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Sample records for fluoride volatility process

  1. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  2. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  3. Volatile fluoride process for separating plutonium from other materials

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F. H.; Newton, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  4. VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  5. Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from spent uranium alloy fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghusen, J. J.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gunderson, G. E.; Holmes, J. T.; Jonke, A. A.; Kincinas, J. E.; Levitz, N. M.; Potts, G. L.; Ramaswami, D.; Stethers, H.; Turner, K. S.

    1967-01-01

    Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from uranium fuels containing either zirconium or aluminum. The uranium is recovered as uranium hexafluoride. The process requires few operations in simple, compact equipment, and eliminates aqueous radioactive wastes.

  6. FLUORIDE VOLATILITY PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.J.; Hyman, H.H.; Sheft, I.

    1958-04-15

    The separation and recovery of uraniunn from contaminants introduced by neutron irradiation by a halogenation and volatilization method are described. The irradiated uranium is dissolved in bromine trifluoride in the liquid phase. The uranium is converted to the BrF/sub 3/ soluble urmium hexafluoride compound whereas the fluorides of certain contaminating elements are insoluble in liquid BrF/sub 3/, and the reaction rate of the BrF/sub 3/ with certain other solid uranium contamirnnts is sufficiently slower than the reaction rate with uranium that substantial portions of these contaminating elements will remain as solids. These solids are then separated from the solution by a distillation, filtration, or centrifugation step. The uranium hexafluoride is then separated from the balance of the impurities and solvent by one or more distillations.

  7. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  8. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  9. Extraction of plutonium from lean residues by room temperature fluoride volatility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.M.; Foropoulos, J.; Kennedy, R.C.; Dye, B.A.; Behrens, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of dioxygen difluoride (FOOF) and KrF/sub 2/ for the recovery of Pu from lean residues by conversion to gaseous PuF/sub 6/ is being investigated. The greater stability of PuF/sub 6/ at room temperature allows much more extensive removal of Pu from contaminated wastes, when compared to the high temperature fluoride volatility process. The process also requires fewer additive chemicals than aqueous processes, thus minimizing the amount of material that must be disposed of as radioactive waste. The transportability of gaseous PuF/sub 6/ allows much of the process to be automated, reducing operator exposure to radiation. Removal of PuF/sub 6/ decomposition product is easily facilitated by the use of these fluorinating agents. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Containerless processing of fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-based experiments on glass formation, crystallization, surface tension, vaporization, and chemical durability of a zirconium-barium-lanthanum (ZBL) fluoride glass are summarized. In a container large, columnar grains grew out from the container-glass interface during cooling. The main crystalline phase was alpha BaZrF6. A ZBL glass sphere was levitated acoustically during Shuttle flight STS-11. The glass was melted and then cooled while being levitated (containerless). Crystallization in the recovered sample was very fine and mainly beta BaZr2F10, showing the influence of the container on the nucleation and microstructure of crystallization in the glass. Glass formation should be easier for a containerless glass than in a container.

  11. Emissions of fluorides from welding processes.

    PubMed

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N-N-N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8μg/L and 24μg/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01-10mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001-0.1mg of fluorides per m(3) in collection of a 20L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20-1.82mg/m(3), while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23-1.96mg/m(3) of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room. PMID:26574102

  12. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  13. Extreme times for volatility processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep

    2007-04-01

    Extreme times techniques, generally applied to nonequilibrium statistical mechanical processes, are also useful for a better understanding of financial markets. We present a detailed study on the mean first-passage time for the volatility of return time series. The empirical results extracted from daily data of major indices seem to follow the same law regardless of the kind of index thus suggesting an universal pattern. The empirical mean first-passage time to a certain level L is fairly different from that of the Wiener process showing a dissimilar behavior depending on whether L is higher or lower than the average volatility. All of this indicates a more complex dynamics in which a reverting force drives volatility toward its mean value. We thus present the mean first-passage time expressions of the most common stochastic volatility models whose approach is comparable to the random diffusion description. We discuss asymptotic approximations of these models and confront them to empirical results with a good agreement with the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model.

  14. Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  15. Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen teeth, resist acid, and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children ...

  16. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  17. Effects of Gravity on Processing Heavy Metal Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the crystal nucleation of heavy metal fluoride fibers have been studied in preliminary experiments utilizing NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft and a microgravity sounding rocket flight. Commercially produced fibers were heated to the crystallization temperature in normal and reduced gravity. The fibers processed in normal gravity showed complete crystallization while the fibers processed in reduced gravity did not show signs of crystallization.

  18. Manufacture of high purity low arsenic anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Jenczewski, T.J.; Sturtevant, R.L.; Morgan, T.R.; Boghean, B.J.; Butt, D.C.

    1988-07-12

    A process for manufacturing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity from arsenic contaminated anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is described which comprises: (a) contacting the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the arsenic impurity in the presence of a catalyst which comprises a catalytic amount of (i) molybdenum or an inorganic molybdenum compound and (ii) a phosphate compound, at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to oxidize volatile trivalent arsenic impurities in the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to non-volatile pentavalent arsenic compounds, and (b) distilling the resulting mixture and recovering anhydrous hydrogen fluoride with reduced levels of arsenic impurity.

  19. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

  20. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  1. Sample water removal method in volatile organic compound analysis based on diffusion through poly(vinyl fluoride) film.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra; Guillot, Jean-Michel

    2006-09-15

    The humidity caught during air sampling or sample storage causes various problems during volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and gives unreliable results. In this study, water vapour diffusion capacities through poly(vinyl fluoride) Tedlar, fluoroethylene propylene Teflon and Flex foil film were compared. A new approach to humidity removal has been tested for moderately polluted atmospheres. This approach consists in using the water vapour diffusion property of Tedlar film to remove humidity from bag samples containing a mixture of ten VOCs at 500 ppbv each in a 70% relative humidity atmosphere. The sampling bags were placed in a chamber flushed by a dry air stream at less than 5% relative humidity. After a few hours in the chamber, the samples in the Tedlar bags were dry (relative humidity <5%) and did not show significant VOC loss. This sample water removal (SWR) method is especially interesting as a pretreatment before air sampling on water sensitive adsorbents. PMID:16828784

  2. The mechanism for production of beryllium fluoride from the product of ammonium fluoride processing of beryllium- containing raw material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraydenko, R. I.; Dyachenko, A. N.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The technique of fluorite-phenacite-bertrandite ores from Russian Ermakovskoe deposit processing by ammonium bifluoride is described. To determine the temperature mode and the thermal dissociation mechanism of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate (the product of ammonium-fluoride leaching of the ore) the TG/DTA have been carried out. By IR spectroscopy and XRD the semi-products of ammonium tetrafluoroberyllate thermal dissociation have been identified. The hygroscopic low-temperature beryllium fluoride forms higher than 380°C. The less hydroscopic form of BeF2 have been produced at 600°C.

  3. Volatile Single-Source Precursors for the Low-Temperature Preparation of Sodium-Rare Earth Metal Fluorides.

    PubMed

    Barry, Matthew C; Wei, Zheng; He, Tianyu; Filatov, Alexander S; Dikarev, Evgeny V

    2016-07-20

    Heterometallic single-source precursors for the preparation of sodium-rare earth metal fluorides are reported. Fluorinated β-diketonates NaRE(hfac)4 (RE = Y (1), Er (2), and Eu (3); hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate) have been obtained on a large scale, in high yield, via one-pot reaction that utilizes commercially available starting reagents. The solid-state structures of the title complexes consist of 1D polymeric chains with alternating [Na] and [RE(hfac)4] units. Compounds 1-3 are highly volatile and exhibit a fair stability in open air. Mass spectrometric investigation indicates the presence of heterometallic fragments in the gas phase. The presence of heterometallic species in solutions of coordinating solvents has also been confirmed. Decomposition of heterometallic precursors in argon atmosphere was shown to yield phase-pure sodium-rare earth metal fluorides. Low decomposition temperature effectively allows for a high degree of control over the formation of both kinetic α-phases and thermodynamic β-phases of target NaREF4 (RE = Y, Er, and Eu) materials. PMID:27232230

  4. Volatility: A hidden Markov process in financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisler, Zoltán; Perelló, Josep; Masoliver, Jaume

    2007-11-01

    Volatility characterizes the amplitude of price return fluctuations. It is a central magnitude in finance closely related to the risk of holding a certain asset. Despite its popularity on trading floors, volatility is unobservable and only the price is known. Diffusion theory has many common points with the research on volatility, the key of the analogy being that volatility is a time-dependent diffusion coefficient of the random walk for the price return. We present a formal procedure to extract volatility from price data by assuming that it is described by a hidden Markov process which together with the price forms a two-dimensional diffusion process. We derive a maximum-likelihood estimate of the volatility path valid for a wide class of two-dimensional diffusion processes. The choice of the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (expOU) stochastic volatility model performs remarkably well in inferring the hidden state of volatility. The formalism is applied to the Dow Jones index. The main results are that (i) the distribution of estimated volatility is lognormal, which is consistent with the expOU model, (ii) the estimated volatility is related to trading volume by a power law of the form σ∝V0.55 , and (iii) future returns are proportional to the current volatility, which suggests some degree of predictability for the size of future returns.

  5. Volatility: a hidden Markov process in financial time series.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Zoltán; Perelló, Josep; Masoliver, Jaume

    2007-11-01

    Volatility characterizes the amplitude of price return fluctuations. It is a central magnitude in finance closely related to the risk of holding a certain asset. Despite its popularity on trading floors, volatility is unobservable and only the price is known. Diffusion theory has many common points with the research on volatility, the key of the analogy being that volatility is a time-dependent diffusion coefficient of the random walk for the price return. We present a formal procedure to extract volatility from price data by assuming that it is described by a hidden Markov process which together with the price forms a two-dimensional diffusion process. We derive a maximum-likelihood estimate of the volatility path valid for a wide class of two-dimensional diffusion processes. The choice of the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (expOU) stochastic volatility model performs remarkably well in inferring the hidden state of volatility. The formalism is applied to the Dow Jones index. The main results are that (i) the distribution of estimated volatility is lognormal, which is consistent with the expOU model, (ii) the estimated volatility is related to trading volume by a power law of the form sigma proportional, variant V0.55, and (iii) future returns are proportional to the current volatility, which suggests some degree of predictability for the size of future returns. PMID:18233716

  6. Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds with Mesoporous Materials Prepared from Calcium Fluoride Sludge.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sv-Yuan; Tsai, Hsiao-Hsin; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Chang, Chang-Tang; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-02-01

    Large amount of calcium fluoride sludge was generated by semiconductor industry every year. It also needs high requirement of fuel consumption using rotor concentrator and thermal oxidizer to treat VOCs. The mesoporous catalyst prepared by calcium fluoride sludge was used for VOCs treatment in this study. Acetone is a kind of solvent and used in a large number of laboratories and factories. The serious problems will be caused when it exposed to the environmental. Economic and practical technology is needed to eliminate this kind of hazardous air pollutant. In this research, the adsorption of acetone was tested with CF-MCM (mesoporous silica materials synthesized from calcium fluoride). The raw material was mixed with cationic cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants, firstly. The prepared mesoporous silica materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the surface area, large pore volume and pore diameter could be up to 862 m2 g(-1), 0.57 cm3 g(-1) and 2.9 nm, respectively. The crystal patterns of CF-MCM were similar with MCM-41 from TEM image. The adsorption capacity of acetone with CF-MCM was 118, 190, 194 and 201 mg g(-1), respectively, under 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of MCM-41 and CF-MCM was almost the same. The effects of operation parameters, such as contact time and mixture concentration, on the performance of CF-MCM were also discussed in this study. PMID:27433709

  7. Volatile halocarbon compounds in process water and processed foods

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Diachenko, G.W.

    1987-10-01

    Volatile halocarbon compounds (VHCs) of low molecular weight are among the most abundant man-made industrial chemicals in the United States. Because of the physical properties of these compounds, in particular their high volatility, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has detected numerous VHCs in ground water and finished drinking water. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Division of Contaminants Chemistry, as well as other laboratories, have detected VHCs in foods. These findings of VHCs in foods, coupled with their frequent detection in ground waters, suggested that food contamination by VHCs could be occurring via polluted process waters. The objectives of this investigation were to determine if VHC contamination of food through contact with contaminated process water was widespread, and to ascertain the levels of contamination. The problem was addressed by collecting and analyzing process water and foods from processing plants situated in areas where contamination of the process water was most probable. Recent data from EPA were used to select food processing plants most likely to use VHC-contaminated process water. Processing plants were chosen for study only if they produced a high-fat content food that came in contact with water during processing, or produced a product that contained a high percentage of added water. Findings are reported here in process water and food product analysis from 15 food processing plants located in 9 different states (CA, FL, IL, MA, MI, NY, OH, PA, WI), representing a total of 39 food products.

  8. Methods of controlling hydrogen fluoride pressure during chemical fabrication processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Wiesmann, Harold

    2009-11-24

    The present invention is a method for producing a crystalline end-product. The method comprising exposing a fluoride-containing precursor to a hydrogen fluoride absorber under conditions suitable for the conversion of the precursor into the crystalline end-product.

  9. Relationships between volatile and non-volatile metabolites and attributes of processed potato flavour.

    PubMed

    Morris, Wayne L; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; McNicol, James W; Taylor, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Although the flavour of processed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) is important to consumers, the blend of volatile and non-volatile metabolites that impact on flavour attributes is not well-defined. Additionally, it is important to understand how potato flavour changes during storage. In this study, quantitative descriptive analysis of potato samples by a trained taste panel was undertaken, comparing tubers from S. tuberosum group Phureja with those from S. tuberosum group Tuberosum, both at harvest and following storage. The cooked tuber volatile profile was analysed by solid phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in sub-samples of the tubers that were assessed by taste panels. A range of non-volatile metabolites including the major umami compounds, glycoalkaloids and sugars was also measured in tuber sub-samples. Correlation and principal component analyses revealed differences between the potato cultivars and storage conditions and demonstrated associations of metabolites with the different sensory attributes. PMID:20678781

  10. Sol-gel process of fluoride and fluorobromide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poncelet, O.; Guilment, J.; Paz-Pujalt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The alkoxides M(OR{sub x}){sub n} wherein M is an alkaline-earth or rare-earth and OR{sub X} is a fluoroalkoxo or bromoalkoxo group exhibit the properties to form pure fluoride materials by hydrolysis at room temperature. Using this property, the authors synthesized pure barium and europium fluoride and pure alkaline-earth bromide. The hydrolysis of a heteroleptic species, Ba(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Br)[OCH(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}] allowed pure and crystalline BaFBr materials to be obtained at room temperature.

  11. Volatile processes in Triton's atmosphere and surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    A basic model for latitudinal transport of nitrogen is reviewed focusing on its limitations and some complications associated with surface and atmospheric physics. Data obtained by 1989 Voyager encounter with the Neptune system revealed the complexity in the pure nitrogen transport which is caused by the nonuniform albedo of the frosts. It is concluded that Triton is similar to Mars in terms of the complexity of volatile transport and to understand Triton's surface-atmosphere system, Mars may be a very good analog.

  12. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  13. PROCESS OF PREPARING A FLUORIDE OF TETRAVLENT URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    A method is described for producing a fluoride salt pf tetravalent uranium suitable for bomb reduction to metallic uranium. An aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate is treated with acetic acid and a nitrite-suppressor and then contacted with metallic lead whereby uranium is reduced from the hexavalent to the tetravalent state and soluble lead acetate is formed. Sulfate ions are then added to the solution to precipitate and remove the lead values. Hydrofluoric acid and alkali metal ions are then added causing the formation of an alkali metal uranium double-fluoride in which the uranium is in the tetravalent state. After recovery, this precipitate is suitable for using in the limited production of metallic uranium.

  14. Volatile N-nitrosamines in direct flame dried processed foods.

    PubMed

    Fazio, T; Havery, D C

    1982-01-01

    The presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in malt and malt beverages has been linked to the direct flame drying of malt. Similar drying procedures are used in the preparation of a variety of foods, such as non-fat dry milk, soy proteins and dried cheeses. A survey of some of these processed foods for volatile N-nitrosamines has shown that low levels of NDMA are present, along with N-nitrosomorpholine in one sample of soy protein isolate. This paper describes the procedures used for the analysis of a variety of processed dried foods for volatile nitrosamines and reports the results obtained. PMID:6897234

  15. Physics and Chemistry of the Hydrogen Fluoride Production Process from Fluorine Containing Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, A. N.; Kraydenko, R. I.; Lesnikova, M. S.; Malyutin, L. N.; Petlin, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the aluminum industry wastes on the environment is established. The resource efficient method of aluminum industry fluorine-containing wastes processing, which includes wastes oxidizing roasting to remove carbon component and the interaction of fluorine- containing particles with sulfuric acid in order to produce hydrogen fluoride, is considered. The economic and environmental effect of the proposed processing method is substantiated.

  16. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    PubMed

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water. PMID:27508234

  17. Theoretical studies of volatile processes in the outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1991-01-01

    Four studies of volatile processes in the outer solar system are discussed. Researchers suggest that the convective and conductive regions of Triton's atmosphere join at the tropopause near 10 km. A model of volatile transport on Triton's surface was constructed that predicts that Triton's surface north of 15 degrees north latitude is experiencing deposition of nitrogen frosts, as are the bright portions of the south polar cap near the equator. Also discussed are numerical models of the evolution of Titan's surface and atmosphere. Results of a study of the rheology of ammonia-water liquids were applied to the icy satellites of the outer solar system. Finally, the researchers examined the frictional heating, sublimation, and re-condensation of grains free-falling into the solar nebula from a surrounding interstellar cloud. The sublimation model includes the effect of various volatile species and accounts for the poor radiating properties of small grains using Mie theory.

  18. Lipid oxidation volatiles absent in milk after selected ultrasound processing.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Torkamani, Amir Ehsan; Leong, Thomas; Kolb, Veronika; Watkins, Peter; Ajlouni, Said; Singh, Tanoj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing can suit a number of potential applications in the dairy industry. However, the impact of ultrasound treatment on milk stability during storage has not been fully explored under wider ranges of frequencies, specific energies and temperature applications. The effect of ultrasonication on lipid oxidation was investigated in various types of milk. Four batches of raw milk (up to 2L) were sonicated at various frequencies (20, 400, 1000, 1600 and 2000kHz), using different temperatures (4, 20, 45 and 63°C), sonication times and ultrasound energy inputs up to 409kJ/kg. Pasteurized skim milk was also sonicated at low and high frequency for comparison. In selected experiments, non-sonicated and sonicated samples were stored at 4°C and were drawn periodically up to 14days for SPME-GCMS analysis. The cavitational yield, characterized in all systems in water, was highest between 400kHz and 1000kHz. Volatile compounds from milk lipid oxidation were detected and exceeded their odor threshold values at 400kHz and 1000kHz at specific energies greater than 271kJ/kg in raw milk. However, no oxidative volatile compounds were detected below 230kJ/kg in batch systems at the tested frequencies under refrigerated conditions. Skim milk showed a lower energy threshold for oxidative volatile formation. The same oxidative volatiles were detected after various passes of milk through a 0.3L flow cell enclosing a 20kHz horn and operating above 90kJ/kg. This study showed that lipid oxidation in milk can be controlled by decreasing the sonication time and the temperature in the system depending on the fat content in the sample among other factors. PMID:24704065

  19. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  20. Modeling Regolith Temperatures and Volatile Ice Processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Surface and subsurface temperatures are an important tool for exploring the distribution and dynamics of volatile ices on and within planetary regoliths. I will review thermal-analysis approaches and recent applications in the studies of volatile ice processes. Numerical models of regolith temperatures allow us to examine the response of ices to periodic and secular changes in heat sources such as insolation. Used in conjunction with spatially and temporally distributed remotely-sensed temperatures, numerical models can: 1) constrain the stability and dynamics of volatile ices; 2) define the partitioning between phases of ice, gas, liquid, and adsorbate; and 3) in some instances be used to probe the distribution of ice hidden from view beneath the surface. The vapor pressure of volatile ices (such as water, carbon dioxide, and methane) depends exponentially on temperature. Small changes in temperature can result in transitions between stable phases. Cyclic temperatures and the propagation of thermal waves into the subsurface can produce a strong hysteresis in the population and partitioning of various phases (such as between ice, vapor, and adsorbate) and result in bulk transport. Condensation of ice will also have a pronounced effect on the thermal properties of otherwise loose particulate regolith. Cementing grains at their contacts through ice deposition will increase the thermal conductivity, and may enhance the stability of additional ice. Likewise sintering of grains within a predominantly icy regolith will increase the thermal conductivity. Subsurface layers that result from ice redistribution can be discriminated by remote sensing when combined with numerical modeling. Applications of these techniques include modeling of seasonal carbon dioxide frosts on Mars, predicting and interpreting the subsurface ice distribution on Mars and in Antarctica, and estimating the current depth of ice-rich permafrost on Mars. Additionally, understanding cold trapping ices

  1. Inverted organic solar cells comprising a solution-processed cesium fluoride interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang Zhenhao; Colsmann, Alexander; Lemmer, Uli; Hanisch, Jonas; Ahlswede, Erik

    2011-01-31

    We investigate the influence of solution-processed cesium fluoride (CsF) interlayers on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells comprising a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. The thickness of the CsF layer is optimized in terms of current-voltage characteristics by a variation of the solid content in solution. Capacitance-voltage characteristics reveal a shift of the built-in voltage at the cathode interface by about 0.3 V as compared to devices without a CsF layer, giving rise to an increase in open-circuit voltage by the same value. The vertical distribution of Cs{sup +} and F{sup +} ions is studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicating a strong diffusion of the alkaline fluoride into the organic layer stack.

  2. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  3. Integrated physicochemical and biological treatment process for fluoride and phosphorus removal from fertilizer plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Mlaik, Najwa; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-08-01

    The phosphate fertilizer industry produces highly hazardous and acidic wastewaters. This study was undertaken to develop an integrated approach for the treatment of wastewaters from the phosphate industry. Effluent samples were collected from a local phosphate fertilizer producer and were characterized by their high fluoride and phosphate content. First, the samples were pretreated by precipitation of phosphate and fluoride ions using hydrated lime. The resulting low- fluoride and phosphorus effluent was then treated with the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process to monitor the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Phosphorus removal included a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic system operating under continuous flow. Pretreated wastewater was added to the activated sludge and operated for 160 days in the reactor. The operating strategy included increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 0.3 to 1.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. The stable and high removal rates of COD, NH4(+)-N, and PO4(3-)-P were then recorded. The mean concentrations of the influent were approximately 3600 mg COD/L, 60 mg N/L, and 14 mg P/L, which corresponded to removal efficiencies of approximately 98%, 86%, and 92%, respectively. PMID:21905410

  4. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  5. Migration Processes and Volatiles Inventory to the Inner Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marov, M. Y.; Ipatov, S. I.

    2004-01-01

    Comets and asteroids colliding with the terrestrial planets can deliver volatiles and organic or prebiotic compounds to the planets, thereby depositing on the planets the fundamental building-blocks for life. The inner planets contain heavier and cosmically less abundant elements in an iron-silicate matrix than the giant planets. This can be caused by the following three mechanisms: uneven fractionation and condensation in the accretionary disk; unequal degree of degassing of the composed matter; and heterogeneous accretion. Asteroid-size bodies consisting of the last low-temperature condensates (similar to most primitive chondritic meteorites, and enriched in hydrated silicates and trapped gases) are believed to have fallen onto the inner planets during the process of the giant planets formation. The relative contribution of either endogenous (i.e. outgassing) or exogenous (i.e. asteroid/comet collisions) sources is difficult to assess, although it is constrained by the pattern of noble gas abundances in the planetary atmospheres.

  6. Evolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hierarchical morphology during slow gelation process and its superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Zhou, Chong; Du, Runhong; Li, Nana; Han, Xutong; Zhang, Yufeng; An, Shulin; Xiao, Changfa

    2013-06-26

    In the paper, we proposed an evolution process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) macromolecular aggregation in a mixed solvent through the simple and slow gelation process at room temperature. The mixed solvent is prepared with a room-temperature solvent and a high-temperature solvent. The evolution process can be terminated by quenching and exchanging with nonsolvent in a nonsolvent coagulation bath properly, and then the vivid petal-like nanostructure and microspherulite is formed simultaneously. This hierarchical morphology endows PVDF with superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties, which is useful to PVDF coating and membrane materials. The evolution processes are investigated through the measurements of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the rheological properties of solution, dry gel and wet gel, are explored. PMID:23725003

  7. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  8. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  9. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  10. Dynamics of the anaerobic process: effects of volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pind, Peter F; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-06-30

    A complex and fast dynamic response of the anaerobic biogas system was observed when the system was subjected to pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It was shown that a pulse of specific VFAs into a well-functioning continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system operating on cow manure affected both CH(4) yield, pH, and gas production and that a unique reaction pattern was seen for the higher VFAs as a result of these pulses. In this study, two thermophilic laboratory reactors were equipped with a novel VFA-sensor for monitoring specific VFAs online. Pulses of VFAs were shown to have a positive effect on process yield and the levels of all VFA were shown to stabilize at a lower level after the biomass had been subjected to several pulses. The response to pulses of propionate or acetate was different from the response to butyrate, iso-butyrate, valerate, or iso-valerate. High concentrations of propionate affected the degradation of all VFAs, while a pulse of acetate affected primarily the degradation of iso-valerate or 2-methylbutyrate. Pulses of n-butyrate, iso-butyrate, and iso-valerate yielded only acetate, while degradation of n-valerate gave both propionate and acetate. Product sensitivity or inhibition was shown for the degradation of all VFAs tested. Based on the results, it was concluded that measurements of all specific VFAs are important for control purposes and increase and decrease in a specific VFA should always be evaluated in close relationship to the conversion of other VFAs and the history of the reactor process. It should be pointed out that the observed dynamics of VFA responses were based on hourly measurements, meaning that the response duration was much lower than the hydraulic retention time, which exceeds several days in anaerobic CSTR systems. PMID:12701145

  11. Removal efficiency of fluoride by novel Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide by batch process from water.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sandip; Tripathy, Swagatika; Padhi, Tapswani; Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2013-05-01

    The fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution using synthesized Mg-Cr-Cl layered double hydroxide has been reported. Mg-Cr-Cl was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscope. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode as a function of adsorption dosages, contact time, pH, and initial fluoride concentration to get optimum adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetic study showed that the adsorption process followed first order kinetics. The fluoride removal was 88.5% and 77.4% at pH 7 with an adsorbent dose of 0.6 g/100 mL solution and initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The equilibrium was established at 40 min. Adsorption experiment data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.9924. Thermodynamic constants were also measured and concluded that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The removal percentage decreased slowly with increasing pH. This process is suitable for industrial effluents. The regeneration of the material is not possible. PMID:24218830

  12. METHOD OF PREPARING METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.J.; Sheft, I.

    1959-08-11

    A method is presented for preparing the halides of elements which are relatively non-reactive with halogenating agents. The method involves reacting a mixture of an oxygen containing salt of a difficulty halogenated metal with an oxygen containing salt of an easily halogenated metal with a halogenating agent. Accordingly plutonium tetrafluoride is produced by reacting a mixture of plutonium dioxide and uranium octaoxide with bromine trifluoride. The reaction proceeds smoothly at moderate temperatures and the resulting plutonium trifluoride may be readily separated from many impurities which form volatile fluorides by volatilizing these volatile fluorides from the reaction chamber.

  13. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods. PMID:21701196

  14. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature. PMID:27352462

  15. PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

  16. Effect of annealing process on the phase formation in poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yahaya, Muhammad; Jumali, Mohd Hafizuddin Haji; Shanshool, Haider Mohammed

    2014-09-03

    This work reports the initial study on the effect of annealing process on the crystalline phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film. PVDF powder was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide before spin-coated onto a glass substrate to form a film. The films were annealed at 30°C, 90°C and 110°C for 5 hrs. The crystalline phase of the powder PVDF as received was investigated by using XRD and FTIR techniques. Moreover, the crystalline phases of thin films after annealing were investigated by using the same techniques. XRD analysis showed that in powder form PVDF exists in α-phase. Each annealed PVDF thin films exhibited identical formation of three-phases material namely γ (as major phase) while α and β phases as the minor phases. The FTIR analysis showed that the powder form of PVDF exists in α and β phases. FTIR measurement further confirmed the XRD results implying that the annealing process has no significant effect on the phase formation in PVDF films.

  17. Climate, atmosphere, and volatile inventory evolution: Polar processes, climate records, volatile inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Climate change on Mars was driven by long term changes in the solar luminosity, variations in the partitioning of volatiles between the atmosphere and near-surface reservoirs, and astronomical variations in axial and orbital properties. There are important parallels between these drives for Mars and comparable ones for Earth. In the early history of the solar system, the Sun's luminosity was 25 to 30 percent lower than its current value. It is suggested that an early benign climate on Earth was due to the presence of much more carbon dioxide in its atmosphere at these early times than currently resides there. Such a partitioning of carbon dioxide, at the expense of the carbonate rock reservoir, may have resulted from a more vigorous tectonic and volcanic style at early times. Such a line of reasoning may imply that much more carbon dioxide was present in the Martian atmosphere during the planet's early history than resides there today. It is now widely recognized that astronomical variations of the Earth's axial and orbital characteristics have played a dominant role in causing the succession of glacial and interglacial periods characterizing the last several million years. The magnitude of the axial and eccentricity variations are much larger for Mars than for Earth. Such changes on Mars could result in sizeable variations in atmospheric pressure, dust storm activity, and the stability of perennial carbon dioxide and water ice polar caps. These quasi-periodic climate changes occur on periods of 100,000 to 1,000,000 years and may be recorded in the sedimentary layers of the polar layered terrain.

  18. Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-06-30

    The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present in the canister that may lead to internal corrosion of the canister or that could potentially adversely affect normal canister handling. During vitrification, volatilization of mixed (Na, K, Cs)Cl, (Na, K, Cs){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (Na, K, Cs)BF{sub 4}, (Na, K){sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and (Na,K)CrO{sub 4} species from glass melt condensed in the melter off-gas and in the cyclone separator in the canister pour spout vacuum line. A full-scale DWPF prototypic canister filled during Campaign 10 of the SRS Scale Glass Melter was sectioned and examined. Mixed (NaK)CI, (NaK){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NaK) borates, and a (Na,K) fluoride phase (either NaF or Na{sub 2}BF{sub 4}) were identified on the interior canister walls, neck, and shoulder above the melt pour surface. Similar deposits were found on the glass melt surface and on glass fracture surfaces. Chromates were not found. Spinel crystals were found associated with the glass pour surface. Reference amounts of the halides and sulfates were found retained in the glass and the glass chemistry, including the distribution of the halides and sulfates, was homogeneous. In all cases where rust was observed, heavy metals (Zn, Ti, Sn) from the cutting blade/fluid were present indicating that the rust was a reaction product of the cutting fluid with glass and heat sensitized canister or with carbon-steel contamination on canister interior. Only minimal water vapor is present so that internal corrosion of the canister, will not occur.

  19. Does Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Glycosidically Bound Volatile Compounds Really Contribute to the Formation of Volatile Compounds During the Oolong Tea Manufacturing Process?

    PubMed

    Gui, Jiadong; Fu, Xiumin; Zhou, Ying; Katsuno, Tsuyoshi; Mei, Xin; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Zhang, Linyun; Dong, Fang; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2015-08-12

    It was generally thought that aroma of oolong tea resulted from hydrolysis of glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs). In this study, most GBVs showed no reduction during the oolong tea manufacturing process. β-Glycosidases either at protein or gene level were not activated during the manufacturing process. Subcellular localization of β-primeverosidase provided evidence that β-primeverosidase was located in the leaf cell wall. The cell wall remained intact during the enzyme-active manufacturing process. After the leaf cell disruption, GBV content was reduced. These findings reveal that, during the enzyme-active process of oolong tea, nondisruption of the leaf cell walls resulted in impossibility of interaction of GBVs and β-glycosidases. Indole, jasmine lactone, and trans-nerolidol were characteristic volatiles produced from the manufacturing process. Interestingly, the contents of the three volatiles was reduced after the leaf cell disruption, suggesting that mechanical damage with the cell disruption, which is similar to black tea manufacturing, did not induce accumulation of the three volatiles. In addition, 11 volatiles with flavor dilution factor ≥4(4) were identified as relatively potent odorants in the oolong tea. These results suggest that enzymatic hydrolysis of GBVs was not involved in the formation of volatiles of oolong tea, and some characteristic volatiles with potent odorants were produced from the manufacturing process. PMID:26212085

  20. Fluoride in UK rivers.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Neal, Margaret; Davies, Helen; Smith, Jennifer

    2003-10-01

    Fluoride concentrations in eastern UK rivers (the Humber, Tweed, Wear, Great Ouse and Thames) are described based on information collected within the Land-Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) and by the Environment Agency (EA) of England and Wales. The results show varied fluoride concentrations across the region, with a range from <0.01 to >10 mg l(-1); and mean, median and range in mean concentrations of 0.30, 0.21 and 0.05-3.38 mg l(-1) (excluding one outlier point), respectively. Within the main rivers and tributaries, the mean fluoride concentration varied from approximately 0.5 to over 2 mg l(-1) and the highest values occurred within the Don basin (Don, Dearne and Rother) and parts of the Trent basin (upper Tame and mid-upper Derbyshire Derwent) in highly industrialised and urbanised areas (Sheffield and Rotherham in the Don basin; Birmingham and Derby on the Trent). For localised inputs to the rivers, fluoride concentrations were slightly higher, and considerably higher in one outlier case. Correspondingly, the other rivers examined typically had mean fluoride concentrations between approximately 0.2 and 0.5 mg l(-1), but fluoride concentrations were lower in the headwater areas. As there is much less information on fluoride levels in upland areas, extensive data collected as part of an acid waters survey are used to show that fluoride concentrations are generally less than 0.1 mg l(-1) for the upland UK. The data are summarised in terms of both fluoride concentrations and flux, and the values are cross-referenced to other determinands collected within LOIS. The high positive correlation with boron and negative correlation with flow show the importance of point source (sewage) inputs of fluoride, while strong positive correlations between fluoride and barium indicate the relative importance of vein mineralisation in the bedrock in supplying fluoride to the waters of the Yorkshire Ouse and its tributaries. There seems to be some process that limits the fluoride

  1. Volatile inventory of Mars-2: Primordial sources and fractionating processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.

    1987-01-01

    The total volatile inventory of Mars has been modeled using meteoritic and presumed primordial abundances in the early solar system. Evidence is presented which indicates that the elemental abundances of the noble gases on Earth and Mars are similar, and their ratios are comparable to those in average carbonaceous chondrites with the exception of xenon and krypton. In order to account for presently observed variations in gas abundances, two primordial sources were used. One was the solar composition similar to the solar wind, and the other of carbonaceous grains that were the source for trace exotic components. For Mars, a model in which the early, high solar EUV flux with continued hydrogen production by differentiation results in mass fractionation of the primordial atmosphere, early depletion of xenon, and later depletion of gases lighter than krypton. The result is that the primordial Mars water inventory may have been on the order of 20 to 30 km if spread over the planet.

  2. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Ma, H.A.; Jia, X.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  3. Microwave Processing of Planetary Surfaces for the Extraction of Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2011-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization will be necessary for sustained exploration of space. Volatiles are present in planetary soils, but water by far has the most potential for effective utilization. The presence of water at the lunar poles, Mars, and possibly on Phobos opens the possibility of producing LOX for propellant. Water is also a useful radiation shielding material , and valuable to replenish expendables (water and oxygen) required for habitation in space. Because of the strong function of water vapor pressure with temperature, heating soil effectively liberates water vapor by sublimation. Microwave energy will penetrate soil and heat from within much more efficiently than heating from the surface with radiant heat. This is especially true under vacuum conditions since the heat transfer rate is very low. The depth of microwave penetration is a strong function of the microwave frequency and to a lesser extent on soil dielectric properties. Methods for complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability measurement are being developed and used for measurements of lunar soil simulants. A new method for delivery of microwaves deep into a planetary surface is being prototyped with laboratory experiments and modeled with COMSOL MultiPhysics. We are planning to set up a planetary testbed in a large vacuum chamber in the coming year. Recent results are discussed.

  4. Hydrothermal processing of cometary volatiles--applications to Triton.

    PubMed

    Shock, E L; McKinnon, W B

    1993-01-01

    Subsequent to its capture by Neptune, Triton could have experienced an episode of tidal heating sufficient to melt its icy mantle and possibly its rocky core as well. This heating would have driven hydrothermal circulation at the core-rock/mantle-ocean boundary. We consider the chemical consequences of this hydrothermal reprocessing on Triton's volatile budget by assuming an initial cometary composition for the icy mantle and evaluating the effects of changes in temperature and oxidation state. We assume that the latter would have been controlled by mineral assemblages in the rock. Such reprocessing could explain the lack of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Triton and its depletion relative to N2 and (apparently) CO2 in the satellite's surface ices. Our calculations also show that whatever the original source of nitrogen in Triton, N2 and/or NH3 are likely abundant products of hydrothermal reprocessing. Depending on the temperature and prevailing oxidation state, acetic acid, ethanol, urea, methanol, and ethanamine are possible important components, in addition to ammonia, of the resulting mantle material. Triton may thus preserve the organic chemistry that might have led to the origin of life in early terrestrial hydrothermal systems. PMID:11540242

  5. Microwave Processing of Planetary Surfaces for Volatile Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2011-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization will be necessary for sustained exploration of space. Volatiles are present in planetary soils, but water by far has the strongest potential for effective utilization. The presence of water at the lunar poles, Mars, and possibly on Phobos opens the possibility of producing LOX for propellant. Water is also a useful radiation shielding material and water (and oxygen) are expendables that are also required for habitation in space. Because of the strong function of water vapor pressure with temperature, heating soil effectively liberates water vapor by sublimation. Microwave energy will penetrate soil and heat from within much more efficiently than heating from the surface with radiant heat. This is especially true under vacuum conditions since the heat transfer rate is very low. The depth of microwave penetration is a strong function of the microwave frequency and to a lesser extent on soil dielectric properties. Methods for measuring the complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are being developed and have been measured for some lunar soil simulants at 0.5, 2.45, and 10 GHz from room temperature down to liquid nitrogen temperature. A new method for delivery of microwaves deep into a planetary surface is being prototyped with laboratory experiments and modeled with COMSOL MultiPhysics. We have plans to set up a planetary testbed in a large vacuum chamber in the coming year. Recent results will be presented.

  6. Identification of transport processes in bioirrigated muddy sediments by [18F]fluoride PET (Positron Emission Tomography).

    PubMed

    Roskosch, Andrea; Lewandowski, Jörg; Bergmann, Ralf; Wilke, Florian; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2010-06-01

    In aquatic environments transport processes across the sediment-water interface are intensified by bioirrigating macrozoobenthos. Transport processes caused by Chironomus plumosus larvae dwelling in U-tubes were investigated by dynamic small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [18F]fluoride. Significant tracer transport from the burrows into the sediment was detected; penetration was deeper at the outlet branch of the burrow than at the inlet branch. Hence, advection plays a significant role in exchange between water in the burrows and muddy sediment. PMID:20185319

  7. The creep process of the domain switching in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B. B.; Chen, Z. H.; Jiang, A. Q.; Zhao, X. L.; Liu, B. L.; Wang, J. L.; Han, L.; Sun, Sh.; Sun, J. L.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The polarization switching behavior in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) thin films is studied by using a pulse transient current method. The dependence of the domain switching current on the coercive electric field was investigated. The charging current around the coercive field was found to be limited by domain switching instead of the series resistor in the measurement circuit because of the slow polarization switching in the films. The domain-switching process was explained by a creep model wherein the two-dimension domain walls motion in the transverse direction dominates the polarization switching process.

  8. REDUCTION OF FLUORIDE TO METAL

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, O.N.; Schmidt, F.A.; Spedding, F.H.

    1960-08-30

    A process is given for making yttrium metal by reducing yttrium fluoride with calcium plus magnesium. Calcium is added in an excess of from 10 to 20% and magnesium in a quantity to yield a magnesium--yttrium alloy containing from 12 to 25% magnesium when the reaction mass is heated in an inert atmosphere at from 900 to 1106 deg C, but preferably above the melting point of the alloy. Calcium chloride may be added so as to obtain a less viscous slag containing from 30 to 60% calcium chloride. After removal of the slag the alloy is vacuum-heated at about 1100 deg C for volatilization of the magnesium and calcium.

  9. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  10. Spillage of Lunar Polar Crater Volatiles onto Adjacent Terrains: The Case for Dynamic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, William M.; Hurley, D M.

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of the release and transport of lunar polar crater volatiles onto topside regions surrounding the cold traps. The volatiles are liberated via surface energization processes associated with the harsh space environment, including solar wind plasma sputtering and impact vaporization. We find that some fraction of these volatiles can migrate from crater floors onto topside regions (those regions directly adjacent to and above the polar crater floors), and that these surrounding terrains should contain a sampling of the material originating within the crater itself. It is concluded that the nature of the volatile content on crater floors can be obtained by sampling the surface volatiles that have migrated or "spilled out" onto the adjacent terrain. This "spillage" effect could make human or robotic prospecting for crater resources significantly easier, since an assessment may not require direct entry into the very harsh polar crater environment. We also suggest that there are dynamic processes actively operating on the crater floors, and we estimate their source rates assuming dynamic equilibrium of the observed water frost and our modeled loss rates.

  11. Spillage of lunar polar crater volatiles onto adjacent terrains: The case for dynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of the release and transport of lunar polar crater volatiles onto topside regions surrounding the cold traps. The volatiles are liberated via surface energization processes associated with the harsh space environment, including solar wind plasma sputtering and impact vaporization. We find that some fraction of these volatiles can migrate from crater floors onto topside regions (those regions directly adjacent to and above the polar crater floors), and that these surrounding terrains should contain a sampling of the material originating within the crater itself. It is concluded that the nature of the volatile content on crater floors can be obtained by sampling the surface volatiles that have migrated or "spilled out" onto the adjacent terrain. This "spillage" effect could make human or robotic prospecting for crater resources significantly easier, since an assessment may not require direct entry into the very harsh polar crater environment. We also suggest that there are dynamic processes actively operating on the crater floors, and we estimate their source rates assuming dynamic equilibrium of the observed water frost and our modeled loss rates.

  12. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  13. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  14. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOEpatents

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2002-01-01

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  15. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  16. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by panning. Panning increased (P < 0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, and methyl salicylate. The GC-O study also showed an increase of aroma active compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  17. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  18. Hydrogen desorption kinetics for aqueous hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasma processed silicon (001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Carter, Richard J.; Schneider, Thomas P.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-09-15

    The desorption kinetics of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from silicon (001) surfaces exposed to aqueous hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasmas were examined using temperature programmed desorption. Multiple H{sub 2} desorption states were observed and attributed to surface monohydride (SiH), di/trihydride (SiH{sub 2/3}), and hydroxide (SiOH) species, subsurface hydrogen trapped at defects, and hydrogen evolved during the desorption of surface oxides. The observed surface hydride species were dependent on the surface temperature during hydrogen plasma exposure with mono, di, and trihydride species being observed after low temperature exposure (150 °C), while predominantly monohydride species were observed after higher temperature exposure (450 °C). The ratio of surface versus subsurface H{sub 2} desorption was also found to be dependent on the substrate temperature with 150 °C remote hydrogen plasma exposure generally leading to more H{sub 2} evolved from subsurface states and 450 °C exposure leading to more H{sub 2} desorption from surface SiH{sub x} species. Additional surface desorption states were observed, which were attributed to H{sub 2} desorption from Si (111) facets formed as a result of surface etching by the remote hydrogen plasma or aqueous hydrogen fluoride treatment. The kinetics of surface H{sub 2} desorption were found to be in excellent agreement with prior investigations of silicon surfaces exposed to thermally generated atomic hydrogen.

  19. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  20. Design and development of sustainable remediation process for mitigation of fluoride contamination in ground water and field application for domestic use.

    PubMed

    Gwala, Poonam; Andey, Subhash; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ghosh, Sarika Pimpalkar; Pal, Prashant; Deshmukh, Prashant; Labhasetwar, Pawan

    2014-08-01

    Decentralised household chemo defluoridation unit (CDU) was developed and designed based on a combination of coagulation and sorption processes. Chemo-defluoridation process was optimised to reduce use of chemicals and increase acceptability among beneficiaries without affecting palatability of water. Chemical dose optimization undertaken in the laboratory using jar test revealed the optimum calcium salt to initial fluoride ratio of 60 for fluoride removal. Performance of CDU was evaluated in the laboratory for removal efficiency, water quality parameters, filter bed cleaning cycle and desorption of fluoride. CDU evaluation in the laboratory with spiked water (5 mg/L) and field water (~4.2 mg/L) revealed treated water fluoride concentration of less than 1mg/L. Seventy five CDUs were installed in households at Sakhara Village, Yavatmal District in Maharashtra State of India. Monthly monitoring of CDUs for one year indicated reduction of the raw water fluoride concentration from around 4 mg/L to less than 1mg/L. Post implementation survey after regular consumption of treated drinking water by the users for one year indicated user satisfaction and technological sustainability. PMID:24560102

  1. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  2. Shrinkage void formation and its effect on freeze and thaw processes of lithium and lithium-fluoride for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jae Y.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of shrinkage void forming during freezing of lithium and lithium fluoride on subsequent thaw processes are investigated using a numerical scheme that is based on a single (solid/liquid) cell approach. Results show that a void forming at the wall appreciably reduces the solid-liquid interface velocity, during both freeze and thaw, and causes a substantial rise in the wall temperature during thaw. However, in the case of Li, the maximum wall temperature was much lower than the melting temperature of PWC-11, which is used as the structure material in the SP-100 system. Hence, it is concluded that a formation of hot spots is unlikely during the startup or restart of the SP-100 system.

  3. Resource Prospector Instrumentation for Lunar Volatiles Prospecting, Sample Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, J.; Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Zacny, Kris; Paz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Data gathered from lunar missions within the last two decades have significantly enhanced our understanding of the volatile resources available on the lunar surface, specifically focusing on the polar regions. Several orbiting missions such as Clementine and Lunar Prospector have suggested the presence of volatile ices and enhanced hydrogen concentrations in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was the first to provide direct measurement of water ice in a permanently shadowed region. These missions with other orbiting assets have laid the groundwork for the next step in the exploration of the lunar surface; providing ground truth data of the volatiles by mapping the distribution and processing lunar regolith for resource extraction. This next step is the robotic mission Resource Prospector (RP). Resource Prospector is a lunar mission to investigate 'strategic knowledge gaps' (SKGs) for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The mission is proposed to land in the lunar south pole near a permanently shadowed crater. The landing site will be determined by the science team with input from broader international community as being near traversable landscape that has a high potential of containing elevated concentrations of volatiles such as water while maximizing mission duration. A rover will host the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload for resource mapping and processing. The science instruments on the payload include a 1-meter drill, neutron spectrometer, a near infrared spectrometer, an operations camera, and a reactor with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer for volatile analysis. After the RP lander safely delivers the rover to the lunar surface, the science team will guide the rover team on the first traverse plan. The neutron spectrometer (NS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrometer instruments will be used as prospecting tools to guide

  4. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  5. METAL RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Werner, L.B.; Hill, O.F.

    1957-12-01

    A process is presented for the separation of plutonium from the niobium oxide which is frequently used as a carrier precipitate to separate the plutonium from solutions of dissolved fuel elements. The niobium oxide, plutonium bearing precipitate is treated with hydrogen fluoride converting the niobium to the volatile pentafluoride, while the plutonium is changed into the substantially non- volatile plutonium tetrafluoride. After the niobium has been removed, the plutonium tetrafluoride is reacted with elemental fluorine, converting it to a higher plutonium fluoride and this may in turn be volitilized away from any residual impurities.

  6. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...

  7. To melt is not enough: Retention of volatile species through internal processing in icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, G.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-07-01

    The outer Solar System hosts a vast population of small icy bodies, considered to be primitive remnants from the planet-formation epoch. Early thermal and collisional processes affected such planetesimals to varying degrees depending on the time scale and dynamics of early planet growth. Recent observations have revealed that many large (>˜1000 km in diameter) transneptunian objects (TNOs) exhibit features of crystalline water ice in their surface spectra [1], as well as spectral features of more volatile ices, such as methane or hydrated ammonia [2]. These telltale observations should be accounted for when considering the alteration history and bulk processing of dwarf planets and their icy progeny. We will discuss preliminary calculations of early evolution scenarios for small icy-rocky bodies formed beyond the water-ice snow line. Such objects should also contain non-negligible fractions of pre-organic volatile compounds. The volatile composition and interior structure of these objects may change considerably due to internal heating and/or collisional modification prior to settling in their current (relatively quiescent) dynamical niches. Our initial model for the objects in question is that of a porous aggregate of various volatile compounds (as ices or trapped gases) and refractory silicate-metal solid grains, comprising the bulk matrix [3]. Chemical compositions for these objects are taken from existing simulations of chemical and dynamical evolution of disk material [4]. The key volatile species (e.g., H_2O, CO, CO_2, NH_3, CH_4, and CH_3OH) are also the most commonly observed in comets [5], which are remnants of such an early planetesimal population. Thermal and chemical internal evolution is examined self-consistently, as the abundances and locations of all species evolve, and we record mass ratios, temperatures, pressures, and porosity variations. The presence of volatile species in the interior can affect the overall heat balance and accompanied phase

  8. Method of treating fluoride contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.; Kakaria, V.K.

    1988-04-05

    A method for treating spent aluminum smelting potliner material containing fluoride contaminants is described which comprises: adding silica to the material to form a mixture thereof; elevating the temperature of the mixture within the range of 1,000/sup 0/ to 1,700/sup 0/C. to form a slag; providing sufficient silica in the mixture and forming the slag in the presence of sufficient water for pyrohydrolysis conditions resulting in the volatilization of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants mostly in the form of hydrogen fluoride; and cooling the slag remaining after volatilizatiion of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants to produce an insoluble silicate glass-residue containing any remaining portion of the fluoride contaminants in an immobile state.

  9. Rendering plant emissions of volatile organic compounds during sterilization and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Z A; Maqbool, F; Langenhove, H V

    2014-01-01

    The rendering process emits odorous volatile compounds in the atmosphere; if these volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not handled properly they can cause a serious environmental problem. During this process not all emitted compounds are odorous and hazardous but some of them have been found associated with health problems. Samples were collected in the plastic bags from the Arnout rendering plant. In this study, VOCs emission from two different processes (cooking and sterilization) was compared. For the analysis of various emitted compounds, gas chromatograph and mass spectrophotometer were used. A sterilization process was added in the rendering plant to inactivate the prion protein from meat bone meal prepared during the rendering process. The identification of mass spectrum was performed by using a mass spectral database system. The most odorous classes of compounds identified were aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) (29.24%), furans (28.74%), aromatic HCs (18.32%), most important sulphur-containing compounds (12.15%), aldehyde (10.91%) and ketones (0.60%). Emissions released during cooking and sterilization were 32.73 x 10(2) and 36.85 x 10(2) mg m(-3), respectively. In this study, it was observed that after the addition of the sterilization process VOCs' emissions were increased. A total of 87 mg m(-3) dimethyl disulphide (DMS) was detected only during the cooking process, whereas dimethly trisulphide (DMTS) was detected in both cooking (300 mg m(-3)) and sterilization (301 mg m(-3)) processes. About 11 mg m3 of DMS was detected during the cooking process, which was a small concentration compared with 299 mg m(-3) found during the sterilization process. At high temperature and pressure, DMTS and DMS were released more than any other sulphur-containing compounds. A condenser was applied to control the combined emission and it was successful in the reduction of VOCs to 22.83 x 10(2) mg m(-3) (67% reduction). PMID:24701929

  10. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  11. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi; Ke, Fei; Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-07-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3-10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  12. On the connection between financial processes with stochastic volatility and nonextensive statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queirós, S. M. D.; Tsallis, C.

    2005-11-01

    The GARCH algorithm is the most renowned generalisation of Engle's original proposal for modelising returns, the ARCH process. Both cases are characterised by presenting a time dependent and correlated variance or volatility. Besides a memory parameter, b, (present in ARCH) and an independent and identically distributed noise, ω, GARCH involves another parameter, c, such that, for c=0, the standard ARCH process is reproduced. In this manuscript we use a generalised noise following a distribution characterised by an index qn, such that qn=1 recovers the Gaussian distribution. Matching low statistical moments of GARCH distribution for returns with a q-Gaussian distribution obtained through maximising the entropy Sq=1-sumipiq/q-1, basis of nonextensive statistical mechanics, we obtain a sole analytical connection between q and left( b,c,qnright) which turns out to be remarkably good when compared with computational simulations. With this result we also derive an analytical approximation for the stationary distribution for the (squared) volatility. Using a generalised Kullback-Leibler relative entropy form based on Sq, we also analyse the degree of dependence between successive returns, zt and zt+1, of GARCH(1,1) processes. This degree of dependence is quantified by an entropic index, qop. Our analysis points the existence of a unique relation between the three entropic indexes qop, q and qn of the problem, independent of the value of (b,c).

  13. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  14. Purex Processing of Dissolved Sand, Slag, and Crucible Containing High Levels of Boric Acid and Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.A.

    1998-05-01

    The plutonium solution obtained from the dissolution of SSC in F- Canyon will be high in fluoride. Flowsheet adjustments must be made to increase the plutonium extraction in the solvent extraction cycle to keep Pu losses from being excessive.

  15. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield. PMID:27570139

  16. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  17. Influence of processing on the volatile profile of strawberry spreads made with isomaltulose.

    PubMed

    Peinado, I; Rosa, E; Heredia, A; Escriche, I; Andrés, A

    2013-05-01

    A new strawberry spread formulated with fructose and isomaltulose (replacing sucrose partially or totally) and a high percentage of fruit was developed in line with the new trend of healthier products. This work studies the influence of some process variables (percentage of sugar, pectin and citric acid, and time of thermal treatment) on the volatile profile of these spreads with different formulations. The ripeness of the raw strawberries influences the concentrations of some of the compounds in the spreads, such as isobutyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 3-hexen-1-yl acetate or propan-2-ol. The process conditions have an important effect on the volatile profiles. Most of the esters and alcohols decreased whereas 13 new compounds appear, mostly furans (furfural, 2-acetylfurane, 5-methyl furfural, mesifurane) and aldehydes (octanal, nonanal, decanal and benzaldeyhde). In general, the spreads formulated with sucrose-isomaltulose that contained higher levels of pectin and citric acid gave better results in the preservation of the original aromatic compounds in raw strawberries. PMID:23265532

  18. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions. PMID:25877687

  19. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or

  20. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part I. The role and kinetics of volatile reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2005-10-06

    With iron ore reduction processes using coal-ore pellets or mixtures, it is possible that volatiles can contribute to reduction. By simulating the constituents of the individual reducing species in the volatiles, the rates for H{sub 2} and CO were investigated in the temperature and reduction range of interest; hydrogen is the major reductant and was studied in detail. The kinetics of the reduction by H{sub 2} has been found to be a complex mechanism with, initially, nucleation and growth controlling the rate. There is a catalytic effect by the existing iron nuclei, followed by a mixed control of chemical kinetics and pore diffusion. This results in a topochemical reduction of these iron oxide particles. Up to 1173 K, reduction by H{sub 2} is considerably faster than by carbon in the pellet/mixture or by CO. It was also found that H{sub 2}S, which is involved with the volatiles, does not affect the rate at the reduction range of interest.

  1. An investigation of voids formation mechanisms and their effects on freeze and thaw processes of lithium and lithium fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Yang, Jae-Young

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of void formation during the cooldown and freezing of lithium coolant within the primary loop of SP-100 type systems are investigated. These mechanisms are: (1) homogeneous nucleation; (2) heterogeneous nucleation; (3) normal segregation of helium gas dissolved in liquid lithium; and (4) shrinkage of lithium during freezing. To evaluate the void formation potential due to segregation, a numerical scheme that couples the freezing and mass diffusion processes in both the solid and liquid regions is developed. The results indicated that the formation of He bubbles is unlikely by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation during the cooldown process. However, homogeneous nucleation of He bubbles following the segregation of dissolved He in liquid lithium ahead of the solid-liquid interface is likely to occur. Results also show that total volume of He void is insignificant when compared to that of shrinkage voids. In viewing this, the subsequent research focuses on the effects of shrinkage void forming during freezing of lithium on subsequent thaw processes are investigated using a numerical scheme that is based on a single (solid/liquid) cell approach. The cases of lithium-fluoride are also investigated to show the effect of larger volume shrinkage upon freezing on the freeze and thaw processes. Results show that a void forming at the wall appreciably reduces the solid-liquid interface velocity, during both freeze and thaw, and causes a substantial rise in the wall temperature during thaw. However, in the case of Li, the maximum wall temperature was much lower than the melting temperature of PWC-11, which is used as the structure material in the SP-100 system. Hence, it is included that a formation of hot spots is unlikely during the startup or restart of the SP-100 system.

  2. 252Cf-source-correlated transmission measurements for uranyl fluoride deposit in a 24-in-OD process pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uckan, T.; Wyatt, M. S.; Mihalczo, J. T.; Valentine, T. E.; Mullens, J. A.; Hannon, T. F.

    1999-02-01

    Characterization of a hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO 2F 2· nH 2O) deposit in a 17 ft long, 24 in OD process pipe at the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant was successfully performed using 252Cf-source-correlated time-of-flight (TOF) transmission measurements. These measurements of neutrons and gamma rays through the pipe from an external 252Cf fission source were used to measure the deposit profile and its distribution along the pipe, the hydration (or H/U), and the total uranium mass. The measurements were performed with a source in an ionization chamber on one side of the pipe and detectors on the other. Scanning the pipe vertically and horizontally produced a spatial and time-dependent radiograph of the deposit in which transmitted gamma rays and neutrons were separated in time. The cross-correlation function between the source and the detector was measured with the Nuclear Weapons Identification System. After correcting for pipe effects, the deposit thickness was determined from the transmitted neutrons and H/U from the gamma rays. Results were consistent with a later intrusive observation of the shape and the color of the deposit; i.e., the deposit was annular and was on the top of the pipe at some locations, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for deposit characterization.

  3. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infants can only get fluoride through drinking infant formulas. Breast milk has a negligible amount of fluoride ... of water to use in concentrated or powdered formulas. DO NOT use any fluoride supplement without talking ...

  4. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  5. Formation of Volatile Tea Constituent Indole During the Oolong Tea Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Gui, Jiadong; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Zhen, Yunpeng; Ye, Tingxiang; Du, Bing; Dong, Fang; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-06-22

    Indole is a characteristic volatile constituent in oolong tea. Our previous study indicated that indole was mostly accumulated at the turn over stage of oolong tea manufacturing process. However, formation of indole in tea leaves remains unknown. In this study, one tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) and three tryptophan synthase β-subunits (TSBs) from tea leaves were isolated, cloned, sequenced, and functionally characterized. Combination of CsTSA and CsTSB2 recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibited the ability of transformation from indole-3-glycerol phosphate to indole. CsTSB2 was highly expressed during the turn over process of oolong tea. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced the expression level of CsTSB2 and amount of indole. These suggested that accumulation of indole in oolong tea was due to the activation of CsTSB2 by continuous wounding stress from the turn over process. Black teas contain much less indole, although wounding stress is also involved in the manufacturing process. Stable isotope labeling indicated that tea leaf cell disruption from the rolling process of black tea did not lead to the conversion of indole, but terminated the synthesis of indole. Our study provided evidence concerning formation of indole in tea leaves for the first time. PMID:27263428

  6. Modeling of the sorption and diffusion processes of volatile organic air pollutants in grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Górna-Binkul, A; Kaczmarski, K; Buszewski, B

    2001-06-01

    A mathematical model for the description of the sorption and diffusion processes of gaseous toluene and p-xylene in fruits of grape has been proposed. This model is based on the Fick's II low regarding a particle with a spherical shape (such as the berry of grapevine) and describes changes of air pollutant concentrations in different layers of the fruit, that is, the wax, peel, and pulp, during an exposure to contaminated air. The mass transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients in the respective layers can be estimated using the experimental values. The theoretical data and the results from the exposure under steady-state laboratory conditions were compared and showed a good applicability of the proposed model for the prediction of volatile air pollutant partitioning in grape berries. PMID:11409983

  7. Effect of high pressure high temperature processing on the volatile fraction of differently coloured carrots.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Carle, Reinhold; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-06-15

    To get deeper insight into the effect of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing on the volatile fraction of carrots, differently coloured cultivars exhibiting orange, purple, red and yellow hues were investigated. The impact of HPHT sterilisation was compared with thermal sterilisation based on equivalent microbiological inactivation. The results of this study demonstrated HPHT sterilisation to exert a distinct effect on important chemical reactions in comparison to thermal sterilisation. A comprehensive integration of MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and chemometric tools has been implemented as an untargeted multivariate screening tool to identify differences. In all carrot cultivars, two dominant discriminative quality-related reactions were found: oxidative degradation and the Maillard reaction. Regarding the first reaction, oxidative terpenes, free fatty acids and carotenoids degradation products were detected at higher levels after HPHT sterilisation. Regarding the latter reaction, HPHT sterilisation appeared to suppress the formation of Maillard and Strecker degradation products. PMID:24491739

  8. Power consumption and byproducts in electron beam and electrical discharge processing of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-02-20

    Among the new methods being investigated for the post-process reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric-pressure air streams are based on non-thermal plasmas. Electron beam, pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge methods are among the more extensively investigated techniques for producing non-thermal plasmas. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. In this paper the authors present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, a pulsed corona and a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. They have used these reactors to study the removal of a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. They present a description of the reactions that control the efficiency of the plasma process. They have found that pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge reactors are most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For VOCs requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the use of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption. Electron beam processing is remarkably more effective for all of the VOCs tested. For control of VOC emissions from dilute, large volume sources such as paint spray booths, cost analysis shows that the electron beam method is cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  9. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or

  10. The changes in the volatile aldehydes formed during the deep-fat frying process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen; Lin, Derong; Shen, Qun; Saleh, Ahmed S M

    2015-12-01

    Volatile aldehydes (VAs) formed during soybean oil (SBO) heating, wheat dough (WD) frying, and chicken breast meat (CBM) frying processes were comparatively investigated by solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that relative amounts (RAs) of the most detected VAs were firstly increased to maximum values in oil samples collected at the second hour of the seventh day and the values were then decreased with the increase in the time of oil heating process (control). However, for food frying processes, the time needed for reaching maximum RAs of VAs was shorter and the values were decreased with the increase in frying time. Significant change in contents of the VAs was observed for oil samples fried with CBM due to the high contents of water, protein, and lipid content compared to oil samples fried with WD. Based on the obtained results, free radical reaction, particularly positional isomerization and cis-trans isomerization, was deduced to occur when WD or CBM was fried in SBO. The relatively high RAs of VAs formed during the deep-fat frying process presented certain invaluable measures for evaluating of frying oil and fried food quality and safety. PMID:26604343

  11. Effect of chemical composition and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Serrano dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Serrano dry-cured hams with different salt and intramuscular fat contents was investigated. In addition, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 6 min at 21°C on the volatile compounds of those hams was studied. One hundred volatile compounds were identified and their levels subjected to analysis of variance with ham chemical composition (aw, salt content, intramuscular fat content and salt in lean ratio) and HPP treatment as main effects. Chemical composition mainly affected the relative abundance of acids, alcohols, branched-chain aldehydes, ketones, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Salt content and fat content influenced a greater number of volatile compounds than aw. High pressure processing had a significant effect on only 8 volatile compounds, with higher levels of methanethiol and sulfur dioxide in HPP-treated samples and higher levels of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide in control untreated samples. PMID:26398007

  12. Differential Volatile Signatures from Skin, Naevi and Melanoma: A Novel Approach to Detect a Pathological Process

    PubMed Central

    Abaffy, Tatjana; Duncan, Robert; Riemer, Daniel D.; Tietje, Olaf; Elgart, George; Milikowski, Clara; DeFazio, R. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background Early detection of melanoma is of great importance to reduce mortality. Discovering new melanoma biomarkers would improve early detection and diagnosis. Here, we present a novel approach to detect volatile compounds from skin. Methods and Findings We used Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify volatile signatures from melanoma, naevi and skin samples. We hypothesized that the metabolic state of tissue alters the profile of volatile compounds. Volatiles released from fresh biopsy tissue of melanoma and benign naevus were compared based on their difference in frequency distribution and their expression level. We also analyzed volatile profiles from frozen tissue, including skin and melanoma. Conclusions Three volatiles, 4-methyl decane, dodecane and undecane were preferentially expressed in both fresh and frozen melanoma, indicating that they are candidate biomarkers. Twelve candidate biomarkers evaluated by fuzzy logic analysis of frozen samples distinguished melanoma from skin with 89% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Our results demonstrate proof-of-principle that there is differential expression of volatiles in melanoma. Our volatile metabolomic approach will lead to a better understanding of melanoma and can enable development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies based on altered metabolism. PMID:21079799

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

  14. Evaluation of lead recovery efficiency from waste CRT funnel glass by chlorinating volatilization process.

    PubMed

    Erzat, Aris; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to develop a novel process, namely chloride volatilization procedure for lead recovery from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. In the recovery system, the glass powder was first compressed into cylindrical pellet homogeneously with chlorinating agents, and then subjected to thermal treatment for solid-phase reaction. In this case, lead could be easily released from the silicon oxide network of the glass and it was recovered in the form of PbCl₂. It was found that CaCl2 was the most effective chlorinating agent, and the optimum operation temperature, holding time and system pressure were 1000 °C, 2 h, 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. The evaporated PbCl₂could be easily recovered by a cooling device. The evaporation ratio of lead from waste CRT was 99.1% and the purity of the recovered PbCl₂product was 97.0%. The reaction routes and lead recovery mechanisms of the process were identified. This study provides an efficient and practical process for waste CRT funnel glass detoxification and recycling. PMID:25176480

  15. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes How Does Fluoride Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Does Fluoride Work? Print A A A Text Size There's fluoride ... even in your water. But how does it work to keep teeth healthy? Let's find out. Fluoride ...

  16. Effects of high pressure processing on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat meat.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geunho; Cho, Soohyun; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Donghun; Kim, Youngjun; Kang, Sunmun; Park, Kyoungmi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat (KNBG) meat. Fatty acid content in KNBG meat was not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the control goats and those subjected HPP. The 9,12-octadecadienoic acid and octadecanoic acid, well-known causes of off-flavors, were detected from meat of some KNBG. A difference between the control and HPP treatment was observed in the discriminated function analysis using an electronic nose. The results suggest that the volatile compounds in KNBG meat were affected by HPP. PMID:23644220

  17. COMPARISON OF TWO HS-SPME FIBERS FOR THE DETECTION OF VOLATILE CHEMICAL CONCENTRATION CHANGES DUE TO INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) with two polymeric coatings, polydimethyl siloxane and polyacrylate (PDMS and PA), was used to isolate and quantitate orange juice volatile compounds from the headspace of fresh orange juice after the finishing, deaeration, and pasteurization processes. The result...

  18. Improved process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons under varying wind speeds and gas bubbling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the lagoon water total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model using a...

  19. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers. PMID:24640895

  20. Effect of high-pressure-moderate-temperature processing on the volatile profile of milk.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Torres, J Antonio; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-29

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure on volatile generation in milk were investigated in this study. Raw milk samples were treated under different pressures (482, 586, and 620 MPa), temperatures (25 and 60 degrees C), and holding times (1, 3, and 5 min). Samples submitted to heat treatments alone (25, 60, and 80 degrees C for 1, 3, and 5 min) were used for comparison. Trace volatile sulfur compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) with pulsed-flame photometric detection (PFPD), whereas the rest of the volatile compounds were analyzed using SPME-GC with flame ionization detection (FID). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the effect of pressure, temperature, and time on volatile generation. Relative concentration increases of 27 selected volatile compounds were compared to an untreated sample. It was found that pressure, temperature, and time, as well as their interactions, all had significant effects (P < 0.001) on volatile generation in milk. Pressure and time effects were significant at 60 degrees C, whereas their effects were almost negligible at 25 degrees C. The PCA plot indicated that the volatile generation of pressure-heated samples at 60 degrees C was different from that of heated-alone samples. Heat treatment tended to promote the formation of methanethiol, hydrogen sulfide, methyl ketones, and aldehydes, whereas high-pressure treatment favored the formation of hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes. PMID:17117808

  1. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

    2014-02-21

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon. PMID:24468241

  2. Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

  3. Occupational exposure to volatile nitrosamines in foundries using the Ashland core-making process

    SciTech Connect

    Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R.; Maire, C.; Mavelle, T.; Bouchikhi, B.; Derby, G.

    1988-10-01

    Eight foundries using the Ashland process for the production of cores were surveyed to assess the occupational exposure to carcinogenic volatile nitrosamines. Personal and area samples were collected by means of artifact-free cartridges during the core-making and the molding/casting/shake-out operations. Analyses were carried out with gas chromatography/Hall detector and gas chromatography/TEA (thermal energy analyzer) for validation. The core-making workshops had the highest concentration for at least two nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosoethylmethylamine (NEMA), but the levels of NDMA never exceeded 0.35 microgram/m3 with an arithmetic mean between 0.23 and 0.02 microgram/m3. In a number of samplings, two other peaks, both on TEA and Hall detector, could not be identified. The foundries per se (molding/casting/shake-out) had lower nitrosamine levels (CNDMAmax = 0.15 microgram/m3, CNDMA less than 0.03 microgram/m3). For the first time NEMA was identified as an industrial contaminant in foundries but its concentration was always lower than that of NDMA. The nitrosamines found were presumably produced from dimethylethylamine (DMEA). Industries producing or using tertiary or secondary amines should be controlled for their possible nitrosamine contamination.

  4. Oxidation of diesel-generated volatile organic compounds in the selective catalytic reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1998-10-01

    The main part of the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) contained in diesel exhaust ({approx}80%) is oxidized to CO and CO{sub 2} over an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst. CO is the major product of this oxidation, representing about 50--70% of the formed products (CO + CO{sub 2}). This preferential formation of CO leads to a pronounced increase of CO emissions when an SCR process is added to a diesel engine. A small fraction of the VOCs is selectively oxidized to carboxylic acids over the SCR catalyst. This selectivity is due to the acidic properties of the catalyst causing the preferential desorption at the oxidation state of the acid. The main products of these oxidation reactions are the lower monocarboxylic acids and some dicarboxylic acids forming stable anhydrides, especially maleic and phthalic acid. The highest emissions of these acids are found at low temperatures; they decrease at higher temperatures. Formic acid is preferentially decomposed into carbon monoxide and water. It must therefore be assumed that the strong increase of CO mentioned above is due to a mechanism involving the thermal decomposition of formic acid formed from various primary VOCs.

  5. Coupled interactions between volatile activity and Fe oxidation state during arc crustal processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Brooker, R; Fraser, D.C.; Burgisser, A; Mangan, Margaret T.; McCammon, C

    2015-01-01

    Arc magmas erupted at the Earth’s surface are commonly more oxidized than those produced at mid-ocean ridges. Possible explanations for this high oxidation state are that the transfer of fluids during the subduction process results in direct oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge, or that oxidation is caused by the effect of later crustal processes, including protracted fractionation and degassing of volatile-rich magmas. This study sets out to investigate the effect of disequilibrium crustal processes that may involve coupled changes in H2O content and Fe oxidation state, by examining the degassing and hydration of sulphur-free rhyolites. We show that experimentally hydrated melts record strong increases in Fe3+/∑Fe with increasing H2O concentration as a result of changes in water activity. This is relevant for the passage of H2O-undersaturated melts from the deep crust towards shallow crustal storage regions, and raises the possibility that vertical variations in fO2 might develop within arc crust. Conversely, degassing experiments produce an increase in Fe3+/∑Fe with decreasing H2O concentration. In this case the oxidation is explained by loss of H2 as well as H2O into bubbles during decompression, consistent with thermodynamic modelling, and is relevant for magmas undergoing shallow degassing en route to the surface. We discuss these results in the context of the possible controls on fO2 during the generation, storage and ascent of magmas in arc settings, in particular considering the timescales of equilibration relative to observation as this affects the quality of the petrological record of magmatic fO2.

  6. Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Possibility of Exposure to By-product Volatile Organic Compounds in Photolithography Processes in Semiconductor Manufacturing Factories

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Hee; Yi, Gwang Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Park, Hae-Dong; Kim, Kab-Bae; Lee, In-Seop

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of volatile organic compound (VOC)s originated from the chemicals used and/or derived from the original parental chemicals in the photolithography processes of semiconductor manufacturing factories. Methods A total of four photolithography processes in 4 Fabs at three different semiconductor manufacturing factories in Korea were selected for this study. This study investigated the types of chemicals used and generated during the photolithography process of each Fab, and the concentration levels of VOCs for each Fab. Results A variety of organic compounds such as ketone, alcohol, and acetate compounds as well as aromatic compounds were used as solvents and developing agents in the processes. Also, the generation of by-products, such as toluene and phenol, was identified through a thermal decomposition experiment performed on a photoresist. The VOC concentration levels in the processes were lower than 5% of the threshold limit value (TLV)s. However, the air contaminated with chemical substances generated during the processes was re-circulated through the ventilation system, thereby affecting the airborne VOC concentrations in the photolithography processes. Conclusion Tens of organic compounds were being used in the photolithography processes, though the types of chemical used varied with the factory. Also, by-products, such as aromatic compounds, could be generated during photoresist patterning by exposure to light. Although the airborne VOC concentrations resulting from the processes were lower than 5% of the TLVs, employees still could be exposed directly or indirectly to various types of VOCs. PMID:22953204

  7. Method of making porous ceramic fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Reiner, Robert H.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for making a porous ceramic composite where fumed silica particles are coated with a nitrate, preferably aluminum nitrate. Next the nitrate is converted to an oxide and formed into a desired configuration. This configuration is heated to convert the oxide to an oxide silicate which is then react with HF, resulting in the fluoride ceramic, preferably aluminum fluoride.

  8. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water Print A ... to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  9. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  10. A novel energy-efficient plasma chemical process for the destruction of volatile toxic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Ma, C.Y.L.

    1997-09-01

    'The objective of this research program is to develop new plasma chemical processes for the destruction of volatile toxic compounds (VTCs) in contaminated air streams where the contamination levels are below a few percent. The authors plan to exploit the large cross sections associated with dissociative electron attachment to highly excited molecular states. Such highly excited states are to be populated in glow discharges via excitation transfer from high- lying, metastable states of rare gases. Basic knowledge of the excitation transfer processes and the electron attachment processes are crucial to the development of the proposed techniques, and these processes will be studied in detail.'

  11. Influence of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on profiles of volatile compounds in dry-cured bacon during processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the formation of volatile compounds in bacons during processing using a purge and trap dynamic headspace GC/MS system. Three substitutions were 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). The profiles of the volatile ...

  12. Nitrogen compounds in must and volatile profile of white wine: Influence of clarification process before alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Burin, Vívian Maria; Caliari, Vinícius; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding a fining agent to the must in relation to the fermentation kinetics and the volatile composition of the wine produced. Three fining agents, bentonite, pectinolytic enzyme and silica were applied, separately, to samples of Chardonnay must. It was observed that the addition of a fining agent had a significant influence on the must and wine composition. The must clarified with bentonite showed the lowest nitrogen content and the enzyme addition led to the highest nitrogen content. During the fermentation process, a difference in the consumption rate was observed for each amino acid in relation to the fining agent used in the process. In relation to the volatile composition, the wine produced had different characteristics according to the fining agent added to the must, which was confirmed by separation of the samples using principal component analysis. PMID:26920313

  13. Fluoridation update 2014.

    PubMed

    Allukian, Myron; Wong, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    This year more than 4 million people living in 140 communities in Massachusetts will have the health and economic benefits of community water fluoridation. However Massachusetts is ranked only 37th in the country for fluoridation, with just 62 percent of the population on a public water supply living in fluoridated communities. Nationally, more than 210 million Americans, about 74.6 percent of the U.S. population on a community water supply live in fluoridated communities. PMID:25226771

  14. Thermogenic respiratory processes drive the exponential increase of volatile organic compound emissions in Macrozamia cycad cones.

    PubMed

    Terry, L Irene; Roemer, Robert B; Booth, David T; Moore, Chris J; Walter, Gimme H

    2016-07-01

    An important outcome of plant thermogenesis is increased emissions of volatiles that mediate pollinator behaviour. We investigated whether the large increase in emissions, mainly the monoterpene ß-myrcene (>90%), during daily thermogenic events of Macrozamia macleayi and lucida cycad cones are due solely to the influence of high cone temperatures or are, instead, a result of increased respiratory rates during thermogenesis. We concurrently measured temperature, oxygen consumption and ß-myrcene emission profiles during thermogenesis of pollen cones under typical environmental temperatures and during experimental manipulations of cone temperatures and aerobic conditions, all in the dark. The exponential rise in ß-myrcene emissions never occurred without a prior, large increase in respiration, whereas an increase in cone temperature alone did not increase emissions. When respiration during thermogenesis was interrupted by anoxic conditions, ß-myrcene emissions decreased. The increased emission rates are not a result of increased cone temperature per se (through increased enzyme activity or volatilization of stored volatiles) but are dependent on biosynthetic pathways associated with increased respiration during thermogenesis that provide the carbon, energy (ATP) and reducing compounds (NADPH) required for ß-myrcene production through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. These findings establish the significant contribution of respiration to volatile production during thermogenesis. PMID:26924274

  15. A NOVEL ENERGY-EFFICIENT PLASMA CHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of low-concentrations (below several percent) of toxic volatile compounds from contaminated air streams is encountered at DOE waste sites in two instances:(i) off-gases resulting from air-stripping of contaminated soils and (ii) effluent from the incineration of highly-co...

  16. SCREENING PROCESSED MILK FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for o...

  17. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

    2011-11-01

    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  18. Analysis of the volatile components emitted from cut tobacco processing by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry thermal desorption system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiang; Sha, Yunfei; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan; Chen, Chaoying; Fang, Dingye

    2012-11-15

    A sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of volatile components emitted from cut tobacco processing using thermal desorption (TD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the work, to obtain the optimal sorbent, three commercial sorbents were compared in terms of adsorption efficiency. The carbotrap 349 was found to have the best performance. The desorption conditions were also studied. Validation of the TD-GC-MS method showed good sensibility, linearity and precision. Limits of detection ranges were from 0.20 to 3.6 ng. Calibration curves were obtained by plotting peak area versus concentration and the correlation coefficients relating to linearity were at least 0.9984. The analysis was reproducible, with relative standard deviation (n=8) within 6.5%. The target compound breakthrough examination showed no significant losses when about 1500 ng standards were prepared. In order to evaluate the performance of the analytical method in the volatile constituents of cut tobacco, samples were taken in industrial areas of cut tobacco processing. Recoveries ranged from 85.1% to 110% for all the compounds and good precision had been reached (RSD<13.3). The results proved that TD-GC-MS was a simple, rapid and accurate method for the analysis of volatile compounds emitted from cut tobacco drying step. PMID:23158312

  19. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  20. Changes in physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds throughout the manufacturing process of dry-cured foal loin.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Carballo, J

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical, textural, lipolytic and volatile compound changes that occur during the manufacture of dry-cured foal loin were studied. Hardness and chewiness increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1.67 kg and 0.48 kg ∗ mm to 18.33 kg and 5.01 kg∗mm, respectively during ripening process. The total average content of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.001), from 768.8 mg/100g of fat in the loins immediately after the seasoning period to 1271.1mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening period. In the final product, aldehydes became the dominant volatile compounds. PMID:25280362

  1. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Results: Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother’s milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Conclusion: Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their

  2. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    process. It was observed in the laboratory simulated production of fluoride cement, that the clinkering temperature is much lower (around 1 170 °C) compared to that for the production of ordinary Portland cement. The other observed differences were attributed to the different mineralogical composition as a result of fluoride incorporation into the cement. While fluorine content is very minimal in fluoride cement, not more than 2 %, the resulting cementitious products are altered significantly as was observed from the study. Part of the experimental results has been used as reference material in the preparation of a draft Malawi Standard on fluoride cement. This draft standard will be submitted to the Malawi Bureau of Standards for further processing before it can be officially endorsed as a Malawi Standard.

  3. Temporal variation, regional sources, and removal processes of volatile organic compounds in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Rachel S.

    This dissertation describes three research projects with the common objective of characterizing the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on air quality in New England using measurements made over multiple years (2002-2008) and from different sampling locations. The specific objectives include identifying sources (direct emission or secondary production), quantifying mixing ratios, and characterizing the chemical (i.e., oxidation, photolysis) and physical (i.e., transport, mixing) processes which regulate the distributions of VOCs in the troposphere over southeastern New Hampshire. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the seasonal and interannual variability of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), selected halocarbons, and alkyl nitrates using measurements from canister samples collected at Thompson Farm in Durham, NH throughout January 2004-February 2008. Several anthropogenic and biogenic sources of NMHCs and halocarbons were identified based on correlations with tracer compounds and comparisons with source signatures. Additionally, evidence for the dry deposition of alkyl nitrates of night was observed which is a previously unaccounted for removal mechanism. Analysis of alkyl nitrate/parent hydrocarbon ratios, measurements made onboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study, and canister samples collected throughout the Great Bay estuary in August 2003 are presented to assess the relative contributions of anthropogenic and marine sources of alkyl nitrates. The research described in Chapter 4 used measurements of VOCs made at an inland (Thompson Farm) and an offshore (Appledore Island) site to identify evidence of chlorine initiated oxidation of VOCs, estimate chlorine atom (Cl) concentrations during two summers and for different transport sectors, and assess the potential influence of chlorine chemistry on the oxidative capacity of the troposphere over coastal New Hampshire. Comparable Cl concentrations were estimated using a novel

  4. Measurement of plutonium and americium volatilities under thermal process conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krikorian, O.H.; Condit, R.H.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.; Magana, J.W.; Morris, W.F.; Adamson, M.G.

    1993-04-28

    We have used the transpiration method to measure volatilities of Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}(s) and PuO{sub 2}/2% AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures of 1230--1430 K. We find the volatile species to be PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) at vapor pressures on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} atm and 10 {sup {minus}12} atm respectively under measurement conditions. For the Pu volatilization reaction, PuO{sub 2}(s) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain a free energy of reaction of {Delta}G{sup O}{sub T} = 231.3--0.0109 T in kj/mol, and for the Am volatilization reaction, AmO{sub 2}(s.s. in PuO{sub 2}) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain AG{sup O}{sub T} = 223.9--0.0109 T in kj/mol. We apply these results to the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator to assess the amount of volatile Pu and Am produced in the secondary combustor chamber. Taking operating conditions of 550C combustor temperature, 40 kmols/h of total gas flow at 1 atm pressure, 0.1 atm 0{sub 2}(9), 0.05 atm H{sub 2}0(g), PuO{sub 2} (s) containing 200 ppm AmO{sub 2} in the bed, and 6000 h of operating time per year, gives volatilization rates of 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}6}g Pu and 4 {times} 10 {sup {minus}9}g Am/y.

  5. High-pressure processing decelerates lipolysis and formation of volatile compounds in ovine milk blue-veined cheese.

    PubMed

    Calzada, J; Del Olmo, A; Picon, A; Gaya, P; Nuñez, M

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme-rich cheeses are prone to over-ripening during refrigerated storage. Blue-veined cheeses fall within this category because of the profuse growth of Penicillium roqueforti in their interior, which results in the production of highly active proteinases, lipases, and other enzymes responsible for the formation of a great number of flavor compounds. To control the excessive formation of free fatty acids (FFA) and volatile compounds, blue-veined cheeses were submitted to high-pressure processing (HPP) at 400 or 600 MPa on d 21, 42, or 63 after manufacture. Cheeses were ripened for 30d at 10°C and 93% relative humidity, followed by 60 d at 5°C, and then held at 3°C until d 360. High-pressure processing influenced the concentrations of acetic acid and short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain FFA. The effect was dependent on treatment conditions (pressure level and cheese age at the time of treatment). The lowest concentrations of acetic acid and FFA were recorded for cheeses treated at 600 MPa on d 21; these cheeses showed the lowest esterase activity values. Acetic acid and all FFA groups increased during ripening and refrigerated storage. The 102 volatile compounds detected in cheese belonged to 10 chemical groups (5 aldehydes, 12 ketones, 17 alcohols, 12 acids, 35 esters, 9 hydrocarbons, 5 aromatic compounds, 3 nitrogen compounds, 3 terpenes, and 1 sulfur compound). High-pressure processing influenced the levels of 97 individual compounds, whereas 68 individual compounds varied during refrigerated storage. Total concentrations of all groups of volatile compounds were influenced by HPP, but only ketones, acids, esters, and sulfur compounds varied during refrigerated storage. The lowest total concentrations for most groups of volatile compounds were recorded for the cheese pressurized at 600 MPa on d 21. A principal component analysis combining total concentrations of groups of FFA and volatile compounds discriminated cheeses by age and by the pressure level

  6. Acidification of In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) process to reduce ammonia volatilization: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Madani-Hosseini, Mahsa; Mulligan, Catherine N; Barrington, Suzelle

    2016-06-01

    In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is an ambient temperature treatment system for wastewaters stored for over 100days under temperate climates, which produces a nitrogen rich digestate susceptible to ammonia (NH3) volatilization. Present acidification techniques reducing NH3 volatilization are not only expensive and with secondary environmental effects, but do not apply to ISPAD relying on batch-to-batch inoculation. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate sequential organic loading (OL) strategies producing imbalances in acidogen and methanogen growth, acidifying ISPAD content one week before emptying to a pH of 6, while also preserving the inoculation potential. This acidification process is challenging as wastewaters often offer a high buffering capacity and ISPAD operational practices foster low microbial populations. A model simulating the ISPAD pH regime was used to optimize 3 different sequential OLs to decrease the ISPAD pH to 6.0. All 3 strategies were compared in terms of biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, microbial activity, glucose consumption, and pH decrease. Laboratory validation of the model outputs confirmed that a sequential OL of 13kg glucose/m(3) of ISPAD content over 4days could indeed reduce the pH to 6.0. Such OL competes feasibly with present acidification techniques. Nevertheless, more research is required to explain the 3-day lag between the model results and the experimental data. PMID:27060886

  7. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  8. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis. PMID:27086437

  9. Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on unfermented apple cider aroma volatiles.

    PubMed

    Azhu Valappil, Zareena; Fan, Xuetong; Zhang, Howard Q; Rouseff, Russell L

    2009-02-11

    Aroma composition and microbial quality of identical lots of apple cider treated by pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or thermal pasteurization stored at 4 degrees C were compared at 0 and 4 weeks. Conditions were optimized to achieve identical 5 log reductions in Escherichia coli K12 for each treatment. PEF and thermal pasteurization maintained acceptable microbial quality for 4 weeks, but UV samples fermented after 2 weeks. Twenty-eight volatiles were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and odor activity values (OAV) determined. OAVs of 69:hexyl acetate, 41:hexanal, 25:2-methylbutyl acetate, 23:2-methyl ethyl butyrate, and 14:2-(E)-hexenal were observed for the control cider. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of these odorants were observed between treated apple ciders only after 4 weeks of storage. Thermal samples lost 30% of the major ester and aldehyde volatiles during storage with significant decreases (p < 0.05) in butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, hexanal, and 2-(E)-hexenal. In UV cider, hexanal and 2-(E)-hexenal were completely lost after 4 weeks of storage. Microbial spoilage in UV cider after 4 weeks of storage was chemically confirmed by the detection of the microbial metabolite 1,3-pentadiene. PEF cider lost <2% of its total ester and aldehydes after 4 weeks of storage and was preferred by 91% of the sensory panel over thermally treated cider. PMID:19154152

  10. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  11. VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

  12. ALH85085: a unique volatile-poor carbonaceous chondrite with possible implications for nebular fractionation processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.; MacPherson, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a unique chondrite with affinities to the Al Rais-Renazzo clan of carbonaceous chondrites. Its constituents are less than 50 ??m in mean size. Chondrules and microchondrules of all textures are present; nonporphyritic chondrules are unusually abundant. The mean compositions of porphyritic, nonporphyritic and barred olivine chondrules resemble those in ordinary chondrites except that they are depleted in volatile elements. Ca-, Al-rich inclusions are abundant and largely free of nebular alteration; they comprise types similar to those in CM and CO chondrites, as well as unique types. Calcium dialuminate occurs in several inclusions. Metal, silicate and sulfide compositions are close to those in CM-CO chondrites and Al Rais and Renazzo. C1-chondrite clasts and metal-rich "reduced" clasts are present, but opaque matrix is absent. Siderophile abundances in ALH85085 are extremely high (e.g., Fe Si = 1.7 ?? solar), and volatiles are depleted (e.g., Na Si = 0.25 ?? solar, S Si = 0.03 ?? solar). Nonvolatile lithophile abundances are similar to those in Al Rais, Renazzo, and CM and CO chondrites. ALH85085 agglomerated when temperatures in the nebula were near 1000 K, in the same region where Renazzo, Al Rais and the CI chondrites formed. Agglomeration of high-temperature material may thus be a mechanism by which the fractionation of refractory lithophiles occurred in the nebula. Chondrule formation must have occurred at high temperatures when clumps of precursors were small. After agglomeration, ALH85085 was annealed and lightly shocked. C1 and other clasts were subsequently incorporated during late-stage brecciation. ?? 1988.

  13. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems. PMID:23817057

  14. Massachusetts fluoridation update 2006.

    PubMed

    Allukian, Myron

    2006-01-01

    Massachusetts has a long history of activity with community water fluoridation. Although the state has 3.8 million people living in 137 fluoridated communities, there are more than 2 million people who do not have these benefits. The Bay State is ranked 35th in the country regarding the percent of people on public water supplies with fluoridation. We can do better than that. We have more than 60 years of experience receiving the health and economic benefits of fluoridation in our country; however, there is still a lot of misinformation about fluoridation, and the unreliable nature of information posted on the Internet exacerbates much of this misinformation. Dental professionals, their patients, and decision-makers must be continuously educated about the safety, health, and economic benefits of community water fluoridation. Patients from 6 months to 16 years of age living in nonfluoridated communities should be prescribed supplemental fluoride. Dental professionals in nonfluoridated communities should assist them to become fluoridated. All dental professionals need to become more involved in the leadership of their communities. PMID:16683510

  15. Volatile Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Daryl D.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (volatiles) comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals) both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites. PMID:24957243

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen fluoride production relevant to actinide residue treatment

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report addresses issues specific to generation of hydrogen fluoride via reaction of calcium fluoride with sulfuric acid. This process has been established on a commercial scale and is under consideration for treatment of calcium fluoride residues from uranium processing. Magnesium fluoride slags are also available as a product of uranium processing. The technique of using sulfuric acid for the production of hydrogen fluoride from magnesium fluoride is also under consideration as a residue processing scheme. In the current study, thermodynamic modeling was used to investigate these chemical processing systems. Results presented herein reveal information relevant to selection of processing temperatures and conditions. Details include predicted effects in system composition based on operating temperatures for both the calcium fluoride and the magnesium fluoride systems.

  17. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  18. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile compounds from avocado puree after microwave processing.

    PubMed

    López, Mercedes G; Guzmán, G R; Dorantes, A L

    2004-05-14

    Microwave processing offers an alternative to blanch fruits and vegetables, since the application of high temperature and short time often results in minimum damage. An experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microwave time, pH, and avocado leaves (independent variables) on avocado flavor (response) using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS. Among the fully characterized flavor volatiles, 19 compounds were derived from lipid oxidation and only 4 from the avocado leaves. The main components derived from lipids were aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Terpenoids, estragole, and 2-hexenal [E] were volatiles derived from avocado leaves. When leaves were added to fresh and microwaved avocado terpenoids and 2-hexenal [E]/hexanal ratio increased, this behavior was considered to have a positive effect on the sensorial quality of the product. From the statistical analysis of the experimental design, it was possible to determinate that the most important factors influencing the abundance of flavor compounds derived from lipids were microwave time and pH. Maximum values of these compounds were detected at high levels of microwave time and low values of pH. On the other hand, response surface of terpenoids and estragole showed an increment when microwave time and avocado leaf was increased. The region of optimum response was 30 s microwave time, pH 5.5, and 1% of avocado leaf. PMID:15139417

  19. The Search for a Volatile Human Specific Marker in the Decomposition Process

    PubMed Central

    Rosier, E.; Loix, S.; Develter, W.; Van de Voorde, W.; Tytgat, J.; Cuypers, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released during decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains in a laboratory environment during a period of 6 months. 452 compounds were identified. Among them a human specific marker was sought using principle component analysis. We found a combination of 8 compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, pyridine, diethyl disulfide, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide and 3-methylthio-1-propanol) that led to the distinction of human and pig remains from other animal remains. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the pig remains from human remains based on 5 esters (3-methylbutyl pentanoate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate, butyl pentanoate and propyl hexanoate). Further research in the field with full bodies has to corroborate these results and search for one or more human specific markers. These markers would allow a more efficiently training of cadaver dogs or portable detection devices could be developed. PMID:26375029

  20. Vehicular volatile organic compounds losses due to refueling and diurnal process in China: 2010-2050.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Huan; Cui, Hongyang; Man, Hanyang; Fu, Mingliang; Hao, Jiming; He, Kebin

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are crucial to control air pollution in major Chinese cities since VOCs are the dominant factor influencing ambient ozone level, and also an important precursor of secondary organic aerosols. Vehicular evaporative emissions have become a major and growing source of VOC emissions in China. This study consists of lab tests, technology evaluation, emissions modeling, policy projections and cost-benefit analysis to draw a roadmap for China for controlling vehicular evaporative emissions. The analysis suggests that evaporative VOC emissions from China's light-duty gasoline vehicles were approximately 185,000 ton in 2010 and would peak at 1,200,000 ton in 2040 without control. The current control strategy implemented in China, as shown in business as usual (BAU) scenario, will barely reduce the long-term growth in emissions. Even if Stage II gasoline station vapor control policies were extended national wide (BAU+extended Stage II), there would still be over 400,000 ton fuel loss in 2050. In contrast, the implementation of on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) on new cars could reduce 97.5% of evaporative VOCs by 2050 (BAU+ORVR/BAU+delayed ORVR). According to the results, a combined Stage II and ORVR program is a comprehensive solution that provides both short-term and long-term benefits. The net cost to achieve the optimal total evaporative VOC control is approximately 62 billion CNY in 2025 and 149 billion CNY in 2050. PMID:26141881

  1. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

  2. Arsenic from community water fluoridation: quantifying the effect.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily; Shapiro, Howard; Li, Ye; Minnery, John G; Copes, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Community water fluoridation is a WHO recommended strategy to prevent dental carries. One debated concern is that hydrofluorosilicic acid, used to fluoridate water, contains arsenic and poses a health risk. This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation contributes to arsenic in drinking water, to estimate the amount of additional arsenic associated with fluoridation, and compare this to the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI) standard and estimates from other researchers. Using surveillance data from Ontario drinking water systems, mixed effects linear regression was performed to examine the effect of fluoridation status on the difference in arsenic concentration between raw water and treated water samples. On average, drinking water treatment was found to reduce arsenic levels in water in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated systems by 0.2 μg/L. However, fluoridated systems were associated with an additional 0.078 μg/L (95% CI 0.021, 0.136) of arsenic in water when compared to non-fluoridated systems (P = 0.008) while controlling for raw water arsenic concentrations, types of treatment processes, and source water type. Our estimate is consistent with concentrations expected from other research and is less than 10% of the NSF/ANSI standard of 1 μg/L arsenic in water. This study provides further information to inform decision-making regarding community water fluoridation. PMID:27105409

  3. 40 CFR 60.202 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.202 Section... Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.202 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 g/Mg of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.020...

  4. 40 CFR 60.202 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.202 Section... Industry: Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid Plants § 60.202 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 10.0 g/Mg of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.020...

  5. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  6. [The role of topical fluorides in the prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Czukor, J

    1990-06-01

    Employment of fluorides means the employment of methods and processes which aim at increasing the fluoride concentration of the tooth surface. Methods requiring cooperation of experts (dentist, mouth hygienist) mean application of fluoride compounds of higher concentration at given periods (3 to 6 months). Methods not requiring professional cooperation prefer frequent (daily) employment of products of low concentration (toothpastes, mouthwashes etc.). In countries where such fluoride containing oral hygiene products are used extensively and systematically, frequency of caries significantly decreases. By topically employed fluorides the beneficial effect of the systemic fluoride use, (drinking water, salt, tablets) is increased. PMID:2387422

  7. Determining the virtual surface in the thermal evaporation process of magnesium fluoride from a tungsten boat for different deposition rates, to be used in precision optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejada Esteves, A.; Gálvez de la Puente, G.

    2013-11-01

    Vacuum thermal evaporation has, for some time now, been the principal method for the deposition of thin films, given, among other aspects, its simplicity, flexibility, and relatively low cost. Therefore, the development of models attempting to predict the deposition patterns of given thin film materials in different locations of a vacuum evaporation chamber are arguably important. With this in mind, we have designed one of such models for the thermal evaporation process of magnesium fluoride (MgF2), a common material used in optical thin films, originating from a tungsten boat source. For this we took several deposition samples in glass slide substrates at different locations in the vacuum chamber, considering as independent variables the mean deposition rate, and the axial and vertical distances of the source to the substrate. After a careful analysis by matrix method from the spectral transmittance data of the samples, while providing as output data the spectral transmittance, as well as the physical thickness of the films, both as functions of the aforementioned variables, the virtual surface of the source was determined.

  8. Mechanistic aspects of the interactions between fluoride and dental enamel.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Featherstone, J D

    1991-01-01

    For many years after the discovery of its caries preventive effect, fluoride was thought to be primarily active by lowering the solubility of the apatitic mineral phase of the dental hard tissues. Recent findings have shed new light on the mechanisms by which fluoride inhibits or delays dental caries. Fluoride present in the oral fluids alters the rate of the naturally occurring dissolution and reprecipitation processes at the tooth-oral fluid interface. Demineralization of enamel is inhibited by concentrations of fluoride in the sub-ppm range. Likewise, remineralization of incipient caries lesions (the earliest stage of enamel caries) is accelerated by trace amounts of fluoride. As these two processes comprise dental caries the physiological balance between hard tissue breakdown and repair is favorably shifted by fluoride. The driving force for both phenomena is thermodynamic, that is, fluorapatite or a fluoridated hydroxyapatite may form when fluoride is supplied at low concentrations. This article critically reviews the current information about tooth-fluoride interactions, both from laboratory and clinical studies. PMID:1892991

  9. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties. PMID:26179779

  10. Fluoridation: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Isman, R

    1981-07-01

    Of 19 referenda on community water fluoridation held in the first six months of 1980, 17 were defeated. Among the postulated reasons are a growing distrust of government and the health establishment. The public remains largely ignorant of the purpose and benefits of fluoridation. The emotionalism surrounding the issue has made it difficult to generate public support outside of the health professions. Opponents have also learned to fight fluoridation with increasingly sophisticated techniques. Some of the strategies used in recent successful campaigns in Oakland, California, and Portland, Oregon are described; recommendations that can be applied to communities considering fluoridation include careful wording of ballot measures so they are unequivocally clear and simple; timing ballot measures with elections likely to draw the largest voter turnout; broadening the base of political and financial support; using a figurehead if possible; and making maximum use of the media. PMID:7246838

  11. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken through the gums have changes in the enamel that covers the teeth. Faint white lines or ... regarding fluoride intake from reconstituted infant formula and enamel fluorosis: a report of the American Dental Association ...

  12. Fluoride toothpastes, rinses, and tablets.

    PubMed

    Stephen, K W

    1994-07-01

    Only from the mid-1950's has therapeutic benefit been obtained via dentifrices, initially with stannous fluoride-then monofluorophosphate-containing products which remained stable and efficacious. Altered abrasive systems followed, and both sodium fluoride and monofluorophosphate/sodium fluoride mixtures were introduced as active anti-caries agents, with recent meta-analysis indicating that sodium fluoride > monofluorophosphate/sodium fluoride > monofluorophosphate. With respect to fluoride levels, clear dose-response relationships have been demonstrated. However, at < 1000 ppm F, the situation is less certain. Since the mid-1980's, anticalculus fluoride dentifrices have been marketed, and have been shown to have similar caries-reducing potential as their non-calculus-inhibiting control formulae. Finally, one study has been described where a sodium fluoride dentifrice successfully reduced root caries. Of the many fluoride formulations used for caries-inhibiting mouthrinsing [e.g., acid phosphate fluoride (100-3000 ppm F), sodium fluoride (45-3000 ppm F), stannous fluoride (100-250 ppm F), ammonium fluoride (1000 ppm F), and amine fluoride (250 ppm F)], sodium fluoride would seem to be the preferred agent. Furthermore, rinse frequency is deemed more important than fluoride ion concentration, but caution is urged re the volumes and concentrations to be used by children, no rinsing being recommended below 4 years. Combination of a 440-pp-F sodium fluoride and 0.05% chlorhexidine school-administered rinse appears to have increased the caries-inhibiting benefit as compared with sodium fluoride alone. Fluoride supplements have reduced deciduous caries from 14 to 93%, and in the permanent dentition, from 20 to 81%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7865074

  13. Natural attenuation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the leachate plume of a municipal landfill: Using alkylbenzenes as process probes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Scholl, M.A.; Matthews, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    More than 70 individual VOCs were identified in the leachate plume of a closed municipal landfill. Concentrations were low when compared with data published for other landfills, and total VOCs accounted for less than 0.1% of the total dissolved organic carbon. The VOC concentrations in the core of the anoxic leachate plume are variable, but in all cases they were found to be near or below detection limits within 200 m of the landfall. In contrast to the VOCs, the distributions of chloride ion, a conservative tracer, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon, indicate little dilution over the same distance. Thus, natural attentuation processes are effectively limiting migration of the VOC plume. The distribution of C2-3-benzenes, paired on the basis of their octanol-water partition coefficients and Henry's law constants, were systematically evaluated to assess the relative importance of volatilization, sorption, and biodegradation as attenuation mechanisms. Based on our data, biodegradation appears to be the process primarily responsible for the observed attenuation of VOCs at this site. We believe that the alkylbenzenes are powerful process probes that can and should be exploited in studies of natural attenuation in contaminated ground water systems.

  14. Fluoride release from fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Godoy, F; Abarzua, I; De Goes, M F; Chan, D C

    1997-01-01

    This 30-day study, compared the amounts and patterns of fluoride release from 5 commercially available fluoride-containing pit and fissure sealants: FluroShield, Helioseal-F, Ultraseal XT, Baritone L3, and Teethmate-F; Delton without fluoride, was used as control. Disc-shaped samples of each sealant were immersed in distilled water and the fluoride release was measured periodically until day 30. All the fluoridated sealants tested released measurable fluoride throughout the test period in a similar pattern: the greatest amount of fluoride was released in the first 24 hours after mixing, fell sharply on the second day and decreased slowly for the last days. On day one, Baritone L3 released significantly more fluoride than all other materials. Teethmate-F released the highest amount of fluoride during all the other time intervals from day 2, until day 30. PMID:9643204

  15. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part III. The simulation of volatile reduction in a multi-layer rotary hearth furnace process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    For reduction of iron oxides by volatiles from coal, the major reductant was found to be H2, and it can affect the overall reduction of iron oxides. In this study, the reduction by actual volatiles of composite pellets at 1000 °C was studied. The volatile reduction of the hand-packed Fe2O3/coal composite pellet as it is devolatilizing out of the pellet was found to be negligible. However, the reduction of iron oxide pellets at the top layer by volatiles from the bottom layers of a three-layer pellet geometry was observed to be about 15 pct. From the morphological observations of partially reduced pellets and the computed rates of bulk mass transfer, volatile reduction appears to be controlled by a mixed-controlled mechanism of bulk gas mass transfer and the limited-mixed control reduction kinetics. Using the reduction rate obtained from the single pellet experiments with pure hydrogen and extrapolating this rate to an H2 partial pressure corresponding to the H2 from the volatiles, an empirical relationship was obtained to approximately predict the amount of volatile reduction up to 20 pct.

  16. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part III. The simulation of volatile reduction in a multi-layer rotary hearth furnace process

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2006-04-15

    For reduction of iron oxides by volatiles from coal, the major reductant was found to be H{sub 2, and it can affect the overall reduction of iron oxides. In this study, the reduction by actual volatiles of composite pellets at 1000{sup o}C was studied. The volatile reduction of the hand-packed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Coal composite pellet as it is devolatilizing out of the pellet was found to be negligible. However, the reduction of iron oxide pellets at the top layer by volatiles from the bottom layers of a three-layer pellet geometry was observed to be about 15 pct. From the morphological observations of partially reduced pellets and the computed rates of bulk mass transfer, volatile reduction appears to be controlled by a mixed-controlled mechanism of bulk gas mass transfer and the limited-mixed control reduction kinetics. Using the reduction rate obtained from the single pellet experiments with pure hydrogen and extrapolating this rate to an H{sub 2 partial pressure corresponding to the H{sub 2 from the volatiles, an empirical relationship was obtained to approximately predict the amount of volatile reduction up to 20 pct.

  17. The abundance and relative volatility of refractory trace elements in Allende Ca,Al-rich inclusions - Implications for chemical and physical processes in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, Alan S.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The relative volatilities of lithophile refractory trace elements (LRTE) were determined using calculated 50-percent condensation temperatures. Then, the refractory trace-element abundances were measured in about 100 Allende inclusions. The abundance patterns found in Allende Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and ultrarefractory inclusions were used to empirically modify the calculated LRTE volatility sequence. In addition, the importance of crystal-chemical effects, diffusion constraints, and grain transport for the origin of the trace-element chemistry of Allende CAIs (which have important implications for chemical and physical processes in the solar nebula) is discussed.

  18. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  19. Hydrolysis of iron and chromium fluorides: mechanism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, José L; Dufour, Javier; Negro, Carlos; López-Mateos, Federico

    2008-06-15

    Fluoride complexes of metallic ions are one of the main problems when processing industrial effluents with high content of fluoride anion. The most important case is derived from pickling treatment of stainless steel, which is performed with HNO3/HF mixtures to remove oxides scale formed over the metal surface. Waste from this process, spent pickling liquor, must be treated for recovering metallic and acid content. Conventional treatments produce a final effluent with high quantity of fluoride complexes of iron and chromium. This work proposes a hydrolysis treatment of these solid metal fluorides by reacting them with a basic agent. Metal oxides are obtained, while fluoride is released to solution as a solved salt, which can be easily recovered as hydrofluoric acid. Solid iron and chromium fluorides, mainly K2FeF5(s) and CrF3(s), obtained in the UCM treatment process, were employed in this work. Optimal hydrolysis operating conditions were obtained by means of a factorial design: media must be basic but pH cannot be higher than 9.5, temperature from 40 to 70 degrees C and alkali concentration (potassium hydroxide) below 1.1 mol L(-1). Secondary reactions have been detected, which are probably due to fluoride adsorption onto obtained oxides surface. Mechanism of reaction consists of several stages, involving solid fluoride dissolution and complexes decomposition. Hydrolysis kinetics has been modeled with classical crystal dissolution kinetics, based on mass transfer phenomena. PMID:17988794

  20. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    PubMed

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. PMID:25174889

  1. Characterization of phenolic constituents inhibiting the formation of sulfur-containing volatiles produced during garlic processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qing; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Mei-Yun; Hu, Xing-Peng; Ou, Shi-Yi; Yan, Ri-An; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Song; Fu, Liang

    2015-01-28

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.), which is a widely distributed plant, is globally used as both spice and food. This study identified five novel phenolic compounds, namely, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)diosmetin, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, 6-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, and Alliumones A and B, along with nine known compounds 6-14 from the ethanol extract of garlic. The structures of these five novel phenolic compounds were established via extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. The effects of the phenolic compounds isolated from garlic on the enzymatical or nonenzymatical formation of sulfur-containing compounds produced during garlic processing were examined. Compound 12 significantly reduced the thermal decomposition of alliin, whereas compound 4 exhibited the highest percentage of alliinase inhibition activity (36.6%). PMID:25579175

  2. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... from my well has less than the recommended level of fluoride for preventing tooth decay? The recommended ... if the water from my well has fluoride levels that are higher than the recommended level for ...

  3. NEAR-REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF TRACE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM COMBUSTION PROCESSES USING AN ON-LINE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's current regulatory approach for combustion and incineration sources emphasizes the use of real-time continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for particulate, Metals, and volatile, semivolatile, and of nonvolatile organic compounds to monitor source emissions. Currently...

  4. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  5. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective. PMID:19180864

  6. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  7. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  8. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Xiang, Li-Ping; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper. PMID:26978340

  9. Evolution process and sources of ambient volatile organic compounds during a severe haze event in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing; Hao, Yufang; Li, Yaqi; Zeng, Limin; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    108 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously at a time resolution of an hour using an online gas chromatography-frame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) in October 2014 in Beijing, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed with online data. The evolution process and causes for high levels of VOCs during a haze event were investigated through comprehensive analysis. Results show that mixing ratios of VOCs during the haze event (89.29 ppbv) were 2 to 5 times as that in non-haze days, There was a distinct accumulation process of VOCs at the beginning of the haze event, and the mixing ratios of VOCs maintained at the high levels until to the end of pollution when the mixing ratios of ambient VOCs recovered to the normal concentration levels in a few hours. Some reactive and toxic species increased remarkably as well, which indicates a potential health risk to the public in terms of VOCs. Eight sources were resolved by PMF, and results revealed gasoline exhaust was the largest contributor (32-46%) to the ambient VOCs in Beijing. Emissions of gasoline exhaust surged from 13.46 to 40.36 ppbv, with a similar variation pattern to total VOCs, indicating that high levels of VOCs were largely driven to by expanded vehicular emissions. Emissions of biomass burning also increased noticeably (from 2.32 to 11.12 ppbv), and backward trajectories analysis indicated regional transport of biomass burning emissions. Our findings suggested that extremely high levels of VOCs during the haze event was primarily attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass burning and regional transport, as well as stationary synoptic conditions. PMID:27093124

  10. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions - Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, V.; El Haddad, I.; Liu, Yao; Sellegri, K.; Laj, P.; Villani, P.; Picard, D.; Marchand, N.; Monod, A.

    2009-07-01

    The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA). The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34-1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds), which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52) to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36). Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L-1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L-1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  11. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions - Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, V.; El Haddad, I.; Liu, Y.; Sellegri, K.; Laj, P.; Villani, P.; Picard, D.; Marchand, N.; Monod, A.

    2009-03-01

    The hygroscopic and volatility properties of SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA). The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34-1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase phtooxidation of terpenes, usually found nearly hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weigh compounds), evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52) to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36). Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L-1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L-1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  12. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation. PMID:8850589

  13. Ferrimyoglobin-Fluoride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an experiment which is designed to investigate the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride. The activity uses readily available apparatus and the technique of optical absorbance for measurement of concentrations. Experimental design, procedures, and treatment of the equilibrium data are detailed. (CW)

  14. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... in preventing tooth decay in people of all ages. Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products ... even among children younger than 6 years of age. Proper application technique ... cleared for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as ...

  15. Effect of fluoride and water content on the growth of TiO2 nanotubes synthesized via ethylene glycol with voltage changes during anodizing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Quintero, Francisco; Arias, Pedro J.; Dussan, A.; Zea, Hugo R.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, titanium foils were anodized in ethylene glycol solutions containing different amounts of water and fluoride to determine their effects on the top morphology and crystalline structure of the formed titania nanostructures. Anodizing was performed for 2 h by using titanium foils as both anode and cathode applying a squared-pulse voltage profile composed of one step at 80 V for 3 min followed by another at 20 V for 5 min; constant voltage conditions were also used to study the nanostructure formation on the surface. We found the formation of nanostructured titania on the surface of the anodized foil when small amounts of water and fluoride are present in the anodizing solution. The top of these nanostructures is irregular when no water is added, but is expected to change with different amounts of water and fluoride in the ranges of 1 - 9% and 0.05 - 0.5%, respectively. Synthesis parameters also change nanotube morphology. The morphology and structure properties of the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Formation of TiO2 nanotubes by anodization method are strongly correlated to conditions like fluoride concentration and applied voltages. Tube length varying between 2 and 7 μm, exhibiting different diameters and wall thicknesses were obtained. When an alternate voltage was applied, the wall of the nanotubes presented evenly spaced rings while nanotubes with smooth wall form were observed when constant voltage was applied. Reflection peaks corresponding to Brookite, Anatase, and Rutile of TiO2 phases were observed from XRD measurements. A correlation between the effects of synthesis parameters on nanotube formation and morphological properties is presented. TiO2 nanotubes prepared by electrochemical anodization have excellent performance in various applications such as photocatalysts, solar cells, gas sensors, and biomedical applications.

  16. High-rate volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by a granular sludge process at low pH.

    PubMed

    Tamis, J; Joosse, B M; Loosdrecht, M C M van; Kleerebezem, R

    2015-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are proposed platform molecules for the production of basic chemicals and polymers from organic waste streams. In this study we developed a granular sludge process to produce VFA at high rate, yield and purity while minimizing potential operational costs. A lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was fed with 10 g l(-1) glucose as model substrate. Inclusion of a short (2 min) settling phase before effluent discharge enabled effective granulation and very high volumetric conversion rates of 150-300 gCOD l(-1)  d(-1) were observed during glucose conversion. The product spectrum remained similar at the tested pH range with acetate and butyrate as the main products, and a total VFA yield of 60-70% on chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis. The requirement for base addition for pH regulation could be reduced from 1.1 to 0.6 mol OH(-) (mol glucose)(-1) by lowering the pH from 5.5 to 4.5. Solids concentrations in the effluent were 0.6 ± 0.3 g l(-1) but could be reduced to 0.02 ± 0.01 g l(-1) by introduction of an additional settling period of 5 min. The efficient production of VFA at low pH with a virtually solid-free effluent increases the economic feasibility of waste-based chemicals and polymer production. Biotechnol. PMID:25950759

  17. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  18. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  19. Phase A design study of microgravity fluoride fiber puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Improved transmission properties for fluoride fibers due to space processing has great potential for commercial benefits. Phase A design study will determine conceptual feasibility and provide initial definition of the technical requirements and design issues for space.

  20. Fluorination process using catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  1. Volatilization of Mercury By Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Magos, L.; Tuffery, A. A.; Clarkson, T. W.

    1964-01-01

    Volatilization of mercury has been observed from various biological media (tissue homogenates, infusion broth, plasma, urine) containing mercuric chloride. That micro-organisms were responsible was indicated by the finding that the rates of volatilization were highly variable, that a latent period often preceded volatilization, that toluene inhibited the process, and that the capacity to volatilize mercury could be transferred from one biological medium to another. Two species of bacteria when isolated and cultured from these homogenates were able to volatilize mercury. Two other bacteria, one of which was isolated from the local water supply, were also highly active. The volatile mercury was identified as mercury vapour. The importance of these findings in relation to the storage of urine samples prior to mercury analysis is discussed. PMID:14249899

  2. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  3. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives. PMID:26072976

  4. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  5. LASERS AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES IN THEM: Lithium yttrium fluoride (LiYF4:Nd3+)—promising laser material for picosecond spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskiĭ, A. A.; Demchuk, M. I.; Zhavoronkov, N. I.; Mikhaĭlov, V. P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was made of passive mode locking in lasers with active media in the form of anisotropic fluorides LiYF4 and LiLuF4 activated with Nd3+ ions. Selection of the optical dynamics of laser pulses (due to the 4F3/2→4I11/2 transition) and use of Soviet dyes characterized by different bleaching intensities and different relaxation times ensured a minimum duration of ~ 6 ps with an energy of 10 mJ per pulse.

  6. The Role of Volatiles During Historical Eruptions of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i: Constraints on Source to Surface Processes Using Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, I.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Swanson, D.

    2010-12-01

    their volatile concentrations between 2800 - 7400 ppm CO2 and 0.4 - 1.2 wt% H2O. The data reveal significant temporal variations in the concentrations of trace elements and volatiles, resulting from mantle source processes and not shallow crystallisation or degassing. We use the pre-eruptive volatile concentrations to create models of degassing, vapour segregation and loss, and magma eruption and compare these with observations of eruption styles in the literature.

  7. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, Norman F.; Williams, Joe L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  8. Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure.

    PubMed

    López-Galilea, Isabel; Fournier, Nicole; Cid, Concepción; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to characterize the aroma compounds of coffee brews from commercial conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee prepared by filter coffeemaker and espresso machine. A total of 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to differentiate coffee brew samples by volatile compounds. Conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee brews were separated successfully by principal component 1 (68.5% of variance), and filter and espresso ones were separated by principal component 2 (19.5% of variance). By GC olfactometry, a total of 34 aroma compounds have been perceived at least in half of the coffee extracts and among them 28 were identified, among which octanal was identified for the first time as a contributor to coffee brew aroma. PMID:17061834

  9. Insights into Evolution of Volatiles in Martian Magma Based on a Reconstruction of NWA 2975 Phosphate Crystallization Process — A Combined TEM, Synchrotron FTIR- and Raman-Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, E.; Koch-Müller, M.; Wirth, R.; Förster, H.-J.; Schreiber, A.; Schade, U.; Rhede, D.; Lisowiec, K.

    2014-11-01

    This contribution presents the evolution path of volatiles in martian magma based on the analysis of the crystallization process of phosphates (apatite, merrillite) from NWA 2975 using TEM, synchrotron FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy methods.

  10. Brick tea fluoride as a main source of adult fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jin; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianwei; Xirao, Ruoden; Danzeng, Sangbu; Daji, Dawei; Yan, Yu

    2003-04-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Naqu County, Tibet in September 2001 to investigate the manifestations of fluorosis in adults caused by the habitual consumption of brick tea. Profiles were obtained for the total daily fluoride intake, environmental fluoride levels and average urinary fluoride concentration, and a physical examination and a skeletal radiographic study were conducted. One hundred and eleven 30-78-year-old adults were enrolled. It was found that the fluoride level of water sources in Naqu County was 0.10+/-0.03 mg/l; no evidence of fluoride air pollution was found, but the brick tea water processed foods--zamba and buttered tea--had fluoride contents of 4.52+/-0.74 mg/kg and 3.21+/-0.65 mg/l, respectively. The adult daily fluoride intake reached 12 mg, of which 99% originated from the brick tea-containing foods. The positive rate of clinical symptoms by physical examination was 89%; furthermore, 42 of the 111 subjects were diagnosed by X-ray. The positive examination rate was 83%. Although the osteosclerosis-type skeletal fluorosis (overall increased bone matrix density) affected 74%, arthropathy and arthritis affected a significant number of the patients, resulting in functional disability. The results suggest that this brick tea-type fluorosis had even more severe adverse effects on human health compared with both the water-type and coal combustion-type fluorosis that occurred in other areas of China. PMID:12615125

  11. The evolution of immiscible silicate and fluoride melts: Implications for REE ore-genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic peralkaline Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) exhibits extreme enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), particularly in pegmatites. On the basis of a study of melt inclusions, we proposed recently that fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility played an important and perhaps dominant role in concentrating the REE within the pluton. Here we present further evidence for silicate-fluoride immiscibility at Strange Lake from a sample of the hypersolvus granite, which contains an inclusion composed largely of REE and HFSE minerals. The inclusion (∼5 cm in diameter) comprises a narrow rim containing chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon in a fluorite matrix, a core of fluorbritholite-(Ce) and bastnäsite-(Ce) and a transition zone between the rim and the core consisting of a fine-grained intergrowth of bastnäsite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Y) and fluorite. We propose that the inclusion formed as a result of silicate-fluoride immiscibility, which occurred early in the emplacement history of the Strange Lake pluton, and that it represents the fluoride melt. After separation of the two melts, the boundary between them acted as a locus of crystallisation, where crystals formed repeatedly due to heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation. Zircon crystallised shortly after melt phase separation, and was followed by the growth of perthite together with arfvedsonite and quartz. As a result, the silicate melt surrounding the fluoride inclusion became enriched in volatiles that facilitated crystallisation of progressively larger crystals in the inclusion; large crystals of arfvedsonite and perthite were succeeded by even larger crystals of quartz. Massive crystallisation of chevkinite-(Ce) followed, forming the rim of the inclusion. The fluoride melt, which constituted the matrix to the silicate minerals and chevkinite-(Ce), crystallised after chevkinite-(Ce), forming fluorbritholite-(Ce) and fluorite. Aqueous fluid

  12. Evolution of Triton's volatile budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's volatile budget provides important links to planetary formation processes in the cold outer solar nebula. However, the budget has been modified by processes subsequent to the accretion of this body. It is of interest to assess whether certain formation environments can be ruled out for Triton on the basis of its current volatile abundances, and also to quantify some of the post-accretional processes by which the abundances have been modified.

  13. Estimating the importance of multi-phase processing on secondary organic aerosol based on a functional-group resolving volatility basis set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, C. J.; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional understanding views secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere as continuous gas-phase oxidation of precursors such as isoprene, aromatics or alkanes. Recent research found that these oxidation products are also highly water soluble. It is further understood that the liquid-phase of cloud droplets as well as deliquesced particles could mediate SOA formation through chemistry in the aqueous-phase. While the effect of multi-phase processing has been studied in detailed for specific compounds like glyoxal or methylglyoxal, an integrated approach that considers the large number of individual compounds has been missing due to the complexity involved. In our work we explore the effects of multi-phase processing on secondary organic aerosol from an explicit modeling perspective.Volatility and solubility determine in which phase a given molecule will be found under given atmospheric conditions. Volatility has already been used to simplify the description of SOA formation in the gas-phase in what became known as the Volatility Basis Set approach (VBS). Compounds contributing to SOA formation are grouped by volatility and then treated as a whole. A number of studies extended the VBS by adding a second dimension like oxygen to carbon ratio or the mean oxidation state. In our work we use functional groups as second dimension.Using explicit oxidation chemistry modeling (GECKO-A) we derive SOA yields as well as their composition in terms of functional groups for commonly used precursors. We then investigate the effect of simply partitioning functional-group specific organic mass into cloud droplets and deliquesced aerosol based on their estimated solubility. Finally we apply simple chemistry in the aqueous-phase and relate changes in functional groups to changes in volatility and subsequent changes in partitioning between gas- and aerosol-phase.In our presentation we will explore the sensitivites of the multi-phase system in a box model setting with

  14. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  15. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  16. Mass Wasting and Ground Collapse in Terrains of Volatile-Rich Deposits as a Solar System-Wide Geological Process: The Pre-Galileo View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1996-01-01

    The polar terrains of Mars are covered in many places with irregular pits and retreating scarps, as are some of the surfaces of the outer-planet satellites. These features are interpreted by us as diagnostic of exogenic degradation due to the loss of a volatile rock-forming matrix or cement. In this study we propose that sublimation degradation is a plausible Solar Systemwide geological process. Candidate examples have been identified on Mars, Io, and Triton, and possibly Europa and Ganymede. We envision this process as having two end-member expressions (pits and scarps), for which we hypothesize two end-member mechanisms (massive localized lenses and areally extensive basal layers). In this study we focus on the role this process may play on the surfaces of the galilean satellites. Our principle modeling results are that for these satellites, H2S, CO2, and NH3 are the only viable candidate volatiles for sublimation degradation of landforms, in light of galilean satellite cosmochemistry. For Io's polar regions only H2S, and then only from slopes that face the Sun and have thin lags, is volatile enough to cause the observed sublimation-induced erosion at those latitudes. SO2 is not a viable candidate as an agent of erosion, especially for these polar landforms. In the case of Europa, only CO2 and H2S are viable candidates (given surface age constraints). Both species could be efficient eroders in nonpolar regions. H2S could generate erosion within the polar regions if the deposition and erosion conditions were essentially identical as those we invoked for Io's polar regions. For Ganymede (and Callisto) NH3 might be an agent of erosion in equatorial terrains of great age. The sublimation of CO2 and H2S is much more robust than NH3. The much slower rate of sublimation degradation from NH3 might be detectable by Galileo and used as a compositional indicator.

  17. Performance of novel hydroxyapatite nanowires in treatment of fluoride contaminated water.

    PubMed

    He, Junyong; Zhang, Kaisheng; Wu, Shibiao; Cai, Xingguo; Chen, Kai; Li, Yulian; Sun, Bai; Jia, Yong; Meng, Fanli; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2016-02-13

    Novel ultralong hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were successfully prepared for fluoride removal for the first time. The fluoride adsorption on the HAP nanowires was studied on a batch mode. The results revealed that the adsorption data could be well described by the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum of adsorption capacity was 40.65 mg/g at pH 7.0 when the fluoride concentration is 200mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption of fluoride was a spontaneous endothermic process. The FT-IR, XPS and Zeta potential analysis revealed that both anion exchange and electrostatic interactions were involved in the adsorption of fluoride. Furthermore, the HAP nanowires were made into HAP membrane through a simple process of suction filtration. Membrane filtration experiments revealed that the fluoride removal capabilities depended on the membrane thickness, flow rate and initial concentration of fluoride. The as-prepared membrane could remove fluoride efficiently through continues filtration. The filtered water amount could reach 350, 192, and 64 L/m(2) when the fluoride concentrations were 4, 5 and 8 ppm, respectively, using the HAP membrane with only 150 μm thickness. The as-synthesized ultralong HAP nanowires were thus demonstrated to be very effective and biocompatible adsorbents for fluoride removal from contaminated water. PMID:26530888

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  19. WET FLUORIDE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-11-25

    The separation of U/sup 233/ from thorium, protactinium, and fission products present in neutron-irradiated thorium is accomplished by dissolving the irradiated materials in aqueous nitric acid, adding either a soluble fluoride, iodate, phosphate, or oxalate to precipltate the thorium, separating the precipltate from the solution, and then precipitating uranlum and protactinium by alkalizing the solution. The uranium and protactinium precipitate is removcd from the solution and dissolved in nitric acid. The uranyl nitrate may then be extracted from the acid solution by means of ether, and the protactinium recovered from the aqueous phase.

  20. PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

    1959-07-01

    A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

  1. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27162130

  2. Use of microwave-assisted evaporation for the complete recovery of volatile species of inorganic trace analytes

    PubMed

    Link; Kingston

    2000-07-01

    Solutions must often be evaporated prior to analysis either to preconcentrate the analyte or to eliminate an incompatible matrix component. Elimination of the halogen-based acids HCI and HF using traditional evaporation methods poses recovery problems because of volatilization of the target analyte as the chloride or fluoride species. A new sample preparation chemistry for trace analysis, where losses of analyte due to volatilization during the evaporation process are minimized, is explored using the unique heating mechanisms of the microwave-assisted evaporation process. The heating mechanisms of hot plate evaporation and microwave-assisted evaporation are compared, and temperatures throughout the evaporation process using each method are predicted and experimentally verified. Because the solution actually cools during microwave-assisted evaporation, volatilization due to overheating at dryness is minimized. Elemental standard solutions and SRM soil and tissue digestates were evaporated using a hot plate method and a newly developed reduced-pressure microwave-assisted evaporation apparatus. Redissolution and analysis of the residue by ICPMS showed that complete recovery was achieved using microwave-assisted evaporation while losses of several classically volatile analytes occurred using hot plate evaporation. PMID:10905326

  3. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  4. Determination of Stability Constants of Hydrogen and Aluminum Fluorides with a Fluoride-Selective Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    2003-01-06

    The ability to directly determine free fluoride ion concentration (or mean activity) simplifies gathering and interpretation of experimental data for studies of metal complexes. In this work, the new lanthanum fluoride electrode was used to measure free fluoride ion in an investigation of the hydrogen-fluoride and aluminum-fluoride systems in NH4NO3.

  5. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties. PMID:26162903

  6. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  7. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  8. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  9. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  10. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  11. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, dichlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorine + hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.

    1998-01-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, dichlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorine + hydrogen fluoride have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. The binary system difluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride forms a homogeneous liquid phase, and the others form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes at the experimental conditions.

  12. [Process-based Emission Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Paint Industry in the Yangtze River Delta, China].

    PubMed

    Mo, Zi-wei; Niu, He; Lu, Si-hua; Shao, Min; Gou, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics from solvent usage industry is essential to reduce PM2.5 and O3 in Yangtze River Delta region. In this work, VOCs source characteristics of ship container, shipbuilding, wood, and automobile painting industry were measured using canister-GC-MS/FID analysis system. The results showed that VOCs emitted from these industrial sectors were mainly aromatics, such as toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, accounting for 79%-99% of total VOCs. The VOCs treatment facilities of activated carbon adsorption had little impact on changing the composition patterns of VOCs, while catalytic combustion treatments produced more alkenes. The combustion treatment of VOCs changed the maximum increment reactivity (MIR) of the VOCs emissions, and was thus very likely to change the ozone formation potentials. PMID:26387293

  13. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  14. The absorption and excretion of fluoride and arsenic in humans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yujian; Wu, Jiyao; Ng, Jack C; Wang, Guoquan; Lian, Wu

    2002-07-01

    The absorption and excretion of fluoride and arsenic were measured in a group of healthy volunteers given drinking water with naturally high concentration of fluoride (F 2.3 mg/l)(,) or high concentration of arsenic (As 0.15 mg/l), or high concentrations of both fluoride and arsenic (F 2.25 mg/l, As 0.23 mg/l and F 4.05 mg/l, As 0.58 mg/l), respectively. The results indicated that, for arsenic, the absorption rate, the proportion of urinary excretion and the biological-half-life did not show statistically significant differences between drinking water containing high arsenic alone and drinking water containing different levels of high arsenic and fluoride. Excretion and retention of arsenic were positively correlated to the total arsenic intake. Similar results were observed for fluoride. This suggests that there are different metabolic processes for arsenic and fluoride in respect to absorption and excretion; and no joint action can be attributed by these two elements. PMID:12076512

  15. [Operational control of water fluoridation in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Maia, Lucianne Cople; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Soares, Eduardo Lúcio; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational control of water fluoridation at the city water supply plant in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to December 2000. The water treatment supervisor filled out a questionnaire on the control of water fluoridation. In addition, water samples were collected every two weeks for fluoride analysis before and after treatment. Samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory using an ion-specific electrode. According to the water treatment supervisor, the entire process for controlling fluoride concentration in the water was rigorous and complied with Brazilian guidelines, but according to testing, 96% of samples were inadequate in terms of risks/benefits of fluoride use from water. The information obtained from the plant supervisor and the test data were thus mutually inconsistent. Based on these data, an independent water fluoride concentration control program is needed to ensure the benefits of dental caries prevention for the population. PMID:12700784

  16. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Neil; Whalen, J. Marc; Chacon, Lisa

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  17. Eruption and Degassing Processes in a Supervolcanic System: The Volatile Record Preserved in Melt Inclusions from the 3.49Ma Tara Ignimbrite in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocke, S.; de Silva, S. L.; Schmitt, A. K.; Wallace, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of H2O and CO2 in quartz and sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from one of the youngest supervolcanic eruptions in the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) in the Central Andes provides information on crystallization depths and eruption and degassing processes. At least 740 km3 of high-K, metaluminous, rhyodacite to rhyolite magma erupted from the Guacha Caldera in southwest Bolivia, producing three phases of the 3.49 Ma Tara Ignimbrite: a Plinian fall-deposit, an extensive ignimbrite, and several post-caldera domes. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from Tara Plinian pumice have H2O contents of ~4.5 wt % and variable CO2 contents (110-300 ppm), corresponding to vapor saturation pressures up to 180 MPa. In contrast, sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from the Plinian-fall deposit contain bubbles, lower water contents (1.4-2.2 wt %) and lower CO2 (87-143 ppm). These vesiculated melt inclusions and low volatile contents suggest that the sanidine crystals leaked on their ascent to the surface and therefore do not record accurate pre-eruptive melt volatile contents. In contrast, quartz-hosted melt inclusions from post-caldera dome samples contain lower H2O contents of 2.5-3.5 wt % (average 2.9 wt %) and no detectable CO2, corresponding to vapor saturation pressures of 50-90 MPa. These data indicate that the preeruptive plinian stage Tara magma was vapor saturated at the time of melt inclusion entrapment and stored between 5-6 km, while those from the post-caldera domes were trapped at 2-3 km. Differences in CO2 between Plinian and dome melt inclusions require that the post-caldera dome quartzes represent a different generation of crystals that grew as the magma slowly rose and progressively degassed at 2-3 km. During this shallow crystallization, the magma evolved further and eventually fed the post-caldera domes, one of which is a high-Si rhyolite. Consistent with this interpretation, melt inclusions from post-caldera dome samples

  18. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  19. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells. PMID:26747991

  20. Factors controlling the fluoride content of planktonic foraminifera: An evaluation of its paleoceanographic applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Yair; Boyle, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This work is an assessment of the effects of seawater salinity and temperature on the incorporation of fluoride into calcitic shells of planktonic foraminifera and of the subsequent modification of shell chemistry by postdepositional dissolution. A strong correlation between the fluoride content of most planktonic species and their calcification depth was observed; deeper-calcifying foraminifera have lower fluoride content and heavier 18O composition, perhaps suggesting a temperature control on the partition coefficient. However, species deviations from this general trend and the absence of correlation between fluoride and sea-surface temperature within an individual species suggest that the coprecipitation of fluoride in foraminiferal calcite is more strongly controlled by biological processes rather than by simple chemical relationships. Foraminiferal fluoride shows weak or no correlation with sea-surface salinity. Core-top planktonic foraminifera from the eastern equatorial Atlantic (Sierra Leone Rise) show a substantial decrease of fluoride and, to a lesser extent, Mg content with increasing water depth (2931-5104 m). These decreasing trends with depth are attributed to selective dissolution, i.e., removal of the more dissolution-susceptible fraction with a different chemical composition than the residual, a process which previously has been suggested to account for variations in the isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera. These findings indicate that foraminiferal fluoride cannot serve as a reliable tracer of oceanic paleo-temperature or salinity. It is possible, however, that fluoride may be useful for the study of dissolution in deep-sea sediments.

  1. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  2. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant–insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector–plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito–plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  3. Design of the extraction process for terpenes and other volatiles from allspice by solid-phase microextraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Tomáš; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    Methods for the separation and determination of terpenes (mono- and sesqui-) and phenylpropanoids such as eugenol and methyleugenol from samples of allspice berries have been developed. Chromatographic analyses of isolated groups of compounds were carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A comparison of various types of solid-phase microextraction fibers was performed. The highest yields of terpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane and divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers (almost the same for these two fibers), approximately twice as much as by Carbowax/divinylbenzene fiber. The highest amounts of monoterpenes were extracted by divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, and the highest amounts of sesquiterpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Moreover, the effect of water addition on extraction yields as well as time and temperature of extraction were tested. Aroma profiles of extracts obtained by solid-phase microextraction and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of allspice berries were compared. The aroma profile of the divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber extract was similar to the aroma profile of essential oil. Particular characteristics of volatile allspice matters were presented. The linear retention indices for each compound were calculated. PMID:26632088

  4. Oenological characteristics, amino acids and volatile profiles of Hongqu rice wines during pottery storage: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Huang, Jiamei; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Luqiang; Zhuang, Weijin; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-07-15

    Hongqu rice wines were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200 MPa and 550 MPa at 25 °C for 30 min and effects on wine quality during pottery storage were examined. HHP treatment can significantly (p<0.05) decrease the content of fusel-like alcohols and maintain the concentration of lactones in these wines. After 18 months of storage, the HHP-treated wines exhibited a more rapid decrease in total sugars (9.3-15.3%), lower free amino acid content (e.g. lysine content decreased by 45.0-84.5%), and higher ketone content (e.g. 6- and 14-fold increase for 2-nonanone). These changes could be attributed to the occurrence of Maillard and oxidation reactions. The wines treated at 550 MPa for 30 min developed about twice as rapidly during pottery storage than untreated wines based on principal component analysis. After only 6 months, treated wines had a volatile composition and an organoleptic quality similar to that of untreated wines stored in pottery for 18 months. PMID:26948638

  5. Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Falk, Harry Michael; Reichling, Peter; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

    2015-02-01

    An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). R(2) for acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were 0.94, 0.88, 0.83, 0.75, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the models was validated in a second experiment. Considering the complex and heterogeneous sludge composition and the chemical similarity of VFA, absolute concentration and dynamic (increasing and decreasing concentration of VFA) was predicted well for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid (in their respective concentration range); Butyric acid could not be detected. The installed setup was able to gather and measure native samples from the digester (every 2 h) automatically over a period of 6 months without problems of clogging or biofouling. The instant and continuous analysis of the concentration of the VFA made it possible to evaluate the current bioprocess status and adjust the organic loading rate accordingly. PMID:25142153

  6. Compound specific carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses of volatile organic compounds in various emissions of combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Christiane D; Grice, Kliti; Ioppolo-Armanios, Marisa; Kelly, David; Gibberd, Mark

    2012-11-01

    This study presents carbon (δ(13)C) and hydrogen (δD) isotope values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various emission sources using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TD-GC-irMS). The investigated VOCs ranged from C6 to C10. Samples were taken from (i) car exhaust emissions as well as from plant combustion experiments of (ii) various C3 and (iii) various C4 plants. We found significant differences in δ values of analysed VOCs between these sources, e.g. δ(13)C of benzene ranged between (i) -21.7 ± 0.2 ‰, (ii) -27.6 ± 1.6 ‰ and (iii) -16.3 ± 2.2 ‰, respectively and δD of benzene ranged between (i) -73 ± 13 ‰, (ii) -111 ± 10 ‰ and (iii) -70 ± 24 ‰, respectively. Results of VOCs present in investigated emission sources were compared to values from the literature (aluminium refinery emission). All source groups could be clearly distinguished using the dual approach of δ(13)C and δD analysis. The results of this study indicate that the correlation of compound specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis provides the potential for future research to trace the fate and to determine the origin of VOCs in the atmosphere using thermal desorption compound specific isotope analysis. PMID:22921436

  7. Fluoride in ash leachates: environmental implications at Popocatépetl volcano, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienta, M. A.; de La Cruz-Reyna, S.; Cruz, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A.; Marin, M.

    2011-07-01

    Ash emitted by volcanic eruptions, even of moderate magnitude, may affect the environment and the health of humans and animals through different mechanisms at distances significantly larger than those indicated in the volcanic hazard maps. One such mechanism is the high capacity of ash to transport toxic volatiles like fluoride, as soluble condensates on the particles' surface. The mobilization and hazards related to volcanic fluoride are discussed based on the data obtained during the recent activity of Popocatépetl volcano in Central Mexico.

  8. Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India: Managed Aquifer Recharge for mitigation.

    PubMed

    Brindha, K; Jagadeshan, G; Kalpana, L; Elango, L

    2016-05-01

    Climatic condition, geology, and geochemical processes in an area play a major role on groundwater quality. Impact of these on the fluoride content of groundwater was studied in three regions-part of Nalgonda district in Telangana, Pambar River basin, and Vaniyar River basin in Tamil Nadu, southern India, which experience semi-arid climate and are predominantly made of Precambrian rocks. High concentration of fluoride in groundwater above 4 mg/l was recorded. Human exposure dose for fluoride through groundwater was higher in Nalgonda than the other areas. With evaporation and rainfall being one of the major contributors for high fluoride apart from the weathering of fluoride rich minerals from rocks, the effect of increase in groundwater level on fluoride concentration was studied. This study reveals that groundwater in shallow environment of all three regions shows dilution effect due to rainfall recharge. Suitable managed aquifer recharge (MAR) methods can be adopted to dilute the fluoride rich groundwater in such regions which is explained with two case studies. However, in deep groundwater, increase in fluoride concentration with increase in groundwater level due to leaching of fluoride rich salts from the unsaturated zone was observed. Occurrence of fluoride above 1.5 mg/l was more in areas with deeper groundwater environment. Hence, practicing MAR in these regions will increase the fluoride content in groundwater and so physical or chemical treatment has to be adopted. This study brought out the fact that MAR cannot be practiced in all regions for dilution of ions in groundwater and that it is essential to analyze the fluctuation in groundwater level and the fluoride content before suggesting it as a suitable solution. Also, this study emphasizes that long-term monitoring of these factors is an important criterion for choosing the recharge areas. PMID:26822219

  9. Near-real-time measurement of trace volatile organic compounds from combustion processes using an on-line gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Lemieux, P.M.; Preston, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The US EPA`s current regulatory approach for combustion and incineration sources considers the use of real-time continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for particulate, metals, and organic compounds to monitor source emissions. Currently, the CEM technologies to support this approach have not been thoroughly developed and/or demonstrated. The EPA`s air Pollution Prevention and Control Division has developed a near-real-time volatile organic compound (VOC) CEM, using an on-line gas chromatograph (OLGC), capable of measuring over 20 VOCs at concentrations typically present in well-operated combustion systems. The OLGC system consists of a sample delivery system, a sample concentrator, and a GC equipped with both flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Application of the OLGC system was initially demonstrated through participation in the 1995 US EPA/DOE CEM demonstration program. Additional work has improved system performance, including increased automation and improved calibration technique. During pilot-scale incineration testing, measurement performance was examined in detail through comparisons to various CEM performance criteria. Specifically, calibration error, calibration drift error, and system bias were examined as a function of full scale and gas concentration. Although OLGC measurement performance was not able to meet standard EPA CEM measurement performance criteria, measurement performance was encouraging. The system demonstrated the ability to perform hourly trace level VOC measurements for as many as 23 different VOCs with boiling points ranging from {minus}23.7 to 180.5 C at a known level of measurement performance. This system is a suitable alternative to VOC reference method measurements which may be performed only intermittently.

  10. Economic process to produce biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids by a mixed culture using vinasse from sugarcane ethanol industry as nutrient source.

    PubMed

    Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Larroche, Christian; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Nouaille, Regis; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Letti, Luiz Alberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This work evaluates the potential of vinasse (a waste obtained at the bottom of sugarcane ethanol distillation columns) as nutrient source for biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids production by means of anaerobic consortia. Two different media were proposed, using sugarcane juice or molasses as carbon source. The consortium LPBAH1 was selected for fermentation of vinasse supplemented with sugarcane juice, resulting in a higher H2 yield of 7.14 molH2 molsucrose(-1) and hydrogen content in biogas of approx. 31%, while consortium LPBAH2 resulted in 3.66 molH2/molsucrose and 32.7% hydrogen content in biogas. The proposed process showed a rational and economical use for vinasse, a mandatory byproduct of the renewable Brazilian energy matrix. PMID:24675397

  11. Fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wangwang; Kovalsky, Peter; He, Di; Waite, T David

    2015-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging water desalination technology in which pairs of porous electrodes are electrically charged to remove ionic species from water. In this work, the feasibility of fluoride and nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters by batch-mode CDI was investigated. Initially, the effects of flow rate, initial fluoride concentration, and initial coexisting NaCl concentration on fluoride removal were studied. The steady-state fluoride concentration declined as the initial fluoride concentration decreased while initial NaCl concentration remained constant. Due to the competitive electrosorption between fluoride and chloride for limited pore surface sites, a higher initial chloride concentration resulted in a higher equilibrium dissolved fluoride concentration. A simplified one-dimensional transport model for dual anions was developed and found to reliably describe the dynamic process of removal of both fluoride and chloride ions in CDI cells over a range of well-defined operating conditions. Based on the ability of the model to describe fluoride removal, it was extended to description of nitrate removal from brackish groundwaters and also found to perform well. Thus, the approach to description of ion removal, at least in batch studies, appears robust and should assist in optimization of design and operating conditions such that optimal removal of trace ionic species is achieved even when high background concentrations of salt are present. PMID:26278188

  12. Origins of conductivity improvement in fluoride-enhanced silicon doping of ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Nazanin; Vai, Alex T; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride in spray pyrolysis precursor solutions for silicon-doped zinc oxide (SiZO) transparent conductor thin films significantly improves their electrical conductivity by enhancing silicon doping efficiency and not, as previously assumed, by fluoride doping. Containing only earth-abundant elements, SiZO thus prepared rivals the best solution-processed indium-doped ZnO in performance. PMID:25879727

  13. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on the Information Collection Rule survey results of 600 large utilities, approximately 50% of them fluoridate their water and of those, 15-20% do so at the location of coagulant addition. In this case, the effect of fluoride on the coagulation process, floc properties, coa...

  14. Analytical Determination of Fluoride Ion Using Gran's Semi-Antilog Plot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Ralph J.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative determination for fluoride ion using a commercially available fluoride electrode is described. The procedure referred to as known-addition is employed with the data processed on Gran's Plot Paper. Background information, experimental procedures, and advantages/disadvantages of the method are discussed. (JN)

  15. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  16. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  17. REMOVAL OF FLUORIDES FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four-step, bench-scale process has been developed that is capable of removing at least 92 percent of the soluble fluoride from feldspar flotation process wastewaters at a projected cost of $1.03/kkg ($0.93/ton) of feldspar. For a 163,000 kkg/year (180,000 ton/year) plant, the i...

  18. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  19. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  20. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from semiconductor wastewater.

    PubMed

    Warmadewanthi, B; Liu, J C

    2009-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) are widely used in semiconductor industry for etching and rinsing purposes. Consequently, significant amount of wastewater containing phosphate and fluoride is generated. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from the semiconductor wastewater, containing 936 mg/L of fluoride, 118 mg/L of phosphate, 640 mg/L of sulfate, and 26.7 mg/L of ammonia, was studied. Chemical precipitation and flotation reactions were utilized in the two-stage treatment processes. The first-stage reaction involved the addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) to induce selective precipitation of magnesium phosphate. The optimal condition was pH 10 and molar ratio, [Mg(2 + )]/[(PO(4) (3-))], of 3:1, and 66.2% of phosphate was removed and recovered as bobierrite (Mg(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O). No reaction was found between MgCl(2) and fluoride. Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) was used in the second-stage reaction to induce precipitation of calcium fluoride and calcium phosphate. The optimum molar ratio, [Ca(2 + )]/[F(-)], was 0.7 at pH 10, and residual fluoride concentration of 10.7 mg/L and phosphate concentration of lower than 0.5 mg/L was obtained. Thermodynamic equilibrium was modeled with PHREEQC and compared with experimental results. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was an effective collector for subsequent solid-liquid removal via dispersed air flotation (DiAF). The study demonstrated that phosphate can be selectively recovered from the wastewater. Potential benefits include recovery of phosphate for reuse, lower required dosage of calcium for fluoride removal, and less amount of CaF(2) sludge. PMID:19474500

  1. Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle.

    PubMed

    Krook, L; Maylin, G A

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence river, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973; considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant has been designated as the "major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island." Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall island cattle was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. Cows died at or were slaughtered after the third pregnancy. The deterioration of cows did not allow further pregnancies. Fluoride concentrations in ash of biopsied coccygeal vertebrae increased significantly with age and were dependent on distance from and direction to the aluminum plant. Fluoride in bone ash of a 7-month old-fetus exceeded 500 ppm; fluoride thus was passed transplacentally. Analyses of fluoride in ash of bones obtained at necropsy of cattle from 4 months of age to 4 to 5 years of age showed increased amounts with age. Cancellous bone retained far higher amounts than cortical bone, a reflection of the normally higher metabolic rate of cancellous bone. Concentrations exceeding 10,000 ppm fluoride were recorded in cancellous bone of a 4-to 5-year-old cow. The target cells for fluoride in chronic fluorosis were shown to be the ameloblasts, the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts and, in bone, primarily the resorbing osteocytes and also the osteoblasts. Atrophy and necrosis of the ameloblasts were responsible for enamel defects. The existing enamel showed brown discoloration from fluoride deposits. The pulp cells underwent fibrous and osseous metaplasia and necrosis of the ectopic bone occurred. The odontoblasts were atrophic and the dentin showed brown discoloration. The resorbing osteocytes were inactive and osteosclerosis resulted. This was especially pronounced in areas of normally great apposition, i.e. in the metaphyses. The epiphyseal

  2. Effect of Polymer Blocking Layer and Processing Method on the Breakdown Strength and the Extractable Energy Density of Barium Titanate/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite Thin Film Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunsang; Kathaperumal, Mohanalingam; Smith, O'neil; Pan, Ming-Jen; Perry, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Polymer-metal oxide nanocomposites are of great interest because of their high energy density and easy processability, which make them candidate materials for energy storage applications. Although loading of high-k filler in polymer matrix is desirable to maximize energy density of nanocomposites, the decrease of breakdown strength at higher loading compromises a potential gain in energy density. In this work, we investigate the effect of a fluoropolymer (CYTOP) blocking layer in BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) nanocomposite films on the improvement of breakdown strength and energy storage density. The introduction of blocking layer may serve to prevent moisture absorption and charge injection from electrode, thereby decreasing the probability of catastrophic breakdown events. We also examine the influence of processing method, i.e. spin- or blade-casting, on the performance of bilayer films. The charge-discharge method shows about a twofold increase in extractable energy density (from 2 to 3.7 J/cm3) of bilayer films fabricated by blade-casting compared to single layer film by spin-casting because of improved breakdown strength. The results will be discussed in regards to morphology, electric field distribution, and loss of bilayer films.

  3. Microcratering in Polyvinylidene Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Anthony John

    Dust is defined as macroparticles as small as a few molecules up to several micrometers in diameter. In the context of space exploration, it was originally seen only as a technical obstacle to applications; dust can damage instrument surfaces, coat mating surfaces preventing proper seals, and impair or obstruct measurements. Because of the ubiquity of dust in the solar system and its role in the origin of planets and other bodies, the study of dust and related phenomena has evolved to a scientific subdiscipline which can provide us insight into the origins and evolution of our solar system. In order to facilitate this, a hypervelocity dust accelerator has been built at the University of Colorado at Boulder and is being used to probe impact phenomena, dust mitigation techniques, dust detection techniques, and more. One such dust detector is a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) dust detector. The PVDF dust detector is very lightweight and consumes little power. Due to these properties, PVDF detectors can potentially be used on any spacecraft to gain information on the local dust environment. It is not fully understood how this PVDF dust detector signal is generated, so at present can only be used as a dust counter. In this thesis I discuss the importance of the study of dust phenomena, describe the accelerator experiment, and describe a study conducted to determine the underlying physical principles of PVDF dust detectors. This included measuring crater size scaling laws, measuring the detailed shape of craters, and applying this data to simulations of the signals being generated by PVDF detectors.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process. PMID:26117814

  5. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  6. Industrial Applications of Graphite Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Kucera, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Based on fluorination technology developed during 1934 to 1959, and the fiber technology developed during the 1970s, a new process was developed to produce graphite fluoride fibers. In the process, pitch based graphitized carbon fibers are at first intercalated and deintercalated several times by bromine and iodine, followed by several cycles of nitrogen heating and fluorination at 350 to 370 C. Electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of this fiber depend on the fluorination process and the fluorine content of the graphite fluoride product. However, these properties are between those of graphite and those of PTFE (Teflon). Therefore, it is considered to be a semiplastic. The physical properties suggest that this new material may have many new and unexplored applications. For example, it can be a thermally conductive electrical insulator. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be adjusted to match that of silicon, and therefore, it can be a heat sinking printed circuit board which is CTE compatible with silicon. Using these fibers in printed circuit boards may provide improved electrical performance and reliability of the electronics on the board over existing designs. Also, since it releases fluorine at 300 C or higher, it can be used as a material to store fluorine and to conduct fluorination. This application may simplify the fluorination process and reduce the risk of handling fluorine.

  7. Metal fluoride coatings prepared by ion-assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Martin; Sode, Maik; Gäbler, Dieter; Bernitzki, Helmut; Zaczek, Christoph; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    ArF lithography technology requires minimization of optical losses due to scattering and absorption. Consequently, it is necessary to optimize the coating process of metal fluorides. The properties of metal fluoride thin films are mainly affected by the deposition methods, their parameters (temperature and deposition rate) and the vacuum conditions. A substrate temperature of more than 300°C is a condition for high density and low water content of metal fluorides. Therefore, a substrate temperature of 150°C results in inhomogeneous films with high water content. Until now, the best results were achieved by boat evaporation. This paper will demonstrate that most of the common metal fluorides like MgF2, AlF3, and even LaF3 can be deposited by electron beam evaporation. In comparison to other deposition methods, the prepared thin films have the lowest absorption in the VUV spectral range. Furthermore, metal fluoride thin films were prepared by ion assistance. It will be demonstrated, that they have less water content, high packing density, and low absorption in the VUV spectral range. In this study, single layers of LaF3 and AlF3 and antireflection coatings were prepared by electron beam evaporation with and without ion-assistance. The mechanical, structural, and optical properties were examined and discussed.

  8. Heterogeneous processing of biomass burning aerosol proxies by OH radicals for a wide range of OH concentrations and detection of volatilization products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) constitutes the majority of primary organic aerosol found in the atmosphere, with emission rates comparable to fossil-fuel burning. BBA affects earth's radiative budget directly through absorption and scattering of radiation or indirectly by modifying cloud radiative properties, and impacts air quality. Quantifying BBA source strength and thus its effects on air quality, human health, and climate can be difficult since these organic particles can chemically transform during atmospheric transport, a process also termed aging, due to heterogeneous reactions with oxidants and radicals such as OH. In this work we investigate the reactive uptake of OH radicals by typical BBA compounds that also serve as molecular markers for source apportionment studies. Organic substrates of cellulose pyrolysis products such as levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-glucopyranose, C6H10O5), resin acids such as abietic acid (1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, C20H30O2), and lignin decomposition products such as 5-nitroguaiacol (2-methoxy-5-nitrophenol, C7H7NO4) have been exposed to a wide range of OH concentrations (~107-1011 cm-3), in presence of O2 in a rotating wall flow reactor operated at 2-6 mbar coupled to a custom built chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). OH radicals were generated through H2 dissociation in an Evenson microwave resonant cavity operated at 2.45 GHz followed by reaction with O2 or NO2. In addition, potential volatilization of organic material due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH has been determined in-situ by monitoring the volatile organic compounds using a high resolution-proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). The volatilization studies are conducted at 1 atm and OH is generated by O3 photolysis in the presence of H2O vapor and quantified using a photochemical box model as well as through reaction with a known concentration of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C5H8). Reactive uptake validation

  9. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years, and

  10. A Manual for Rural School Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Larman W.; Brooks, John

    The product of a 1972 Dental Health Branch contract with the U.S. Public Health Service, this manual is designed to aid in the development of school fluoridation programs and presents: background information on general concepts relating to the action of fluoride on teeth; discussions dealing with community and school fluoridation studies; and the…

  11. The Effect of Fluoride in Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, L. R.; Gallagher, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of fluoride on bone tissue and the possible role of fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis. At present, fluoride treatment should be restricted to clinical trials until its risks and benefits have been further evaluated. (Author/MT)

  12. Fluoride uptake by Streptococcus mutans 6715.

    PubMed Central

    Whitford, G M; Schuster, G S; Pashley, D H; Venkateswarlu, P

    1977-01-01

    The short-term kinetics of fluoride uptake by cells from 20- to 22-h cultures of Streptococcus mutans strain 6715 were studied using rapid filtration and centrifugation techniques. Saline-suspended organisms were diluted with fluoride-containing solutions buffered at four different pH values (2.0, 4.0, 5.5, and 8.2). Fluoride disappearance from the medium was inversely related to pH and to the duration of the exposure at any given pH. The uptake was rapid and extensive at the lower pH values and decreased as the pH increased. Media fluoride concentrations subsequently increased; i.e., fluoride was released from the cells. The presence of glucose, cyanide, or iodoacetate did not influence the results. However, preincubation of the cells in fluoride-free buffers, followed by the addition of fluoride, reduced fluoride uptake markedly. Cell-to-media pH gradients were determined by the distribution of 14C-labeled 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione. Fluoride uptake was found to be a function of the magnitude of the pH gradient (P less than 0.001). It is hypothesized that fluoride uptake occurs by the diffusion of hydrogen fluoride and the subsequent trapping of ionic fluoride. PMID:22490

  13. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  14. Aqueous geochemistry of fluoride enriched groundwater in arid part of Western India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chander Kumar; Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2015-02-01

    Fluoride-enriched water has become a major public health issue in India. The present study tries to evaluate the geochemical mechanism of fluoride enrichment in groundwater of western India. Total 100 groundwater samples were collected for the study spreading across the entire study area. The results of the analyzed parameters formed the attribute database for geographical information system (GIS) analysis and final output maps. A preliminary field survey was conducted and fluoride testing was done using Hach make field kits. The fluoride concentration ranges from 0.08 to 6.6 mg/L (mean 2.4 mg/L), with 63 % of the samples containing fluoride concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and 85 % samples exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) guidelines of 1 mg/L. The study also reveals high concentration of nitrate that is found to be above WHO standrads. The dominant geochemical facies present in water are Na-Cl-HCO3 (26 samples), Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 (20 samples), Na-Cl (14 samples), and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-HCO3 (11 samples); however, sodium and bicarbonate being the major component in all the water types of 100 samples, which in fact has a tendency to increase fluoride concentration in water by dissolving fluoride from fluorite. The thermodynamic considerations between the activities of calcium, fluoride, and bicarbonate suggest that fluoride concentration is being governed by activity of calcium ion. X-ray diffraction analysis of sediments reveals calcite and fluorite are the main solubility-control minerals controlling the aqueous geochemistry of high fluoride groundwater. The results indicate that the fluoride concentration in groundwater is mainly governed by geochemical composition of rocks, such as metamorphic granites and sedimentary rocks, alkaline hydrogeological environment, climatic conditions, high temperature and lesser rainfall, and geochemical processes such as weathering, evaporation

  15. 75 FR 60013 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Volatile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions From Industrial Solvent Cleaning Operations AGENCY: Environmental... consists of an addition to Maryland's Volatile Organic Compounds from Specific Processes Regulation... available control techniques (RACT) requirements for sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) covered...

  16. Constraints on magma processes, subsurface conditions, and total volatile flux at Bezymianny Volcano in 2007-2010 from direct and remote volcanic gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Taryn; Ushakov, Sergey; Izbekov, Pavel; Tassi, Franco; Cahill, Cathy; Neill, Owen; Werner, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    Direct and remote measurements of volcanic gas composition, SO2 flux, and eruptive SO2 mass from Bezymianny Volcano were acquired between July 2007 and July 2010. Chemical composition of fumarolic gases, plume SO2 flux from ground and air-based ultraviolet remote sensing (FLYSPEC), and eruptive SO2 mass from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations were used along with eruption timing to elucidate magma processes and subsurface conditions, and to constrain total volatile flux. Bezymianny Volcano had five explosive magmatic eruptions between May 2007 and June 2010. The most complete volcanic gas datasets were acquired for the October 2007, December 2009, and May 2010 eruptions. Gas measurements collected prior to the October 2007 eruption have a relatively high ratio of H2O/CO2 (81.2), a moderate ratio of CO2/S (5.47), and a low ratio of S/HCl (0.338), along with moderate SO2 and CO2 fluxes of 280 and 980 t/d, respectively, and high H2O and HCl fluxes of ~ 45,000 and ~ 440 t/d, respectively. These results suggest degassing of shallow magma (consistent with observations of lava extrusion) along with potential minor degassing of a deeper magma source. Gas measurements collected prior to the December 2009 eruption are characterized by relatively low H2O/CO2 (4.13), moderate CO2/S (6.84), and high S/HCl (18.7) ratios, along with moderate SO2 and CO2 fluxes of ~ 220 and ~ 1000 t/d, respectively, and low H2O and HCl fluxes of ~ 1700 and ~ 7 t/d, respectively. These trends are consistent with degassing of a deeper magma source. Fumarole samples collected ~ 1.5 months following the May 2010 eruption are characterized by high H2O/CO2 (63.0), low CO2/S (0.986), and moderate S/HCl (6.09) ratios. These data are consistent with degassing of a shallow, volatile-rich magma source, likely related to the May eruption. Passive and eruptive SO2 measurements are used to calculate a total annual SO2 mass of 109 kt emitted in 2007, with passive emissions comprising ~ 87

  17. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown & Root Environmental's Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. nder the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contaminati...

  18. SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS): INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown & Root Environmental's Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. nder the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contaminati...

  19. Active Flash: Performance-Energy Tradeoffs for Out-of-Core Processing on Non-Volatile Memory Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boboila, Simona; Kim, Youngjae; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Desnoyers, Peter; Shipman, Galen M

    2012-01-01

    In this abstract, we study the performance and energy tradeoffs involved in migrating data analysis into the flash device, a process we refer to as Active Flash. The Active Flash paradigm is similar to 'active disks', which has received considerable attention. Active Flash allows us to move processing closer to data, thereby minimizing data movement costs and reducing power consumption. It enables true out-of-core computation. The conventional definition of out-of-core solvers refers to an approach to process data that is too large to fit in the main memory and, consequently, requires access to disk. However, in Active Flash, processing outside the host CPU literally frees the core and achieves real 'out-of-core' analysis. Moving analysis to data has long been desirable, not just at this level, but at all levels of the system hierarchy. However, this requires a detailed study on the tradeoffs involved in achieving analysis turnaround under an acceptable energy envelope. To this end, we first need to evaluate if there is enough computing power on the flash device to warrant such an exploration. Flash processors require decent computing power to run the internal logic pertaining to the Flash Translation Layer (FTL), which is responsible for operations such as address translation, garbage collection (GC) and wear-leveling. Modern SSDs are composed of multiple packages and several flash chips within a package. The packages are connected using multiple I/O channels to offer high I/O bandwidth. SSD computing power is also expected to be high enough to exploit such inherent internal parallelism within the drive to increase the bandwidth and to handle fast I/O requests. More recently, SSD devices are being equipped with powerful processing units and are even embedded with multicore CPUs (e.g. ARM Cortex-A9 embedded processor is advertised to reach 2GHz frequency and deliver 5000 DMIPS; OCZ RevoDrive X2 SSD has 4 SandForce controllers, each with 780MHz max frequency

  20. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  1. ADEQUACY OF SAMPLING TRAINS AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES USED FOR FLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquid nitrogen-cooled cold-traps were used to establish the collection efficiency for fluorides of two different source sampling trains at primary aluminum reduction plants and wet-process phosphoric acid plants. It was found that the glass frit filter support commonly used in s...

  2. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Brett D.; Binning, Philip J.; Sloan, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of calcite (CaCO 3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process. The paper focuses on two issues in the implementation of calcite permeable reactive barriers for remediating fluoride contaminated water: the impact of the groundwater chemical matrix and CO 2 addition on fluoride removal. Column tests comparing pure NaF solutions, synthetic SPL solutions, and actual SPL leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal diminishes. Column tests also show that pH control is important for optimizing fluoride removal with the mass removed increasing with decreasing pH. Barrier pH can be regulated by CO 2 addition with the point of injection being critical for optimising the remediation performance. Experimental and model results show that approximately 99% of 2300 mg/L fluoride can be removed when CO 2 is injected directly into the barrier. This can be compared to approximately 30-50% removal when the influent solution is equilibrated with atmospheric CO 2 before contact with calcite.

  3. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brett D; Binning, Philip J; Sloan, Scott W

    2008-01-28

    The use of calcite (CaCO3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process. The paper focuses on two issues in the implementation of calcite permeable reactive barriers for remediating fluoride contaminated water: the impact of the groundwater chemical matrix and CO2 addition on fluoride removal. Column tests comparing pure NaF solutions, synthetic SPL solutions, and actual SPL leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal diminishes. Column tests also show that pH control is important for optimizing fluoride removal with the mass removed increasing with decreasing pH. Barrier pH can be regulated by CO2 addition with the point of injection being critical for optimising the remediation performance. Experimental and model results show that approximately 99% of 2300 mg/L fluoride can be removed when CO2 is injected directly into the barrier. This can be compared to approximately 30-50% removal when the influent solution is equilibrated with atmospheric CO2 before contact with calcite. PMID:17913284

  4. Physicochemical perspectives on the cariostatic mechanisms of systemic and topical fluorides.

    PubMed

    Margolis, H C; Moreno, E C

    1990-02-01

    The cariostatic mechanisms of systemic and topical fluoride agents are considered in light of a previously proposed model for the caries process. It is noted that fluoride, in principle, can induce a cariostatic effect: by (1) reducing enamel solubility when incorporated into the mineral structure; (2) by fostering the remineralization of incipient enamel lesions and the deposition of fluoridated phases (within dental plaque) which provide a source of mineral ions (Ca, P, F) under acidic conditions; and (3) by reducing the net rate of transport of matter out of the enamel surface, under acidic conditions, by inducing the reprecipitation of fluoridated hydroxyapatite phases within enamel. It is also noted that relatively high (approximately 12,000 ppm) concentrations of professionally applied topical fluorides significantly reduce the rate of acid production of cariogenic organisms (e.g., S. mutans). Based on an analysis of available clinical and laboratory data, it is concluded that the benefits provided by water fluoridation result, to a large degree, from a topical effect. It is suggested that clinical procedures be developed to establish and maintain low levels of free fluoride in plaque fluid. It appears that this will require frequent exposure to topical fluorides. PMID:2179321

  5. Atomic layer deposition of magnesium fluoride via bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)magnesium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, John Jewell, April D.; Greer, Frank; Lee, Michael C.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2015-01-15

    A new process has been developed to deposit magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) thin films via atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as optical coatings in the ultraviolet. MgF{sub 2} was deposited in a showerhead style ALD reactor using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)magnesium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) as precursors at substrate temperatures from 100 to 250 °C. The use of HF was observed to result in improved morphology and reduced impurity content compared to other reported MgF{sub 2} ALD approaches that use metal fluoride precursors as the fluorine-containing chemistry. Characterization of these films has been performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for material deposited on silicon substrates. Films at all substrate temperatures were transparent at wavelengths down to 190 nm and the low deposition temperature combined with low surface roughness makes these coatings good candidates for a variety of optical applications in the far ultraviolet.

  6. Optical Restoration of Lead Fluoride Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Spilker, A.; Cole, P. L.; Forest, T. A.; Mestari, M.; Naeem, S.; LeBaron, N.; Bertin, P.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Roche, J.

    2009-03-10

    Due to its relatively high resistance to high radiation, lead fluoride (PbF{sub 2}) crystals are becoming an increasingly popular material of choice for electromagnetic calorimetry, such as for experiments requiring the measurement of high-energy photons in Hall A of Jefferson Lab. For our studies we irradiated the PbF{sub 2} crystals using an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) followed by exposing the crystals to blue light so as to restore the nominal optical properties. This technique of optical bleaching with blue light affords an efficient and low-cost means for reversing the deleterious effects of optical transmission loss in radiation-damaged lead fluoride crystals. Whereas earlier experiments irradiated the PbF{sub 2} samples with 1.1 and 1.3 MeV gammas from {sup 60}Co, we used pulsed beams of energetic electrons from the tunable 25-MeV LINAC at Idaho Accelerator Center of Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. A 20-MeV beam of electrons was targeted onto four separate 19 cm length samples of lead fluoride over periods of 1, 2, and 4 hours yielding doses between 7 kGy and 35 kGy. Samples were then bleached with blue light of wavelength 410-450 nm for periods between 19.5 and 24 hours. We performed this process twice - radiation, bleaching, radiation, and then followed by bleaching again - for each of these four PbF{sub 2} samples. We shall discuss the efficacy of blue light curing on samples that have undergone two cycles of electron irradiation and optical bleaching.

  7. Chemical diversity of organic volatiles among comets: An emerging taxonomy and implications for processes in the proto-planetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    As messengers from the early Solar System, comets contain key information from the time of planet formation and even earlier some may contain material formed in our natal interstellar cloud. Along with water, the cometary nucleus contains ices of natural gases (CH4, C2H6), alcohols (CH3OH), acids (HCOOH), embalming fluid (H2CO), and even anti-freeze (ethylene glycol). Comets today contain some ices that vaporize at temperatures near absolute zero (CO, CH4), demonstrating that their compositions remain largely unchanged after 4.5 billion years. By comparing their chemical diversity, several distinct cometary classes have been identified but their specific relation to chemical gradients in the proto-planetary disk remains murky. How does the compositional diversity of comets relate to nebular processes such as chemical processing, radial migration, and dynamical scattering? No current reservoir holds a unique class, but their fractional abundance can test emerging dynamical models for origins of the scattered Kuiper disk, the Oort cloud, and the (proposed) main-belt comets. I will provide a simplified overview emphasizing what we are learning, current issues, and their relevance to the subject of this Symposium.

  8. Effects of processing methods on composition and functionality of volatile components isolated from immature fruits of atemoya.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tai-Ti; Chao, Louis Kuo-Ping; Peng, Chi-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi

    2016-07-01

    Atemoya is one of the most important commercial fruits of the family Annonaceae. The immature fruits of atemoya amply produced from a fruit-thinning process is normally regarded as waste and discarded. This research aimed at studying antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) isolated from the immature fruits to explore its potential application. The fruits were subjected to different drying methods: solar drying (SD), oven drying at 30°C (OD-30), and at 50°C (OD-50). The oven drying method gave a higher EO yield than the solar drying method. Spathulenol was the largest compound in the EO after the drying process. Antimicrobial effect was not affected by the different drying methods. Antioxidant activity of the EO was measured by DPPH, nitric oxide, and reducing power methods. The EOOD-50 exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than EOSD and EOOD-30. The EO also showed an anti-inflammatory activity in a cell model. PMID:26920282

  9. Special Report: Fluoridation of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the controversy regarding water fluoridation in the United States during the last 50 years. Discusses the current status; benefits; and health risks including skeletal fluorosis, kidney disease, hypersensitivity, mutagenic effects, birth defects, and cancer. Presents statistics and anecdotal accounts. (CW)

  10. Spectral diversity crystalline fluoride lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, H.P.; Gabbe, D.R.; Linz, A.; Naiman, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Within the realm of crystalline laser materials, the class of fluorides distinguishes itself mostly by the wide variety of laser wavelengths displayed. Laser operation has now been reported from 3.9 micrometers in the infrared to 286 nm in the ultraviolet. Many are operated flash-lamp pumped, while others have shown high utility as linear down conversion lasers and rare earth ion, while others are sensitized by other co-dopants which absorb the pump energy and transfer it to the active laser ions. The potential of large spectral diversity for laser operation is due both to the wide window of transparency that fluorides possess and the lower rates of nonradiative decay. The high band gap in the ultraviolet also leads to low linear absorption, low nonlinear refractive indices and multiphoton absorption. Additionally, the good chemical stability displayed by high-purity stoichiometric fluoride compounds allows their use with ultraviolet pump sources at high energies, without incurring UV-induced damage. The most recent research associated with such materials, particularly the host crystal, lithium yttrium fluoride, LiYF4 (YLF) is reviewed.

  11. [Absorption of fluorides by synthetic hydroxyapatites].

    PubMed

    Yévenes, I; Sánchez, U; Medina, M E

    1988-01-01

    We studied the adsorption of sodium fluoride, ammonium fluoride, tin fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate to synthetic hydroxiapatite in function of the pH (pH 4.7, 5.5 and 6.1). In two models; in a first model was eluted the fluorides of the hydroxiapatite column with artificial saliva; in the second model were incubated the fluoride with bufferized hydroxiapatite to the above pH. The fluoride determination was done by potentiometric method with a specific ion activity electrode. The results in the elution indicated that the sodium and tin fluorides give elution levels different at the pH studied. By other hand ammonium fluoride did not present differences. The results with incubation demonstrated that ammonium fluoride gives the greater adsorption, the sodium fluoride is slightly lower, and the sodium monofluorophosphate the lowest. Also, was observed that the adsorption decrease with the increase of the pH for the three fluorides. The comparison of both models showed that the incubation presented higher values of adsorption than the elution for the pH studied. PMID:3155417

  12. Fixture For Sampling Volatile Materials In Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Donald; Pratz, Earl Howard

    1995-01-01

    Fixture based on T-connector enables mass-spectrometric analysis of volatile contents of cylindrical containers without exposing contents to ambient conditions. Used to sample volatile contents of pressurized containers, contents of such enclosed processing systems as gas-phase reactors, gases in automotive emission systems, and gas in hostile environments.

  13. The role of fluoride in erosion therapy.

    PubMed

    Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Young, Alix; Ganss, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The role of fluoride in erosion therapy has long been questioned. However, recent research has yielded positive results. In this chapter, an overview of the literature is provided regarding the application of fluorides in the prevention and treatment of erosion and erosive wear. The results are presented and discussed for different fluoride sources such as monovalent and polyvalent fluorides, and for different vehicles such as toothpastes, solutions and rinses, as well as varnishes and gels. It is concluded that fluoride applications are very likely to be of use in the preventive treatment of erosive wear. Most promising are high-concentration, acidic formulations and the polyvalent fluoride sources, with the best evidence available for stannous fluoride. However, the evidence base for clinical effectiveness is still small. PMID:24993271

  14. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  15. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Oconnell, R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  16. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (<0.5 mg/L) is beneficial in promoting dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects. PMID:23573940

  17. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  18. A Retrospective: Active Volatile-Driven Geologic Processes Across the Solar System—Lessons for Planetary Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    When Voyagers 1 and 2 left Earth in 1977, we had little clue as to the rich variety of activity we'd find on the outer Solar System moons. The moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune would likely exhibit little geologic evolution¾much less even than our Moon. We expected battered, cratered, dead worlds. Like the Moon, Mars had showed volcanic activity in the geologic past, but ancient, heavily crater highlands dominated both surfaces. It seemed unlikely that we'd find even extinct volcanism in the cold, dead reaches of the outer Solar System. Voyager 1 shocked us by revealing Io's prolific ongoing volcanism. (Not all were surprised: just days earlier, Peale, Cassen, and Reynolds published a prediction that Io could be volcanically active). Europa, too, was a Voyager surprise; only a small handful of impact craters pocked its surface. It too had to be a geologically young body—likely still actively evolving. We have even found very recent geological activity on tiny cometary nuclei, where young flows have oozed forth across their surfaces. At Neptune, incredibly, Voyager 2 found eruptions on Triton's 37K polar cap—plumes driven by solar-heated nitrogen gas blasting dark dust and bright ice in 8-km-high columns. On Mars, "dark spiders" near the pole signaled similar active eruptions, in this case driven by pressurized carbon dioxide. Cassini witnessed a myriad of jets near tiny Enceladus' south pole, arising from an internal ocean evidently driven by active chemical processes and modulated by Saturn's proximity. Cassini revealed Titan to be Earth's alien twin, with a host of processes borrowed from textbooks on terrestrial geomorphology and meteorology. Akin to Earth's global hydrological cycle, Titan's runs on methane—methane rivers, seas, and rain abound. What lessons can we take from these active places into the next phase of exploration? When the Voyagers were launched, our naiveté allowed that only planet Earth was dynamically active. But exploring

  19. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1). PMID:27021697

  20. Volatile and biogenic amines, microbiological counts, and bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity throughout the salt-ripening process of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus).

    PubMed

    Pons-Sánchez-Cascado, S; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Bover-Cid, S; Mariné-Font, A; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2005-08-01

    Chemical and microbiological parameters were studied during the industrial production of salt-ripened anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Gradual acidification and increases in the proteolysis index and in total volatile basic nitrogen were observed. At the end of the maturing process, the values reached pH 5.55 +/- 0.03, 21.33 +/- 5.82%, and 44.06 +/- 12.47 mg/ 100 g, respectively. In the three studied anchovy batches, the biogenic amines tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine increased during ripening. The highest values were found in the batch where initial microbial load was highest (batch 1), especially for enterobacteria and enterococci. Tyramine was the most abundant amine, reaching values from nondetectable to 90 mg/kg, whereas histamine did not surpass 20 mg/kg. Among the microorganisms isolated, Enterobacter cloacae, Aerococcus viridans, Kocuria varians, and Staphylococcus chromogenes were able to decarboxylate amino acids and produce biogenic amines in vitro. Most (70.59%) of the microorganisms identified were able to produce histamine, 23.53% were able to produce the diamines putrescine and cadaverine, and only 11.76% were able to produce tyramine, although this substance was the major biogenic amine found in anchovy samples. PMID:21132979

  1. Mapping and profile of emission sources for airborne volatile organic compounds from process regions at a petrochemical plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Liang; Fang, Hung-Yuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2006-06-01

    This work surveyed five process regions inside a petrochemical plant in Taiwan to characterize the profiles of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and locate emission sources. Samples, taken with canisters, were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry according to the TO-14 method. Each region was deployed with 24 sampling sites, sampled twice, and 240 samples in total were measured during the survey period. All of the data were consolidated into a database on Excel to facilitate retrieval, statistical analysis, and presentation in the form of a table or graph, and, subsequently, the profile of VOCs was elucidated. Emission sources were located by mapping the concentration distribution of either an individual or a type of species in terms of contour maps on Surfer. Through the cross-analysis of data, the abundant VOCs included alkenes, dienes, alkanes, and aromatics. A total of 19 emission sources were located from these five regions. The sources for alkanes stood inside first, third aromatic, and fourth naphtha cracking regions, whereas the ones for alkenes were inside two naphtha cracking regions. The sources for dienes were found inside the third naphtha cracking region alone; in contrast, the sources for aromatics were universally traced except inside the third naphtha cracking region. The measured intensity for sources mostly ranged from 1000 to 7000 ppb. PMID:16805407

  2. Dynamics of Fluoride Bioavailability in the Biofilms of Different Oral Surfaces after Amine Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride Application.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Dickten, Christoph; Jung, Rico; Krauss, Florian; Rübesamen, Henrik; Schmütsch, Katharina; Sandulescu, Tudor; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2016-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate differences in fluoride bioavailability in different oral areas after the application of amine fluoride (AmF) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The null hypothesis suggested no differences in the fluoride bioavailability. The tongue coating was removed and biofilm samples from the palate, oral floor and cheeks were collected. All subjects brushed their teeth with toothpaste containing AmF or NaF. Specimens were collected before, as well as immediately after and at 30 and 120 minutes after tooth brushing. The fluoride concentration was determined. The area under the curve was calculated for each location and compared statistically. In the tongue coating, fluoride concentration increased faster after NaF application than after AmF application. After 30 minutes, the fluoride concentration decreased and remained stable until 120 minutes after AmF application and returned to baseline after NaF application. The difference between the baseline and the endpoint measurements was statistically significant. The fluoride concentration in the tongue coating remained at a higher level compared with the baseline for up to 120 minutes post-brushing. This may indicate that the tongue coating is a major reservoir for fluoride bioavailability. The results also indicate an unequal fluoride distribution in the oral cavity. PMID:26727989

  3. Dynamics of Fluoride Bioavailability in the Biofilms of Different Oral Surfaces after Amine Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride Application

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Ella A.; Dickten, Christoph; Jung, Rico; Krauss, Florian; Rübesamen, Henrik; Schmütsch, Katharina; Sandulescu, Tudor; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2016-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate differences in fluoride bioavailability in different oral areas after the application of amine fluoride (AmF) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The null hypothesis suggested no differences in the fluoride bioavailability. The tongue coating was removed and biofilm samples from the palate, oral floor and cheeks were collected. All subjects brushed their teeth with toothpaste containing AmF or NaF. Specimens were collected before, as well as immediately after and at 30 and 120 minutes after tooth brushing. The fluoride concentration was determined. The area under the curve was calculated for each location and compared statistically. In the tongue coating, fluoride concentration increased faster after NaF application than after AmF application. After 30 minutes, the fluoride concentration decreased and remained stable until 120 minutes after AmF application and returned to baseline after NaF application. The difference between the baseline and the endpoint measurements was statistically significant. The fluoride concentration in the tongue coating remained at a higher level compared with the baseline for up to 120 minutes post-brushing. This may indicate that the tongue coating is a major reservoir for fluoride bioavailability. The results also indicate an unequal fluoride distribution in the oral cavity. PMID:26727989

  4. Regional biogenic emissions of reactive volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from forests: First results on process studies, modelling and validation experiments (BEWA2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, B.; Bewa2000 Team

    2003-04-01

    The overall objective of the research consortia is to develop for a forest canopy a prognostic, validated emission model for primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOC) to be used for estimating regional biogenic emissions with a higher spatial and temporal resolution than present. To achieve this objective requires a better description of biosynthetic processes as well as chemical degradation mechanisms for reactive biogenic VOC in combination with a process-based model and latest vegetation specific land use information. Up to now several highlights were achieved within the different key activities. In the section model development a process-based isoprenoid emission model was supplemented with new differential equations especially taking into account the influence of transport-resistances for leaf gas-exchange. In biochemical process-studies related to the formation of isoprene in leaves it turned out that during daytime about 20-70% of the total carbon delivered to poplar leaves (photosynthesis + other sources) was derived from xylem-transported sugars. This finding indicates that xylem-delivered carbon may indeed act as a significant alternative carbon source for isoprenoid biosynthesis. First chemical process studies on the reaction of limonene with NO3 radicals (observed in the night and under low light conditions) in the EUPHORE (European Photoreactor) demonstrated a secondary particle formation. At the field site Waldstein (Fichtelgebirge) this reaction may result in maximum pinonealdhyde concentrations in the air and on particles observed in night periods. A first analysis of particle size distributions over the Norway spruce canopy showed the appearance of small particles (< 10nm) during early daytime. The first results demonstrate that the proposed approach of combining interdisciplinary field, laboratory and modelling exercises to address the complexity of the biosphere/atmosphere exchange of reactive trace gases will contribute

  5. Contents of fluorides in vegetables from areas contaminated by industrial emissions: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Machoy, Z.; Samujlo, D.

    1981-01-01

    In vegetables grown in 1978 and 1979 near a chemical plant where phosphorites and apatites are processed, according to preliminary data, fluoride was significantly elevated in roots of carrots and parsley and in the leaves of parsley.

  6. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng; Geng, Chong; Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Yao, Jianjun; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Li, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ˜62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  7. Volatiles on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term evolution of both the atmosphere and the surface of Mars can be understood by examining the history of volatiles in the Mars atmosphere, their non-atmospheric reservoirs, and the processes of exchange between the two. Clearly, the present state of both the surface and the atmosphere can only be seen, so that any inferences about the evolution of the climate system are just that, inferences. The processes which control the atmosphere and surface on a seasonal basis, however, are the same processes which can act on longer timescales; only the specific solar and atmospheric forcing will differ. Once the ability of each process to affect the seasonal behavior is understood, the long-timescale forcing may be applied to the various processes in order to clearly identify the ability of the processes to act over the entire history of Mars. The areas of surface-atmospheric interaction of Mars are addressed in the ongoing research. The climate system on Mars is controlled by processes involving the exchange between the surface and atmosphere, so it is important to understand the current behavior of those processes. This is especially so in light of the current interest in understanding Mars; the upcoming Mars Observer mission, and the potential for a future sample-return or human-exploration mission will focus emphasis on this area of Mars science.

  8. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    SciTech Connect

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  9. Sol-gel-fluorination synthesis of amorphous magnesium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Murthy, J.; Gross, Udo; Ruediger, Stephan; Kemnitz, Erhard . E-mail: erhard.kemnitz@chemie.hu-berlin.de; Winfield, John M.

    2006-03-15

    The sol-gel fluorination process is discussed for the reaction of magnesium alkoxides with HF in non-aqueous solvents to give X-ray amorphous nano-sized magnesium fluoride with high surface areas in the range of 150-350 m{sup 2}/g (HS-MgF{sub 2}). The H2 type hysteresis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption BET-isotherms is indicative for mesoporous solids. A highly distorted structure causes quite high Lewis acidity, shown by NH{sub 3} temperature-programmed desorption (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and catalytic test reactions. XPS data of amorphous and conventionally crystalline MgF{sub 2} are compared, both show octahedral coordination at the metal site. Thermal analysis, F-MAS NMR- and IR-spectroscopy give information on composition and structure of the precursor intermediate as well as of the final metal fluoride. The preparation of complex fluorides, M{sup +}MgF{sub 3} {sup -}, by the sol-gel route is reported. From the magnesium fluoride gel of the above process thin films for optical application are obtained by, e.g., spin coating.

  10. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, 18F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions. PMID:24173035

  11. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D; Davis, Jared H; Gordon, Patricia B; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2013-11-19

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, (18)F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions. PMID:24173035

  12. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b)...

  13. Effect of fluoride on insulin level of rats and insulin receptor expression in the MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun-Yan; Ren, Li-Qun; Li, Xi-Ning; Wu, Nan; Li, Guang-Sheng; Liu, Qin-Yi; Xu, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the role of insulin and insulin receptor (InsR) in the process of skeletal fluorosis, especially in osteogenic function, are rare. We evaluated the effect of increasing F⁻ doses on the marker of bone formation, serum insulin level and pancreatic secretion changes in vivo and mRNA expression of InsR and osteocalcin (OCN) in vitro. Wistar rats (n = 50) were divided into two groups, i.e. a control group and fluoride group. The fluoride groups were treated with fluoride by drinking tap water containing 100 mg F⁻/L. The fluoride ion-selective electrode measured the fluoride concentrations of femurs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP), OCN, insulin and glucagon of serum were tested to observe the effect of fluoride action on them. Meantime, the pancreas pathological morphometry analysis via β cells stained by aldehyde fuchsin showed the action of fluoride on pancreas secretion. MC3T3-E1 cells (derived from newborn mouse calvaria) were exposed to varying concentrations and periods of fluoride. The mRNA expression of InsR and OCN was quantified with real-time PCR. Results showed that 1-year fluoride treatment obviously stimulated ALP activity and OCN level along with increase of bone fluoride concentration of rats, which indicated that fluoride obviously stimulated osteogenic action of rats. In vitro study, the dual effect of fluoride on osteoblast function is shown. On the other hand, there was a significant increase of serum insulin level and a general decrease of glucagon level, and the histomorphometry analysis indicated an elevated insulin-positive area and increase in islet size in rats treated with fluoride for 1 year. In addition, fluoride obviously facilitated the mRNA expression of InsR in vitro. To sum up, there existed a close relationship between insulin secretion and fluoride treatment. The insulin signal pathway might be involved in the underlying occurrence or development of skeletal fluorosis. PMID:22872571

  14. Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.

  15. Systematic review of water fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, Marian S; Whiting, Penny F; Wilson, Paul M; Sutton, Alex J; Chestnutt, Ivor; Cooper, Jan; Misso, Kate; Bradley, Matthew; Treasure, Elizabeth; Kleijnen, Jos

    2000-01-01

    Objective To review the safety and efficacy of fluoridation of drinking water. Design Search of 25 electronic databases and world wide web. Relevant journals hand searched; further information requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Main outcome measures Decayed, missing, and filled primary/permanent teeth. Proportion of children without caries. Measure of effect was the difference in change in prevalence of caries from baseline to final examination in fluoridated compared with control areas. For potential adverse effects, all outcomes reported were used. Results 214 studies were included. The quality of studies was low to moderate. Water fluoridation was associated with an increased proportion of children without caries and a reduction in the number of teeth affected by caries. The range (median) of mean differences in the proportion of children without caries was −5.0% to 64% (14.6%). The range (median) of mean change in decayed, missing, and filled primary/permanent teeth was 0.5 to 4.4 (2.25) teeth. A dose-dependent increase in dental fluorosis was found. At a fluoride level of 1 ppm an estimated 12.5% (95% confidence interval 7.0% to 21.5%) of exposed people would have fluorosis that they would find aesthetically concerning. Conclusions The evidence of a beneficial reduction in caries should be considered together with the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis. There was no clear evidence of other potential adverse effects. PMID:11021861

  16. Fluoride laser crystals: old and new

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenssen, Hans P.; Cassanho, Arlete

    2006-02-01

    The development of oxide and fluoride materials as gain materials of choice for solid state lasers ranges from early materials such as Calcium Fluoride and Calcium Tungstate crystals to the now ubiquitous Nd hosts YLF, YAG and Vanadate. Among Tunable laser materials, MgF II - an early favorite, gave way to superior oxides such as Alexandrite and Ti:Sapphire only to be followed by development of still newer tunable fluoride media, notably, fluoride colquiriites such as Cr-doped LiSAF and LiCaF. Newer fluoride crystals, such as Barium Yttrium Fluoride BaY II F 8 (BYF), KY 3F 10 (KYF) and the tunable Cr doped LiCaGaF 6 are attractive laser materials, but their growth has not been optimized. Key advantages of two of these new crystals are discussed. Crystal growth results for BYF and Cr:LiCaGaF 6 as well as some material characterization are presented.

  17. Elevation of PTH and PTHrp induced by excessive fluoride in rats on a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Liu, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Jing-Min; Zhang, He; Li, Guang-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    Study on the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrp) in the process of skeletal fluorosis, involved especially in calcium deficiency, is rare. We evaluated the level of serum PTH and mRNA expression of PTHrp in femur when rats were exposed to excessive fluoride with low-calcium diet. Wistar rats (n = 60) was divided into four groups, a control group, fluoride group, low-calcium group, and low-calcium fluoride group. The fluoride groups were treated with fluoride by drinking tap water containing 100 mg F-/L. The low-calcium diet contained 0.05% calcium. Serum was collected in the first, fourth, eighth, and 12th of phase for the detemination of PTH and Ca(2+). RNA extraction from femora was used to analyze the mRNA express of PTHrp, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) after 12 weeks of fluoride dosing. Results showed that serum PTH increased gradually with the extension of fluoride exposure, but Ca2+ decreased, both of which embodied a time-dependent relationship. Cotreatment of excessive fluoride with low-calcium diet largely stimulated the secretion of PTH. The low dietary calcium markedly increased mRNA expression of PTHrp in animals with fluoride treatment. Expression of OPN and OCN significantly increased in the rats treated with excessive fluoride and low-calcium diet. We demonstrated that fluoride by itself affected the body's calcium metabolism and stimulate the secretion of PTH. PTH may play an important role in anabolic effect of excessive fluoride on bone turnover of skeletal fluorosis and calcium deficiency exacerbated the action of PTH and PTHrp on the characteristic bone lesion of fluorosis. PMID:19915804

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in fluoride-bearing minerals after decomposition by fusion with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Adelantado, J V; Martinez, V P; Moreno, A C; Reig, F B

    1985-03-01

    The decomposition of highly insoluble minerals (fluorspar and cryolite) by fusion with molten alkali-metal hydroxides is studied. The introduction of additives such as aluminium compounds or sodium peroxide to obtain total liberation of fluoride from calcium fluoride samples, is tested. The fusion is done in a silver crucible with a Bunsen burner. The cooled melt is easily soluble, giving solutions suitable for spectrophotometric fluoride determination by the Zr(IV)-fluoride-Erichrome Cyanine R method. PMID:18963832

  19. Treatment of volatile organic chemicals on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List using ozonation and the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei R; Sharpless, Charles M; Linden, Karl G; Suffet, I H

    2006-04-15

    Seven volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List together with 1,1-dichloropropane were studied for their reaction kinetics and mechanisms with ozone and OH radicals during ozonation and the ozone/ hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 AOP) using batch reactors. The three aromatic VOCs demonstrated high reactivity during ozonation and were eliminated within minutes after ozone addition. The high reactivity is attributed to their fast, indirect OH radical reactions with k(OH,M) of (5.3-6.6) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). Rates of aromatic VOC degradation are in the order 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene > p-cymene > bromobenzene. This order is caused by the selectivity of the direct ozone reactions (k(O3,M) ranges from 0.16 to 304 M(-1) s(-1)) and appears to be related to the electron-donating or -withdrawing ability of the substituent groups on the aromatic ring. The removal rates for the five aliphatic VOCs are much lower and are in the order 1,1-dichloropropane > 1,3-dichloropropane > 1,1-dichloroethane > 2,2-dichloropropane > 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane. The second-order indirect rate constants for the aliphatic VOCs range from 0.52 x 10(8) to 5.5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The relative stability of the carbon-centered intermediates seems to be related to the relative reactivity of the aliphatic VOCs with OH radicals. Except for 1,3-dichloropropane, ozonation and the O3/H2O2 AOP are not effective for the removal of other aliphatic VOCs. Bromide formation during the ozonation of bromobenzene indicates that bromate can be formed, and thus, ozonation and O3/H2O2 AOP may not be suitable for the treatment of bromobenzene. PMID:16683616

  20. Optimizing School-Based Health-Promotion Programmes: Lessons from a Qualitative Study of Fluoridated Milk Schemes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Geraldine R. K.; Tickle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Some districts in the United Kingdom (UK), where the level of child dental caries is high and water fluoridation has not been possible, implement school-based fluoridated milk (FM) schemes. However, process variables, such as consent to drink FM and loss of children as they mature, impede the effectiveness of these…

  1. Reversible Intercalation of Fluoride-Anion Receptor Complexes in Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Leifer, Nicole; Greenbaum, Steve; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Blanco, Mario; Narayanan, S. R.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a route to reversibly intercalate fluoride-anion receptor complexes in graphite via a nonaqueous electrochemical process. This approach may find application for a rechargeable lithium-fluoride dual-ion intercalating battery with high specific energy. The cell chemistry presented here uses graphite cathodes with LiF dissolved in a nonaqueous solvent through the aid of anion receptors. Cells have been demonstrated with reversible cathode specific capacity of approximately 80 mAh/g at discharge plateaus of upward of 4.8 V, with graphite staging of the intercalant observed via in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during charging. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and B-11 nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that cointercalation of the anion receptor with the fluoride occurs during charging, which likely limits the cathode specific capacity. The anion receptor type dictates the extent of graphite fluorination, and must be further optimized to realize high theoretical fluorination levels. To find these optimal anion receptors, we have designed an ab initio calculations-based scheme aimed at identifying receptors with favorable fluoride binding and release properties.

  2. Effects of sodium fluoride on immune response in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Beatriz; Vázquez, Marta; Rocha, René Antonio; Devesa, Vicenta; Vélez, Dinoraz

    2016-08-01

    Excessive fluoride intake may be harmful for health, producing dental and skeletal fluorosis, and effects upon neurobehavioral development. Studies in animals have revealed effects upon the gastrointestinal, renal and reproductive systems. Some of the disorders may be a consequence of immune system alterations. In this study, an in vitro evaluation is made of fluoride immunotoxicity using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage line over a broad range of concentrations (2.5-75mg/L). The results show that the highest fluoride concentrations used (50-75mg/L) reduce the macrophage population in part as a consequence of the generation of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and consequent redox imbalance, which in turn is accompanied by lipid peroxidation. A decrease in the expression of the antiinflammatory cytokine Il10 is observed from the lowest concentrations (5mg/L). High concentrations (50mg/L) in turn produce a significant increase in the proinflammatory cytokines Il6 and Mip2 from 4h of exposure. In addition, cell phagocytic capacity is seen to decrease at concentrations of ≥20mg/L. These data indicate that fluoride, at high concentrations, may affect macrophages and thus immune system function - particularly with regard to the inflammation autoregulatory processes, in which macrophages play a key role. PMID:26965474

  3. Antibacterial coatings of fluoridated hydroxyapatite for percutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang; Leng, Yang; Bao, Chongyun; Xu, Sherry Li; Wang, Renke; Ren, Fuzeng

    2010-11-01

    Percutaneous orthopedic and dental implants require not only good adhesion with bone but also the ability to attach and form seals with connective tissues and the skin. To solve the skin-seal problem of such implants, an electrochemical deposition method was used to modify the surfaces of metallic implants to improve their antibacterial ability and skin seals around them. A dense and uniform fluoridated calcium phosphate coating with a thickness of about 200 nm was deposited on an acid-etched pure titanium substrate by controlling the current density and reaction duration of the electrochemical process. The as-deposited amorphous fluoridated calcium phosphate transformed to fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) after heat treatment at 600°C in a water vapor environment for 3 h. Both single crystal diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images confirmed the phase of the fluoridated calcium phosphate after the heat treatment. The antibacterial activities of FHA coatings were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) with the film attachment method. The antibacterial activity of FHA coating is much higher than that of pure hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and acid-etched pure titanium surface. The promising features of FHA coating make it suitable for orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:20725973

  4. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712

  5. FLUORIDATION CHEMISTRY: EQUILIBRIA AND KINETICS OF FLUORIDE AND FLUORO-COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common fluoridating agents used by major American waterworks are hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium hexxafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6). According to the 1992 Water Fluoridation Census where 10,002 utilities responded affirmatively to fluoridating their water, 59
    % ...

  6. PRECIPITATION OF URANIUM PEROXIDE OF LOW FLUORIDE CONTENT FROM SOLUTIONS CONTAINING FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    King, E.J.; Clark, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    S>A method is described for the preparation of fluoride free uraniunn peroxide precipitates, even though the solution from which the precipitation is made is contaminated with fluorides. This is accomplished by add ing aluminum ions to the solution, where they complex any fluoride present and prevent its precipitation with the uramum peroxide.

  7. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and

  8. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  9. The 2005 and 2006 eruptions of Ol Doinyo Lengai: assessing deep and shallow processes at an active carbonatite volcano using volatile chemistry and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Burnard, P.; Marty, B.; Palhol, F.; Mangasini, F.; Shaw, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The African Rift valleys are sites of classical carbonatite volcano complexes. Ol Doinyo Lengai, the spectacular cone that rises to nearly 3000 m above Tanzania's Eastern Rift Valley, is the world's only active carbonatite volcano. High-alkali carbonatite lavas from this volcano were first recognized in the 1960's and the oldest natrocarbonatite tuffs have been dated to 1250 years B.P.. Earlier eruptions produced phonolitic and nephelinitc lavas [1]. Since the 1960's the volcano has erupted frequently producing carbonatite lava flows. Explosive eruptions are much less frequent but have occurred in 1966, 1983 [1] and 1993 [3] producing ash, cones and natrocarbonatite tephra. In July 2005, we launched an expedition to the crater to collect gas and rock samples. On July 4, the volcano began erupting low viscosity, low T (540C) high velocity (2 m/sec) lava flows at a rate of about 0.3 m3/sec. By afternoon, the lava was flowing over the eastern crater rim. During the eruption we sampled gases from nearby hornitos at 120 and 168C, yielding pristine magmatic gases characterized by 75 mol% H2O, 22% CO2, < 1% SO2, H2S, HCl and traces of H2, He, Ar, N2, CH4 and CO. CO2-CH4-CO gas equilibrium temperatures are 580C consistent with lava flow temperatures. N2-He-Ar abundances indicate an upper mantle origin of volatiles, confirmed by isotopes [4]. SO2 flux measured by mini DOAS was low (10 t/day). CO2 fluxes calculated using CO2/SO2 are 3000 to 4000 t/day. Volatiles measured in the carbonatite lavas by SIMS show low H2O (< 0.7 wt%), high S (0.2 to 1 wt%) and Cl (0.6 to 1.4 wt%) and variable F (0.06 to 0.7 wt%). CO2 contents are 30 wt% with major and trace elements typical of natrocarbonatite lavas previously reported in [1]. The release of all CO2 (30 wt% or 20 t/day) from eruption lavas would only produce a small fraction of the measured CO2. In March 2006 eyewitnesses [3] reported the occurrence of an explosive eruption and some of us returned to the volcano on May 12. The

  10. SPME-GC-MS versus Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analyses for the study of volatile compound generation and oxidation status during dry fermented sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, José Luis; Smith, David; Spanĕl, Patrik; Flores, Mónica

    2011-03-01

    The use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry together with solid phase microextraction (GC-MS-SPME) has been compared in the analysis of volatile compounds during dry fermented sausage processing. Thus, the headspace (HS) of samples of dry fermented sausages with different fat contents was analyzed during their manufacture using both techniques, and significant and positive correlations were found between SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS measurements for the compounds pentanal, hexanal, 2-heptenal, octanal, 2-nonenal, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, ethanol, acetic acid, and hexanoic acid. The oxidative status of fermented sausages during processing was also evaluated, and a significant correlation was obtained between the HS concentration of lipid autoxidation volatile compounds measured by SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the sausage. The hexanal measured by SIFT-MS resulted in a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.936) than that obtained using SPME-GC-MS (r = 0.927). SIFT-MS is shown to be a fast, real time analytical technique for monitoring changes in the profile of volatile compounds in dry fermented sausages during processing and a useful tool to evaluate the oxidative status of meat products. PMID:21294565

  11. High dielectric permittivity and improved mechanical and thermal properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with low carbon nanotube content: effect of composite processing on phase behavior and dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Sudheer; Vishnupriya, D; Chary, K Suresh; Patro, T Umasankar

    2016-09-23

    The composite processing technique and nanofiller concentration and its functionalization significantly alter the properties of polymer nanocomposites. To realize this, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) were dispersed in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix at carefully selected CNT concentrations by two illustrious methods, such as solution-cast and melt-mixing. Notwithstanding the processing method, CNTs induced predominantly the γ-phase in PVDF, instead of the commonly obtained β-phase upon nanofiller incorporation, and imparted significant improvements in dielectric properties. Acid-treatment of CNT improved its dispersion and interfacial adhesion significantly with PVDF, and induced a higher γ-phase content and better dielectric properties in PVDF as compared to pristine CNT. Further, the γ-phase content was found to be higher in solution-cast composites than that in melt-mixed counterparts, most likely due to solvent-induced crystallization in a controlled environment and slow solvent evaporation in the former case. However, interestingly, the melt-mixed composites showed a significantly higher dielectric constant at the onset of the CNT networked-structure as compared to the solution-cast composites. This suggests the possible role of CNT breakage during melt-mixing, which might lead to higher space-charge polarization at the polymer-CNT interface, and in turn an increased number of pseudo-microcapacitors in these composites than the solution-cast counterparts. Notably, PVDF with 0.13 vol% (volume fraction, f c  = 0.0013) of acid-treated CNTs, prepared by melt-mixing, displayed the relative permittivity of ∼217 and capacitance of ∼5430 pF, loss tangent of ∼0.4 at 1 kHz and an unprecedented figure of merit of ∼10(5). We suggest a simple hypothesis for the γ-phase formation and evolution of the high dielectric constant in these composites. Further, the high-dielectric composite film showed marked improvements in mechanical and thermal

  12. High dielectric permittivity and improved mechanical and thermal properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with low carbon nanotube content: effect of composite processing on phase behavior and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer Kumar, G.; Vishnupriya, D.; Chary, K. Suresh; Umasankar Patro, T.

    2016-09-01

    The composite processing technique and nanofiller concentration and its functionalization significantly alter the properties of polymer nanocomposites. To realize this, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) were dispersed in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix at carefully selected CNT concentrations by two illustrious methods, such as solution-cast and melt-mixing. Notwithstanding the processing method, CNTs induced predominantly the γ-phase in PVDF, instead of the commonly obtained β-phase upon nanofiller incorporation, and imparted significant improvements in dielectric properties. Acid-treatment of CNT improved its dispersion and interfacial adhesion significantly with PVDF, and induced a higher γ-phase content and better dielectric properties in PVDF as compared to pristine CNT. Further, the γ-phase content was found to be higher in solution-cast composites than that in melt-mixed counterparts, most likely due to solvent-induced crystallization in a controlled environment and slow solvent evaporation in the former case. However, interestingly, the melt-mixed composites showed a significantly higher dielectric constant at the onset of the CNT networked-structure as compared to the solution-cast composites. This suggests the possible role of CNT breakage during melt-mixing, which might lead to higher space-charge polarization at the polymer–CNT interface, and in turn an increased number of pseudo-microcapacitors in these composites than the solution-cast counterparts. Notably, PVDF with 0.13 vol% (volume fraction, f c = 0.0013) of acid-treated CNTs, prepared by melt-mixing, displayed the relative permittivity of ∼217 and capacitance of ∼5430 pF, loss tangent of ∼0.4 at 1 kHz and an unprecedented figure of merit of ∼105. We suggest a simple hypothesis for the γ-phase formation and evolution of the high dielectric constant in these composites. Further, the high-dielectric composite film showed marked improvements in mechanical and thermal

  13. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2006-04-15

    The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 degrees C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H{sub 2O generated from the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by H-2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50% reduction of the iron oxide.

  14. The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, I.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2006-04-01

    The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H2O generated from the reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pct reduction of the iron oxide.

  15. Changes in profiles of substrates and volatile emissions of individual species and mixed consortia from the poultry production and processing environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of diverse profiles of volatile compounds emitted from single bacteria and from mixed populations demonstrate changes that occur when pathogens are introduced into communities of normal bacterial flora. Responses of bacteria within a biofilm to stimuli from external bacteria sets the stage ...

  16. Fluoride coatings make effective lubricants in molten sodium environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Coating bearing surfaces with calcium fluoride-barium fluoride film provides effective lubrication against sliding friction in molten sodium and other severe environments at high and low temperatures.

  17. Intrinsic Instabilities Of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.; Loehr, S. R.; Opalka, S. M.; Mossadegh, R.; Perazzo, N. L.; Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.; Doremus; Drexhage, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) are potentially useful as optical components in a wide range of devices. Their utilization has so far been delayed mainly because of insufficient material purity and inadequate processing conditions. However, as the result of numerous research efforts, these problems are gradually diminishing, and it now seems likely that the ultimate limitations for use of HMFG components, at least in those applications in which high optical transparency is not a prerequisite, will be imposed by more intrinsic instabilities of the glasses themselves. These include their strong tendency to crystallize on quenching and subsequent reheating, low mechanical and chemical durability, and the possibility that they will undergo significant physical aging in situ. Experimental data relating to these problems have now been obtained, and their relative importance is assessed in this paper.

  18. PREPARATION OF ANHYDROUS F-18 FLUORIDE, T. Tewson. Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals S165; 52, Supplement 1 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Tewson, T.

    2009-07-01

    The original specific aims of the grant where cut back considerably as the study section reduced both the time and the budget for the project. The objective of the grant was to show that fluorine-18 fluoride could be prepared completely anhydrous and thus substantially more reactive than conventionally dried fluoride using the method of Sun and DiMagno. This method involved using conventionally dried fluoride to prepare an aromatic fluoride in which the aromatic ring is substituted with electron withdrawing groups. The aryl fluoride is then dried and purified and the fluoride is displaced with an anhydrous nucleophile. Using fluorine-19 and macroscopic scale reactions the reactions work well and give anhydrous fluoride salts that are both more reactive and more selective in their reactions than conventionally dried fluoride. The original substrate chosen for the reaction was bromopentacyanobenzene (1). This compound proved to be easy to make but very hard to purify. As an alternative hexabromobenzene, which is commercially available in high purity, was tried. This reacted cleanly with conventionally dried F-18 fluoride in acetonitrile to give [{sup 18}F]-fluoropentabromobenzene (2), which could be dried by passage of the solution over alumina, which also removed any unreacted fluoride. The fluorine-18 fluoride could be liberated from (2) by displacement with an anhydrous nucleophilic tetra-alkylammonium salt but the anion had to be chosen with considerable care. The reaction is potentially reversible especially as, on the no carrier added scale, there is inevitably an excess of hexabromobenzene and so the displacing nucleophile is chosen to deactivate the aromatic compound to further nucleophilic displacement reactions. To this end tetrabutylammonium azide and tetrabutylammonium phenolate have been tried. Both work but the phenolate is probably the better choice. The F-18 fluoride produced by this process is substantially more reactive than conventionally dried

  19. Fluoride accumulation and bone strength in wild black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Burke, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fluoride was measured in femurs of black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) living adjacent to a phosphate processing complex near Pocatello, Idaho. Fluoride (ash wt.) in femurs ranged from 540 micrograms/g to 11,000 micrograms/g and increased (P = 0.0001) with age, but with no difference (P = 0.80) between sexes. Adult males (greater than or equal to 4 years) contained 5,409 micrograms/g compared to 6,042 micrograms/g for adult females. The tibiotarsus (= tibiae in text) increased in diameter with age (P = 0.015) in this study; fluoride was nearly related (P = 0.065) to the increase. As the diameter increased with age, wall thickness decreased (P = 0.011) suggesting excessive internal bone resorption, but fluoride concentrations were not implicated in the relationship (p = 0.64). The apparent increase in diameter and decrease in wall thickness may have partially neutralized each other's effects on strength. Although significantly higher concentrations of fluoride were present in adults than in Third Year herons, no significant change in bone strength (maximum load or modulus of rupture) was detected between the two age classes, but three of the four comparisons showed adults with less strength (i.e., a hint of diminished strength with age). The tibiae of Hatch Year birds were significantly weaker than documented in older age classes, but incomplete growth was thought responsible. The strong relationship between age and fluoride concentrations reduced our ability to separate a 'fluoride effect' from an 'age effect.' Other authors believed fluoride was responsible for an increase in bone diameter and the fluoride residues encountered in adults were within the range indicative of poisoning in cattle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Fluorescent sensing of fluoride in cellular system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F(-) detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F(-) including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F(-) are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F(-), mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be

  1. Fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Carevic, Momir; Mandic, Jelena; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Lekic, Charles P

    2010-08-01

    In this study we determined the fluoride content in drinking water and hair of 12-year-old schoolchildren from different Serbian municipalities, i.e. Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja. The analyses were performed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Average fluoride levels were 0.10, 0.15, 0.79 and 11 ppm in well water, 0.07, 0.10, 0.17 and 0.15 ppm in tap water, 19.3, 21.5, 25.4, and 32.5 ppm in hair samples, in Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated statistically significant positive relationship between fluoride in wells water and fluoride in hair, for all municipalities: correlation coefficients were 0.54 (p < 0.05), 0.89, 0.97 and 0.99 (p < 0.001), in Vranjska Banja, Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, and Kacarevo, respectively. Positive correlation was obtained also between fluoride in tap water and hair samples in all regions under the study, with statistical significance only in Valjevo municipality, p < 0.05. Dental examination of schoolchildren confirmed dental fluorosis only in the region of Vranjska Banja. Moreover, in endemic fluorotic region of Vranjska Banja, positive and statistically significant correlations were confirmed between fluoride in well water and dental fluorosis level (r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and additionally between fluoride in hair and dental fluorosis level (0.62; p < 0.01). The primary findings from this study have shown that fluoride content in hair is highly correlated with fluoride content in drinking water and dental fluorosis level, indicating that hair may be regarded as biomaterial of high informative potential in evaluating prolonged exposure to fluorides and to individuate children at risk of fluorosis regardless of the phase of teeth eruption. PMID:20580811

  2. Fluorescent Sensing of Fluoride in Cellular System

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F- detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F- including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F- are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F-, mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be developed

  3. Fluoride metabolism in Acacia georginae Gidyea

    PubMed Central

    Peters, R. A.; Murray, L. R.; Shorthouse, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The metabolism of fluoride in seedlings and small plants of Acacia georginae has been studied with the idea of finding the conditions under which the plant makes fluoroacetate in the laboratory. 2. Individual seedlings vary in the extent to which they take up fluoride and convert it into a form other than inorganic which is here called `organic' fluoride, F(org.). The differences between the toxicity of A. georginae Gidyea trees may therefore be genetic in origin. 3. The uptake of fluoride from solutions 0·525–1·05mm (10–20p.p.m.) was not large. In 1–4 days it reached 8 p.p.m. in the aerial parts and 16 p.p.m. in the roots. Unlike the distribution of the halogen in grass, total fluoride was greater than inorganic fluoride. It was almost a rule that more `organic' fluoride was present in the roots than in the aerial parts. 4. With higher concentrations of fluoride 10·5–15·75mm (200–300p.p.m.) much larger amounts of fluoride were taken up, especially by the roots, and much more apparent organic fluoride was formed. 5. pH had a large influence upon the intake, this being lowest at an initial pH8·4 and highest at pH4·0. The pH outside this range was not investigated. Some observations have been made with a view to clarifying the biochemical paths for the synthesis of the C–F bond. 6. There is no evidence that chloride is an intermediary in synthesis. 7. Succinate is not accumulated in fluoride-stressed plants, suggesting that succinate dehydrogenase is not inhibited. 8. Enolase does not appear to be inhibited in vivo. PMID:14342508

  4. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on artificial caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Hani M; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    Incipient caries lesions on smooth surfaces may be subjected to toothbrushing, potentially leading to remineralization and/or abrasive wear. The interplay of dentifrice abrasivity and fluoride on this process is largely unknown and was investigated on three artificially created lesions with different mineral content/distribution. 120 bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 10), resulting from the association of (1) lesion type [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC); carboxymethylcellulose solution (CMC); hydroxyethylcellulose gel (HEC)], (2) slurry abrasive level [low (REA 4/ RDA 69); high (REA 7/RDA 208)], and (3) fluoride concentration [0/275 ppm (14.5 mM) F as NaF]. After lesion creation, specimens were brushed in an automated brushing machine with the test slurries (50 strokes 2×/day). Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3 and 5 days. Two enamel sections (from baseline and post-brushing areas) were obtained and analyzed microradiographically. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Brushing with high-abrasive slurry caused more SL than brushing with low-abrasive slurry. For MeC and CMC lesions, fluoride had a protective effect on SL from day 3 on. Furthermore, for MeC and CMC, there was a significant mineral gain in the remaining lesions except when brushed with high-abrasive slurries and 0 ppm F. For HEC, a significant mineral gain took place when low-abrasive slurry was used with fluoride. The tested lesions responded differently to the toothbrushing procedures. Both slurry fluoride content and abrasivity directly impacted SL and mineral gain of enamel caries lesions. PMID:24993884

  5. Fluoride concentration in dentin of exfoliated primary teeth as a biomarker for cumulative fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    dela Cruz, G G; Rozier, R G; Bawden, J W

    2008-01-01

    A biomarker for lifetime fluoride exposure would facilitate population-based research and policy making but currently does not exist. This study examined the suitability of primary tooth dentin as a biomarker by comparing dentin fluoride concentration and fluoride exposures. Ninety-nine children's exfoliated primary teeth were collected from 2 fluoridated and 2 fluoride-deficient communities in North Carolina. Coronal dentin was isolated by microdissection and fluoride concentration assayed using the microdiffusion, ion-specific electrode technique. Information on children's fluoride exposures since birth from drinking water, toothpaste, supplements, rinses, food and beverages was collected by a self-reported questionnaire administered to caregivers. Only a small portion of the variance (10%) in incisor dentin fluoride (mean 792, SD 402 mg/kg) was accounted for by the best linear regression model as evaluated by the adjusted R(2). A moderate portion of the variance (60%) of molar dentin fluoride (mean 768, SD 489 mg/kg) was predicted by dietary fluoride supplement exposures, community of residence, and frequent tea consumption. Results for molars suggest that primary tooth dentin concentration may prove to be a satisfactory biomarker for fluoride exposure. PMID:18832828

  6. Fluoride Concentration in Dentin of Exfoliated Primary Teeth as a Biomarker for Cumulative Fluoride Exposure

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, G.G.; Rozier, R.G.; Bawden, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A biomarker for lifetime fluoride exposure would facilitate population-based research and policy making but currently does not exist. This study examined the suitability of primary tooth dentin as a biomarker by comparing dentin fluoride concentration and fluoride exposures. Ninety-nine children's exfoliated primary teeth were collected from 2 fluoridated and 2 fluoride-deficient communities in North Carolina. Coronal dentin was isolated by microdissection and fluoride concentration assayed using the microdiffusion, ion-specific electrode technique. Information on children's fluoride exposures since birth from drinking water, toothpaste, supplements, rinses, food and beverages was collected by a self-reported questionnaire administered to caregivers. Only a small portion of the variance (10%) in incisor dentin fluoride (mean 792, SD 402 mg/kg) was accounted for by the best linear regression model as evaluated by the adjusted R2. A moderate portion of the variance (60%) of molar dentin fluoride (mean 768, SD 489 mg/kg) was predicted by dietary fluoride supplement exposures, community of residence, and frequent tea consumption. Results for molars suggest that primary tooth dentin concentration may prove to be a satisfactory biomarker for fluoride exposure. PMID:18832828

  7. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of about 3 x 10 (exp -10) relative to H, If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for about 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (about 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 mm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H, that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  8. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of approximately 3 x 10(exp -10) relative to H2. If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for approximately 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (approximately 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 nm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H2 that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  9. Welsh water should reinstate fluoridation on Anglesey.

    PubMed

    Hulse, G; Kenrick, A; Thomas, C H; Thomas, A; Davies, D J; Lennon, M A

    1995-01-21

    In 1992, Welsh Water withdrew the successful water fluoridation scheme on Anglesey. Despite evidence of the benefits of water fluoridation and the rise in number of children with tooth decay since the scheme's withdrawal, Welsh Water is still not prepared to re-establish the scheme. PMID:7848746

  10. Growth of hollow nickel fluoride whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S. V.; Orekhov, Yu. F.; Fedorov, P. P.

    2009-07-15

    Hollow nickel fluoride whiskers have been obtained by condensation from the vapor phase onto a platinum substrate in a flow of hydrogen fluoride. Crystals up to 5 mm in length have a square cross section with a 300 {+-} 30-{mu}m side. The wall thickness is 85 {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  11. Xenon fluoride solutions effective as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, H. H.; Quarterman, L. A.; Sheft, I.

    1967-01-01

    Solutions of xenon fluorides in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride have few disruptive effects and leave a residue consisting of gaseous xenon, which can be recovered and refluorinated. This mild agent can be used with materials which normally must be fluorinated with fluorine alone at high temperatures.

  12. The Age of Lunar South Circumpolar Craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for Regional Geology, Surface Processes, and Volatile Sequestration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D greater than or equal to 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D greater than or equal to 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slopedependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have approximately 1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have approximately 5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (approximately 3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their

  13. The age of lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for regional geology, surface processes, and volatile sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-07-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D ⩾ 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D ⩾ 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slope-dependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have ∼1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have ∼5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (∼3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their floors suggests that any water ice that might have been deposited in

  14. Photoelastic properties of magnesium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; Carleton, H.R.

    1980-05-01

    Magnesium fluoride (MgF/sub 2/) has the rutile crystal structure with a tetragonal space lattice (P4/mnm). The crystal is uniaxial positive with n/sub omega/ = 1.378 and n/sub epsilon/ = 1.390 for sodium D light. A single crystal of MgF/sub 2/ grown by the Materials Research Corporation was used in this study. The crystal was approximately 1 cm/sup 3/ with polished faces in the (001), (110), and (anti 110) crystal planes as verified by the back-reflection Laue method. Sample preparations and measurements are described.

  15. Thermodynamic data for uranium fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Leitnaker, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Self-consistent thermodynamic data have been tabulated for uranium fluorides between UF/sub 4/ and UF/sub 6/, including UF/sub 4/ (solid and gas), U/sub 4/F/sub 17/ (solid), U/sub 2/F/sub 9/ (solid), UF/sub 5/ (solid and gas), U/sub 2/F/sub 10/ (gas), and UF/sub 6/ (solid, liquid, and gas). Included are thermal function - the heat capacity, enthalpy, and free energy function, heats of formation, and vaporization behavior.

  16. Removal of fluoride from semiconductor wastewater by electrocoagulation-flotation.

    PubMed

    Hu, C Y; Lo, S L; Kuan, W H; Lee, Y D

    2005-03-01

    This work employs an anodic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), to improve the flotation performance of the electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) process to treated fluoride containing semiconductor wastewater following calcium precipitation. The dissolved fluoride ions and CaF(2) particles in the wastewater after calcium precipitation were effectively removed in the ECF process simultaneously. The dosage of SDS required for ECF was much less than those for dispersed air flotation (DiAF) or dissolved air flotation (DAF) processes because the CaF(2) particles can be collected by hydro-fluoro-aluminum flocs in ECF. Thus, SDS only served as a frother to make the bubbles tiny and stable in the ECF defluoridation process. The interference of co-existing anions can be overcome by increasing the dosage of calcium ions and SDS. The optimum initial acidity for ECF is close to the initial fluoride concentration after calcium precipitation; the amount of SS removed dropped rapidly if the initial acidity exceeded the optimal value because the surface charge of the hydro-fluoro-aluminum particles increased. The initial acidity of the wastewater after calcium precipitation can be modified by changing the [Ca(OH)(2)]/[Ca(2+)](T) ratio and the appropriate ratio is approximately given by the acid dissociation constant of hydrofluoric acid and the initial pH of the wastewater before calcium precipitation. PMID:15743636

  17. Space exploration and the history of solar-system volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical history of volatile substances in all solar-system planets, satellites, and planetoids is discussed extensively. The volatiles are viewed as an interface between the abiotic and biotic worlds and as a key to the history of bodies of the solar system. A flowsheet of processes and states is exhibited. Differences in bulk volatiles distribution between the planetary bodies and between the interior, surface, and atmosphere of each body are considered, as well as sinks for volatiles in degassing. The volatiles-rich Jovian and Saturnian satellites, the effect of large-planet magnetosphere sweeps on nearby satellites, volatiles of asteroids and comets, and the crucial importance of seismic, gravity, and libration data are treated. A research program encompassing analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of rare gas in atmospheres, assay of volatiles-containing phases in regoliths, and examination of present or past atmospheric escape/accretion processes is recommended.

  18. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.R.; Lue, L.P.; Boni, J.P. )

    1989-05-01

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of (3H)cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time.

  19. Recent advancements in fluoride: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ankita; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Ingle, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    To review advancements of fluoride in dentistry, a search of 21 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Fluoride has become an important tool in preventive dentistry. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. Fluoride therapy in the form of varnish, gel, mouth rinse, or toothpaste has been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention for over three decades. The purpose of this review is to inform the reader about new research related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. PMID:26539383

  20. Theoretical aspects of fluoride air contaminant formation in aluminium smelter potrooms.

    PubMed

    L'vov, Boris V; Polzik, Leonid K; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ellingsen, Dag G; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2005-05-01

    The amount of particulate fluorides evolved from aluminium electrolysis cells is not entirely accounted for by the fluorides entrained in the anode gas. The largest additional source of particulate fluoride formation is by direct evaporation of fluorides into the anode gas stream and subsequent condensation on the drops of electrolyte generated in the process of bubble burst. A theoretical model was used for the calculation of the main physical parameters responsible for the formation of particle nuclei when the hot anode-gas is mixed with ambient air. The results of these calculations are in agreement with experimental observations reported in the literature. In particular, the size distribution, composition and morphology of the nano-particles support the theory of a vapour condensation mechanism under conditions of extreme supersaturation, but further studies are necessary. PMID:15877162

  1. Method of making carbide/fluoride/silver composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor); Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A composition containing 30 to 70 percent chromium carbide, 5 to 20 percent soft noble metal, 5 to 20 percent metal fluorides, and 20 to 60 percent metal binder is used in a powdered metallurgy process for the production of self-lubricating components, such as bearings. The use of the material allows the self-lubricating bearing to maintain its low friction properties over an extended range of operating temperatures.

  2. The structure of trimethyltin fluoride.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Praveen; Bieringer, Mario; Hazendonk, Paul; Gerken, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The solid-state structure of (CH3)3SnF was reinvestigated by X-ray diffraction techniques as well as by multi-nuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Trimethyltin fluoride crystallizes from hot ethanol in the orthorhombic space group Pnma at room temperature and changes to a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (space group: Cmcm) below -70 °C. In both modifications, trimethyltin fluoride adopts a linear chain structure with symmetric fluorine bridges, in contrast to previous reports. During its synthesis, (CH3)3SnF precipitates in another, poorly crystalline modification, as shown by powder X-ray diffraction. Solid-state MAS NMR experiments of both room-temperature phases of (CH3)3SnF (non-recrystallized and recrystallized) were carried out for the (1)H, (13)C, (19)F, and (119)Sn nuclei. The (119)Sn{(19)F, (1)H} and (19)F{(1)H} NMR spectra offer unambiguous determination for the (19)F and (119)Sn shielding tensors. The (119)Sn{(1)H} solid-state NMR spectra are in agreement with pentacoordination of Sn in this compound for the non-recrystallized and the recrystallized modifications. Based on the solid-state NMR results, the non-recrystallized modification of (CH3)3SnF also consists of linear, symmetrically fluorine-bridged chains, and differs from the recrystallized orthorhombic phase only in packing of the chains. PMID:26300008

  3. Plasma assisted deposition of metal fluorides for 193nm applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Martin; Sode, Maik; Gaebler, Dieter; Kaiser, Norbert; Tuennermann, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    The ArF lithography technology requires a minimization of optical losses due to scattering and absorption. Consequently it is necessary to optimize the coating process of metal fluorides. The properties of metal fluoride thin films are mainly affected by the deposition methods, their parameters, and the vacuum conditions. Until now the best results were achieved by metal boat evaporation with high substrate temperature and without plasma assistance. In fact, it was demonstrated that the plasma assisted deposition process results in optical thin films with high packing density but the losses due to absorption were extremely high for deep and vacuum ultraviolet applications. This paper will demonstrate that most of the common metal fluorides can be deposited by electron beam evaporation with plasma assistance. In comparison to other deposition methods, the prepared thin films show low absorption in the VUV spectral range, high packing density, and less water content. The densification of the thin films was performed by a Leybold LION plasma source. As working gas, a variable mixture of fluorine and argon gas was chosen. To understand the deposition process and the interaction of the plasma with the deposition material, various characterization methods like plasma emission spectroscopy and ion current measurements were implemented.

  4. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    PubMed

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (p<0.001). Necropsy examinations of all six species from the high-fluoride area near the smelter revealed dental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure. PMID:26188404

  5. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  6. Fluoridation and Defluoridation. Training Module 2.230.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with fluoridation and fluoride feeding equipment. Enclosed are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. The module considers the principles and purposes of fluoridation, methods of feeding fluoride,…

  7. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  8. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  9. 21 CFR 872.6870 - Disposable fluoride tray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposable fluoride tray. 872.6870 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6870 Disposable fluoride tray. (a) Identification. A disposable fluoride tray is a device made of styrofoam intended to apply fluoride topically...

  10. Calcination process for radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-05-04

    The present invention provides a method for minimizing the volatilization of chlorides during solidification in a fluidized-bed calciner of liquids containing sodium, nitrate and chloride ions. Zirconium and fluoride are introduced into the liquid, and one-half mole of calcium nitrate is added per mole of fluoride present in the liquid mixture. The mixture is calcined in the fluidized-bed calciner at about 500.degree.C., producing a high bulk density calcine product containing the chloride, thus tying up the chloride in the solid product and minimizing chloride volatilization.

  11. Water Atomization of Barium Fluoride: Calcium Fluoride for Enhanced Flow Characteristics of PS304 Feedstock Powder Blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    PS304 is a plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating with feedstock composed of NiCr, Cr2O3, Ag, and BaF2-CaF2 powders. The effects of rounded BaF2-CaF2 particles on the gravity-fed flow characteristics of PS304 feedstock have been investigated. The BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by water atomization using four sets of process parameters. Each of these powders was then characterized by microscopy and classified by screening to obtain 45 to 106 micron particles and added incrementally from 0 to 10 wt% to the other constituents of the PS304 feedstock, namely nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. The relationship between feedstock flow rate, measured with the Hall flowmeter, and concentration of fluorides was found to be linear in each case. The slopes of the lines were between those of the linear relationships previously reported using angular and spherical fluorides and were closer to the relationship predicted using the rule of mixtures. The results offer a fluoride fabrication technique potentially more cost-effective than gas atomization processes or traditional comminution processes.

  12. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries: a summary of the current situation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations around the world. It is recognized that fluoride plays a significant role in dental caries reduction. Meanwhile, several low- and middle-income countries of Asia have not yet implemented systematic fluoride programs; contributing factors relate to misconceptions about the mechanisms of fluoride, low priority given to oral health in national health policy and strategic plans, and lack of interest among public health administrators. A workshop on the effective use of fluoride in Asia took place in Phang-Nga, Thailand, in 2011. A series of country presentations addressed some of the topics mentioned above; in addition, speakers from countries of the region provided examples of successful fluoride interventions and discussed program limitations, barriers encountered, and solutions, as well as possibilities for expanding coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition, the use of affordable fluoride-containing toothpastes should be encouraged. The workshop identified: strengths and weaknesses of ongoing community-based fluoride programs, as well as the interest of countries in a particular method; the requirement for World Health Organization (WHO) technical assistance on various aspects, including fluoridation process, feasibility studies, and implementation of effective epidemiological surveillance of the program; exchange of information; and the need for inter-country collaboration. It was acknowledged that program process and evaluation at the local and country levels need further dissemination. The meeting was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the International Association for Dental Research, and the World Dental Federation

  13. Fluoride Plus Functionalized β-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native β-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of β-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

  14. Deposition of fluoride on enamel surfaces released from varnishes is limited to vicinity of fluoridation site

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, A. M.; Yakin, M.; Becker, K.; Buchalla, W.; Attin, R.; Wiegand, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the in-situ study was to determine fluoride uptake in non-fluoridated, demineralized enamel after application of fluoride varnishes on enamel samples located at various distances from the non-fluoridated samples. All enamel samples used were demineralized with acidic hydroxyethylcellulose before the experiment. Intra-oral appliances were worn by ten volunteers in three series: (1, Mirafluorid, 0.15% F; 2, Duraphat, 2.3% F and 3, unfluoridated controls) of 6 days each. Each two enamel samples were prepared from 30 bovine incisors. One sample was used for the determination of baseline fluoride content (BFC); the other was treated according to the respective series and fixed in the intra-oral appliance for 6 days. Additionally, from 120 incisors, each four enamel samples were prepared (one for BFC). Three samples (a–c) were placed into each appliance at different sites: (a) directly neighboured to the fluoridated specimen (=next), (b) at 1-cm distance (=1 cm) and (c) in the opposite buccal aspect of the appliance (=opposite). At these sites, new unfluoridated samples were placed at days 1, 3 and 5, which were left in place for 1 day. The volunteers brushed their teeth and the samples with fluoridated toothpaste twice per day. Both the KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride were determined in all samples to determine fluoride uptake and were statistically analyzed. One day, after fluoridation with Duraphat, KOH-soluble fluoride uptake in specimen a (=next) was significantly higher compared to the corresponding samples of both the control and Mirafluorid series, which in turn were not significantly different from each other. At all other sites and time points, fluoride uptake in the enamel samples were not different from controls for both fluoride varnishes. Within the first day after application, intra-oral-fluoride release from the tested fluoride varnish Duraphat leads to KOH-soluble fluoride uptake only in enamel samples located in close

  15. Lubrication and failure mechanisms of graphite fluoride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    An optical microscope, equipped with a vertical illuminator and two polaroid filters (one rotatable), was used to visually study 440C HT steel surfaces lubricated with rubbed graphite fluoride films. Friction and wear results were compared to visual observations as a function of sliding distance for films applied to three surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sand-blasted. In general, the lubricating process was one of initial deformation or wear of metallic asperities into flat plateaus and then the formation of thin, layer-like, dynamic films which sheared between the flats and eventually flowed through the contact area. Failure was due to depletion of the graphite fluoride with the subsequent formation of excessive powdery metallic debris that formed a heavy, powdery film on both the rider and disk surfaces.

  16. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  17. Development of a passive dosimeter for hydrogen fluoride monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.S.; Monat, J.P.

    1983-02-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF), a toxic industrial chemical, is used in the manufacture of most fluorine products and in many other industrial processes. Major uses are in fluorocarbon manufacture, aluminum production, glass etching, steel pickling, uranium processing, and as a catalyst for petroleum refining. A reliable passive dosimeter has been developed for sampling of airborne hydrogen fluoride vapor. The device is small (7.7 cm x 5.4 cm x 1.9 cm) and can easily and conveniently be worn on one's lapel. It consists of polyethylene and polypropylene parts and an alkaline impregnated polypropylene collection element. It is completely self-contained requiring no pumps, impingers, or sampling tubes. Subsequent to sampling, the collection element is analyzed quickly and easily with a fluoride selective-ion electrode. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine precision, linearity, interference effects, influences of temperature and humidity, and collection element stability over time. Results of the tests indicate that the Gasbadge/sup TM/ HF dosimeter is an excellent passive HF monitor for work spaces, and that results obtained with it are accurate within +/- 17.4% in the action range and +/- 10.3% overall. These results have been corroborated in a field study. (JMT)

  18. The investigation of kinetic and isotherm of fluoride adsorption onto functionalize pumice stone.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Ghorban; Roshani, Babak; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    2012-05-30

    In this research work, pumice that is functionalized by the cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA), is used as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. This work was carried out in two parts. The effects of HDTMA loading, pH (3-10), reaction time (5-60 min) and the adsorbent dosage (0.15-2.5 g L(-1)) were investigated on the removal of fluoride as a target contaminate from water through the design of different experimental sets in the first part. The results from this first part revealed that surfactant-modified pumice (SMP) exhibited the best performance at dose 0.5 g L(-1), pH 6, and it adsorbs over 96% of fluoride from a solution containing 10 mg L(-1) fluoride after 30 min of mixing time. The four linear forms of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms model were applied to determine the best fit of equilibrium expressions. Apart from the regression coefficient (R(2)), four error functions were used to validate the isotherm and kinetics data. The experimental adsorption isotherm complies with Langmuir equation model type 1. The maximum amount of adsorption (Q(max)) was 41 mg g(-1). The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption of fluoride best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic type 1. Thermodynamic parameters evaluation of fluoride adsorption on SMP showed that the adsorption process under the selected conditions was spontaneous and endothermic. The suitability of SMP in defluoridation at field condition was investigated with natural groundwater samples collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area in the second part of this study. Based on this study's results, SMP was shown to be an affordable and a promising option for the removal of fluoride in drinking water. PMID:22476092

  19. Use of laterite for the removal of fluoride from contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mitali; Banerjee, Aparna; Pramanick, Partha Pratim; Sarkar, Asit R

    2006-10-15

    The effects of different operational variables on the mechanistic function of laterite in removal of fluoride have been investigated. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change, enthalpy, and entropy of the process, as well as the sorption isotherm, were evaluated. The extent of solute removal is determined by initial solute concentration, operational conditions, laterite dose, and solution pH. For a fixed set of experimental conditions, a model equation is developed from which the percent removal corresponding to each load of fluoride is determined. The mechanism of fluoride adsorption is governed by the zero point charge of laterite and follows a first-order rate equation. pH has a vital role influencing the surface characteristics of laterite. To simulate the flow dynamics, fluoride solution was run through a fixed bed column. The pattern of breakthrough curves for different influent fluoride concentration, pH, and column bed height was characterized. The column efficiency was tested from the bed depth-service time model. The elution of the retained fluoride was studied and the effectiveness of column operation was determined by the retention-elution cycles. PMID:16899254

  20. Modification of carbon derived from Sargassum sp. by lanthanum for enhanced adsorption of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Chenghong; Guo, Xue; Paul Chen, J

    2015-03-01

    Excessive fluoride in water causes serious environmental issues and adverse impacts on human health. In this study, an innovative lanthanum-modified carbon (LMC) adsorbent rooted in Sargassum sp. was developed for fluoride removal. Excellent removal efficiency was observed over a wide pH range of 3-9. Almost 90% of fluoride adsorption occurred within the first 1h; the equilibrium was established within 4h. The maximum adsorption capacity of LMC could reach 94.34 mg/g at neutral pH, much higher than many commercial adsorbents. Although the presence of such competitive anions as SiO3(2-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), PO4(3-) and AsO3(-) had certain interference on fluoride uptake, it was noticed that there was no significant impact in the presence of humic acid. Furthermore, according to the instrumental analysis, the fluoride removal was majorly controlled by outer-sphere complex adsorption, while electrostatic attraction and ion exchange mechanisms could also be observed in the fluoride adsorption process. The findings from this study suggest that our adsorbent may have a great potential in industrial applications. PMID:25498487

  1. Studies on sorption of some geomaterials for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sujana, M G; Pradhan, H K; Anand, S

    2009-01-15

    In the present study the defluoridation capacities of some of the naturally occurring materials like low and high iron containing lateritic ores, overburden from chromite mines of Orissa Mining Corporation (OMC) and Tata Steel have been estimated. The various experimental parameters studied for fluoride sorption from aqueous solutions were: time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, sorbent dose and temperature. The three geomaterials, namely chromite overburden from Orissa Mining Corporation, both low and high iron containing lateritic ores sorbed fluoride effectively. The sorption kinetics for these samples was found to follow first order rate expression and the experimental equilibrium sorption data fitted reasonably well to both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The negative values of DeltaG degrees suggest the sorption of fluoride onto three samples to be spontaneous and the exothermic nature of sorption is confirmed by the -DeltaH degrees values. The negative DeltaS degrees values for these sorbents point towards decreased randomness at the solid/solution interface. The sorption studies were also carried out at natural pH conditions for fluoride removal from ground water samples and the fluoride level could be reduced from 10.25 to <1.0mgL(-1) by multistage adsorption process using OMC and NH samples. PMID:18450373

  2. Characterization and adsorption properties of a lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel composite for fluoride removal.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuoxun; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel lanthanum-loaded magnetic cationic hydrogel (MCH-La) was synthesized for fluoride adsorption from drinking water. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and effects of pH and co-existing anions on fluoride uptake by MCH-La were evaluated. FTIR, Raman and XPS were used to analyze the fluoride adsorption mechanism of MCH-La. Results showed that MCH-La had positive zeta potential values of 23.6-8.0 mV at pH 3.0-11.0, with the magnitude of saturation magnetization up to 10.3 emu/g. The fluoride adsorption kinetics by MCH-La fitted well with the fractal-like-pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption capacity reached 93% of the ultimate adsorption capacity within the first 10 min. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity for MCH-La was 136.78 mg F(-)/g at an equilibrium fluoride concentration of 29.3 mg/L and pH 7.0. Equilibrium adsorption data showed that the Sips model was more suitable than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. MCH-La still had more than 100 mg of F(-)/g adsorption capacity at a strongly alkaline solution (pH > 10). The adsorption process was highly pH-dependent, and the optimal adsorption was attained at pH 2.8-4.0, corresponding to ligand exchange, electrostatic interactions, and Lewis acid-base interactions. With the exception of both anions of HCO3(-) and SiO4(4-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-) did not evidently prevent fluoride removal by MCH-La at their real concentrations in natural groundwater. The fluoride adsorption capacity of the regenerated MCH-La approached 70% of the fresh MCH-La from the second to fifth recycles. FTIR and Raman spectra revealed that C-O and CO functional groups on MCH contributed to the fluoride adsorption, this finding was also confirmed by the XPS F 1s spectra. Deconvolution of C 1s spectra before and after fluoride adsorption indicated that the carboxyl, anhydride, and phenol groups of MCH were involved in the fluoride removal. PMID:26613180

  3. Volatile halocarbons in water

    SciTech Connect

    Kroneld, R.

    1986-11-01

    Volatile halocarbons in drinking water have attracted increasing attention during recent years. These substances are also found in body fluids. All disinfectant chemicals used in water treatment seem to produce by-products. Of particular concern are the following substances from the use of various disinfectants according to US EPA: chlorine, bromine and iodine, and chlorine dioxide. The aim of the present study was to follow the formation and occurrence of volatile halocarbons in different types of water.

  4. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  6. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  7. Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

  8. Does implied volatility of currency futures option imply volatility of exchange rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alan T.

    2007-02-01

    By investigating currency futures options, this paper provides an alternative economic implication for the result reported by Stein [Overreactions in the options market, Journal of Finance 44 (1989) 1011-1023] that long-maturity options tend to overreact to changes in the implied volatility of short-maturity options. When a GARCH process is assumed for exchange rates, a continuous-time relationship is developed. We provide evidence that implied volatilities may not be the simple average of future expected volatilities. By comparing the term-structure relationship of implied volatilities with the process of the underlying exchange rates, we find that long-maturity options are more consistent with the exchange rates process. In sum, short-maturity options overreact to the dynamics of underlying assets rather than long-maturity options overreacting to short-maturity options.

  9. Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke Christopher

    Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites

  10. Preparation and characterization of γ-AlOOH @CS magnetic nanoparticle as a novel adsorbent for removing fluoride from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Yu; Dong, Changlong

    2015-04-01

    For this study, a novel adsorbent of γ-AlOOH @CS (pseudoboehmite and chitosan shell) magnetic nanoparticles (ACMN) with magnetic separation capabilities was developed to remove fluoride from drinking water. The adsorbent was first characterized, and then its performance in removing fluoride was evaluated. Kinetic data demonstrated rapid fluoride adsorption with more than 80% fluoride adsorption within the initial 20 min and equilibrium reached in 60 min. Based on the results of kinetic and isotherm models, the fluoride adsorption process on the ACMN's surface was a monolayer adsorption on a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters presented that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The mechanism for the adsorption involved electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the calculated adsorption capacity of the ACMN for fluoride using the Langmuir model was 67.5 mg/g (20°C, pH=7.0±0.1), higher than other fluoride removal adsorbents. This nanoadsorbent performed well over a pH range of 4-10. The study found that PO4(3-) was the co-existing anion most able to hinder the nanoparticle's fluoride adsorption, followed by NO3(-) then Cl(-). Experimental results suggest that ACMN is a promising adsorbent for treating fluoride-contaminated water. PMID:25540828

  11. Shock Induced Birefringence in Lithium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N C

    2001-06-01

    We have used an ellipsometer to measure the birefringence of lithium fluoride in shock compression experiments. In previous x-ray diffraction experiments, single crystal [100] LiF has been reported to remain cubic at moderate pressures.

  12. AES analysis of barium fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, G. N.; Makhnjuk, V. I.; Rumjantseva, S. M.; Shchekochihin, Ju. M.

    1993-06-01

    AES analysis of thin films of metal fluorides is a difficult problem due to charging and decomposition of such films under electron bombardment. We have developed a simple algorithm for a reliable quantitative AES analysis of metal fluoride thin films (BaF 2 in our work). The relative AES sensitivity factors for barium and fluorine were determined from BaF 2 single-crystal samples. We have investigated the dependence of composition and stability of barium fluoride films on the substrate temperature during film growth. We found that the instability of BaF 2 films grown on GaAs substrates at high temperatures (> 525°C) is due to a loss of fluorine. Our results show that, under the optimal electron exposure conditions, AES can be used for a quantitative analysis of metal fluoride thin films.

  13. Unraveling the effect of primary versus secondary processes on the volatile content of MORB glasses: an example from the equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Voyer, M.; Hauri, E. H.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report the volatile contents of 20 basaltic glasses from the 1987 cruise of the R/V Robert Conrad to the equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge (RC2806, 7°S-5°N). Schilling (pers. comm.) reported that these samples exploded, or "popped," on the deck of the ship, similar to what was reported for the 2πD43 popping rock [1]. We therefore anticipated that they may not have degassed significantly. The goal of this study is to discuss the origin of their volatiles (primary vs. secondary) and the amount of degassing. In terms of major, trace and isotopic compositions [2, 3, 4], the samples are very similar to the other basalts from this location, following the same along-ridge spatial variations, with a strong influence from the Sierra Leone plume at 1.7°N. Unlike 2πD43 (vesicularity of 17-18 vol% [1]), our samples have low vesicularities (< a few vol%, indicating fluid-saturation), more typical of MORBs. They contain 0.32-1.00 wt% H2O, 120-210 ppm CO2, 80-520 ppm F, 770-1200 ppm S and 60-320 ppm Cl dissolved in the glass (determined by SIMS). H2O, F, Cl and S are negatively correlated with MgO, indicating the influence of crystallization. To free ourselves from this effect, we compare each volatile element with a non-volatile trace element with similar incompatibility. First, using the Cl, K and Ti systematics, we determined that at least 4 out of the 20 samples have suffered from seawater-like contamination (assimilation of either pure seawater or an igneous component previously altered by seawater). Second, for the 16 uncontaminated samples, good correlations (R2≥0.9) between Cl and K, F and P, and H2O and Ce, indicate that Cl, F and H2O did not degass significantly. When plotted against the distance along the ridge axis, we find that the F/P (and Cl/K, to a smaller extent) increase with proximity to the Sierra Leone hotspot, and correlate with radiogenic isotopes. Thus these volatile enrichments reflect source variation. When plotted against Nb and Dy, respectively

  14. Arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Armienta, M A; Segovia, N

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above Mexican drinking water standards have been detected in aquifers of various areas of Mexico. This contamination has been found to be mainly caused by natural sources. However, the specific processes releasing these toxic elements into groundwater have been determined in a few zones only. Many studies, focused on arsenic-related health effects, have been performed at Comarca Lagunera in northern México. High concentrations of fluoride in water were also found in this area. The origin of the arsenic there is still controversial. Groundwater in active mining areas has been polluted by both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic-rich minerals contaminate the fractured limestone aquifer at Zimapán, Central México. Tailings and deposits smelter-rich fumes polluted the shallow granular aquifer. Arsenic contamination has also been reported in the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining zone, southern Baja California, and Santa María de la Paz, in San Luis Potosí state. Even in the absence of mining activities, hydrogeochemistry and statistical techniques showed that arsenopyrite oxidation may also contaminate water, as in the case of the Independencia aquifer in the Mexican Altiplano. High concentrations of arsenic have also been detected in geothermal areas like Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Acoculco. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was revealed by epidemiological studies in Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosí states. Presence of fluoride in water results from dissolution of acid-volcanic rocks. In Mexico, groundwater supplies most drinking water. Current knowledge and the geology of Mexico indicate the need to include arsenic and fluoride determinations in groundwater on a routine basis, and to develop interdisciplinary studies to assess the contaminant's sources in all enriched areas. PMID:18335171

  15. Well waters fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, I Si; Okoro, O Io; Ugwuja, E I

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05). The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011), it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride. PMID:23022857

  16. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  17. Delivery Challenges for Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Xylitol

    PubMed Central

    Featherstone, John DB

    2006-01-01

    The progression or reversal of dental caries is determined by the balance between pathological and protective factors. It is well established that a) fluoride inhibits demineralization and enhances remineralization, b) chlorhexidine reduces the cariogenic bacterial challenge, and c) xylitol is non-cariogenic and has antibacterial properties. The challenge that we face is how best to deliver these anti-caries entities at true therapeutic levels, over time, to favorably tip the caries balance. High caries risk people, including children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC), are a special challenge, since high cariogenic bacterial activity can override fluoride therapy. Current fluoride and chlorhexidine varnishes deliver all their activity within about 24 hours. Early studies with experimental slow release fluoride devices retained elevated levels of fluoride for months in a therapeutic range but have not been pursued. Preventive dentistry has largely ignored the benefits of reducing the bacterial challenge, partially due to primitive and inadequate delivery systems. For example, Chlorhexidine applied as a rinse partially reduces some bacteria but not others that are hiding within the biofilm. Better antibacterials and better delivery systems are needed. Xylitol delivered by gum or lozenge appears to be effective clinically in reducing cariogenic bacteria and caries levels, but novel systems that deliver therapeutic amounts when needed would be a major advance, especially for young children. Reducing the cariogenic bacterial challenge and enhancing the effect of fluoride by the use of new sustained-delivery systems would have a major effect on dealing with caries as a disease. PMID:16934125

  18. Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Abby

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.

  19. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-03-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the three binary systems (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride) have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. All of the systems form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes.

  20. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Nikolayeva, O. V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H20, CO2, etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes.

  1. Influence of Individual Saliva Secretion on Fluoride Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, E.A; Gaengler, P; Zimmer, S; Arnold, W.H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to compare the individual saliva secretion rate with the fluoride bioavailability in saliva after using sodium fluoride and amine fluoride. Methods: To assess oral fluoride kinetics 10 highly trained volunteers brushed their teeth with one of the formulations and saliva was collected. The amount of saliva was measured, and the fluoride content was determined. Data underwent statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney-U test and Pearson correlation. The ex vivo experiment I included individual saliva collection of the same volunteers. Then the oral hygiene products were solved in equal amounts of whole saliva (ex-vivo experiment II), and the fluoride content was measured. Finally, both products were dispersed in distilled water (ex-vivo experiment III) to calculate the dissociation of both products in water. Results: In vivo results of fluoride content after 3 min. tooth brushing demonstrated a negative correlation with saliva secretion: for NaF r = -0.695 (p<0.01) and for amine fluoride r = -0.446 (p<0.01). The in-vitro experiment I resulted for NaF in 251.7±22.4 µg/g fluoride and for amine fluoride in 171.7±14.4 µg/g. Conclusions: Fluoride bioavailability of saliva after exposure to NaF was higher compared to amine fluoride. The individual secretion rate changes the fluoride content and normal secretors keep the fluoride availability longer. PMID:21221176

  2. The effective use of fluorides in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher-than-acceptable levels. PMID:16211158

  3. Tetracycline removal and effect on the formation and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances and volatile fatty acids in the process of hydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guangying; Hao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-07-01

    Many research indicate antibiotics show adverse effect on methane fermentation, while few research focus on their effect on hydrogen fermentation. The present study aimed to gain insight of the effect of antibiotics on hydrogen fermentation with waste sludge and corn straw as substrate. For this purpose, tetracycline, as a model, was investigated with regard to tetracycline removal, hydrogen production, interaction with extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of substrate and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on concentration and composition. Results show that tetracycline could be removed efficiently by hydrogen fermentation, and relative low-dose tetracycline (200mg/l) exposure affects little on hydrogen production. While tetracycline exposure could change hydrogen fermentation from butyric acid-type to propionic acid-type depending on tetracycline level. Based upon three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis tetracycline changed the component and content of EPSs, and static quenching was the main mechanism between EPSs with tetracycline. PMID:27070285

  4. Volatile and trace element composition of melt inclusions from the Lower Bandelier Tuff - implications for magma chamber processes and eruptive style

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, N.W.; Hervig, R.L. |

    1992-10-01

    The preeruptive volatile gradient that was present in the magma which produced the Lower Bandelier Tuff (LBT) is determined on the basis of an analysis of the H{sub 2}O, Cl, and F contents of melt inclusions (MIs) in LBT phenocrysts. The trace element contents of bulk pumice and MIs are measured in order to facilitate interpretation of the pristine nature of the MIs. The data show that there was a large gradient in the H2O content (hence density) of the magma between an H2O-saturated cap and the body of the chamber. The trace element analysis of the MIs and bulk rocks show that after the water gradient evolved, the chamber underwent about 40 percent eutectic fractional crystallization and was then intruded by a second rhyolitic magma at some time prior to eruption. 75 refs.

  5. Analysis of 1-Minute Potentially Available Fluoride from Dentifrice

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M; Holahan, Erin C; Schmuck, Burton D

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports found that some fluoride-containing dentifrices do not release effective concentrations of fluoride during brushing. Failure to release fluoride can be due to dentifrice matrix components that interfere with the solubilization of the fluoride salts during brushing. A new generation of dentifrices has the capability to precipitate beneficial fluoride salts during tooth brushing. Therefore, a method that assesses the potentially available fluoride during the 1-minute brushing is needed. A new filter-paper absorption method to assess the 1-min bioavailable fluoride concentration was developed to meet this need. This method utilizes coiled filter paper that rapidly absorbs the aqueous phase of the dentifrice slurry followed by centrifugation to recover that fluid for fluoride measurement via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The analytical method was used to successfully determine the total fluoride and 1-min bioavailable fluoride in eight dentifrice products containing sodium fluoride (NaF), disodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3, MFP), stannous fluoride (SnF2), or NaF with amorphous calcium phosphate (NaF + ACP). The results showed that some of the dentifrices tested had significantly lower potentially available fluoride than the total fluoride. For a MFP-containing sample, aged seven years past its expiry date, there was significant reduction in the bioavailable fluoride compared to MFP products that were not aged. Other than the aged MFP and the SnF2-containing samples the bioavailable fluoride for all products tested had at least 80 % of the label fluoride concentration. The filter paper absorption method yielded reproducible results for the products tested with MFP samples showing the largest variations. PMID:25821392

  6. Hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Research cited from the international literature adresses various aspects of hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers. Topics covered include flows, laser outputs, molecular relaxation, molecular rotation, energy conversion efficiency, reaction kinetics, and laser materials. Continous wave and pulsed laser are considered. This updated bibliography contains 283 citations, 53 of which are new additions to the previous edition.

  7. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  8. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  9. Oral fluoride levels 1 h after use of a sodium fluoride rinse: effect of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Gerald L; Schumacher, Gary E; Chow, Laurence C; Tenuta, Livia M A

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of free fluoride in oral fluids is an important goal in the use of topical fluoride agents. Although sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a common dentifrice ingredient, the influence of this ion on plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SLS on these parameters and to examine the effect of this ion on total (or whole) plaque fluoride, an important source of plaque fluid fluoride after a sufficient interval following fluoride administration, and on total salivary fluoride, a parameter often used as a surrogate measure of salivary fluid fluoride. Ten subjects accumulated plaque for 48 h before rinsing with a 12 mmol/l NaF (228 µg/g F) rinse containing or not containing 0.5% (w/w) SLS. SLS had no statistically significant effect on total plaque and total saliva fluoride but significantly increased salivary fluid and plaque fluid fluoride (by 147 and 205%, respectively). These results suggest that the nonfluoride components of topical agents can be manipulated to improve the fluoride release characteristics from oral fluoride reservoirs and that statistically significant change may be observed in plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride concentrations that may not be observed in total plaque and total saliva fluoride concentrations. PMID:25924684

  10. A comparative assessment of fluoride concentration available in saliva using daily prescribed topical fluoride agents

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Manjit; Tewari, Amrit; Chawla, H. S.; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the availability of fluoride concentration in saliva following the use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in 7–15 year-old school children of Chandigarh (n = 90). The children were nonfluoride users. Baseline saliva samples were collected. The subjects were exposed to two test agents, i.e., fluoride mouthrinse (0.05%, 225 ppm F) and dentifrice (1000 ppm F) for 7 days and on the day 8, saliva samples were collected over a 20 hrs period. Wash out period of 31/2 months was there before the subjects were exposed to the second test agent. Fluoride in saliva was estimated using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Written informed consent was taken. Statistical Analysis: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was applied to test the normality of the variables. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the fluoride concentration available in saliva at respective time intervals subsequent to use of the two test agents. Results: Fluoride concentration was elevated in saliva compared to baseline for both the test agents. Fluoride mouthrinse (0.05% sodium fluoride [NaF]) and dentifrice (1000 ppm monofluorophosphate [MFP]) showed a biphasic clearance. Peak in saliva occurred at 15 mins postuse. Night-time use resulted in higher concentration of fluoride in saliva compared to baseline. There was statistically significantly higher fluoride concentration available in saliva for the dentifrice at 5 hrs, 10 hrs, and 20 hrs postuse (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Subsequent to the use of NaF (0.05%) daily mouthrinse and MFP dentifrice (1000 ppm) the fluoride concentration in saliva remained elevated to a level of 0.12 ppm for mouthrinse and 0.14 ppm for dentifrice compared to baseline (0.03 ppm) up to 20 hrs postuse. The therapeutic window though not yet established but suggested is 0.1–1 ppm for prevention of demineralization, indicating that daily use of fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice provides fluoride concentration in

  11. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  12. Ion release from, and fluoride recharge of a composite with a fluoride-containing bioactive glass

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harry B.; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C.; Ferracane, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Materials that are capable of releasing ions such as calcium and fluoride, that are necessary for remineralization of dentin and enamel, have been the topic of intensive research for many years. The source of calcium has most often been some form of calcium phosphate, and that for fluoride has been one of several metal fluoride or hexafluorophosphate salts. Fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BAG) prepared by the sol-gel method acts as a single source of both calcium and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions. The objective of this investigation was to determine if BAG, when added to a composite formulation, can be used as a single source for calcium and fluoride ion release over an extended time period, and to determine if the BAG-containing composite can be recharged upon exposure to a solution of 5,000 ppm fluoride. Methods BAG 61 (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) and BAG 81 (81% Si; 11% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol gel method. The composite used was composed of 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA, 0.8% EDMAB, 0.4% CQ, and 0.05% BHT, combined with a mixture of BAG (15%) and strontium glass (85%) to a total filler load of 72% by weight. Disks were prepared, allowed to age for 24 h, abraded, then placed into DI water. Calcium and fluoride release was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and fluoride ion selective electrode methods, respectively, after 2, 22, and 222 h. The composite samples were then soaked for 5 min in an aqueous 5,000 ppm fluoride solution, after which calcium and fluoride release was again measured at 2, 22, and 222 h time points. Results Prior to fluoride recharge, release of fluoride ions was similar for the BAG 61 and BAG 81 composites after 2 h, and also similar after 22 h. At the four subsequent time points, one prior to, and three following fluoride recharge, the BAG 81 composite released significantly more fluoride ions (p<0.05). Both composites were recharged by exposure to 5,000 ppm fluoride, although the BAG 81

  13. Mechanism of Electrophilic Fluorination with Pd(IV): Fluoride Capture and Subsequent Oxidative Fluoride Transfer(.)

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jochen R; Lee, Eunsung; Boursalian, Gregory B; Ritter, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Electrophilic fluorinating reagents derived from fluoride are desirable for the synthesis of (18)F-labeled molecules for positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we study the mechanism by which a Pd(IV)-complex captures fluoride and subsequently transfers it to nucleophiles. The intermediate Pd(IV)-F is formed with high rates even at the nano- to micromolar fluoride concentrations typical for radiosyntheses with (18)F due to fast formation of an outer-sphere complex between fluoride and Pd(IV). The subsequent fluorine transfer from the Pd(IV)-F complex is proposed to proceed through an unusual SET/fluoride transfer/SET mechanism. The findings detailed in this manuscript provide a theoretical foundation suitable for addressing a more general approach for electrophilic fluorination with high specific activity (18)F PET imaging. PMID:24376910

  14. Microwave Extraction of Volatiles for Mars Science and ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaulker, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The greatest advantage of microwave heating for volatiles extraction is that excavation can be greatly reduced. Surface support operations would be simple consisting of rovers with drilling capability for insertion of microwaves down bore holes to heat at desired depths. The rovers would also provide support to scientific instruments for volatiles analysis and for volatiles collection and storage. The process has the potential for a much lower mass and a less complex system than other in-situ processes. Microwave energy penetrates the surface heating within with subsequent sublimation of water or decomposition of volatile containing minerals. On Mars the volatiles should migrate to the surface to be captured with a cold trap. The water extraction and transport process coupled with atmospheric CO2 collection could readily lead to a propellant production process, H2O + CO2 yields CH4 + O2.

  15. Role of the P-F bond in fluoride-promoted aqueous VX hydrolysis: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Daniele; Columbus, Ishay; Elias, Shlomi; Goldvaser, Michael; Shoshanim, Ofir; Ashkenazi, Nissan; Zafrani, Yossi

    2012-11-16

    Following our ongoing studies on the reactivity of the fluoride ion toward organophosphorus compounds, we established that the extremely toxic and environmentally persistent chemical warfare agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is exclusively and rapidly degraded to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid) even in dilute aqueous solutions of fluoride. The unique role of the P-F bond formation in the reaction mechanism was explored using both experimental and computational mechanistic studies. In most cases, the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Et-G) was observed as an intermediate. Noteworthy and of practical importance is the fact that the toxic side product desethyl-VX, which is formed in substantial quantities during the slow degradation of VX in unbuffered water, is completely avoided in the presence of fluoride. A computational study on a VX-model, O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothioate (1), clarifies the distinctive tendency of aqueous fluoride ions to react with such organophosphorus compounds. The facility of the degradation process even in dilute fluoride solutions is due to the increased reactivity of fluoride, which is caused by the significant low activation barrier for the P-F bond formation. In addition, the unique nucleophilicity of fluoride versus hydroxide toward VX, in contrast to their relative basicity, is discussed. Although the reaction outcomes were similar, much slower reaction rates were observed experimentally for the VX-model (1) in comparison to VX. PMID:23083335

  16. Global Measurements of Atmospheric Sulfuryl Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühle, J.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; Miller, B. R.; Weiss, R. F.; Porter, L. W.; Fraser, P. J.; Greally, B. R.; O'Doherty, S.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is used increasingly as a fumigant, but information about its emissions to the atmosphere is limited. Its atmospheric fate and lifetime are uncertain, with hydrolysis in the basic surface waters of the oceans a likely dominant sink, and its roles as a greenhouse gas and as a sulfur source to the stratosphere are unknown. We present here the first results of two years of high-frequency high-precision in situ observations of sulfuryl fluoride in the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) global measurement program. At La Jolla, California, baseline conditions are rarely achieved, and pollution events of up to 1.7 ppb (the exposure limit is 5 ppm) from nearby structural fumigation are common. At the Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Grim, Tasmania, AGAGE stations, baseline conditions are observed with mixing ratios at the beginning of 2005 of ~1.0 ppt and ~0.9 ppt, respectively. Measured growth rates at these stations are ~0.06 ppt per year and ~0.04 ppt per year, respectively. Using these preliminary results and assuming no significant emissions in the southern hemisphere, a simple 2-box model can be used to estimate the tropospheric lifetime of sulfuryl fluoride as about one and a half decades, which is substantially longer than previous industry estimates. The corresponding modeled sulfuryl fluoride flux to the troposphere is ~2 x 109 g per year. Based on these initial measurements, the current global warming contribution of sulfuryl fluoride is likely small. Although the lifetime of sulfuryl fluoride is longer than that of carbonyl sulfide, sulfuryl fluoride is likely less important as source of sulfur to the stratosphere, due to its low atmospheric mixing ratio.

  17. Caries inhibition by fluoride-releasing primers.

    PubMed

    Kerber, L J; Donly, K J

    1993-10-01

    This study evaluated the caries inhibition of dentin primers with the addition of fluoride. Two standardized Class V preparations were placed in 20 molars, the gingival margin placed below the cementoenamel junction and the occlusal margin placed in enamel. Two dentin primers (Syntac and ScotchPrep) were placed in equal numbers of 20 preparations, according to manufacturer's instructions. Ammonium fluoride (10% by weight) was then added to these primers and they were placed in the remaining 20 preparations, opposing the non-fluoridated primer of the same system. All teeth were then restored with a non-fluoridated resin composite. All teeth were subjected to an artificial caries challenge (pH 4.2) for 5 days. Sections of 100 microns were obtained, photographed under polarized light microscopy, then demineralized areas were quantitated by digitization. Results demonstrated the mean areas (mm2 +/- S.D.) demineralization at 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm from the restoration margin to be: Syntac/fluoride (1.44 +/- 0.49, 1.68 +/- 0.54, 3.72 +/- 0.74); Syntac (1.99 +/- 0.58, 1.50 +/- 0.35, 2.98 +/- 1.26); ScotchPrep/fluoride (1.23 +/- 0.68, 1.55 +/- 0.64, 3.08 +/- 1.16); ScotchPrep (1.90 +/- 0.83, 1.71 +/- .038, 3.36 +/- 0.62). A paired t-test indicated primers with fluoride to demonstrate significantly less demineralization 0.25 mm from the restoration margin (P < 0.07). PMID:7880460

  18. Fluoride adsorption onto amorphous aluminum hydroxide: Roles of the surface acetate anions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous aluminum hydroxide with hydroxyl groups, acetate anions and chlorine anions enriched surface was synthesized, and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial fluoride concentration, temperature, pH value and the presence of competing anions on the adsorption of fluoride on amorphous aluminum hydroxide. The kinetic data was well fitted to pseudo-second-order model. The fluoride adsorption on the amorphous aluminum hydroxide can be well described by the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 63.94mgg(-1) at pH 7.0. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy, standard enthalpy and standard entropy were calculated, and the results suggested that the adsorption of fluoride on the amorphous aluminum hydroxide was a feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption mechanism was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The results suggested that the surface acetate anions and surface chlorine anions played important roles in the fluoride removal process. PMID:27565961

  19. The influence of fluoride exposure on dentin mineralization using an in vitro organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Moseley, R; Waddington, R J; Sloan, A J; Smith, A J; Hall, R C; Embery, G

    2003-11-01

    This study aimed to characterize fluoride-induced alterations in dentin mineralization within a dentin-pulp organ culture system. Tooth sections derived from male Wistar rat incisors were cultured in Trowel-type culture for 14 days, in the presence of 0 mM, 1 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM sodium fluoride. Tooth sections were processed and analyzed for uptake of fluoride, its subsequent effect on dentin mineralization by tetracycline hydrochloride incorporation and mineral composition, expressed as calcium/phosphorous (Ca/P) ratios. Tetracycline hydrochloride incorporation was demonstrated to decrease with increased fluoride exposure, accompanied by significant increases in both Ca/P ratios and fluoride incorporation. These findings provide further evidence that the established alterations in dentin formation during fluorosis are a consequence of disruption to the mineralization process, and provide a model system with which to investigate further the potential role the extracellular matrix plays in inducing the apparent changes in mineral composition. PMID:14523603

  20. The kinetics of fluoride sorption by zeolite: Effects of cadmium, barium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qianqian; Turner, Brett D; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters often consist of a complex chemical cocktail with treatment of target contaminants complicated by adverse chemical reactions. The impact of metal ions (Cd(2+), Ba(2+) and Mn(2+)) on the kinetics of fluoride removal from solution by natural zeolite was investigated. In order to better understand the kinetics, the pseudo-second order (PSO), Hill (Hill 4 and Hill 5) and intra-particle diffusion (IPD) models were applied. Model fitting was compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The Hill models (Hill 4 and Hill 5) were found to be superior in describing the fluoride removal processes due to the sigmoidal nature of the kinetics. Results indicate that the presence of Mn (100 mg L(-1)) and Cd (100 mg L(-1)) respectively increases the rate of fluoride sorption by a factor of ~28.3 and ~10.9, the maximum sorption capacity is increased by ~2.2 and ~1.7. The presence of Ba (100 mg L(-1)) initially inhibited fluoride removal and very poor fits were obtained for all models. Fitting was best described with a biphasic sigmoidal model with the degree of inhibition decreasing with increasing temperature suggesting that at least two processes are involved with fluoride sorption onto natural zeolite in the presence of Ba. PMID:25909159

  1. The kinetics of fluoride sorption by zeolite: Effects of cadmium, barium and manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qianqian; Turner, Brett D.; Sheng, Daichao; Sloan, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Industrial wastewaters often consist of a complex chemical cocktail with treatment of target contaminants complicated by adverse chemical reactions. The impact of metal ions (Cd2 +, Ba2 + and Mn2 +) on the kinetics of fluoride removal from solution by natural zeolite was investigated. In order to better understand the kinetics, the pseudo-second order (PSO), Hill (Hill 4 and Hill 5) and intra-particle diffusion (IPD) models were applied. Model fitting was compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The Hill models (Hill 4 and Hill 5) were found to be superior in describing the fluoride removal processes due to the sigmoidal nature of the kinetics. Results indicate that the presence of Mn (100 mg L- 1) and Cd (100 mg L- 1) respectively increases the rate of fluoride sorption by a factor of ~ 28.3 and ~ 10.9, the maximum sorption capacity is increased by ~ 2.2 and ~ 1.7. The presence of Ba (100 mg L- 1) initially inhibited fluoride removal and very poor fits were obtained for all models. Fitting was best described with a biphasic sigmoidal model with the degree of inhibition decreasing with increasing temperature suggesting that at least two processes are involved with fluoride sorption onto natural zeolite in the presence of Ba.

  2. VOLATILE POLAR METABOLITES IN EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE (EBC): COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and be expressed as a change in the patterns of polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) present in biological fluids. We explore the measurement of volatile endogenous bioma...

  3. Lunar volatiles: balancing science and resource development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Dana

    In the context of human exploration of the moon, the volatiles postulated to exist at the lunar poles have value as resources as well as scientific significance. Once sustained human operations commence on the moon, society will move from a paradigm in which examination of planetary materials has been unconstrained to one where use of those materials will support habitability and further exploration. A framework for the scientific investigation of lunar volatiles that allows for eventual economic exploitation can guide both activities and resolve the conflicts that will inevitably develop if the postulated lunar volatiles prove to be both extant and accessible. Scientific constraints on the framework include characterization at both poles of the isotopes, elements, and molecules in the volatiles, their relative and absolute abundances, and their horizontal and vertical distribution. A subset of this data is necessary in order to assess, develop, and initiate resource exploitation. In addition, the scientific record of volatiles in the cold traps can be contaminated by the cold-trapping of migrating volatiles released from operations elsewhere on the moon even if the indigenous, cold-trapped volatiles are not utilized. Possible decision points defining the transition from science-dominated to exploitation-dominated use include technology limits in the 70K environment, evolving science priorities (funding), and the resolution of major science issues. Inputs to policy development include any North vs. South Pole differences in volatile characteristics and the suitability of the volatiles to enable further scientific exploration of the moon. In the absence of national sovereignty on the moon, enforcement of any framework is an open question, particularly if science and commercial interests are in competition. The framework, processes, and precedent set by how we as a society choose to handle the scientific bounty and resource promise of lunar volatiles may eventually

  4. Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.

    PubMed

    Shen, C; Zhang, N-Z; Anusavice, K J

    2010-09-01

    Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes. PMID:20581354

  5. Accumulation of semi-volatile organic compounds in moss (Sphagnum Species) and spruce needles (Picea Mariana): Whole-leaf absorption vs. surface adsorption processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbuckle, K.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    Vapor exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) with plant surfaces may control the fate of SOCS far from their original sources. For example, plants may act as sinks for released SOCs by adsorbing the compounds and burying them upon the plant`s death. Evidence for this hypothesis lies in the accumulation of SOCs in peat moss. Alternatively, plants may act as temporary {open_quote}resting points{close_quote} for long-range transport of the compounds from warmer regions to cooler regions. Studies that show higher SOC concentrations in plants collected from cooler parts of the globe are evidence for this hypothesis. Whether vapor-phase SOCs are taken up or released by plants is expected to depend on characteristics of the compound, the plant, and the local climate. Theoretically, it has been predicted that temperature and SOC hydrophobicity should dominate vapor exchange. The effect of these two factors on vapor-plant exchange has been examined through two concurrent and related studies. The first study concerns the vapor SOC dynamics in a semi-remote forested bog in northern Minnesota. The second study concerns the measured distribution between vapor and plant-associated SOCs in the same bog.

  6. Effective use of self-care fluoride administration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zero, D T; Marinho, V C C; Phantumvanit, P

    2012-02-01

    The caries-preventive benefits of fluoride are generally accepted by dental researchers and practicing professionals worldwide. The benefits of fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses have been supported by several high-quality systematic reviews. The formulation of a fluoride toothpaste and biological (salivary flow rate) and behavioral factors (brushing frequency, brushing time, post-brushing rinsing practices, timing of brushing, and amount of toothpaste applied) can influence anticaries efficacy. Fluoride mouthrinses have simpler formulations and can have better oral fluoride retention profiles than fluoride toothpastes, depending on post-brushing rinsing behaviors. Fluoride continues to be the mainstay of caries control; however, there is still the need to determine the most effective approach for fluoride utilization in children and adults who remain caries-active. PMID:22261258

  7. Removing Fluoride Ions with Continously Fed Activated Alumina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yeun C.; Itemaking, Isara Cholapranee

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the mathematical basis for determining fluoride removal during water treatment with activated alumina. The study indicates that decreasing particle size decreases the pore diffusion effect and increases fluoride removal. (AS)

  8. American Academy of Pediatrics. Fluoride supplementation. Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    1986-05-01

    This statement reviews the rationale for the use of fluoride supplements for infants and children. The concept of fluoridation of water supplies as an effective and cost-beneficial method of reducing caries prevalence in the general population is strongly supported. In the absence of an adequately fluoridated water supply, fluoride supplements should be given to all children. This should begin at about 2 weeks of age; the dosage will depend on the concentration of fluoride in the local water supply. Fluoride-containing dentifrices are an important source of topical fluoride, but it is essential that parents be aware of the danger of excessive fluoride intake and that they teach their children to avoid swallowing toothpaste. PMID:3703642

  9. Configuration of Pluto's Volatile Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, R. P.; Cook, J. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Earle, A. M.; Ennico, K.; Jennings, D. E.; Howett, C. J. A.; Linscott, I. R.; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Parker, A. H.; Parker, J. Wm; Protopapa, S.; Reuter, D. C.; Singer, K. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Berry, K.; Buie, M. W.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    We report on near-infrared remote sensing by New Horizons' Ralph instrument (Reuter et al. 2008, Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129-154) of Pluto's N2, CO, and CH4 ices. These especially volatile ices are mobile even at Pluto's cryogenic surface temperatures. Sunlight reflected from these ices becomes imprinted with their characteristic spectral absorption bands. The detailed appearance of these absorption features depends on many aspects of local composition, thermodynamic state, and texture. Multiple-scattering radiative transfer models are used to retrieve quantitative information about these properties and to map how they vary across Pluto's surface. Using parameter maps derived from New Horizons observations, we investigate the striking regional differences in the abundances and scattering properties of Pluto's volatile ices. Comparing these spatial patterns with the underlying geology provides valuable constraints on processes actively modifying the planet's surface, over a variety of spatial scales ranging from global latitudinal patterns to more regional and local processes within and around the feature informally known as Sputnik Planum. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons Project.

  10. PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, D.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that a current can be induced and switched in a sub-femtosecond time-scale in an insulating calcium fluoride single crystal by an intense optical field. This measurement indicates that a sizable current can be generated and also controlled by an optical field in a dielectric medium, implying the capability of rapid current switching at a rate of optical frequency, PHz (1015 Hz), which is a couple of orders of magnitude higher than that of contemporary electronic signal processing. This demonstration may serve to facilitate the development of ultrafast devices in PHz frequency.

  11. A study of fluoride groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msonda, K. W. M.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Fabiano, E.

    A study was carried out to determine fluoride concentration in groundwaters of Nathenje area situated in Lilongwe District in the central region of Malawi. Water samples were collected from 176 boreholes and shallow wells during different months in 2001 and 2002. Samples were then analysed for fluoride by using a fluoride electrode and an ion selective meter. The results showed that fluoride concentrations for the rainy season varied from <0.5 to 6.98 ± 0.01 mg/l with 52.9% of the boreholes above the World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l. Fluoride concentrations for dry season ranged from <0.5 to 7.02 ± 0.02 mg/l with 50.8% of boreholes above 1.5 mg/l. Fluoride concentrations for the two seasons were significantly different from each other ( p < 0.05). Fluoride data was used to produce a fluoride distribution map. From the map, it was observed that fluoride concentrations in this area followed a pattern. The central part of Nathenje had high fluoride concentration of between 2 and 7.02 mg/l and these high fluoride values seemed to extend eastwards beyond the boundary of the study area. However, the southern and western parts had <1 mg/l of fluoride. The high groundwater fluoride values seem to be associated with the weathered basement complex containing biotite that is a probable source of fluoride. The other suspected sources of fluoride in Nathenje groundwater could be due to the dissolution of hornblende, fluorite and amphibole, which are reported to occur in rocks and soils in this area. There was evidence of dental fluorosis in areas where the fluoride concentration was high.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of fluoride in toddlers after application of 5% sodium fluoride dental varnish.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Taves, Donald M; Kim, Amy S; Watson, Gene E; Horst, Jeremy A

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of dental caries (tooth decay). The objective of this research is to examine the safety of use in toddlers by characterizing the absorption and distribution profile of a currently marketed fluoride varnish. We measured urinary fluoride for 5 hours after application of fluoride varnish to teeth in 6 toddlers aged 12 to 15 months. Baseline levels were measured on a separate day. The urine was extracted from disposable diapers, measured by rapid diffusion, and extrapolated to plasma levels. The mean estimated plasma fluoride concentration was 13 μg/L (SD, 9 μg/L) during the baseline visit and 21 μg/L (SD, 8 μg/L) during the 5 hours after treatment. Mean estimated peak plasma fluoride after treatment was 57 μg/L (SD, 22 μg/L), and 20 μg/kg (SD, 4 μg/L) was retained on average. Retained fluoride was 253 times lower than the acute toxic dose of 5 mg/kg. Mean plasma fluoride after placement of varnish was within an SD of control levels. Occasional application of fluoride varnish following American Academy of Pediatrics guidance is safe for toddlers. PMID:25136045

  13. Changes in plaque fluoride levels by school-based fluoride rinsing and tablet programs in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Abu Nasir Mohammad Nazmul; Sampaio, Fabio Correia; von der Fehr, Frithjof Ramm; Arneberg, Pål

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of school-based fluoride rinsing and tablet programs on plaque fluoride levels. A total of 42 children (8-9 years) were selected from two neighboring schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh. After caries recordings, vestibular plaque samples from the maxillary central incisors and mandibular first molars were collected and frozen on day 0 (baseline). The subjects of one school (rinsing group, n = 15) rinsed with 0.05% NaF, while those from the other school (tablet group, n = 16) used a 0.5 mg F tablet on the 5 school days during a 3-week period. The surfaces were sampled on the first and last school day every week. The fluoride and protein contents of each sample were analyzed using micro-techniques. The median plaque fluoride levels were 9.1 ppm at baseline in the rinsing group and 2.5 ppm in the tablet group (P < 0.05). This difference could in part be related to reported fluoride toothpaste usage. After 4 days on the fluoride programs, plaque fluoride levels in the rinsing group increased to 27.3, 24.5 and 14.2 ppm in the 3 consecutive weeks. The corresponding values after tablet usage were 8.0, 6.5 and 7.1 ppm, respectively. After 3 days without fluoride during the weekends, levels declined towards baseline values in both groups. Hence, the plaque fluoride levels in 8 to 9-year-old Bangladeshi children were increased by both rinsing and tablet programs, but the effect was not detectable 3 days later. PMID:12635779

  14. Theoretical and NMR experimental insights on urea, thiourea and diindolyurea as fluoride carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, João Guilherme P.; Silla, Josué M.; Andrade, Laize A. F.; Fernandes, Sergio A.; Cormanich, Rodrigo A.; Freitas, Matheus P.

    2016-06-01

    Urea and thiourea derivatives are widely known as anion transporters. The pristine urea and thiourea compounds were theoretically and spectroscopically evaluated as fluoride ligands, since transportation of F- is involved in many biochemical processes and this anion is suitable to be analyzed through NMR. Conformational changes induced by anions can be useful to probe ligand-anion complexation, but urea and thiourea do not undergo conformational isomerization. Thus, diindolylurea (DIU) was computationally investigated to search for its conformational preferences upon complexation with fluoride. Overall, the NMR proton signal for urea and thiourea moved downfield and broadened upon addition of one equivalent of fluoride anion in DMSO solution, indicating complexation. The 19F signal for the thiourea-F- mixture also shifted relative to the anion source. However, a J(N)H,F coupling constant was not observed, probably because of entropy and bulk solvation effects. In addition, the conformational preference of DIU changed drastically after simulated complexation with fluoride, in agreement with previous studies with other anions. This confirms the potential of urea derivatives as fluoride carriers.

  15. Competitive adsorption of fluoride and natural organic matter onto activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Meral; Giraudet, Sylvain; Amrane, Abdeltif; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2016-09-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is a major water constituent that affects the performance of water treatment processes. Several studies have shown that NOM can be adsorbed on the surface of oxides and may compete with other ions. The overall goal of this study was essentially to investigate the competitive adsorption between fluoride and NOM on activated alumina (AA). For this purpose, a humic acid (HA) was used as a model compound for NOM. The interaction of NOM with fluoride, the simultaneous competitive adsorption, and the effect of preloading AA with NOM were investigated. The specific absorbance of HA was determined at 254 nm. Size-exclusion chromatography measurements confirmed the adsorption of aromatic fractions of NOM onto AA. The presence of HA in the system inhibited fluoride sorption onto AA and the removal yield using fresh AA decreased from 70.4 % to 51.0 % in the presence of HA. The decrease was more pronounced using AA preloaded with HA, reaching 37.7 %. The interference of coexisting ions and their effect on fluoride removal capacity were evaluated, showing a severe impact of the presence of phosphate on the removal capacity unlike nitrates and sulfates, which slightly improved the fluoride sorption. PMID:26849225

  16. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  17. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D.

    2012-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  18. Determination of fluoride using ion-selective electrodes in the presence of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Siqingaowa; Ashimura, Yuuta; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Mizoguchi, Tadaaki

    2009-12-01

    We describe a method for determining fluoride with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Tartrate and Tris-based total ionic strength adjustment buffers (TISABs) were found to lower the interference from aluminum to a greater extent than conventional citrate-based TISABs. We adopted a solid TISAB addition method that is simple to perform, and can be carried out without lowering the level of fluoride. The apparent recovery of fluoride was 95% or higher, even at 500 mg L(-1) of Al3+ when a tartrate and Tris-based TISAB was used. Interferences from common ions were not observed at 100 mg L(-1) levels. We determined the fluoride content in solid silicate samples with ISEs without preliminary steam distillation after alkali fusion processing. Adding a solid TISAB mixture consisting of tartaric acid, sodium tartrate, and Tris, however, eliminated any interference from high levels of aluminum and sodium and potassium carbonates. The proposed analytical method was also applied to the determination of fluoride in geochemical reference samples. PMID:20009331

  19. Efficient removal of fluoride by hierarchical MgO microspheres: Performance and mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhen; Jia, Yong; Luo, Tao; Kong, Ling-Tao; Sun, Bai; Shen, Wei; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical MgO microspheres assembled by numerous porous nanoplates were successfully obtained by annealing the precursors of magnesium carbonate hydroxide hydrate synthesized through a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal process at low temperature. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. The fluoride removal performance of the hierarchical MgO microspheres was investigated. The adsorption isotherm could be well fitted in Freundlich model, and the adsorption capacity was over 115.5 mg/g at pH 7. The absorbent also showed high fluoride removal ability in a wide pH range of 2-10, which is favorable for practical application. The effect of co-existing anions on fluoride removal was also investigated. The result indicated that the fluoride adsorption capacity was influenced when carbonate, bicarbonate and phosphate existed above the concentration of 50 mg/g. In addition, the adsorption mechanism was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A novel hydroxyl and carbonate co-exchange mechanism has been proposed for the first time. It can be found that fluoride ions could replace the surface carbonates which formed by the reaction of MgO and the adsorbed CO2 molecules, and then anchored on the MgO surface.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Li; Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong; Lin, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF{sub 4} to hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} and to hexagonal Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98} nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH){sub 2.02}F{sub 0.98}. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation.

  1. The Pivotal Role of Alumina Pore Structure in HF Capture and Fluoride Return in Aluminum Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Grant J.; Agbenyegah, Gordon E. K.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Metson, James B.

    2016-07-01

    Fluoride emissions during primary aluminum production are mitigated by dry scrubbing on alumina which, as the metal feedstock, also returns fluoride to the pots. This ensures stable pot operation and maintains process efficiency but requires careful optimization of alumina for both fluoride capture and solubility. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 70-80 m2 g-1 is currently accepted. However, this does not account for pore accessibility. We demonstrate using industry-sourced data that pores <3.5 nm are not correlated with fluoride return. Reconstructing alumina pore size distributions (PSDs) following hydrogen fluoride (HF) adsorption shows surface area is not lost by pore diameter shrinkage, but by blocking the internal porosity. However, this alone cannot explain this 3.5 nm threshold. We show this is a consequence of surface diffusion-based inhibition with surface chemistry probably playing an integral role. We advocate new surface area estimates for alumina which account for pore accessibility by explicitly ignoring <3.5 nm pores.

  2. Multicolor tunability and upconversion enhancement of fluoride nanoparticles by oxygen dopant.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenbin; Wu, Suli; Zhang, Shufen; Su, Liap Tat; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2013-09-01

    The ability to manipulate the upconversion luminescence of lanthanide-ion doped fluoride upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is particularly important and highly desired due to their wide applications in color displays, multiplexing bioassays and multicolor imaging. Here, we developed a strategy for simultaneously tuning color output and enhancing upconversion emission of Yb/Er doped fluoride UCNPs, based on adjusting the oxygen doping level. The synthesis of multicolored multifunctional NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs was used as the model host system to demonstrate this protocol. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) was used as the oxygen source and added into the reaction system at the beginning stage of nucleation and growth process of fluoride UCNPs, which facilitates the formation of enough oxygen atoms and the diffusion of these into the fluoride host matrix. The results revealed that multicolour output and upconversion enhancement mainly resulted from the variation of phonon energy and crystal field symmetry of the host lattice, respectively. This strategy can be further expanded to other fluoride host matrices. As an example of an application, multicolored UCNPs were used as a color converter in light emitting diodes, which can effectively convert near-infrared light into visible light. It is expected that these multicolored UCNPs will be promising for applications in multiplexing biodetection, bioimaging (optical and magnetic resonance imaging) and other optical technologies, and the present method for the control of O(2-) doping may also be used in other functional nanomaterials. PMID:23887282

  3. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  4. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. 179.102-4 Section 179... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-4 Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. Each tank used to transport vinyl fluoride, stabilized, must comply with the following...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  6. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  7. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20...

  8. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  9. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.242 Section... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25...

  10. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.242 Section... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25...

  11. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5...

  12. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. 179.102-4 Section 179... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-4 Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. Each tank used to transport vinyl fluoride, stabilized, must comply with the following...

  13. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20...

  14. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.242 Section... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25...

  15. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.222 Section... Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 30 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed...

  16. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. 179.102-4 Section 179... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-4 Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. Each tank used to transport vinyl fluoride, stabilized, must comply with the following...

  17. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  18. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  20. 40 CFR 180.575 - Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for... § 180.575 Sulfuryl fluoride; tolerances for residues. (a)(1) General. Tolerances are established for residues of sulfuryl fluoride in or on the following commodities from the postharvest fumigation...

  1. Fluoride inhibition of proton-translocating ATPases of oral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, S V; Bender, G R; Marquis, R E

    1987-01-01

    The ATPases of isolated membranes of lactic acid bacteria were found to be inhibited by fluoride in a complex manner. Among the enzymes tested, that of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was the most sensitive to fluoride, and the initial rate of hydrolysis of ATP was reduced 50% by approximately 3 mM fluoride. The enzyme of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646 was the most resistant, and about 25 mM fluoride was required for 50% inhibition. The response to fluoride appeared to involve reversible, noncompetitive inhibition during short exposure to low levels of fluoride and nonreversible inhibition at higher fluoride levels. In addition, kinetic studies of the effects of fluoride on the enzymes of membranes of S. mutans and L. casei indicated that reversible inhibition was at least partly overcome at high levels of either ATP or Mg. The effects of pH on fluoride inhibition of ATPases were markedly different from the effects of pH on inhibition of acid/base regulation of intact cells by fluoride. It appeared that formation of HF was not required for inhibition of the ATPases. F1 ATPases isolated from the membranes by washing with buffers of low ionic strength proved to be less sensitive to fluoride than the membrane-associated F1F0 holoenzymes, and it was concluded that the F0 or membrane sector of the holoenzyme is involved in fluoride inhibition. PMID:2889674

  2. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  3. Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  4. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  5. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  6. Graphite Fluoride Fiber Composites For Heat Sinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Long, Martin; Stahl, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Graphite fluoride fiber/polymer composite materials consist of graphite fluoride fibers in epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene, or polyimide resin. Combines high electrical resistivity with high thermal conductivity and solves heat-transfer problems of many electrical systems. Commercially available in powder form, for use as dry lubricant or cathode material in lithium batteries. Produced by direct fluorination of graphite powder at temperature of 400 to 650 degree C. Applications include printed-circuit boards for high-density power electronics, insulators for magnetic-field cores like those found in alternators and transformers, substrates for thin-film resistors, and electrical-protection layers in aircraft de-icers.

  7. Effect of Discontinuation of Fluoride Intake from Water and Toothpaste on Urinary Excretion in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F) in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply) aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste) as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28) (F interruption) and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34) (F re-exposure). Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15) at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day) and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09) and 0.19 (SD: 0.08) following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p < 0.05), while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste. PMID:21776221

  8. Material properties of lithium fluoride for predicting XUV laser ablation rate and threshold fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blejchař, Tomáś; Nevrlý, Václav; Vašinek, Michal; Dostál, Michal; Pečínka, Lukáś; Dlabka, Jakub; Stachoň, Martin; Juha, Libor; Bitala, Petr; Zelinger, Zdeněk.; Pira, Peter; Wild, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with prediction of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser ablation of lithium fluoride at nanosecond timescales. Material properties of lithium fluoride were determined based on bibliographic survey. These data are necessary for theoretical estimation of surface removal rate in relevance to XUV laser desorption/ablation process. Parameters of XUV radiation pulses generated by the Prague capillary-discharge laser (CDL) desktop system were assumed in this context. Prediction of ablation curve and threshold laser fluence for lithium fluoride was performed employing XUV-ABLATOR code. Quasi-random sampling approach was used for evaluating its predictive capabilities in the means of variance and stability of model outputs in expected range of uncertainties. These results were compared to experimental data observed previously.

  9. Enhanced electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated LiCoO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Seuk Buom; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated lithium cobalt oxide [LiCoO2] thin films were characterized. Aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and lanthanum fluoride [LaF3] coating layers were fabricated on a pristine LiCoO2 thin film by using a spin-coating process. The AlF3- and LaF3-coated films exhibited a higher rate capability, cyclic performance, and stability at high temperature than the pristine film. This indicates that the AlF3 and LaF3 layers effectively protected the surface of the pristine LiCoO2 film from the reactive electrolyte. PMID:22221488

  10. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  11. [Stable compound of inorganic pyrophosphatase with pyrophosphate obtained by a fluoride-mediated reaction with phosphate].

    PubMed

    Bakuleva, N P; Baikov, A A; Avaeva, S M

    1981-09-01

    Incubation of inorganic pyrophosphate from baker's yeast with phosphate and MgCl2 in the presence of fluoride results in a gradual inactivation of the enzyme concomitant with incorporation of PP1 (about 2 moles per mole) into the protein. The rate constant for this process shows an increase with a rise in concentrations of the three reagents, the maximal value of inactivation being 0.11 min-1. The bound PP1 is not separated by gel-filtration. The rate of spontaneous degradation of the enzyme-pyrophosphate complex and the nature of EDTA and Mg2+ effects are similar to those for the analogous compound obtained by inhibition of PP1 hydrolysis by fluoride. The data obtained suggest that during PP1 synthesis and hydrolysis by pyrophosphatase fluoride stabilizes the same intermediate of the enzyme with pyrophosphate. PMID:6117333

  12. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. PMID:26736058

  13. Adsorption of fluoride to UiO-66-NH2 in water: Stability, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Shen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    To provide safe drinking water, fluoride in water must be removed and adsorption processes appear to be the most widely used method. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of adsorbents that have been used in various adsorption applications. To study the adsorption mechanism of fluoride to MOFs in water and obtain related adsorption parameters, we synthesized a zirconium-based MOF with a primary amine group on its ligand, named UiO-66-NH2. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of fluoride adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 were investigated. The crystalline structure of UiO-66-NH2 remained intact and the local structure of zirconium in UiO-66-NH2 did not change significantly after being exposed to fluoride. The kinetics of the fluoride adsorption in UiO-66-NH2 could be well represented by the pseudo second order rate law. The enthalpy of the adsorption indicates that the F(-) adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 was classified as a physical adsorption. However, the comparison between the adsorption capacities of UiO-66-NH2 and UiO-66 suggests that the fluoride adsorption to UiO-66-NH2 might primarily involve a strong interaction between F(-) and the metal site. The fluoride adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2 was found to decrease when pH>7. While the presence of chloride/bromide ions did not noticeably change the adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2, the ionic surfactants slightly affected the adsorption capacity of UiO-66-NH2. These findings provide insights to further optimize the adsorption process for removal of fluoride using zirconium-based MOFs. PMID:26397913

  14. Some electronic and magnetic properties of Fluoride ion in Fluoride structure nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imtani, Ali Nasir

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of the environment potential around Fluoride ion on some important electronic and magnetic properties such as dipole polarisability, moment of oscillator strengths S(k) and magnetic susceptibility. The theoretical procedure is based on the variational-perturbation theory with two parameter trial functions incorporated in an ionic model. We estimate these properties in four cases for Fluoride ion; free ion, ion under different potentials, ion in the crystals and ion in nanocrystal, CdF2, CaF2, PbF2, SrF2 and BaF2. Our results indicate that these properties vary with ion environments and the free state of Fluoride ion has higher values and there is linearity behaviour of these properties with lattice constant. For Fluoride ion in nanocrystal, we have found that there is an extra parameter that can also affect the dipole polarisability, the number of ions in the structure.

  15. Dynamic yielding in lithium fluoride and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yukio; Sano, Tomokazu

    2010-02-01

    At a time immediately after shock loading, a kink (a weak discontinuity or a discontinuity in slope) occurs at a position in an unsteady portion in a smooth plane wave front in a lithium fluoride single crystal (material IIIb) or in 1060-0 aluminum due to the instability of the wave front. After the occurrence of the kink, a zone is produced and broadened with time between a near steady precursor ahead of the kink and a plastic wave behind it in a weak-discontinuity plane wave by the difference in the propagation velocity between them. Stress relaxes in the zone, which is called a follower, and the precursor decay takes place due to the stress relaxation. During the decay process, the large increase in plastic flow occurs in the vicinity of the leading edge of the follower, causes yielding at the leading edge, and stabilizes the weak-discontinuity wave. The stress-strain (σ-ε) history caused by the follower rotates clockwise with time around the yield point. The rotation yields different σ-ε histories behind the point and therefore different types of the dynamic σ-ε relation. Dynamic yield phenomena are illustrated by showing the schematic diagrams of three different types of the dynamic σ-ε relation, which are caused by weak-discontinuity plane waves composed of a precursor C, a follower (i) C, (ii) I or II, or (iii) R' or Rb, and a plastic wave C behind the follower. Here C is the contraction (compression) wave, I and II are the degenerate contraction waves I and II, R' is the subrarefaction wave, and Rb is the rarefaction wave.

  16. Plaque fluoride concentrations in a community without water fluoridation: effects of calcium and use of a fluoride or placebo dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Whitford, G M; Buzalaf, M A R; Bijella, M F B; Waller, J L

    2005-01-01

    The results of a recent study by Whitford et al. [Caries Res 2002;36:256-265] with subjects whose drinking water was fluoridated led to two major conclusions: (1) Compared to the use of a placebo dentifrice, plaque fluoride concentrations ([F]) throughout much of the day are not significantly increased by the use of an F dentifrice but (2) they are positively related to plaque [Ca] (p = 0.0001). The present double-blind, double-crossover study with 16 subjects used the same protocol and was done to: (1) determine the effects of the use of an F dentifrice on salivary and plaque [F] in a community without water fluoridation and (2) further examine the relationship between plaque [Ca] and [F]. Following the use of an F dentifrice or placebo for one week, whole saliva and plaque were collected 1.0 and 12 h after the last use of the products. The study was repeated to include rinsing with a 20 mmol/l CaCl(2) solution immediately before the use of the dentifrices. The CaCl(2) rinse had only minor effects on salivary [Ca] and [F] and none on the plaque concentrations. Unlike the results found in the fluoridated community, all salivary and plaque [F] associated with the use of the F dentifrice were significantly higher than those associated with the use of the placebo. The results suggest that the cariostatic effectiveness of an F dentifrice should be greater in areas without water fluoridation. As noted previously, plaque [F] were positively related to plaque [Ca] (p = 0.0001). PMID:15741721

  17. Formation of deep mesa-structures on SiC using fluoride plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, A. V.; Ilyin, V. A.; Romanov, A. A.; Serkov, A. V.; Chigirev, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    A process of deep profiles formation on silicon carbide using ion-plasma etching in fluoride plasma is discussed. An industrial equipment «Caroline PE 15» (Russia) with ICP plasma source was used in experiments. The obtained experimental samples are perspective in power electronics applications.

  18. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yamin; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Blaine McCleskey, R.

    2011-08-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1-10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50 mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50 °C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006-2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from <1% at low pH values to >99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H + and Al 3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3-30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10 -6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F -, and major complexes ( HF(aq)0, AlF 2+, AlF2+ and AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-, FeF 2+, FeF2+, MgF + and BF(OH)2- may comprise 1-10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al.

  19. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deng, Y.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Blaine, McCleskey R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1-10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50??C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006-2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from <1% at low pH values to >99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H+ and Al3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3-30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10-6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F-, and major complexes (HF(aq)0, AlF2+, AlF2+ and AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-, FeF2+, FeF2+, MgF+ and BF2(OH)2- may comprise 1-10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al. ?? 2011.

  20. Fluoride: a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    Follin-Arbelet, Benoit; Moum, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    Although the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and oral hygiene has been noticed before, there has been little research on prolonged fluoride exposure as a possible risk factor. In the presented cases, exposure to fluoride seems indirectly associated with higher incidence of IBD. Fluoride toxicology and epidemiology documents frequent unspecific chronic gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal inflammation. Efflux genes that confer resistance to environmental fluoride may select for IBD associated gut microbiota and therefore be involved in the pathogenesis. Together these multidisciplinary results argue for further investigation on the hypothesis of fluoride as a risk factor for IBD. PMID:27199224

  1. 27 CFR 24.130 - Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Change in volatile fruit... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.130 Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. If the proprietor desires to make any change in the process employed to produce volatile fruit-flavor...

  2. 27 CFR 24.130 - Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in volatile fruit... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.130 Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. If the proprietor desires to make any change in the process employed to produce volatile fruit-flavor...

  3. 27 CFR 24.130 - Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in volatile fruit... Subsequent to Original Establishment § 24.130 Change in volatile fruit-flavor concentrate operations. If the proprietor desires to make any change in the process employed to produce volatile fruit-flavor...

  4. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Emily A; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-12-01

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50-100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal-silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion. PMID:25404309

  5. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    PubMed Central

    Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50–100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal–silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion. PMID:25404309

  6. Interaction of Pipeline Materials with Molten Fluoride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimo, Tomáš; Matal, Oldřich; Nesvadba, Lukáś; Dvořák, Vladimír; Kanický, Viktor; Sulovský, Petr; Machát, Jiří

    2007-12-01

    Molten fluoride salts are very promising carriers for the transport of large amounts of heat for example from a high temperature nuclear reactor to a plant which generates hydrogen by chemical processes or from a nuclear reactor to a heat exchanger being a part of the equipment needed to realize the Brayton cycle with a very high power efficiency. Therefore, in the framework of our project, experimental and theoretical investigations of the interactions of fluoride salts as heat carriers needed as high potential and structural materials for pipelines in order to transport heat at temperatures above 600◦C were started. Experimental investigations of Fe-based and Ni-based materials in molten fluoride salts at high temperatures and with different exposure times were performed. Two components salts (LiF-NaF and NaF-NaBF4) and three components salts (LiF-NaF-ZrF4 and LiF-NaF-RbF) were chosen in the experiments. The salt analysis was focussed on the content of metallic elements before and after the exposure of the samples to the salt melts. It was done by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and by titrimetric techniques. The thickness of the material zone affected by the salt melts, characterized by an enriched / reduced content of elements in comparison to the mean original content, and the material attacked zone, characterized by very tiny channels or chains of pores or pits formed preferably at grain boundaries, were the subject of the analysis performed by electron microscopy / microprobe techniques. Theoretical models for the transport of elements in the material samples exposed to salt melts using experimental data were also developed.

  7. Appropriate uses of fluorides for children: guidelines from the Canadian Workshop on the Evaluation of Current Recommendations Concerning Fluorides.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prevent fluorosis caused by excessive fluoride ingestion by revising recommendations for fluoride intake by children. OPTIONS: Limiting fluoride ingestion from fluoridated water, fluoride supplements and fluoride dentifrices. OUTCOMES: Reduction in the prevalence of dental fluorosis and continued prevention of dental caries. EVIDENCE: Before the workshop, experts prepared comprehensive literature reviews of fluoride therapies, fluoride ingestion and the prevalence and causes of dental fluorosis. The papers, which were peer-reviewed, revised and circulated to the workshop participants, formed the basis of the workshop discussions. VALUES: Recommendations to limit fluoride intake were vigorously debated before being adopted as the consensus opinion of the workshop group. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Decrease in the prevalence of dental fluorosis with continuing preventive effects of fluoride use. The only significant cost would be in preparing new, low-concentration fluoride products for distribution. RECOMMENDATIONS: Fluoride supplementation should be limited to children 3 years of age and older in areas where there is less than 0.3 ppm of fluoride in the water supply. Children in all areas should use only a "pea-sized" amount of fluoride dentifrice no more than twice daily under the supervision of an adult. VALIDATION: These recommendations are almost identical to changes to recommendations for the use of fluoride supplements recently proposed by a group of European countries. SPONSORS: The workshop was organized by Dr. D. Christopher Clark, of the University of British Columbia, and Drs. Hardy Limeback and Ralph C. Burgess, of the University of Toronto, and funded by Proctor and Gamble Inc., Toronto, the Medical Research Council of Canada and Health Canada (formerly the Department of National Health and Welfare). The recommendations were formally adopted by the Canadian Dental Association in April 1993. PMID:8261348

  8. Surface crystallization of a fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Doremus, Robert H.

    1983-01-01

    Growth of crystals on the surface of a Zr-Ba-La fluoride glass was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Small, dark crystal nucleated rapidly and grew to a size of about 10 microns; then they stopped growing, and wrinkled regions emerged, covering the entire crystal surface.

  9. Beryllium fluoride film protects beryllium against corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O donnell, P. M.; Odonnell, P. M.

    1967-01-01

    Film of beryllium fluoride protects beryllium against corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in water containing chloride ion concentrations. The film is formed by exposing the beryllium to fluorine gas at 535 degrees C or higher and makes beryllium suitable for space applications.

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIGENOUS FLUORIDE FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given that an essential component of the design is that it can be adapted for use throughout the world, the potential media investigated are those available in the regions containing fluoride contaminated groundwater. From the literature, wood charcoal, bone char, laterite and...

  11. Xenon fluorides show potential as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernick, C. L.; Shieh, T. C.; Yang, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Xenon fluorides permit the controlled addition of fluorine across an olefinic double bond. They provide a series of fluorinating agents that permit ready separation from the product at a high purity. The reactions may be carried out in the vapor phase.

  12. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  13. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, R. J.; Kazi, Z. H.; Zhao, X.-L.; Chartrand, M. G.; Charles, R. J.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF3. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF3 precipitates were diluted about 6-8 fold with PbF2. The measured concentrations of 239,240Pu and 241Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of 239,240Pu and 241Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  14. Aqueous vinylidene fluoride polymer coating composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, Edward J. (Inventor); Christofas, Alkis (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A water-based coating composition which may be air dried to form durable, fire resistant coatings includes dispersed vinylidene fluoride polymer particles, emulsified liquid epoxy resin and a dissolved emulsifying agent for said epoxy resin which agent is also capable of rapidly curing the epoxy resin upon removal of the water from the composition.

  15. Multivariate statistical analysis for fluoride occurrence in groundwater in the Northern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Salifu, A; Petrusevski, B; Ghebremichael, K; Buamah, R; Amy, G

    2012-10-01

    The presence of excess fluoride in groundwater in the Northern region of Ghana has resulted in the closure of many boreholes for drinking water supply to avoid the incidence of fluorosis and other related health effects. The fluoride concentration in 357 groundwater samples from the area ranged between 0.0 and 11.6mg/L, with a mean value of 1.13mg/L. Piper graphical classification, correlation coefficients, principal component analysis (PCA) and thermodynamic calculations were used as an approach to gain insight into the groundwater chemical composition and to help understand the dominant mechanisms influencing the occurrence of high fluoride waters. Spatial join procedure was used to examine the relationship between the underlying geology of the study area and fluoride distribution. Six groundwater types were identified for the area: Ca-Mg-HCO(3), Ca-Mg-SO(4), Na-Cl, Na-SO(4), Na-HCO(3) and mixed water type. PCA performed on the groundwater chemical data resulted in 4 principal components (PCs) explaining 72% of the data variance. The PCs represented the predominant processes controlling the groundwater chemistry in the study area which include; mineral dissolution reactions, ion exchange processes and evapotranspiration processes. PHREEQC calculations for saturation indices for the groundwater samples indicated they were largely saturated with respect to calcite and under-saturated with respect to fluorite, suggesting that dissolution of fluorite may be occurring in the areas where it is present. A review of the PCA results and an evaluation of the equilibrium state of the groundwater based on the saturation indices, suggest that some of the processes controlling the overall groundwater chemistry in the study area also influenced the fluoride enrichment. These predominant processes include the dissolution of the mineral fluorite, anion exchange processes (F(-)/OH(-)) involving clay minerals and evapotranspiration processes. Elevated fluoride levels in the study

  16. Multivariate statistical analysis for fluoride occurrence in groundwater in the Northern region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salifu, A.; Petrusevski, B.; Ghebremichael, K.; Buamah, R.; Amy, G.

    2012-10-01

    The presence of excess fluoride in groundwater in the Northern region of Ghana has resulted in the closure of many boreholes for drinking water supply to avoid the incidence of fluorosis and other related health effects. The fluoride concentration in 357 groundwater samples from the area ranged between 0.0 and 11.6 mg/L, with a mean value of 1.13 mg/L. Piper graphical classification, correlation coefficients, principal component analysis (PCA) and thermodynamic calculations were used as an approach to gain insight into the groundwater chemical composition and to help understand the dominant mechanisms influencing the occurrence of high fluoride waters. Spatial join procedure was used to examine the relationship between the underlying geology of the study area and fluoride distribution. Six groundwater types were identified for the area: Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-SO4, Na-Cl, Na-SO4, Na-HCO3 and mixed water type. PCA performed on the groundwater chemical data resulted in 4 principal components (PCs) explaining 72% of the data variance. The PCs represented the predominant processes controlling the groundwater chemistry in the study area which include; mineral dissolution reactions, ion exchange processes and evapotranspiration processes. PHREEQC calculations for saturation indices for the groundwater samples indicated they were largely saturated with respect to calcite and under-saturated with respect to fluorite, suggesting that dissolution of fluorite may be occurring in the areas where it is present. A review of the PCA results and an evaluation of the equilibrium state of the groundwater based on the saturation indices, suggest that some of the processes controlling the overall groundwater chemistry in the study area also influenced the fluoride enrichment. These predominant processes include the dissolution of the mineral fluorite, anion exchange processes (F-/OH-) involving clay minerals and evapotranspiration processes. Elevated fluoride levels in the study area were

  17. Monitoring of fluoride in groundwater resources of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Vaghefi, Kooshiar Azam; Montazeri, Ahmad; Mohebbi, Mohammad Reza; Saeedi, Reza

    2010-04-01

    Fluoride concentration in groundwater resources that used as the source of drinking water in urban areas of Iran was determined. All of the groundwater wells located in urban areas were monitored in 2008. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured using SPADNS method. The nationwide mean fluoride concentration in the groundwater resources was found to be 0.47 +/- 0.28 (+/- standard deviation) mg/L. Only in Bushehr Province, the provincial mean fluoride level in the groundwater resources was higher than the WHO guideline value of 1.5 mg/L (1.86 +/- 0.86 mg/L). At nationwide level, the portion of extracted groundwater with fluoride concentration lower than the minimum permissible level of 0.5 mg/L, desirable fluoride range of 0.5-1.5 mg/L and elevated fluoride level was 69.2, 29.3 and 1.4%, respectively. In the areas with low fluoride content drinking water, it is recommended that fluoride is absorbed by use of high fluoride content foods and beverages. The recommendations for the circumstances with excessive fluoride content of drinking water are provision of drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking water by point-of-use systems, respectively. PMID:20306173

  18. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Karunya; Rajapandian, K.; Gurunathan, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. Decreased fluoride concentration leads to increased risk of caries and increased concentration can lead to dental or skeletal fluorosis. One crore liters of water is supplied to Chennai and surrounding areas through pouches and bottles which carters about one third of city population. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride concentration in top 10 bottled waters in Chennai and to check the accuracy of their labelling. Materials and Methods Top selling bottled waters, 6 multinational and 4 Non- multinational brands were selected for the study. Three different batches of each brand were purchased. The labels of the bottled were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered and sent for fluoride content analysis using SPADNS calorimetric method. Results All the brands and batches which were analysed for the study had less than optimal fluoride content and there is a significant variation in fluoride concentration of each brand and among different batches of same brand bottled waters. The range of fluoride level in tested samples was between 0.27 to 0.59. Only one brand’s label had information regarding the fluoride content. Conclusion Standardization of fluoride levels in bottled waters and labelling of fluoride content should become mandatory. PMID:26557612

  19. Solid electrolytes for fluoride ion batteries: ionic conductivity in polycrystalline tysonite-type fluorides.

    PubMed

    Rongeat, Carine; Reddy, M Anji; Witter, Raiker; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-02-12

    Batteries based on a fluoride shuttle (fluoride ion battery, FIB) can theoretically provide high energy densities and can thus be considered as an interesting alternative to Li-ion batteries. Large improvements are still needed regarding their actual performance, in particular for the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. At the current state of the art, two types of fluoride families can be considered for electrolyte applications: alkaline-earth fluorides having a fluorite-type structure and rare-earth fluorides having a tysonite-type structure. As regard to the latter, high ionic conductivities have been reported for doped LaF3 single crystals. However, polycrystalline materials would be easier to implement in a FIB due to practical reasons in the cell manufacturing. Hence, we have analyzed in detail the ionic conductivity of La(1-y)Ba(y)F(3-y) (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.15) solid solutions prepared by ball milling. The combination of DC and AC conductivity analyses provides a better understanding of the conduction mechanism in tysonite-type fluorides with a blocking effect of the grain boundaries. Heat treatment of the electrolyte material was performed and leads to an improvement of the ionic conductivity. This confirms the detrimental effect of grain boundaries and opens new route for the development of solid electrolytes for FIB with high ionic conductivities. PMID:24444763

  20. Geological sources of fluoride and acceptable intake of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid; Jacks, Gunnar; Ketabdari, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible source(s) of fluoride in the Dashtestan area, Bushehr Province, southern Iran. In response to reports on the high incidence of dental fluorosis, 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for fluoride. The results indicate that dissolved fluoride in the study area is above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An additional 35 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The results of these analyses show that the most likely source for fluoride in the groundwater is from clay minerals (chlorite) and micas (muscovite, sericite, and biotite) in the soils and rocks in the area. We also note that due to the high average temperatures all year round and excessive water consumption in the area, the optimum fluoride dose level should be lower than that recommended by the WHO. PMID:22426705