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1

Preparation of YBa2Cu3Oy, superconducting thin films by radio-frequency plasma flash evaporation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have attempted to deposit YBa2Cu3Oy oxide superconducting thin films using low-pressure plasma flash evaporation. The RF plasmas used were sustained at 20–30 Torr by a 13.56 MHz RF generator operated at 8–10 kW. We have obtained dense and shiny films at a deposition rate of about 10 Å\\/s. The best film on MgO(100) substrate showed a sharp resistive transition

K. Komori; W. Fukagawa; M. Fukutomi; Y. Tanaka; T. Asano; H. Maeda; N. Hosokawa

1993-01-01

2

The influence of La substitution and oxygen reduction in ambipolar La-doped YBa2Cu3Oy thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report hole and electron doping in Y0.38La0.62(Ba2-xLax)Cu3Oy thin films synthesized by the pulsed laser deposition technique and subsequently annealed in oxygen ambient or in a vacuum. X-ray diffraction studies suggested a single phase in p-type thin films and transport measurements showed a superconductor-to-insulator transition at x = 0.46. Hall measurements indicated electrons were successfully doped when the thin films were annealed in vacuum. The n-type samples demonstrated metallic behaviour within moderate temperature ranges, and a low in-plane resistivity (?ab) and a high carrier density for 0.32 ? x ? 0.46. The increase in ?ab for higher La doping levels, probably caused by charge compensation, is also discussed. The present result could be a significant step in searching for electron-doped superconductivity in the YBa2Cu3Oy system.

Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Wang, X.; Lü, W. M.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, B. M.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando

2012-12-01

3

A BILAYER BUFFER USING 214T Eu2CuO4 AND CUBIC YSZ FOR GROWING YBa2Cu3Oy THIN FILMS ON Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) have been successfully grown on Si using a double buffer of Eu2CuO4 (ECO)\\/(yttrium-stabilized zirconia) YSZ. The severe reaction between Si and YBCO is blocked by YSZ, and the crystallinity and superconductivity of the grown YBCO due to the lattice mismatch between YBCO and YSZ are improved by the ECO layer. The grown films

J. GAO; E. G. FU; X. S. WU

2007-01-01

4

a Bilayer Buffer Using 214T Eu2CuO4 and Cubic Ysz for Growing YBa2Cu3Oy Thin Films on Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) have been successfully grown on Si using a double buffer of Eu2CuO4 (ECO)\\/(yttrium-stabilized zirconia) YSZ. The severe reaction between Si and YBCO is blocked by YSZ, and the crystallinity and superconductivity of the grown YBCO due to the lattice mismatch between YBCO and YSZ are improved by the ECO layer. The grown films

J. Gao; E. G. Fu; X. S. Wu

2007-01-01

5

Superconductivity and Crystallinity in Epitaxial Thin Films of YBa2Cu3Oy Grown on Eu2CuO4/YSZ Double Buffered Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double buffer of EU2CuO3/YSZ has been used to grow highly epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) on Si. These films showed enhanced superconductivity and improved crystallinity in comparing with that of films grown on Si directly. Well defined interfaces with no immediate layers were found. The YBCO film surface was more smooth and stable. The results obtained indicate that highly epitaxial YBCO thin films can be successfully grown on Si wafers, demonstrating advantages of such a double buffer structure.

Gao, J.; Fu, E. G.; Luo, Z.; Wu, X. S.; Yang, J.

6

Effect of La2Zr2O7-buffered YSZ substrate on YBa2Cu3Oy thin films by chemical solution deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epitaxial YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin films have been fabricated by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on La2Zr2O7-buffered YSZ single crystal substrate, where the buffer layer has three kinds of morphology - flat surface, rough surface and pore surface. The effect of LZO buffer layer’s roughness on the YBCO films was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. The flat surface of LZO layer is beneficial to highly epitaxial YBCO films and high critical current density.

Jin, Lihua; Yu, Zeming; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Yao; Yan, Guo; Li, Chengshan; Lu, Yafeng

2010-07-01

7

Relationship between vortex pinning properties and microstructure in Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy and ErBa2Cu3Oy films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-field Jcs were improved by introducing Ba-Nb-O (BNO)-nanorods in YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) and ErBa2Cu3Oy (Er123) films. Retention of Jc against the magnetic field for the BNO-doped Er123 film was superior to that for the BNO-doped Y123 film. Sharp distribution of local critical current density originating from vortex pinning by nanorods with uniform morphology was demonstrated in the Er123 film. On the other hand, fluctuating microstructures of nanorods formed in the Y123 film prepared by the same deposition conditions. Moreover, different growth temperature dependences of nanorod morphology between the Y123 and Er123 films were clarified.

Haruta, Masakazu; Saura, Keisuke; Fujita, Natsuto; Ogura, Yuta; Ichinose, Ataru; Maeda, Toshihiko; Horii, Shigeru

2013-11-01

8

a Bilayer Buffer Using 214T Eu2CuO4 and Cubic Ysz for Growing YBa2Cu3Oy Thin Films on Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) have been successfully grown on Si using a double buffer of Eu2CuO4 (ECO)/(yttrium-stabilized zirconia) YSZ. The severe reaction between Si and YBCO is blocked by YSZ, and the crystallinity and superconductivity of the grown YBCO due to the lattice mismatch between YBCO and YSZ are improved by the ECO layer. The grown films were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray reflection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Doppler broadened annihilation radiation spectroscopy, respectively. Very clear interfaces were found at YBCO/ECO/YSZ boundaries without any intermediate layer. The YBCO film surface was more smooth and stable. The results obtained indicate that highly epitaxial YBCO thin films can be successfully grown on Si wafers, demonstrating advantages of such a double buffer structure.

Gao, J.; Fu, E. G.; Wu, X. S.

9

Influence of layer thickness and growth temperature on in-field Jc in BaZrO3/YBa2Cu3Oy quasi-multilayered films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the influence of spatial distributions of 3D pinning centers on critical current density Jc, BaZrO3-doped YBa2Cu3Oy thin films were fabricated by a quasi-multilayering process. The crossover from a random pinning feature to a peak behavior around the c-axis direction was observed in the angular dependence of Jc when the thickness of a YBCO layer and the growth temperature were modulated. The positions of BaZrO3 particles within the films are considered to be more correlated in the c-axis direction as the thickness of a YBCO layer becomes thinner. The lower growth temperature, on the other hand, suppresses the migration of adatoms, leading to randomly distributed BaZrO3 particles.

Sueyoshi, T.; Mori, M.; Tsuchiya, K.; Yonekura, K.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Mitsugi, F.; Ikegami, T.

2013-01-01

10

Dependence of critical current properties on growth temperature and doping level of nanorods in PLD-YBa2Cu3Oy films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vortex-Bose-glass-like irreversibility lines (ILs) emerged for 2.5 and 5.0 at.% Ba-Nb-O (BNO)-doped YBa2Cu3Oy films deposited by PLD using Nd:YAG-laser. The ILs strongly depended on growth temperature (Ts) in addition to the doping level of BNO. The vortex glass region was expanded with increasing Ts or doping level of BNO. Drastic change of the nanorod morphology from short and bended nanorods to long and linear nanorods with increasing Ts was clarified. Moreover, it was found that Ts-dependent ILs were quite different from our previous results in BNO-doped ErBa2Cu3Oy films.

Fujita, N.; Haruta, M.; Ichinose, A.; Maeda, T.; Horii, S.

2013-11-01

11

Angular dependence of critical current density and n-values in BaZrO3/YBa2Cu3Oy quasi-multilayered films with columnar defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaZrO3/YBa2Cu3Oy quasi-multilayered films, in which the size and the spatial distribution of BaZrO3 nano-particles were controlled, were irradiated using 200 MeV Xe ions along the c-axis direction. When the BaZrO3 nano-particles were larger in size, the flux lines not captured by CDs, such as interstitial flux lines between CDs and double kinks of flux lines, can be pinned more effectively by the BaZrO3 nano-particles, so that the Jc enhances for high magnetic fields and high temperature. In addition, the inverse correlation between Jc and n-value appears at high temperature in increasing magnetic field for the film with correlated rows of the nano-particles which might be curved off the c-axis. These suggest that the hybrid flux pinning depends not only on the combination of one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional pinning centers (3D-PCs) but also on the size and the spatial distribution of the 3D-PCs.

Sueyoshi, T.; Kotaki, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Mitsugi, F.; Ikegami, T.; Ishikawa, N.

2013-11-01

12

Epitaxial YBa2Cu3Oy thin films grown on silicon with a double buffer of Eu2CuO4\\/YSZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a double buffer of Eu2CuO4 (ECO)\\/YSZ to improve the growth of YBa2Cu3Oy(YBCO) on Si wafer. The ECO buffer material possesses a very stable 214-T' structure. It has excellent structural and chemical compatibilities with YBCO and YSZ. Our study showed that the epitaxy and crystallinity of YBCO deposited on Si could be considerably enhanced by using such a double

J. Gao; L. Kang; T. K. Li; Y. L. Cheung; J. Yang

2003-01-01

13

Improved Epitaxy and Surface Morphology in YBa2Cu3Oy Thin Films Grown on Double Buffered Si Wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly epitaxial thin films of YBCO have been obtained on silicon wafers using a Eu2CuO4/YSZ (yttrium-stabilized ZrO2) double buffer. Our results showed that application of such a double buffer can significantly enhance the epitaxy of grown YBCO. It also leads to an excellent surface morphology. The average surface roughness was found less than 5 nm in a large range. The results of X-ray small angle reflection and positron spectroscpy demonstrate a very clear and flat interface between YBCO and buffer layers. The Eu2CuO4/YSZ double buffer could be promising for coating high-TC superconducting films on various reactive substrates.

Gao, J.; Kang, L.; Wong, H. Y.; Cheung, Y. L.; Yang, J.

14

TEM Study of the Microstructure and Interfaces in YBa2Cu3Oy Thin Films Grown on Silicon with a Eu2CuO4/Y-ZrO2 Bi-Layer Buffer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructures in the YBa2Cu3Oy films grown on Eu2CuO4/Y-ZrO2(YSZ) buffered silicon were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Our effort was emphasized on the influence of the interfacial microstructures on the formation and epitaxy of the grown layer. It was found that a native Si-oxide layer ~ 5 nm was formed at the boundary between YSZ and silicon. Such an intermediate layer should be formed after the initial formation of the grown YSZ layer as the epitaxy of YSZ still remain. The epitaxy can be kept through all layers without the formation of big grain boundaries. No amorphous layers and secondary phases were observed at the interfaces of YSZ/ECO and YBCO/ECO. The results demonstrate that the crystallinity and the epitaxy of YBCO have been greatly improved by the bi-layer buffer.

Gao, J.; Fu, E. G.; Luo, Z.; Wang, Z.; Yu, D. P.

15

In situ measurements of transport characteristics in heavy-ion irradiated YBa2Cu3Oy under magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We produced splayed columnar defects in a /c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3Oy thin film by irradiating 200 MeV Au ions at low temperature (~80K) from two different directions; /+/-15° with respect to the /c-axis. Then the transport critical current density Jc as a function of magnetic field direction /? with respect to /c-axis was measured in situ. A symmetric peak for Jc was observed in /?-dependence of Jc around /?=0°.

Ishikawa, N.; Sueyoshi, T.; Iwase, A.; Chimi, Y.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Miyahara, K.; Kiss, T.

2000-07-01

16

Critical current density of YBa2Cu3Oy containing inclined columnar defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of columnar defects on the critical current density have been investigated by the in situ measurement of current-voltage characteristics for a c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin film after the irradiation with 200 MeV Au ions from the direction ?irr=45° off the c-axis. The dependences of the critical current density, Jc, on the magnetic field, the magnetic field angle, and the density of columnar defects are discussed. With increasing the density of the columnar defects, B?, the contribution of the columnar defects to the pinning force per unit volume, ?Fp, increases monotonically. The peak field for ?Fp as a function of the magnetic field seems to be almost independent on B?.

Ishikawa, N.; Sueyoshi, T.; Iwase, A.; Chimi, Y.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Miyahara, K.; Kiss, T.

2001-09-01

17

Vortex Phase Diagram of Underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy in Parallel Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the Josephson vortex phase diagram in high-Tc superconductors, we have prepared untwinned single crystals of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy and measured the c-axis resistivity rhoc(T) in magnetic fields H parallel to the ab plane. In YBa2Cu3Oy (Tc ~ 60 K), the vortex liquid phase freezes into the Josephson vortex glass through two-stage processes with decreasing temperature in the

Terukazu Nishizaki; Yuki Takahashi; Norio Kobayashi

2007-01-01

18

Electrical Properties of YBa2Cu3Oy at High Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistance of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBC) was measured from room temperature to 1123 K while varying oxygen partial presure. Electrical conduction mechanism in YBC changed from metallic to semiconductive around 700 K in air. Oxygen deficiency associated with temperature and oxygen partial pressure of the ambience dominated the electrical conduction mechanism.

Munakata, Fumio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko; Kanesaka, Hiroyuki; Hirosaki, Naoto; Okada, Akira; Yamanaka, Mitsugu

1987-08-01

19

Anomalous in-plane magneto-resistance of low-oxygenation YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed very strong suppression of the transition to zero resistance by a magnetic field in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals (Tc=60K). It follows from the comparison of transport and magnetic data that the main part of the resistivity tail corresponds to the vortex liquid state. We demonstrate that resistance of the vortex liquid cannot be described using a simple Bardeen-Stephen model.

Gordeev, S. N.; Rassau, A. P.; Zhukov, A. A.; de Groot, P. A. J.; Jansen, A. G. M.; Gagnon, R.; Taillefer, L.

2000-07-01

20

Vortex lattice melting and Hc2 in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortices in a type-II superconductor form a lattice structure that melts when the thermal displacement of the vortices is an appreciable fraction of the distance between vortices. In an anisotropic high-Tc superconductor, such as YBa2Cu3Oy, the magnetic field value where this melting occurs can be much lower than the mean-field critical field Hc2. We examine this melting transition in YBa2Cu3Oy with oxygen content y from 6.45 to 6.92, and we perform a quantitative analysis of this transition in the cuprates by fitting the data to a theory of vortex-lattice melting. The quality of the fits indicates that the transition to a resistive state is indeed the vortex lattice melting transition, with the shape of the melting curves being consistent with the known change in penetration depth anisotropy from underdoped to optimally doped YBa2Cu3Oy. We establish these fits as a valid technique for finding Hc2(T=0) from higher-temperature data when the experimentally accessible fields are not sufficient to melt the lattice at zero temperature (near optimal doping). From the fits we extract Hc2(T=0) as a function of hole doping. The unusual doping dependence of Hc2(T=0) points to some form of electronic order competing with superconductivity around 0.12 hole doping.

Ramshaw, B. J.; Day, James; Vignolle, Baptiste; LeBoeuf, David; Dosanjh, P.; Proust, Cyril; Taillefer, Louis; Liang, Ruixing; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.

2012-11-01

21

Magnetization measurement of YBa2Cu3Oy in high magnetic fields up to 30 T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization measurements on high-quality untwinned YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals are performed in magnetic fields up to 30 T using a Hall probe magnetometry. We find an anomalous second peak in the magnetization hysteresis curve, which is different from the previously reported ``fish tail''. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the field-driven transition from the vortex lattice or the Bragg glass to the disordered vortex glass phases with increasing magnetic field. We discuss, furthermore, the influence of disorder of the system on the transition.

Kobayashi, N.; Nishizaki, T.; Naito, T.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

1998-05-01

22

Measurement of local changes in oxygen concentration of YBa2Cu3Oy using electron diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local changes in oxygen concentration of high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) were determined through three electron diffraction techniques, where y denotes the oxygen fraction in the unit cell. (1) Using the relationship between oxygen concentration and lattice parameters, a local change in y was measured from selected area electron diffraction patterns. The results show that the oxygen concentration is lower near a grain boundary compared with a central region of the grain in a sintered sample. The relative accuracy of y and the spatial resolution in this measurement is /+/-1.5% and several hundreds nm, respectively. (2) A local change in y was detected by comparing measured zone axis critical voltages with theoretical values. A value of y is lower in the vicinity of Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) particles in a sample prepared by the quench and melt-growth method. The accuracy of y is /+/-0.67% and the spatial resolution is 20-50 nm. (3) A change in y was also determined by quantitative analysis of rocking curves from convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns. The value of y decreases by 3% after electron irradiation for 300 s at 200 kV. The accuracy of y is /+/-0.5% and the spatial resolution is several nm when imaging plates were used in an energy-filtering transmission electron microscope with a field emission gun.

Akase, Z.; Tomokiyo, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Watanabe, M.

2000-09-01

23

Characteristic electronic structure and its doping evolution in lightly-doped to underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed an angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of lightly-doped to underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) untwinned single crystals and a core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) study of YBCO single and polycrystals. In the zone diagonal (nodal) direction, dispersive quasi-particle (QP) features crossing the Fermi level were observed down to the hole concentration of ~ 4%, which explains the metallic

H. Yagi; T. Yoshida; A. Fujimori; K. Tanaka; N. Mannella; W. L. Yang; X. J. Zhou; D. H. Lu; Z.-X. Shen; Z. Hussain; M. Kubota; K. Ono; K. Segawa; Y. Ando; D. Iijima; M. Goto; K. M. Kojima; S. Uchida

2010-01-01

24

Anomalous magnetization and field-driven disordering transition of a vortex lattice in untwinned YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization measurements on untwinned YBa2Cu3Oy are performed in magnetic fields up to 27 T using the Hall probe magnetometry and the anomalous second peak is found near the multicritical point. Below the second peak, the vortex pinning force shows a steep increase at a characteristic field H*(T), which is connected both with the first-order vortex lattice melting line Tm(H) and with the second-order vortex glass transition line Tg(H) at the multicritical point. The field-driven transition from the ordered Bragg glass to the disordered vortex glass phase is discussed as a possible origin of H*(T).

Nishizaki, Terukazu; Naito, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Norio

1998-11-01

25

Anomalous ferromagnetic behaviour of Y2O3 and CuO nanoparticles in YBa2Cu3Oy superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous ferromagnetic behaviour of the Y2O3 and CuO components in YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) was observed after severe reduction of particle size. The particle size reduction was performed in following way: Y2O3, BaCO3 and CuO were ground for different times to reduce the particle size to the nanoscale. It was found that the superconducting phase could not be obtained without heat treatment, but a weak ferromagnetic behaviour of the mixture was observed at liquid and room temperatures. In order to understand which compound is responsible for this weak ferromagnetism, the Y2O3, BaCO3 and CuO powders were separately ground and M-H loops taken at 290K. The results indicated that both Y2O3 and CuO powders showed weak ferromagnetism, but BaCO3 showed anti ferromagnetism. It is thought that energy transfer to the powder particles by grinding results in severe plastic deformation of the particles to produce dislocations, vacancies and atomic disorder. We discuss then the observations in the context of recent studies of the magnetic properties of nanoscale oxide materials.

Basoglu, M.; Öztürk, K.; Çelik, ?.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Yanmaz, E.

2009-03-01

26

Lifshitz critical point in the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy from high-field Hall effect measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hall coefficient RH of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy was measured in magnetic fields up to 60 T for a hole concentration p from 0.078 to 0.152 in the underdoped regime. In fields large enough to suppress superconductivity, RH(T) is seen to go from positive at high temperature to negative at low temperature, for p>0.08. This change of sign is attributed to the emergence of an electron pocket in the Fermi surface at low temperature. At p<0.08, the normal-state RH(T) remains positive at all temperatures, increasing monotonically as T?0. We attribute the change of behavior across p=0.08 to a Lifshitz transition, namely a change in Fermi-surface topology occurring at a critical concentration pL=0.08, where the electron pocket vanishes. The loss of the high-mobility electron pocket across pL coincides with a tenfold drop in the conductivity at low temperature, revealed in measurements of the electrical resistivity ? at high fields, showing that the so-called metal-insulator crossover of cuprates is in fact driven by a Lifshitz transition. It also coincides with a jump in the in-plane anisotropy of ?, showing that without its electron pocket, the Fermi surface must have strong twofold in-plane anisotropy. These findings are consistent with a Fermi-surface reconstruction caused by a unidirectional spin-density wave or stripe order.

Leboeuf, David; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Vignolle, B.; Sutherland, Mike; Ramshaw, B. J.; Levallois, J.; Daou, R.; Laliberté, Francis; Cyr-Choinière, Olivier; Chang, Johan; Jo, Y. J.; Balicas, L.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Proust, Cyril; Taillefer, Louis

2011-02-01

27

Doping dependent evolution of infrared spectra in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy in terms of two-component optical conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In access to optical spectroscopy of heavily underdoped detwinned YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) crystals, we re-examine the doping dependent evolution of infrared spectra in the CuO2 plane of underdoped YBCO in terms of two-component optical conductivity. The extended Drude model analysis is applied to the two-component conductivity, and the results are compared with experimental data in the pseudogap state. We demonstrate that

Y. S. Lee

2005-01-01

28

Texture control of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The texture control of transparent oxide thin film, the crystalline orientation, is very important, because it is related to the electrical resistivity and the optical transparency. It is known that the crystal orientation could be controlled by varying precursor source, gas flow rate, and deposition temperature. We deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film on aluminoborosilicate glass by spraying water-based

Chang-Yeoul Kim; Doh-Hyung Riu

2011-01-01

29

Interaction between water and fluorine-doped silicon oxide film deposited by PECVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between water and fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films has been studied focusing on the relation between the fluorine bonding configuration in the film and film hygroscopicity. SiOF films with a high fluorine concentration have three IR absorption bands between 985 cm-1 and 920 cm-1. These bands are assumed to be attributable to silicon monofluoride and silicon difluoride sites.

M. Yoshimaru; S. Koizumi; K. Shimokawa; J. Ida

1997-01-01

30

The influence of fluorine doping on the optical properties of diamond-like carbon thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical properties of fluorine doped diamond-like carbon (F:DLC) films deposited by the direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique were studied in detail. Surface morphologies of the F:DLC films were studied by an atomic force microscope, which indicated surface roughness increased with increase in at.% of F in the films. The chemical binding was investigated by X-ray photoelectron

Sk. F. Ahmed; D. Banerjee; K. K. Chattopadhyay

2010-01-01

31

FTIR Characterization of Fluorine Doped Silicon Dioxide Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) thin films have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of SiOF films are deliberated to reveal the structure change of SiO2 and the mechanism of dielectric constant reduction after doping fluorine. When F is doped in SiO2 films, the Si-O stretching absorption peak will have a

Peng-Fei Wang; Shi-Jin Ding; Wei Zhang; Jian-Yun Zhang; Ji-Tao Wang; Wei William Lee

2000-01-01

32

Improvement of epitaxy and crystallinity in YBa 2Cu 3O y thin films grown on silicon with double buffer of ECO\\/YSZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel double buffer of Eu2CuO4 (ECO)\\/YSZ (yttrium-stabilized zirconia) was developed for growing YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin films on Si substrates. In these films, the severe reaction between Si and YBCO is blocked by the first YSZ layer, whereas, the degradation of crystallinity and superconductivity in the grown YBCO is greatly improved by the second ECO layer. Such an ECO material

Ju GAO; Jian YANG

2006-01-01

33

Effect of deposition temperature on the bonding configurations and properties of fluorine doped silicon oxide film  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study, fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films were prepared using a mixture of SiH4, N2O, and CF4 in a conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system at various deposition temperatures. Deposition behaviors are determined by the deposition temperature. Our results show that for temperatures below 300°C the process is surface-reaction-limited controlled, but becomes diffusion-limited when the deposition temperature exceeds

Wei-Lun Lu; Ting-Wei Kuo; Chun-Hsien Huang; Na-Fu Wang; Yu-Zen Tsai; Ming-Wei Wang; Chen-I. Hung; Mau-Phon Houng

2011-01-01

34

FTIR Characterization of Fluorine Doped Silicon Dioxide Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) thin films have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) spectra of SiOF films are deliberated to reveal the structure change of SiO2 and the mechanism of dielectric constant reduction after doping fluorine. When F is doped in SiO2 films, the Si-O stretching absorption peak will have a blue-shift due to increase of the partial charge of the O atom. The FTIR spectra indicate that some Si-OH components in the thin film can be removed after doping fluorine. These changes reduce the ionic and orientational polarization, and result in the reduction in dielectric constant of the film. According to Gaussian fitting, it is found that the Si-F2 bonds will appear in the SiOF film with increase of the fluorine content. The Si-F2 structures are liable to react with water, and cause the same increase of absorbed moisture in the film.

Wang, Peng-Fei; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Wang, Ji-Tao; Lee, Wei William

2000-12-01

35

Plasmon polaritons in the near infrared on fluorine doped tin oxide films.  

PubMed

Here we investigate plasmon polaritons in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films. By fitting reflectance and transmittance measurements as a function of wavelength lambda epsilon [1.0microm, 2.5microm] we derive a Drude dispersion relation of the free electrons in the transparent conducting oxide films. Then we compute the dispersion curves for the bulk and surface modes together with a reflectance map over an extended wavelength region (lambda==>10microm). Although the surface polariton dispersion for a single FTO/air interface when neglecting damping should appear clearly in the plots in the considered region (since it is supposedly far and isolated from other resonances), a complex behaviour can arise. This is due to different characteristic parameters, such as the presence of a finite extinction coefficient, causing an enlargement and backbending of the feature, and the low film thickness, via coupling between the modes from both the glass/FTO and FTO/air interfaces. Taking into account these effects, computations reveal a general behaviour for thin and absorbing conducting films. They predict a thickness dependent transition region between the bulk polariton and the surface plasmon branches as previously reported for indium tin oxide. Finally, attenuated total reflection measurements vs the incidence angle are performed over single wavelengths lines R(theta) (lambda= 0.633,0.830,1.300,1.550microm) and over a two dimensional domain R(theta,lambda) in the near infrared region lambda epsilon [1.45microm, 1.59microm]. Both of these functions exhibit a feature which is attributed to a bulk polariton and not to a surface plasmon polariton on the basis of comparison with spectrophotometer measurements and modeling. The predicted range for the emergence of a surface plasmon polariton is found to be above lambda >or= 2.1microm, while the optimal film thickness for its observation is estimated to be around 200nm. PMID:19506669

Dominici, Lorenzo; Michelotti, Francesco; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

2009-06-01

36

Effect of annealing temperature on electrochemical luminescence properties of nanoporous fluorine-doped tin oxide films.  

PubMed

Nanoporous Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) materials were synthesized by sol-gel combustion method for electrochemical luminescence (ECL) application. The influence of annealing temperature on the structures and morphology of the nanoporous FTO films was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical transmittance and BET specific surface measurements. The naoporous FTO-based ECL cell is composed of FTO glass/nanoporous FTO/Ru(bpy)2+ electrolyte/FTO glass. The peak intensity of emitting light from the cell was obtained at the wavelength of about 615 nm, which corresponds to dark orange color. At 5 V bias, ECL efficiency of the cell using the 550 degrees C annealed FTO was about 975 cd/m2, which is much higher than those of other cells. The result shows that the nanoporous FTO layer was more effective for increasing ECL intensities. The sol-gel combustion method at annealing temperature of 550 degrees C could be employed to synthesize the nanoporous FTO materials with high porosity and ECL performance. PMID:23763189

Joo, Bong-Hyun; Yoon, Seog-Young; Sung, Youl-Moon

2013-04-01

37

Narrow-band filter for the frequency range of 1.9 GHz using double-sided YBCO films on 10-mm-square and 20-mm-square LaAlO3 substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow-band microstrip hairpin-type filters are designed for wireless-communication applications. We have fabricated the high-Tc superconducting filters by patterning YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films deposited on 10-mm-square and 20-mm-square, 0.6-mm-thick LaAlO3 substrates. The form of hairpin-resonator band-pass filter can be thought of as an alternative version of parallel-couple-resonator filter, except that the open-circuited ends of the resonator are folded back. Our 3-pole 10-mm-square

L. M. Wang; Mao-Yuan Horng; Chen-Chung Liu; Jyh-Haur Tsao; H. H. Sung; H. C. Yang; H. E. Horng

2003-01-01

38

Structural, morphological, optical, and nonlinear optical properties of fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass substrates by the chemical spray technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:F) were deposited on sodocalcic glass substrates from an aged solution using a chemical spray technique. The effect of substrate temperature (T S) on the morphological, optical, and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:F thin films was studied. These films were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, optical transmittance, optical fluorescence, and

L. Castañeda; O. G. Morales-Saavedra; D. R. Acosta; A. Maldonado; M. De La L. Olvera

2006-01-01

39

Flux pinning properties of REBa2Cu3Oy thin films with BaZrO3 nano-rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux pinning properties in ErBa2Cu3Oy and YBa2Cu3Oy thin films with BaZrO3 nano-rods prepared by PLD were measured to investigate the flux pinning mechanism. The enhancement of Jc was confirmed by the measurement of the dependence of Jc on magnetic field. The angular dependence of Jc has a broad peak at B||c-axis. This result indicates that the BaZrO3 nano-rods work as the c-axis-correlated pinning centers. The pinning parameter m was evaluated from the electric fields versus current density characteristics and the peak of m appears in the magnetic field dependence. The characteristic behavior of m is caused by the matching of the density of BaZrO3 nano-rods with that of fluxoids. It is found that the relative distribution width of the local critical current density for the ErBa2Cu3Oy film with BaZrO3 nano-rods is smaller than that of the YBa2Cu3Oy films with BaZrO3 nano-rods.

Fujiyoshi, T.; Haruta, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Yonekura, K.; Watanabe, M.; Mukaida, M.; Teranishi, R.; Matsumoto, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichinose, A.; Horii, S.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

2008-09-01

40

Critical current density and grain boundary property of BaFe2(As,P)2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the critical current density (Jc) and the grain boundary property of BaFe2(As,P)2 thin films grown on MgO single crystal or bicrystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. We found a strong correlation between Jc and the Fe/Ba composition ratio, and a very large self-field Jc of 1.2 × 107 A/cm2 at 4.2 K with a thin film for which the Fe/Ba ratio was 2.4. A grain boundary junction was fabricated by growing a thin film on a MgO bicrystal substrate having a misorientation angle of 24°. The inter-grain Jc at 4.0 K recorded 106 A/cm2, which is higher than that of YBa2Cu3Oy. These results demonstrate the high potential of BaFe2(As,P)2 in practical applications and indicate that the necessary condition for in-plane alignment is less severe than YBa2Cu3Oy.

Sakagami, A.; Kawaguchi, T.; Tabuchi, M.; Ujihara, T.; Takeda, Y.; Ikuta, H.

2013-11-01

41

Effect of fluorine-doping on the dielectric strength of thin SiO 2 films formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped thin SiO2 films were formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of tetraethoxysilane and CF 4 and the intrinsic dielectric strength was measured with a self-healing breakdown technique by applying short-duration voltage pulses. The vacuum-ultraviolet absorption and photoluminescence were observed using synchrotron radiation as a photon source. From the decay profile of luminescence, the microscopic structure of the film was

K. Ishii; A. Takami; Y. Ohki

1996-01-01

42

Doping effects of Fe ion on magnetic anisotropy of YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report magnetic alignment of YBa2(Cu1-xFex)3Oy (Fe-doped Y123, x = 0-0.1) powders under modulated rotation magnetic fields (MRFs) and roles of Fe ion as a determination factor of magnetic anisotropy in Y123. The Fe-free and Fe-doped Y123 powder samples aligned in the MRF of 10 T showed two different orientation types of the hard axis in Y123 grains. From an X-ray rocking curve measurement for the magnetically aligned powder samples of the Fe-doped Y123, inplane magnetic anisotropy for Y123 grains with the hard axis parallel to the [1 1 0] direction was found to be higher than that for Y123 grains with the hard axis parallel to the [0 1 0] direction.

Ugawa, T.; Horii, S.; Maeda, T.; Haruta, M.; Shimoyama, J.

2013-11-01

43

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (FO) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (VO) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the VO concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the FO concentration and a decrease in both n and VO concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO2 matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine FO and tin vacancy VSn defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a VSn through the migration of SnSn host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

Akkad, Fikry El; Joseph, Sudeep

2012-07-01

44

Thickness Dependence of Structure and Optical Characteristics in Fluorine-Doped SnO2 Films Grown by Spray Pyrolysis Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting thin films of fluorine-doped SnO2 were deposited on glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique in order to investigate the effect of film thickness. These films were prepared at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The thickness of the samples was between approximately 70 nm and 1.5 ?m. The preferred grain orientation of the films varied with increasing film thickness. The grain size of the surface increased with increasing film thickness. Crystal growth occurred at several stages of film growth. In the first stage, pores were formed in the film. Secondly, the grains grew in two dimensions and completely coved the substrate surface. Finally, the grains became columnar crystals with increasing film thickness. The electrical resistivity decreased with increasing film thickness although this was accompanied by a decrease in optical transmittance. The IR absorption increased despite a constant carrier concentration. Film thickness also increased. This result meant that with a constant high carrier concentration, the increased film thickness enhanced the absorption.

Oshima, Minoru; Yoshino, Kenji

2012-12-01

45

Depth profiling of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) film: Localized fluorine in the topmost thin layer can enhance the non-thrombogenic properties of F-DLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) has recently drawn a great deal of attention as a more non-thrombogenic coating than conventional DLC for blood-contacting medical devices. We conducted quantitative depth profiling of F-DLC film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the effects of fluorine and fluorine distribution in F-DLC film in connection with the prevention of surface blood adhesion.

Terumitsu Hasebe; S. Nagashima; Aki Kamijo; Taichi Yoshimura; Tetsuya Ishimaru; Yukihiro Yoshimoto; Satoshi Yohena; Hideyuki Kodama; Atsushi Hotta; Koki Takahashi; Tetsuya Suzuki

2007-01-01

46

The Effect of Hydrogen Addition on the Fluorine Doping Level of SiOF Films Prepared by Remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using SiF4Based Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorinated silicon dioxide films (SiOF) have been prepared by high-density remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), oxygen and helium feedstock gas mixture at substrate temperature as low as 175°C. Addition of hydrogen has been found to control the fluorine doping level of the SiOF films over a wide range of fluorine concentrations while the SiF4-to-O2 flow rate

Vladimir Pankov; Juan Carlos Alonso; Armando Ortiz

1998-01-01

47

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2012-12-05

48

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

49

The study of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (FSG) films property after thermal alloy for different film deposition temperature for sub-0.18 um logic yield improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

As feature size shrinks to the deep sub-micron regime, the RC delay of metal interconnection will increase and limit the performance of high-speed devices. To address this problem, fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) has been introduced in advanced IMD applications. Many deposition methods have been studied, including PECVD and HDP CVD. HDP CVD was finally applied to most deep sub-micron processes

S. A. Wu; Y. K. Wang; Y. Cheng; J. K. Wang; G. C. Wang; M. H. Yo; C. T. Lee; T. Lu; S. Wang; J. Li; Chenson Lai

2000-01-01

50

Low Dielectric Constant Interlayer Using Fluorine-Doped Silicon Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new interlayer dielectric film using fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) for multilevel interconnection of very large scale integration (VLSI) has been fabricated. The film is deposited by a simple technique, which is hexafluoroethane ( C2F6) addition to conventional tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-based plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). Si F bond formation in the film is detected by chemical bonding structural studies using

Takashi Usami; Kimiaki Shimokawa; Masaki Yoshimaru

1994-01-01

51

The effect of fluorine doping and temperature on the field emission from diamond-like carbon films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature and fluorine concentration on the field emission properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were studied in detail. The atomic percentage of fluorine in the films was varied from 0 to 15.3at.% as measured from energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays. The chemical bindings were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Surface morphologies of the F:DLC films were studied

Sk F Ahmed; M K Mitra; K K Chattopadhyay

2007-01-01

52

The effect of fluorine doping and temperature on the field emission from diamond-like carbon films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature and fluorine concentration on the field emission properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were studied in detail. The atomic percentage of fluorine in the films was varied from 0 to 15.3 at.% as measured from energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays. The chemical bindings were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Surface morphologies of the F:DLC films were

Sk F. Ahmed; M. K. Mitra; K. K. Chattopadhyay

2007-01-01

53

Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the procedure by Sawada et al. (Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 46), high-quality SnO2:F films were grown on glass substrates at relatively low temperatures of 325–340°C by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using a perfume atomizer for cosmetics use. Even though the substrate temperature is low, as-deposited films show a high optical transmittance of 92% in the visible range, a

Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro

2004-01-01

54

Conductivity enhancement by fluorine doping in boron-doped ZnO thin films deposited by the electrospraying method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO thin films co-doped with boron and fluorine (B, F-ZnO) were deposited by the electrospraying method onto a heated glass substrate. The characteristics of the films were investigated as a function of dopant concentrations in the solution. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that all the prepared films were polycrystalline in nature and exhibited the ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along the (002) crystal plane. In addition, shift in the XRD patterns was observed and the crystal orientation was changed at a certain amount of fluorine (>6 at%) in the starting solution. Analyses of X-ray diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive patterns demonstrate that fluorine and boron have been successfully doped into the ZnO thin films. Like these studies, the scanning electron micrographs showed that the grain size tends to decrease by the addition of fluorine. It was also observed that 2 at% boron and 6 at% fluorine was the optimal amount in order to achieve the minimum resistivity and maximum transmittance. The minimum value of resistivity of about 1.01×10-4 ? cm and high optical transmittance of 98% in the visible region were obtained for 2 at% boron and 6 at% fluorine co-doped ZnO films. Moreover, the present values of resistivities are closest to the lowest resistivity values among the doped ZnO films and also closer to the indium tin oxide (ITO) resistivities that were previously reported. We confirmed that the boron and fluorine atoms substitution in the ZnO lattice imparts positive effects in terms of enhancing the free carrier concentration and density of films, which will further improve the electrical and optical properties. The films produced at optimum conditions are suitable for optical and electrical applications owing to their low resistivity and high optical transmittance in the visible range.

Mahmood, Khalid; Park, Seung Bin

2012-12-01

55

The Effect of Hydrogen Addition on the Fluorine Doping Level of SiOF Films Prepared by Remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using SiF4-Based Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorinated silicon dioxide films (SiOF) have been prepared by high-density remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), oxygen and helium feedstock gas mixture at substrate temperature as low as 175°C. Addition of hydrogen has been found to control the fluorine doping level of the SiOF films over a wide range of fluorine concentrations while the SiF4-to-O2 flow rate ratio is kept constant. It has been confirmed that hydrogen addition does not lead to the incorporation of hydrogen in detectable quantities into the grown film with Si Fx bond concentrations in the range of 0.5 4.9 at.% because of effective mutual scavenging behavior of fluorine and hydrogen in the entire range of hydrogen flow rates used. The decrease in the refractive index of the SiOF films from 1.463 to 1.410 and the increase in Si O Si bonding angles from about 137° to about 148° were found to be approximately linear with the increase in fluorine concentration. The hydrogen added to the process gas mixture has been found to play an active role in the film formation process affecting both the surface reactions and properties of the obtained SiOF films.

Pankov, Vladimir; Alonso, Juan; Ortiz, Armando

1998-11-01

56

Low Dielectric Constant Interlayer Using Fluorine-Doped Silicon Oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new interlayer dielectric film using fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) for multilevel interconnection of very large scale integration (VLSI) has been fabricated. The film is deposited by a simple technique, which is hexafluoroethane ( C2F6) addition to conventional tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-based plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). Si F bond formation in the film is detected by chemical bonding structural studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Low dielectric constants caused by Si F bond formation and good gap-filling ability due to in situ etching by C2F6 plasma are obtained. Therefore, SiOF film has very high applicability as an interlayer dielectric film for advanced VLSI devices.

Usami, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kimiaki; Yoshimaru, Masaki

1994-01-01

57

High critical current density and its magnetic fields dependence in (Sm,Eu,Gd)Ba2Cu3Oy films by using multiple targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt textured bulks of (Sm0.33Eu0.33Gd0.33)Ba2Cu3Oy (SEG123) show high Jc compared with that of YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123), because of nanoscopic network consisting of crossing rare earth (RE) compositional stripes. In this study, we fabricated SEG123 films by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates and evaluated the Jc and Tc in magnetic field. Jc of the SEG123 film was typically 1.4 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field. Jc in self-field of SEG123, Y123 and Sm123 films were almost the same value, however, Jc in magnetic fields showed a notable difference. The Jc of SEG123 film were 62.7 kA/cm2 at 5 T. We conclude that the Jc in magnetic fields were improved by RE-rich particle made of RE/Ba substitution acting as 3-dimensional pinning centers. Moreover we have confirmed that the superconducting properties changes by varying Sm, Eu and Gd composition ratio.

Takahashi, Yuya; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi; Ichinose, Ataru; Matsumoto, Kaname

2013-01-01

58

Inductive measurement of in-field critical current density of YBCO thin film on a SrTiO3 bicrystal substrate using the third harmonic voltage method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution and the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density Jc for a YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin film deposited on a SrTiO3 (STO) bicrystal substrate have been investigated using the third harmonic voltage method. When a pick-up coil is mounted on the area without a crystal grain-boundary, the third harmonic voltage V3 increases monotonically with increasing coil current I0 over a certain threshold value. On the other hand, when the pick-up coil is mounted on the area with a crystal grain-boundary, the V3-I0 curve shows a strange behavior. However, the V3-I0 curves show a monotonic increase when a magnetic field over 0.07 T is applied to the YBCO thin film, because the shielding current hardly flows across the crystal grain-boundary in the large magnetic field. The magnetic field dependence of Jc is also measured using the four-probe method to clarify the strange behavior of the V3-I0 curve in the third harmonic voltage method.

Okita, K.; Hatanaka, Y.; Adachi, A.; Sueyoshi, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.

2011-12-01

59

Ethylene Glycol Assisted Synthesis of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Nanorods Using Improved Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped tin oxide nanorod transparent thin films were fabricated with SnCl4\\Cdot5H2O, NH4F, and ethylene glycol (EG) using an improved spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The fabricated nanorods showed a low resistance of 15.3 ?/sq and a good transparency of 70.8%. The nanorods have a higher surface area than the conventionally used thin films.

Liyanage, Devinda; Bandara, Herath Mudiyanselage Navaratne; Jayaweera, Viraj; Murakami, Kenji

2013-08-01

60

Deposition damage evaluation of fluorine doped silicon oxide using simple damage monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arcing defect, generated during inter-metallic dielectric (IMD) fluorine doped silicon oxide (SiOF) film deposition, is fatal damage which occurs during the plasma enhanced deposition process. After IMD SiOF film deposition on the metal patterned wafer of logic device structure, the arcing defect is monitored using the KLA™ defect detecting tool. From KLA™ tool, it can be seen that the

Dong-Hwan Kim; Beomjun Kim; Jeongyun Lee; Joon-Tae Song

2010-01-01

61

Effects of plasma treatment on the precipitation of fluorine-doped silicon oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitates were observed on the surface of fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films. These precipitates are flake-type and hexagonal in shape, showing up rapidly after initiation, and clustered at the wafer center. Post-deposition N2O plasma treatment (post-plasma treatment) was found to be most effective in inhibiting the appearance of precipitates. In this paper, effects of post-deposition N2O plasma treatment on the

Jun Wu; Ying-Lang Wang; Cheng-Tzu Kuo

2008-01-01

62

Effect of deposition temperature on thermal stability in high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition fluorine-doped silicon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stability of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide films deposited by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature were investigated in this study. Both thermal desorption spectrum and annealing test results show that SiOF films deposited above 400 °C have better thermal stability. Furnace annealing data indicate that non -Si-F- bonding fluorine does exist in low-deposition-temperature SiOF films.

Y. L. Cheng; Y. L. Wang; H. W. Chen; J. L. Lan; C. P. Liu; S. A. Wu; Y. L. Wu; K. Y. Lo; M. S. Feng

2004-01-01

63

Fluorine doping into diamond-like carbon coatings inhibits protein adsorption and platelet activation.  

PubMed

The first major event when a medical device comes in contact with blood is the adsorption of plasma proteins. Protein adsorption on the material surface leads to the activation of the blood coagulation cascade and the inflammatory process, which impair the lifetime of the material. Various efforts have been made to minimize protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Recently, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has received much attention because of their antithrombogenicity. We recently reported that coating silicon substrates with fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) drastically suppresses platelet adhesion and activation. Here, we evaluated the protein adsorption on the material surfaces and clarified the relationship between protein adsorption and platelet behaviors, using polycarbonate and DLC- or F-DLC-coated polycarbonate. The adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen were assessed using a colorimetric protein assay, and platelet adhesion and activation were examined using a differential interference contrast microscope. A higher ratio of albumin to fibrinogen adsorption was observed on F-DLC than on DLC and polycarbonate films, indicating that the F-DLC film should prevent thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion and activation on the F-DLC films were more strongly suppressed as the amount of fluorine doping was increased. These results show that the F-DLC coating may be useful for blood-contacting devices. PMID:17600326

Hasebe, Terumitsu; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Okazaki, Yuko; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

2007-12-15

64

Simulations of experimental conductance spectra of YBa2Cu3Oy junctions: Role of a long d-wave decay length and a small is component in the pair potential near the interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental conductance spectra of superconductor normal metal superconductor and superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, were simulated by an extended BTK model, where S is either a d-wave or d+is-wave superconductor. The model assumes a pure d wave in the bulk and coexistence of d and is near the interface. This implies that the bulk d-wave order parameter decays spatially near the interface with a typical “decay length.” We found that a relatively large decay length of the order of 10?0 20?0 together with a small is component, can explain many peculiarities of the experimental conductance spectra. The good agreement of the simulation results with the experimental data, supports a scenario in which the experimentally observed is component is a surface property of the order parameter in the high-temperature superconductors.

Lubimova, I.; Koren, G.

2003-12-01

65

Study of the material properties and suitability of plasma-deposited fluorine-doped silicon dioxides for low dielectric constant interlevel dielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for back-end interconnection technology as device geometries shrink is the development of low dielectric constant materials with good gap-filling properties that are suitable for microelectronics manufacturing. Recently, there has been much interest in fluorine-doped silicon dioxides (SiOF) as such a material. The advantages of a silicon dioxide based film from an integration standpoint make these films very

V. L. Shannon; M. Z. Karim

1995-01-01

66

Effect of deposition temperature on thermal stability in high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition fluorine-doped silicon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal stability of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide films deposited by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature were investigated in this study. Both thermal desorption spectrum and annealing test results show that SiOF films deposited above 400 °C have better thermal stability. Furnace annealing data indicate that non -Si-F- bonding fluorine does exist in low-deposition-temperature SiOF films. Furthermore, secondary-ion mass spectrometer results also reveal that the fluorine in SiOF films with a lower-deposition temperature is easily diffused out and turned into the underlayer, which results in less thermally stable SiOF films. Moreover, short-loop simulation results have been subsequently tested and it was concluded that the deposition temperature of the SiOF film is extremely important for thermal stability. .

Cheng, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Chen, H. W.; Lan, J. L.; Liu, C. P.; Wu, S. A.; Wu, Y. L.; Lo, K. Y.; Feng, M. S.

2004-05-01

67

Fluorine doped-tin oxide prepared using spray method for dye sensitized solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by spray deposition method. FTO films were prepared in different sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq. X-ray diffractograms showed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. The prepared FTO film have an average transmittance of 80% in the visible region (?=400-800 nm). These FTO films were then used to fabricate Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The working electrode was made from TiO2 paste using doctor blade technique. DSSC samples were characterized using solar simulator under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). It is found that the efficiency of DSSC was much affected by sheet resistance of FTO film. The efficiency of DCCS was 2.32, 2.4, 1.1 and 0.97 (%) for the FTO sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq, respectively. It is shown that the optimum DSSC efficiency was made from FTO with sheet resistance 12.1 ?/sq.

Widiyandari, Hendri; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Suyitno; Hidayanto, Eko

2013-09-01

68

Influence of fluorine doping on SiO x F y films prepared from a TEOS\\/O 2\\/CF 4 mixture using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of F incorporation into the SiO2 matrix was studied during SiOF film deposition using a conventional r.f. plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique from a mixture of TEOS\\/O2\\/CF4. With increasing CF4 flow rate from 0 to 70 sccm, the fluorine content in the film varied from 0 to 5.5 at.% and the refractive index decreased from 1.46 to 1.41.

Sang-Hun Jeong; Junji Nishii; Hyuk-Ryul Park; Jae-Keun Kim; Byung-Teak Lee

2003-01-01

69

Comparison of characteristics of fluorine doped zinc and gallium tin oxide composite thin films deposited on stainless steel 316 bipolar plate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.  

PubMed

In order to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plates currently used for the PEMFC stack, coated SUS 316 was employed. As a metallic bipolar plate, coated SUS 316 can provide higher mechanical strength, better durability to shocks and vibration, less permeability, improved thermal and bulk electrical conductivity, as well as being thinner and lighter. To enhance the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of SUS 316, the deposition of GTO:F and ZTO:F composite films was carried out by ECR-MOCVD. The surface morphology of the films consisted of tiny elliptically shaped grains with a thickness of 1 microm. The corrosion current for GTO:F was 0.13 Acm(-2) which was much lower than that of bare SUS 316 (50.16 Acm(-2)). The GTO:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The GTO:F coated film exhibited the highest cell voltage and power density due to its lower ICR values. PMID:22097519

Park, Jihun; Hudaya, Chairul; Lee, Joong Kee

2011-09-01

70

Use of fluorine-doped silicon oxide for temperature compensation of radio frequency surface acoustic wave devices.  

PubMed

This paper investigates acoustic properties, including the temperature coefficient of elasticity (TCE), of fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films and proposes the application of the films to the temperature compensation of RF SAW devices. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), SiOF films were expected to possess good TCE properties. We fabricated a series of SAW devices using the SiOF-overlay/Cu-grating/LiNbO(3)-substrate structure, and evaluated their performance. The experiments showed that the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) increases with the fluorine content r, as we expected from the FT-IR measurement. This means that the Si-O-Si atomic structure measurable by the FT-IR governs the TCE behavior of SiO(2)-based films even when the dopant is added. In comparison with pure SiO(2) with the film thickness h of 0.3 wavelengths (?), TCF was improved by 7.7 ppm/°C without deterioration of the effective electromechanical coupling factor K2 when r = 3.8 atomic % and h = 0.28?. Fluorine inclusion did not obviously influence the resonators' Q factors when r < 8.8 atomic %. PMID:22297905

Matsuda, Satoru; Hara, Motoaki; Miura, Michio; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Satoh, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

2012-01-01

71

Fabrication of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon stamps for UV nanoimprint lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) stamps with sub-100 nm line patterns were fabricated using a direct etching method. These were applied successfully to ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography without requiring an anti-adhesion layer coating. Tests were performed to determine the optimum fluorine concentration for the F-DLC stamps. The ideal stamp material consisted of 25 at.% F-DLC with a contact angle of 85°, UV transmittance of 16.4-26.8%, and hardness of 4.5 GPa. The O2 plasma etch rate of the DLC was increased considerably by the fluorine doping, making it comparable to the etch rate of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Thus, only PMMA was used as the etch mask in the fabrication of the stamps.

Altun, A. O.; Jeong, J. H.; Rha, J. J.; Choi, D. G.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, E. S.

2006-09-01

72

Fabrication of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon stamps for UV nanoimprint lithography.  

PubMed

Two fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) stamps with sub-100 nm line patterns were fabricated using a direct etching method. These were applied successfully to ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography without requiring an anti-adhesion layer coating. Tests were performed to determine the optimum fluorine concentration for the F-DLC stamps. The ideal stamp material consisted of 25 at.% F-DLC with a contact angle of 85°, UV transmittance of 16.4-26.8%, and hardness of 4.5 GPa. The O(2) plasma etch rate of the DLC was increased considerably by the fluorine doping, making it comparable to the etch rate of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Thus, only PMMA was used as the etch mask in the fabrication of the stamps. PMID:21727593

Altun, A O; Jeong, J H; Rha, J J; Choi, D G; Kim, K D; Lee, E S

2006-08-30

73

Fabrication of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon stamps for UV nanoimprint lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) stamps with sub-100 nm line patterns were fabricated using a direct etching method. These were applied successfully to ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography without requiring an anti-adhesion layer coating. Tests were performed to determine the optimum fluorine concentration for the F-DLC stamps. The ideal stamp material consisted of 25 at.% F-DLC with a contact angle of

A O Altun; J H Jeong; J J Rha; D G Choi; K D Kim; E S Lee

2006-01-01

74

Microwave-electrochemical formation of colloidal zinc oxide at fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal ZnO is obtained during microwave-enhanced electrochemical deposition experiments from an aqueous solution containing 0 1 M Zn(NO(3))(2) and 0 02 M H(2)O(2) via repetitive negative going potential cycles from 03 to 0 8 V vs SCE The effects of temperature and temperature gradients on ZnO electro formation at fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes are investigated with both a

Liza Rassaei; Robben Jaber; Stephen E. Flower; Karen J. Edler; Richard G. Compton; Tony D. James; Frank Marken

2010-01-01

75

High-temperature effects in fluorine-doped, fused synthetic silica fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects caused by exposure of large-core, fluorine-doped, step-index silica optical fibers to high temperatures were studied experimentally in controlled laboratory conditions. A fiber was located partially inside a temperature-controlled electric tube furnace and irradiated from the end by a light source. The light source was either an incandescent halogen lamp or a blackbody radiator. The influence of fiber temperature on

Risto Oikari; Toni Laurila; Rolf Hernberg

1997-01-01

76

Precipitates formation and its impact on the structure of plasma-deposited fluorinated silicon oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition would generate precipitates on the film surface during exposure to air. The chemical and structural changes of SiOF films during the precipitation process were investigated under various fluorine-doping concentrations in SiOF films. Film composition depth profiles characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) indicate uneven fluorine distribution within

Jun Wu; Ying-Lang Wang; Cheng-Tzu Kuo

2006-01-01

77

Crystal growth of YBCO coated conductors by TFA–MOD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal growth mechanism of TFA (trifluoroacetates)–MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3Oy has been investigated to understand the process for higher production rates of the conversion process. YBCO films were prepared by TFA–MOD on CeO2\\/Gd2Zr2O7\\/Hastelloy C276 substrates. The growth rates of YBCO derived from Y:Ba:Cu=1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3 starting solutions were investigated by XRD and TEM analyses. YBCO growth proceeds in

M. Yoshizumi; T. Nakanishi; J. Matsuda; K. Nakaoka; Y. Sutoh; T. Izumi; Y. Shiohara

2008-01-01

78

Electrochemical serotonin monitoring of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide by predeposition of self-assembled 4-pyridylporphyrin.  

PubMed

A 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (TPyP)-modified self-assembled functional layer was prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. We employed a bifunctional molecule, 3-iodopropionate (3IP), to covalently bind TPyP to the FTO substrate. The 3IP-monolayered FTO and the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Compared to conventional electropolymerized poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on bare FTO, the PEDOT:PSS film on the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO showed better sensitivity and selectivity in monitoring serotonin in the presence of high concentrations of interfering agents such as ascorbic acid, urea, d-(+)-glucose, epinephrine, and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Both PEDOT:PSS films on the bare FTO and the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO showed electrocatalytic effects in serotonin detection, and only the TPyP-3IP-based PEDOT:PSS film acted as a pH resistant buffer layer in the selective detection of serotonin. PMID:24125701

Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Sangsig; Ki Min, Nam; Jin, Joon-Hyung

2013-09-03

79

Effect of fluorine doping on phase formation and properties of Bi(Pb)-2223 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting ceramics of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3OyFx (x = 0-0.6) are prepared in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized. The study shows that the melting point of the samples decreases as fluorine content increases. As a consequence, the grain size increases with the doping level and for x = 0.6, the sample is completely deformed and presents a concave shape making impossible the measurements on it. The Vickers microhardness reaches its maximum for x = 0.2. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction results reveals that all the samples are composed of only Bi(Pb)-2212 and Bi(Pb)-2223 phases. The highest proportion of the high Tc phase (Bi(Pb)-2223) is also observed for x = 0.2 and is about 67.32%. The refinement of cell parameters is done by considering the structural modulation. The results show that the doping leads to a reduction of cell volume as well as the a axis component of modulation. From resistivity versus temperature measurements, it is shown that the doped phases exhibit higher onset critical transition temperatures than the undoped one. The residual resistivity increases with fluorine content suggesting that the doping introduces structural defects and disorder into the samples. The obtained critical current density at 77 K under zero magnetic field also increases with fluorine doping.

Amira, A.; Saoudel, A.; Boudjadja, Y.; Amirouche, L.; Mahamdioua, N.; Varilci, A.; Akdogan, M.; Terzioglu, C.; Mosbah, M. F.

2011-12-01

80

Ytterbium-doped all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica pump cladding.  

PubMed

All glass leakage channel fibers have been demonstrated to be a potential practical solution for power scaling in fiber lasers beyond the nonlinear limits in conventional large mode area fibers. The all glass nature with absence of any air holes is especially useful for allowing the fibers to be used and fabricated much like conventional fibers. Previously, double clad active all glass leakage channel fibers used low index polymer as a pump guide with the drawbacks of being less reliable at high pump powers and not being able to change fiber outer diameter independent of pump guide dimension. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, ytterbium-doped double clad all glass leakage channel fibers with highly fluorine-doped silica as pump cladding. The new all glass leakage channel fibers have no polymer in the pump path and have independent control of fiber outer diameters and pump cladding dimension, and, therefore, enable designs with smaller pump guide for high pump absorption and, at the same time, with large fiber diameters to minimize micro and macro bending effects, a much desired features for large core fibers where intermodal coupling can be an issue due to a much increased mode density. An ytterbium-doped double clad PM fiber with core diameter of 80 microm is also reported, which can be coiled in 76 cm diameter coils. PMID:19466146

Dong, Liang; McKay, Hugh A; Fu, Libin; Ohta, Michiharu; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Suzuki, Shigeru; Fermann, Martin E

2009-05-25

81

Human-Urine Diabetes Assay and In Vivo Rat Bladder Assay Using a Fluorine-Doped Carbon Nanotube Catheter Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of a novel biosensor consisting of a fluorine-doped carbon nanotube (FCN) was explored for use in cyclic voltammetric\\u000a (CV) and square-wave stripping voltammetric (SW) glucose assay. In the experiment that was carried out in this study, analytical\\u000a optimum conditions were attained at the low detection limit (S\\/N3) of 0.6 ?g\\/L (3.3 × 10?9 M). In the 0.1 mg\\/L spike, the relative standard deviation

Suw Young Ly; Jin Hui Lee

2009-01-01

82

Optical properties of fluorine-doped SnO2 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin layers of conducting glass (SnO2:F) of 3-ohm sheet resistance were chemically deposited on borosilicate glass slides. Conducting glass showed high transparency around solar maxima (0.5 micron) and low reflectivity compared with silicon. In an optical investigation of the conducting glass at room temperature, a direct allowed transition at 4.13 eV, and an indirect allowed transition at 2.69 eV together with an assisting phonon of 0.085 eV were observed.

Abass, A. K.; Mohammad, M. T.

1986-03-01

83

AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using fluorine-doped indium tin oxide electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, improved electrical and optical properties of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using fluorine-doped indium tin oxide (F-ITO) electrodes are reported. F-doping was found to increase the work function as well as the energy bandgap of the ITO and, thereby, reduce the Shottky barrier height in contact with p-(Al)GaN. As a result, the optical transmittance increased from 79.7% to 86.9% at 380 nm, while the specific contact resistance decreased from 1.04 × 10-3 ?.cm2 to 9.12 × 10-4 ?.cm2 after F-doping, which led to an increase in the output power from 2.41 mW to 5.99 mW.

Ju Chae, Dong; Yoon Kim, Dong; Geun Kim, Tae; Mo Sung, Yun; Doeck Kim, Moon

2012-02-01

84

Structural and magneto-electrical properties of fluorine doped La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 perovskite manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of fluorine doping for oxygen in La0.7Ca0.3MnOyFx (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) system has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, resistivity and susceptibility measurements. The oxygen content of the samples was determined by a redox back titration method and the Rietveld refinement was used to characterize structurally the manganites. The metal-insulator transition temperature TMI of all samples is found to increase by fluorine doping. In order to understand the conduction mechanism, the phenomenological percolation approach which depends on the phase segregation of ferromagnetic clusters and paramagnetic insulating regions was used.

Polat Altintas, Sevgi; Mahamdioua, Nabil; Terzioglu, Cabir; Amira, Abderrezak

2013-03-01

85

Use of fluorine-doped tin oxide instead of indium tin oxide in highly efficient air-fabricated inverted polymer solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability and efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) were improved using thermally stable fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the bottom electrode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and TiO2 as the buffer layers. The TiO2 layer between FTO and the P3HT:PCBM active layer improved the interface characteristics for a better charge transfer. The PEDOT:PSS layer retarded the oxygen diffusion to the active

Woon-Hyuk Baek; Mijung Choi; Tae-Sik Yoon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim

2010-01-01

86

Superconductivity and phase diagram in iron-based arsenic-oxides ReFeAsO1?? (Re = rare-earth metal) without fluorine doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a new class of superconductors prepared by high-pressure synthesis in the quaternary family ReFeAsO1?? (Re=Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce, La) without fluorine doping. The onset superconducting critical temperature (Tc) in these compounds increases with the reduction of the Re atom size, and the highest Tc obtained so far is 55 K in SmFeAsO1??. For the NdFeAsO1?? compound with

Zhi-An Ren; Guang-Can Che; Xiao-Li Dong; Jie Yang; Wei Lu; Wei Yi; Xiao-Li Shen; Zheng-Cai Li; Li-Ling Sun; Fang Zhou; Zhong-Xian Zhao

2008-01-01

87

Fourier transformation infrared spectrum studies on the role of fluorine in SnO2:F films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter we employed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study fluorine-doped SnO2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis. The role of oxygen vacancy and substitution of fluorine for oxygen are demonstrated by FTIR. It is found that at low doping levels, fluorine ions prefer to occupy oxygen positions in SnO2 lattice. While beyond a certain doping level, fluorine ions start to occupy interstitial positions, which has a negative effect on carrier concentration that, in turn, affects the infrared reflectivity of SnO2 films. FTIR also shows the increase of the disorder of SnO2 films with increasing fluorine doping.

Zhang, B.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, J. X.; Cai, W.

2011-01-01

88

Magnetic flux dynamics in a hexagonal network of superconducting islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeycomb arrays (cells ~ 50 ?m in size) were patterned in a YBa2Cu3Oy thin film in order to model magnetization and transport current processes in granular materials. The samples were studied magnetically and magneto-optically (MO). The induced inter-granular currents exhibited an anomaly similar to that observed in Bi-based tapes. The magneto-optical observation showed a flux penetration/reversal process consisting of two Bean critical states, of inter- and intra-granular screening currents. The rate of flux penetration into the inter-granular space was an inversal function of the bridge width and was significantly faster than penetration into the grains. The grain magnetization was nonuniform and asymmetrical. Although grains stood up to maximum field of 57.7 mT incompletely penetrated, after the field reversal the opposite magnetic flux fully penetrated the grains far before reaching remnant state.

Jirsa, Milos; Yurchenko, Vitaliy; Bobyl, Alexander V.; Johansen, Tom H.; Shantsev, Daniel V.; Wördenweber, Roger

2004-05-01

89

Vortex liquid-glass transition up to 60 T in nanoengineered coated conductors grown by metal organic deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher irreversibility fields (Hirr) increase the upper bound for applications of superconductors and could expand market penetration. We present the studies in pulsed field (up to 65 T) of superconducting films on flexible metal substrates. We investigate the effect of disorder on Hirr at different field orientations for YBa2Cu3Oy and BaZrO3-nanoparticle-dispersed Y0.77Gd0.33Ba2Cu3Oy (YGdBCO+BZO). We find that Hirr is higher for YGdBCO+BZO along the c-axis and at intermediate orientations. The vortex melting transition is investigated using the resistive transition's critical exponent. The behavior can be explained by the mixed pinning landscape from randomly distributed BZO nanoparticles and c-axis correlated disorder.

Miura, M.; Baily, S. A.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Willis, J. O.; Marken, K.; Izumi, T.; Tanabe, K.; Shiohara, Y.

2010-02-01

90

Fluorine-doped SiO 2 and fluorocarbon low- k dielectrics investigated by SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations of the incorporation of fluorine into thin SiO 2 films adapted as low- k dielectrics in the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. The insulating SiOF oxides with the thickness ranging from 1 up to 15 nm have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and/or by reactive ion etching (RIE) methods on <1 0 0> oriented p-Si substrates with the use of either CF 4 or CHF 3 source of the plasma. SIMS experiments were performed using ultra-low energy (1 keV) argon ion beam and quadrupole mass analyzer. Depth profiles of the resulting dielectric films illustrate: (i) the incorporation of F into the SiO 2 matrix is accomplished by either the CHF 3 or CF 4 plasmas; (ii) no etching of SiO 2 matrix is observed by using of CHF 3; (iii) CHF 3 is a source of fluorocarbon film deposition on top of the SiO 2 that prevents the SiO 2 etching; and (iv) fluorine quantifications done based on implantation criteria give the maximum concentrations within the films from 6.0 × 10 18 to 2.4 × 10 20 atoms/cm 3 depending on the different fluoridation conditions. The F concentration in SiO 2 increases with the r.f. power of CF 4 or with decreasing a gas pressure of CHF 3 plasma.

Cwil, M.; Kalisz, M.; Konarski, P.

2008-12-01

91

Fluorine-doped SiO 2 and fluorocarbon low- k dielectrics investigated by SIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations of the incorporation of fluorine into thin SiO2 films adapted as low-k dielectrics in the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices.The insulating SiOF oxides with the thickness ranging from 1 up to 15nm have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and\\/or by reactive ion etching (RIE) methods on ?100? oriented

M. Cwil; M. Kalisz; P. Konarski

2008-01-01

92

Growth and characterisation of electrodeposited ZnO thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical method has been used to deposit zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films from aqueous zinc nitrate solution at 80 °C onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. ZnO thin films were grown between ? 0.900 and ? 1.025 V vs Ag\\/AgCl as established by voltammogram. Characterisation of ZnO films was carried out for both as-deposited and annealed films in order to

J. S. Wellings; N. B. Chaure; S. N. Heavens; I. M. Dharmadasa

2008-01-01

93

Influence of Gas Desorption from SiOF Film Prepared by High-Density-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition upon TiN\\/Ti Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of gas desorption from fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) film prepared by high-density-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) upon TiN\\/Ti film is investigated. In this investigation, two types of SiOF films, containing 14% and 6% fluorine atoms, are compared with regard to gas desorption and diffusion of fluorine, hydrogen and oxygen atoms into TiN\\/Ti film on SiOF film, as-deposited on

Takahiro Tamura; Junro Sakai; Makoto Satoh

1999-01-01

94

Low dielectric constant, fluorine-doped SiO{sub 2} for intermetal dielectric  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking device geometry has produced a need for lower dielectric constant materials for intermetal dielectric to reduce circuit RC time constants and intertrace {open_quote}{open_quote}cross-talk{close_quote}{close_quote} capacitance and reduce power consumption at high frequency. One such material is F-doped SiO{sub 2}. This study utilized an electron cyclotron resonance high-density oxygen plasma source to produce SiO{sub 2} from a mixture of SiH{sub 4} and SiF{sub 4}, O{sub 2}, and Ar. The total silicon gas flow was held constant and the ratio of SiH{sub 4} to SiF{sub 4} was varied from 0{percent} to 100{percent}. The fluorine content was measured using nuclear resonance analysis (NRA) with the reaction {sup 19}F({ital p},{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O. A comparison of the NRA data and the ratio of the Fourier transform infrared Si{endash}F absorbance near 934 cm{sup {minus}1} to the Si{endash}O peak near 1080 cm{sup {minus}1} gives a proportionality constant of 144. The refractive index and dielectric constant were determined as a function of fluorine content. The dielectric constant decreased linearly from 4.0 at zero F to 3.55 at 10.5 at.{percent} F and the refractive index decreased from 1.474 to 1.417. Film stress, thermal stability, moisture absorption, and electrical breakdown were also measured. Film stress decreased from 150 to 70 MPa compressive as the F content increased. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

Denison, D.R. [Lam Research, Fremont, California 94538 (United States); Barbour, J.C.; Burkhart, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1996-05-01

95

Electrochromism in spray deposited iridium oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochromic iridium oxide thin films were deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates from an aqueous iridium chloride solution by pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The as-deposited samples were X-ray amorphous. The electrochromic properties of thin films were studied in an aqueous electrolyte (0.5N H2SO4) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and spectrophotometry. Iridium oxide films show pronounced anodic

P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale

2005-01-01

96

Nitrogen plasma treatment of fluorine-doped tin oxide for enhancement of photo-carrier collection in amorphous Si solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen plasma treatment was performed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) front electrodes, and its impact on the performance of pin type amorphous Si (a-Si) solar cells was investigated. Nitrogen plasma treatment reverses the surface band bending of SnO2:F from accumulation to depletion, thus in turn reversing the band bending of the p type amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC) window layer. The reversal of band bending leads to the collection of carriers generated in p-a-SiC, and quantum efficiency in the short wavelength regime is thereby enhanced. On the other hand, surface depletion of SnO2:F causes a reduction of the diode built-in voltage and increased series resistance, which could degrade the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), the degradation of which is strongly affected by the deposition time of p-a-SiC.

Baik, Seung Jae; Lim, Koeng Su

2011-04-01

97

Electrodeposition and characterization of ZnSe semiconductor thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, results on the preparation and characterization of ZnSe thin films obtained by electrodeposition are presented. Voltammetric curves were recorded in order to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the Zn+2\\/SeO2 system on different substrates. Thin films were deposited potentiostatically from an unstirred, deareated aqueous solution onto titanium, glass substrates coated with fluorine doped tin oxide and ITO glass

G Riveros; H Gómez; R Henr??quez; R Schrebler; R. E Marotti; E. A Dalchiele

2001-01-01

98

Fabrication of mesoporous titania aerogel film via supercritical drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a supercritical drying method, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass was coated with a mesoporous titania aerogel film\\u000a prepared from titania sols with viscosity between 10 and 60 cP that had been spin coated, immersed in IPA solution, and aged\\u000a at least 3 weeks. Mesoporous titania aerogel film has an anatase structure, and an average porosity of 76%. It is hydrophilic,\\u000a and

Won Ju Sung; Sang-Hoon Hyun; Dong-Hyun Kim; Doo-Soo Kim; Jungho Ryu

2009-01-01

99

Stability and Application to Multilevel Metallization of Fluorine-Doped Silicon Oxide by High-Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the application of biased high-density-plasma-chemical-vapor-deposited (HDP-CVD) SiOF films to multilevel metallization technology. We discuss the reason for the SiOF film’s low dielectric constant and illustrate the optimal deposition conditions. The fluorine concentration in the HDP-CVD SiOF film can affect the gap filling characteristics. We observed that the dielectric constant of this SiOF film is 3.7 for a fluorine concentration of 7.3 at.%. This film was successfully applied to intermetal dielectrics and the parasitic capacitance was 13% lower than that of a SiO2 film.

Koyanagi, Ken-ichi; Kishimoto, Koji; Huo, Tai-Chan; Matsumoto, Akira; Okada, Norio; Sumihiro, Naotaka; Gomi, Hideki

2000-03-01

100

Stability and Application to Multilevel Metallization of Fluorine-Doped Silicon Oxide by High-Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the application of biased high-density-plasma-chemical-vapor-deposited (HDP-CVD) SiOF films to multilevel metallization technology. We discuss the reason for the SiOF film's low dielectric constant and illustrate the optimal deposition conditions. The fluorine concentration in the HDP-CVD SiOF film can affect the gap filling characteristics. We observed that the dielectric constant of this SiOF film is 3.7 for a fluorine

Ken-ichi Koyanagi; Koji Kishimoto; Tai-Chan Huo; Akira Matsumoto; Norio Okada; Naotaka Sumihiro; Hideki Gomi

2000-01-01

101

Composition analysis of ECR-grown SiO 2 and SiO x F y films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low dielectric constant insulating films, such as SiO2 and fluorine doped SiOx, are an important class of materials in semiconductor manufacturing. Evaluation of a new process to grow low temperature SiOxFy films using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma (ECR) was done. Ion beam analysis techniques were used to characterize the compositions of the insulating films and correlate this with their

J. H. Burkhart; D. Denison; J. C. Barbour; C. A. Apblett

1996-01-01

102

Microstructure developments of F-doped SiO 2 thin films prepared by liquid phase deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a systematic investigation of the microstructure dependence of liquid phase deposition (LPD) of SiO2 films on solution parameters and deposition temperature. The corresponding deposition rate and film roughness were also evaluated under various deposition conditions. Smooth and sufficiently dense SiO2 films, which are the prerequisite for reliable low-k dielectric applications, were deposited on both silicon and fluorine-doped

Shijun Yu; Jae Sung Lee; Shinji Nozaki; Junghyun Cho

103

Effect of Post Plasma Treatment on Reliability of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposited SiOF Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) films have a low dielectric constant. Unfortunately, the drawback of regarding SiOF is its low resistance to moisture which causes the increment of dielectric constant with time. Also, fluorine desorption of SiOF film during the postmetallization process causes degradation of metal interconnections. In this study, oxygen postplasma treatments are applied to as-deposited SiOF films for

Seoghyeong Lee; Jong-Wan Park

1998-01-01

104

Photoelectrochemical study of organic–inorganic hybrid thin films via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stepwise assembly of negatively charged organic molecules (poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) or tetrasodium-meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS)) and positively charged TiO2 colloids on pretreated substrate surfaces utilizing the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach was investigated. The step-by-step formation of these films was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometry and electrochemistry. Photocurrent was generated upon light irradiation of the hybrid thin films assembled on fluorine-doped tin oxide

Da Chen; Geng Wang; Wu Lu; Hao Zhang; Jinghong Li

2007-01-01

105

Deposition and surface modification of SiOf films with low dielectric constant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low dielectric constant fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) films were deposited using electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced\\u000a chemical vapor deposition (ECRPECVD) with SiF4 and O2 as source gases. The effect of fluorine addition on the dielectric properties of the film as a function of the SiF4\\/O2 gas flow ratio is described in this paper. Also, the effect of post-plasma treatment on the

Seoghyeong Lee; Jae-Yoon Yoo; Jong-Wan Park

1997-01-01

106

Electrodeposited zinc oxide thin films: Nucleation and growth mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleation and growth mechanism of the electrodeposited zinc oxide thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated (10–20?\\/cm2) glass substrates from acetate solution, without and with ex situ oxygen bubbling, has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The cyclic

A. I. Inamdar; S. H. Mujawar; S. B. Sadale; A. C. Sonavane; M. B. Shelar; P. S. Shinde; P. S. Patil

2007-01-01

107

Structural Analysis for Water Absorption of SiOF Films Prepared by High-Density-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films, prepared by high-density-plasma chemical vapor deposition, are investigated as to the effect of bond structure on water absorption. In this investigation, two kinds of SiOF films, containing 12% and 8% fluorine atoms, were compared with regard to the change in their bond structure before and after accelerated water absorption. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermal

Takahiro Tamura; Junro Sakai; Yoichi Inoue; Makoto Satoh; Hikaru Yoshitaka

1998-01-01

108

Dielectric breakdown in F-doped SiO2 films formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped thin silicon dioxide films were synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of tetraethoxysilane and CF 4, and the dielectric strength was measured with a self-healing breakdown technique by applying short duration voltage pulses. As a result, the film containing a higher amount of fluorine has a higher dielectric strength. The reason for this increase is discussed from various aspects,

HIROMITSU KATO; SHINGO SAKAI; AKIHIRO TAKAMI; YOSHIMICHI OHKI; KEISW ISHII

1998-01-01

109

Deposition of stable, low ? and high deposition rate SiF 4-doped TEOS fluorinated silicon dioxide (SiOF) films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) is recognized as a potential intermetal dielectric (IMD) film for sub-half micron devices, due to its low dielectric constant (?) and good gap-fill capabilities. For the first time, physically stable and high deposition rate (1550 nm\\/min) SiOF films were deposited using a parallel-plate plasma CVD–single wafer DxZ reactor, involving SiF4\\/TEOS\\/O2 chemistry. The analytical results indicate

Mohan K Bhan; Judy Huang; David Cheung

1997-01-01

110

Influence of Low Dielectric SiOF Film on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Characteristics and Its Impact on Circuit Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low dielectric fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) film, which was produced by adding C2F6 to the conventional chemical vapor deposited oxide, was applied to a 0.35 µm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and its influence on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor characteristics was analyzed. A shift of the transconductance was observed when the SiOF film was used as an

Jiro Ida; Atsushi Ohtomo; Masashi Yoshimaru

1998-01-01

111

Effects of surface roughness on anti-thrombogenicity of diamond-like carbon films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of biomaterial-associated thrombosis has not been fully elucidated. It is believed that surface roughness of biomaterials is a key factor in influencing thrombogenicity. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is being considered for widespread clinical use as a surface coating for cardiovascular devices. We previously reported that fluorine doping in DLC films (F-DLC) markedly inhibits platelet adhesion and activation in human

T. Hasebe; T. Ishimaru; A. Kamijo; Y. Yoshimoto; T. Yoshimura; S. Yohena; H. Kodama; A. Hotta; K. Takahashi; T. Suzuki

2007-01-01

112

Surfactant-mediated growth of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films via electrodeposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous zinc acetate solution onto fluorine-doped thin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The effect of organic surfactants like polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on their structural, morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical properties was studied. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed

A I Inamdar; S H Mujawar; V Ganesan; P S Patil

2008-01-01

113

Dielectric Constant Stability and Thermal Stability of Cu\\/Ta\\/SiOF\\/Si Multilayer Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of post plasma treatment on the dielectric properties and reliability of fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) are studied. Also, the thermal stability of an electrodeposited Cu\\/sputtered Ta interconnect system with SiOF intermetal dielectrics was examined by annealing in a vacuum furnace. The stability of the dielectric constant of SiOF

Seoghyeong Lee; Sung-Hoon Yang; Hee-Soo Moon; Jong-Wan Park

2001-01-01

114

Room temperature electrodeposition and characterization of bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films from aqueous nitrate bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method from aqueous nitrate bath at room temperature. The various preparative parameters, such as bath composition, current density, deposition time, etc were optimized to get good quality BFO thin films. The structural, surface morphological, optical and dielectrical properties of the films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption and dielectric measurement techniques. The results show that electrodeposition method allows to synthesis BFO films. The films are free from pinholes and cracks. The magnitudes of dielectric constant and loss tangent showed inverse frequency dependence.

Gujar, T. P.; Shinde, V. R.; Kulkarni, S. S.; Pathan, H. M.; Lokhande, C. D.

2006-03-01

115

Quantification of low levels of fluorine content in thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine quantification in thin film samples containing different amounts of fluorine atoms was accomplished by combining proton-Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (p-RBS) and proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) using proton beams of 1550 and 2330 keV for p-RBS and PIGE measurements, respectively. The capabilities of the proposed quantification method are illustrated with examples of the analysis of a series of samples of fluorine-doped tin oxides, fluorinated silica, and fluorinated diamond-like carbon films. It is shown that this procedure allows the quantification of F contents as low as 1 at.% in thin films with thicknesses in the 100-400 nm range.

Ferrer, F. J.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Terriza, A.; Rey, G.; Jiménez, C.; García-López, J.; Yubero, F.

2012-03-01

116

Preparation of mixed oxide MoO 3–WO 3 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique and their characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed oxide MoO3–WO3 thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at 300°C by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Equimolar ammonium tungstate and ammonium molybdate solutions were mixed together in volume proportions and used as precursors for spraying. The samples were annealed at 400°C for 1 h. They

P. R Patil; P. S Patil

2001-01-01

117

The effect of bath temperature on the electrodeposition of zinc oxide thin films via an acetate medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature-dependent nucleation and growth mechanism of electrodeposited zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated (10-20 Omega cm-2) glass substrates from an acetate solution was studied by using the chronoamperometry technique. The morphological, compositional and structural properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction techniques. The current transients were analyzed by fitting

A. I. Inamdar; S. H. Mujawar; S. R. Barman; P. N. Bhosale; P. S. Patil

2008-01-01

118

The effect of bath temperature on the electrodeposition of zinc oxide thin films via an acetate medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature-dependent nucleation and growth mechanism of electrodeposited zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated (10–20 ? cm?2) glass substrates from an acetate solution was studied by using the chronoamperometry technique. The morphological, compositional and structural properties were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction techniques. The current transients were analyzed by fitting

A I Inamdar; S H Mujawar; S R Barman; P N Bhosale; P S Patil

2008-01-01

119

A photovoltaic cell incorporating a dye-sensitized ZnS\\/ZnO composite thin film and a hole-injecting PEDOT layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photovoltaic cell containing a dye-sensitized ZnS\\/ZnO composite thin film was studied. ZnS was thermally evaporated or electrodeposited onto conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide glass; then a particulate ZnO layer was pasted and sintered to form a ZnS\\/ZnO composite layer. A visible light source was utilized to excite the Ru-dye, which was adsorbed onto the surface of the ZnO. The ZnS

Jung-Yu Liao; Kuo-Chuan Ho

2005-01-01

120

Evolution of ZnO architecture on a nanoporous TiO2 film by a hydrothermal method and the photoelectrochemical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of ZnO architecture on a fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) conducting glass pre-coated with nanoporous TiO2 film has been achieved by a one-step hydrothermal method at a temperature of 70°C. The effect of the reaction time on the morphology of the ZnO architecture has been investigated, and a possible growth mechanism for the formation of the ZnO architecture is discussed

Jiang Yinhua; Wu Xiaoli; Zhang Wenli; Ni Liang; Sun Yueming

2011-01-01

121

Charge-inhomogeneity doping relations in Y Ba2 Cu3 Oy detected by angle-dependent nuclear quadrupole resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of charge inhomogeneity in YBa2Cu3Oy is investigated using an experimental method designed to determine the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) asymmetry parameter ? for very wide NQR lines at different positions on the line. The method is based on the measurement of the echo intensity as a function of the angle between the radio frequency field H1 and the principal axis of the electric field gradient. Static charge inhomogeneity deduced from ?>0 is found in this compound, but only in conjunction with oxygen deficiency. This limits considerably the possible forms of charge inhomogeneity in bulk YBa2Cu3Oy .

Ofer, Rinat; Levy, Shahar; Kanigel, Amit; Keren, Amit

2006-01-01

122

ZnO thin films electrodeposited in propylene carbonate under a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical processing of ZnO films on fluorine-doped indium tin oxide (FTO\\/ITO) substrate was investigated in organic\\u000a propylene carbonate electrolyte solutions containing Zn(NO3)26H2O. Much finer and more uniform morphologies of the ZnO films were obtained in comparison with those in aqueous electrolyte\\u000a solutions. The effects of superimposing a magnetic field to the ZnO films were further examined. Superimposing a magnetic\\u000a field

M. Morisue; M. Nambu; H. Osaki; Y. Fukunaka

2007-01-01

123

Noise Properties of (Hg0.9Re0.1)Ba2CaCu2Oy Dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device on (LaAlO3)0.3-(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Hg0.9Re0.1)Ba2CaCu2Oy ((Hg, Re)-1212) grain-boundary junctions (GBJs) and dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) were fabricated on (LaAlO3)0.3-(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 (LSAT) bicrystal substrates and their electrical properties at 77 K were evaluated. It was confirmed that the GBJs exhibited little excess current and homogeneous current distribution. The 1/f noise of 2× 10-5 ?0/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz in an ac bias scheme and the white flux noise of 8× 10-6 ?0/Hz1/2 were obtained. These noise values are substantially lower than that of (Hg, Re)-1212 SQUIDs previously fabricated on SrTiO3 (STO) and comparable to that of SQUIDs made of high-quality YBa2Cu3Oy thin films. This improvment of the flux noise can be attributed to the GBJs on LSAT much more homogeneous than those on STO substrates.

Inoue, Nobuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Akira; Sugano, Tsuyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Adachi, Seiji; Takagi, Kazumasa; Tanabe, Keiichi

2002-10-01

124

Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.  

PubMed

Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films. PMID:22097539

Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

2011-09-01

125

Using modified poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) film as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), assembling with nano-crystalline TiO2 adsorbed cis-Ru(dcb)2(NCS)2 dye (known as N3) using polar solvent-treated poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) coating on a conductive glass (fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO) as a counter electrode, were studied. The conductivity of a bare PEDOT:PSS film was only 2±0.05S\\/cm. However, the conductivities of PEDOT:PSS films treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethyl acetamide

Jian-Ging Chen; Hung-Yu Wei; Kuo-Chuan Ho

2007-01-01

126

Optimization of Transparent Electrode for Solar Cell and Chemical Vapor Deposition of Amorphous Silicon. Final Technical Report, 15 September 1980-30 March 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A film of fluorine-doped tin oxide can meet all these requirements. A new process for depositing fluorine-doped tin oxide films was optimized. Further optimization of the transparent electrode films has been accomplished, with increasing substrate tempera...

R. G. Gordon J. Proscia F. Ellis S. Kurtz

1983-01-01

127

Electrochromic properties of vanadium oxide thin films prepared by PSPT: Effect of substrate temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromic vanadium oxide (V2O5) thin films were deposited onto glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from methanolic vanadium chloride solution by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique (PSPT). The films were synthesized at different substrate temperatures ranging from 350°C-450°C with a temperature step of 50°C. The structural, morphological, optical and electrochromic properties of the synthesized films were investigated. The films were polycrystalline with tetragonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy reveals compact morphology at high temperature. All films exhibited cathodic electrochromism in lithium containing electrolyte (0.5 M LiClO4 + Propylene Carbonate). Maximum coloration efficiency (CE) 15.16 cm2C-1, was observed for the films deposited at 350°C.

Patil, C. E.; Jadhav, P. R.; Tarwal, N. L.; Deshmukh, H. P.; Karanjakar, M. M.; Wali, A. A.; Patil, P. S.

2013-06-01

128

Electrodeposition of Ga--O Thin Films from Aqueous Gallium Sulfate Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ga--O based thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate at room temperature from aqueous gallium sulfate solution with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Effects of different deposition parameters such as deposition voltage, amount of H2O2 and deposition time were investigated and presented. Nearly smooth and crack-free morphologies were attained at -1.0 V vs SCE deposition potential. As-deposited films showed O to Ga ratio of 2.0, which signified GaOOH formation. Thermal annealing of the as-deposited films in ambient air at 500--600 °C reduced the O/Ga ratio closer to stoichiometric gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and retained the morphology of Ga--O thin films. As-prepared films with ˜0.2 ?m thickness had 80% transparency in the visible wavelength range.

Vequizo, Junie Jhon M.; Ichimura, Masaya

2013-07-01

129

Hydrothermal synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of In2S3 thin films with a wedgelike structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films with a wedgelike structure were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a facile hydrothermal method. By properly monitoring the experimental conditions, including the reaction time, concentrations of tartaric acid, precursor concentration ratio and the reaction temperature, the In2S3 films with different morphologies and thickness could be obtained, and the growth mechanism of ?-In2S3 films was also proposed in this work. Furthermore, UV-vis absorption study revealed that the absorption range broadened with the growth of the In2S3 crystals. In addition, a photocurrent of 0.48 mA cm-2 was obtained under 100 mW cm-2 UV-visible illuminations of the wedgelike In2S3 thin films.

Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Haibin; Fu, Wuyou; Li, Minghui; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Jinwen

2012-09-01

130

Reactive ballistic deposition of alpha-Fe2O3 thin films for photoelectrochemical water oxidation.  

PubMed

We report the preparation of alpha-Fe2O3 electrodes using a technique known as reactive ballistic deposition in which iron metal is evaporatively deposited in an oxygen ambient for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. By manipulating synthesis parameters such as deposition angle, film thickness, and annealing temperature, we find that it is possible to optimize the structural and morphological properties of such films in order to improve their PEC efficiency. Incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) are used to calculate an AM1.5 photocurrent of 0.55 mA/cm(2) for optimized films with an IPCE reaching 10% at 420 nm in 1 M KOH at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl. We also note that the commonly observed low photoactivity of extremely thin hematite films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates may be improved by modification of annealing conditions in some cases. PMID:20361756

Hahn, Nathan T; Ye, Heechang; Flaherty, David W; Bard, Allen J; Mullins, C Buddie

2010-04-27

131

Effect of Post Plasma Treatment on Reliability of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposited SiOF Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) films have a low dielectric constant. Unfortunately, the drawback of regarding SiOF is its low resistance to moisture which causes the increment of dielectric constant with time. Also, fluorine desorption of SiOF film during the postmetallization process causes degradation of metal interconnections. In this study, oxygen postplasma treatments are applied to as-deposited SiOF films for improving their dielectric properties and thermal stabilities. It has been observed that the postplasma treatment of SiOF films is quite an efficient method for blocking moisture and for the stabilization of the dielectric constant. Furthermore, the O2 postplasma treatment of Cu/W N/SiOF/Si stacks by suppressing interdiffusion improved the thermal stability between SiOF and metal interconnections.

Lee, Seoghyeong; Park, Jong-Wan

1998-12-01

132

Doping dependence of the normal-state Hall coefficient in YBCO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the doping dependence of the normal-state Hall coefficient RH(T) in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy for 0.08 < p < 0.15, measured in magnetic fields up to 60 T. RH(T) is seen to drop below a temperature TH, to become negative at low temperature, as previously reported for two dopings (1). We attribute this drop to a reconstruction

David Leboeuf; Nicolas Doiron-Leyraud; Francis Laliberté; Olivier Cyr-Choinière; Ramzy Daou; Louis Taillefer; Baptiste Vignolle; Julien Levallois; Cyril Proust; B. J. Ramshaw; D. A. Bonn; W. N. Hardy; Ruixing Liang; L. Balicas; Y. J. Jo

2010-01-01

133

Doping dependent evolution of infrared spectra in underdoped YBa 2Cu 3O y in terms of two-component optical conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In access to optical spectroscopy of heavily underdoped detwinned YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) crystals, we re-examine the doping dependent evolution of infrared spectra in the CuO2 plane of underdoped YBCO in terms of two-component optical conductivity. The extended Drude model analysis is applied to the two-component conductivity, and the results are compared with experimental data in the pseudogap state. We demonstrate that

Y. S. Lee

2005-01-01

134

The ligand coordinations and valencies of the primary iron sites in YBa2Cu3-xFexOy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The now voluminous and often conflicting literature concerning the number and identification of the locations, valencies and spin quantum states adopted by iron when doped into the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy is analyzed. Although it now seems clear that the details depend on sample thermal history as well as stoichiometry, a considerable amount of experimental evidence pertaining to the problem appears

M. E. Lines; M. Eibschutz

1990-01-01

135

Structure and superconductivity in YBa 2Cu 3O y with additives of NaNO 3 and NaCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) cuprates with the additives of NaNO3 and NaCl were synthesized by the standard solid-state reaction technique. For the samples with addition of NaNO3, the superconducting transition temperature Tc0 remains almost unchanged although the lattice constants of the unit cell decrease monotonically with an increase in the additive of NaNO3. The superconducting transition temperature Tc0 for NaCl doping in

X. S Wu; F. Z Wang; S. Nie; J. S Liu; L. Yang; S. S. Jiang

2000-01-01

136

The effect of the film thickness and doping content of SnO2:F thin films prepared by the ultrasonic spray method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the effects of film thickness and doping content on the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and HCl were used as the starting materials, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The doped films were deposited on a glass substrate at different concentrations varying between 0 and 5 wt% using an ultrasonic spray technique. The SnO2:F thin films were deposited at a 350 °C pending time (5, 15, 60 and 90 s). The average transmission was about 80%, and the films were thus transparent in the visible region. The optical energy gap of the doped films with 2.5 wt% F was found to increase from 3.47 to 3.89 eV with increasing film thickness, and increased after doping at 5 wt%. The decrease in the Urbach energy of the SnO2:F thin films indicated a decrease in the defects. The increase in the electrical conductivity of the films reached maximum values of 278.9 and 281.9 (?·cm)-1 for 2.5 and 5 wt% F, respectively, indicating that the films exhibited an n-type semiconducting nature. A systematic study on the influence of film thickness and doping content on the properties of SnO2:F thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray was reported.

Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

2013-09-01

137

Spray pyrolytically deposited PbS thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spray pyrolysis technique has been employed to prepare uniform, large-area thin-film coatings of PbS on glass and on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting substrates at various substrate temperatures. Growth of polycrystalline PbS films occurred at a lower temperature (TS = 275 °C) on conducting substrate than on glass (TS = 325 °C) and oriented growth of polycrystalline cubic PbS occurred on FTO substrates. Characterization of the films has been carried out using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical resistivity studies. The optical transmittance spectra of these films have been taken for a wavelength range of 400-2500 nm. The films are found to be n type and their conductivities are of the order of 10-4 (? cm)-1. The lattice parameter value is presented. The average crystallite size of the films is of the order of 103 Å and the average grain size is of the order of 104 Å. Solar control properties of spray pyrolytically deposited PbS thin films have been investigated.

Thangaraju, B.; Kaliannan, P.

2000-08-01

138

Growth and characterization of electrodeposited Cu2O thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates the electrodeposition of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrates from Cu(II) sulfate solution with C6H8O7 chelating agent. During cyclic voltammetry experiences, the potential interval where the electrodeposition of Cu2O is carried out was established. The thin films were obtained potentiostatically and were characterized through different techniques. From the Mott–Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the acceptor density for the Cu2O thin films are determined. All the films showed a p-type semiconductor character with a carrier density varying between 2.41 × 1018 cm?3 and 5.38 × 1018 cm?3. This little difference is attributed to the increase of the stoichiometric defects in the films with the deposition potential. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the Cu2O thin films obtained at high potential are more homogenous in appearance and present lower crystallites size. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a cubic structure with good crystallization state and the deposition potential was found to have an influence on the size of the crystallites. The optical measurements show a direct band gap between 2.07–2.49 eV depending on the applied potential.

Laidoudi, S.; Bioud, A. Y.; Azizi, A.; Schmerber, G.; Bartringer, J.; Barre, S.; Dinia, A.

2013-11-01

139

Effect of the cathodic polarization on structural and morphological proprieties of FTO and ITO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals on the influence of the potentiodynamic stress on structural and morphological proprieties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, SnO2:F) and indium tin oxide (ITO, In2O3:Sn) commercial substrates. The potential range is between 0.0 and -2.0 (V/SCE) using an electrolyte with neutral pH. The electrochemical behavior was investigated from cyclic voltammetry technique and chronopotentiometric curves. These electrochemical results were associated to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and morphology images acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main results show that structural and morphological properties of FTO substrates after cathodic polarization remain near constant when compared with ITO films. The ITO substrates show morphological changes after treatment and the XRD patterns indicate the formation of a crystalline structure with In metallic characteristic, at neutral pH.

Cid, C. C. Plá; Spada, E. R.; Sartorelli, M. L.

2013-05-01

140

Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine-doped tin oxide by hot-wall epitaxy were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent ? , distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent H ) previously reported by Ferreira [Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from an intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with H??<1 at low temperatures to a super-rough regime with H??>1 at high temperatures was observed. The temperature is a growth parameter that controls both the interface roughness and dynamical scaling exponents. Nonlocal effects are pointed out as the factors ruling the anomalous scaling behavior.

Mata, Angélica S.; Ferreira, Silvio C., Jr.; Ribeiro, Igor R. B.; Ferreira, Sukarno O.

2008-09-01

141

Influence of Gas Desorption from SiOF Film Prepared by High-Density-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition upon TiN/Ti Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of gas desorption from fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) film prepared by high-density-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) upon TiN/Ti film is investigated. In this investigation, two types of SiOF films, containing 14% and 6% fluorine atoms, are compared with regard to gas desorption and diffusion of fluorine, hydrogen and oxygen atoms into TiN/Ti film on SiOF film, as-deposited on TiN/Ti/SiOF film and after 400°C annealing. In addition, W film was prepared on TiN/Ti/SiOF film in order to examine the practical effect of gas desorption upon adhesion between Ti film and SiOF film. Thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) spectral studies clarified the following. (1) SiOF film containing 14% fluorine atoms has a high hydrogen-fluoride content due to moisture absorption after exposure to air, while that containing 6% fluorine atoms does not. (2) During deposition of TiN/Ti film at 200°C, many fluorine and hydrogen atoms diffuse from SiOF film containing 14% fluorine atoms and are trapped within the Ti film or the Ti/SiOF interface. (3) During 400°C annealing, more fluorine atoms diffuse from SiOF film containing 14% fluorineatoms and are also trapped within the Ti film. (4) Fluorine atomstrapped within the Ti film degrade the adhesion between Ti film andSiOF film.

Tamura, Takahiro; Sakai, Junro; Satoh, Makoto

1999-12-01

142

Study on Resistance Switching Properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 Thin Films Using Impedance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) thin films sandwiched between Au electrodes and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass were deposited using a sol-gel method. Based on electrochemical workstation measurements, reproducible resistance switching characteristics and negative differential resistances were obtained at room temperature. A local impedance spectroscopy measurement of Au/NBT was performed to reveal the interface-related electrical characteristics. The DC-bias-dependent impedance spectra suggested the occurrence of charge and mass transfer at the interface of the Au/NBT/FTO device. It was proposed that the first and the second ionization of oxygen vacancies are responsible for the conduction in the low- and high-resistance states, respectively. The experimental results showed high potential for nonvolatile memory applications in NBT thin films.

Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Xinan; Ding, Linghong; Zhang, Weifeng

2009-11-01

143

Preparation of hydrogen titanate nanotube/FTO glass thin film obtained by the layer-by-layer-self assembling method for water splitting.  

PubMed

Hydrogen titanate nanotube (H-TiNT) particles were coated porously on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass using the layer-by-layer self assembling method and then heat-treated at temperatures below 600 degrees C for 10 min in air. The microstructure, crystallinity, and optical absorbance of the heat-treated H-TiNT thin film were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. Also, I-V characteristics of the fibrous H-TiNT particles in the thin film using linear cycle voltammetry under ultraviolet-A irradiation were analyzed to have a maximum current value at applied voltages with the increase in heating temperature for economic water splitting. PMID:22103159

Oh, Hyo-Jin; Noh, Kyung-Jong; Ku, Hye-Kyung; Park, Kyeong-Soon; Jung, Sang-Chul; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Sun-Jae

2011-08-01

144

Preparation of n-type semiconductor SnO2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied fluorine-doped tin oxide on a glass substrate at 350°C using an ultrasonic spray technique. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and NaOH were used as the starting material, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The SnO2 : F thin films were deposited at 350°C and a pending time of 60 and 90 s. The as-grown films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have (101) orientation. The G = 31.82 nm value of the grain size is attained from SnO2 : F film grown at 90 s, and the transmittance is greater than 80% in the visible region. The optical gap energy is found to measure 4.05 eV for the film prepared at 90 s, and the increase in the electrical conductivity of the film with the temperature of the sample is up to a maximum value of 265.58 (?·cm)?1, with the maximum activation energy value of the films being found to measure 22.85 meV, indicating that the films exhibit an n-type semiconducting nature.

Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

2013-08-01

145

Visible light photoelectrochemical properties of ?-Bi2O3 nanoporous films: A study of the dependence on thermal treatment and film thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi2O3 thin films were successfully prepared on fluorine doped SnO2 substrate by the sol-gel route. The effects of annealing temperature on the film structure and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance were also discussed. Bi2O3 thin films were characterized by conventional techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the 450 °C annealed film exhibits ?-phase structure with the best crystallinity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicates that the surface morphology varies with changing the annealing temperature. The film surface becomes nanoporous at high annealing temperature. Atomic force microscope (AFM) result indicates that the grains on the surface still exhibit close-packed growth in the nanoscale, even though there are many holes in the film surface. The photoelectrochemical performance was evaluated by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). The IPCE reaches 10.5% at 400 nm (25.5% at 350 nm) without any additional potential vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M NaOH solution.

Yang, Xin; Lian, Xiaojuan; Liu, Shangjun; Jiang, Chunping; Tian, Jing; Wang, Gang; Chen, Jinwei; Wang, Ruilin

2013-10-01

146

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23

147

Crystal growth of YBCO coated conductors by TFA MOD method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal growth mechanism of TFA (trifluoroacetates) MOD (metal organic deposition) derived YBa2Cu3Oy has been investigated to understand the process for higher production rates of the conversion process. YBCO films were prepared by TFA MOD on CeO2/Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy C276 substrates. The growth rates of YBCO derived from Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3 starting solutions were investigated by XRD and TEM analyses. YBCO growth proceeds in two steps of the epitaxial one from the substrate and solid state reaction. The overall growth rate estimated from the residual amounts of BaF2 with time measured by XRD is proportional to a square root of P(H2O). The trend was independent of the composition of starting solutions, however, the growth rate obtained from the 1:1.5:3 starting solutions was high as twice as that of 1:2:3, which could not be explained by the composition of BaF2 included in the precursor films. On the other hand, the growth rate measured from the thickness of the YBCO quenched film at the same process time showed no difference between the samples of 1:2:3 and 1:1.5:3. The epitaxial growth rate of 1:1.5:3 was also the same as the overall growth rate of that, which means there was no solid state reaction to form YBCO after the epitaxial growth. The YBCO growth mechanism was found to be as follows; YBCO crystals nucleate at the surface of the substrate and epitaxially grow into the precursor by layer-by-layer by a manner with trapping unreacted particles. The amounts of YBCO and the unreacted particles trapped in the YBCO film are independent of the composition of the starting solution in this step. Unreacted particles react with each other to form YBCO and pores by solid state reaction as long as there is BaF2 left in the film. The Ba-poor starting solution gives little BaF2 left in the film and so the solid state reaction is completed within a short time, resulting in the fast overall growth rate.

Yoshizumi, M.; Nakanishi, T.; Matsuda, J.; Nakaoka, K.; Sutoh, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

2008-09-01

148

Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-CdSe thin films  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and selenourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configuration n-CdSe/1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2}S + S)/C is used for studying the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in dark, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark and under illumination, photovoltaic power output and spectral response characteristics of the as deposited films. Photoelectrochemical study shows that as deposited CdSe thin films exhibits n-type of conductivity. The spectral response characteristics of the films at room temperature show a prominent sharp peak at 725 nm. The measured values of efficiency ({eta}) and fill factor (FF) are found to be 0.50% and 0.44 respectively for film deposited at 300 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies show that the CdSe film deposited at 300 C shows better performance in PEC cell. (author)

Yadav, A.A.; Barote, M.A.; Masumdar, E.U. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India)

2010-05-15

149

Oxide film formation from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The formation of SiO{sub x} films and fluorine-doped SiO{sub x} films using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma deposition is described. Parametric studies of the film composition and hydrogen content as a function of feed gas composition and RF biasing are presented. By replacing SiH{sub 4} with SiF{sub 4} in the gas feed, samples with F content from 2 at.% F to 12 at.% F are deposited, and the dielectric constant of the deposited layers decrease linearly with increasing fluorine concentration. The stability of these low dielectric constant SiO{sub x}F{sub y} layers is examined under hydrating conditions, and conditions typically found for interlayer dielectric processing in microelectronics. The hydrogen content of the SiO{sub 2} and F-doped SiO{sub 2} is characterized as a function of deposition conditions, and a model is given to describe the thermal release of H from SiO{sub 2}.

Barbour, J.C.; Apblett, C.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [and others

1997-06-01

150

Influence of Low Dielectric SiOF Film on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Characteristics and Its Impact on Circuit Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low dielectric fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) film, which was produced by adding C2F6 to the conventional chemical vapor deposited oxide, was applied to a 0.35 µm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and its influence on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor characteristics was analyzed. A shift of the transconductance was observed when the SiOF film was used as an intermediate dielectric and the Si3N4 film as the dielectric on the metal. An improvement in speed of 13% due to the SiOF film was experimentally confirmed under the condition where the transconductance does not show a shift. Using circuit simulations, the necessity for such low dielectric films as the SiOF film, on the scaling trend in the improvement of circuit performance, was clearly shown and was also emphasized from the point of view of power reduction. It was revealed that circuit speed and power consumption of 0.35 µm CMOS were degraded if the SiOF film was not used, because the improvement of the transistor performance did not overcome the increase in interconnect capacitance due to the increase in the adjacent interconnect capacitance component.

Ida, Jiro; Ohtomo, Atsushi; Yoshimaru, Masashi

1998-11-01

151

Structural Analysis for Water Absorption of SiOF Films Prepared by High-Density-Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films, prepared by high-density-plasma chemical vapor deposition, are investigated as to the effect of bond structure on water absorption. In this investigation, two kinds of SiOF films, containing 12% and 8% fluorine atoms, were compared with regard to the change in their bond structure before and after accelerated water absorption. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) spectra and Raman spectra studies clarified the following. (1) The SiOF film which contains 12% fluorine atoms has more Si F bonds than that containing 8% fluorine atoms, but it has fewer 3-fold rings. (2) The SiOF film which contains 8% fluorine atoms absorbs little water, and its Si F bond does not change after water absorption. (3) The 3-fold ring of the SiOF film which contains 12% fluorine atoms has an unstable F Si O Si bond structure. (4) The F Si O Si bond structure of the 3-fold ring is easily changed to the F Si OH and Si OH bond structures due to hydration, upon water absorption.

Tamura, Takahiro; Sakai, Junro; Inoue, Yoichi; Satoh, Makoto; Yoshitaka, Hikaru

1998-05-01

152

Theoretical study of the Fluorine doped anatase surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic theoretical study based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations using GGA and GGA+U approaches has been carried out to establish the thermodynamic stability of O by F substitution on the (001) and (101) surfaces of anatase. All calculations consistently predict that for both surfaces F implantation is more favorable at surface sites than at subsurface sites. However, the absolute value of the implantation energy has been found to largely depend on the density functional. This fact has strong implications in the study of doped oxides for those cases where accurate values of substitution energies are required.

Ortega, Yanaris; Lamiel-Garcia, Oriol; Hevia, Daniel Fernandez; Tosoni, Sergio; Oviedo, Jaime; San-Miguel, Miguel Angel; Illas, Francesc

2013-12-01

153

Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.  

PubMed

A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes. PMID:21430326

Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

2011-03-23

154

Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency of TiO2 Thin Films Modified with Ta2O5 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tantalum-doped TiO2 thin films [(TiO2)1-x(Ta2O5)x, x=0{--}0.8%] were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated substrates by sol--gel technology for uses in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of Ta content on the growth and properties of the TiO2 thin films were investigated. The crystallization and microstructures of the thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer--Emmett--Teller analyses. The performance of DSSCs based on Ta-doped TiO2 thin films was also studied. From the obtained results, the increases in Jsc and Voc may be due to the increased electron concentration of TiO2 thin film and the flat-band potential of the TiO2 shifted by tantalum doping, respectively. The optimum properties of DSSCs of Voc=0.68 V, Jsc=7.84 mA/cm2, FF=45.1%, and ?=2.4% were obtained using the Ta-doped TiO2 thin film with x=0.5%.

Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hone-Zern; Young, San-Lin

2013-01-01

155

Spray pyrolysis deposition and photoelectrochemical properties of n-type BiOI nanoplatelet thin films.  

PubMed

Bismuth oxy-iodide is a potentially interesting visible-light-active photocatalyst; yet there is little research regarding its photoelectrochemical properties. Herein we report the synthesis of BiOI nanoplatelet photoelectrodes by spray pyrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates at various temperatures. The films exhibited n-type conductivity, most likely due to the presence of anion vacancies, and optimized films possessed incident photon conversion efficiencies of over 20% in the visible range for the oxidation of I(-) to I(3)(-) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl in acetonitrile. Visible-light photons (? > 420 nm) contributed approximately 75% of the overall photocurrent under AM1.5G illumination, illustrating their usefulness under solar light illumination. A deposition temperature of 260 °C was found to result in the best performance due to the balance of morphology, crystallinity, impurity levels, and optical absorption, leading to photocurrents of roughly 0.9 mA/cm(2) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Although the films performed stably in acetonitrile, their performance decreased significantly upon extended exposure to water, which was apparently caused by a loss of surface iodine and subsequent formation of an insulating bismuth hydroxide layer. PMID:22891667

Hahn, Nathan T; Hoang, Son; Self, Jeffrey L; Mullins, C Buddie

2012-08-20

156

Addition of new pinning center to unidirectionally melt solidified Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor including small particles of BaSnO3 was synthesized by the unidirectional melt solidification method. Finely dispersed Y2BaCuO5 precipitates and BaSnO3 particles were observed in YBa2Cu3Oy matrix. The critical current density at 77 K in 8 kOe was 18,000 A\\/sq cm, which was about four times higher than that of the BaSnO3-free specimen. Fine particles of BaSnO3 can act

Jun-Ichi Shimoyama; Jun-Ichiro Kase; Shinji Kondoh; Eiji Yanagisawa; Toshiya Matsubara; Mitsuru Suzuki; Takeshi Morimoto

1990-01-01

157

Effect of ZnO and Zn0,95Mn0,05O nano-particle inclusions on YBCO polycrystalline pinning properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nano-size ZnO or Zn0.95Mn0.05O (ZnMnO) addition on the microstructure and pinning properties of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) was analyzed. Samples with nano-particles ZnO and Zn0.95Mn005O addition were synthesized by solid state reaction. Microstructure investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), critical current density dependence on applied magnetic field Jc (B) and electrical

M. Annabi; I. Bouchoucha; F. Ben Azzouz; M. Ben Salem

2010-01-01

158

Saturated flux pinning in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O y \\/PrBa 2 Cu 3 O y superlattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependent zero-field-cooled, field-cooled and remanent moment were measured at various applied magnetic field\\u000a (from 10 Oe to 4000 Oe) for the YBa2Cu3Oy\\/PrBa2Cu3Oy (96Å\\/48Å) superlattice to investigate the saturated flux pinning. The results showed that MREM=MFC?MZFC as H?195 Oe while MREM>MFC?MZFC as H >203 Oe. This critical magnetic field (203 Oe in this report) is defined as Hs. Hs

H. E. Horng; J. M. Wu; S. Y. Yang; H. C. Yang; J. D. Chern

1996-01-01

159

Synthesis and characterization of Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films for photoelectrochemical solar cell  

SciTech Connect

Optimum composition Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films have been deposited using the chemical bath containing cadmium sulfate octahydrate, lead nitrate, tartaric acid, potassium hydroxide, ammonia, and sodium selenosulfate onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The various deposition parameters such as composition of reactive bath, pH of the solution, deposition temperature, deposition time, speed of rotation, etc. have been optimized for obtaining good quality film. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the polycrystalline nature of sample with the solid solution of lead (II) ions in CdSe host lattice, having a hexagonal phase structure. Scanning electron micrograph suggested that the grains were non-uniformly distributed over the substrate surface. Film composition was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive X-ray atomic spectroscopy. Optical absorption data showed the presence of direct transition with energy band gap 1.80 eV for the deposited thin films. The dark specific conductance of Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films was found to the order of 10{sup -6} ({omega} cm){sup -1} having n-type semiconducting nature. Photoelectrochemical characterization was carried out using sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte with 1.401% efficiency. (author)

Delekar, S.D.; Patil, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub-center Osmanabad 413 501, Maharashtra (India); Jadhav, B.V.; Sanadi, K.R.; Hankare, P.P. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)

2010-03-15

160

Dielectric Constant Stability and Thermal Stability of Cu/Ta/SiOF/Si Multilayer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of post plasma treatment on the dielectric properties and reliability of fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) are studied. Also, the thermal stability of an electrodeposited Cu/sputtered Ta interconnect system with SiOF intermetal dielectrics was examined by annealing in a vacuum furnace. The stability of the dielectric constant of SiOF films was found to be improved by O2 post plasma treatment. Surface modification by the plasma treatment was effective for the prevention of water absorption and stabilization of the dielectric constant. The Cu/Ta/SiOF/Si system was thermally stable up to 500^\\circC for 3 h. For the Cu/Ta/SiOF/Si multilayer structure, the plasma treatment seemed to play a significant role in suppressing the interdiffusion between SiOF and metal interconnects. By C-V measurement, the electrical stability of the Cu/Ta/SiOF/Si multilayer structure was found to be stable up to 500^\\circC for 3 h.

Lee, Seoghyeong; Yang, Sung-Hoon; Moon, Hee-Soo; Park, Jong-Wan

2001-01-01

161

TiO2 paste formulation for crack-free mesoporous nanocrystalline film of dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Using a doctor-blade method, a highly viscous titanium dioxide (TiO2) paste was deposited on a glass substrate coated with fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). The paste was mainly composed of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as organic filler. Varying the content of HPC in the TiO2 paste changed the physical properties of the mesoporous TiO2 layer, particularly its porosity and surface area. From the quantification of dyes on Ti2, layer and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the surface area of the TiO2 film was found to have decreased. This came with the increase of HPC content while the porosity of the film increased, consistent with the concurrent decrease of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and efficiency (eta). The increased porosity greatly affected the electron transport through the TiO2 film by decreasing the coordination number of the TiO2 particles resulting to a decrease of the electron diffusion coefficient. PMID:22966572

Sarker, Subrata; Nath, Narayan Chandra Deb; Rahman, M Mahbubur; Lim, Sung-Su; Ahammad, A J Saleh; Choi, Won-Youl; Lee, Jae-Joon

2012-07-01

162

Formation of an electron hole doped film in the ?-Fe2O3 photoanode upon electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

Solar hydrogen generation by water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) is an appealing technology for a future hydrogen economy. Hematite is a prospective photoanode material in this respect because of its visible light conjugated band gap, its corrosion stability, its environmentally benign nature and its low cost. Its bulk and surface electronic structure has been under scrutiny for many decades and is considered critical for improvement of efficiency. In the present study, hematite films of nominally 500 nm thickness were obtained by dip-coating on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass slides and then anodised in 1 molar KOH at 500, 600, and 700 mV for 1, 10, 120 and 1440 minutes under dark conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectra recorded at the Fe 3p resonant absorption threshold show that the e(g) transition before the Fermi energy, which is well developed in the pristine hematite film, becomes depleted upon anodisation. The spectral weight of the e(g) peak decreases with the square-root of the anodisation time, pointing to a diffusion controlled process. The speed of this process increases with the anodisation potential, pointing to Arrhenius behaviour. Concomitantly, the weakly developed t(2g) peak intensity becomes enhanced in the same manner. This suggests that the surface of the photoanode contains Fe(2+) species which become oxidized toward Fe(3+) during anodisation. The kinetic behaviour derived from the experimental data suggests that the anodisation forms an electron hole doped film on and below the hematite surface. PMID:23165453

Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Tymen, Simon; Boudoire, Florent; Toth, Rita; Bora, Debajeet K; Calvet, Wolfram; Grätzel, Michael; Constable, Edwin C; Braun, Artur

2012-11-20

163

TiO2 Coating for SnO2:F Films Produced by Filtered Cathodic Arc Evaporation for Improved Resistance to H+ Radical Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by filtered cathodic arc evaporation (FCAE) from a Ti target in an oxygen atmosphere onto (a) fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates SnO2:F (FTO) and (b) glass microscope slides. The growth rate calculated from film thickness profilometry measurements was found to be approximately 0.8 nm/s. The films were highly transparent to visible light. x-Ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis of the Ti 2p electron binding- energy shift confirmed the presence of a TiO2 stoichiometric compound. The results for the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of the films deposited onto FTO substrates evaluated by atomic force microscopy suggested nanostructured film surfaces. When exposed to hydrogen plasma, TiO2 films revealed insignificant changes in the optical spectra. The initial sheet resistance of the SnO2:F layer was 14 ?/sq. The deposition of the top TiO2 layer (45 nm thick) over the FTO electrode resulted in an increase of the sheet resistance of 2 ?/sq. In addition, the sheet resistance of the double-layer FTO/TiO2 transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrode increased by 1 ?/sq as a result of H+ plasma exposure. Regardless of the TiO2 film's low conductivity, a thin protective layer could be coated onto FTO films (presumably 15 nm thick) due to their high transparency, offering high resistance to aggressive H+ plasma conditions. In this paper we show that ˜50-nm-thick TiO2 coating on FTO films provides sufficient protection against deterioration of transparency and conductivity due to hydrogen radical exposure.

Ristova, M. M.; Gligorova, A.; Nasov, I.; Gracin, D.; Milun, M.; Kostadinova-Boskova, H.; Popeski-Dimovski, R.

2012-11-01

164

Top-seeded infiltration growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A top-seeded melt-growth (TSMG) process is widely used to fabricate single domain YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-Ba-Cu-O) bulk superconductors. Pores are often found in the TSMG-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O samples due to the oxygen gas evolution during the molten stage. Recently developed liquid infiltration growth (LIG) process is known to be effective in suppressing the pore evolution and in refining the size of Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) particles dispersed in YBa2Cu3Oy matrix. The LIG process utilizes the liquid (Ba3Cu5O8) infiltration into a pre- sintered Y211 contact and slow cooling through a peritectic temperature. In this study, we fabricated bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors by the LIG process combined with top-seeding with SmBa2Cu3Oy seed and confirmed that a single-domain bulk can be produced. Trapped field measurements however showed that some distortion in the field distribution was observed in the region near the seed crystal, which was attributed to Y211 density and its relatively large size.

Umakoshi, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Wongsatanawarid, A.; Kim, C.-J.; Murakami, M.

2011-11-01

165

Competition between charge and superconducting orders in underdoped YBCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report nuclear magnetic resonance measurements (NMR) showing that high magnetic fields induce a static, unidirectional, modulation of the charge density in the CuO2 planes of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy [T. Wu et al., Nature 477, 191 (2011)]. The appearance of the charge order coincides with the Fermi surface reconstruction inferred from quantum oscillation and other transport measurements. This charge order appears to be most probably the same 4a-periodic stripe modulation as in La-214 cuprates. That it develops only when superconductivity fades away (no charge order is observed under strong fields parallel to the planes) and near the same 1/8 hole doping as in La-214 suggests that charge order, although visibly pinned by CuO chains in YBa2Cu3Oy, is an intrinsic propensity of the superconducting planes of high-Tc copper oxides. Since field induced stripe order is also compatible with neutron scattering data in La-214 and with STM data in Bi-2212, charge order could be a generic competitor of high Tc superconductivity. [4pt] Work performed with T. Wu, H. Mayaffre, S. Kr"amer, M. Horvatic, C. Berthier (LNCMI Grenoble), W.N. Hardy, R. Liang, D.A. Bonn (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)

Julien, Marc-Henri

2012-02-01

166

Emergence of charge order from the vortex state of a high-temperature superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is mounting that charge order competes with superconductivity in high Tc cuprates. Whether this has any relationship to the pairing mechanism is unknown as neither the universality of the competition nor its microscopic nature has been established. Here, we show using nuclear magnetic resonance that charge order in YBa2Cu3Oy has maximum strength inside the superconducting dome, similar to compounds of the La2-x(Sr,Ba)xCuO4 family. In YBa2Cu3Oy, this occurs at doping levels of p=0.11-0.12. We further show that the overlap of halos of incipient charge order around vortex cores, similar to those visualised in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+?, can explain the threshold magnetic field at which long-range charge order emerges. These results reveal universal features of a competition in which charge order and superconductivity appear as joint instabilities of the same normal state, whose relative balance can be field-tuned in the vortex state.

Wu, Tao; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Krämer, Steffen; Horvati?, Mladen; Berthier, Claude; Kuhns, Philip L.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Liang, Ruixing; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Julien, Marc-Henri

2013-07-01

167

Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on V2O5 xerogel film for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation stability  

SciTech Connect

V2O5 xerogel films were fabricated by casting V2O5 sols onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates at room temperature. Five, ten and twenty atomic layers of Al2O3 were grown onto as-fabricated films respectively. The bare film and Al2O3-deposited films all exhibited hydrous V2O5 phase only. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed increased surface charge-transfer resistance of V2O5 films as more Al2O3 atomic layers were deposited. Lithium-ion intercalation tests at 600 mAg_1 showed that bare V2O5 xerogel film possessed high initial discharge capacity of 219 mAhg_1 but suffered from severe capacity degradation, i.e., having only 136 mAhg_1 after 50 cycles. After deposition of ten atomic layers of Al2O3, the initial discharge capacity was 195 mAhg_1 but increased over cycles before stabilizing; after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity was as high as 225 mAhg_1. The noticeably improved cyclic stability of Al2O3-deposited V2O5 xerogel film could be attributed to the improved surface chemistry and enhanced mechanical strength. During repeated lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation, atomic layers of Al2O3 which were coated onto V2O5 surface could prevent V2O5 electrode dissolution into electrolyte by reducing direct contact between active electrode and electrolyte while at the same time acting as binder to maintain good mechanical contact between nanoparticles inside the film. VC 2012 American Vacuum Society.

Liu, Dawei; Liu, Yanyi; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha

2012-01-29

168

Wet chemical synthesis of ZnO thin films and sensitization to light with N3 dye for solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple wet chemical synthesis of ZnO thin films has been carried out at room temperature (27 °C) from an aqueous alkaline bath followed by annealing in air at 100 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The deposited film showed an optical band gap of 3.28 eV with a thickness of about 40 µm with a hexagonal crystal structure. A flower-like surface morphology consisting of petals was observed. These petals are made up of a fibrous network with interconnected nanoparticles leading to a high surface area. This obliged us to use this structure for dye-sensitized solar cells with lower fabrication process cost than conventional high temperature sintered methods which are commonly used for ZnO and TiO2. It would be advantageous to use a flexible plastic substrate instead of routine glass in future. ZnO showed a current conversion efficiency (?) of 0.34% with chemically adsorbed N3 dye at standard AM 1.5 condition with illumination of light intensity 100 mW cm-2.

Baviskar, P. K.; Tan, Weiwei; Zhang, Jingbo; Sankapal, B. R.

2009-06-01

169

Energy and charge transfers between (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (N719) and ZnO thin films  

SciTech Connect

ZnO thin films and (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (called N719) sensitized ZnO thin films are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet-visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and Raman scattering are employed to probe into the transition process of photogenerated charges and the interaction between ZnO and N719. The experimental results indicate that there is a significant electronic interaction between N719 and ZnO through chemiadsorption. The interaction greatly enhances the photogenerated charge separation and thus the photovoltaic response of the ZnO film but remarkedly weakens its radiative recombination, i.e., PL, implying strong energy and charge transfer occurring between N719 and ZnO. In addition, a new PL peak observed at about 720 nm in N719 sensitized ZnO/FTO is attributed to the electron-hole recombination of N719.

Ni Manman; Cheng Qiang; Zhang, W. F. [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)

2010-03-15

170

Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on hot filament chemical vapor deposition grown graphene oxide thin film substrate: solar energy conversion.  

PubMed

Vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were grown by the low-temperature hydrothermal method on graphene oxide (GO) coated FTO substrates, where GO was directly deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using hydrogen (H(2), 65 sccm) and methane (CH(4), 50 sccm) through hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. The vertically aligned ZnO NRs were applied as effective photoanode for the fabrication of efficient dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Highly uniform ZnO NRs were grown on GO deposited FTO substrate with the average length of ?2-4 ?m and diameter of ?200-300 nm. The possible mechanism of grown ZnO NRs clearly revealed the significant role of GO on FTO in architecting the aligned growth of ZnO NRs. The grown vertically aligned ZnO NRs possessed a typical wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure. The structural and the optical studies confirmed the formation of partial hydrogen bonding between surface functional groups of GO and ZnO NRs. A solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of ?2.5% was achieved by DSSC fabricated with ZnO NRs deposited on graphene oxide (GO-ZnO NRs) thin film photoanode. The presence of GO on FTO substrate expressively increased the surface area of GO-ZnO photoanode, which resulted in high dye loading as well as high light harvesting efficiency and thus ensued the increased photocurrent density and the improved performance of DSSCs. PMID:22827848

Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Song, Minwu; Shin, Hyung Shik

2012-08-08

171

Solution-based deposition of ceramic thin films for electronic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the requirement of a low-temperature process which is compatible with flexible electronics, solution-based processes for ceramic thin films have received substantial attention in recent years. In this study, two different variations of solution processing were explored. Liquid phase deposition (LPD) was used to prepare for F-doped SiO2 and F-doped SnO2, and hydrothermal processing was used to prepare ZnO thin films consisting of vertically aligned nanorods. F-doped SiO2 thin films were developed from supersaturated hydrofluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) solution with the addition of boric acid (H3BO3). The microstructure dependence of LPD SiO2 films on solution parameters and deposition temperature was systematically investigated. The dielectric constant is lower than that of thermal SiO2, resulting from the fluorine doping. The remarkably low dielectric constant, relatively low leakage current and fairly high elastic modulus make these low temperature processed LPD SiO2 films very promising for an interlayer dielectric for flexible substrates. Using the same LPD method, smooth SnO2 films were deposited on both silicon and glass substrates at 60 ºC through supersaturated solutions of SnF 2 with a concentration range from 10 mM to 40 mM. They consist of nanoscale crystallites and the degree of crystallinity increase with annealing temperature. A hydrothermal process was employed to deposit ZnO films for energy harvesting devices. A polymer mask was patterned on top of a zinc acetate seed layer to generate a regular array of open holes (200 nm in diameter) using a nanoimprint. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on these open holes that expose the seed layer. The morphology and microstrucutre of the nanorods were studied according to chemical composition of the solution. Equimolar reduce of the concentration of ZnAc and HMTA results in decrease in nanorod diameter, as well as in length. The nanorods become thinner and slightly better aligned with decreased HMTA concentration, and thicker rods and faster deposition rate were observed for increased HMTA concentration. Temperature plays a critical role and nanorods gown at 90 ºC seems to have better alignment than those grown at 80 ºC. More process optimization will be needed to achieve the controlled growth of nanorod structures.

Yu, Shijun

172

Development of molecular precursors for deposition of indium sulphide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.  

PubMed

Symmetrical and unsymmetrical dithiocarbamato pyridine solvated and non-solvated complexes of indium(III) with the general formula [In(S2CNRR')3]·n(py) [where py = pyridine; R,R' = Cy, n = 2 (1); R,R' = (i)Pr, n = 1.5 (2); NRR' = Pip, n = 0.5 (3) and R = Bz, R' = Me, n = 0 (4)] have been synthesized. The compositions, structures and properties of these complexes have been studied by means of microanalysis, IR and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The applicability of these complexes as single source precursors (SSPs) for the deposition of ?-In2S3 thin films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C is studied. All films have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) for the detection of phase and stoichiometry of the deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that precursors (1)-(4), irrespective of different metal ligand design, generate comparable morphologies of ?-In2S3 thin films at different temperatures. Direct band gap energies of 2.2 eV have been estimated from the UV-vis spectroscopy for the ?-In2S3 films fabricated from precursors (1) and (4). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of ?-In2S3 were confirmed by recording the current-voltage plots under light and dark conditions. The plots showed anodic photocurrent densities of 1.25 and 0.65 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the ?-In2S3 films made at 400 and 350 °C from the precursors (1) and (4), respectively. The photoelectrochemical performance indicates that the newly synthesised precursors are highly useful in fabricating ?-In2S3 electrodes for solar energy harvesting and optoelectronic application. PMID:23787951

Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad; Lo, K M; McKee, Vickie

2013-06-20

173

Doping dependence of the normal-state Hall coefficient in YBCO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the doping dependence of the normal-state Hall coefficient RH(T) in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy for 0.08 < p < 0.15, measured in magnetic fields up to 60 T. RH(T) is seen to drop below a temperature TH, to become negative at low temperature, as previously reported for two dopings (1). We attribute this drop to a reconstruction of the Fermi-surface caused by the onset of broken translational symmetry, which produces an electron-like pocket in the Fermi surface of underdoped YBCO. The fact that TH peaks at p = 1/8 strongly suggests that Fermi-surface reconstruction is caused by stripe order. (1) D. LeBoeuf et al., Nature 450, 533 (2007).

Leboeuf, David; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Laliberté, Francis; Cyr-Choinière, Olivier; Daou, Ramzy; Taillefer, Louis; Vignolle, Baptiste; Levallois, Julien; Proust, Cyril; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, Ruixing; Balicas, L.; Jo, Y. J.

2010-03-01

174

Homogeneous distribution of 211 secondary-phase particles in single-grain melt-grown (Nd,Eu,Gd)Ba2Cu3O7 bulk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructural features of the (Nd,Eu,Gd)Ba2Cu3O7 (NEG) bulks were studied by optical microscopy in polarized light. The quantitative microstructural data were obtained using the image processing system, Image-Pro Plus. Unlike YBa2Cu3Oy melt-processed bulks, the NEG bulk superconductors prepared by oxygen-controlled-melt-growth process do not exhibit macroscopic 211 secondary-phase inhomogeneity due to 211 particle pushing. The lowering of interface energy and increase of melt viscosity are suggested to be responsible for the essential suppression of 211 pushing in NEG melt-grown bulks. This result opens a way to achieve a homogeneous distribution of the current densities in melt-grown bulk superconductors.

Diko, P.; Muralidhar, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Murakami, M.

2000-10-01

175

Significant improvement of trapped flux in bulk Gd-Ba-Cu-O grains fabricated by a modified top-seeded melt growth process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seeded infiltration and growth of Gd-Ba-Cu-O single grains using a YBa2Cu3Oy pressed pellet as the liquid source has successfully solved the liquid source leakage problem even at Tmax ˜ 1100?°C. As a development of this process, a simple but essential modification to insert a liquid source pellet at the bottom of the pre-form was made to the top-seeded melt growth process. The present method resulted in a significant enhancement of the trapped flux density of the Gd-Ba-Cu-O grains. In the growth kinetics, we interpreted that the enriched liquid source surrounding the growth front leads to a more uniform distribution of Gd2BaCuO5 in the matrix and an enlarged c-orientation growth area, which help suppress the formation of high angle grain boundaries. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the present method is of great advantage in multi-seeded processes.

Zhou, Difan; Hara, Shogo; Li, Beizhan; Xu, Kun; Noudem, Jacques; Izumi, Mitsuru

2013-01-01

176

Inhomogeneous Fluctuating Superconductivity Near Room Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, a diverse set of experiments on high-transition temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors have produced evidence for the existence of superconducting correlations on short time and/or length scales at temperatures well above the bulk Tc. This includes the discovery of an unusual magnetic-field induced effect in YBa2Cu3Oy and La2-xSrxCuO4 above Tc using an intense beam of spin-polarized muons at TRIUMF. The measurements show that an externally applied field induces a static internal magnetic field distribution at high temperatures far above Tc, and that the degree of field inhomogeneity is correlated with the bulk superconductivity that occurs below Tc. These findings indicate that non-uniform fluctuating superconductivity does survive in some samples at temperatures approaching room temperature. These experiments and the implications for room-temperature superconductivity will be discussed.

Sonier, Jeff

2009-05-01

177

Phase diagram studies in the SrO-CuO-Ti02 system: applications to YBCO coated conductors.  

SciTech Connect

SrTiO3 (STO) is a potential buffer layer material for use in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) coated conductors based on the IBAD MgO process. However, the interactions with YBCO are not yet fully understood and little information exists in the way of phase diagrams. With this in mind, the tie-line between STO and SrCuO2 in the pseudo-ternary system SrO-CuO-TiO2 was investigated. Phase assemblages and compositions were determined by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy in the temperature range of 1000oC to 1100oC in oxygen partial pressures of 1%, 10%, and 100%. Preliminary results showed that an appreciable amount of copper substitutes into the STO crystal structure. Conversely, Ti substitution into the SrCuO2 phase was not detected.

Ayala, A. (Alicia); Holesinger, T. G. (Terry G.); Peterson, E. J. (Eric J.); Archuleta, M. C. (Milena C.)

2001-01-01

178

In-plane hole density in (Ca0.1La0.9)(Ba1.65La0.35)Cu3Oy : Nuclear resonance study over the full doping range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in-plane Cu63 nuclear magnetic resonance measurements for a series of fully enriched (Ca0.1La0.9)(Ba1.65La0.35)Cu3Oy powder samples, which belong to the YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) family, but the doping could vary from very underdoped to extremely overdoped. From these measurements, we determine the average nuclear quadrupole resonance frequency ?Q and its second moment ??Q , both set by the in-plane hole density n , as a function of oxygen level y . We find that in the overdoped side n is saturated, but ??Q rapidly increases with increasing y . The relevance of these results to the increasing penetration depth in overdoped cuprates is discussed.

Kanigel, Amit; Keren, Amit

2006-07-01

179

Triple-band high-temperature superconducting microstrip filter based on multimode split ring resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact triple-band high-temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa2Cu3Oy microstrip bandpass filter using multimode split ring resonator (SRR) is presented in this letter. Also, its properties and equivalent circuit models are investigated by even- and odd-mode analysis. Moreover, design method of the proposed triple-band HTS filter for the applications of global positioning system at 1.57 GHz, worldwide interoperability for microwave access at 3.5 GHz, and wireless local area networks at 5.8 GHz is discussed. The centre frequencies and the bandwidths of the three passbands can be allocated properly choosing the dimension parameters of the multimode SRR. In addition, four transmission zeros are produced to improve the selectivity of this filter.

Liu, Hai-Wen; Wang, Yan; Fan, Yi-Chao; Guan, Xue-Hui; He, Yusheng

2013-09-01

180

Universal inhomogeneous magnetic-field response in the normal state of cuprate high-Tc superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a muon spin rotation (?SR) study of the bulk of Bi2+xSr2?xCaCu2O8+?, as well as pure and Ca-doped YBa2Cu3Oy, which together with prior measurements reveal a universal inhomogeneous magnetic-field response of hole-doped cuprates extending to temperatures far above the critical temperature Tc. The primary features of our data are incompatible with the spatially inhomogeneous response being dominated by known charge-density-wave and spin-density-wave orders. Instead, the normal-state inhomogeneous line broadening is found to scale with the maximum value Tcmax for each cuprate family, indicating it is controlled by the same energy scale as Tc. Since the degree of chemical disorder varies widely among the cuprates we have measured, the observed scaling constitutes evidence for an intrinsic electronic tendency toward inhomogeneity above Tc.

Mahyari, Z. Lotfi; Cannell, A.; de Mello, E. V. L.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Sonier, J. E.

2013-10-01

181

Anomalous Thermal Effect of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found in oxygen there are a weight loss and an endothermal anomaly in compound of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3Oy starting at about 320 °C, while in nitrogen at about 370 °C and a mixed atmosphere, N2(50%)+O2(50%), at about 350 °C. The results are different from those in undoped YBa2Cu3Oy and some doped systems. It is suggested that Ca prefers a sixfold coordination, which causes the oxygen loss in Cu(2)-O plane and the weight and heat anomalies at different temperature in different atmospheres. The oxygen loss in Cu(2)-O plane is also responsible for Tc suppression in Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3Oy.

Zhang, L.; Sun, X. F.; Rui, X. F.; Zhang, H.

182

Preparation and characterization of homogeneous YBCO single crystals with doping level near the SC-AFM boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-purity and homogeneous YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals with carrier doping level near the AFM-SC boundary have been obtained in the oxygen content range between /y=6.340 and 6.370. The crystals are ortho-II phase at room temperature and undergo the orthorhombic to tetragonal transition at about 140 /°C. They show sharp superconducting transitions, with Tc between 4 and 20 K. Tc changes by 0.8 K when the oxygen content y is changed by 0.001, and is also sensitive to annealing conditions near room temperature, due to the dependence of doping on oxygen ordering correlation lengths. Crystals with oxygen content y lower than 6.345 are non-superconducting.

Liang, R.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Wynn, J. C.; Moler, K. A.; Lu, L.; Larochelle, S.; Zhou, L.; Greven, M.; Lurio, L.; Mochrie, S. G. J.

2002-12-01

183

Terahertz absorption and dispersion of fluorine-doped single-walled carbon nanotube  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental and theoretical results on the absorption and dispersion of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with and without fluorine (F) doping in the frequency range of 0.2-3 THz. Under the doping conditions, the power absorption, index of refraction, and the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity are decreased compared to those for pure SWNTs because the charge transfer to the F{sub 2} molecule will be increased. Our measurement of pure SWNT agrees well with the Maxwell-Garnett and Drude models. However, the F-doped SWNT requires adding a Lorentz oscillator term for good agreement between theory and measurement.

Jeon, Tae-In; Son, Joo-Hiuk; An, Kay Hyeok; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young Seak [Division of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, National Research Laboratory for Carbon Nanotubes, Center for Nanotubes and Nanostructured Composites, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanotechnology Center, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-08-01

184

Optimization of transparent electrode for solar cell. Technical report, 15 September 1981-14 September 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrically conductive, transparent films of fluorine doped tin oxide have been investigated during this contract. These films were grown by the chemical vapor deposition from tetramethyl tin (TMT) in the presence of air and a freon (bromotrifluoromethane). In order to find the optimal conditions for growing high quality films, the concentrations of the reactants were varied, and the resulting film

R. G. Gordon; J. Proscia; F. Ellis; S. Kurtz

1982-01-01

185

Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel film for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation stability  

SciTech Connect

V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel films were fabricated by casting V{sub 2}O{sub 5} sols onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates at room temperature. Five, ten and twenty atomic layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were grown onto as-fabricated films respectively. The bare film and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-deposited films all exhibited hydrous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase only. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed increased surface charge-transfer resistance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films as more Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layers were deposited. Lithium-ion intercalation tests at 600 mAg{sup -1} showed that bare V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel film possessed high initial discharge capacity of 219 mAhg{sup -1} but suffered from severe capacity degradation, i.e., having only 136 mAhg{sup -1} after 50 cycles. After deposition of ten atomic layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the initial discharge capacity was 195 mAhg{sup -1} but increased over cycles before stabilizing; after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity was as high as 225 mAhg{sup -1}. The noticeably improved cyclic stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-deposited V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel film could be attributed to the improved surface chemistry and enhanced mechanical strength. During repeated lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation, atomic layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which were coated onto V{sub 2}O{sub 5} surface could prevent V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode dissolution into electrolyte by reducing direct contact between active electrode and electrolyte while at the same time acting as binder to maintain good mechanical contact between nanoparticles inside the film.

Liu Dawei; Liu Yanyi; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Cao Guozhong; Liu, Jun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); National Center for Nanomaterials Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

186

Film Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

1987-01-01

187

Band Gap Energies of CdO:F Semiconductor Films Produced by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) samples have been deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method (USP). The absorption spectra of the samples showed that CdO:F is a direct band gap material. The direct optical transition has shifted towards the shorter wavelengths, and the transparency of the material has increased at a given wavelength above the fundamental absorption edge. The optical

Sinan Irmak; Metin Kul

2007-01-01

188

Thin films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates the behavior of thin films for reflected light. The user can change the angle of the incident beam, the thickness of the thin film and the type of thin film used. Two types of thin film are allowed.

Renault, Pascal

2009-12-04

189

Optimization of transparent electrode for solar cells. Technical progress report, 15 December 1980-15 June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped tin oxide films prepared from highly purified tetramethyl tin (TMT) were compared with films prepared under identical conditions using less pure TMT. No effects due to impurities were found. The use of thermocouples to measure the temperature of glass surfaces is found to be unsatisfactory, and the need is found for an infrared emission thermometer. Effects of impurities from

1981-01-01

190

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)|

Dowling, John, Ed.

1976-01-01

191

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

Dowling, John, Ed.

1976-01-01

192

Film Boxes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)|

Osterer, Irv

2002-01-01

193

Film Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of Microbiology Films (Part I)Films for TeachingBacteriological Techniques. (2 parts) 81-004 and 81-005, Film-loop, colour, 7 min 45 sec Produced by Thorne\\/BSCS: U.S.A. 1964Microtechniques. (1) dilution plating (2) inoculation with a loop, Film loops, colour, (1) 3 min 50 sec, (2) 1 min 15 sec. Produced by Nuffield Foundation Science Teaching Project: U.K. 1966Neurospora Techniques. (2 parts) 81-007 and

H. V. Wyatt

1968-01-01

194

On Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

Watts, Marty

2006-01-01

195

Nanocomposite films  

DOEpatents

A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

2010-07-20

196

On Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

Watts, Marty

2006-01-01

197

Pulse-reverse electrodeposition of transparent nickel phosphide film with porous nanospheres as a cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A Ni2P nanolayer with porous nanospheres was directly coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by pulse-reverse deposition as a low-cost counter electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.32% by using a porous nanosphere catalyst due to the significantly improved ion transport. PMID:24132176

Wu, Mao-Sung; Wu, Jia-Fang

2013-10-29

198

Fabrication and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 by loaded with Ag.  

PubMed

F-doped TiO2 loaded with Ag (Ag/F-TiO2) was prepared by sol-gel process combined with photoreduction method. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL). XPS analysis indicated Ag species existed as Ag0 in the structure of Ag/F-TiO2 samples. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that the light absorption of Ag/F-TiO2 in the visible region had a significant enhancement compared with the F-doped TiO2 (F-TiO2). PL analysis indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate had been effectively inhibited when Ag loaded on the surface of F-TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated for the degradation of X-3B (Reactive Brilliant Red dye, C.I. reactive red 2) under visible light (lambda > 420 nm) irradiation. Compared with F-TiO2, the sample of 0.50 Ag/F-TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The interaction between F species and metallic Ag was responsible for improving the visible light photocatalytic activity. PMID:22413345

Lin, Xiaoxia; Rong, Fei; Ji, Xiang; Fu, Degang; Yuan, Chunwei

2011-11-01

199

Fluorine-doped SiO 2 and CF low- k dielectrics obtained during RIE process in fluorine plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of silicon dioxide reactive ion etching (RIE) parameters and the type of plasma on the concentration of fluorine and its chemical compounds, such as CF, SiF and SiOF, in the polymer layer that is formed during this process on the top of etched layer, and their thermal stability.The polymeric layer formed on the etched surface

Ma?gorzata Kalisz; R. B. Beck; M. ?wil

2008-01-01

200

FSU Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Having won over 600 honors, awards, prizes, and featured screenings across the globe, the Florida State University School of Motion Picture, Television, and Recording Arts is proud to present this one-of-a-kind showcase of many of their best films. This free, nonprofit Web site offers information on hundreds of student-produced films, most of which can be viewed directly online using RealPlayer or Quicktime. Also, Internet2 users may view high quality Internet2 encoded films using the MPEG-1 format. On the whole, film lovers and other interested parties should find this site useful and entertaining.

1989-01-01

201

Film ispalators  

SciTech Connect

New physical objects, ispalators based on free soap films, exhibit persistent flows of the soap solution in open and closed volumes in air with additions of gases of the C{sub 8}F{sub 18} type (p = 20 Torr) at temperature drops on the films of the order of tenths and hundredths of kelvin. The flows move continuously at a velocity of 5 - 20 cm s{sup -1}. It is found that the parts of an inclined ispalator film show anomalous behaviour upon heating: their weight increases and they move downward over the film, whereas the unheated parts of the film move upward. Continuous radial vortex flows accompanied by the formation and washing of the regions of a thin black film are observed on circular films in closed volumes upon their uniform external cooling by evaporating water for 5 - 10 hours. The rapid flows make film ispalators the efficient heat carriers, which operate at small temperature drops (tenths and hundredths of kelvin) and surpass copper in the amount of thermal energy being transferred. The outlook for the further study and applications of film ispalators for detecting thermal fields and laser radiation is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-05-31

202

Understanding the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to encourage moviegoers to become film viewers, this book divides the various aspects of film into the following chapters: "The Most Popular Art Form,""The World of Film,""Viewing the Film: The First Level of Understanding,""The Language of Film,""From Script to Film: A case Study,""Evaluating Film: 'Does It Work?""Evaluating Film:…

Johnson, Ron; Bone, Jan

203

Ephemeral Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ephemeral films are those films that are made "for educational, industrial, or promotional purposes" and they are a specialty over at the Internet Archive. This delightful collection is both informative and amusing and contains over 200 of these films. Visitors can view the "Most Downloaded Items Last Week" to get a sense of the wisdom of the crowds, or they can go their own way by browsing by subject or keyword. The site has a number of sub-collections, including one dedicated to drive-in movie ads and public information films created by the British government. Visitors shouldn't miss the public service announcements by the U.S. Civil Defense office aimed at farmers (the "actors" are marionettes) or the "Beginning Responsibility: Lunchroom Manners" instructional film.

204

Measurement of Absolute Densities of SiFx in Electron Cyclotron Resonance SiF4 Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films have been studied intensively as interlayer low dielectric films in ULSI. The SiOF films are deposited by using a plasma CVD method with a mixture of SiF_4\\/SiH4 gases. It is indispensable to know the behaviors of feed gas and reactive species in the plasma to develop the films with good quality. In this study, we

Masayuki Nakamura; Hiroyoshi Arai; Koji Miyata; Masafumi Ito; Masaru Hori; Toshio Goto

1997-01-01

205

Film Makers On Film Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

206

Film Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin Deep, by Disney Studios in conjunction with the National Anorexic Aid Society. 26 minutes; available in VHS and ¾? u-matic formats; order from Coronet\\/MTI-Film and Video, Inc., 108 Wilmot Road, Deerfield, IL 60015.

Richard A. Gordon

1994-01-01

207

Piezoelectric Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)|

Garrison, Steve

1992-01-01

208

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)

Ladd, George T.

1974-01-01

209

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)|

Ladd, George T.

1974-01-01

210

Dye-sensitized solar cell based on optically transparent TiO 2 nanocrystalline electrode prepared by atomized spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of crack-free thin films of interconnected and non-agglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles on electronically conducting fluorine doped tin oxide surfaces is instrumental in designing and developing transparent dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A novel technique called “Atomized Spray Pyrolysis” (ASP) has been designed and developed to achieve such perfectly transparent thin films. Optical transmittance of TiO2 films produced on FTO surface by

H. M. N. Bandara; R. M. G. Rajapakse; K. Murakami; G. R. R. A. Kumara; G. Anuradha Sepalage

2011-01-01

211

Rainbow Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use clear nail polish to create a beautiful iridescent pattern on black paper. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a material's properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

212

Short Films from the Topology Films Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a series of 17 short, computer-animated films produced by the Topology Films Project, supported by the National Science Foundation. The films, distributed by the International Film Bureau, illustrate the concepts of limit and space-f...

N. L. Max

1978-01-01

213

Black Films and Film-Makers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

214

Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (Ic) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy or YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed.

Tomita, M.; Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

2013-10-01

215

Graded finite element simulation of thermal stress in inhomogeneous high-Tc superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YBa2Cu3Oy is an orthotropic material with different material properties in a, b and c directions, such as Young’s modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and thermal conductivity. It is assumed that the material properties of inhomogeneous high temperature superconductor (HTS) vary with different height coordinate and temperature. A model is presented in this paper to calculate the thermal stress of inhomogeneous HTS when temperature decreases from ambient to operating conditions (cryogenic temperatures). By fitting a second order polynomial to the experimental data, value of the material properties of inhomogeneous HTS can be obtained. Then, through the proposed graded finite element method, the coupled thermo-mechanical equations were solved numerically. The numerical results show that the temperature profiles distribute the function of time after soaking. It is notable that the temperature profile reaches steady in a very short period of time, so the thermal stress suddenly increases to a very high level for a bulk superconductor. It is also shown that the closer to the sample internal region it is, the larger the heat fluxes are. Besides, the maximum tensile stresses, i.e. the peeling stresses, occur near bottom corner of inhomogeneous HTS. It is intended that the model presented in this paper could be useful to researchers who are interested in mechanical properties of inhomogeneous HTS.

Gao, Zhi-Wen; Zhou, You-He; Lee, Kang Yong

2010-12-01

216

Effects of binder addition on the mechanical properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the effects of binder addition on the mechanical properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. We prepared YBa2Cu3Oy, Y2BaCuO5 powders and polyvinyl alcohol mixed with water as a binder. These raw materials were mixed, and the binder-added powders were pressed into pellets. The hardness of the green compacts with binder is higher than that without the binder. However, the hardness of green compacts with 8% binder is the same as that with 4% binder. The maximum compression strength of the precursor with binder is higher than that without binder. Equally, the maximum strength of the green compacts with 8% binder is higher than that with 4% binder. The differential thermal analysis measurements showed that the exothermic reaction due to the decomposition of the organic binder started at 550 °C and gradually proceeded with further heating. After de-binder treatment, BaCO3 powders were produced on the green compacts. The green compacts were subjected to melt-processing. We also measured trapped magnetic fields of binder-added bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with a Hall probe scanning device. Trapped magnetic field of the bulk added with 4% is higher than that of the binder-free bulk. Hence, Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk with suitable amount of binder shows good influence for mechanical strength and trapped magnetic field.

Seki, H.; Wongsatanawarid, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Murakami, M.

2010-11-01

217

Nodal quasiparticle dynamics in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 revealed by precision microwave spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CeCoIn5 is a heavy fermion superconductor with strong similarities to the high-Tc cuprates, including quasi-two-dimensionality, proximity to antiferromagnetism and probable d-wave pairing arising from a non-Fermi-liquid normal state. Experiments allowing detailed comparisons of their electronic properties are of particular interest, but in most cases are difficult to realize, due to their very different transition temperatures. Here we use low-temperature microwave spectroscopy to study the charge dynamics of the CeCoIn5 superconducting state. The similarities to cuprates, in particular to ultra-clean YBa2Cu3Oy, are striking: the frequency and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle conductivity are instantly recognizable, a consequence of rapid suppression of quasiparticle scattering below Tc; and penetration-depth data, when properly treated, reveal a clean, linear temperature dependence of the quasiparticle contribution to superfluid density. The measurements also expose key differences, including prominent multiband effects and a temperature-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle mass.

Truncik, C. J. S.; Huttema, W. A.; Turner, P. J.; Özcan, S.; Murphy, N. C.; Carrière, P. R.; Thewalt, E.; Morse, K. J.; Koenig, A. J.; Sarrao, J. L.; Broun, D. M.

2013-09-01

218

Nodal quasiparticle dynamics in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 revealed by precision microwave spectroscopy.  

PubMed

CeCoIn5 is a heavy fermion superconductor with strong similarities to the high-Tc cuprates, including quasi-two-dimensionality, proximity to antiferromagnetism and probable d-wave pairing arising from a non-Fermi-liquid normal state. Experiments allowing detailed comparisons of their electronic properties are of particular interest, but in most cases are difficult to realize, due to their very different transition temperatures. Here we use low-temperature microwave spectroscopy to study the charge dynamics of the CeCoIn5 superconducting state. The similarities to cuprates, in particular to ultra-clean YBa2Cu3Oy, are striking: the frequency and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle conductivity are instantly recognizable, a consequence of rapid suppression of quasiparticle scattering below Tc; and penetration-depth data, when properly treated, reveal a clean, linear temperature dependence of the quasiparticle contribution to superfluid density. The measurements also expose key differences, including prominent multiband effects and a temperature-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle mass. PMID:24051545

Truncik, C J S; Huttema, W A; Turner, P J; Ozcan, S; Murphy, N C; Carrière, P R; Thewalt, E; Morse, K J; Koenig, A J; Sarrao, J L; Broun, D M

2013-09-20

219

Energy on Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is a guide to films on energy conservation issues. The first section is a film source index which lists the organizations, their addresses and telephone numbers. The main body of the publication lists and describes films. This film listing is organized by topics to which the films relate. Topics include: (1) What is energy?; (2)…

New York State Alliance to Save Energy, Inc., New York.

220

Film reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dancer and the DanceProducer: National Film and Television School, and Royal Anthropological Institute; Director: Felicia Hughes?Freeland; Camera: Amy Hardy; Sound and Editing: Felicia Hughes?Freeland. Distributed by the Royal Anthropological Institute, 50 Fitzroy Street, London W1P 5HS, U.K. Tel: (071) 387–0455; fax (071) 383–4235. 1988, color, 44 minutes, 16mm, 1\\/2 inch, NTSC, PAL. Rental £27.00 for 16mm, £12.00 for video

Andrée Grau; Peter Wade

1992-01-01

221

Optimization of transparent electrode for solar cells. Technical progress report, 15 December 1980-15 June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Fluorine-doped tin oxide films prepared from highly purified tetramethyl tin (TMT) were compared with films prepared under identical conditions using less pure TMT. No effects due to impurities were found. The use of thermocouples to measure the temperature of glass surfaces is found to be unsatisfactory, and the need is found for an infrared emission thermometer. Effects of impurities from glass substrates are briefly discussed. Conditions for preparing samples are given. (LEW)

Gordon, R.G.

1981-01-01

222

Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

Schillaci, Peter

223

Viscous extensional film withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a viscous film is withdrawn from a bath of fluid the dominant flow in the film is extensional, unlike the shear flow which occurs in e.g. thin films wetting solid objects that are withdrawn from a bath of fluid. Previous work revisited theory describing the thickness of a soap film withdrawn from a bath, and found that it scales

Ernst A. van Nierop; Benoit Scheid; Martin Heller; Henrik Bruus; Howard A. Stone

2008-01-01

224

Film Gris: Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thom Andersen defined film gris as an offshoot of film noir characterized by leftist criticism of American society (1947-1951). This article reviews Andersen's work on film gris, identifies some problems in the work, proposes solutions, and provides a reconceived overview of the content and context of the films.

Joshua Hirsch

2006-01-01

225

British Council Film: British Council Film Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Council Film "is the link between UK films and filmmakers and new international audiences." Along with their work promoting a set of productive artistic and commercial relationships and networks, they have also digitized 80 remarkable short films. The films were originally produced by the British Council during the 1940s and were designed "to show the world how Britain lived, worked, and played." By the 1960s, many people had forgotten about these delightful works, so it was fortunate that in 2010 a new project was started to bring the films online for the Web-browsing public. Today, visitors can look through the films, which include "Architects of England," "Cricket," and "Country Town." Visitors can search for films by year or by theme, and they can also read several essays which provide background on the collection.

226

Thin Film Interference Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thin Film Interference model investigates reflection and transmission of light through a thin film. The user can change the thickness and index of refraction of the thin film as well as the incident light wavelength. The Thin Film Interference Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_ThinFilm.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

227

Patterning of periodic high-aspect-ratio nanopores in anatase titanium dioxide from titanium fluoride hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report straight pores in titanium dioxide produced by a pattern transfer method with titanium fluoride hydrolysis. The resulting films on fluorine-doped tin oxide had pores with diameters of 30 nm and depths of 500 nm, corresponding to aspect ratios of 1 : 17.We report straight pores in titanium dioxide produced by a pattern transfer method with titanium fluoride hydrolysis. The resulting films on fluorine-doped tin oxide had pores with diameters of 30 nm and depths of 500 nm, corresponding to aspect ratios of 1 : 17. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis procedure and X-ray diffraction data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr01010c

Tevis, Ian D.; Stupp, Samuel I.

2011-05-01

228

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994  

SciTech Connect

Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-07-01

229

New UV-enhanced solar blind optical sensors based on monocrystalline zinc sulphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-enhanced monocrystalline zinc sulphide optical sensors with high quantum efficiency have been developed by spray deposition of heavy fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films onto the surface of zinc sulphide monocrystals as an alternative to the UV-enhanced high-efficiency silicon photodetectors commonly used in precise radiometric and spectroscopic measurements as well as to new sensors based on SiC and GaN. The

Alexander Malik; Ana Sêco; Elvira Fortunato; Rodrigo Martins

1998-01-01

230

Dye-sensitized solar tubes: A new solar cell design for efficient current collection and improved cell sealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated inside a glass tube to form a dye-sensitized solar tube (DSST) is presented. We developed the synthesis of Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) with a high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance, which was deposited inside a glass tube by spray pyrolysis. The FTO was covered with a mesoporous TiO2 film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD).

Zion Tachan; Sven Rühle; Arie Zaban

2010-01-01

231

Synthesis, growth mechanism and photoelectrochemical properties of BiVO4 microcrystal electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BiVO4 films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by chemical bath deposition. The samples were characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis transmission spectra and a scanning electron microscope. The morphologies of the samples were adjusted by the deposition time, temperature, pH of solution and buffer solution. When the temperature and pH value of the solution were high, the polyhedron

Wenjun Luo; Zhiqiang Wang; Lijuan Wan; Zhaosheng Li; Tao Yu; Zhigang Zou

2010-01-01

232

A novel CuInS2\\/polyaniline base heterojunction solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper indium disulfide (CuInS2) has direct band-gap energy of about 1.5 eV and a large absorption coefficient, which are well suited to the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. In this task a novel florin doped tin oxide (FTO)\\/CuInS2\\/ polyaniline base\\/ZnO\\/FTO heterojunction solar cell was fabricated. CuInS2 thin films were electrodeposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide substrate by the electrodeposition technique.

Sh. M. Ebrahim; I. Morsi; M. M. Soliman; M. Alshrkawy; A. A. Elzaem

2010-01-01

233

Effects of PECVD W-N diffusion barrier on thermal stress and electrical properties of Cu\\/W-N\\/SiOF multilevel interconnect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition W-N diffusion barrier on characteristics of Cu based multilevel interconnect with fluorine doped silicon oxide (SiOF) was investigated. AFM results show that surface roughness of Cu film on the SiOF\\/Si increases 7.27 angstrom to 78.82 angstrom, whereas that of the Cu on the W-N\\/SiOF\\/Si, exhibiting smoother surface, increases from 12.49 to 45.31 angstrom

Yong Tae Kim; Dong J. Kim; Seoghyeong Lee; Young K. Park; Ik-Soo Kim; Jong-Wan Park

1999-01-01

234

High-surface-area microporous carbon as the efficient photocathode of dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of cornstalks-derived high-surface-area microporous carbon (MC) as the efficient photocathode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photocathode, which contains MC active material, Vulcan XC–72 carbon black conductive agent, and TiO2 binder, was obtained by a doctor blade method. Electronic impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the MC film uniformly coated on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) glass

Shengjie Peng; Fangyi Cheng; Jifu Shi; Jing Liang; Zhanliang Tao; Jun Chen

2009-01-01

235

Magnetic Imaging Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical principles behind and various applications of magnetic imaging films are reviewed. The imaging films considered\\u000a include, liquid and solidified nanoparticle films, thin solid films of bismuth-substituted ferrite garnets, and low- and high-coercivity\\u000a amorphous films of rare earth–transition metal alloys (Gd-Co, Tb-Fe-Co). Preparation details and properties of uniaxial and\\u000a planar magneto-optical indicator films (MOIF) are described and discussed alongside

Rostislav Grechishkin; Sergey Chigirinsky; Mikhail Gusev; Orphée Cugat; NORA M. DEMPSEY

236

The Vienna Film School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details the Vienna Film School's program, including outlines of courses offered and projects required. Highlights the suggestions of three professional film directors who teach the program and a student participant. (JMF)

Smejda, Lydia

1980-01-01

237

Epitaxial Magnetic Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research involved studies of the magnetic properties of multilayered magnetic films. Ultra high vacuum sputtering techniques were utilized to prepare the films. The physics of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) and multilayer exchange coupling was inv...

E. D. Dahlberg

1995-01-01

238

Film and the Humanities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on a conference, which brought together representatives of various humanistic disciplines to explore the cross-disciplinary appeal of film study as well as the use of film in stimulating scholarship and teaching, includes a narrative summary o...

J. E. O'Connor

1977-01-01

239

Micro film cooling performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel idea for micro film cooling experiment is proposed and conducted. Both fabrication of a micro film-cooled device and evaluation of its performance are presented. The film cooling device is placed in a wind tunnel system for evaluation with the blowing parameter (M) ranging from 1 to 12.5 and the film jet slot heights of 25?m, 45?m and 50?m,

P. L. Li; H. S. Ko; D. Z. Jeng; C. W. Liu; C. Gau

2009-01-01

240

Exploring the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of film study is defined here in the words of D. W. Griffiths: "My goal is above all to make you see." This book is intended to be used as a text in a film study course. It traces the development of films from a scientific curiosity through silent films to modern wide screen productions. A comic strip is used to demonstrate the effect…

Kuhns, William; Stanley, Robert

241

Film as Film; Understanding and Judging Movies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The criteria for judging movies which are presented here are based on the belief that film criticism becomes rational, if not "objective", when it displays and inspects the nature of its evidence and the bases of its arguments. The author dissents from the view of early film theorists that montage is the essence of cinema, and that cinema is to…

Perkins, V. F.

242

Focus on Shakespearean Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an anthology of reviews and critical pieces of the significant and available Shakespearean films made between 1935 and 1966. Included are three general essays on Shakespearean film by Ian Johnson, Henri Lemaitre, and Geoffrey Reeves. The specific films and their reviewers are: A Midsummer's Night Dream (1935) Allardyce Nicoll and Richard…

Eckert, Charles W., Ed.

243

Health Careers Film Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which represents a survey of the entire health career film field, was designed to provide information for people interested in a health career. The guide indicates that a major criteria for film selection was recency; however, some older films that give a fairly accurate image of a profession were included, with some emphasis given…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.

244

The Sponsored Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For public relations professionals and would-be sponsors of films, this book provides guidelines for understanding the film medium and its potential as a persuasive force in industry, government, organizations, and religious orders. For filmmakers, it brings together practical information needed to survive in the sponsored-film industry and to…

Klein, Walter J.

245

Thick Film Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)|

Trefil, James

1983-01-01

246

Magnetic Film Memory Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin magnetic films of permalloy have characteristics ideal for high-speed digital storage. A simple rotational model modified to include the effects of wall switching and dispersion of the preferred direction of magnetization provides a basis for describing properties of engineering interest. A selection system has been chosen which allows great latitude in film uniformity. Production of films with magnetic properties

J. I. RAFFELt; T. S. Crowther; A. H. Anderson; T. O. Herndon

1961-01-01

247

Particle film technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Particle Film Technology involves establishing a mineral particle film on the surface of a plant or plant product that: (1) is chemically inert, (2) has a mean particle diameter < 2 um, (3) is formulated to spread and create a uniform film, (4) does not physically disrupt gas exchange from the le...

248

Film Program Notes from the Current Holdings of the Anthology Film Archives; Outlines of 41 Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of film program notes includes mixed commentary on some of the films held in the Anthology Film Archives (a film and book library in New York City). Some of the films are described by synopsis of the episodes and others by translation into English of the foreign language subtitles. However, each film noted is identified by full…

Anthology Film Archives, New York, NY.

249

In situ control of phenol adsorption on conductive Pd-fluorine-doped tin dioxide-supported and Pd-alumina-supported catalysts in electrocatalytic hydrogenation.  

PubMed

In the context of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) process of unsaturated organic molecules, we have shown using infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements that catalysts powders made of palladium on conductive tin dioxide (10% Pd/SnO2:F) and on alumina (10% Pd/Al2O3) are functionalized with organic chains when they were dipped in supporting electrolyte aqueous solutions containing different carboxylic acids. The carboxylic acids are bound to the supports (SnO2:F and Al2O3) through either the carboxyl or carboxylate groups. The measurement of contact angles confirmed that the support surface is functionalized by the carboxylic acids but also indicated the hydrophobic or hydrophilic character of the resultant surface. With these functionalized catalysts, the effectiveness of electrocatalytic hydrogenation of phenol could be modulated by controlling the adsorption of phenol. The adsorption depends mainly on the functionalization agent (carboxylic acid) and to a lesser extent on the identity of the support material (SnO2:F or Al2O3). Because adsorption is the step that induces the selectivity of the ECH process, controlling this phenomenon by functionalizing the catalyst support in situ is promising for obtaining molecules of choice. PMID:19735154

Tountian, Dihourahouni; Brisach-Wittmeyer, Anne; Nkeng, Paul; Poillerat, Gérard; Ménard, Hugues

2009-09-15

250

Nitrogen- and fluorine-doped ZrO2: a promising p-n junction for an ultraviolet light-emitting diode.  

PubMed

In this work we study the effect of nitrogen (N) and fluorine (F) doping on the electronic properties of ZrO(2) by using ab initio electronic structure calculations. Our calculations show the importance of on-site Coulomb correlation in estimating the correct band gap of ZrO(2). The N and F doping provide hole- and electron-type impurity states in the band gap closer to the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band, respectively. The formation of such impurity states may be exploited in fabricating a p-n junction expected to be useful in making an ultraviolet light-emitting diode. PMID:22809869

Pandey, Sudhir K

2012-07-18

251

Viscous extensional film withdrawal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a viscous film is withdrawn from a bath of fluid the dominant flow in the film is extensional, unlike the shear flow which occurs in e.g. thin films wetting solid objects that are withdrawn from a bath of fluid. Previous work revisited theory describing the thickness of a soap film withdrawn from a bath, and found that it scales as h Cs^2/3, where Cs is the surface capillary number which accounts for surface viscosity. For viscous films without surfactants, and hence no surface viscosity, film thickness was found to scale as h Ca^2 for Ca << 1. In this work, we compare the theoretical predictions to experimental and numerical investigations of viscous film thicknesses, and furthermore we consider regimes where other contributions to the stress balance are important, such as gravity for Ca=O(1).

van Nierop, Ernst A.; Scheid, Benoit; Heller, Martin; Bruus, Henrik; Stone, Howard A.

2008-11-01

252

Thick film traps with an irregular film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for preparation of sorbent-based ultra-thick film traps for concentration of trace volatile components from gaseous matrices is described. The procedure is based on blowing a prepolymer (polydimethylsiloxane) through a capillary tube, forming an irregular film of stationary phase. Subsequently, the prepolymer is immobilized in a few seconds by heating to 200°C. Evaluation of the performance of the

Adam Kloskowski; Johan Pettersson; Johan Roeraade

2004-01-01

253

The Greatest Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Timothy Dirks, Manager of Public Programs at The Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose, California, also wears another hat, that of dedicated amateur film buff. This site is the result of that hobby, and it is one of the better amateur sites on its topic. At the heart of the site is a list of the author's choice for 100 greatest films of all time (English language films only). Each of these films is reviewed in depth. An introductory section explains criteria. A second list of the 100 runner-ups (more briefly annotated) is also provided, as well as sections on greatest film quotes and scenes, an essay on genres, and a beautiful collection of hundreds of film posters from Adam's Rib to You Can't Take it With You. While you may not agree with Mr. Dirks' picks, that is half the fun of a site like this. Note that the popularity of the site curtails access at times.

254

Renaissance of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

Bellone, Julius, Ed.

255

Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin film is one of the most studied materials due to its unique features. The a-C:H\\u000a thin film is a remarkable material because of its novel optical, mechanical and electrical properties and its similarities\\u000a to diamond. In this chapter we reviewed the structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin\\u000a films prepared in a

Suriani Abu Bakar; Azira Abdul Aziz; Putut Marwoto; Samsudi Sakrani; Mohamad Rusop

256

Microfilm--Which Film Type, Which Application?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Report on characteristics of different kinds of microfilm available indicates proper film for specific needs. Silver halide and nonsilver films, diazo film, vesicular film, reaction of films to light, effect of heat and humidity on films, film susceptibility to scratching, and potential longevity of film types are covered. (35 references) (EJS)|

Dodson, Suzanne Cates

1985-01-01

257

Optical thin film devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when designing optical thin film devices. Therefore, chemical and mechanical, as well as optical properties of thin films and optical system, should be known. Following is the outline of design method and applications of optical thin film devices according to the classification of our factory, Shanghai Optical Instrument Factory.

Mao, Shuzheng

1991-11-01

258

Film in Education: This Worked for Me.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several techniques for teaching film appreciation to adults are discussed, including the use of audio cassettes, instructional films, silent films, and film dissection. Included are the techniques, philosophy, and content of a seminar on the short film, i...

M. P. Breen

1977-01-01

259

Anisotropy in Epitaxial Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments on epitaxial Ni films grown on epitaxial Cu films grown on single crystal (100) Si wafers in a molecular beam epitaxy system modified to make in situ magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements were carried out. Ex situ transmission electron...

C. V. Thompson R. C. O'Handley

1997-01-01

260

Street Children in Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

In examining the depiction of street children in three classic films: Kids, Pixote, and Salaam Bombay, I argue that the respective directors play upon our protean concepts of “the street” and “the child” in order to offer social criticism of three types of states: the consumerist state, the authoritarian state, and the neocolonialist state. In each film, street life is

Irving Epstein

1999-01-01

261

Dental Training Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

262

Touching Soap Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from the Free University in Berlin introduces a large site on the use of tension structures in architecture, and the relationship of these structures to soap films. Various pages discuss the applications of soap film shapes to architecture and crystallography, and also how they are investigated by mathematicians. The numerous sections contain many photographs and illustrations.

Polthier, Prof. D.

2010-07-09

263

Film Canister Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on botany activity, learners sprout vegetables in film canisters. Learners grow nine seeds each of cabbage, radish, and parsley, experimenting with changing one variable (light, water, or temperature) to explore differences in the germination preferences of the plants. If film canisters aren't available, other small, opaque containers with lids can be substituted.

Exploratorium

2013-01-30

264

Film Study Hang Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The interest and delight which students find in film should be preserved from a teacher's excessive zeal to analyze and explain. As the beauty of poetry is frequently diminished through exhaustive analyses of similes, rhyme schemes, and other technical devices, the value of film to high school students can be weakened through too great an…

Grenier, Charles F.

1969-01-01

265

Thin Film Microcircuit Interconnections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process specifications for the deposition of all the thin films have been finalized. The technique for fabricating tantalum-aluminum films has been changed. AC impedance measurements at 200 MHz indicate that this technique is not as good as DC measurement...

H. M. Greenhouse R. T. Galla T. H. Yaffe W. W. Richardson

1966-01-01

266

Corporate sponsored image films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast number of high quality corporate image and advocacy films, combined with the many other instruments of persuasion and control by corporations, powerfully direct the attitudes of the populace. In the absence of equal access, the best protection against deception from any powerful institution is skepticism — minds trained in critical thinking. But technically proficient, expensive films (costing from

James R. Bennett

1983-01-01

267

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

268

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

1995-09-19

269

Construction of Meaning: Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that film has no clear set of rules, unlike all languages, which are deductive systems interpreted according to clear sets of rules. Suggests that film is an inductive system whose interpretation is based on a general understanding of events depicted as modified by production variables such as lighting, camera angles, and the context of…

Pryluck, Calvin

1995-01-01

270

Authors on Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

271

Film and the Humanities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on a conference, which brought together representatives of various humanistic disciplines to explore the cross-disciplinary appeal of film study as well as the use of film in stimulating scholarship and teaching, includes a narrative summary of the day's conversations and issues raised, as well as of reprints of articles that suggest…

O'Connor, John E., Ed.

272

THERMALLY PROCESSED KERATIN FILMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Keratin obtained from chicken feathers is modified with glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer. Films are prepared by pressing the modified keratin at temperatures concurrent with typical polymer processing temperatures. The films are completely cohesive as opposed to partially cohesive if pressed ...

273

Portal film technique charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to produce consistent radiographic density in portal film images is described. The exposure required to produce the desired film density can be calculated on the basis of tissue depth dose data. The required exposure is tabulated as a function of patient thickness, field size, and air gap between the patient and the cassette. The table, referred to as

Ronald T. Droege; Thomas K. Stefanakos

1985-01-01

274

Film and the Humanities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report on a conference, which brought together representatives of various humanistic disciplines to explore the cross-disciplinary appeal of film study as well as the use of film in stimulating scholarship and teaching, includes a narrative summary of the day's conversations and issues raised, as well as of reprints of articles that suggest…

O'Connor, John E., Ed.

275

Creative Film-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamentals of motion picture photography are introduced with a physiological explanation for the illusion of motion in a film. Film stock formats and emulsions, camera features, and lights are listed and described. Various techniques of exposure control are illustrated in terms of their effects. Photographing action with a stationary or a…

Smallman, Kirk

276

FAA Film Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

277

Bright Lights Film Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially started as a print journal in 1974, online publication of Bright Lights Film Journal began in 1996, and continues to the present day. As noted on its site, the journal is "a popular-academic hybrid of movie analysis, history, and commentary, looking at classic and commercial, independent, exploitation, and international film from a wide range of vantage points from the aesthetic to the political." The journal is edited by Gary Morris, and contains pieces by a number of persons, including independent writers, film critics, and freelance journalists. While users can browse the archives dating back to 1996, the articles are also thematically organized on a sidebar on the homepage. These themes include Animation, Hong Kong films, Documentaries, and Film Noir. The interviews section is quite strong, and contains candid pieces with Frederico Fellini, Robert Wise, and John Woo.

278

Gordon Knox Film Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon Knox was born in Greenville, Texas and during his long career he made a wide range of documentary films for the United States Armed Forces, state and federal government agencies, and private sector clients. In 1941, Knox formed the Princeton Film Center in Princeton, New Jersey, and over the coming years he would create profiles of Princeton ("University Town"), "Fortress in the Sky" (for Boeing), and "This is Macy's", which was an orientation film for new employees at this celebrated department store. Visitors can search all of the materials (including the films) in the Knox archive via the search engine here, and they can also look through the "Recent Additions" area to look at new photos, manuscripts, and other items of note. One film that should not be missed is the 1948 documentary "What is Modern Art", which explores the question of recent transformations throughout the art world.

279

Application of YIG film to thin film inductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of YIG (yttrium iron garnet) films to thin film inductors is examined up to 1 GHz. The application of a YIG film to thin film inductors made it possible to increase the inductance without increasing the stray capacitance. The sandwich-type YIG inductor exhibited an inductance 40 times larger than that of a similar air core inductor. The inductance

K. I. Arai; M. Yamaguchi; H. Ohzeki; M. Matsumoto

1991-01-01

280

Increase of force in magnetic levitation by using field cooled yttrium barium copper oxide trapped field magnets instead of ferromagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes how forces in magnetic levitation systems can be increased by using YBa2Cu3Oy high temperature superconductors (HTS) cooled in the uniform field of an electromagnet (2.3 T), instead of ferromagnets. The HTS, cooled in a field greater than its maximum trapped field (Bt,max), is in the fully saturated critical state (fcsat). Hence, it produces fields equal to its Bt,max, up to 1.6 T in this work. Since commonly used permanent ferromagnets (PM), of the size used in this work, produce only up to 0.5 T, replacing the PM in levitation systems with such HTS ``trapped field magnets'' significantly increases the magnetic fields and thus the levitation forces. We also cool HTS in zero field (zfc) or adjacent to a PM or fc sat HTS (fcadj). We thus study six configurations of PM - HTS or HTS - HTS levitation: a PM or a fc sat HTS opposed by either a zfc, fcsat, or fcadj HTS. Levitation forces and lateral forces, as well as their behavior in multiple cycles of approach and retreat, are investigated. Compared to levitation systems with PM, forces increase by a factor of four to ten in configurations with fcsat HTS. Up to 393 N (125 N/cm2) are obtained. In multiple cycles, forces decrease 10-40% during the first 5-10 cycles, but then stabilize at a constant level. Experimental force-distance curves were fitted to phenomenological models. Furthermore, force maxima were calculated as functions of the maximum trapped field of the HTS following Bean's model. Lateral forces were used to estimate the stability of the different configurations. Arrangements of several zfc samples with high levitation force and good stability were demonstrated.

Hennig, Wolfgang

1999-11-01

281

Bursting of Viscous Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disintegration of a thin film of an inviscid fluid due to a growing hole was studied by Taylor and Culick. A cylindrical rim appears at the end of the film, which retracts at a constant velocity V_0. Debrégeas, de Gennes and Brochard-Wyart have conducted experiments with highly viscous viscoelastic films showing that the retraction velocity is exponential at short times and saturates to a constant value at late times. They observe also that the films have uniform thickness and no end rim, and explain this using an argument of viscoelasticity. We show that the uniform thickness might be a purely viscous response of the system. A rim exists at the end of the film but its axial length is controlled by the Oseen length ? / V_0. If this length is larger than the axial extent of the film, as in the experiments, then the film is uniformly flat. If not, a rim exists and its shape is described by a self-similar evolution. A similarity solution is presented.

Gueyffier, Denis; Brenner, Michael

1998-11-01

282

Wetting film dynamics and stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the wetting films are similar in many aspects to other thin liquid films, there are some differences in their behavior, too. In contrast to soap and emulsion films, whose surfaces are homogeneous, solid substrates of wetting films are heterogeneous as a rule, unless special measures for their homogenization are taken. Here we mean primarily heterogeneous distribution of surface energy

B. Radoev; K. W. Stoeckelhuber; R. Tsekov; P. Letocart

2011-01-01

283

The Art of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author prefaces his consideration of films as an art form with a discussion of the mechanics of filmmaking. He describes the division of talent on a movie set, details the history of the tools of filmmakers, and explains the production and reproduction of a film. The influence of film techniques on plot development in a fiction film is…

Lindgren, Ernest

284

Film and the Liberal Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this book explore the relationship between films and some of the liberal arts. The first set of essays revolves around the topic of films and rhetoric. They describe the special language of films and its unique mode of communication. A second group of essays deals with films and literature and includes discussions on writing for…

Ross, T. J.

285

Her Closet: Narrative Short Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is a detailed demonstration of the process of writing, pre-production, production, editing and exhibition applied to the short narrative film, Her Closet. It critiques the film from story conception, directing and writing applications especially. Contexts for the film are applied in topics of film genre, story form and psychological approaches. This written thesis serves to explain the development

Amy Sanderson

2005-01-01

286

Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films  

SciTech Connect

Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

2000-01-27

287

Film Sound History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by the student chapter of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, this site offers a clear, informative timeline of film sound history. Breaking the century down by decades, the site discusses the main sound innovations of each period, and these brief histories link to related film history sites. The site also features a graph showing the specifications and capability of every major film sound format from Fantasound in 1940 to DTS introduced in 1993. An unannotated list of relevant links rounds out the site.

288

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

1999-03-23

289

Magnetism of nanostructured thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured magnetic materials have unique properties that are different from bulk materials. They are of great scientific interest, as provide many potential applications. This thesis presents the structural and magnetic properties of FePt thin films and FePt-based nanocomposite thin films. FePt thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. By annealing the as-deposited films, high-anisotropy L10 FePt films were obtained. The

Chunping Luo

2000-01-01

290

Sprites on Film  

NASA Video Gallery

Filmed at 10,000 frames per second by Japan's NHK television, movies like this of electromagnetic bursts called "sprites" will help scientists better understand how weather high in the atmosphere relates to weather on the ground.

Holly Zell

2012-08-13

291

Asian Film Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative effort hosted by the Asia Pacific Media Center (APMC) at the University of Southern California's Annenberg Center for Communication, this attractive and content-rich site is an excellent resource for students and aficionados of recent Asian filmmaking. At the site, visitors will find lists of all films made in China, India, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan since 1988, including information such as synopses, filmmakers, cast, length, format, and availability of prints. Sections for each of the countries will also include a general introduction with multiple essays and background, detailed information and video clips for eight to fifteen highlighted films and directors (most include only one of each at present), a list of all internationally awarded films since 1988, and links to course syllabi and other resources for developing educational curriculum on the respective country's film and culture. The site is available in English, Chinese, or Korean, with a Japanese version under development.

1998-01-01

292

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

1998-06-16

293

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

294

Magnesium Film Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure and composition of the various films formed on the magnesium dry cell anode by inhibitors, prior to and during storage, have been examined for the purpose of eliminating or reducing the delayed action and the unproductive corrosion encounter...

C. J. Venuto J. B. Doe J. R. Dafler M. N. Hull

1974-01-01

295

Films on Deafness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This filmography on deafness, which contains summaries of 193 16mm films arranged in alphabetical order by title, covers a wide variety of topics as evidenced by the categorical title index: communication, the nature of deafness, detection and measurement...

S. J. Parlato

1979-01-01

296

Electroluminescent Thin Film Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through modifications in the source design and vacuum deposition procedures leading to increased activator concentration, improved thin film, electroluminescent (EL) phosphor materials were made having outstanding characteristics for display applications....

E. J. Soxman

1966-01-01

297

Mobile Library Filming Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work reported is the result of the design, fabrication, and testing of a Mobile Library Filming Device, consisting of a camera and self-contained power source. The document contains the study, performance test, conclusions, and manufacturer's design, ...

C. E. Martin

1968-01-01

298

Portal film technique charts  

SciTech Connect

A method to produce consistent radiographic density in portal film images is described. The exposure required to produce the desired film density can be calculated on the basis of tissue depth dose data. The required exposure is tabulated as a function of patient thickness, field size, and air gap between the patient and the cassette. The table, referred to as a ''technique chart,'' helps to maintain consistent image quality by minimizing the frequency of over and under exposed films. Alternatively, treatment planning software may be modified to determine the film exposure required for a specific patient. The calculated exposures are accurate only if the image receptor employs a sufficiently thick front metal screen, a requirement consistent with optimum image contrast.

Droege, R.T.; Stefanakos, T.K.

1985-11-01

299

Portal film technique charts.  

PubMed

A method to produce consistent radiographic density in portal film images is described. The exposure required to produce the desired film density can be calculated on the basis of tissue depth dose data. The required exposure is tabulated as a function of patient thickness, field size, and air gap between the patient and the cassette. The table, referred to as a "technique chart," helps to maintain consistent image quality by minimizing the frequency of over and under exposed films. Alternatively, treatment planning software may be modified to determine the film exposure required for a specific patient. The calculated exposures are accurate only if the image receptor employs a sufficiently thick front metal screen, a requirement consistent with optimum image contrast. PMID:4055459

Droege, R T; Stefanakos, T K

1985-11-01

300

Film Noir Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

301

Thin film solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Written for graduate students and R and D scientists and engineers, this text provides a lucid treatment of many facets of materials, technologies, and solid-state physics of thin film solar cell devices. The various types of homo-, hetero-, barrier, and liquid junction solar cells involving amorphous, polycrystalline, and epitaxial semiconductor thin films are all covered. The volume details the basic solid-state physics of junction devices and describes thin film materials and associated preparation, measurement, and analysis techniques, as well as device technology. The authors present a critical comparative analysis of the performance of various types of thin film solar cells in order to focus on the present status of the field and to project future developments.

Chopra, K.L.; Das, S.R.

1983-01-01

302

Quantitative film radiography  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

1991-02-26

303

Thin film tritium dosimetry  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

Moran, Paul R. (Madison, WI)

1976-01-01

304

Mercuric iodide polycrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercuric iodide (HgI2) polycrystalline films are being developed as a new detector technology for digital x-ray imaging. Films have been grown with areas up to 80 cm2 (4' diameter) and thickness of 20-250 micrometers using sublimation. The growth techniques used can be easily extended to produce much larger film areas (>10'x10'). Thickness of the grown layers and size of the grains can be regulated over a wide range by adjusting the growth parameters. The films were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and in response to ionizing radiation. Leakage current as low as 40 pA/cm2 at the operating bias voltage of ~50 V has been observed. High sensitivity and excellent linearity in the response to x-rays was measured. Signals from these HgI2 polycrystalline detectors, in response to ionizing radiation, compare favorably to the best published results for all high Z polycrystalline films grown elsewhere, including TlBr, PbI2 and HgI2. The low dark current, good sensitivity, and linearity of the response to x-rays put HgI2 polycrystalline semiconductor detectors in position as a leading candidate material for use in digital x-ray imaging systems. Our future efforts will concentrate on optimization of film growth techniques specifically for deposition on a-Si:H flat panel readout arrays.

Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn R.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Skinner, Neal; Hoffman, Edward J.; Fornaro, Laura; Mussio, Luis; Saucedo, Edgardo; Gancharov, Alvaro

2001-12-01

305

36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704...CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry...lcweb.loc.gov/film/nfrchron.html. Authority: Pub. L....

2010-07-01

306

36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704...CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry...lcweb.loc.gov/film/nfrchron.html. Authority: Pub. L....

2009-07-01

307

Dynamic Processes in Soap Films  

PubMed Central

Some relations between the two main types of thin liquid films, the water-in-air "soap" films and the invert oil-in-water "lipid" films, are outlined, and several dynamic aspects of film behavior are illustrated and briefly reviewed with reference to more complete treatments. These dynamic processes are important in both types of films, but are easier to study in soap films. The topics include the difference between rigid and mobile films and their interconversion; the origin and measurement of film elasticity; the effect of rate of formation upon film thickness, and the evidence against the existence of thick rigid water layers at the surface; and the kinetics of drainage and the role played in it by viscous flow, marginal regeneration, and intermolecular forces.

Mysels, Karol J.

1968-01-01

308

Heterogeneity in Polymer Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last two decades very extensive studies have been performed on polymer thin films to reveal very interesting but unusual properties. One of the most interesting findings is the decrease in glass transition temperature Tg with film thickness in polystyrene (PS) thin film supported on Si substrate. Another interesting finding is apparent negative thermal expansivity in glassy state for thin films below ~25 nm. In order to understand the unusual properties of polymer thin films we have studied temperature dependence of thickness of polystyrene thin films by means of X-ray and neutron reflectivity. In addition, we also studied dynamics of PS thin films using inelastic neutron scattering. In the presentation we will discuss the results from viewpoints of heterogeneity of polymer thin films. Finally we did neutron reflectivity measurements on a 5-layer thin film, consisting of alternatively stacked d-PS and h-PS layers to see the distribution of glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity directly.

Kanaya, Toshiji; Inoue, Rintaro; Nishida, Koji

2011-07-01

309

Greatest Films of All Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Greatest Films of All Time is a loving tribute to great films, provided by Tim Dirks. Here you can find plot information on hundreds of classic films, arranged by year, genre, and title. Also, there are sections on memorable film quotations (which are linked to the movie they came from), as well as great scenes. Possibly the best part of the entire site is the large bibliography of film reference books. The only drawback to the site is that it is not searchable. Are these the best films of all time? Half the fun of this site is comparing your list to Mr. Dirks'.

Dirks, Tim.

1996-01-01

310

Stability of Soap Films: Hysteresis and Nucleation of Black Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the stability of soap films of a nonionic surfactant under different applied capillary pressures on the film. Depending on the pressure, either a thick common black film (CBF), or a micro­scopically thin Newton black film (NBF) is formed as a (metastable) equilibrium state, with a first-order (discontinuous) transition between the two. Studying the dynamics of the CBF-NBF transition,

Valeria Casteletto; Isabelle Cantat; Dipak Sarker; Richard Bausch; Daniel Bonn; Jacques Meunier

2003-01-01

311

Thin film ellipsometry metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of commercial ellipsometers are available in the market today. They all measure the change in the state of polarization of light on reflection, but the measurement techniques adopted vary from instrument to instrument. Further, the models used to evaluate the thickness and refractive index of the oxide film during analysis of measurement data vary in complexity. The two main techniques of measurement are single wavelength ellipsometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The NIST Standard Reference Materials available today are based on conventional single wavelength ellipsometry. We discuss the challenges encountered in providing reference materials by using spectroscopic ellipsometry. First, the limits of conventional single wavelength ellipsometric determination of film thickness are investigated and then possible new technologies are explored. We present a discussion comparing the different types of instruments available and how their unique designs affect the accuracy of thickness determinations. Manufacturing, and accurate determination, of thickness of films this thin (<10 nm) is a challenging task. Results from independent ellipsometric measurements on two different types of instruments are compared for the case of ultra thin thermally grown silicon dioxide films on silicon crystal substrates. Stability curves for the thickness of thin dielectric films over a period of two years are also presented.

Durgapal, Prabha; Ehrstein, James R.; Nguyen, Nhan V.

1998-11-01

312

The New Film Technologies: Computerized Video-Assisted Film Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past few years, video technology has been used to assist film directors after they have shot a scene, to control costs, and to create special effects, especially computer assisted graphics. At present, a computer based editing system called "Film 5" combines computer technology and video tape with film to save as much as 50% of the cost…

Mott, Donald R.

313

Film properties and integration of a variety of FSG films  

Microsoft Academic Search

FSG films were deposited using a wide variety of manufacturing processes employing PECVD, HDP-CVD with both SiH 4-based and TEOS-based chemistries. Physical and chemical properties were compared for blanket films, and parametric and defect analysis was performed on integrated circuit test structures. Blanket wafer results indicate that the TEOS-based films had the best stability.

R. Wistrom; G. Bomberger; S. Cohen; S. Hazel; M. Lavoie; J. Gambino; D. Poley; O. Dokumaci

2001-01-01

314

Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

Reilly, Adam, Comp.

315

Thin Film Solar Cell Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and...

J. Armstrong F. Jeffrey

1993-01-01

316

The Nuclear Debate in Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)|

Dowling, John

1977-01-01

317

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

1982-01-01

318

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

2006-11-06

319

Dream Use in Film Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between film and dream has an extensive theoretical basis in both cognitive science and cinematic literature. Biographical and autobiographical reports from film makers document antidotal descriptions of the use of dream in creative aspects of screen writing, acting and directing film. However, no systematic or analytic approach has been used in the attempt to document dream utilization in

J. F. Pagel; C. Kwiatkowski; K. E. Broyles

1999-01-01

320

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

321

Analysis of Film as Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Films function as a persuasive process in that they bring about a reinforcement or change in attitude, belief, or behavior by producing a cognitive restructuring of the audience's frame of reference. Organized research into the effects of films falls into two categories: macro-media studies exploring the way films reflect the psychological…

Stupp, Vicki O'Donnell

322

Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Perovskite Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the suppression of ferroelectricity in perovskite thin films is a fundamental issue that has remained unresolved for decades. We report a synchrotron x-ray study of lead titanate as a function of temperature and film thickness for films as thin as a single unit cell. At room temperature, the ferroelectric phase is stable for thicknesses down to 3 unit cells

Dillon D. Fong; G. Brian Stephenson; Stephen K. Streiffer; Jeffrey A. Eastman; Orlando Auciello; Paul H. Fuoss; Carol Thompson

2004-01-01

323

Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

2005-05-01

324

Measuring ‘success’ in film policy: evaluating the New Zealand Film Commission’s Short Film Fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the limitations of the economic rationalist discourse that dominates policy?making through an examination of the New Zealand Film Commission’s short film funding scheme. Short film provides a unique case study of the effects of policy frames on a sector where the values of culture, creativity and careers collide, and where government support has a significant impact on

Emma Blomkamp

2011-01-01

325

Films: 1971/72 Catalog of Films, Film Loops and Filmstrips for Schools, Colleges and Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The films in this catalog are available for sale or rent from Learning Corporation of America. For elementary grades, films are available for use in the language arts and social studies classes. For junior and senior high, college, and adult courses, films are listed for instruction in art, music, and dance; environmental studies; United States…

Learning Corp. of America, New York, NY.

326

Evaluation of PE Film.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the ability of a 3-mil thick adhesive-backed polyethylene film (Polymask) to protect vehicle paint finishes from acid-rain damage. The laboratory tests employed conditions known to be relevant to actual service co...

J. E. Funk T. Hopwood C. M. Oberst

1991-01-01

327

Cross-Examining Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court decision in Scott v. Harris holds that a Georgia police officer did not violate a fleeing suspect's Fourth Amendment rights when he caused the suspect's car to crash. The court's decision relies almost entirely on the filmed version of the high-speed police chase taken from a \\

Jessica M Silbey

2008-01-01

328

Affective understanding in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Affective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. How- ever, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An

Hee Lin Wang; Loong-Fah Cheong

2006-01-01

329

A Film Canister Colorimeter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this…

Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

2002-01-01

330

Navigating Stories in Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This report describes the transformation,of feature films into hypervideo,by representing their story structures using plot unties. Plot units represent cause-effect relationships between,characters’ affect states and the events in a story. We use plot

Andrew Salway; Yan Xu

331

Novel multifunctional films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of films with multifunctionality is of increasing commercial interest. In this paper we concentrate on titania and its combination with other materials in the form of multilayers. Titania is an excellent photocatalyst giving rise to its ‘self-clean’ ability and this combined with tin oxide (energy enhanced coatings), silver (biocidal) and vanadium dioxide (thermochromic) are discussed. We show that

L. A. Brook; P. Evans; H. A. Foster; M. E. Pemble; D. W. Sheel; A. Steele; H. M. Yates

2007-01-01

332

Thin film photovoltaic cell  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

1982-01-01

333

Thin Film Microcircuit Interconnections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation was made of thin film interfacial interconnections and insulating crossovers. The interconnections were subjected to -55C, 125C, and 200C storage for 1000 hrs. 100 thermal cycles from -65C to 125C; and an accelerated aging at 240C (Interfaci...

H. M. Greenhouse R. T. Galla T. H. Yaffe W. W. Richardson W. C. Vergara

1967-01-01

334

Sputtered Thin Film Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress on the process development as it relates to the optical quality of sputtered single crystal films of ZnO, AlN, and TiO2 is discussed. Optical attenuation data for optical waveguide structures comprised of zinc oxide, aluminum nitride, titanium di...

A. J. Shuskus D. J. Quinn E. L. Paradis J. M. Berak D. E. Cullen

1973-01-01

335

Films in Depth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bound in a slipcover rather than in signatures, this "book" is made up of thirteen separately bound booklets. The first booklet is an introduction to the use of film in the classroom both in teaching the filmic art and in increasing the visual literacy of students on the high school and early college levels. The twelve other booklets each treat a…

Schrievogel, Paul A.; Prete, Anthony T.

336

Film, Radio, and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958 are…

Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

1990-01-01

337

Rating Films on TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An analysis of the film viewing habits of Belgian television viewers reveals that movies with advisories regarding sex and violence are watched more than the movies without them. However, movies with qualifications tend to be judged less interesting than movies without qualifications. (JMF)|

Herman, Ginette; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

1977-01-01

338

Exploring Materials: Thin Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a colorful bookmark using a super thin layer of nail polish on water. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a materials' properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

339

Paradoxes in Film Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films

Moore, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

340

EXPERIENCING FILM TOURISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authenticity, existential authenticity, sincerity, hyperreality and simulacra are overlapping concepts often used in accounting for the tourist experience. This study discusses these concepts in the context of a case study of Lord of the Rings film-induced tourism to New Zealand. Findings support an elaborated and extended version of authenticity that incorporates aspects of object and existential authenticity, sincerity of relationships

Kevin Moore; David Fisher

2010-01-01

341

Supersonic film cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The currently available supersonic film cooling effectiveness data can not be reduced to a common correlation even for the same coolant gas. No single parameter or group of parameters has been identified as being responsible for this disparity. In this study, two coolant gases, hydrogen and nitrogen, two nozzle shapes, two coolant Mach numbers, three slot heights, three lip thicknesses,

Robert W. Bass; Larry W. Hardin; Richard J. Rodgers; Richard C. Ernst

1990-01-01

342

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

Smith, Henry I. (Sudbury, MA); Atwater, Harry A. (Somerville, MA); Thompson, Carl V. (Watertown, MA); Geis, Michael W. (Acton, MA)

1986-12-30

343

Magnetism of nanostructured thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured magnetic materials have unique properties that are different from bulk materials. They are of great scientific interest, as provide many potential applications. This thesis presents the structural and magnetic properties of FePt thin films and FePt-based nanocomposite thin films. FePt thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. By annealing the as-deposited films, high-anisotropy L10 FePt films were obtained. The fcc to fct phase transition is dependent on the annealing temperature and time, as well as the composition of the films. In slightly Fe-rich films, a certain degree of (001) texture has been observed. The magnetic properties are dependent on the degree of structure ordering of the films. The relationship between the coercivity and the long-range-order parameter has been investigated. Because of the high anisotropy energy of the L10 phase, FePt films with large coercivity have been obtained. High anisotropy films are potential candidates for extremely high-density magnetic recording media. High- density recording requires media with small grain size. In FePt films, the annealing processes may result in the unfavorable grain growth. Nanocomposite films FePt:SiO2 and FePt:B2O 3 have been fabricated with fine FePt L10 particles embedded in the SiO2 or B2O3 matrix. The presence Of SiO2 or B2O3 suppresses the grain growth, resulting in films with grain size less than 10 run. The structure and magnetic properties of these films are dependent on the processing temperatures and the FePt volume fractions, as well as the matrix materials. For the FePt:SiO 2 nanocomposite films, the required processing temperature is high and the FePt particles are mostly randomly oriented. However, in FePt:B2 O3 nanocomposite films, the processing temperature can be reduced to 500°C because of the low melting point of B2O 3, Furthermore, the easy axes of the FePt particles can be made either in the film-plane or in the film- normal direction, resulting in films with in-plane anisotropy or perpendicular anisotropy. The desired anisotropy direction, large anisotropy constant and coercivity, as well as fine grain size make these nanocomposite films promising candidates for high-density magnetic recording media.

Luo, Chunping

344

Thin-film optical initiator  

DOEpatents

A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

345

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

1986-12-30

346

Method for making carbon films  

DOEpatents

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

347

Method for making carbon films  

DOEpatents

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29

348

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

349

36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NATIONAL FILM REGISTRY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in the National Film...

2012-07-01

350

"Contact" of nanoscale stiff films.  

PubMed

We investigated the contact behaviors of a nanoscopic stiff thin film bonded to a compliant substrate and derived an analytical solution for determining the elastic modulus of thin films. Microscopic contact deformations of the gold and polydopamine thin films (<200 nm) coated on polydimethylsiloxane elastomers were measured by indenting a soft tip and analyzed in the framework of the classical plate theory and Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics. The analysis of this thin film contact mechanics focused on the bending and stretching resistance of thin films and is fundamentally different from conventional indentation measurements where the focus is on the fracture and compression of the films. The analytical solution of the elastic modulus of nanoscopic thin films was validated experimentally using 50 and 100 nm gold thin films coated on polydimethylsiloxane elastomers. The technical application of this analysis was further demonstrated by measuring the elastic modulus of thin films of polydopamine, a recently discovered biomimetic universal coating material. Furthermore, the method presented here is able to quantify the contact behaviors of nanoscopic thin films, effectively providing fundamental design parameters, the elastic modulus, and the work of adhesion, crucial for transferring them effectively into practical applications. PMID:22616836

Yang, Fut K; Zhang, Wei; Han, Yougun; Yoffe, Serge; Cho, Yungchi; Zhao, Boxin

2012-05-31

351

Helium II Film Transport. III. The Role of Film Height  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport rates have been measured for film heights up to 5.3 cm. A variation with film height, whose average behavior is similar to that which has been reported for the film thickness, was observed. This height dependence of the flow rates was found to be temperature independent in the range under investigation (1°K<~T

Bernard Smith; Henry A. Boorse

1955-01-01

352

Microstructural characterization of carbon films and ? films produced by ? implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a study of the electronic, chemical and lattice structure of carbon films and of the microstructural modifications induced by 0953-8984\\/9\\/8\\/007\\/img10 implantation. Correlations were made with the new mechanical properties of the implanted films. The C films were r.f. magnetron sputtered from a graphite target with Ar discharge. 0953-8984\\/9\\/8\\/007\\/img10 implantations were performed with energies ranging from 30 to

N. Laidani; A. Miotello; A. Glisenti; C. Bottani; J. Perriere

1997-01-01

353

UCLA Film & Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) joined forces with the UCLA Theater Arts Department to create the ATAS/UCLA Television Library. 11 years later, the UCLA Film & Television Archive was formally established, and donations began arriving from Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and other major motion picture studios. On the ATAS website, visitors can learn about upcoming screenings and lectures, along with more about the prodigious collections. The Collections area is a great place to start investigating opportunities to borrow prints, donate materials, and license media. The online exhibitions are a pip, and visitors should not miss the UCLA Preserved Silent Animation area. Here they can watch eleven different remarkable (and very rare) films, including "The Enchanted Drawing" and "Bob's Electric Theatre." Finally, visitors can connect with the Archive via a range of social media, including Twitter and YouTube.

2012-05-11

354

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01

355

Philip Elwood Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip Elwood was born in New York in 1884, and after he took his degree in landscape architecture from Cornell University, he worked in New York City and eventually ended up working as a professor of landscape architecture at Iowa State University. He had a long and productive career, and his accomplishments include service on the National Resources Planning Board and working as a site planner for Boys Town outside of Omaha. He enjoyed using his 16mm camera to document his travels, and this online collection created by the Iowa State University Libraries brings together seventeen of his short travelogues. The films are silent, and Professor Elwood inserted title cards so viewers will know what they are seeing as they watch. Visitors shouldn't miss the "California to Ames" film as it features great footage of the Mesa Verde National Park, a Zuni Indian village near Gallup, New Mexico, and the annual Shrine picnic on the ISU campus.

356

Advanced thin film thermocouples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

1984-10-01

357

Thin film resonator technology.  

PubMed

Advances in wireless systems have placed increased demands on high performance frequency control devices for operation into the microwave range. With spectrum crowding, high bandwidth requirements, miniaturization, and low cost requirements as a background, the thin film resonator technology has evolved into the mainstream of applications. This technology has been under development for over 40 years in one form or another, but it required significant advances in integrated circuit processing to reach microwave frequencies and practical manufacturing for high-volume applications. This paper will survey the development of the thin film resonator technology and describe the core elements that give rise to resonators and filters for today's high performance wireless applications. PMID:16048174

Lakin, Kenneth M

2005-05-01

358

CVD Diamond Films for Tribological Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Friction and wear behavior of several types of diamond film has been studied using sapphire on diamond film and diamond on diamond film tests. The coefficient of friction of the films was found to be a strong function of film morphology for sapphire on di...

I. Hayward J. Wegand L. S. Plano

1990-01-01

359

Three Social Distance Measures for Film Rankings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of three alternative methods for ranking films for information retrieval (IR). A large film-person incidence matrix is generated using the principle cast, directors, producers and screenwriters for each film. These attributes are used to measure film-film distances by creating a distance matrix. Distance, product distance, and…

Leazer, Gregory H.; Furner, Jonathan; Napper, Rachel

2003-01-01

360

How Reviews Affect Film Interest and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the effects of published film reviews on viewers' interest in and evaluation of the reviewed film. In the film interest experiment, 89 undergraduate students were randomly assigned positive, mixed, or negative reviews of a British film. The control group received a review of a different film. Subjects were asked to read the…

Wyatt, Robert O.; Badger, David P.

361

Silent Film in the German Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addition to using films in the German classroom to introduce students to German culture and history, it is important to show and study the film as film. This procedure emphasizes the importance of the film as a part of creative arts in Germany and demands student participation in observation and discussion. Many German silent films are…

Caldwell, David

362

Thin film lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New electrolyte materials, polymers or inorganic glasses, allow the design of flat lithium primary or secondary batteries for miniaturised devices from smart cards to CMOS back up. The so-called “hybrid plastic electrolytes” allow the design of thick film cells (1–3 mm) with a surface capacity of some mA h cm?2. For Li-ion secondary batteries, the number of cycles does not

Jean Louis Souquet; Michel Duclot

2002-01-01

363

Destabilization of film boiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent results are reviewed on the destabilization of film boiling, both under quasi-steady and fast-transient conditions, and with both solid-liquid and liquid-liquid systems. Interest has been generated in this phenomenon in connection with the triggering of vapor explosions and the rewetting of hot dry surfaces. Several theoretical and experimental models are used in calculations: an adsorption theory for the

S. G. Bankoff

1980-01-01

364

Freely Suspended Nematic Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using one of the most commonly studied synthetic molecule, 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), we were able to pull freely suspended membranes of different thicknesses into circular frames of up to 20mm diameter. Films pulled this way were distorted using a speaker, while a laser light was shone onto them for studying the far field reflection and learn about resonant frequency modes and

Wilder Iglesias; Jeffrey Choi; Elizabeth K. Mann; Antal Jakli

2011-01-01

365

Freely Suspended Nematic Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using one of the most commonly studied synthetic molecule, 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), we were able to pull freely suspended membranes of different thicknesses into circular frames of up to 20mm diameter. Films pulled this way were distorted using a speaker, while a laser light was shone onto them for studying the far field reflection and learn about resonant frequency modes and subtract valuable information about the viscoelastic terms that hold the membrane stable.

Iglesias, Wilder; Choi, Jeffrey; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Jakli, Antal

2011-03-01

366

Thin film composite electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

2007-08-14

367

Thin film photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large area thin film photonic crystals consisting either of closely packed PMMA balls or their SnS2 replicas have been synthesized and tested. The photonic bandgap (PBG) of these structures demonstrates a tendency towards omnidirectionality and a subsequent increase of the refractive index contrast (RIC) in the inverted opal structure. In particular, the bandgap width in SnS2 replica exceeds that of

Sergei G Romanov; Torsten Maka; Clivia M Sotomayor Torres; Manfred Müller; Rudolf Zentel

2001-01-01

368

Stability of Soap Films: Hysteresis and Nucleation of Black Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stability of soap films of a nonionic surfactant under different applied capillary pressures on the film. Depending on the pressure, either a thick common black film (CBF), or a micro­scopically thin Newton black film (NBF) is formed as a (metastable) equilibrium state, with a first-order (discontinuous) transition between the two. Studying the dynamics of the CBF-NBF transition, it is found that under certain conditions a hysteresis for the transition is observed: for a given range of pressures, either of the two states may be observed. We quantify the nucleation process that is at the basis of these observations both experimentally and theoretically.

Casteletto, Valeria; Cantat, Isabelle; Sarker, Dipak; Bausch, Richard; Bonn, Daniel; Meunier, Jacques

2003-01-01

369

Stability of soap films: hysteresis and nucleation of black films.  

PubMed

We study the stability of soap films of a nonionic surfactant under different applied capillary pressures on the film. Depending on the pressure, either a thick common black film (CBF), or a micro-scopically thin Newton black film (NBF) is formed as a (metastable) equilibrium state, with a first-order (discontinuous) transition between the two. Studying the dynamics of the CBF-NBF transition, it is found that under certain conditions a hysteresis for the transition is observed: for a given range of pressures, either of the two states may be observed. We quantify the nucleation process that is at the basis of these observations both experimentally and theoretically. PMID:12570466

Casteletto, Valeria; Cantat, Isabelle; Sarker, Dipak; Bausch, Richard; Bonn, Daniel; Meunier, Jacques

2003-01-30

370

FilmSound.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted and maintained by Sven E. Carlsson, a Swedish educator, this Web site is an excellent source of information about that one element of filmmaking that is sometimes overlooked due to its ubiquity: sound. Persons curious to read a brief overview of film sound will want to start with an essay titled "An Introduction to Film Sound," by Jane Knowles Marshall. After this, they may want to look over the glossary on the right-hand side of the main page, which features definitions and explanations of terms such as "Ambience," "Foley," and "Production Sound." The sites other highlights include numerous essays by Oscar-winning sound designer Walter Murch (who won for The English Patient and Apocalypse Now) and Randy Thom (who won for The Right Stuff and has been nominated six times in total). Along with other essays on the use of sound in Indian cinema and the history of film sound, there are 10 essays (and sound samples) on the use of sound and sound effect design in the Star Wars trilogy. Visitors may be particularly interested to learn that the language of the Ewoks was created by altering and layering Tibetan, Mongolian, and Nepali languages.

1997-01-01

371

Ferroelectric Thin Films: Deposition, Advanced Film Characterization and Novel Device Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, current problems of ferroelectric thin film deposition are reviewed: Film stoichiometry, mechanical film stress, and self-polarization. Advanced film characterization includes the profiling of film properties over film thickness: the refractive index by Multi Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, the pyroelectric coefficient profile by Laser Intensity Modulation Method, and polarization and space charge profiling by Atomic Force Microscopy. Novel device

G. Suchaneck; G. Gerlach

2006-01-01

372

Multilayer Ferromagnetic Thin Films.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In recent years artificial multilayer thin films have attracted considerable interest, since it is hoped that these new materials will exhibit novel and interesting as well as useful electrical, magnetic and mechanical properties. For example, multilayer ferromagnetic thin films with perpendicular anisotropy are currently of greatest interest as vertical magnetic recording media. In addition, for ultrathin layers (i.e. several atomic layers), new materials with new structural and magnetic properties are expected. In this study, ultrathin multilayer ferromagnetic thin films have been investigated. They have been fabricated by a dual sputtering system with revolving substrate. This apparatus provided the flexibility necessary to produce samples with individual layer thicknesses ranging from 0.05 nm to several nm. The multilayers were prepared by sequential deposition if ferromagnetic cobalt and non-magnetic Al, Cr, Zr or W films onto different types of substrates. The experimental and analytical techniques used to investigate the structural characteristics of these multilayer systems included Rutherford Backscattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and large and small X -ray diffraction. The magnetic properties have been measured, analyzed and correlated with the structural properties. For example, the reduced symmetry, surface anisotropy, and strains developed at the interfaces strongly affect the magnetic properties of the samples. An interesting phenomenon observed in these films is the formation of amorphous phases when the layers are reduced to a few atomic distances in thickness. This is the case for the Co/W and Co/Zr systems, where the multilayer is amorphous when the layers are thin, and then changes to a polycrystalline form when the layers become thicker. The magnetic measurements for all systems show that the magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the cobalt layer thickness. An interesting result for Co/W and CO/Cr multilayers is the development of perpendicular anisotropy with decreasing layer thickness (in both systems, the magnetization in the perpendicular direction becomes easier as the layer thickness and the periodicity of the multilayer decreases).

Babkair, Saeed Salem

373

Boron doped nanostructured diamond films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical vapor deposition hydrogen\\/methane\\/nitrogen feed-gas mixture with unconventionally high methane (15% CH4 by volume) normally used to grow ultra-hard and smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates was modified to include diborane B2H6 for boron-doping of diamond films. The flow rates for B2H 6 and N2 were varied to investigate their effect on plasma chemistry, film structure, boron

Qi Liang

2004-01-01

374

Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology  

SciTech Connect

Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

1991-03-01

375

Electrical properties and modeling of ultrathin impurity-doped silicon dioxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical properties of silicon dioxides doped with impurities (fluorine and\\/or nitrogen) are investigated in this article. Pure silicon dioxide (SiO2), fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF), nitrogen-doped silicon oxide (SiON), and nitrogen-doped SiOF (SiOFN) are our choices for investigation in this study. The oxide films are prepared from liquid-phase-deposited fluorinated silicon oxides under O2 or N2O annealing. The leakage current as

Wai-Jyh Chang; Mau-Phon Houng; Yeong-Her Wang

2001-01-01

376

7 CFR 2902.27 - Films.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...packaging materials. (ii) Non-durable films. Films that are intended for single use for short-term storage or protection before being discarded. Non-durable films that are designed to have longer lives...

2010-01-01

377

7 CFR 2902.27 - Films.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...packaging materials. (ii) Non-durable films. Films that are intended for single use for short-term storage or protection before being discarded. Non-durable films that are designed to have longer lives...

2009-01-01

378

Cellulose Triacetate, Thin Film Dielectric Capacitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electr...

S. S. Yen T. R. Jow

1993-01-01

379

Film badge dosimetry in atmospheric nuclear tests  

SciTech Connect

This book is divided into the following sections: Basic Principles of Film Badge Dosimetry; Radiation source terms in atmospheric testing; Use of film badge in atmospheric nuclear testing; Quantification of Personnel Film badge uncertainties; Uncertainty analysis by individual test series.

Not Available

1989-01-01

380

The Environment Film Review. A Critical Guide to Ecology Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critical reviews of more than 600 environmental films selected from a field of several thousand are contained in this reference guide. Designed to provide a comprehensive selection of films covering all aspects of environmental affairs, from air pollution to wildlife, the guide is primarily user-oriented. It consists of two parts: a Review…

Environment Information Center, New York, NY.

381

Bombshells on Film: Women, Military Films, and Hegemonic Gender Ideologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the gendered representation of women in mainstream military films produced in the United States over a 70-year period when the official capacity of women in armed service underwent significant transformation. Utilizing contextualized visual semiotics, findings reveal that these films present women's standing as uncertain at best by reinforcing their exclusion from many nontraditional feminine roles or by

Stacie R. Furia; Denise D. Bielby

2009-01-01

382

"Kuleshov on Film": A Spectator-Centered Film Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes some of the theories of cinematography of Soviet film theorist and filmmaker Lev Kuleshov. It points out that for him, film was communication portraying people's activities emanating from the environment. It explains that he was especially interested in audience response, particularly that of the proletariat, and that he felt…

Curran, Trisha

383

Reference dosimetry using radiochromic film.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify factors that influence radiochromic film dose response and to determine whether such films are suitable for reference dosimetry. The influence of several parameters that may introduce systematic dose errors when performing reference dose measurements were investigated. The effect of the film storage temperature was determined by comparing the performance of three lots of GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films stored at either 4ºC or room temperature. The effect of high (> 80%) or low (< 20%) relative humidity was also determined. Doses measured in optimal conditions with EBT and EBT2 films were then compared with an A12 ionization chamber measurement. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality controls using EBT2 films were also performed in reference dose. The results obtained using reference dose measurements were compared with those obtained using relative dose measurements. Storing the film at 4ºC improves the stability of the film over time, but does not eliminate the noncatalytic film development, seen as a rise in optical density over time in the absence of radiation. Relative humidity variations ranging from 80% to 20% have a strong impact on the optical density and could introduce dose errors of up to 15% if the humidity were not controlled during the film storage period. During the scanning procedure, the film temperature influences the optical density that is measured. When controlling for these three parameters, the dose differences between EBT or EBT2 and the A12 chamber are found to be within ± 4% (2? level) over a dose range of 20-350 cGy. Our results also demonstrate the limitation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm for dose calculation of highly modulated treatment plans. PMID:23149793

Girard, Frédéric; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

2012-11-08

384

Sundance Film Festival Announces Winners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Film festivals have become immensely popular during the last few decades, and it seems like almost every city or state now has some type of festival to showcase the work of local, national, and in some cases, international filmmakers, both young and old. Started by Robert Redford in 1981, the Sundance Film Festival (held annually in Park City, Utah) has quickly grown into one of the most prestigious celebrations of filmmaking in the world. Earlier this week, the Sundance Film Festival announced its awards in the Independent Feature Film Competition. Among the winners were "Capturing the Friedmans" (which won the Documentary Grand Jury Prize), "American Splendor" (which received the Dramatic Grand Jury Prize), and "My Flesh and Blood" (which received the Documentary Audience Award).The first site leads to the official 2003 Sundance Film Festival site that contains a wealth of material, including lists of all films shown at the festival and detailed information about the juries for the different competitions. The second link is to a news article from the Washington Post that reports on various award recipients of this year's Sundance Film Festival competition. The third link is to an online article that discusses the making of the film "Capturing the Friedmans" with the director, Andrew Jarecki. The fourth site leads to an interview with the noted comic book author Harvey Pekar, whose life was chronicled by director Shari Springer for her 2003 Sundance Festival award-winning film, "American Splendor." The fifth site leads to the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival home page, which was founded in 1998 to showcase the work of documentary filmmakers solely. The final site, Filmfestivals.com, is the clearinghouse for information about almost every single film festival in the world, and contains a search engine, detailed calendars of upcoming events, and frequently updated information about upcoming releases.

Grinnell, Max

385

OntoFilm: A Core Ontology for Film Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present OntoFilm, a core ontology for film production. OntoFilm provides a standardized model which conceptualizes the domain and workflows used at various stages of the film production process starting from pre-production and planning, shooting on set, right through to editing and post-production. The main contributions in this paper are: we discuss how OntoFilm models the semantics necessary to interpret these workflows consistently for all users (Directors, DoP's, grips, post-production, lighting). We also discuss how our ontology forms a common bridge between the low level descriptive metadata generated for the video footage and the high level semantics used in software tools during the production process.

Chakravarthy, Ajay; Beales, Richard; Matskanis, Nikos; Yang, Xiaoyu

386

Electron transport properties of magnetic granular films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a review of electron transport properties of magnetic granular films. Magnetic granular films are nanocomposite materials which consist of magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a nonmagnetic matrix or assembling of magnetic nanoparticles. According to the style of the nonmagnetic matrix, microstructure and the electron transport mechanism of the films, the magnetic granular films were divided into three groups: (1) magnetic metal-metal granular films, (2) magnetic metal-insulator granular films and (3) magnetic nanocluster-assembled granular films. Moreover, we also systematically review the magnetic properties, transport properties and magnetoresistance effect of size-monodispersed Co and Fe nanocluster-assembled films.

Peng, DongLiang; Wang, JunBao; Wang, LaiSen; Liu, XiaoLong; Wang, ZhenWei; Chen, YuanZhi

2013-01-01

387

Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.  

PubMed

We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

Olney, Andrew McGregor

2013-01-07

388

Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals  

PubMed Central

We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

Olney, Andrew McGregor

2013-01-01

389

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, L.

1988-04-27

390

Carbonaceous film coating  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

391

Antireflective polyimide based films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to prepare antireflective and anti-abrasion films using polyimide and organically modified silica nanoparticle thin films. A series of thin film were prepared from colorless and soluble polyimide with organically modified silica colloids via a solution casting method. The polyimide was selected for its optical properties. Three type of organically modified silica nanoparticles were prepared by grafting polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and fluoroalkyl groups onto silica nanoparticles. The molecular weight of the polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and the amount of fluorinated alkyl groups were varied. The organically modified silica colloids were characterized by TEM, DLS, FTIR, 1H NMR, solid state 13C NMR and solid state 29Si NMR. The coatings were characterized by UV-Vis transmittance spectra and SEM. The effect of modified silica loading, the molecular weight of polymer and type of solvent on AR properties were studied. An enhancement in antireflective activity was observed for 1 wt% LPDMS modified (low molecular weight) silica coatings, 3 wt% fluorosilica-10 and 3% L-MPS-PF-SILICA nanoparticles (low molecular weight polyfluoroester modified silica) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). In comparison with cyclopentanone (CPT), DMAc favors migration of silica particles towards coating-air interface giving higher transmittance. The migration of particles to the surface and consequent increased surface roughness were observed by SEM. The present study suggested a roll to roll solution casting method to create antireflective coatings. This approach had potential to be used for a one-step large-scale manufacturing of antireflective coating. Four acrylated bismaleimide were made via two-step process. The first step involved the solution imidization to form hydroxylated bismaleimide. In the second step, hydroxylated bismaleimide was reacted with acryloyl chloride to form acrylated bismaleimide. The acrylated bismaleimide were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC and mass spectra. The acrylated bismaleimide was formulated with acryloyl morpholine and photoinitiator with or without addition of PDMS-silica nanoparticles to achieve UV-curable thin films. The photo-cure kinetics of four neat acrylated bismaleimide and the formulation were investigated by real-time FTIR, photo-DSC and rheometer. The kinetic analysis revealed that PDMS-silica accelerated the photocure rate and increased the conversion of both acrylate double bond and maleimide double bond. The dispersion of PDMS-silica nanoparticles affected the abrasion resistance. The optimal abrasion resistance was achieved with 3.0% wt PDMS modified silica nanoparticle loading.

Cao, Yuanmei

392

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

393

Science Books and Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Books and Films bills itself as "the authoritative guide to science resources, bringing you the expert information you need to make the best decisions when choosing science materials for your library, classroom, or institution." The subscriber section of the site allows access to more than 9,000 science reviews that can be shaped into personalized bibliographies by subject area, grade level, and author. For non-subscribers, articles from past years are offered, including the Best Books for Children, Best Books for Junior High and High School Readers, and Best Videos and Software.

394

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

1986-01-01

395

Plasma Anodized Lanthanum Titanate Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of plasma anodization to the pyrochlore, lanthanum titanate (La2Ti2O7), and the use of this material as a thin film dielectric. The process involves co-evaporation of the metals, lanthanum and titanium, followed by plasma anodization. Evaporation and anodization techniques are fully discussed as are the electrical properties of the resulting films.

R. E. Whitmore; J. L. Vossen

1965-01-01

396

System for measuring film thickness  

DOEpatents

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

397

American Issues Forum; Film List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the American Issues Forum, a bicentennial program developed around nine monthly issues, divided into 36 weekly subtopics; a list of supporting films is provided by the Educational Film Library Association. Arranged by issue topic and weekly subtopic, each entry includes title, length, color, producer, distributor, and a brief annotated…

Educational Film Library Association, Inc., New York, NY.

398

Flow instabilities in lubricating films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of instability of lubricating films are studied: (1) Tollmien-Schlichting waves, which may travel along the film with some characteristic wavelength, velocity and growth rate, and (2) Taylor vortices, which are standing waves occurring in situations such as a non-cavitating journal bearing, where curvature and centrifugal effects are important. Local theories of instability are considered and the WBKJ and

J. T. Stuart

1976-01-01

399

Film as Explicador for Hypertext  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few ideas from film theory, most notably Eisenstein's concept of montage, can improve students' understanding of hypertexts and lessen their resistance to open-ended, nonlinear narratives. These structural characteristics, so frustrating to many new readers of hypertext, can also be found in popular and experimental films. In particular, Godfrey Reggio's (1983) documentary Koyaanisqatsi provides a good starting point for merging

Joe Essid

2004-01-01

400

Thin Film Inorganic Electrochemical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 21 month period of this contract we have studied components for an all inorganic thin film lithium ion cell. During this work we have determined that thin film cathodes of LiCoO2 can be readily performed by either spray pyrolysis or spin coatin...

D. M. Schleich

1995-01-01

401

Thin films in energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of thin plastic films as structural materials is discussed. The employment of air supported structure greenhouses utilizing very low cost highly transparent plastic film with a good life potential makes it possible to raise tomatoes in Ohio at costs which are much lower than those incurred in connection with the use of glass greenhouses. Attention is

R. S. Ross

1976-01-01

402

Film and Video Utilization Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project was conducted to study Calgary teachers' use of films and videotapes borrowed from a media services loan library and to identify the significant variables affecting their film and tape use. Data were gathered through a preliminary survey of six ...

B. K. Johnson

1983-01-01

403

Thin film research. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical thin films are important components in a range of technologies, ranging from energy conversion to information storage. In response to the demand for increasingly specialized and durable coatings, study of the basic nature of these coatings has intensified. This type of effort is necessary because assumptions that thin films were similar to nominally identical bulk materials have proven unreliable.

H. A. MacLeod

1985-01-01

404

Novel nanocellulosic xylan composite film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocellulosic-xylan films were prepared employing oat spelt xylan, cellulose whiskers and a plasticizer. The mechanical properties of the films were evaluated using tensile testing under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The tensile data showed that the addition of sulfonated cellulose whiskers lead to a substantial improvement in strength properties. Addition of 7wt% of sulfonated whiskers increased the tensile energy absorption

Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Shaobo Pan; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2009-01-01

405

Giant magnetoresistance in electrodeposited films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodeposition is one of the simpler and cheaper processes available for the fabrication of thin metal films. Recent developments have made it possible to electrodeposit a wide range of nanostructured materials, including many that exhibit giant magnetoresistance (GMR). We review progress in the growth and characterization of such films, starting with electrodeposited ferromagnetic metal\\/non-magnetic metal superlattices in which the individual

W. Schwarzacher; D. S. Lashmore

1996-01-01

406

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOEpatents

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01

407

Uses for Free Film Cans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)|

Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

1973-01-01

408

Symbolism in the Feature Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

Bakony, Edward

409

Deformation of an asymmetric film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments have investigated shape changes of polymer films induced by asymmetric swelling by a chemical vapor. Inspired by recent work on the shaping of elastic sheets by non-Euclidean metrics [1,2], we represent the effect of chemical vapors by a change in the target metric tensor. In this problem, unlike Refs. [1,2], the target metric is asymmetric between the two sides of the film. Changing this metric induces a curvature of the film, which may be Gaussian curvature into a sphere or mean curvature into a cylinder. We calculate the elastic energy for each of these shapes, and show that the sphere is favored for films smaller than a critical size, which depends on the film thickness, while the cylinder is favored for larger films. We compare the formalism for asymmetric films with previous theoretical work on symmetric films, and compare the predictions with experimental results. [4pt] [1] Y. Klein, E. Efrati, and E. Sharon, Science 315, 1116 (2007).[0pt] [2] E. Efrati, E. Sharon, and R. Kupferman, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 57, 762 (2009).

Geng, Jun; Selinger, Jonathan

2010-03-01

410

Disentanglement in thin polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations of thin polymer films confined between structureless walls show accelerated in-plane dynamics with decreasing film thickness. Using the primitive path analysis (PPA) introduced by Everaers et al [Science 303 (2004) 823] for chain length up to N=1024, we can show that the entanglement density decreases with decreasing film thickness. However, the effect becomes pronounced only for films thinner than the bulk radius of gyration where also the chain structure becomes modified by the confinement [1]. The PPA algorithm can be modified to estimate the contribution of self-entanglements: The latter become more important for thinner films, however, they do not counterbalance the global decrease of entanglements. [1] H. Meyer et al Eur. Phys. J. Sp.Top. 141 (2007) 167.

Meyer, Hendrik

2008-03-01

411

Crystallization in Block Copolymer Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy has been used to examine the surface morphology of thin films of semicrystalline block copolymers, containing a crystallizable polycaprolactone block. In an asymmetric diblock copolymer of poly(styrene)-poly(caprolactone), confinement of poly(caprolactone) crystals within microphase-separated cylinders is observed. For a range of poly(styrene)-poly(butadiene)- poly(caprolactone) triblock copolymers, surface island and hole structures are observed, as for melt block copolymer films. This is rationalised based on the incommensurability between the lamellar domain spacing and the film thickness, measured by AFM or x-ray reflectivity. For films containing holes at the air-polymer interface, the AFM images reveal lamellae stacked perpendicular to the substrate. Models for the crystal structure in such confined ABC triblock copolymer films are discussed.

Hamley, Ian; Collins, Stephen; Balsamo, Vittoria

2001-03-01

412

Anode film formation and control  

DOEpatents

A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

1990-05-01

413

Soap film gas flowmeter  

SciTech Connect

A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.

Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

1987-09-08

414

Flow fields in soap films: Relating viscosity and film thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles in soap films with varying h/d , where h is the thickness of the film and d is the diameter of the particles. The hydrodynamics of these films are determined by looking at the correlated motion of pairs of particles as a function of separation R . The Trapeznikov approximation [A. A. Trapeznikov, Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Surface Activity (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 242] is used to model soap films as an effective two-dimensional (2D) fluid in contact with bulk air phases. The flow fields determined from correlated particle motions show excellent agreement with what is expected for the theory of 2D fluids for all our films where 0.6?h/d?14.3 , with the 2D shear viscosity matching that predicted by Trapeznikov. However, the parameters of these flow fields change markedly for thick films (h/d>7±3) . Our results indicate that three-dimensional effects become important for these thicker films, despite the flow fields still having a 2D character.

Prasad, V.; Weeks, Eric R.

2009-08-01

415

Thin film-based optical fiber sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical thin films can be deposited on side- and end-face of optical fiber, if these films are sensitive to ambient environments, optical refractive index changes in thin films will finally result to variation of optical signals transmitted in the optical fiber. Here thin films work as sensitive elements and transducer to get response and feedback from environments, optical fiber here

Minghong Yang; Dai Jixiang; Wang Min; Xinling Tong; Desheng Jiang

2010-01-01

416

Microwave properties of YBCO thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the microwave properties of high quality YBCO thin films using a copper cavity (87 GHz) and a dielectric resonator (19 GHz) for unpatterned films as well as a coplanar resonator (5, 8, 10, 15 and 16 GHz) for patterned films. For the patterned films the surface resistance (RS) and non-linear effects were studied as a function of

B. Avenhaus; A. Porch; M. J. Lancaster; S. Hensen; M. Lenkens; S. Orbach-Werbig; E. Muller; U. Dahne; N. Tellmann; N. Klein; C. Dubourdieu; J. P. Senateur; O. Thomas; H. Karl; B. Stritzker; J. A. Edwards; R. Humphreys

1995-01-01

417

Are Wildlife Films Really "Nature Documentaries"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines origins of wildlife films. Outlines their tension between education and entertainment. Looks at how Disney codified wildlife films as a coherent genre by imposing conventionalized narrative frameworks upon them. Discusses factors influencing wildlife television in the 1990s. Concludes that wildlife films are a valid and distinct film and…

Bouse, Derek

1998-01-01

418

Multilayered Thin Film Insulator for Harsh Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of work to develop a reliable high temperature dielectric thin film for use with thin film sensors is presented. The use of thin films to electrically insulate thin film sensors on engine components minimizes the intrusiveness of the sensor and...

J. D. Wrbanek G. C. Fralick C. A. Blaha A. R. Busfield V. D. Thomas

2002-01-01

419

On the hydrodynamics of soap films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments aiming at the exploration of the hydrodynamical properties of soap films are presented. Their interpretation takes into account the very specific equation of state of these films. It is shown that on short time scales each element of the film moves as a whole so that the film can be considered as a two-dimensional fluid with a local

Y. Couder; J. M. Chomaz; M. Rabaud

1989-01-01

420

FILM WORKSHOP SUCCESSFUL WITH TSU STUDENTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN UPWARD BOUND FILM WORKSHOP AT TEXAS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY EXPOSED STUDENTS TO FILMS AS A CREATIVE ART FORM, A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, AND A BASIS FOR DISCUSSING VALUES. IN ADDITION TO VIEWING SEVERAL SHORT, PROFESSIONALLY-DEVELOPED FILMS, STUDENTS WROTE AND PRODUCED TWO OF THEIR OWN. ONE STUDENT-PRODUCED FILM--A LIGHT SHOW--ILLUMINATED THE UNITY…

BAHRENBERG, JIM

421

Fabrication of micro-thin film thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) to measure temperature distributions at the micro-scale. Nickel film was deposited as the first thermocouple material. Silicon dioxide was then deposited on the Ni film as an insulator. To make the thermocouple junctions, micro-holes were opened by focused ion beam (FIB), and tungsten film was patterned on the insulator as the. second thermocouple material.

K. Miyazaki; T. Takamiya; H. Tsukamoto

2003-01-01

422

Automated Film Rhythm Extraction For Scene Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines film rhythm, an important expressive element in motion pictures, based on our ongoing study to exploit film grammar as a broad computational framework for the task of automated film and video understanding. Of the many, more or less elusive, narrative devices contributing to film rhythm, this paper discusses motion characteristics that form the basis of our analysis,

Brett Adams; Chitra Dorai; Svetha Venkatesh

2001-01-01

423

Subjective sexual arousal to films of masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 male and 102 female undergraduate volunteers. Following the film, Ss responded to 3 measures of subjective sexual arousal and to 7 measures of affective responses. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Males

Donald L. Mosher; Paul R. Abramson

1977-01-01

424

Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

1977-01-01

425

Boundary Film Formation by Viscosity Index Improvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrathin film interferometry has been used to measure the film-forming properties of a range of viscosity index improver (VII) solutions in rolling, concentrated contacts. It has been shown that some VIIs form boundary lubricating films of thickness 10 to 30 nm in contacts. These films result from the presence of highly concentrated and thus very viscous layers of polymer solution

Matthew Smeeth; Hugh Spikes; Selda Gunsel

1996-01-01

426

Historical Films in the Latin Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines and lesson plans are presented for teachers of Latin using historical films as instructional and support materials. A discussion of the use of historical films addresses these issues in classroom practice: the legality of using films in the classroom (copyrights); techniques for using historical films as sources of cultural…

Buller, Jeffrey L.

427

Film Handbook. Communication Manual. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reference material is provided in this book for editors, producers, camera and sound technicians, others working in film, and film students. Each chapter is a self-contained unit about specific aspects of film-making, designed to accompany film courses being offered by the University of the West Indies, the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, and…

Beuthner, Reginald, Comp.; And Others

428

Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.  

PubMed

Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15083740

Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

2004-04-01

429

Digital film library implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania is in the process of clinically testing its PACS implementation. The PACS implementation has been built around a Vortech Image Archival and Retrieval System (IARS) with a 140-platter optical jukebox. The Vortech IARS provides archival services only. A set of software modules have been developed in-house that allow the system to function as a digital film library. The current implementation allows connectivity to a RIS (DECrad), supports the routing of images to two intensive care units, and allows image acquisition from a Du Pont FD2000 laser scanner and two GE SIGNA MR units. All process-to-process communication follows the ACR/NEMA 2.0 protocol. The proposed folder extensions to ACR/NEMA 2.0 are being utilized for sending information to the display nodes. The system has been running clinically for about three months. Details of the design, implementation, and functionality of the PACS are presented.

Kishore, Sheel; Khalsa, Satjeet S.; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Arenson, Ronald L.

1991-07-01

430

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

1994-11-22

431

Photovoltaic properties of polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of metal electrode and film thickness on the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency in (1:1) mole ratio films of poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) has been investigated. Low work function metals increase the Schottky barrier height which leads to increases in the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. A ten-fold decrease in film thickness produces a thousand-fold increase in photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. A theoretical model which assumes that the photovoltaic current is limited by Child's law predicts photovoltaic efficiencies which are in good agreement with the measured efficiencies.

Reucroft, P. J.; Ullal, H.

1980-03-01

432

Slippage of nonsuperfluid helium films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the slippage of nonsuperfluid 4He films adsorbed on two kinds of substrates, grafoil and hectorite, and found that a large part of these films undergo slipping at low temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that the 4He areal density dependence of the slippage is rather different between these substrates. In hectorite, the slippage is inhibited as the fluid state appears at absolute zero. On the other hand, in grafoil, this state does not suppress the slippage, at least, as the 4He areal density is low. This may be attributed to the difference in the structure of these films.

Suzuki, Masaru; Hieda, Mitsunori

2003-05-01

433

Columnar growth in thin films  

SciTech Connect

A theory for the growth of columnar microstructures in thin films is presented. The zone-I to zone-II transition temperature is predicted. The surface morphology and the columnar grain structure are obtained both analytically and numerically, and the scaling behavior of the columnar grain size with film thickness is derived. Monte Carlo simulations are used to follow the evolution of the three-dimensional zone-II microsctuctures and to account for the formation of film texture. These results agree with experimental observations.

Mazor, A.; Srolovitz, D.J.; Hagan, P.S.; Bukiet, a.B.G.

1988-02-01

434

Sub-micrometer-sized graphite as a conducting and catalytic counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Sub-micrometer-sized colloidal graphite (CG) was tested as a conducting electrode to replace transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes and as a catalytic material to replace platinum (Pt) for I(3)(-) reduction in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). CG paste was used to make a film via the doctor-blade process. The 9 ?m thick CG film showed a lower resistivity (7 ?/?) than the widely used fluorine-doped tin oxide TCO (8-15 ?/?). The catalytic activity of this graphite film was measured and compared with the corresponding properties of Pt. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies clearly showed a decrease in the charge transfer resistance with the increase in the thickness of the graphite layer from 3 to 9 ?m. Under 1 sun illumination (100 mW cm(-2), AM 1.5), DSSCs with submicrometer-sized graphite as a catalyst on fluorine-doped tin oxide TCO showed an energy conversion efficiency greater than 6.0%, comparable to the conversion efficiency of Pt. DSSCs with a graphite counter electrode (CE) on TCO-free bare glass showed an energy conversion efficiency greater than 5.0%, which demonstrated that the graphite layer could be used both as a conducting layer and as a catalytic layer. PMID:21351744

Veerappan, Ganapathy; Bojan, Karunagaran; Rhee, Shi-Woo

2011-02-25

435

The Art of Teaching Social Studies with Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching with film is a powerful and meaningful instructional strategy. This article discusses five classroom-tested methods for teaching with film: (1) film as a visual textbook, (2) film as a depicter of atmosphere, (3) film as an analogy, (4) film as a historiography, and (5) film as a springboard. Each of the methods discussed includes…

Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

436

Development of ZnTe layers using an electrochemical technique for applications in thin-film solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc telluride layers were grown by an electrochemical technique using acidic and aqueous solutions containing ZnCl2 and TeO2. The layers were deposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a two-electrode system. The deposited ZnTe layers were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, photoelectrochemical cell measurements, scanning electron microscopy and 3D-atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) for the structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties. The electrodeposited ZnTe layers grow as columns, and have cubic crystal structure, the band gap in the range of (2.00-2.20) eV and p-type electrical conductivity. Surface morphology studies using SEM indicate the presence of two types of material clusters varying in size up to ˜125 nm. 3D-AFM studies with higher magnification show that the material tends to grow as columns with different sizes leaving gaps in between in some areas.

Fauzi, F.; Diso, D. G.; Echendu, O. K.; Patel, V.; Purandare, Y.; Burton, R.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

2013-04-01

437

Significant effects of reaction temperature on morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectrical properties of rutile TiO2 nanorod array films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oriented single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays have been extensively studied as the electrode of photoelectrochemical cells due to their unique properties. In this study, oriented rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were directly synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by a facile hydrothermal method, and the effects of growth conditions (i.e. reaction temperature, growth time and titanium precursor) on their morphologies, crystal structures and photoelectrical properties were investigated. Reaction temperature played a more critical role in tailoring the surface morphology, crystal structures (i.e. length, diameter and crystallinity of nanorods) and photoelectrical properties of the nanorods than growth time did. With the increase in reaction temperature from 140 °C to 200 °C, both photocurrent density and external quantum efficiency (EQE) increased initially and then decreased, with a maximum value of 5.6 × 10-2 mA cm-2 at 170 °C and 2.7% at 160 °C, respectively. In addition, photoelectric measurements demonstrated that TiO2 nanorod arrays synthesized from TiCl4 at a relatively low reaction temperature exhibited a much higher EQE value than those obtained from titanium isopropoxide.

Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Qianqian; Dong, Hongzhou; Dong, Lifeng

2013-03-01

438

Radiation effects of double layer dielectric films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double layer dielectric films are examined for Si surface passivation in a radiation hardened Si device. The double layer dielectric films of Si3N4\\/SiO2 and PSG\\/SiO2 are shown to have lower sensitivity to ionizing radiation than a CVD-SiO2\\/SiO2 film named a double layer SiO2 film. However, the former two dielectric films show much larger initial interface state densities than the latter

Kikuo Watanabe; Masataka Kato; Takahiro Okabe; Minoru Nagata

1986-01-01

439

Radiochromic film dosimetry for clinical proton beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth doses and lateral profiles for proton beams with energies of 100–250 MeV were measured with a high-sensitivity GafChromic™ MD-55 film, which requires no post-irradiation development. The exposed MD-55 films were evaluated with the RIT 113 film dosimetry system. Depth doses measured with MD-55 film were compared with those obtained with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The GafChromic™ film was found

Stanislav M. Vatnitsky

1997-01-01

440

Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

1993-05-01

441

Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

1995-08-01

442

Probability of Film Boiling Burnout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The power of some SRP fuel assemblies is limited by the burnout safety factor (BOSF) in some applications. This power limitation is unnecessarily restrictive, because the current conservatism in predicting film boiling burnout is unusually large compared ...

R. H. Towell

1966-01-01

443

Process for forming planarized films  

DOEpatents

A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.

Pang, Stella W. (Arlington, MA); Horn, Mark W. (North Chelmsford, MA)

1991-01-01

444

Boron doped nanostructured diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical vapor deposition hydrogen/methane/nitrogen feed-gas mixture with unconventionally high methane (15% CH4 by volume) normally used to grow ultra-hard and smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates was modified to include diborane B2H6 for boron-doping of diamond films. The flow rates for B2H 6 and N2 were varied to investigate their effect on plasma chemistry, film structure, boron incorporation, and mechanical properties. It was found that boron atoms can easily be incorporated into diamond films and change the lattice constant and film structure. Nitrogen, on the other hand, competes with boron in the plasma and acts to prevent boron incorporation into the diamond structure. In addition, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction and Micro-Raman were used as the main tools to investigate the relation between processing and structure. An optimal N2/CH4 ratio of 0.4 was found to result in a film with a minimum in grain size and surface roughness, along with high boron incorporation (˜4 x 1020 cm-3). Mechanical properties and thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films were examined by means of nanoindentation, open air thermal annealing, and nanotribometry. It was found that the films have high hardness close to that of undoped nanostructured diamond films. Thermal stability of these films was evaluated by heating in an oxygen environment above 700°C. Improved thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films was observed. Tribological tests show that although both undoped and boron doped nanostructured diamond films show extremely low coefficient of friction and wear rate as compared with uncoated titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome alloy (Co-Cr-Mo), a critical failure max stress of 2.2 GPa was observed for boron doped nanostructured diamond films. A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics, gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations involving H 2/CH4/N2/B2H6 mixtures was employed to investigate the chemical interactions leading to boron incorporation and crystalline structure variations. The strong influence of the BH 3 in causing the boron incorporation and the role of CN radical in causing the nanocrystallinity are confirmed by the correlation of their modeled compositions in the gas phase with boron content and degree of nanocrystallinity as determined experimentally. A good degree of agreement was obtained between the theoretically predicted gas phase concentration of species and the experimental concentration trends as measured by the optical emission spectroscopy of the microwave plasma. Overall, high film hardness and toughness, combined with good thermal stability and low surface roughness, indicate that nanostructured boron doped diamond films can be used as wear resistant coatings that are able to withstand high temperature oxidizing environments.

Liang, Qi

445

Fabrication of amorphous diamond films  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1995-12-12

446

Thin Film Microcircuits for Rocketsonde.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Final resistor load life data are presented showing the differences between the epoxy and acrylic protected and unprotected tantalum thin film resistors. Preliminary studies are reported on the effects of the protective systems on the capacitance, dissipa...

B. J. Patton A. Smith

1966-01-01

447

Falling films on flexible substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Falling films have a long history and modern advances in the theory have led to accurate modelling for flows down rigid inclines. We now consider the possible effects that can be introduced by flexible substrates. In this work, we derive Benney-like coupled equations for the film thickness and substrate deflection using long-wave theory. Weakly nonlinear equations are also derived, which, in the limit of small substrate deflections, reduce to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. We also use boundary-layer theory in conjunction with the Karman-Polhausen approximation to derive three strongly coupled evolution equations for the film thickness, substrate deflection and film volumetric flow rate. Inertial, gravtiational, capillary, viscous, substrate tension and damping effects are elucidated via numerical solutions of the above systems of equations.

Matar, Omar; Craster, Richard; Kumar, Satish

2007-11-01

448

Interference Colors in Thin Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)|

Armstrong, H. L.

1979-01-01

449

Method for Fabricating Hafnia Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention comprises a method for fabricating hafnia film comprising the steps of providing a substrate having a surface that allows formation of a self-assembled monolayer thereon via covalent bonding; providing an aqueous solution that provid...

M. Z. Hu

2004-01-01

450

Interference Colors in Thin Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

Armstrong, H. L.

1979-01-01

451

PBS 2013 Online Film Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to attend a film festival from the comfort of your own living room? With this collection of 25 short films under the PBS banner, that dream can become a reality. The films are featured under the headline "Watch Us Surprise You," which is a worthy byline. New visitors should start by watching the introduction to the history of online video and then looking over the About the Festival area. Here they can watch a one-minute introduction to the festival and then they should dive right in. The films here include an exploration of anagrams ("Ars Magna"), a look into the life of a disappearing cat ("CatCam"), and a piece on shell mounds in California titled "Injunuity: Buried." Overall, it's a wonderful collection that will inspire filmmakers young and old to get out there and craft their own narrative work.

2013-03-01

452

Thin-film solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and

Armin G. Aberle

2009-01-01

453

High-quality pyrographite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature heat treatment of a heat-resistant, condensation polymer poly ( &rgr;-phenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole) yielded a large-area, flexible film composed of highly oriented and nearly ideal graphite crystallites. The graphitic behavior was exemplified by both the (002) lattice spacing of 3.354 A? and extremely small full width at half-maximum intensity of the (002) reflection, 0.16–0.17°, for the films heat treated above 2800 °C.

Mutsuaki Murakami; Kazuhiro Watanabe; Susumu Yoshimura

1986-01-01

454

Mechanical properties of thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of thin films on substrates are described and studied. It is shown that very large stresses may\\u000a be present in the thin films that comprise integrated circuits and magnetic disks and that these stresses can cause deformation\\u000a and fracture to occur. It is argued that the approaches that have proven useful in the study of bulk structural

William D. Nix

1989-01-01

455

Photolithographic Patterning of Bacteriorhodopsin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel bacteriorhodopsin (bR) patterning technique utilizing photolithographic processes is presented. This process allows the oriented deposition and patterning of dried bR thin films onto flat substrates. Standard lithographic techniques are used to pattern the substrate and electrodeposition is used to deposit and orient the purple membrane film, which contains bR. An acetone sonication bath is used to remove the

Christopher M. Anton; Craig R. Friedrich; Donald R. Lueking

2008-01-01

456

Novel thin film thermophotovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel design of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system based on thin film photocells. The radiation source is a selective emitter made from Yb2O3, which allows the use of photocells with a band gap between 1.0 and 1.2eV. Thin film solar cell materials like microcrystalline Si or Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) can in principle be used for such a system. So

Wilhelm Durisch; Bernd Bitnar

2010-01-01

457

Film holder for radiographing tubing  

DOEpatents

A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

Davis, Earl V. (Oak Ridge, TN); Foster, Billy E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01

458

High energy density film capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of high dielectric constant polymers have been developed with K from 10 to over 50. The high-K polymers have high dielectric breakdown strength above 700 V\\/¿m and high energy density up to 27 J\\/cc in lab-scale small sample test. The capacitor film was produced by using melt-extrusion and biaxial orientation process and film thickness from 2 ¿m to

Shihai Zhang; Brian Zellers; Jim Henrish; Shawn Rockey; Dean Anderson; Chen Zou; Qiming Zhang

2009-01-01

459

Generalized liquid film atomization theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase of the fuel burning area required by most practical combustion processes in order to guarantee the minimum energy density rate release for their start up and operation is normally achieved by the proper choice among several existing types of atomizers. For instance, impinging and multi-impinging jets atomizers are used in rocket combustion chambers, while splash-plate atomizers find their use when wall film cooling is required. Pressure swirl atomizers, either of simplex or duplex kind, along with Y-Jet or Spider Jet atomizers are used in industrial applications and in turbine combustion chambers. Notice, however, that all the types of atomizing devices listed above have one point in common: they are of pre-filming kind, i.e., before the droplet spray is generated, a liquid film is formed. This liquid film is broken into unstable ligaments which contract under the action of surface tension forming the droplets. Once the film thickness is estimated, the droplets’ SMD (Sauter Mean Diameter) can be calculated, yielding a crucial parameter for the combustion chamber design. However, although this mechanism of droplet formation has been under study for several decades, most of the available results, are based upon experimental data, valid for a special type of atomizer under the given specific conditions only. This work offers a generalized theory for theoretically estimating the SMD of sprays generated by liquid pre-filming atomizers in general.

Couto, Heraldo S.; Bastos-Netto, Demétrio

2000-09-01

460

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

1998-01-01

461

The virtual blood film.  

PubMed

The computer and the digital camera offer unprecedented possibilities for improving hematology education, research, and patient service. Peripheral blood smear images of exceptional quality can be acquired rapidly and conveniently from the peripheral blood smear with a modern, high-resolution digital camera and a quality microscope. Digital cameras use CCD or CMOS image sensors to measure light energy and additional circuitry to convert the measured information into a digital signal. Because digital cameras do not use photographic film, images are immediately available for incorporation into web sites or digital publications, printing, transfer to other individuals by e-mail, or other applications. Several excellent consumer digital still cameras are now available for less than $1000 that capture high-quality images comprised of more than three megapixels. These images are essentially indistinguishable from conventional film images when viewed on a quality color monitor or printed on a quality color or black and white printer at sizes up to 8 x 10 in. Several recent dedicated digital photomicroscopy cameras provide an ultrahigh quality image output of more than 12 megapixels and have low noise circuit designs permitting the direct capture of darkfield and fluorescence images. There are many applications of digital images of peripheral blood smears. Because hematology is a visual science, the inclusion of quality digital images into lectures, teaching handouts, and electronic documents is essential. A few institutions have gone beyond the basic application of digital images to develop large electronic hematology atlases; animated, audio-enhanced learning experiences; multidisciplinary Internet conferences; and other innovative applications. Digital images of single microscopic fields (single-frame images) are the most widely used in hematology education at this time, but single images of many adjacent microscopic fields can be stitched together to prepare zoomable panoramas that encompass a large part of a microscope slide and closely stimulate observation through a real microscope. With further advances in computer speed and Internet streaming technology, the virtual microscope could easily replace the real microscope in pathology education. Interactive, immersive computer experiences may completely revolutionize hematology education and make the conventional lecture and laboratory format obsolete later in this decade. Patient care is enhanced by the transmission of digital images to other individuals for consultation and education, and by the inclusion of these images in patient care documents. In research laboratories, digital cameras are widely used to document experimental results and obtain experimental data. PMID:11933581

Riley, Roger S; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M; Massey, Davis; Cousar, John

2002-03-01

462

Border Film Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2005, three young Americans, Rudy Adler, Victoria Criado, and Brett Huneycutt, whose backgrounds include activism, economics, and advertising, wondered what would happen if they gave disposable cameras to two groups of people on different sides of the border between the United States and Mexico: undocumented migrants crossing into the United States, and American Minutemen trying to stop them. Both groups were asked to document their activities, given postage- paid mailers for the return of their unprocessed film, and were offered different incentives. Minutemen received $25 Shell gas cards, while migrants were given $25 Wal-Mart gift cards. The results can currently be viewed on this website and were published in book form in 2007. They have also been exhibited in galleries throughout the U.S. ranging from Venice, California to Buffalo, New York. The project has collected around 2,000 photos, most of which can be viewed here by clicking on the "Photos" section at the top of the page. There is also a 20-minute video, designed to play as a loop at an exhibition, divided into short segments for online viewing.

2008-01-01

463

Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 {mu}m thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 {mu}m film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 {mu}m film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films.

Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E. [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Heisenbergstr. 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Balk, T. J. [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, Lexington, KY 40506-0046 (United States); Dehm, G. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

2006-02-07

464

Growth and Characterization of Carbon Nitride Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of carbon nitride films were deposited by sputtering of a graphite target in an argon / nitrogen atmosphere. The films were grown under varying conditions where the growth parameters like sputtering power, gas pressure and electrode separation were changed in a systematic manner. Initial characterizations of these films have indicated that both the carbon and nitrogen contents of the films were very uniform. These films were also analyzed using ESCA and Auger Spectroscopy. The effects of various growth paramenters on both nitrogen incorporation and bonding configuration and film hardness will be discussed.

Mitra, S.; Xie, Y.; Waddill, G. D.; Morosoff, N. C.; James, W. J.

1996-03-01

465

Nonlinear Effects in Vibrating Smectic Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe nonlinear phenomena in vibrating smectic films. In particular, the shapes and positions of steps present in smectic films are affected by film vibrations. Above a certain threshold, we observe an instability in the meniscus consisting of the formation of a peninsula-shaped step. We point out that these effects are driven by a nonlinear inertial force which is tangent to the film surface and is proportional to the local density of the film and to the gradient of the film velocity squared.

Brazovskaia, M.; Dumoulin, H.; Pieranski, P.

1996-03-01

466

Thin films under chemical stress  

SciTech Connect

The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

467

The Foreign Language Feature Film and Language Teaching Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of foreign language films, featuring consideration of film sequence, image and film analysis, and literary adaptation, is an effective teaching activity with foreign language students. An example illustrates film analysis activities in a first-year French class. (CB)|

Chappell, Martin

1986-01-01

468

Adhesive Transfer of Thin Viscoelastic Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micellar suspensions of acrylic diblock copolymers are excellent model materials for studying the adhesive transfer of viscoelastic solids. The micellar structure is maintained in films with a variety of thicknesses, giving films with a well-defined structure and viscoelastic character. Thin films were cast onto elastomeric silicone substrates from micellar suspensions in butanol, and the adhesive interactions between these coated elastomeric substrates and a rigid indenter were quantified. By controlling the adhesive properties of the film/indenter and film/substrate interfaces we were able to obtain very clean transfer of the film from the substrate to the portion of the glass indenter with which the film was in contact. Adhesive failure at the film/substrate begins with the nucleation of a cavity at the film/substrate interface, followed by complete delamination of this interface. The final stage in the transfer process involves the failure of the film that bridges the indenter and the elastomeric substrate at the periphery of the contact area. This film is remarkably robust, and is extended to three times its original length prior to failure. Failure of this film occurs at the periphery of the indenter, giving a transferred film that conforms to the original contact area between the indenter and the coated substrate.

Shull, Kenneth

2005-03-01

469

Characterization of sculptured thin films  

SciTech Connect

Physical vapor deposition can be used to synthesize sculptured thin films with high surface areas. Highly directional vapor deposition onto a tilted, rotating substrate has been shown to produce nanostructured materials with controlled columnar features, including zig-zag, cusp, chevron, and helical geometries. Nanoporous coatings such as these are desirable for optical sensing applications due to their accessible high surface area, but few techniques are available to quantify the surface area of thin films. Electron beam and thermal evaporation techniques are used to synthesize highly porous thin films from silicon dioxide and a germanium antimony selenide chalcogenide glass in order to explore their potential for optical applications in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. Characterization has been performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained with a quartz crystal microbalance. It is shown that surface area can be increased up to 375 times that of a flat film by deposition at oblique angles. A nitrogen adsorption technique is introduced as a means to examine the porosity of sculptured thin films at a nanoscale.

Ryan, Joseph V.; Horn, Mark; Lakhtakia, Ashlesh; Pantano, C. G.

2004-05-11

470

Thin-film metal hydrides.  

PubMed

The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

2008-12-01

471

Cr metal thin film memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As state of the art flash memory technologies scale down to sub 30 nm node, conventional floating gate flash memory approaches its physical scaling limit mainly because of the high gate coupling ratio (GCR) requirement to secure proper memory window. Here, we report a novel flash memory device called Cr metal thin film memory (MTFM) that can circumvent the GCR issue and extend flash memory scalability by employing Cr thin film as a storage layer. Cr metal thin film memory devices with simple and low temperature processes produced a wide memory window of 10 V at the +/-18 V voltage sweep with GCR of only 0.3. Such a large window can be adopted for multi-level cell operations, which can further increase the memory density. Also, retention measurement shows more than 10 years retention time due to higher energy barrier between Cr metal and tunnel oxide than conventional poly silicon and tunnel oxide. Cross section transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed the structure and accurate dimensions of the Cr MTFM device with continuous Cr film and sharp interfaces. As for material characterizations, an amorphous like Cr phase was observed through TEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Cr-Cr bond and Cr-O bond near the Cr surface after evaporation and rapid thermal annealing. This metal thin film memory may open a new route to achieve the terabit level flash memory.

Hong, Augustin J.; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoungwhan; Wang, Yong; Xiu, Faxian; Jeon, Jaeseok; Park, Jemin; Rauda, Iris; Chen, Li-Min; Yang, Yang; Tolbert, Sarah; Zou, Jin; Wang, Kang L.

2011-09-01

472

Engineering Fundamentals of Thin-Film Microelectronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book contains an investigation of applied technological problems in the manufacture and design of thin-film microcircuits constituting a further improved development of printed circuit engineering. The conditions of obtaining the thin-film resistive, ...

N. K. Ivanov-Esipovich

1968-01-01

473

Semiconducting Polymers for Thin?Film Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of practical issues related to the adoption of semiconducting polymers in thin?film electronic devices is presented. Performance requirements for organic light emitting diodes, thin?film transistors and photovoltaic devices are reviewed.

Michael L. Chabinyc

2006-01-01

474

Electroless Deposited Nanostructured NiCo Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanostructured metal films and coatings with unique properties can be synthesized using solution chemistry. In this paper, the non-aqueous electroless polyol synthesis, characterization and properties of NiCo films are discussed.

G. Chow

2000-01-01

475

Memristive Properties of Thin Film Cuprous Oxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memristive properties of thin film copper oxides with different grain sizes were characterized using tunneling atomic force microscopy (TUNA) and optical reflection measurements. The thin films containing copper ions of different chemical states were prep...

B. C. Castle

2011-01-01

476

Social Studies: The '301 Film Corporation'  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Article describes how the author solved an ethnic relations problem in his classroom by encouraging the students to make a film about it. The results were better relations and the development of a student-run film corporation. (MM)|

Colman, Warren D.

1972-01-01

477

Transient Temperature Rise in Film Resistors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transient temperature distributions in film resistors are calculated for time intervals ranging from 10 nsec to 100 microsec. A one-dimensional model consisting of substrate, resistive film, and jacket is assumed. Peak temperatures are plotted for various...

H. Domingos

1974-01-01

478

Proximity effects of superconducting multilayer film  

SciTech Connect

The proximity effects of superconducting multilayer films composed of different metals are considered. The relationship between the critical temperature of a superconducting multilayer film with strong heterogeneity and its geometric structure is given.

Xueyu, C.; Daole, Y.

1984-07-01

479

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

DOEpatents

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

2010-08-17

480

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbo...

V. I. Merkulov D. H. Lowndes L. R. Baylor

1999-01-01

481

The Calibration of Photographic and Spectrographic Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Certain techniques and procedures are developed and evaluated for the ascertainment of the relative spectral-photometric characteristics of standard and special spectroscopic films and plates in the visible and UV regions. These films are used in ground b...

E. C. Hammond

1976-01-01

482

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2013-04-01

483

US Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R and D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells...

H. S. Ullal K. Zweibel R. L. Mitchell

1989-01-01

484

Piezoelectric Film Load Cell Robot Collision Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient...

J. R. Lembke

1988-01-01

485

Thin film-coated polymer webs  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

1992-02-04

486

Thin film solar cells on glass based on the transfer of monocrystalline Si films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film solar cells based on monocrystalline Si films are transferred onto a glass superstrate. Chemical vapor deposition serves to epitaxially deposit Si on quasi-monocrystalline Si films obtained from thermal crystallization of a double-layer porous Si film on a Si wafer. A separation layer that forms during this crystallization process allows one to separate the epitaxial layer on top of

R. B Bergmann; T. J Rinke; T. A Wagner; J. H Werner

2001-01-01

487

?-Lactoglobulin aggregates in foam films: Correlation between foam films and foaming properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single foam films made from aqueous protein solutions containing aggregates have been studied using a thin film balance apparatus. When the solutions are free from non-aggregated proteins, the films are either fluid or gelified, depending on the aggregate size. When non-aggregated proteins are present, they adsorb at the film surfaces, acting as anchors for the aggregates, and ultimately leading to

Bénédicte Rullier; Monique A. V. Axelos; Dominique Langevin; Bruno Novales

2009-01-01

488

36 CFR 704.1 - Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. 704.1 Section 704...OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS § 704.1 Films selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry. After the...

2011-07-01

489

Heritage Film Audiences 2.0: Period Film Audiences and Online Fan Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an update to my monograph Heritage Film Audiences: Period Films and Contemporary Audiences in the UK (Edinburgh University Press, 2011), this paper explores currently evolving forms of online audience behaviour and participatory fan activity around contemporary period films. Its detailed focus is on the online reception, (re-)appropriation and remixing of key films originally released in the 1980s to 1990s

Claire Monk

2011-01-01

490

The American Film Heritage; Impressions from the American Film Institute Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American Film Institute has an archive which presently contains more than 9,000 films, many of them rare. The articles in this volume are based on some of the films in the collection. Among the topics of these essays are: pioneers like D. W. Griffith and Thomas H. Ince, treatment of blacks and Indians in films, development of the techniques…

Shales, Tom; And Others

491

Film quality improvement of CIGS thin film grown by mechanochemical process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated a selenium treatment to enhance the film quality of CIGS films prepared by a mechanochemical process (MCP). It was confirmed that the selenium treatment was useful process in order to improve the film quality by enhancing the sintering and the grain growth. Although the film quality was improved, a selenium layer was deposited on CIGS surface during

Y. Chiba; F. Y. Meng; T. Tsukagoshi; H. Miyazaki; A. Yamada; T. Wada; M. Konagai

2006-01-01

492

Performance of hard DLC protective film prepared by PECVD method for thin film magnetic disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of a diamondlike carbon (DLC) film prepared by the PECVD method has been investigated as the protective film of a rigid thin film disk. An in-line sputtering PECVD multilayer deposition system was used for preparation of disk samples. The disks were found to be superior to those disks with conventionally sputtered carbon films in many aspects such as high

Keigo Iechika; Yuichi Kokaku; Mitsuyoshi Ootake; Katsuo Abe; Hiroshi Tani; Hiroshi Inaba

1994-01-01

493

Surface-modified polymer films  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Surface-modified polymer films for coating are provided, wherein the surface is modified by covalent binding of nano- or micro-particles comprising a photoreactive species. The surface of the polymer film, e.g. a parylene film, may be modified by covalent binding of nano- or micro-particles of a polymer, e.g. a conductive bifunctional polymer further comprising a chemically reactive functional group, or of a hybrid organic-inorganic oxide, e.g., silica, network comprising a photoreactive species. Further provided are: (i) polymerizable monomers, the conductive bifunctional polymers obtained therefrom; (ii) a hybrid photoreactive organic-inorganic oxide network; and (iii) micro- or nano-particles made from (i) or (ii).

2013-07-16

494

Chitosan films are NOT antimicrobial.  

PubMed

Chitosan is a promising biomaterial for biomedical applications and is currently applied as wound dressings. While chitosan solutions demonstrate strong bactericidal activity against a range of medically important bacteria, the study here reports a loss of this beneficial property in thin films cast from the same solutions. Chitosan films (20 microm) showed no inhibitory effects against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus or S. epidermidis species. In contrast, solutions used to prepare the films showed almost complete inhibition (approximately 98 ± 2%) when tested on bacterial lawns and in liquid cultures. Increased acidity of the chitosan solutions (pH 5) was shown to promote the bactericidal effects of this biopolymer. The concept that devices fabricated from chitosan have an inherent antimicrobial activity is suggested as an important misconception. PMID:20953663

Foster, L John R; Butt, Julian

2010-10-16

495

A 0.7-µm-Pitch Double Level Al Interconnection Technology for 1-Gbit DRAMs using SiO2 Mask Al Etching and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition SiOF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 0.7-µm-pitch double level aluminum (Al) interconnection technology on a 1-µm-high step is established for 1-Gbit dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). A SiO2 film which has a high resistance to Al etching was used as the mask layer. 0.35-µm-width Al wirings were fabricated even on a 1-µm-high step. 0.2-µm-spaces (aspect ratio=2.5) between the taper shaped Al lines were filled, for the first time, by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) fluorine doped silicon oxide (SiOF) film (?=3.9). The SiOF film capped with the PECVD SiO2 film has enough stability for the process integration. It was confirmed that these technologies can be applied to a double level Al interconnection using a 0.3-µm-diameter tungsten (W) plug.

Yokoyama, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Koji; Usami, Tatsuya; Kawamoto, Hideaki; Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Gomi, Hideki

1998-03-01

496

Analytical Solution for Thin-Film Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-films provide a potential explanation for a very fast transport of fluids through unsaturated fractured porous media. Such films may appear in air-filled fractures, although they appear in other instances too. Fluid and contaminants can be transported significant distances over short time intervals with thin-film flows. We present an analytical solution for the distribution of a solute in thin-film flows.

A. S. Telyakovskiy; K. M. Hayden; S. W. Wheatcraft

2008-01-01

497

Amorphous silicon-carbon thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has shown that it is possible to produce nearly stoichiometric films of a-SiC:H with high hydrogen content by rf sputtering in an atmosphere of argon