major limita- tion of current laser therapy is that treatment plans are based primarily

  14. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye. 10 figs.

  15. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Albany, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  16. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Oakland, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  17. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  18. Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5?m diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

  19. Assessment of Cell Viability in Three-Dimensional Scaffolds Using Cellular Auto-Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, Roman; Potier, Esther; van Zandvoort, Marc

    2012-01-01

    After assessing cell viability (CV), tissue-engineered constructs are often discarded, as current CV assays commonly require specific (fluorescent) dyes to stain cells and may need scaffold/tissue digestion before quantifying the live and dead cells. Here, we demonstrate and evaluate how cellular auto-fluorescence can be exploited to facilitate a noninvasive CV estimation in three-dimensional scaffolds using two advanced microscopy methods. Mixtures of live and dead C2C12 myoblasts (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% live cells) were prepared, and CV was determined before seeding cells into collagen carriers using the trypan blue (TB) assay. Cell-seeded collagen gels ([CSCGs], n=5/cell mixture) were produced by mixing collagen solution with the live/dead cell mixtures (7×106 cells/mL). After polymerization, two-photon microscopy (TPM) and confocal microscopy images of the CSCG were acquired (n=30 images/CSCG). It was found that live and dead cells systematically emit auto-fluorescent light with different spectral characteristics. Viable cells showed predominantly blue fluorescence with a peak emission around 470?nm, whereas dead cells appeared to mainly emit green fluorescent light with a peak intensity around 560?nm. For TPM, live and dead cells were distinguished spectrally. For confocal images, the intensity ratio of images taken with band-pass filters was used to distinguish live from dead cells. CV values obtained with both TPM and confocal imaging did not significantly differ from those acquired with the established TB method. In comparison to TPM, confocal microscopy was found to be less accurate in assessing the exact CV in constructs containing mostly live or dead cells. In summary, monitoring cellular auto-fluorescence using advanced microscopy techniques allows CV assessment requiring no additional dyes and/or scaffold digestion and, thus, may be especially suitable for tissue-engineering studies where CV is measured at multiple time points. PMID:21981657

  20. Whole Blood Cell Staining Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Clift, Vaughan L.; McDonald, Kelly E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for staining particular cell markers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a flexible tube that is reversibly pinched into compartments with one or more clamps. Each compartment of the tube contains a separate reagent and is in selective fluid communication with adjoining compartments.

  1. TSQ (6-methoxy-8-p-toluenesulfonamido-quinoline), a common fluorescent sensor for cellular zinc, images zinc proteins.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Nowakowski, Andrew; Petering, David H

    2011-08-15

    Zn(2+) is a necessary cofactor for thousands of mammalian proteins. Research has suggested that transient fluxes of cellular Zn(2+) are also involved in processes such as apoptosis. Observations of Zn(2+) trafficking have been collected using Zn(2+) responsive fluorescent dyes. A commonly used Zn(2+) fluorophore is 6-methoxy-8-p-toluenesulfonamido-quinoline (TSQ). The chemical species responsible for TSQ's observed fluorescence in resting or activated cells have not been characterized. Parallel fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry of LLC-PK(1) cells incubated with TSQ demonstrated punctate staining that concentrated around the nucleus and was characterized by an emission maximum near 470 nm. Addition of cell permeable Zn-pyrithione resulted in greatly increased, diffuse fluorescence that shifted the emission peak to 490 nm, indicative of the formation of Zn(TSQ)(2). TPEN (N,N,N'N'-tetrakis(-)[2-pyridylmethyl]-ethylenediamine), a cell permeant Zn(2+) chelator, largely quenched TSQ fluorescence returning the residual fluorescence to the 470 nm emission maximum. Gel filtration chromatography of cell supernatant from LLC-PK(1) cells treated with TSQ revealed that TSQ fluorescence (470 nm emission) eluted with the proteome fractions. Similarly, addition of TSQ to proteome prior to chromatography resulted in 470 nm fluorescence emission that was not observed in smaller molecular weight fractions. It is hypothesized that Zn-TSQ fluorescence, blue-shifted from the 490 nm emission maximum of Zn(TSQ)(2), results from ternary complex, TSQ-Zn-protein formation. As an example, Zn-carbonic anhydrase formed a ternary adduct with TSQ characterized by a fluorescence emission maximum of 470 nm and a dissociation constant of 1.55 × 10(-7) M. Quantification of TSQ-Zn-proteome fluorescence indicated that approximately 8% of cellular Zn(2+) was imaged by TSQ. These results were generalized to other cell types and model Zn-proteins. PMID:21774459

  2. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  3. Pro-Q Emerald Glycoprotein Stain Kits

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Pro-Q Emerald Glycoprotein Stain Kits The most advanced technology for staining glycoproteins CAPABILITIES #12;Molecular Probes' proprietary Pro-Q Emerald 300 and Pro-Q Emerald 488 Glycopro- tein Stain with the Pro-Q Emerald reagent (Figure 1). Blot staining requires extra steps, but also provides excellent

  4. A far-red fluorescent probe for flow cytometry and image-based functional studies of xenobiotic sequestering macrophages.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Rahul K; Yoon, Gi S; Sud, Sudha; Stringer, Kathleen A; Rosania, Gus R

    2015-09-01

    Clofazimine (CFZ) is an optically active, red-colored chemotherapeutic agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of leprosy and is on the World Health Organization's list of essential medications. Interestingly, CFZ massively accumulates in macrophages where it forms crystal-like drug inclusions (CLDIs) after oral administration of the drug in animals and humans. The analysis of the fluorescence spectra of CLDIs formed by resident tissue macrophages revealed that CFZ, when accumulated as CLDIs, undergoes a red shift in fluorescence excitation (from Ex: 540-570 to 560-600 nm) and emission (Em: 560-580 to 640-700 nm) signal relative to the soluble and free-base crystal forms of CFZ. Using epifluorescence microscopy, CLDI(+) cells could be identified, relative to CLDI(-) cells, based on a >3-fold increment in mean fluorescence signal at excitation 640 nm and emission at 670 nm. Similarly, CLDI(+) cells could be identified by flow cytometry, based on a >100-fold increment in mean fluorescence signal using excitation lasers at 640 nm and emission detectors >600 nm. CLDI's fluorescence excitation and emission was orthogonal to that of cell viability dyes such as propidium iodide and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI), cellular staining dyes such as Hoechst 33342 (nucleus) and FM 1-43 (plasma membrane), as well as many other fluorescently tagged antibodies used for immunophenotyping analyses. In vivo, >85% of CLDI(+) cells in the peritoneal exudate were F4/80(+) macrophages and >97% of CLDI(+) cells in the alveolar exudate were CD11c(+). Most importantly, the viability of cells was minimally affected by the presence of CLDIs. Accordingly, these results establish that CFZ fluorescence in CLDIs is suitable for quantitative flow cytometric phenotyping analysis and functional studies of xenobiotic sequestering macrophages. PMID:26109497

  5. Al adjuvants can be tracked in viable cells by lumogallion staining.

    PubMed

    Mile, Irene; Svensson, Andreas; Darabi, Anna; Mold, Matthew; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2015-07-01

    The mechanism behind the adjuvant effect of aluminum salts is poorly understood notwithstanding that aluminum salts have been used for decades in clinical vaccines. In an aqueous environment and at a nearly neutral pH, the aluminum salts form particulate aggregates, and one plausible explanation of the lack of information regarding the mechanisms could be the absence of an efficient method of tracking phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants and thereby the intracellular location of the adjuvant. In this paper, we want to report upon the use of lumogallion staining enabling the detection of phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants inside viable cells. Including micromolar concentrations of lumogallion in the culture medium resulted in a strong fluorescence signal from cells that had phagocytosed the aluminum adjuvant. The fluorescence appeared as spots in the cytoplasm and by confocal microscopy and co-staining with probes presenting fluorescence in the far-red region of the spectrum, aluminum adjuvants could to a certain extent be identified as localized in acidic vesicles, i.e., lysosomes. Staining and detection of intracellular aluminum adjuvants was achieved not only by diffusion of lumogallion into the cytoplasm, thereby highlighting the presence of the adjuvant, but also by pre-staining the aluminum adjuvant prior to incubation with cells. Pre-staining of aluminum adjuvants resulted in bright fluorescent particulate aggregates that remained fluorescent for weeks and with only a minor reduction of fluorescence upon extensive washing or incubation with cells. Both aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate, two of the most commonly used aluminum adjuvants in clinical vaccines, could be pre-stained with lumogallion and were easily tracked intracellularly after incubation with phagocytosing cells. Staining of viable cells using lumogallion will be a useful method in investigations of the mechanisms behind aluminum adjuvants' differentiation of antigen-presenting cells into inflammatory cells. Information will be gained regarding the phagosomal pathways and the events inside the phagosomes, and thereby the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants could be resolved. PMID:25896212

  6. Photostability enhancement of azoic dyes adsorbed and intercalated into Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Kongcao; Li, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Two azoic dyes 4-aminoazobenzene-4-sulfonic (AS) and ethyl orange (EO) were adsorbed on or intercalated into Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) for photostability enhancement. Fluorescence analysis results showed that the photostability of two dyes could be greatly improved after being adsorbed on the surface of Mg-Al-CO3-LDH matrix. Furthermore, photostability of adsorbed dyes was superior to that of intercalated dyes. It was suggested that AS or EO was adsorbed on LDHs surface through a strong chemisorption interaction, resulting in the enhancement of photostability. After the UV irradiation under N2 atmosphere, the absorbed dyes not only show great increase of fluorescence intensity but also exhibited high stability against UV irradiation. This work provides a feasible approach to enhance the photostability of azoic dye confined in an inorganic two-dimensional (2D) matrix via changing the microenvironment, which may be considered to be a promising method of improving photostability of solid fluorescent materials.

  7. Whole Mount Fluorescent Antibody Staining of Drosophila Embryos Leslie Vosshall

    E-print Network

    inactivated normal Goat serum) (to heat inactivate serum, incubate at 55o C for 30 minutes, then sterile to cover the embryos. 3. Block for 30 minutes, room temperature in P/T/S (1XPBS, 0.1% Triton X-100, 5% heat

  8. Whole Mount Fluorescent Antibody Staining of Drosophila Larvae Leslie Vosshall

    E-print Network

    % heat inactivated normal Goat serum) (to heat inactivate serum, incubate at 55o C for 30 minutes, then sterile filter and freeze in aliquots at ­20o C.) 7. Replace blocking solution with primary antibody

  9. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F. L.; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  10. Salt stains from evaporating droplets.

    PubMed

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F L; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  11. Quantitative studies of immunofluorescent staining*

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Ernst H.; Sepulveda, Marion R.; Barnett, Eugene V.

    1968-01-01

    Reproducible titres of indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining with antinuclear factor (ANF)-containing sera could be obtained with different antihuman IgG conjugates by quantitative adjustments of their characteristics. Conversely, one ANF yielded a broad range of ANF titre (80-640) upon appropriate adjustments of the conjugate characteristics. The same and related characteristics of the conjugates also afforded a basis for quantitatively defining the conditions under which non-specific staining (NSS) appeared. The salient characteristics of the anti-IgG conjugates include: (1) their strength of antiglobulin (expressed as units/ml of precipitating antibody or ?g antibody N/ml); (2) their apparent fluorescein concentration (in ?g F/ml); (3) their protein concentration (in mg/ml). Optical and immunologic sensitivity ratios are calculated from these conjugate characteristics. Optical sensitivity (expressed as fluorescein concentration to protein concentration (F/P) ratios), immunological sensitivities (expressed as units/1% protein) and the dilution employed serve to characterize quantitatively anti-IgG conjugates adequately to define their specific and non-specific staining properties. PMID:4179321

  12. Assessing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding damage in macadamia nuts by using a biological stain.

    PubMed

    Golden, Mary; Follett, Peter A; Wright, Mark G

    2006-06-01

    Damage caused by southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), to macadamia nuts, Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche, is normally determined after nuts are harvested and processed, which may be many months after damage occurred in the field. We developed a method using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes and indirectly assess feeding activity in macadamia nuts. By using the staining method, feeding probes were easily detected on the husk, shell, and kernel. Husk probing was highly correlated (0.80-0.90) with feeding and damage to the kernel. Failure rate to detect kernel damage from stained husk probes was generally <6%. The staining method was equally effective for immature and mature nuts; therefore, N. viridula feeding activity can be monitored throughout the season to evaluate pest management tactics and forecast outbreak populations. PMID:16813317

  13. Resonance energy transfer in DNA duplexes labeled with localized dyes.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Paul D; Khachatrian, Ani; Buckhout-White, Susan; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Goldman, Ellen R; Medintz, Igor L; Melinger, Joseph S

    2014-12-18

    The growing maturity of DNA-based architectures has raised considerable interest in applying them to create photoactive light harvesting and sensing devices. Toward optimizing efficiency in such structures, resonant energy transfer was systematically examined in a series of dye-labeled DNA duplexes where donor-acceptor separation was incrementally changed from 0 to 16 base pairs. Cyanine dyes were localized on the DNA using double phosphoramidite attachment chemistry. Steady state spectroscopy, single-pair fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, and ultrafast two-color pump-probe methods were utilized to examine the energy transfer processes. Energy transfer rates were found to be more sensitive to the distance between the Cy3 donor and Cy5 acceptor dye molecules than efficiency measurements. Picosecond energy transfer and near-unity efficiencies were observed for the closest separations. Comparison between our measurements and the predictions of Förster theory based on structural modeling of the dye-labeled DNA duplex suggest that the double phosphoramidite linkage leads to a distribution of intercalated and nonintercalated dye orientations. Deviations from the predictions of Förster theory point to a failure of the point dipole approximation for separations of less than 10 base pairs. Interactions between the dyes that alter their optical properties and violate the weak-coupling assumption of Förster theory were observed for separations of less than four base pairs, suggesting the removal of nucleobases causes DNA deformation and leads to enhanced dye-dye interaction. PMID:25397906

  14. Epi-Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Donna J.; Brown, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    Epi-fluorescence microscopy is available in most life sciences research laboratories, and when optimized can be a central laboratory tool. In this chapter, the epi-fluorescence light path is introduced and the various components are discussed in detail. Recommendations are made for incident lamp light sources, excitation and emission filters, dichroic mirrors, objective lenses, and charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras in order to obtain the most sensitive epi-fluorescence microscope. The even illumination of metal-halide lamps combined with new “hard” coated filters and mirrors, a high resolution monochrome CCD camera, and a high NA objective lens are all recommended for high resolution and high sensitivity fluorescence imaging. Recommendations are also made for multicolor imaging with the use of monochrome cameras, motorized filter turrets, individual filter cubes, and corresponding dyes that are the best choice for sensitive, high resolution multicolor imaging. Images should be collected using Nyquist sampling and should be corrected for background intensity contributions and nonuniform illumination across the field of view. Photostable fluorescent probes and proteins that absorb a lot of light (i.e., high extinction co-efficients) and generate a lot of fluorescence signal (i.e., high quantum yields) are optimal. A neuronal immune-fluorescence labeling protocol is also presented. Finally, in order to maximize the utility of sensitive wide-field microscopes and generate the highest resolution images with high signal-to-noise, advice for combining wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging with restorative image deconvolution is presented. PMID:23026996

  15. Supramolecular Translation of Enzymatically Triggered Disassembly of Micelles into Tunable Fluorescent Responses.

    PubMed

    Buzhor, Marina; Harnoy, Assaf J; Tirosh, Einat; Barak, Ayana; Schwartz, Tal; Amir, Roey J

    2015-10-26

    The need for advanced fluorescent imaging and delivery platforms has motivated the development of smart probes that change their fluorescence in response to external stimuli. Here a new molecular design of fluorescently labeled PEG-dendron hybrids that self-assemble into enzyme-responsive micelles with tunable fluorescent responses is reported. In the assembled state, the fluorescence of the dyes is quenched or shifted due to intermolecular interactions. Upon enzymatic cleavage of the hydrophobic end-groups, the labeled polymeric hybrids become hydrophilic, and the micelles disassemble. This supramolecular change is translated into a spectral response as the dye-dye interactions are eliminated and the intrinsic fluorescence is regained. We demonstrate the utilization of this molecular design to generate both Turn-On and spectral shift responses by adjusting the type of the labeling dye. This approach enables transformation of non-responsive labeling dyes into smart fluorescent probes. PMID:26366522

  16. Effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and flow cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Ma, Yuan; Li, Jian; Wu, Guo Quan; Li, Dong Jiang; Ni, Yi Na; Lv, Chun Rong; Zhu, Lan; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2015-02-01

    Cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed sperm can overcome difficulties caused by the unavailability of sorting facilities on farms where semen is collected from male livestock. In order to optimize the cytometric sex-sorting procedure, effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and cytometric sorting efficiency of frozen-thawed ram sperm were evaluated. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with Hoechst33342 at various dye concentrations (80 ?M, 120 ?M, 160 ?M, 200 ?M, 240 ?M, or 320 ?M) for 45 min to evaluate effects of dye dose. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with 160 ?M Hoechst33342 for various durations (0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 75 min, or 90 min) to evaluate effects of staining duration. Sperm motility and moving velocity were analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASAS). Acrosome status, membrane integrity, and distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in Hoechst33342-stained sperm were analyzed using flow cytometry after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectin from pisum sativum (FITC-PSA), Annexin V, or propidium iodide (PI). The fertility of Hoechst33342-stained sperm was analyzed by in vitro fertilization (IVF). A high-speed cell sorter was used to evaluate effects of Hoechst33342 staining on cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed sperm. The motility, moving velocity, membrane integrity, and PS distribution of Hoechst33342-stained sperm were significantly different from that of immediately thawed sperm (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference existing among the Hoechst33342-stained groups with respect to the above evaluated parameters. Additionally, along with the staining durations, the adverse effects of the staining procedure on sperm showed a steady increase. However, Hoechst33342 staining did not damage acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Results of cytometric sorting indicated that frozen-thawed sperm can be efficiently sorted into two sperm populations with X and Y chromosome when the Hoechst33342 concentration was 160 ?M. Moreover, when the staining duration was equal to or longer than 45 min, the frozen-thawed sperm can be successfully sorted in the presence of 160?M Hoechst33342. In conclusion, Hoechst33342 staining can detrimentally influence viability of frozen-thawed ram sperm except acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability. Accordingly, the minimum values of Hoechst33342 concentration and staining duration can be set at 160 ?M and 45 min respectively. However, the maximum values of Hoechst33342 concentration and staining duration were not determined based on the current study. Further research on how to reduce injuries caused by freezing, thawing, and Hoechst33342 staining on frozen-thawed ram sperm is needed. PMID:25481668

  17. Measurement of time of travel and dispersion in streams by dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Martens, L.A.; Wilson, J.F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The use of fluorescent dyes and tracing techniques provides a means for measuring the time-of-travel and dispersion characteristics of steady and gradually varied flow in streams. Measurements of the dispersion and concentration of dyes give insight into the behavior of soluble contaminants that may be introduced into a stream. This manual describes methods of measuring time of travel of water and waterborne solutes by dye tracing. The fluorescent dyes, measuring equipment used, and the field and laboratory procedures are also described. Methods of analysis and presentation to illustrate time-oftravel and dispersion characteristics of streams are provided.

  18. Excimer fluorescence compared to depolarization in the flow cytometric characterization of lateral membrane mobility in platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, Gregor; Schaefer, Buerk; Wimmer, Martin S.; Schmitz, Gerd

    1998-04-01

    An altered cellular membrane fluidity secondary to changes of cholesterol metabolism is a potentially important mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Especially in blood platelets an increased sensitivity for stimulation dependent aggregation which is a risk factor for thrombosis has been experimentally linked to disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The goal of this study was the development of a flow cytometric assay for the direct analysis of cellular membrane microviscosity in correlation to activation associated phenotypic changes of platelets in vitro. The analysis of fluorescence polarization following the staining of hydrophobic lipid regions of cell membranes with the fluorescent dye 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) is a well established method for the analysis of membrane fluidity. The extent of fluorescence anisotropy dependent on the rotational mobility of this fluorochrome is indirectly proportional to the microviscosity of the stained membrane subcompartment. In this study, an alternative and more simple method based on the diffusion dependent excimer formation of pyrenedecanoic acid (PDA) (J. Immunol. Methods 96:225-31, 1987) was characterized in comparison to the DPH method as a reference. Human platelets showed a rapid uptake of both DPH and PDA resulting in the staining primarily of the plasma membrane after up to 30 min of incubation. Staining analyzed at 351 nm excitation resulted in a saturation of the depolarization coefficient of DPH at 20 (mu) M but an increase of the excimer to monomer ratio of PDA with increasing dye concentration. A 'membrane fluidity coefficient' which saturated at 5 (mu) M PDA was calculated as the excimer fluorescence divided through the square of monomer fluorescence thereby correcting for the influence of dye concentration on excimer formation. The temperature dependent changes of membrane viscosity were further used as a model for the comparison of both methods. Cells analyzed at temperatures between 12 degrees Celsius and 33 degrees Celsius showed a linear increase of the microviscosity values which were derived from the method by a factor of 3.1. The microviscosity calculated from the DPH method, in contrast, decreased only 2.2-fold with relatively smaller changes occurring above 24 degrees Celsius. Cholesterol depletion of platelets using cholesterol-poor phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol liposomes resulted in significant changes of the PDA fluorescence coefficient similar to the DPH polarization coefficient indicating similar specificity of both methods. A high sensitivity of the PDA method was further confirmed through the analysis of patient blood samples where the membrane viscosity of platelets as determined with PDA showed a good correlation to serum HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the analysis of the excimer fluorescence of PDA is a technically simple, sensitive, and highly reproducible method for the flow cytometric analysis of an altered membrane fluidity of platelets.

  19. The feasibility of digitally stained multimodal confocal mosaics to simulate histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy of tissue biopsies stained with acridine orange has been shown to accurately identify tumors and with an overall sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 89.2%. However, fluorescence shows only nuclear detail similar to hematoxylin in histopathology and does not show collagen or cytoplasm, which may provide necessary negative contrast information similar to eosin used in histopathology. Reflectance mode contrast is sensitive to collagen and cytoplasm without staining. To further improve sensitivity and specificity, digitally stained confocal mosaics combine confocal fluorescence and reflectance images in a multimodal pseudo-color image to mimic the appearance of histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin and facilitate the introduction of confocal microscopy into the clinical realm. PMID:19566342

  20. NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles as reporting labels in bioanalytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Henary, Maged; Chapman, Gala; Emer, Kyle; Crow, Sydney

    2015-03-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) for bioanalytical and biomedical analyses is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference in biological matrices and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. There are several different groups of NIR fluorescing dye are available for bioanalytical applications. One of these groups, NIR carbocyanines are increasingly used in analytical, bioanalytical and medical applications. These dyes can be used as reporter labels for sensitive bioanalytical use, such as immunochemistry. Due to the spectroscopic sensitivity of NIR carbocyanines for polarity changes in the microenvironment fluorescence quantum yield can vary significantly dependent on the microenvironment. NIR dyes can have relatively low fluorescent quantum yields as compared to visible fluorophores, especially in aqueous buffers but the lower quantum yield is compensated for by a much higher molar absorptivity. The fluorescence intensity of NIR reporting labels can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in silica nanoparticles. Incorporation of NIR dyes in silica nanoparticles creates a unique challenge as these dyes can be unstable under certain chemical conditions present during silica nanoparticles syntheses. In addition, self quenching may also become a problem for carbocyanines at higher a concentrations that typically found inside of NIR dye loaded silica nanoparticles. Dyes possessing high Stokes' shift can significantly reduce this problem. NIR carbocyanines are uniquely positioned for achieving this goal using a synthetic route that substitutes meso position halogens in NIR fluorescent carbocyanines with a linker containing amino moiety, which can also serve as a linker for covalently attaching the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. The resulting silica nanoparticles can contain a large number of NIR dyes dependent on their size. For example some NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticle labels prepared that has an average radius around 15 nm, contains 16-20 covalently attached dye molecules inside of the nanoparticle. The primary applications of these particles are for bright fluorescent labels that can be used in applications such as immunochemistry, flow cytometry, and many other applications.

  1. Toxic textile dyes accumulate in wild European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Reyns, Tim; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-11-01

    Dyes are used to stain inks, paints, textile, paper, leather and household products. They are omnipresent, some are toxic and may threaten our environment, especially aquatic ecosystems. The presence of residues of sixteen dyes (triarylmethanes, xanthenes, phenothiazines and phenoxazines) and their metabolites was analyzed in muscle tissue samples of individual yellow-phased European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from 91 locations in Belgian rivers, canals and lakes sampled between 2000 and 2009 using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eel was contaminated by dyes in 77% of the sites. Malachite Green, Crystal Violet and Brilliant Green were present in 25-58% of the samples. Dye occurrence was related to the distribution of textile and dye production industries. This field study is the first large-scale survey to document the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife. Considering the annual amounts of dyes produced worldwide and the unintentional spillage during their use, our observations warrant additional research in other parts of the world. The presence of these highly toxic dyes in the European eel may form an additional threat to this critically endangered species. The contaminated eels should be considered as not suitable for consumption. PMID:26291760

  2. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1995-09-05

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

  3. Effect of wavelength and dye selection on biosensor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligler, Frances S.; Breslin, Kristen A.; Cao, Lynn K.; Anderson, George P.

    1995-05-01

    The availability of low cost laser diodes and new fluorescent dyes has made portable biosensors a reality. Previously, we have examined the variation in the fluorescent signal generated in an antigen-antibody reaction when the antigen is labeled with dyes exciting at different wavelengths. In this study, we looked at the effect of changing dyes and wavelengths on a sandwich immunoassay for the F1 antigen from Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plaque. The F1 immunoassay has previously been demonstrated to work in serum, plasma, and even whole blood, when performed using a fiber optic biosensor. In this study, we demonstrated that changing to cyanine dyes enhanced the sensitivity of the detection without altering the immunochemistry of the assay.

  4. Staining calcified dental tissues with food.

    PubMed

    Chan, K C; Hormati, A A; Kerber, P E

    1981-08-01

    The discoloration of enamel caused by food substances was found to be superficial and for dentin and cementum ingressive. Discoloration of cementum exceeded that of dentin, and dentin stained more than enamel. Coffee and soy sauce stained the calcified dental tissues more than the cola beverage and tea. The longer the staining time, the deeper was the discoloration. PMID:6944481

  5. The fabrication of wavelength shifting lightguides from clear acrylic sheet by disperse dyeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, J. E.

    2015-06-01

    Wavelength shifting lightguides have found extensive use as a means of collecting scintillation or cherenkov light from large areas onto a smaller area photodetector and for matching the emitted spectrum to the spectral response of the photodetector. Conventionally, such lightguides are fabricated by casting acrylic polymer with the fluorescent dye incorporated in the bulk. A technique has been developed in which plain cast acrylic sheet is disperse dyed in an aqueous bath. The resulting lightguide has the fluorescent dye held in a thin layer at the surface of the material. A number of different fluorescent dyes are demonstrated

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis using different colored dye dimer probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmé, Nicole; Friedrich, Achim; Denapaite, Dalia; Hakenbeck, Regine; Knemeyer, Jens-Peter

    2006-09-01

    Fluorescence quenching by dye dimer formation has been utilized to develop hairpin-structured DNA probes for the detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the penicillin target gene pbp2x, which is implicated in the penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We designed two specific DNA probes for the identification of the pbp2x genes from a penicillin susceptible strain R6 and a resistant strain Streptococcus mitis 661 using green-fluorescent tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) and red-fluorescent DY-636, respectively. Hybridization of each of the probes to its respective target DNA sequence opened the DNA hairpin probes, consequently breaking the nonfluorescent dye dimers into fluorescent species. This hybridization of the target with the hairpin probe achieved single nucleotide specific detection at nanomolar concentrations via increased fluorescence.

  7. Lower azure B methylene blue ratios in Giemsa type blood and malaria stains.

    PubMed

    Russo, A; Donaldson, P T; Lillie, R D

    1978-01-01

    Starting from ancient reports that rare samples of methylene blue were apparently sufficiently contaminated with azures to give red plasmodial and red purple nuclear chromatin in Chenzinsky type methylene blue eosin stains, it was decided to determine how little azure B would suffice for such staining in methylene blue eosin stains. The traditional 1902 Giemsa had an azure : methylene blue : eosin ratio of about 6 : 3 : 6.3 : 10; Lillie's 1943 formula had a 5 : 7 : 10 ratio. In the current series of tests 5 : 7 : 10 (I), 4 : 8 : 10 (II), 3 : 9 : 10 (III), 2 : 10 : 10 (IV), 1 : 11 : 10 (V), and 0 : 12 : 10 (VI) were used. Malaria and blood stains were better than the standard 5 : 7 : 10 (I) in III, IV and II in that order. Normal and leukemic human blood, mouse blood with Plasmodium berghei, and monkey blood with the CDC strain of Pl. falciparum were used as test materials. The staining mixtures were made from highly purified samples of azure B and methylene blue. Staining mixtures contained 12 ml 0.1% thiazin dye, 10 ml 0.1% eosin, 2 ml each of glycerol, methanol and 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 6.5, 3 ml acetone as accelerator, and distilled water to make 40 ml; staining times of 10--30 min were used. PMID:663946

  8. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  9. Use of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye and fluorescent imaging as an in situ method to visualize lymphoid tissues in egg-layer chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) vital dye has been used in leukocyte studies involving mice, rats, sheep, heifers, nonhuman primates, teleost fish and avian embryos. Mice and sheep appear to be the only animals that have received intravenous (IV) CFSE administration, and the ...

  10. Measurement and model assessment of fluorescence lifetime sensing in multiply scattering media 

    E-print Network

    Kuwana, Eddy

    2005-08-29

    The generation and propagation of fluorescence light within biological tissue offers the potential for biomedical diagnostics and analyte sensing. Arising from an exogenous fluorescent dye injected as a contrast agent or ...

  11. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

  12. Probes labelled with energy transfer coupled dyes

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Glazer, A.; Ju, J.

    1997-11-18

    Compositions are provided comprising sets of fluorescent labels carrying pairs of donor and acceptor dye molecules, designed for efficient excitation of the donors at a single wavelength and emission from the acceptor in each of the pairs at different wavelengths. The different molecules having different donor-acceptor pairs can be modified to have substantially the same mobility under separation conditions, by varying the distance between the donor and acceptor in a given pair. Particularly, the fluorescent compositions find use as labels in sequencing nucleic acids. 7 figs.

  13. Histological stain evaluation for machine learning applications

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Jimmy C.; Busch, Christer; Carlbom, Ingrid B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: A methodology for quantitative comparison of histological stains based on their classification and clustering performance, which may facilitate the choice of histological stains for automatic pattern and image analysis. Background: Machine learning and image analysis are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications for automatic analysis of histological tissue samples. Pathologists rely on multiple, contrasting stains to analyze tissue samples, but histological stains are developed for visual analysis and are not always ideal for automatic analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirteen different histological stains were used to stain adjacent prostate tissue sections from radical prostatectomies. We evaluate the stains for both supervised and unsupervised classification of stain/tissue combinations. For supervised classification we measure the error rate of nonlinear support vector machines, and for unsupervised classification we use the Rand index and the F-measure to assess the clustering results of a Gaussian mixture model based on expectation–maximization. Finally, we investigate class separability measures based on scatter criteria. Results: A methodology for quantitative evaluation of histological stains in terms of their classification and clustering efficacy that aims at improving segmentation and color decomposition. We demonstrate that for a specific tissue type, certain stains perform consistently better than others according to objective error criteria. Conclusions: The choice of histological stain for automatic analysis must be based on its classification and clustering performance, which are indicators of the performance of automatic segmentation of tissue into morphological components, which in turn may be the basis for diagnosis. PMID:23766933

  14. NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY: CORRELATION OF FLUORESCEIN DIACETATE AND PROPIDIUM IODIDE STAINING WITH ANIMAL INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The viability of Giardia muris cysts was studied using the fluorogenic dyes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI). Using the mouse model for giardiasis, FDA or PI stained cysts were inoculated into neonatal mice. Feces were examined at days 3, 5, 8, and 11 post-i...

  15. Choosing dyes for cw-STED nanoscopy using self-assembled nanorulers.

    PubMed

    Beater, Susanne; Holzmeister, Phil; Pibiri, Enrico; Lalkens, Birka; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2014-04-21

    Superresolution microscopy is currently revolutionizing optical imaging. A key factor for getting images of highest quality is - besides a well-performing imaging system - the labeling of the sample. We compared the fluorescent dyes Abberior Star 488, Alexa 488, Chromeo 488 and Oregon Green 488 for use in continuous wave (cw-)STED microscopy in aqueous buffer and in a durable polymer matrix. To optimize comparability, we designed DNA origami standards labeled with the fluorescent dyes including a bead-like DNA origami with dyes focused on one spot and a DNA origami with two marks at a designed distance of ?100 nm. Our data show that all dyes are well suited for cw-STED microscopy but that the optimal dye depends on the embedding medium. The precise comparison enabled by DNA origami nanorulers indicates that these structures have matured from the proof-of-concept to easily applicable tools in fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24599511

  16. The synthesis and spectral properties of a stimuli-responsive D-?-A charge transfer dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Bae, Jin-Seok; Son, Young-A.

    2011-01-01

    A new donor-?-acceptor (D-?-A) type isophorone dye was synthesized by the condensation reaction between 2-(3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene)-malononitrile and indole-3-carboxaldehyde. The chemical structure of the dye was characterized by 1H NMR, EA and MS. A novel, chromogenic, fluorescent dye based on indol as donor unit and isophorone as acceptor unit displayed marked UV-visible absorption changes and highly selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of fluoride ion. The dye also exhibited sizeable colour changes when used as a pH-induced molecular switch and as a detector for volatile organic compounds. The absorption and fluorescent intensity of the dye can be reversibly selected by protonation/deprotonation of the amine moiety via control of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), leading to a molecular switch with "on" and "off" states.

  17. Sensitized fluorescence in organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, C.; Ingram, G.; Lu, Z. H.

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the effects of incorporating phosphorescent sensitizers into fluorescent organic-light emitting diode (OLED) devices. In the emissive layer of this system, the host material is co-doped at low concentrations with both a phosphorescent and a fluorescent dye. The purpose of the phosphorescent dopant is to capture both singlet and triplet excitons from the host material and to transfer them into the singlet state of the fluorescent dye. Ideally, recombination of excitons and the emission of light would occur solely on the fluorescent dye. This sensitized fluorescent system can potentially achieve 100% internal quantum efficiency as both triplet and singlet states are being harvested. We have observed an almost two-fold improvement in the quantum efficiency of a sensitized fluorescent system, utilizing rubrene as the fluorescent dye and Ir(ppy)2(acac) as the sensitizer, versus a standard rubrene-based host-guest system. By testing various dopant concentrations, the optimal emissive layer composition for this system was determine to be ~2 wt.% rubrene and ~7 wt.% Ir(ppy)2(acac) in a CBP host.

  18. Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab

    2008-02-01

    Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0?m, field of view 200?m x 100?m (lateral resolution , 0.3?m). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In papillary dermis, fluorescein distribution is more homogeneous. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, skin appendage and blood vessels. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of CLSM as technique for imaging skin in vivo. In addition, CLSM is non-invasive, the same tissue site may be imaged over a period of time to monitor the various change such as wound healing, severity of skin diseases and effect of therapeutic management.

  19. Imaging with the fluorogenic dye Basic Fuchsin reveals subcellular patterning and ecotype variation of lignification in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, Nikki; Barnes, William J.; Richard, Tom L.; Anderson, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    Lignin is a complex polyphenolic heteropolymer that is abundant in the secondary cell walls of plants and functions in growth and defence. It is also a major barrier to the deconstruction of plant biomass for bioenergy production, but the spatiotemporal details of how lignin is deposited in actively lignifying tissues and the precise relationships between wall lignification in different cell types and developmental events, such as flowering, are incompletely understood. Here, the lignin-detecting fluorogenic dye, Basic Fuchsin, was adapted to enable comparative fluorescence-based imaging of lignin in the basal internodes of three Brachypodium distachyon ecotypes that display divergent flowering times. It was found that the extent and intensity of Basic Fuchsin fluorescence increase over time in the Bd21-3 ecotype, that Basic Fuchsin staining is more widespread and intense in 4-week-old Bd21-3 and Adi-10 basal internodes than in Bd1-1 internodes, and that Basic Fuchsin staining reveals subcellular patterns of lignin in vascular and interfascicular fibre cell walls. Basic Fuchsin fluorescence did not correlate with lignin quantification by acetyl bromide analysis, indicating that whole-plant and subcellular lignin analyses provide distinct information about the extent and patterns of lignification in B. distachyon. Finally, it was found that flowering time correlated with a transient increase in total lignin, but did not correlate strongly with the patterning of stem lignification, suggesting that additional developmental pathways might regulate secondary wall formation in grasses. This study provides a new comparative tool for imaging lignin in plants and helps inform our views of how lignification proceeds in grasses. PMID:25922482

  20. Generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer TAMRA conjugates containing precise dye/dendrimer ratios

    PubMed Central

    Manono, Janet; Dougherty, Casey A.; Jones, Kirsten; DeMuth, Joshua; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; DiMaggio, Stassi

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, isolation, and characterization of generation 3 poly(amidoamine) (G3 PAMAM) dendrimer containing precise ratios of 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester (TAMRA) dye (n = 1–3) per polymer particle are reported. Stochastic conjugation of TAMRA dye to the dendrimer was followed by separation into precise dye-polymer ratios using rp-HPLC. The isolated materials were characterized by rp-UPLC, MALDI-TOF-MS, and 1H NMR spectroscopy, UV–vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies. PMID:26549978

  1. Photoluminescent energy transfer from poly(phenyleneethylene)s to a series of dyes

    E-print Network

    Song, Inja, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Photoluminescent energy transfer in conjugated polymer-dye blend films was studied by means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify efficient energy acceptors with red-shifted emissions relative to ...

  2. NEAR-INFRARED DYES: Probe Development and Applications in Optical Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nolting, Donald D.; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2010-01-01

    The recent emergence of optical imaging has brought forth a unique challenge for chemists: development of new biocompatible dyes that fluoresce in the near-infrared (NIR) region for optimal use in biomedical applications. This review describes the synthesis of NIR dyes and the design of probes capable of noninvasively imaging molecular events in small animal models. PMID:21822405

  3. Dye-labeled Ts1 toxin Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201404438

    E-print Network

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    Dye-labeled Ts1 toxin Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201404438 Total Chemical Synthesis of Biologically Active Fluorescent Dye- Labeled Ts1 Toxin** Bobo Dang, Tomoya Kubota, Ana M. Correa, Francisco Bezanilla, and Stephen B. H. Kent* Abstract: Ts1 toxin is a protein found in the venom of the Brazilian

  4. Spectral and nonlinear studies of night blue dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhu Sukumaran, V.; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this Letter the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye night blue are studied. The spectral characteristics of night blue dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique [S.-B., Mansoor, A.A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 760], by exciting with He Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye night blue show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  5. Changes in cytoplasmic calcium determine the secretory response to extracellular cations in human parathyroid cells: a confocal microscopy study using FM1-43 dye.

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, R; Lai, T; Schofield, G J; Farndon, J R

    2000-01-01

    Whether activation of the calcium receptor (CaR) modulates secretory events was investigated by real-time fluorescence and confocal microscopy using fura 2 and FM1-43 fluorescent dye. Two paradigms were used: human parathyroid cells, which are stimulated by a step from a high to a low extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](ext)), and rMTC6-23 cells, a rat medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line whose secretion is stimulated by an increase in [Ca(2+)](ext). Parathyroid cells were dispersed from parathyroid adenomas removed from 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In both cell types, incubation with FM1-43 (2 microM) resulted in staining of the plasma membranes, which was rapidly increased following changes in [Ca(2+)](ext) known to stimulate secretion. A high [Ca(2+)](ext) and lanthanum (La(3+)) decreased the membrane-associated FM1-43 fluorescence. Prolonged incubation (5-30 min) in the presence of FM1-43 resulted in accumulation of the dye in the cytoplasm, its granular distribution suggesting targeting of the secretory compartment. These data suggest that FM1-43 fluorescence is determined by: (i) changes in cell membrane surface area associated with secretion-associated events, (ii) displacement/quenching by extracellular cations and (iii) endocytosis of the dye. In parathyroid cells, a rise in FM1-43 fluorescence occurred during incubation in a high (inhibitory) [Ca(2+)](ext) if the cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)] (10-50 microM). Alternatively, the expected rise in FM1-43 fluorescence did not occur during incubation in a low (stimulatory) [Ca(2+)](ext) if [Ca(2+)](i) was increased by addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (10-25 microM). These data suggest that [Ca(2+)](i), rather than the absolute value of [Ca(2+)](ext), is the main modulator of secretion from parathyroid cells. PMID:11085928

  6. Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy in biological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Peter; Thomas, Steven; Allen, John; McLaren, Wendy; Murr, Elise; Harris, Martin

    2007-02-01

    In vivo fluorescence microscopic imaging of biological systems in human disease states and animal models is possible with high optical resolution and mega pixel point-scanning performance using optimised off-the-shelf turn-key devices. There are however various trade-offs between tissue access and instrument performance when miniaturising in vivo microscopy systems. A miniature confocal scanning technology that was developed for clinical human endoscopy has been configured into a portable device for direct hand-held interrogation of living tissue in whole animal models (Optiscan FIVE-1 system). Scanning probes of 6.3mm diameter with a distal tip diameter of 5.0mm were constructed either in a 150mm length for accessible tissue, or a 300mm probe for laparoscopic interrogation of internal tissues in larger animal models. Both devices collect fluorescence confocal images (excitation 488 nm; emission >505 or >550 nm) comprised of 1024 x 1204 sampling points/image frame, with lateral resolution 0.7um; axial resolution 7um; FOV 475 x 475um. The operator can dynamically control imaging depth from the tissue surface to approx 250um in 4um steps via an internally integrated zaxis actuator. Further miniaturisation is achieved using an imaging contact probe based on scanning the proximal end of a high-density optical fibre bundle (~30,000 fibres) of <1mm diameter to transfer the confocal imaging plane to tissue in intact small animal organs, albeit at lower resolution (30,000 sampling points/image). In rodent models, imaging was performed using various fluorescent staining protocols including fluorescently labelled receptor ligands, labelled antibodies, FITC-dextrans, vital dyes and labelled cells administered topically or intravenously. Abdominal organs of large animals were accessed laparoscopically and contrasted using i.v. fluorescein-sodium. Articular cartilage of sheep and pigs was fluorescently stained with calcein-AM or fluorescein. Surface and sub-surface cellular and sub-cellular details could be readily visualised in vivo at high resolution. In rodent disease models, in vivo endomicroscopy with appropriate fluorescent agents allowed examination of thrombosis formation, tumour microvasculature and liver metastases, diagnosis and staging of ulcerative colitis, liver necrosis and glomerulonephritis. Miniaturised confocal endomicroscopy allows rapid in vivo molecular and subsurface microscopy of normal and pathologic tissue at high resolution in small and large whole animal models. Fluorescein endomicroscopy has recently been introduced into the medical device market as a clinical imaging tool in GI endoscopy and is undergoing clinical evaluation in laparoscopic surgery. This medical usage is encouraging in-situ endomicroscopy as an important pre-clinical research tool to observe microscopic and molecular system biologic events in vivo in animal models for various human diseases.

  7. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Effects of Environment on Newly-Developed Near Infrared Emitting Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Louis E.; Liyanage, Nalaka; Delcamp, Jared; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of environment on the photophysical properties of a series of newly-developed near infrared emitting dyes was studied spectroscopically. Properties of interest include fluorescence emission, fluorescence lifetime, and quantum yield. Tracking how the photophysics of these compounds are affected in the solid phase, in thin films, in solution, and at the single molecule level with changing environment will provide a deeper insight into how dye structure affects their function.

  8. Effect of matrix treatment on spectroscopic properties of HCl catalysed sol-gel glasses containing coumarin laser dyes.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aparna V; Jathar, Laxman V; Rane, Jayraj R

    2009-07-01

    Coumarin 1, Coumarin 2 and Coumarin 120 are embedded in transparent sol-gel glass samples prepared by sol-gel process using dip method. The sol-gel matrix is given dip treatment with Methanol /Distilled Water (50/50 vol) for 1 to 16 h before dipping into dye solution. The effect of dipping time of matrix in Methanol/ Distilled Water on spectroscopic properties of coumarin dye doped glass samples has been studied. The Optical Density (OD) at absorption maximum wavelength and Fluorescence Intensity (FI) at fluorescence maximum wavelength of all coumarin dyes increase with the time of dipping of the sol-gel sample. These absorption/fluorescence properties of coumarin dyes in sol-gel glass matrices are compared with its respective properties in methanolic solution in acidic environment. The cause of these changes in OD/FI with dipping time is discussed by taking into account the absorption / fluorescence of dye in acidified methanol. PMID:19067125

  9. Rapid Processing of Turner Designs Model 10-Au-005 Internally Logged Fluorescence Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous recording of dye fluorescence using field fluorometers at selected sampling sites facilitates acquisition of real-time dye tracing data. The Turner Designs Model 10-AU-005 field fluorometer allows for frequent fluorescence readings, data logging, and easy downloading t...

  10. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442 Agriculture...Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is...

  11. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442 Agriculture...Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is...

  12. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442 Agriculture...Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is...

  13. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442 Agriculture...Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is...

  14. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442 Agriculture...Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is...

  15. Fluorescence imaging using synthetic GFP chromophores.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher L; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Yampolsky, Ilia V; Mishin, Alexander S; Bommarius, Andreas S; Duraj-Thatte, Anna M; Azizi, Bahareh; Tolbert, Laren M; Solntsev, Kyril M

    2015-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein and related proteins carry chromophores formed within the protein from their own amino acids. Corresponding synthetic compounds are non-fluorescent in solution due to photoinduced isomerization of the benzylideneimidiazolidinone core. Restriction of this internal rotation by binding to host molecules leads to pronounced, up to three orders of magnitude, increase of fluorescence intensity. This property allows using GFP chromophore analogs as fluorogenic dyes to detect metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and other hosts. For example, RNA aptamer named Spinach, which binds to and activates fluorescence of some GFP chromophores, was proved to be a unique label for live-cell imaging of specific RNAs, endogenous metabolites and target proteins. Chemically locked GFP chromophores are brightly fluorescent and represent potentially useful dyes due to their small size and high water solubility. PMID:26117808

  16. [Infrared fluorescent markers for microarray DNA analysis on biological microchip].

    PubMed

    Spitsyn, M A; Shershov, V E; Kuznetsova, V E; Barsky, V E; Egorov, E E; Emelyanova, M A; Kreindlin, E Ya; Lysov, Yu P; Guseinov, T O; Fesenko, D E; Lapa, S A; Surzhikov, S A; Abramov, I S; Nasedkina, T V; Zasedatelev, A S; Chudinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    To expand the informational capabilities of molecular genetic research, on the biological microchips, new indotricarbocyanine dyes that fluoresce in the near infrared (IR) spectral region have been synthesized. The developed IR dyes were studied using a biochip-based test system for detection of mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 and CHECK2 genes associated with breast cancer. The fluorescent label was introduced to the analyzed DNA during PCR using primers labeled with the synthesized IR dyes. An analyzer that allows recording and processing of images of fluorescent microarrays in the IR spectral region was designed and manufactured. It has been shown that the use of the synthesized dyes enables to conduct analysis in the IR region and improve the reliability of medical diagnostic tests due to low fluorescence intensity of sample components as well as of a biochip substrate and the reagents used for analysis. PMID:26510593

  17. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  18. Fluorescent labels for in situ wet chemistry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloepfer, J. A.; Nadeau, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate a wide selection of dyes and suggest a panel that would be the most likely to succeed in a simple flight instrument with a single excitation laser. We also investigate fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots as additions to or replacements for these organic dyes.

  19. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. P148-S A Sensitive and Simple Procedure for Staining Proteins on Either Nitrocellulose or PVDF Membranes Based on the Fluorophore Epicocconone

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. S.; Steller, C.; Sandalnha, R.; Hong, J.; Simpson, R.; Karuso, P.

    2007-01-01

    Epicocconone, a naturally occurring fluorophore that alters its fluorescent character upon binding to proteins is the basis for a number of new labeling technologies ranging from liquid protein quantitation to gel stains and cell stains. LavaPurple is a highly sensitive total protein gel stain that may be used as a stain for nitrocellulose and PVDF blots. The high sensitivity of the stain, coupled with the unique reversible covalent binding of epicocconone, make it an ideal blot stain as it is easily removed by pH change thus not interfering with downstream immuno-staining, mass spectrometry or Edman sequencing. Aim: This study measures the sensitivity of LavaPurple as a blot stain on both nitrocellulose and PVDF membranes, as well as the compatibility of the stain with immuno-staining. Method: a dilution series of Low molecular weight SDS-PAGE calibration markers (GE Healthcare) were separated by electrophoresis and electro-blotted onto either nitrocellulose or PVDF. The blots were then stained with LavaPurple and image analysis performed to determine sensitivity and linearity of the stain. Cell lysate from ovarian cancer cells and rat fibroblasts were separated by 2D GE and blotted onto both nitrocellulose and PVDF membranes before staining with LavaPurple. The blots were then used for immuno-staining and the efficiency of visualization compared with and without total protein pre-staining. Results: LavaPurple was able to visualise proteins on blots at less than 250pg/band loaded on a 1D gel and did not inhibit subsequent antibody binding to target proteins on either 1D or 2D blots. Furthermore the stain could be easily removed from the blot for subsequent staining with other fluorophores. Conclusions: LavaPurple is a highly sensitive stain that is suitable for total protein visualization on blots either for spot removal or prior to immuno-staining.

  2. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain Advanced staining technology for 2-D gels and proteomics

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    for proteomics. It provides the same low nanogram sensitivity as the best silver staining techniques (Figure 1), but stains more proteins and has a much broader linear quantitation range -- extending over three orders

  3. Negative Stain Electron Microscopy of Microtubules Negative staining is a rapid, qualitative method for analyzing

    E-print Network

    Mitchison, Tim

    Negative Stain Electron Microscopy of Microtubules Negative staining is a rapid, qualitative method of microtubules into flat sheets are common. Cryo-electron microscopy, where microtubules are flash frozen

  4. Carborhodol: a new hybrid fluorophore obtained by combination of fluorescein and carbopyronine dye cores.

    PubMed

    Sednev, Maksim V; Wurm, Christian A; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2013-04-17

    Asymmetric hybrid fluorophores are built from the structural elements of two (or even more) symmetric dyes and can develop valuable new features which their parents do not possess. A new hybrid carborhodol dye was obtained by the combination of fluorescein and carbopyronine fluorophores. The brightly fluorescent hybrid dye with a linker and reactive group was prepared in 12 steps with overall yield of 1.6%. In aqueous solutions, it has absorption and emission maxima at 586 and 613 nm, respectively. Antibodies labeled with a carborhodol dye possess broad absorption and emission bands so that the effective Stokes shift is increased (compared with small Stokes shifts of the parent dyes) and the fluorescence quantum yield of 39% at a degree of labeling of 5.2. Two samples of secondary antibodies labeled with carborhodol and the benchmark red-emitting rhodamine dye (KK114) were used in two-color imaging experiments with excitation at 514-532 (carborhodol dye) and 633-640 nm (KK114). When emitted light was detected above 650 nm, the novel carborhodol dye provided a lower crosstalk than spectrally similar emitters (e. g., Atto594; crosstalk 40-60% with KK114 under the same conditions). The optical resolution of ca. 80 nm was attained using the new dye in stimulated emission depleted (STED) microscopy. The relatively short fluorescence lifetime in conjugates with antibodies (? = 1.2-1.6 ns) suggests the possibility of dual FLIM with numerous dyes having ? values in the range of 3-5 ns. All of these features make the carborhodol fluorophore a valuable addition to the family of the red-emitting fluorescent dyes. PMID:23517127

  5. Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain In-gel Detection Technology for Protein Phosphorylation and phosphoproteomics, the Pro-Q Diamond phos- phoprotein gel stain is a breakthrough technology that provides a simple phosphoproteins, the Pro-Q Diamond signal is linear over three orders of magnitude and the strength of the signal

  6. Mineral Stains at the No Name Prospect

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at greenish copper stain and pale pink cobalt bloom on limonite-stained meta-siltite and meta-argillite at the No Name prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho....

  7. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  8. Foraminiferal selectivity towards bacteria: an experimental approach using a cell-permeant stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langezaal, A. M.; Jannink, N. T.; Pierson, E. S.; van der Zwaan, G. J.

    2005-11-01

    The behaviour of two species of foraminifera ( Allogromia laticollaris and Ammonia beccarii) towards living and dead bacteria and inorganic particles was monitored using a cell-permeant fluorescent nucleic acid stain. The foraminifera were studied in seawater containing fluorescently labelled dead and living bacteria, and/or polystyrene particles of the same size as a control. Time-lapse observations under a fluorescence microscope clearly revealed pseudopodial transport of stained bacteria and uptake of bacteria inside the foraminifera. In contrast, no uptake of polystyrene particles was ever observed, although the foraminifera collected these particles and deposited them along the outside of the test. We conclude that foraminifera distinguish food and non-food particles while collecting. There appears to be a variation of uptake rate and final amount of ingested and digested bacteria. These variations occur between individuals of different size and species, and between sampling times (September 2001 and July 2002).

  9. Application of a ratiometric laser induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry for micro-scale temperature measurement for natural convection flows 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Heon Ju

    2004-11-15

    A ratiometric laser induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry applied to micro-scale temperature measurement for natural convection flows. To eliminate incident light non-uniformity and imperfection of recording device, two fluorescence dyes are used...

  10. Fluorescent Protein Biosensors Applied to Microphysiological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Senutovitch, Nina; Vernetti, Lawrence; Boltz, Robert; DeBiasio, Richard; Gough, Albert; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review discusses the evolution of fluorescence as a tool to study living cells and tissues in vitro and the present role of fluorescent protein biosensors (FPBs) in microphysiological systems (MPS). FPBs allow the measurement of temporal and spatial dynamics of targeted cellular events involved in normal and perturbed cellular assay systems and microphysiological systems in real-time. FPBs evolved from fluorescent analog cytochemistry (FAC) that permitted the measurement of the dynamics of purified proteins covalently labeled with environmentally insensitive fluorescent dyes and then incorporated into living cells, as well as a large list of diffusible fluorescent probes engineered to measure environmental changes in living cells. In parallel, a wide range of fluorescence microscopy methods were developed to measure the chemical and molecular activities of the labeled cells, including ratio imaging, fluorescence lifetime, total internal reflection, 3D imaging, including super-resolution, as well as high content screening (HCS). FPBs evolved from FAC by combining environmentally sensitive fluorescent dyes with proteins in order to monitor specific physiological events such as post-translational modifications, production of metabolites, changes in various ion concentrations and the dynamic interaction of proteins with defined macromolecules in time and space within cells. Original FPBs involved the engineering of fluorescent dyes to sense specific activities when covalently attached to particular domains of the targeted protein. The subsequent development of fluorescent proteins (FPs), such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP), dramatically accelerated the adoption of studying living cells, since the genetic “labeling” of proteins became a relatively simple method that permitted the analysis of temporal-spatial dynamics of a wide range of proteins. Investigators subsequently engineered the fluorescence properties of the FPs for environmental sensitivity that, when combined with targeted proteins/peptides, created a new generation of FPBs. Examples of FPBs that are useful in MPS are presented, including the design, testing and application in a liver MPS. PMID:25990438

  11. Simultaneous measurement of photosensitizer absorption and fluorescence in patients undergoing photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Ermishova, Natalia V.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Kudashev, Boris V.; Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2002-05-01

    This paper deals with photosensitizer quantification in patients undergoing photodynamic therapy. Both fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were applied to evaluate concentration of sulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine in different tissues. The mixtures of Intralipid, blood and photosensitizer with different concentrations were used as standard samples to solve the problem in question. While fluorescence method is more sensitive and more convenient to apply in clinics, the absorption technique may be applied to non fluorescent dyes and used to evaluate the shifts in adsorption peak position due to interaction of dye with tissues. Finally, the concentration dynamics of non fluorescent dye (cobalt phthalocyanine) in patients was obtained with the use of absorption method alone.

  12. Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) and its derivatives constitute a fascinating class of organic substances that are utilized industrially in areas such as cosmetics, food preservatives, insecticides and fluorescent laser dyes. The product can be synthesized, purified, and characterized within two hours with benefits of microscale reactivity being…

  13. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; DiMarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-01-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology. PMID:21806269

  14. Confocal mosaicing microscopy of human skin ex vivo: spectral analysis for digital staining to simulate histology-like appearance.

    PubMed

    Bini, Jason; Spain, James; Nehal, Kishwer; Hazelwood, Vikki; DiMarzio, Charles; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-07-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue, without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. Mosaicing may offer a means to perform rapid histology at the bedside. A possible barrier toward clinical acceptance is that the mosaics are based on a single mode of grayscale contrast and appear black and white, whereas histology is based on two stains (hematoxylin for nuclei, eosin for cellular cytoplasm and dermis) and appears purple and pink. Toward addressing this barrier, we report advances in digital staining: fluorescence mosaics that show only nuclei, are digitally stained purple and overlaid on reflectance mosaics, which show only cellular cytoplasm and dermis, and are digitally stained pink. With digital staining, the appearance of confocal mosaics mimics the appearance of histology. Using multispectral analysis and color matching functions, red, green, and blue (RGB) components of hematoxylin and eosin stains in tissue were determined. The resulting RGB components were then applied in a linear algorithm to transform fluorescence and reflectance contrast in confocal mosaics to the absorbance contrast seen in pathology. Optimization of staining with acridine orange showed improved quality of digitally stained mosaics, with good correlation to the corresponding histology. PMID:21806269

  15. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  16. Filter Enhances Fluorescent-Penetrant-Inspecting Borescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Orlando G.

    1990-01-01

    Slip-on eyepiece for commercial ultraviolet-light borescope reduces both amount of short-wave ultraviolet light that reaches viewer's eye and apparent intensity of unwanted reflections of white light from surfaces undergoing inspection. Fits on stock eyepiece of borescope, which illuminates surface inspected with intense ultraviolet light. Surface, which is treated with fluorescent dye, emits bright-green visible light wherever dye penetrates - in cracks and voids. Eyepiece contains deep-yellow Wratten 15 (G) filter, which attenuates unwanted light strongly but passes yellow-green fluorescence so defects seen clearly.

  17. De-staining and re-staining mucins in formalin fixed paraffin sections.

    PubMed

    Smith, A A; Glickfield, I

    2011-04-01

    Re-staining of formalin fixed paraffin sections sometimes is required and this requires prior de-staining. Some simple and effective protocols for de-staining are described. Mucihematoxylin and mucicarmine can be removed with acid alcohol. Zirconyl hematoxylin can be removed with periodic acid or Sinha's fixative. Alcian blue can be removed with 5% trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane. Colloidal iron can be bleached in 1% household bleach in alcohol. PAS can be removed with hydrogen peroxide or ammonium hydroxide. With few exceptions, de-stained sections can be re-stained with mucihematoxylin, PAS or Gabe's trichrome. PMID:20001228

  18. Compact, Automated Centrifugal Slide-Staining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Directional Acceleration Vector-Driven Displacement of Fluids (DAVD-DOF) system, under development at the time of reporting the information for this article, would be a relatively compact, automated, centrifugally actuated system for staining blood smears and other microbiological samples on glass microscope slides in either a microgravitational or a normal Earth gravitational environment. The DAVD-DOF concept is a successor to the centrifuge-operated slide stainer (COSS) concept, which was reported in Slide-Staining System for Microgravity or Gravity (MSC-22949), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 64. The COSS includes reservoirs and a staining chamber that contains a microscope slide to which a biological sample is affixed. The staining chamber is sequentially filled with and drained of staining and related liquids from the reservoirs by use of a weighted plunger to force liquid from one reservoir to another at a constant level of hypergravity maintained in a standard swing-bucket centrifuge. In the DAVD-DOF system, a staining chamber containing a sample would also be sequentially filled and emptied, but with important differences. Instead of a simple microscope slide, one would use a special microscope slide on which would be fabricated a network of very small reservoirs and narrow channels connected to a staining chamber (see figure). Unlike in the COSS, displacement of liquid would be effected by use of the weight of the liquid itself, rather than the weight of a plunger.

  19. Tooth staining effects of an alexidine mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Formicola, A J; Deasy, M J; Johnson, D H; Howe, E E

    1979-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the amount of tooth staining produced by an alexidine mouthrinse. One hundred and eighty subjects rinsed twice daily for 1 month with either 15 ml of alexidine (0.035%) or a placebo solution. Prior to the study, the subjects were classified according to their smoking, coffee and tea drinking habits and these factors were subsequently considered in the analysis of the stain scores. Additionally, the effects on staining of a prior prophylaxis and the use of a fluoridated toothpaste during the study were determined. Upon termination of the study, subjects utilizing the active mouthrinse manifested a greater degree of staining than placebo users. The amount and intensity of the stain due to alexidine were not influenced (increased) by smoking, tea or coffee drinking habits. A prior prophylaxis did not reduce the staining propensity of alexidine users. The method of scoring developed can be used to assess the degree of tooth staining induced by antiplaque agents. PMID:374706

  20. Live/Dead Staining of C. elegans with Sytox Green and Sytox 1. Prepare a 10M solution of Sytox Green in 1X M9

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    Live/Dead Staining of C. elegans with Sytox Green and Sytox Orange 1. Prepare a 10µM solution a fluorescence staining method with the COPAS BIOSORT. The live vs. dead application uses Molecular Probes SYTOX and dead population. The COPAS BIOSORT is a high throughput system that analyzes and sorts C.elegans using

  1. ?-Cyclodextrin as a photosensitizer carrier: effect on photophysical properties and chemical reactivity of squaraine dyes.

    PubMed

    Arun, Kalliat T; Jayaram, Dhanya T; Avirah, Rekha R; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2011-06-01

    With the objective of understanding the utility of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a carrier system, we have investigated its interactions with a few near-infrared absorbing squaraine dyes (i.e., 1a,b and 2a,b) through absorption and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The addition of ?-CD to the phloroglucinol dyes 1a,b resulted in a significant bathochromic shift in absorption, together with a ca. 1.5-2.5-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity, whereas for the aniline-based dyes 2a,b, a hypsochromic shift in the absorption and a ca. 5-12-fold fluorescence enhancement were observed in a 10% (v/v) ethanol/water mixture. Benesi-Hildebrand analysis showed that both the dyes 1a,b and 2a,b form 2:1 stoichiometric complexes with ?-CD. The complex formation was confirmed by competitive binding analysis employing adamantyl-1-carboxylic acid (ACA) and adamantyl-1-ammonium chloride (ADAC). The displacement of the dyes 1a,b and 2a,b from the [dye-?-CD] complex by ADAC and ACA unambiguously establishes the encapsulation of these dyes in the hydrophobic nanocavity of ?-CD. Uniquely, the formation of the inclusion complexes with ?-CD provides unusual protection from nucleophilic attack by aminothiols such as cysteine and glutathione for dyes 1a,b, whereas negligible protection was observed for dyes 2a,b. These results demonstrate the substituent-dependent encapsulation of potentially useful squaraine dyes in ?-CD, thereby indicating its potential as a carrier system for the squaraine dyes 1a,b useful in photodynamic therapy. PMID:21574547

  2. [Effect of heat-staining procedure on the gram staining properties of mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Harano, Y; Koga, T

    1991-03-01

    Since the establishment of Gram stain by H.C.Y. Gram in 1884, it has been widely and routinely used as an aid for differentiation of bacteria. The bacteria are divided into three categories by the staining properties; Gram-positive, -negative, and -indefinite. All the text books in the world describe that mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis are Gram-positive. By the merest chance, however, it was found that M. lepraemurium grown in tissues was not stained by the routinely used Gram staining method. Therefore, we tried to stain some of the mycobacteria by the Gram staining procedure which is widely used at present. The results obtained indicated that the mycobacteria tested were divided into three groups; the unstainable group such as M. leprae and M. lepraemurium, the Gram-positive and difficult-to-stain group which involves such slow growing mycobacteria as M. tuberculosis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare, and the Gram-indefinite group which contains such rapid growing mycobacteria as M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. chelonae. However, if Gram stain is carried out by the heating procedure at the first staining step, all the mycobacteria would become Gram-positive. Therefore, we emphasize that Gram staining of mycobacteria should be performed by the heating procedure. PMID:1712050

  3. Detecting thermal phase transitions in corneal stroma by fluorescence micro-imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, P.; Rossi, F.; Ratto, F.; Bruno, I.; Nesi, P.; Pini, R.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal modifications induced in corneal stroma were investigated by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Freshly extracted porcine corneas were immersed for 5 minutes in a water bath at temperatures in the 35-90°C range and stored in formalin. The samples were then sliced in 200-?m-thick transversal sections and analyzed under a stereomicroscope to assess corneal shrinkage. Fluorescence images of the thermally treated corneal samples were acquired using a slow-scan cooled CCD camera, after staining the slices with Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescent dye which allowed to detect fluorescence signal from the whole tissue. All measurements were performed using an inverted epifluorescence microscope equipped with a mercury lamp. The thermally-induced modifications to the corneal specimens were evaluated by studying the grey level distribution in the fluorescence images. For each acquired image, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and entropy analyses were performed. The spatial distribution of DFT absolute value indicated the spatial orientation of the lamellar planes, while entropy was used to study the image texture, correlated to the stromal structural transitions. As a result, it was possible to indicate a temperature threshold value (62°C) for high thermal damage, resulting in a disorganization of the lamellar planes and in full agreement with the measured temperature for corneal shrinkage onset. Analysis of the image entropy evidenced five strong modifications in stromal architecture at temperatures of ~45°C, 53°C, 57°C, 66°C, 75°C. The proposed procedure proved to be an effective micro-imaging method capable of detecting subtle changes in corneal tissue subjected to thermal treatment.

  4. Formation of coffee stains on porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dou, Rui; Derby, Brian

    2012-03-27

    During the drying of drops of nanoparticle suspensions, segregation can occur by internal fluid flows toward the contact line, if the contact line is pinned. This leads to a characteristic ring deposit or coffee stain. On solid substrates coffee staining can be eliminated through the use of solvent mixtures that promote Marangoni flows to oppose these drying-induced flows. Here it is shown that a suspension, optimized to eliminate the formation of coffee stains on a range of solid surfaces, shows coffee staining on a number of porous surfaces. This behavior is shown to be consistent with a mechanism of fluid removal through capillary flow (draining) of the solvent into the porous substrate, combined with filtration of the particles by the small pore size, in addition to the flow from solvent evaporation. The extent of capillary driven coffee staining is a function of substrate pore size: if the pore size is small, capillary flow is slow, reducing the observed coffee staining. However, if the pore size is too large, the nanoparticles are absorbed into the material along with the draining solute and no deposition of particles is observed. PMID:22385387

  5. Cytologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma grades 1 and 2 from reactive follicular hyperplasia: cytologic features of fine-needle aspiration smears with Pap stain and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Koji; Kitamura, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Tate, Genshu; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). Generally, Giemsa but not Pap stain is used in FNAC. However, cytologic features obtained from Pap stain are also valuable. Very few studies on the cytologic characteristics of ML, as determined by Pap stain, are available. It is easier to observe nuclear irregularity and to identify nucleoli in ML cells by Pap stain than by Giemsa stain. Here, we applied Pap stain for cytomorphologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH). Eighteen biopsy-confirmed cases of FL grades 1 and 2, with available FNAC smears, and six cases of RFH were selected for this study. Low-power magnification showed well-known features, and tingible body macrophages and lymphoid cell aggregates were observed frequently in RFH and FL, respectively. In addition, the so-called two-nuclei-like cleaved cells were observed frequently in FL. These cells showed notably cleaved nuclei, and therefore, appeared to possess two nuclei. Under high-power magnification, the occurrence of cells with nucleoli >1 microm and of cleaved cells was high in FL compared to RFH. It is believed that FL derives from centrocytes and that FL cells are slightly larger than non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. However, analysis of cell diameter in this study indicated that small lymphoma cells were predominant in half the cases of FL grades 1 and 2, and the percentage of these cells was similar to that in RFH, showing why false-negative diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2 occasionally occurs. There are limitations of FNAC in the diagnosis of FL. However, we believe that the appearance of two-nuclei-like cleaved cells and the high percentage of nucleoli-possessing cells, which we describe here, provide significant and valuable clues for the differential diagnosis of FL from RFH. Of 18 cases of FL grades 1 and 2, t(14;18)(q32;q21) was found in 13 cases with the use of destained FNAC smears. Our study suggests that, together with the cytomorphologic findings described earlier, FISH analysis for the chromosomal translocation, t(14;18)(q32;q21), is crucial for final cytologic diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2. PMID:16355396

  6. [Dye analytical investigations on the polarization microscopy detection of collagen with Sominrot 4B (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Schräpler, R; Schmidt, T; Schultka, R; Hepp, W D

    1991-01-01

    We use the disazo dyestuff Solaminrot 4B for the visualization of collagen fibres in the morphological substratum investigated. The dye selectively enhance the birefringency of the fibres. Therefore, the parts of this paper are dealing with the dye properties of 2 charges of Solaminrot 4B produced by Chemie AG Bitterfeld--Wolfen. The 1st charge contain supplementary substances; the 2nd charge is without ones. We used various physicochemical methods, e.g. chromatography, spectroscopy, and electrophoresis. Moreover, we analyzed the solubility of dye in inorganic and organic solventia, the phase dispersion in benzen and octanol, the influence of the dye probes on the pH values of the dye solutions, and so on. The results indicate that the physicochemical properties of both charges investigated by us are partially different. This is important for the application of Sirius Red dyestuffs to the histological staining procedures. PMID:2048392

  7. DNA and chromatin imaging with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy based on single-molecule localization.

    PubMed

    Flors, Cristina

    2011-05-01

    With the expansion of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods, it is now possible to access the organization of cells and materials at the nanoscale by optical means. This review discusses recent progress in super-resolution imaging of isolated and cell DNA using single-molecule localization methods. A high labeling density of photoswitchable fluorophores is crucial for these techniques, which can be provided by sequence independent DNA stains in which photoblinking reactions can be induced. In particular, unsymmetrical cyanine intercalating dyes in combination with special buffers can be used to image isolated DNA with a spatial resolution of 30-40 nm. For super-resolution imaging of chromatin, cell permeant cyanine dyes that bind the minor groove of DNA have the potential to become a useful alternative to the labeling of histones and other DNA-associated proteins. Other recent developments that are interesting in this context such as high density labeling methods or new DNA probes with photoswitching functionalities are also surveyed. Progress in labeling, optics, and single-molecule localization algorithms is being rapid, and it is likely to provide real insight into DNA structuring in cells and materials. PMID:21184489

  8. Patterning microparticles on a template of aggregated cationic dye.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Allan; Switalski, Steven; Bennett, Grace; Lindner, Kimberly; Baptiste, Kenny; Slater, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Patternwise aggregation of charged molecules on a surface is potentially a facile approach to generate a template on which to pattern oppositely charged microparticles. We report on the patterning of silica microparticles by a system comprising a photopatternable copolymer and an aggregate forming penta-cationic cyanine dye. A thin film of the copolymer, composed of a molar excess of styrenesulfonic acid oxime ester to cross-linkable glycidyl methacrylate monomomers, was exposed through a mask and neutralized, resulting in a pattern of hydrophobic areas, and where exposed, a hydrophilic cross-linked film with sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) domains. The occurrence and locus of aggregation of an aqueous solution of the dye, applied to the patterned surface was established by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. In exposed areas, dye is imbibed and aggregation induced in sodium styrenesulfonate domains internal to the layer, whereas in the unexposed areas the dye aggregates on the hydrophobic surface. Aqueous anionic silica microparticles applied to the dye treated patterned surface and then rinsed, are retained in the unexposed areas having cationic surface aggregates, but rejected from the exposed areas with internal dye aggregates as these areas retain net negative charge. Mask exposure, absent dye treatment, did not result in patterning as negatively charged microparticles were nowhere retained, and positively charged particles were everywhere retained. The extent of surface coverage by the dye in unexposed areas was deposition time dependent, and ranged from isolated patches covering about 20 percent of the polymer surface to a surface saturated layer, with silica particle patterning robust over the range of dye surface coverages studied. The force requirements to pattern the denser than water silica microparticles are identified, and particle and polymer film surface potentials that meet the critical repulsion force requirement are mapped using an established sphere-to-flat surface electric double layer (EDL) model. PMID:25580619

  9. Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Abadulla, E; Tzanov, T; Costa, S; Robra, K H; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gübitz, G M

    2000-08-01

    Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (DeltaE*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes. PMID:10919791

  10. Intracellular ionic concentration by calibration from fluorescence indicator emission spectra, its relationship to the Kd, Fmin, Fmax

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    . There are two methods to determine concentration using fluorescence light. In the case of dyes (e.g. the Na' -sensitive indicator SBF1) for which the absorbed fluorescence spectrum is altered by concentration change of fluorescence change to resting fluorescence is measured within a filtered interval of light wavelengths

  11. Fluorescence photon migration by the boundary element method

    E-print Network

    Eppstein, Margaret J.

    and to impact the quality of cancer patient care. Near-infrared (NIR) light between the wavelengths of 700 fluorescent dyes for molecular imaging [1­7]. With near-infrared excitable fluorescent contrast agents.elsevier.com/locate/jcp #12;1. Introduction Imaging plays a central part of cancer diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis primarily

  12. Fluorescein dye filled vesicles as models for detection of microlesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniarek, J.; Thomas, J.; Vazquez, M.

    The primary evidence for microlesions in cell membranes caused by heavy ions is from morphological studies. This evidence, however, could not be corroborated. That said, it is possible to envision functional damage not associated with histologically discernable disruption. In order to resolve this issue experimental evidence is needed using a model that can produce reliable and unequivocal results. We developed a model system for detecting microlesions based on cell membrane mimics made of spherical vesicles 0.1 ?m in diameter formed by molecules prepared from phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. These vesicles contain the fluorescent dye calcein. We hypothesize that if microlesions form in these vesicles then upon irradiation the fluorescent dye will leak out into the surrounding medium in a measurable way. Vials containing these vesicles were irradiated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In one instance irradiation by 1 GeV 56Fe ions produced a significant loss of the entrapped fluorescent dye, 15 % above the background level. However, a replicate irradiation produced no leakage above the background level. Despite these initial inconclusive results we believe that the dye-filled vesicle model still has potential to clarify the microlesion hypothesis. However additional experiments are needed to validate this model in view of the contradictory results obtained in our initial experiments.

  13. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section 28.441 Agriculture... § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of...

  14. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section 28.441 Agriculture... § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of...

  15. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section 28.441 Agriculture... § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of...

  16. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section 28.441 Agriculture... § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of...

  17. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section 28.441 Agriculture... § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of...

  18. Photophysical exploration of fluorescent nanotags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengpeng

    Fluorescence labeling technique has found many important applications such as medical diagnostics, immunoassays and direct visualization of biological molecules. The main focus of this thesis is to use various techniques to study a number of novel florescence labels named nanotag, with the goal of constructing a fluorescence label that is photostable on both single molecular level and the ensemble level; that is compact in size so that it will not affect the activity of the targeted molecule; and that acts as antenna with strong light-harvesting ability. In the fluorescence spectroscopy, Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a result of the dipole-dipole interaction between a donor fluorophore and an acceptor fluorophore. FRET a useful technique to shift the excitation wavelength to a longer wavelength to minimize the background. In the thesis, the efficiencies of the FRET of a variety of fluorescence labels were explored using different FRET donor-acceptor (D-A) pairs and different D-A ratios aimed to build a superior system where high brightness can be readily achieved and where FRET efficiency has less restriction on the D-A spectral overlap. Also, we are interested in setting up several models to quantitatively simulate the FRET calculation in various designs of nanotags consisting of an array of dyes (multichromophoric array) and in evaluating the suitability of those FRET models. Additionally, this thesis quantitatively evaluates the light harvesting ability of nanotags by examining the antenna effects (AE) defined as the intensity of the nanotag acceptors excited at the donor peak divided by the intensity of the nanotag acceptors upon direct excitation at acceptor absorption peak. Furthermore, we established a model that simulates the AE efficiency in the nanotags. This AE model shows an outstanding agreement with our experimental AE results. Particularly, Chapter 1 introduces the main theories and concepts used in the thesis and the motivations of our experiments. Chapter 2 of the thesis provides the readers with the instrumentation set up and the experimental design. Chapter 3 explores the fluorescence quenching of the DNA-bound dyes using different sized gold nanoparticles as the quencher. Chapter 4 discusses the photophysics of a novel fluorescence label non-covalently loaded with dyes. Chapter 5 discusses the photophysics of the fluorescence labels with covalently bound the dyes.

  19. Bond Alternation, Polarizability and Resonance Detuning in Methine Dyes

    E-print Network

    Seth Olsen; Ross H. McKenzie

    2011-02-22

    We derive structure-property relationships for methine ("Brooker") dyes relating the color of the dye and its symmetric parents to its bond alternation in the ground state and also to the dipole properties associated with its low-lying charge-resonance (or charge-transfer) transition. We calibrate and test these relationships on an array of different protonation states of the green fluorescent protein chromophore motif (an asymmetric halochromic methine dye) and its symmetric parent dyes. The relationships rely on the assumption that the diabatic states that define the Platt model for methine dye color [J.R. Platt, J. Chem. Phys. 25 80 (1956)] can also be distinguished by their single-double bond alternation and by their charge localization character. These assumptions are independent of the primary constraint that defines the diabatic states in the Platt model - specifically, the Brooker deviation rule for methine dyes [L.G.S. Brooker, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14 275 (1942)]. Taking these assumptions, we show that the Platt model offers an alternate route to known structure-property relationships between the bond length alternation and the quadratic nonlinear polarizability {\\beta}. We show also that the Platt model can be parameterized without the need for synthesis of the symmetric parents of a given dye, using dipole data obtained through spectroscopic measurements. This suggests that the Platt model parameters may be used as independent variables in free-energy relationships for chromophores whose symmetric parents cannot be synthesized or chromophores strongly bound to biomolecular environments. The latter category includes several recently characterized biomolecular probe constructs. We illustrate these concepts by an analysis of previously reported electroabsorption and second-harmonic generation experiments on green fluorescent proteins.

  20. Novel energy relay dyes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ko, Min Jae; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-01

    4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I-/I3- based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively.4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I-/I3- based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the materials and instrumentation, device fabrication, measurement and calculations of the quantum yield (Qd), calculations of the Förster radius (R0), optimization of the ERDs mixed with electrolyte according to Type-A strategy; normalized absorption profiles of the N3, Ru505, and Z907 dyes and the emission profiles of DAPI and H33342; J-V characteristics of ERD-incorporated DSSCs sensitized with N3, Ru505, and Z907 (Type-A strategy). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06645f

  1. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1998-05-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. The methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. The probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. The invention provides for automated means to detect and analyze chromosomal abnormalities. 17 figs.

  2. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  3. Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

    1992-01-01

    Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. PMID:1580112

  4. Two-photon fluorescence properties of a styrylpyridinium derivative organic chromophore in different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G. Y.; Wang, D.; Tian, Y. P.; Shao, Z. S.; Jiang, M. H.

    The fluorescence properties of a new two-photon absorption chromophore in dimethyl formamide, methanol, acetone, benzyl alcohol, methylene chloride and chloroform are reported. The lifetime, intensity and central wavelength of the fluorescence signal vary significantly in different solvents. The fluorescence properties are explained by using the twisted intra-molecular charge-transfer model, the viscosity of the solvents and the formation of the hydrogen bond. For the dye in all solvents, the longer the fluorescence lifetime, the higher the fluorescence intensity. Generally, the higher the dipole moments, the longer the central wavelengths of the dye.

  5. Destaining of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250-stained polyacrylamide gels with fungal laccase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Ye, Xiuyun; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-15

    An enzyme-based method for destaining polyacrylamide gels stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 is described. Distilled water supplemented with diluted fermentation broth of a laccase-producing white-rot fungus, Cerrena sp., was used for gel destaining, and a clear gel background was obtained in 2 h at 37 °C. Sensitivity of protein detection was 10 ng. The method did not require organic solvents or changing the destaining solution. Due to simultaneous gel destaining and dye decolorization, the colorless destaining solution can be disposed of directly. Laccase destaining of polyacrylamide gels was simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly. PMID:26475566

  6. ARTICLE IN PRESS 1 Inferring flow types from dye patterns in macroporous soils

    E-print Network

    Weiler, Markus

    . Various tracers have been 37used, including the strongly sorbing Methylene Blue 38(Bouma et al., 1977 sections were prepared after each 10 experiment to analyze the patterns of the dye tracer Brilliant Blue tracing for staining flow pathways has become 26 an established way to demonstrate the occurrence of 27

  7. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  8. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  9. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1331. [PubMed Abstract] Rauscher GH, Shore D, Sandler DP. Hair dye use and risk of adult acute ... 10):1448–1454. [PubMed Abstract] Lin J, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Wu X. Personal permanent hair dye ...

  10. Neural Transplant Staining with DiI and Vital Imaging by 2-Photon Laser-Scanning Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Steve M.; Pine, Jerome; Fraser, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a multielectrode silicon “neuroprobe” for maintaining a long-term, specific, two-way electrical interface with nervous tissue. Our approach involves trapping a neuron (from an embryonic rat hippocampus) in a small well with a stimulation/recording electrode at its base. The well is covered with a grillwork through which the neuron's processes are allowed to grow, making synaptic contact with the host tissue, in our case a cultured slice from a rat hippocampus. Each neuroprobe can accommodate 15 neurons, one per well. As a first step in studying neurite outgrowth from the neuroprobe, it was necessary to develop new staining techniques so that neurites from the probe neurons can be distinguished from those belonging to the host, without interference from non-specific background staining. We virtually eliminated background staining through a number of innovations involving dye solubility, cell washing, and debris removal. We also reduced photobleaching and phototoxicity, and enhanced imaging depth by using a 2-photon laser-scanning microscope. We focused on using the popular membrane dye, DiI, however a number of other membrane dyes were shown to provide clear images of neural processes using pulsed illumination at 900 nm. These techniques will be useful to others wishing to follow the growth of transplanted neurons over time, in a non-destructive way. PMID:9601539

  11. Accessible Synthetic Probes for Staining Actin inside Platelets and Megakaryocytes by Employing Lifeact Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Cardo, Lucia; Thomas, Steve G; Mazharian, Alexandra; Pikramenou, Zoe; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Hannon, Michael J; Watson, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Lifeact is a 17-residue peptide that can be employed in cell microscopy as a probe for F-actin when fused to fluorescent proteins, but therefore is not suitable for all cell types. We have conjugated fluorescently labelled Lifeact to three different cell-penetrating systems (a myristoylated carrier (myr), the pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) and the cationic peptide TAT) as a strategy to deliver Lifeact into cells and developed new tools for actin staining with improved synthetic accessibility and low toxicity, focusing on their suitability in platelets and megakaryocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we characterised the cell distribution of the new hybrids in fixed cells, and found that both myr– and pHLIP–Lifeact conjugates provide efficient actin staining upon cleavage of Lifeact from the carriers, without affecting cell spreading. This new approach could facilitate the design of new tools for actin visualisation. PMID:26062886

  12. Integrated Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret (Inventor); Gruhlke, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A detection method is integrated with a filtering method and an enhancement method to create a fluorescence sensor that can be miniaturized. The fluorescence sensor comprises a thin film geometry including a waveguide layer, a metal film layer and sensor layer. The thin film geometry of the fluorescence sensor allows the detection of fluorescent radiation over a narrow wavelength interval. This enables wavelength discrimination and eliminates the detection of unwanted light from unknown or spurious sources.

  13. Port Wine Stain Progression: A Potential Consequence of Delayed and Inadequate Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Minkis, Kira; Geronemus, Roy G.; Hale, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Port wine stains are congenital low-flow vascular malformations of the skin. Unlike hemangiomas, PWS do not involute with time, but rather if left untreated can hypertrophy and develop nodularity. Laser therapy of PWS particularly with pulsed-dye lasers, is a safe, well-established treatment that is successful in the majority of patients, especially for younger patients. Patients that fail to receive treatment early in life may subsequent develop lesions more likely to progress. Study Design/Patients and Methods A case report and review of the literature are presented. We report a 43 year-old man born with a port-wine stain on the right side of his face that extended in the V2 distribution on his face. He had undergone several sessions with a pulsed-dye laser, the sequential dual-wavelength (595 nm and 1064 nm) laser and a CO2 resurfacing laser from the age of 26 but failed to follow through with a sufficient number of treatments to prevent hypertrophy. Results Due to an insufficient number and interval of treatments (with only 7 treatments over 16 years starting at age 26) with the various lasers, the patient’s port wine stain continued to progress in color and development of nodularity. Conclusions Patients born with port wine stains should have early laser treatment to achieve optimal results. Delay in treatment, as in this patient until age 26, may result in hard to treat PWS that can continue to progress in nodularity. This case illustrates the hypertrophy and nodularity that can occur due to progression of a PWS with failure to follow through with sufficient number of laser treatments. PMID:19588535

  14. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy for imaging apoptotic DNA fragmentation at the single-cell level in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Gubory, Kais H. . E-mail: kais.algubory@jouy.inra.fr

    2005-11-01

    The major characteristic of cell death by apoptosis is the loss of nuclear DNA integrity by endonucleases, resulting in the formation of small DNA fragments. The application of confocal imaging to in vivo monitoring of dynamic cellular events, like apoptosis, within internal organs and tissues has been limited by the accessibility to these sites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) to image in situ apoptotic DNA fragmentation in surgically exteriorized sheep corpus luteum in the living animal. Following intra-luteal administration of a fluorescent DNA-staining dye, YO-PRO-1, DNA cleavage within nuclei of apoptotic cells was serially imaged at the single-cell level by FCFM. This imaging technology is sufficiently simple and rapid to allow time series in situ detection and visualization of cells undergoing apoptosis in the intact animal. Combined with endoscope, this approach can be used for minimally invasive detection of fluorescent signals and visualization of cellular events within internal organs and tissues and thereby provides the opportunity to study biological processes in the natural physiological environment of the cell in living animals.

  15. Synthesis and use of an in-solution ratiometric fluorescent viscosity sensor

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Synthesis and use of an in-solution ratiometric fluorescent viscosity sensor Derek Fischer1.2006.455 A procedure for the synthesis of a ratiometric viscosity fluorescent sensor is described fluorophore that has both a viscosity-independent fluorescence emission (coumarin dye shown in blue

  16. Quantitative analysis of stain variability in histology slides and an algorithm for standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Timofeeva, Nadya; Otte-Höller, Irene; Karssemeijer, Nico; van der Laak, Jeroen A. W. M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents data on the sources of variation of the widely used hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histological staining, as well as a new algorithm to reduce these variations in digitally scanned tissue sections. Experimental results demonstrate that staining protocols in different laboratories and staining on different days of the week are the major factors causing color variations in histopathological images. The proposed algorithm for standardizing histology slides is based on an initial clustering of the image into two tissue components having different absorption characteristics for different dyes. The color distribution for each tissue component is standardized by aligning the 2D histogram of color distribution in the hue-saturation-density (HSD) model. Qualitative evaluation of the proposed standardization algorithm shows that color constancy of the standardized images is improved. Quantitative evaluation demonstrates that the algorithm outperforms competing methods. In conclusion, the paper demonstrates that staining variations, which may potentially hamper usefulness of computer assisted analysis of histopathological images, can be reduced considerably by applying the proposed algorithm.

  17. Automated single-slide staining device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A simple apparatus and method is disclosed for making individual single Gram stains on bacteria inoculated slides to assist in classifying bacteria in the laboratory as Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The apparatus involves positioning a single inoculated slide in a stationary position and thereafter automatically and sequentially flooding the slide with increments of a primary stain, a mordant, a decolorizer, a counterstain and a wash solution in a sequential manner without the individual lab technician touching the slide and with minimum danger of contamination thereof from other slides.

  18. Silver staining DNA in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Bassam, Brant J; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple silver staining method used to visualize DNA fragments and other organic molecules with unsurpassed detail following traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Sensitivity rivals radioisotopic methods and DNA in the picogram range can be reliably detected. The described protocol is fast (approximately 1 h) and is implemented using readily available chemicals and materials. To achieve the sensitivity and visual clarity expected, quality reagents and clean handling are important. The updated protocol described here is based on the widely used method of Bassam et al. (1991), but provides improved image contrast and less risk of staining artefacts. PMID:18007600

  19. Aromatic Diimides - Potential Dyes for Use in Smart Films and Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Tyson, Daniel S.; Ilhan, Faysal; Carbaugh, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    New aromatic diimide fluorescent dyes have been prepared with potential for use as chemical sensors and in chromogenic polymers. These dyes have been designed to utilize excited state electron transfer reactions as the means for sensing chemical species. For example, an aniline en-dcapped anthryl diimides functions effectively as an "on-off" sensor for pH and the detection of phosphoryl halide based chemical warfare agents, such as Sarin. In the absence of analytes, fluorescence from this dye is completely quenched by excited state electron transfer from the terminal amines. Reaction of these amines inhibits electron transfer and activates the fluorescence of the dye. Another substituted anthryl diimide is presented with the capability to detect pH and nitroaromatic compounds, such as TNT. Films prepared by doping small amounts (less than 0.1 weight percent) of several of these dyes in polymers such as linear low density polyethylene exhibit thermochromism. At room temperature, these films fluoresce reddish-orange. Upon heating, the fluorescence turns green. This process is reversible cooling the films to room temperature restores the orange emission.

  20. Clinical trials in near infrared fluorescence imaging with IRDye 800CW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draney, Daniel R.

    2015-03-01

    A monofunctional, heptamethine dye, IRDye® 800CW, is being manufactured under GMP conditions for use in human clinical trials. When attached to a suitable targeting agent and paired with an appropriate camera system, the dye allows Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging of tumor tissue during surgery. The talk will describe the properties of the dye and give an overview of current and planned clinical trials in Europe and the USA. The dye is available in both the NHS ester and carboxylate forms for conjugation to targeting molecules. A GMP toxicology study of the dye was described in a previous publication.