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1

Crystalline orientation of YBa2Cu3Oy film prepared by liquid-phase epitaxial growth on NdGaO3 substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy films were grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on NdGaO3(110) single-crystalline substrates by a modified top-seeded solution growth method. Two different melt compositions were used. In the case of Cu-poor melt compositions (Ba:Cu=3.0:5.0), only c-axis oriented growth was observed. However, if we used Cu-rich melt compositions (Ba:Cu=3.0:6.5), both c-axis and a-axis oriented films were obtained. In the latter case the

Tasuku Kitamura; Manabu Yoshida; Yasuji Yamada; Yuh Shiohara; Izumi Hirabayashi; Shoji Tanaka

1995-01-01

2

Crystalline orientation of YBa2Cu3Oy film prepared by liquid-phase epitaxial growth on NdGaO3 substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy films were grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on NdGaO3(110) single-crystalline substrates by a modified top-seeded solution growth method. Two different melt compositions were used. In the case of Cu-poor melt compositions (Ba:Cu=3.0:5.0), only c-axis oriented growth was observed. However, if we used Cu-rich melt compositions (Ba:Cu=3.0:6.5), both c-axis and a-axis oriented films were obtained. In the latter case the crystalline orientations of the YBa2Cu3Oy films were dependent on the temperature of the surface of the melt. At lower temperatures, c-axis oriented films were obtained, whereas the films showed a-axis orientation at higher temperatures. The width of the temperature region over which the orientation changes is less than 3 °C, which is very narrow compared to the width observed in conventional vapor phase depositions (typically 50 °C). We propose that changes in orientation during the liquid-phase epitaxial growth is due to the unique properties of the phase diagram of the Y-Ba-Cu-O system.

Kitamura, Tasuku; Yoshida, Manabu; Yamada, Yasuji; Shiohara, Yuh; Hirabayashi, Izumi; Tanaka, Shoji

1995-03-01

3

Influence of layer thickness and growth temperature on in-field Jc in BaZrO3/YBa2Cu3Oy quasi-multilayered films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the influence of spatial distributions of 3D pinning centers on critical current density Jc, BaZrO3-doped YBa2Cu3Oy thin films were fabricated by a quasi-multilayering process. The crossover from a random pinning feature to a peak behavior around the c-axis direction was observed in the angular dependence of Jc when the thickness of a YBCO layer and the growth temperature were modulated. The positions of BaZrO3 particles within the films are considered to be more correlated in the c-axis direction as the thickness of a YBCO layer becomes thinner. The lower growth temperature, on the other hand, suppresses the migration of adatoms, leading to randomly distributed BaZrO3 particles.

Sueyoshi, T.; Mori, M.; Tsuchiya, K.; Yonekura, K.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Mitsugi, F.; Ikegami, T.

2013-01-01

4

Improvement of Upper Critical Field in YBa2Cu3Oy Films by Substituting 3d Metal for Cu Sites Using Combinatorial Pulsed-laser Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the critical upper field Bc2 is improved by shortening of the coherence length owing to the scattering of electrons in a superconductor. In order to improve of Bc2 in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films in our study, we substituted 3d metals (M = Zn, Co, Ni, Fe) for the Cu sites of the YBCO films. We used combinatorial pulsed-laser deposition to fabricate different YBa2(Cu1-xMx)3Oy films by continuously changing the amount of substitution metal x, from 0 to 0.01 on a single substrate using. As a result, the superconducting transition temperature Tc and critical current density Jc decreased with increasing amounts of all four variations of substitution metal M. For example, Tc was 82.5 K and Jc at 77 K was 0.15 MA/cm2 in the Co-substituted sample with x = 0.0091. For the substitution of Co and Ni, we confirmed that Bc2 was improved with increasing amount of substitute metal up to x = 0.01. Although Bc2(0 K) of a pure-YBCO film was 101 T, Bc2(0 K) of the Co-substituted sample with x = 0.0091 reached 272 T. On the other hand, the irreversibility field decreased by substituting Zn, Co, Ni, or Fe for Cu.

Kojima, S.; Ichino, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

5

DC Sqiids made from YBa2Cu3Oy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on progress made at IBM in the fabrication of HiTc dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices)1,2. We have fabricated SQUIDs from polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy samples on MgO substrates3 and from epitaxial films on SrTiO3 (100) substrates4. The films were patterned using either ion-implanting to selectively convert the superconductor into an insulator without actually removing any material1,5, laser ablation

R. H. Koch; C. P. Umbach; M. M. Oprysko; J. D. Mannhart; B. Bumble; G. J. Clark; W. J. Gallagher; A. Gupta; A. Kleinsasser; R. B. Laibowitz; R. B. Sandstorm; M. R. Scheuermann

1988-01-01

6

Transport properties of hot-forming textured Bi:2223 and single domain YBa2Cu3Oy fabric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical performance of a hot-forming Bi:2223 compounds prepared by modifying the characteristics of the starting precursor powders and of YBa2Cu3Oy superconducting fabrics are investigated. The single domain Y123 fabrics are processed by an infiltration process from precursor Y2O3 cloths which having dimensions of thick films (~100 mum) and posses the structure replica of precursor Y2O3 fabrics. Transport critical currents

J. G. Noudem; E. Guilmeau; E. S. Reddy; M. Noe; G. J. Schmitz

2003-01-01

7

Effective pinning energy in Li-doped MTG-YBa2Cu3Oy crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Li-doped YBa2Cu3Oy crystals were fabricated by a typical top seed melt textured growth (MTG) method. The measured dc magnetization loops indicate that there is a very pronounced second peak in the field dependence of the critical current density for H \\parallel c -axis. The complex ac susceptibility has been measured as a function of temperature at various dc fields, and frequencies, respectively. The irreversibility line shifts to lower temperature with increasing ac and dc fields, and with decreasing frequency. Based on the nonlinear flux diffusion theory and the Bean critical state, we analysed the measured ac susceptibility curves. The temperature, dc field and current density dependence of the effective pinning barrier follows the form of U(J,H_{\\mathrm {dc}},T)\\propto J^{-\\mu }H_{\\mathrm {dc}}^{-0.75}(1-T^{2}/T_{\\mathrm {c}}^{2})^{3/2} , where ? = 0.13 is consistent with the theoretical predictions indicating that a vortex-glass phase is possible in the sample.

Li, P. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Zhang, H.; Nie, Y.; Bai, Z.; Qiu, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Gao, J.

2006-04-01

8

Temperature and doping dependence of x-ray absorption spectral weight in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comprehensive study of the temperature dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) could be attributed to a dynamical spectral weight ? in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). Large spectral weight changes with the temperature for both the Upper Hubbard band and the Zhang-Rice band due to dynamics of holes are experimentally found in the underdoped regime. These spectral weight changes become larger when the doping level p goes deeper into the underdoped regime, but quickly vanishes as p goes to the undoped limit. Our results clearly indicate that the pseudogap is related to the double occupancy and originates from bands in higher energies.

Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Mou, Chung-Yu; Chen, J. M.

2013-03-01

9

Pinning forces and lower critical fields in YBa2Cu3Oy crystals: Temperature dependence and anisotropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the field-dependent radiofrequency penetration depth lambda(H,T) are used to delineate the lower-critical-field Hc1-T phase boundary, and to study flux dynamics in YBa2Cu3Oy crystals. For both H||c^ and H?c^ Hc1 obeys a BCS temperature dependence with a temperature-independent anisotropy of 3.4+\\/-0.3. In the mixed state, the data obey lambda2(H)=[phi0\\/mu0alpha(T)]B(H), and yield both the functional dependence B(H) and the pinning

Dong-Ho Wu; S. Sridhar

1990-01-01

10

Fabrication and characterization of fluorine-doped thin oxide thin films and nanorod arrays via spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films via intermittent spray\\u000a pyrolysis utilizing a solution mixture of tin chloride pentahydrate and ammonia fluoride. Utilizing the same solution, nanorod\\u000a arrays were fabricated via template-based growth. Uniform and crack-free FTO films over 20×20 mm with a thickness up to 900 nm\\u000a have been routinely achieved; such FTO films

B. Russo; G. Z. Cao

2008-01-01

11

Effect of fluorine doping on highly transparent conductive spray deposited nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The undoped and fluorine doped thin films are synthesized by using cost-effective spray pyrolysis technique. The dependence of optical, structural and electrical properties of SnO 2 films, on the concentration of fluorine is reported. Optical absorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Hall effect studies have been performed on SnO 2:F (FTO) films coated on glass substrates. The film thickness varies from 800 to 1572 nm. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the presence of cassiterite structure with (2 0 0) preferential orientation for FTO films. The crystallite size varies from 35 to 66 nm. SEM and AFM study reveals the surface of FTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The electrical study reveals that the films are degenerate and exhibit n-type electrical conductivity. The 20 wt% F doped film has a minimum resistivity of 3.8 × 10 -4 ? cm, carrier density of 24.9 × 10 20 cm -3 and mobility of 6.59 cm 2 V -1 s -1. The sprayed FTO film having minimum resistance of 3.42 ?/cm 2, highest figure of merit of 6.18 × 10 -2 ? -1 at 550 nm and 96% IR reflectivity suggest, these films are useful as conducting layers in electrochromic and photovoltaic devices and also as the passive counter electrode.

Moholkar, A. V.; Pawar, S. M.; Rajpure, K. Y.; Bhosale, C. H.; Kim, J. H.

2009-09-01

12

Influence of Preferred Orientation on the Electrical Conductivity of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Films  

PubMed Central

Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5?cm2 V?1 s?1 without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 1020?cm?3. Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities. PMID:24419455

Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D.; Ramsey, Philip M.; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

2014-01-01

13

Electrical and optical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and fluorine-doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto soda-lime glass substrates were electrically and optically characterized. Resistivities as low as 1×10?1 ? cm, Hall mobility as high as 10 cm2\\/V per s and effective carrier concentration as high as 4×1019 cm?3 have been obtained. Relative fluorine concentration was determined by the resonant nuclear reaction method. Electron concentrations

A. Sanchez-Juarez; A Tiburcio-Silver; A Ortiz; E. P Zironi; J Rickards

1998-01-01

14

Electronic and optical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of fluorine-doped SnO2 have been prepared by deposition on borosilicate glass using the spray-pyrolysis technique. The effect of doping on the concentration and mobility of the charge carriers (electrons) as well as the resistivity of the films has been studied. The undoped films had a resistivity of a few m ? cm; this could be reduced by a factor of 10 by doping. The electron mobility in undoped films was about 3 cm2/Vs but could be improved by a factor of 5 to 6 by doping. The doping yield was about 2.3%. The high quality films which were deposited for photovoltaic applications had a sheet resistance of R?=2 ?/sq and an average transmittance, in the visible region, of T=85% for a thickness of 1.1 ?m. Their figure of merit is one of the highest values reported: ?=T10/R??0.1 S. The optical dispersion of our films can be explained perfectly by classical models. In the wavelength region of ?<0.580 ?m, the refractive index, N, for undoped and doped films can be given by N=[1+?2/(0.370?2-0.0105)]1/2, where ? is in ?m. From the study of dispersion and the plasma resonance frequency, the numerical values at optical frequencies of the dielectric constant, electron mobility, and electron effective mass were determined as 3.70, 9.3-11.8 cm2/Vs, and (0.26-0.45)m0, respectively, where m0 is the mass of free electrons. From the variation of direct and indirect optical transition energies with the carrier concentration, the density-of-states effective masses for electrons and holes were obtained as 0.85m0 and 0.78m0, respectively. These studies revealed a direct energy bandgap of 4.11 eV for SnO2 in addition to a defect band situated 0.45 eV above the valence band edge.

Rakhshani, A. E.; Makdisi, Y.; Ramazaniyan, H. A.

1998-01-01

15

Fluorine-doped tin oxide surfaces modified by self-assembled alkanethiols for thin-film devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have investigated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from alkanethiols on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surfaces, which were used as an anode for thin-film devices prepared from the conductive copolymer so-called sulfonated poly(thiophene-3-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]-2,5-diyl) (S-P3MEET). The assembled monolayers were characterized by using wetting contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. The results indicated that dodecanethiol molecules, CH3(CH2)11SH, were well assembled on the FTO surfaces. In addition, it was found similar values of wetting contact angle for dodecanethiol assembled on both FTO and Au surfaces. Concerning the thin-film device, current-voltage analysis revealed a hysteresis. This behavior was associated to a charge-trapping effect and also to structural changes of the SAMs. Finally, charge injection capability of tin oxide electrodes can be improved by using SAMs and then this approach can plays an important role in molecular-scale electronic devices.

Alves, A. C. T.; Gomes, D. J. C.; Silva, J. R.; Silva, G. B.

2013-08-01

16

Effect of fluorine doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films prepared by spray ultrasonic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2) thin films are synthesized by using cost-effective spray ultrasonic technique; the films are sprayed on heated glass substrates at 480 °C. The dependence of structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO2 films on the concentration of fluorine is investigated. X-ray diffraction, Optical absorption, four-point probe and Hall Effect studies have been performed on undoped and fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) films. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the presence of cassiterite structure with (2 0 0) as preferential orientation for FTO films. The crystallite size varies from 10.3 to 27.12 nm and was affected by F concentration which was lying between 0 and 12 wt.%. All films exhibit optical transmission T(?) more than 83.9% in visible region; the optically estimated film thickness varies from 700 to 975 nm for the same given time (3 min deposition) and band gap (Eg) varies from 3.651 to 3.902 eV. The electrical study reveals that the films have n-type electrical conductivity and depend upon fluorine concentration too. The sprayed FTO film doped at 6 wt.% has the minimum resistivity of 1.47 × 10-3 ? cm and minimum resistance sheet (Rsh) of 21 ?/cm2 whereas the carrier concentration and mobility were about 2.04 × 1019 cm-3 and 208.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 respectively.

Benhaoua, Atmane; Rahal, Achour; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Jlassi, Mohamed

2014-06-01

17

High-T sub c fluorine-doped YBa2Cu3O(y) films on ceramic substrates by screen printing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thick films of fluorine-doped YBa2Cu3O(y) were screen printed on highly polished alumina, magnesia spinel, strontium titanate, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. They were annealed at 1000 C and soaked in oxygen at 450 C, followed by slow cooling to room temperature. The films were characterized by electrical resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and x-ray diffraction. The film on YSZ showed the best characteristics with a T sub c (onset) of 91 K, T sub c (R equals 0) of 88.2 K, and a transition width, delta T sub c (10-90 percent), of approximately 1.7 K. The film adhesion, probably controlled by interdiffusion of cations between the film and the substrate, was good in all cases except on strontium titanate where the film completely detached from the substrate.

Bansal, Narottam P.

1991-01-01

18

Thermal oxidation-grown vanadium dioxide thin films on FTO (Fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By deposition of metallic vanadium on FTO substrate in Argon atmosphere at room temperature, the sample was then annealed in furnace for 2 h at the temperature of 410 °C in air ambient. (1 1 0) -orientated vanadium dioxide films were prepared on the FTO surface. A maximum transmittance of ˜40% happened at 900-1250 nm region at room temperature. The change of optical transmittance at this region was ˜25% between semiconducting and metallic states. In particular, vanadium dioxide thin films on FTO exhibit semiconductor-metal phase transition at ˜51 °C, the width of the hysteresis loop is ˜8 °C.

Tong, Guoxiang; Li, Yi; Wang, Feng; Huang, Yize; Fang, Baoying; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Liu; Shen, Yujian; Zheng, Qiuxin; Liang, Qian; Yan, Meng; Qin, Yuan; Ding, Jie

2013-11-01

19

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (FO) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (VO) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the VO concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the FO concentration and a decrease in both n and VO concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO2 matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine FO and tin vacancy VSn defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a VSn through the migration of SnSn host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

Akkad, Fikry El; Joseph, Sudeep

2012-07-01

20

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (F{sub O}) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the V{sub O} concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the F{sub O} concentration and a decrease in both n and V{sub O} concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO{sub 2} matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine F{sub O} and tin vacancy V{sub Sn} defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a V{sub Sn} through the migration of Sn{sub Sn} host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

El Akkad, Fikry; Joseph, Sudeep [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

2012-07-15

21

Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature  

PubMed Central

Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2?hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1?cm2/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses. PMID:23803977

Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

2013-01-01

22

Effect of N2 Plasma Annealing on Properties of Fluorine Doped Silicon Dioxide Films with Low Dielectric Constant for Ultra-Large-Scale Integrated Circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of N2 plasma annealing on the properties of fluorine doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films is investigated. The stability of the dielectric constant of SiOF film is remarkably improved by the N2 plasma annealing. After enduring a moisture absorption test for six hours in a chamber with 60% humidity at 50°C, the dielectric constant variation of the annealed SiOF films is only 1.5%, while the variation for those SiOF films without annealing is 15.5%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic results show that the absorption peaks of Si-OH and H-OH of SiOF films are reduced after the N2 plasma annealing because the annealing can wipe off some unstable Si-F2 bonds in SiOF films. These unstable Si-F2 bonds are suitable to react with water, resulting in the degradation of SiOF film properties. Therefore, the N2 plasma annealing meliorates the properties of SiOF films with low dielectric constant.

Zhang, Wei; Wang, Peng-Fei; Ding, Shi-Jin; Wang, Ji-Tao; William, Wei Lee

2002-06-01

23

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

24

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

25

Enhancement of fluorine doped amorphous carbon thin films from microwave surface wave plasma activated above room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-C:F) thin films were synthesized above room temperature by microwave surface wave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MW SWP CVD). The effect of deposition temperature on optical, electrical, chemical and bonding properties of the a-C:F films were studied by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–VIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Raman spectrometry and TEM measurements. The film

Dilip Chandra Ghimire; Sudip Adhikari; Hare Ram Aryal; Golap Kalita; Masayoshi Umeno

2009-01-01

26

Effect of Nonmagnetic Impurities on the Electronic State of Quasiparticles Confined in the Naturally Prepared Nanostructure under Magnetic Field in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of Zn impurities on the electronic state in the vortex core were investigated systematically in almost optimally doped YBa2(Cu1-xZnx)3Oy (0? x? 0.06) using the microwave complex surface impedance (Zs) measurement technique. We estimated the viscosity, ?, and the pinning constant, ?p, of a vortex as functions of temperature and x on the basis of a mean-field theory of the vortex motion. ?p as a function of Zn concentration, x, suggests that Zn doping is not an effective procedure for pinning the vortex motion. ?(x) depended very weakly on x for x? 0.003, while it decreased rapidly with increasing x for x>0.003. These finding suggest that the scattering of QPs in the vortex core is much larger than that in the Meissner (zero-field) state for x? 0.003. On the other hand, for x>0.003, the scattering of QPs in the vortex core is governed by Zn impurity, showing that the presence of the vortex is not important for the scattering in this regime. The large scattering in the low-doping-concentration region (x? 0.003) is particularly important, since this is characteristic of the presence of the vortex core. Our result is consistent with the previously published microwave result for the Zn-free material [Tsuchiya et al.: Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001) 184517] in the sense that both experimental data suggest the existence of the high QP-DOS in the vortex core, but is inconsistent with a picture proposed by STM measurements on the vortex core. We discuss possible origins for this discrepancy, including novel mechanisms of energy dissipation in the motion of a moderately clean (\\ell˜?) vortex core.

Maeda, Atsutaka; Kitano, Haruhisa; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Shibata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Norio

2007-09-01

27

YBCO films grown by reactive co-evaporation on simplified IBAD-MgO coated conductor templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate coated conductors fabricated by reactive co-evaporation of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) by cyclic deposition and reaction (RCE-CDR) on ion-beam-assisted-deposition- (IBAD-) textured templates simplified by the elimination of the epitaxial buffer layer. Hastelloy substrates, both polished and unpolished, were used as a starting material for the IBAD templates. Y2O3 bed layers were then deposited followed by IBAD-textured MgO and a thin homoepitaxial MgO layer. The MgO-terminated templates were used for direct deposition of YBCO by RCE-CDR. Critical current densities obtained for the undoped YBCO material are comparable to the best values measured previously with the use of LaMnO3 or SrTiO3 epitaxial buffer layers and state-of-the-art coated conductor results. The structural characterization data indicate a well oriented YBCO film with a robust template. Electrical measurements also indicate no weak links and a typical magnetic field behavior of undoped YBCO, characterized by a low density of naturally occurring strong pinning centers and correlations along the ab direction.

Matias, Vladimir; Rowley, E. John; Coulter, Yates; Maiorov, B.; Holesinger, Terry; Yung, Chris; Glyantsev, Viktor; Moeckly, Brian

2010-01-01

28

Optimizing the optical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of sol-gel spin-coated ZnO and F-doped ZnO (FZO) thin films were investigated using ultraviolet-visible and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopies. The FZO films showed on average of > 80% optical transmittance over the entire visible region, and the transmittance spectra and the optical bandgaps were blueshifted owing to the Burstein-Moss effect. The 4 at% FZO film showed the lowest Urbach energy and, thus, the best crystallinity of all the films. Changes in the free exciton, neutral-donor-bound exciton (D0X), donor-acceptor pair, and second-order longitudinal optical phonon replica peaks were represented from the temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra. The strength of the exciton-phonon coupling was investigated using the Bose-Einstein approximation to fit the experimental data, and the thermal activation energies of the as-deposited ZnO and 4 at% FZO thin films were determined using Arrhenius plots for the integrated PL intensities of the D0X peak.

Yoon, Hyunsik; Choi, Hyonkwang; Leem, Jae-Young; Lee, Sang-heon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Su; Son, Jeong-Sik

2014-08-01

29

Fabrication process of YBCO thin film starting from amorphous film for microstrip line device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the process for fabricating YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin film microstrip lines from amorphous thin films. First, we made amorphous YBCO thin films and then post-annealing was carried out. The amorphous 300-nm-thick YBCO thin films were deposited on a CeO2 buffered r-Al2O3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The 50-nm-thick CeO2 buffer layer was made by a facing target sputtering system. We examined the optimal conditions of the post-annealing process by using a two-step crystallization process. The heating rate of the first step was set to 360 K/min until 1023 K, and then the heating rate of the second step was set to 20 K/min until 1073 K. The oxygen pressure was kept to 3000 Pa at 1073 K for 210 min. From the XRD measurement, we observed that the YBCO thin films grew c-axis orientation on the CeO2/r-Al2O3 substrate. Both YBCO and CeO2 ?-scan peaks showed four-fold symmetry and rotated 45 degrees between YBCO (102) grain axis and CeO2 (220) grain axis. The surface roughness, ??, and ?? of YBCO thin films were 35.12 nm, 0.89 degree, and 1.51 degree, respectively. We found these to be the optimal post-annealing conditions in which to make a single phase of YBCO films with Tc of 87 K from amorphous YBCO thin films. Therefore, our process is useful to make high-quality YBCO microstrip lines.

Muyari, J.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, S.; Hayashi, K.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

30

YBCO-buffered NdBCO film with higher thermal stability in seeding REBCO growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, for the first time, we report a strengthened superheating effect caused by a buffering YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123 or YBCO) layer in a Nd1+xBa2-xCu3O7-y (Nd123 or NdBCO) thin film with a MgO substrate (i.e., NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film). In cold-seeding melt-textured (MT) growth the NdBCO/YBCO/MgO film presented an even higher superheating level, about 20?°C higher than that of non-buffered NdBCO film (i.e., NdBCO/MgO film). Using this NdBCO/YBCO/MgO film as the seed and under a maximum processing temperature (Tmax) of up to 1120?°C, we succeeded in growing various RE1+xBa2-xCu3O7-y (REBCO, RE = Gd, Sm, Nd, RE refers to rare elements) bulk superconductors. Pole figure (x-ray ?-scan) measurement reveals that the NdBCO/YBCO/MgO film has better in-plane alignment than NdBCO/MgO film, indicating that the induced intermediate layer improves the crystallinity of the NdBCO film, which could be the main origin of the enhanced thermal stability. In short, possessing higher thermal stability and enduring a higher Tmax in the MT process, the NdBCO/YBCO/MgO film is beneficial to the growth of bulk superconductors in two aspects: (1) broad application for REBCO materials of high peritectic temperature (Tp); (2) effective suppression against heterogeneous nucleation, which is of great assistance in growing large and high-performance REBCO crystals.

Xu, H. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Cheng, L.; Yan, S. B.; Yu, D. J.; Yao, X.

2012-03-01

31

Electrical performance of single domain YBa 2Cu 3O y fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical performance of a new form of superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy fabrics prepared in a self-supporting form is discussed. The single domain Y123 fabrics processed by an infiltration process from precursor Y2O3 cloths have dimensions of thick films and posses the structure replica of precursor Y2O3 fabrics. The electrical properties of the fabrics determined by ac-susceptibility and dc-measurements are discussed. The

J. G Noudem; E. S Reddy; M. Tarka; E. A Goodilin; M. Noe; M. Zeisberger; G. J Schmitz

2002-01-01

32

Transport properties of hot-forming textured Bi:2223 and single domain YBa 2Cu 3O y fabric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical performance of a hot-forming Bi:2223 compounds prepared by modifying the characteristics of the starting precursor powders and of YBa2Cu3Oy superconducting fabrics are investigated. The single domain Y123 fabrics are processed by an infiltration process from precursor Y2O3 cloths which having dimensions of thick films (?100 ?m) and posses the structure replica of precursor Y2O3 fabrics. Transport critical currents

J. G. Noudem; E. Guilmeau; E. S. Reddy; M. Noe; G. J. Schmitz

2003-01-01

33

Preparation of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres as an efficient anode material for Li-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein we report the design and synthesis of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres (h-Fe3O4@C/F) through mild heating of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated hollow Fe3O4 spheres. The spheres exhibit enhanced cyclic and rate performances. The as-prepared h-Fe3O4@C/F shows significantly improved electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities of over 930 mA h g-1 at a rate of 0.1 C after 70 cycles, 800 mA h g-1 at a rate of 0.5 C after 120 cycles and 620 mA h g-1 at a rate of 1 C after 200 cycles. This improved lithium storage performance is mainly ascribed to the encapsulation of the spheres with fluorine-doped carbon, which not only improves the reaction kinetics and stability of the solid electrolyte interface film but also prevents aggregation and drastic volume change of the Fe3O4 particles. These spheres thus represent a promising anode material in lithium-ion battery applications.Herein we report the design and synthesis of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres (h-Fe3O4@C/F) through mild heating of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated hollow Fe3O4 spheres. The spheres exhibit enhanced cyclic and rate performances. The as-prepared h-Fe3O4@C/F shows significantly improved electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities of over 930 mA h g-1 at a rate of 0.1 C after 70 cycles, 800 mA h g-1 at a rate of 0.5 C after 120 cycles and 620 mA h g-1 at a rate of 1 C after 200 cycles. This improved lithium storage performance is mainly ascribed to the encapsulation of the spheres with fluorine-doped carbon, which not only improves the reaction kinetics and stability of the solid electrolyte interface film but also prevents aggregation and drastic volume change of the Fe3O4 particles. These spheres thus represent a promising anode material in lithium-ion battery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TGA, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, EDX spectra and elemental mapping, XRD and electrochemical data. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06409c

Geng, Hongbo; Zhou, Qun; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei; Zheng, Junwei

2014-03-01

34

Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 - 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

Anand, S.; Darak, Mayur Sudesh; Kumar, D. Sriram

2014-10-01

35

Cis-bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2?-bipyridyl-4,4?dicarboxylato)Ru(II) (N719) dark-reactivity when bound to fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) or titanium dioxide (TiO 2) surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar cell sensitizer cis-bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2?-bipyridyl-4,4?dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II) (N719) is adsorbed and investigated at two electrode surfaces: (i) at a bare fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and (ii) at a nano-particulate anatase (TiO2) film in contact with FTO. N719 is adsorbed from acetonitrile onto FTO surfaces giving poor quality partial or multi-layer coverage commencing at 10?7M concentration. In contrast, from 50% acetonitrile 50% tBuOH

Alberto Fattori; Laurence M. Peter; Stephen R. Belding; Richard G. Compton; Frank Marken

2010-01-01

36

Electrochemical serotonin monitoring of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide by predeposition of self-assembled 4-pyridylporphyrin.  

PubMed

A 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (TPyP)-modified self-assembled functional layer was prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. We employed a bifunctional molecule, 3-iodopropionate (3IP), to covalently bind TPyP to the FTO substrate. The 3IP-monolayered FTO and the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Compared to conventional electropolymerized poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on bare FTO, the PEDOT:PSS film on the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO showed better sensitivity and selectivity in monitoring serotonin in the presence of high concentrations of interfering agents such as ascorbic acid, urea, D-(+)-glucose, epinephrine, and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Both PEDOT:PSS films on the bare FTO and the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO showed electrocatalytic effects in serotonin detection, and only the TPyP-3IP-based PEDOT:PSS film acted as a pH resistant buffer layer in the selective detection of serotonin. PMID:24125701

Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Sangsig; Ki Min, Nam; Jin, Joon-Hyung

2014-02-15

37

Superconductivity and phase diagram in iron-based arsenic-oxides ReFeAsO1?? (Re = rare-earth metal) without fluorine doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a new class of superconductors prepared by high-pressure synthesis in the quaternary family ReFeAsO1?? (Re=Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce, La) without fluorine doping. The onset superconducting critical temperature (Tc) in these compounds increases with the reduction of the Re atom size, and the highest Tc obtained so far is 55 K in SmFeAsO1??. For the NdFeAsO1?? compound with

Zhi-An Ren; Guang-Can Che; Xiao-Li Dong; Jie Yang; Wei Lu; Wei Yi; Xiao-Li Shen; Zheng-Cai Li; Li-Ling Sun; Fang Zhou; Zhong-Xian Zhao

2008-01-01

38

Micrometer-sized fluorine doped tin oxide as fast electron collector for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-layered fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) powder was synthesized and applied as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO powders are connected to form a direct electron pathway for the efficient extract of injected electrons, while the TiO2 layer serves as an energy barrier prohibiting the charge combination with oxidized dye or I3(-). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses suggest that electrons have a longer combination lifetime (?e = 233 ms) than that of the electron in the DSSCs using traditional P25 photoanodes (?e = 28 ms). The DSSCs using 5 ?m thick TiO2@FTO as photoanodes eventually give a respectable and long-term stable photovoltaic performance with a current density of 23.8 mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and power conversion efficiency of 7.4%. The results are received on a low dye loading level (0.25 × 10(-7) mol/cm(2)), which is (1)/10 of that for traditional photoanode (2.79 × 10(-7) mol/cm(2)). PMID:25226086

Cui, Xiao Rui; Wang, Ye Feng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Lu; Gao, Fei; Zeng, Jing Hui

2014-10-01

39

Solution deposition planarization of long-length flexible substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution deposition planarization (SDP) is studied for preparing smooth flexible substrates in multimeter lengths. We demonstrate 0.5 nm rms surface roughness starting from unpolished metal tapes and a correlation of substrate roughness with the texture of subsequent ion-beam aligned films. Surface roughness reduction in SDP is modeled via film shrinkage during solution deposition and a residual roughness based on film thickness. Use of solution deposited a-Y2O3 to planarize substrates prior to ion-beam textured MgO growth shows an in-plane texture of MgO down to 4°. Utilizing these templates, we demonstrated superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy coated conductors with critical current densities of 2.8-4.0 MA/cm2 at 75 K.

Sheehan, Chris; Jung, Yehyun; Holesinger, Terry; Feldmann, D. Matthew; Edney, Cynthia; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Clem, Paul G.; Matias, Vladimir

2011-02-01

40

Electrochemical Ag doping into YBa 2Cu 3O y , ceramics using Ag-??Al 2O 3 ionic conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical Ag doping into YBa2Cu3Oy ceramics was carried out at 400–600 °C using a Ag-??-Al2O3 (ionic conductor)\\/YBa2Cu3Oy\\/Ag-??-Al2O3 sandwich electrolysis system. Ag was doped into the grain boundaries of the superconducting oxide ceramics, and Ba2+ was released. The electrochemical doping resulted in some destruction in the grain boundaries of the YBa2Cu3Oy and the production of Ag metal, when the doping

Yasumichi Matsumoto; Micho Koinuma; Hideki Yamamoto; Teruaki Nishimori

1997-01-01

41

Water oxidation and oxygen monitoring by cobalt-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocatalytic water oxidation occurs at fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes that have been surface-modified by addition of Co(II). On the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements, the active surface site appears to be a single site or small-molecule assembly bound as Co(II), with no evidence for cobalt oxide film or cluster formation. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry measurements, surface-bound Co(II) undergoes a pH-dependent 1e(-)/1H(+) oxidation to Co(III), which is followed by pH-dependent catalytic water oxidation. O2 reduction at FTO occurs at -0.33 V vs NHE, allowing for in situ detection of oxygen as it is formed by water oxidation on the surface. Controlled-potential electrolysis at 1.61 V vs NHE at pH 7.2 resulted in sustained water oxidation catalysis at a current density of 0.16 mA/cm(2) with 29,000 turnovers per site over an electrolysis period of 2 h. The turnover frequency for oxygen production per Co site was 4 s(-1) at an overpotential of 800 mV at pH 7.2. Initial experiments with Co(II) on a mesoporous, high-surface-area nanoFTO electrode increased the current density by a factor of ~5. PMID:23692429

Kent, Caleb A; Concepcion, Javier J; Dares, Christopher J; Torelli, Daniel A; Rieth, Adam J; Miller, Andrew S; Hoertz, Paul G; Meyer, Thomas J

2013-06-12

42

Growth and characterisation of electrodeposited ZnO thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical method has been used to deposit zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films from aqueous zinc nitrate solution at 80 °C onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. ZnO thin films were grown between ? 0.900 and ? 1.025 V vs Ag\\/AgCl as established by voltammogram. Characterisation of ZnO films was carried out for both as-deposited and annealed films in order to

J. S. Wellings; N. B. Chaure; S. N. Heavens; I. M. Dharmadasa

2008-01-01

43

Multicoloured electrochromic thin films of NiO\\/PANI  

Microsoft Academic Search

NiO\\/polyaniline (PANI) thin films have been prepared by a two-step process. NiO thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution of NiCl2 · 6H2O at pH 7.5 on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates and a layer of PANI was formed on NiO thin films by chemical bath deposition. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic

A C Sonavane; A I Inamdar; H P Deshmukh; P S Patil

2010-01-01

44

Microwave shielding of fluorine-doped tin oxide film obtained by spray pyrolysis studied by electrical characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report dc conductivity and Hall effect results for glasses coated with commercial In2O3:Sn and SnO2:F. Van der Pauw Hall effect and resistivity measurements were used to carry out the sheet resistance of the samples and to determine their carrier density, mobility, and conductivity from 10 to 325 K. We calculated the transmission from the dc measurements and compared it with the microwave response of a typical microwave oven door used as a barrier on a cavity resonator, at 2.8 GHz. By controlling the oxygen doping through the H2O amount in the solution, we were able to increase the mobility of SnO2:F sample and as a consequence obtained an improved microwave shielding power. We estimated that, for the best case, a coating 13.2 ?m thick should suffice for a shielding power similar to that of a microwave oven door.

Rubinger, C. P. L.; da Cunha, A. F.; Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G. M.; Costa, L. C.

2009-04-01

45

Diagnostic assay of chromium (VI) in the ex vivo fluid of the urine of a smoker using a fluorine-doped handmade sensor.  

PubMed

A voltammetric diagnosis of a chromium (VI) ion was investigated using a fluorine-doped graphite pencil electrode. Square wave (SW) stripping working conditions were attained at a high range of 0.051-0.45 mg L(-1) and a microrange of 0.05-0.4 microg L(-1) in a 0.1 M NH(4)H(2)PO(4) electrolyte solution, at a relative standard deviation of 1.68% (RSD, n=15), using 10.0 microg L(-1) Cr(VI). A fast experimental time was used only for the 120 sec SW accumulation time. An analytical detection-limit (DL) of 0.008 microg L(-1) was attained. DL appeared to be more sensitive than common voltammetric and spectrophotometric assays. The developed sensor was applied to tap water and the urine of a smoker. It was found that the methods can be applicable for in vivo fluid or medicinal diagnosis. PMID:19288451

Ly, Suw Young; Kim, Min Joon

2009-01-01

46

Nitrogen plasma treatment of fluorine-doped tin oxide for enhancement of photo-carrier collection in amorphous Si solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen plasma treatment was performed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) front electrodes, and its impact on the performance of pin type amorphous Si (a-Si) solar cells was investigated. Nitrogen plasma treatment reverses the surface band bending of SnO{sub 2}:F from accumulation to depletion, thus in turn reversing the band bending of the p type amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC) window layer. The reversal of band bending leads to the collection of carriers generated in p-a-SiC, and quantum efficiency in the short wavelength regime is thereby enhanced. On the other hand, surface depletion of SnO{sub 2}:F causes a reduction of the diode built-in voltage and increased series resistance, which could degrade the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), the degradation of which is strongly affected by the deposition time of p-a-SiC.

Baik, Seung Jae; Lim, Koeng Su [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15

47

Large-area SnO 2: F thin films by offline APCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we reported the successful preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films on large-area glass substrates (1245mm×635mm×3mm) by self-designed offline atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. The FTO thin films were achieved through a combinatorial chemistry approach using tin tetrachloride, water and oxygen as precursors and Freon (F-152, C2H4F2) as dopant. The deposited films were characterized

Yan Wang; Yucheng Wu; Yongqiang Qin; Zhihai Zhang; Chengwu Shi; Qingfeng Zhang; Changhao Li; Xiaohong Xia; Stanley Sun; Leon Chen

2011-01-01

48

Studies on electrochromic properties of nickel oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel chloride solution. Transparent NiO-thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature 350°C. The films were cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (111) direction. Infrared spectroscopy results show presence of free hydroxyl ion

L. D. Kadam; P. S. Patil

2001-01-01

49

Ab initio probing of the electronic band structure and Fermi surface of fluorine-doped WO3 as a novel low- T C superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ab initio calculations were performed to investigate the electronic structure and the Fermi surface of the newly discovered low-temperature superconductor: fluorine-doped WO3. We find that F doping provides the transition of the insulating tungsten trioxide into a metallic-like phase WO3 - x F x , where the near-Fermi states are formed mainly from W 5 d with admixture of O 2 p orbitals. The cooperative effect of fluorine additives in WO3 consists in change of electronic concentration as well as the lattice constant. At probing their influence on the near-Fermi states separately, the dominant role of the electronic factor for the transition of tungsten oxyfluoride into superconducting state was established. The volume of the Fermi surface gradually increases with the increase of the doping. In the sequence WO3 ? WO2.5F0.5 the effective atomic charges of W and O ions decrease, but much less, than it is predicted within the idealized ionic model—owing to presence of the covalent interactions W-O and W-F.

Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

2012-03-01

50

Photoelectrochemical cells based on chemically deposited nanocrystalline Bi 2S 3 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) thin films of various thicknesses having grain size between 7 and 34nm have been prepared by using chemical bath deposition method onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates (sheet resistance 20–30?cm2) from an aqueous acidic bath (pH=5). Bismuth nitrate and thioacetamide were used as Bi3+ and S2? ion sources, respectively. Films were prepared at

R. S. Mane; B. R. Sankapal; C. D. Lokhande

1999-01-01

51

Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 doped WO3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500°C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of TiO2

P. S. Patil; S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; P. S. Shinde; H. P. Deshmukh; S. B. Sadale

2005-01-01

52

Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2 doped WO3 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 doped WO3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500 °C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of

P. S. Patil; S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; P. S. Shinde; H. P. Deshmukh; S. B. Sadale

2005-01-01

53

Synthesis and characterization of Cd 0.7Pb 0.3Se thin films for photoelectrochemical solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum composition Cd0.7Pb0.3Se thin films have been deposited using the chemical bath containing cadmium sulfate octahydrate, lead nitrate, tartaric acid, potassium hydroxide, ammonia, and sodium selenosulfate onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The various deposition parameters such as composition of reactive bath, pH of the solution, deposition temperature, deposition time, speed of rotation, etc. have been optimized for obtaining good

S. D. Delekar; M. K. Patil; B. V. Jadhav; K. R. Sanadi; P. P. Hankare

2010-01-01

54

Synthesis and characterization of Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films for photoelectrochemical solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimum composition Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films have been deposited using the chemical bath containing cadmium sulfate octahydrate, lead nitrate, tartaric acid, potassium hydroxide, ammonia, and sodium selenosulfate onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The various deposition parameters such as composition of reactive bath, pH of the solution, deposition temperature, deposition time, speed of rotation, etc. have been optimized for

S. D. Delekar; M. K. Patil; B. V. Jadhav; K. R. Sanadi; P. P. Hankare

2010-01-01

55

Effect of substrate temperature on electrochromic properties of spray-deposited Ir-oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromic iridium oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates, from iridium chloride solution. The substrate temperature was varied between 250 and 400 °C. The as-deposited samples were amorphous. The electrochromic properties of thin films were studied in aqueous electrolyte (0.5N H 2SO 4) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and spectroelectrochemical techniques. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism upon intercalation and deintercalation of H + ions. The colouration efficiency at 630 nm was calculated and found maximum for I 250 sample, owing its hydration.

Patil, P. S.; Kawar, R. K.; Sadale, S. B.

2005-08-01

56

Fabrication and Microwave Properties of Asymmetric Dual-band High-Tc Superconducting Filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An asymmetric dual-band band-pass filter (DBPF) is proposed for the applications of IEEE 802.11b/g (2.4 GHz ? 2.48 GHz) on the multimode wireless local area networks (WLAN). The high temperature superconducing (HTS) filter was fabricated by pattering YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films double-sided deposited on 20 × 20 mm2 LaAlO3 substrates with an RF sputtering technique and by putting them in copper housings. The simulation results show the asymmetric dual-band feature of two passbands at 2.45 and 2.48 GHz, each with a minimum in-band insertion loss of about 0.3 dB and bandwidths of 20 and 23 MHz, respectively. The realized HTS DBPF shows two passbands at 2.47 and 2.49 GHz with maximum insertion losses of 1.75 and 3.17 dB at 77 K, respectively. The measured results show a good HTS DBPF performance. Moreover, the temperature-dependent frequency responses can be well described by the modified two-fluid model based formulas, indicating that the frequency shift in HTS DBPFs is dominated by the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth.

Wang, Li-Min; Lin, Shyue-Han; Chang, Ying-Shyuan; Liu, Jer-Wei

57

In situ growth of superconducting NdFeAs(O,F) thin films by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting NdFeAs(O,F) thin films were grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown with a sufficiently long growth time exhibited a clear superconducting transition with an onset temperature up to 48 K and zero resistance temperature up to 42 K without the need of an ex situ annealing process. Electron probe microanalysis and Hall coefficient measurements indicated that the superconducting films are doped with fluorine, and depth-profile analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy revealed the formation of a NdOF layer near the surface, which is probably connected with the fluorine doping.

Kawaguchi, T.; Uemura, H.; Ohno, T.; Ujihara, T.; Takenaka, K.; Takeda, Y.; Ikuta, H. [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), JST, Sanbancho 5, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Tabuchi, M. [Venture Business Laboratory (VBL), Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), JST, Sanbancho 5, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

2010-07-26

58

Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2014-11-01

59

Zn-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films for CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on Zn-doped TiO2 (Zn-TiO2) film photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte were fabricated. Zn-TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained via a hydrothermal method and screen printed on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass to prepare the photoanode. The structure, morphology and impedance of the Zn-TiO2\\/CdS film and the photovoltaic performance of the Zn-TiO2\\/CdS cell were investigated. It was found that

Guang Zhu; Zujun Cheng; Tian Lv; Likun Pan; Qingfei Zhao; Zhuo Sun

2010-01-01

60

Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films  

E-print Network

CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine doped tin oxide by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent $\\alpha$ distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent $H$), previously reported [Ferreira \\textit{et al}., Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from a intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with $H\

Angélica S. Mata; Silvio C. Ferreira, Jr.; Igor R. B. Ribeiro; Sukarno O. Ferreira

2011-01-06

61

TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.  

PubMed

We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures. PMID:24876070

Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

2014-07-01

62

Formation of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by introducing an interfacial layer of hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous TiO 2 film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous TiO2 films (Ti-Ma-Me) were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates through the confinement self-assembly method.\\u000a The prepared Ti-Ma-Me possesses periodically ordered structure and a large specific surface area, which was applied as an\\u000a interfacial layer between the nanocrystalline TiO2 film (P25-TiO2) and FTO electrode in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The introduction of a Ti-Ma-Me interfacial

Jiang Du; XiaoYong Lai; Jonathan E. Halpert; Yu Yang; Dan Wang

2011-01-01

63

Double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4/Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film as composite photocathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solvothermal method was used to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles. CZTS/CZTSe bilayer films have been fabricated via a layer-by-layer blade coating process on the fluorine dope tin oxide (FTO) substrates. We converted conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) into double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells with the replacement of the Pt-coated counter electrode with the as-prepared films as composite photocathodes. Compared with conventional DSSCs, the cells show an increased short circuit current and power conversion efficiency.

Zhu, L.; Qiang, Y. H.; Zhao, Y. L.; Gu, X. Q.

2014-02-01

64

Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.  

PubMed

Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films. PMID:22097539

Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

2011-09-01

65

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis of nanostructured tungsten trioxide (WO3) films and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by a simple and low-cost crystal-seed-assisted hydrothermal method. The growth mechanism of the film is investigated. HRTEM analysis reveals the single crystalline quality of the WO3 nanostructure. The film exhibits tunable transmittance modulation under different voltages and repetitive cycling between the clear and blue states has no deleterious effect on its electrochromic performance after 3000 cycles. The electrochromic device composed of the WO3 film has high electrochromic stability, colour contrast and reasonable switching response with a colouration efficiency of 38.2 cm2 C-1 at 632.8 nm.

Jiao, Zhihui; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jinmin; Ke, Lin; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

2010-07-01

66

Hydrogenated TiO2 film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenated TiO2 film was obtained by annealing TiO2 film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO2 films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO2 film and pristine TiO2 film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO2 film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO2 surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO2 as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO2 film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO2 to generate more photocurrent.

He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun

2013-12-01

67

CuIn1-XAlXSe2 Thin Films Grown By Electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have grown CuIn1-xAlxSe2 thin films on fluorine doped tin oxide glass at a constant deposition potential of -650 mV by the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the CuIn1-XAlXSe2 (CIAS) thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.025 M CuCl2, 0.05 M InCl3, 0.05 M AlCl3 and 0.025 M SeO2. Ethylene-diamine-dihydrochloride (EDC) was used as a complexing agent which was found to reduce the particle size of the CIAS thin films. The electrodeposited films were characterized using XRD, SEM and EDAX. The results show that single phase CuIn1-xAlxSe2 films with Al content x around 0.28 and having good stoichiometry can be produced.

Prasher, Dixit; Sharma, Ranjana; Sharma, Ashok K.; Rajaram, P.

2011-07-01

68

Electrodeposition of Ga-O Thin Films from Aqueous Gallium Sulfate Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ga-O based thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate at room temperature from aqueous gallium sulfate solution with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Effects of different deposition parameters such as deposition voltage, amount of H2O2 and deposition time were investigated and presented. Nearly smooth and crack-free morphologies were attained at -1.0 V vs SCE deposition potential. As-deposited films showed O to Ga ratio of 2.0, which signified GaOOH formation. Thermal annealing of the as-deposited films in ambient air at 500-600 °C reduced the O/Ga ratio closer to stoichiometric gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and retained the morphology of Ga-O thin films. As-prepared films with ˜0.2 µm thickness had 80% transparency in the visible wavelength range.

Vequizo, Junie Jhon M.; Ichimura, Masaya

2013-07-01

69

Photoelectrochemical characterization of nanocrystalline thin-film Cu?ZnSnS? photocathodes.  

PubMed

Cu?ZnSnS? (CZTS) nanocrystals, synthesized by a hot injection solution method, have been fabricated into thin films by dip-casting onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The photoresponse of the CZTS nanocrystal films was evaluated using absorbance measurements along with photoelectrochemical methods in aqueous electrolytes. Photoelectrochemical characterization revealed a p-type photoresponse when the films were illuminated in an aqueous Eu(3+) redox electrolyte. The effects of CZTS stoichiometry, film thickness, and low-temperature annealing on the photocurrents from front and back illumination suggest that the minority carrier diffusion and recombination at the back contact (via reaction of photogenerated holes with Eu(2+) produced from photoreduction by minority carriers) are the main loss mechanisms in the cell. Low-temperature annealing resulted in significant increases in the photocurrents for films made from both Zn-rich and stoichiometric CZTS nanocrystals. PMID:21194208

Riha, Shannon C; Fredrick, Sarah J; Sambur, Justin B; Liu, Yuejiao; Prieto, Amy L; Parkinson, B A

2011-01-01

70

The effects of fluorine on the structural, surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical and structural properties of fluorine-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that the films have polycrystalline nature. A ZnO single phase with a hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed in structure of the films. The grain size for the films was calculated using a well-known Scherrer's formula and the obtained values are in the range of 27-40 nm. The values of direct band gap Egd were determined and these values change with doped fluorine (F) content. The shift of absorption edge is associated with Burstein-Moss effect. The width of localized states in the optical band of the films change with F content and the EU values change inversely with optical band gap values of the films.

Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin; Caglar, Yasemin; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Mujdat

2007-05-01

71

Electrochromic properties of spray deposited TiO 2-doped WO 3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO 2-doped WO 3 thin films were deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique at 525 °C. The volume percentage of TiO 2 dopant was varied from 13% to 38%. The thin film samples were transparent, uniform and strongly adherent to the substrates. Electrochromical properties of TiO 2-doped WO 3 thin films were studied with the help of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and chronocoulometry (CC) techniques. It has been found that TiO 2 doping in WO 3 enhances its electrochromic performance. Colouration efficiency becomes almost double and samples exhibit increasingly high reversibility with TiO 2 doping concentrations, in the studied range.

Patil, P. S.; Mujawar, S. H.; Inamdar, A. I.; Sadale, S. B.

2005-08-01

72

Zn-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films for CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on Zn-doped TiO2 (Zn-TiO2) film photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte were fabricated. Zn-TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained via a hydrothermal method and screen printed on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass to prepare the photoanode. The structure, morphology and impedance of the Zn-TiO2/CdS film and the photovoltaic performance of the Zn-TiO2/CdS cell were investigated. It was found that the photovoltaic efficiency was improved by 24% when the Zn-TiO2 film was adopted as the photoanode of CdS QDSSCs instead of only the TiO2 layer. The improvement was ascribed to the reduction of electron recombination and the enhancement of electron transport in the TiO2 film by Zn doping.

Zhu, Guang; Cheng, Zujun; Lv, Tian; Pan, Likun; Zhao, Qingfei; Sun, Zhuo

2010-07-01

73

Photoelectrochemical properties of chemosynthesized CdS thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film of cadmium sulphide (CdS) consisting cabbage like morphology was chemically synthesized at room temperature from an aqueous alkaline bath onto soda lime glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. The synthesized cabbages of CdS were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed the formation of CdS particles with a cubic crystal structure. SEM micrographs show that the cabbage like morphology is composed of nanopetals. Further, the photoelectochemical (PEC) performance was tested in Na2S-NaOH-S electrolyte which has maximum short circuit current of (Isc) 359?A/cm2.

Pawar, S. B.; Pawar, S. A.; Bhosale, P. N.; Patil, P. S.

2012-06-01

74

Effect of the immersion in CdCl2 and annealing on physical properties of CdS:F films grown by CBD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped CdS films were deposited on glass substrates at 70 °C by chemical bath deposition using HF as fluorine source. The as-grown films were immersed in a 0.25 M CdCl2 solution and annealed at 400 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of doping and post-deposition treatment on structural, topography, optical and electrical properties were investigated. The post-deposition treatment causes an increase in the grain size, a decrease in the rms roughness and a reduction in the resistivity of the CdS:F films. After treatment a CdS:F film with a roughness of 2.39 nm and a resistivity of 2.96 ? cm was obtained.

de Moure-Flores, F.; Nieto-Zepeda, K. E.; Guillén-Cervantes, A.; Gallardo, S.; Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Hernández-Hernández, A.; de la L. Olvera, M.; Zapata-Torres, M.; Kundriavtsev, Yu; Meléndez-Lira, M.

2013-04-01

75

Application of ferrous-chromate and iodometric titration for the determination of copper oxidation states in the superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation-reduction titration methods, Fe2+-Cr2C72-and I--S2O32-, were applied to the determination of the oxidation state of copper in the superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy, and related compounds. The former method presented problems in the sample dissolution and titration steps. The dissolution of the sample in low concentrations of Fe+-phosphoric acid and Fe2+-perchloric acid takes place in two steps, the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+

Masaoki Oku; Jin Kimura; Minoru Hosoya; Kunio Takada; Kichinosuke Hirokawa

1988-01-01

76

Analysis of the Operational Characteristics of a Resistive SFCL by Using the YBCO Coated Conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with analysis of the operational characteristics of a resistive non-inductive winding type based superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) by using YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) coated conductor (CC), and its characteristics are analysed through experiments. A non-inductive winding type SFCL system has non-inductive solenoid type coils wound with the YBCO CC and each coil has four windings of the CC

Dong Keun Park; Seong Eun Yang; Yong Soo Yoon; Min Cheol Ahn; Ho Min Kim; Yeong Sik Kim; Jung-Wook Park; Tae Kuk Ko

2007-01-01

77

The electron transport phenomena in Y based HTSC's and their analysis on the basis of phenomenological narrow-band theory the band structure transformation with oxygen content and substitution for Cu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport properties of YBa2Cu3Oy with various y and YBa2Cu3?xMxOy (M = Fe, Co, Mn) with various ? have been studied. The results obtained have been analyzed on the basis of the phenomenological theory of electron transport in the case of a narrow conductive band. The narrow-band model permits one to account for the specific features of the transport coefficients

V. E. Gasumyants; V. I. Kaidanov; E. V. Vladimirskaya

1995-01-01

78

High-performance single grain Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk superconductor fabricated by seeded infiltration and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large single grains of Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) bulk superconductor of up to 32mm in diameter have been fabricated by a seeded infiltration and growth (IG) technique. Small Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) particles are observed in the seeded IG sample microstructure, albeit with a rather inhomogeneous distribution in the superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) phase matrix. Values of magnetic critical current density, Jc, measured in self-field

K. Iida; N. H. Babu; T. D. Withnell; Y. Shi; S. Haindl; H. W. Weber; D. A. Cardwell

2006-01-01

79

Orientation imaging microscopy analysis of bulk, melt-textured YBCO superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, we apply orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) to melt-textured, bulk YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) samples, which require to perform an automated two-phase analysis. Both YBCO and the green phase Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) are of orthorhombic crystal structures, but with clearly distinct unit cell parameters. We obtain the orientations of the individual crystallites and the misorientation distributions for both YBCO and Y-211.

A. Koblischka-Veneva; M. R. Koblischka; K. Ogasawara; M. Murakami

2002-01-01

80

Seeded infiltration and growth of large, single domain Y Ba Cu O bulk superconductors with very high critical current densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single domain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) composed of a YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting bulk matrix with discrete, non-superconducting Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) phase inclusions has been fabricated by a seeded infiltration and growth (IG) technique in the form of cylindrical pellets up to 32 mm in diameter. Sample shrinkage in the radial direction for single domains prepared by this technique is relatively low at 5%

K. Iida; N. Hari Babu; Y. Shi; D. A. Cardwell

2005-01-01

81

The microstructure and superconducting properties of large single-domain superconductors prepared by a mixture of Y-123 and RE211 phase precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melt-textured superconductors were fabricated using mixed precursors of YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) and RE2BaCuO5 (RE-211, RE: Y, Sm and Gd) phase powders. The single-domain superconductors of 30 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness were formed using a seeding and temperature gradient method. The molar ratio value of Y\\/RE in the sample, which was prepared in the course of domain growing process,

Yoshimitsu Hishinuma; Hiromichi Itoh; Michikazu Arakawa; Satoshi Nagano; Shuji Yoshizawa; Shuichi Kohayashi

2002-01-01

82

Seeded infiltration and growth of large, single domain Y–Ba–Cu–O bulk superconductors with very high critical current densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single domain Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) composed of a YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting bulk matrix with discrete, non-superconducting Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) phase inclusions has been fabricated by a seeded infiltration and growth (IG) technique in the form of cylindrical pellets up to 32 mm in diameter. Sample shrinkage in the radial direction for single domains prepared by this technique is relatively low at 5%

K Iida; N Hari Babu; Y Shi; D A Cardwell

2005-01-01

83

Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.  

PubMed

ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. PMID:24643984

Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

2014-04-14

84

The effect of the film thickness and doping content of SnO2:F thin films prepared by the ultrasonic spray method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the effects of film thickness and doping content on the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and HCl were used as the starting materials, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The doped films were deposited on a glass substrate at different concentrations varying between 0 and 5 wt% using an ultrasonic spray technique. The SnO2:F thin films were deposited at a 350 °C pending time (5, 15, 60 and 90 s). The average transmission was about 80%, and the films were thus transparent in the visible region. The optical energy gap of the doped films with 2.5 wt% F was found to increase from 3.47 to 3.89 eV with increasing film thickness, and increased after doping at 5 wt%. The decrease in the Urbach energy of the SnO2:F thin films indicated a decrease in the defects. The increase in the electrical conductivity of the films reached maximum values of 278.9 and 281.9 (?·cm)-1 for 2.5 and 5 wt% F, respectively, indicating that the films exhibited an n-type semiconducting nature. A systematic study on the influence of film thickness and doping content on the properties of SnO2:F thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray was reported.

Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

2013-09-01

85

Facile fabrication of hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres film on transparent FTO glass.  

PubMed

Hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres consisting of nanosheets on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates are successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal synthesis process. The as-prepared novel microsphere films were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Moreover, SnO(2) nanoparticles with 30-80 nm in size covered on the surface of nanosheets/microspheres were also obtained by optimizing the hydrothermal reaction temperature, time, or volume ratio of acetylacetone/H(2)O. The detailed investigations disclose the experimental parameters, such as acetylacetone, NH(4)F, and seed layer play important roles in the morphology of hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres on the FTO glass. The formation process of SnO(2) microspheres is also proposed based on the observations of time dependent samples. PMID:20063879

Wang, Yu-Fen; Lei, Bing-Xin; Hou, Yuan-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Liang, Chao-Lun; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

2010-02-15

86

Properties of mixed molybdenum oxide iridium oxide thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum-doped iridium oxide thin films have been deposited onto corning glass- and fluorine-doped tin oxide coated corning glass substrates at 350 °C by using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. An aqueous solution of 0.01 M ammonium molybdate was mixed with 0.01 M iridium trichloride solution in different volume proportions and the resultant solution was used as a precursor solution for spraying. The as-deposited samples were annealed at 600 °C in air medium for 1 h. The structural, electrical and optical properties of as-deposited and annealed Mo-doped iridium oxide were studied and values of room temperature electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power were estimated. The as-deposited samples with 2% Mo doping exhibit more pronounced electrochromism than other samples, including pristine Ir oxide.

Patil, P. S.; Kawar, R. K.; Sadale, S. B.; Inamdar, A. I.; Deshmukh, H. P.

2006-09-01

87

Synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by SILAR method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconducting Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) material has been receiving a great technological interest in the photovoltaic industry because of its low-cost non-toxic constituents, ideal direct band gap as a absorber layer and high absorption coefficient. CZTS thin films have been successfully deposited onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide/glass (glass/FTO) substrates coated glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and investigated for photoelectrochemical conversion (PEC) of light into electricity. The best solar cell sample showed an open-circuit voltage of 390 mV, a short-circuit current density of 636.9 ?A/cm2, a fill factor of 0.62 and an efficiency of 0.396% under irradiation of 30 mW/cm2. Preliminary results obtained for solar cells fabricated with this material are promising.

Mali, Sawanta S.; Shinde, Pravin S.; Betty, Chirayath A.; Bhosale, Popatrao N.; Oh, Young Woo; Patil, Pramod S.

2012-06-01

88

Hierarchical growth of SnO2 nanostructured films on FTO substrates: structural defects induced by Sn(II) self-doping and their effects on optical and photoelectrochemical properties.  

PubMed

Direct hydrothermal growth of Sn(II)-doped SnO2 films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates results in the formation of upstanding SnO2 nanosheet arrays covered by hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers. The n-type semiconductor films show extended photoresponse in the visible spectrum arising from the coexistence of Sn(II) dopant ions and oxygen vacancies in these hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, which leads to a narrowed bandgap. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the emission in the UV, blue and red spectral ranges is related to the evolution of Sn(II) dopants and oxygen vacancies with annealing temperature, whereas oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for visible emission. The Sn(II)-doped SnO2 films show higher photocurrent when sensitized with narrow bandgap CdS nanoparticles, serving as efficient electron acceptors. PMID:24781385

Wang, Hongkang; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Yang, Haihua; He, Lifang; Hu, Chenyan; Teoh, Wey Yang; Rogach, Andrey L

2014-06-01

89

Study on Resistance Switching Properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 Thin Films Using Impedance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) thin films sandwiched between Au electrodes and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass were deposited using a sol-gel method. Based on electrochemical workstation measurements, reproducible resistance switching characteristics and negative differential resistances were obtained at room temperature. A local impedance spectroscopy measurement of Au/NBT was performed to reveal the interface-related electrical characteristics. The DC-bias-dependent impedance spectra suggested the occurrence of charge and mass transfer at the interface of the Au/NBT/FTO device. It was proposed that the first and the second ionization of oxygen vacancies are responsible for the conduction in the low- and high-resistance states, respectively. The experimental results showed high potential for nonvolatile memory applications in NBT thin films.

Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Xinan; Ding, Linghong; Zhang, Weifeng

2009-11-01

90

Hierarchical growth of SnO2 nanostructured films on FTO substrates: structural defects induced by Sn(ii) self-doping and their effects on optical and photoelectrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct hydrothermal growth of Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates results in the formation of upstanding SnO2 nanosheet arrays covered by hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers. The n-type semiconductor films show extended photoresponse in the visible spectrum arising from the coexistence of Sn(ii) dopant ions and oxygen vacancies in these hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, which leads to a narrowed bandgap. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the emission in the UV, blue and red spectral ranges is related to the evolution of Sn(ii) dopants and oxygen vacancies with annealing temperature, whereas oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for visible emission. The Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films show higher photocurrent when sensitized with narrow bandgap CdS nanoparticles, serving as efficient electron acceptors.Direct hydrothermal growth of Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates results in the formation of upstanding SnO2 nanosheet arrays covered by hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers. The n-type semiconductor films show extended photoresponse in the visible spectrum arising from the coexistence of Sn(ii) dopant ions and oxygen vacancies in these hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, which leads to a narrowed bandgap. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the emission in the UV, blue and red spectral ranges is related to the evolution of Sn(ii) dopants and oxygen vacancies with annealing temperature, whereas oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for visible emission. The Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films show higher photocurrent when sensitized with narrow bandgap CdS nanoparticles, serving as efficient electron acceptors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00672k

Wang, Hongkang; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Yang, Haihua; He, Lifang; Hu, Chenyan; Teoh, Wey Yang; Rogach, Andrey L.

2014-05-01

91

Fabrication of protective over layer for enhanced thermal stability of zinc oxide based TCO films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent the loss of oxygen vacancies in aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films at high temperature process, and to enhance the thermal stability a protective tin oxide (TO) over layer has been realized. To investigate the protective nature of doped tin oxide layer, fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) layers have also been coated on AZO layer. Then, to confirm its stability of opto-electrical properties under high temperature process, structural, optical and electrical studies of AZO single layer, TO/AZO, FTO/AZO and ATO/AZO double layered films were carried out before and after annealing and the results are reported. The XRD results showed that the crystalline nature of double layered films remains unchanged, even after the heat treatment. The UV results depicted that, in all the double layer films the transmission spectra remain unchanged or changed negligibly after annealing, indicating the thermal stability of double layered films. The photoluminescence results also strongly supported the improvement in the thermal stability of double layered films. The electrical studies suggested that the double layered films exhibited better electrical resistivity with bare AZO films.

Ravichandran, K.; Ravikumar, P.; Sakthivel, B.

2013-12-01

92

Effect of annealing on properties of ZrSe 2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of ZrSe 2 have been prepared on stainless steel and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates using electrodeposition technique at potentiostatic mode. Double-distilled water containing precursors Zr and Se with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid disodium salt as a complexing agent was used to obtain good quality deposits by controlling the rate of reaction. The preparative parameters such as concentration of bath, deposition time, bath temperature, pH of the bath and annealing temperature have been optimized using photoelectrochemical (PEC) technique. The films deposited at optimum preparative parameters are annealed at different temperatures. The film annealed at 200 °C shows more photosensitivity. The as-deposited and annealed films at 200 °C have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX), optical absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis of the as-deposited and annealed films showed the presence of polycrystalline nature with hexagonal crystal structure. EDAX study reveals that deposited films are almost stoichiometric. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition and band gap energies are found to be 1.5 and 1.38 eV, respectively, for the as-deposited and annealed films. SEM study revels that the grains are uniformly distributed over the surface of substrate for the as-deposited as well as annealed film, which indicates formation of good and compact type of crystal structure.

Hankare, P. P.; Asabe, M. R.; Kokate, A. V.; Delekar, S. D.; Sathe, D. J.; Mulla, I. S.; Chougule, B. K.

2006-09-01

93

Nanostructured nickel oxide films prepared by chemical vapor deposition and their electrochromic properties.  

PubMed

The influence of the deposition conditions on the structural features and electrochromic properties of nickel oxide (NiO) films prepared by chemical vapor deposition has been investigated. NiO films have been prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel-acetylacetonate precursor and their electrochromic properties have been studied by cyclic voltammetry in a 0.1 M KOH solution at room temperature. Films exhibiting only the NiO phase were obtained at deposition temperatures higher than 450 degrees C in a wide range of reactor pressures (0.13 to 66.6 kPa). Particularly, NiO films prepared at 500-550 degrees C from 0.13 to 53.3 kPa are transparent in nature and exhibit a crystallite size varying from 10 to 60 nm. An appreciable anodic electrochromic change from transparent to black coloured resulted from a very porous surface morphology and film thickness of about 3.5 microm. The electrochromic change was maintained over 3000 switching cycles. Nanostructured 3.5 microm-thick NiO films showed a maximum difference in optical transmittance of about 40% in the near-infrared region. These results make the nanostructured NiO films comparables with those prepared by other deposition techniques. PMID:18572712

Vargas Garcia, J R; Lazcano Ugalde, E M; Hernandez Santiago, F; Hallen Lopez, J M

2008-05-01

94

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23

95

Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-CdSe thin films  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and selenourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configuration n-CdSe/1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2}S + S)/C is used for studying the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in dark, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark and under illumination, photovoltaic power output and spectral response characteristics of the as deposited films. Photoelectrochemical study shows that as deposited CdSe thin films exhibits n-type of conductivity. The spectral response characteristics of the films at room temperature show a prominent sharp peak at 725 nm. The measured values of efficiency ({eta}) and fill factor (FF) are found to be 0.50% and 0.44 respectively for film deposited at 300 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies show that the CdSe film deposited at 300 C shows better performance in PEC cell. (author)

Yadav, A.A.; Barote, M.A.; Masumdar, E.U. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India)

2010-05-15

96

Oxide film formation from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The formation of SiO{sub x} films and fluorine-doped SiO{sub x} films using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma deposition is described. Parametric studies of the film composition and hydrogen content as a function of feed gas composition and RF biasing are presented. By replacing SiH{sub 4} with SiF{sub 4} in the gas feed, samples with F content from 2 at.% F to 12 at.% F are deposited, and the dielectric constant of the deposited layers decrease linearly with increasing fluorine concentration. The stability of these low dielectric constant SiO{sub x}F{sub y} layers is examined under hydrating conditions, and conditions typically found for interlayer dielectric processing in microelectronics. The hydrogen content of the SiO{sub 2} and F-doped SiO{sub 2} is characterized as a function of deposition conditions, and a model is given to describe the thermal release of H from SiO{sub 2}.

Barbour, J.C.; Apblett, C.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [and others

1997-06-01

97

Laser-assisted preparation and photoelectric properties of grating-structured Pt/FTO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the transparency and conductivity of commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, platinum (Pt) layers were deposited on the FTO film by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, followed by being irradiating with a 532 nm nanosecond pulsed laser for the dual purpose of inducing grating structures and annealing. Introducing a Pt layer decreased the average transmittance (400-800 nm) and the sheet resistance of the initial FTO film from 80.2% and 8.4 ?/sq to 68.6% and 7.9 ?/sq, respectively. The ideal grating-structured Pt/FTO film was obtained by laser irradiation with a fluence of 1.05 J/cm2, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that this film underwent optimal annealing. As a result, it exhibited an average transmittance (400-800 nm) of 84.1% and a sheet resistance of 6.8 ?/sq. These results indicated that laser-assisted treatment combined with introduction of metal layer can effectively improve photoelectric properties of FTO single-layer films.

Ren, Nai-fei; Huang, Li-jing; Li, Bao-jia; Zhou, Ming

2014-09-01

98

Growth and characterization of pulse electrodeposited CuAlSe2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we have grown CuAlSe2 thin films on the fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrates by using Pulse electrodeposition technique. Thin films of CuAlSe2 were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl2, AlCl3 and SeO2 adjusted to pH=1.60. Ethylenediamine-di-hydrochloride was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant deposition potential of -650 mV using pulses of frequency 50 Hz.CuAlSe2 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) which indicate the good and reliable quality of the films. An interesting results of this work is that complexing agent plays an important role in reducing the grain size, thus all deposits were found to be in the range of 10-20 nm.

Singh, Joginder; Prasher, Dixit; Nigam, Kamlesh; Rajaram, P.

2013-06-01

99

Electrochromic performance of sol-gel-deposited CeO2 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceria (CeO2) films were prepared by a sol-gel technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The coating solution was derived from cerium ammonium nitrate dissolved in ethanol with diethanolamine used as a complexing agent. Lithium intercalating properties of the films were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrochemical examinations were performed in a 0.5 M LiClO4 propylene carbonate electrolyte. The additional film characterizations were performed in X-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD of the films showed that they had an cerianite structure for heat treatment temperatures at or above 450 degree(s)C. The SEM examinations showed that the surface texture was uniform and homogeneous. CV examinations showed a reversible electrochemical insertion or extraction of Li+/e- ions maintaining a high optical transmissivity. Spectroelectrochemistry showed that these films can be used as optically passive counter-electrode in transmissive electrochromic devices.

Ozer, Nilgun; Cronin, John P.; Akyuz, Sevim

1999-10-01

100

Effect of different sol concentrations on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on FTO substrates by sol-gel spin-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on fluorine-doped tinoxide (FTO) substrates were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The structural and the optical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared using different sol concentrations were investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films, as observed in the SEM images, exhibited a mountain-chain structure. XRD results indicated that the thin films were preferentially orientated along the direction of the c-axis and that the grain size of the ZnO thin films increased with increasing sol concentration. The PL spectra showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak at 3.22 eV and a broad orange emission peak at 2.0 eV. The intensities of deep-level emission (DLE) gradually increased with increasing sol concentration from 0.4 to 1.0 M. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO thin films showed that the ZnO thin films were transparent (~85%) in the visible region and exhibited sharp absorption edges at 375 nm. Thus, The Urbach energy of ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sol concentration.

Kim, Ikhyun; Kim, Younggyu; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Dongwan; Park, Minju; Kim, Haeun; Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo

2014-08-01

101

Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigated the microstructure and electrical properties of Bi2SiO5 (BSO) doped SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films deposited by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction observation indicated that the crystalline structures of all the BSO-doped SBT films are nearly the same as those of a pure SBT film. Through BSO doping, the 2Pr and 2Ec values of SBT films were changed from 15.3 ?C/cm2 and 138 kV/cm of pure SBT to 1.45 ?C/cm2 and 74 kV/cm of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The dielectric constant at 1 MHz for SBT varied from 199 of pure SBT to 96 of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The doped SBT films exhibited higher leakage current than that of non-doped SBT films. Nevertheless, all the doped SBT films still had small dielectric loss and low leakage current. Our present work will provide useful insights into the BSO doping effects to the SBT films, and it will be helpful for the material design in the future nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.

Li, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Yayun; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J.-M.; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

2014-09-01

102

Triton-X mediated interconnected nanowalls network of cadmium sulfide thin films via chemical bath deposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of cadmium sulfide (CdS) have been wet chemically deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by using non-ionic surfactant; Triton-X 100. An aqueous solution contains cadmium sulphate as a cadmium and thiourea as sulphur precursor. Ammonia used as a complexing agent. The results of measurements of the x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface areas and atomic force microscopy were used for the characterization of the films. These results revealed that the films are polycrystalline, consisting of CdS cubic phase. The films show a direct band gap with energy 2.39 eV. The films show interconnected nanowalls like morphology with well-defined surface area. Finally, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of Triton-X mediated CdS thin film samples were studied. The sample shows photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance with maximum short circuit current density (Jsc) 1.71 mA/cm2 for larger area (1 cm2) solar cells.

Vanalakar, S. A.; Mali, S. S.; Jo, E. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

2014-10-01

103

Resistance switching behaviors of V-doped La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 thin films on F-doped SnO2 conducting glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

V-doped La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) thin films were prepared on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) conducting glass substrates with a sol-gel technique. The resistance switching properties of Au/V:LCMO/FTO heterostructures investigated by electrochemical workstation showed reproducible resistive switching behaviors at room temperature. The interactions between nonlattice (mobile) oxygen and oxygen vacancies and/or the cationic vacancies contributed to the carrier transport of the LCMO layer sandwiched systems. With proper doping concentration (3% V-doped LCMO), the resistive switching behaviors could be well improved and stabilized. The maximum resistance ratio obtained could be reached up to 700%. The experimental results show a high potential for nonvolatile memory application on amorphous substrates.

Zhang, Ting; Chen, Hongju; Ni, Manman; Su, Zhaohui; Zhang, Weifeng

2009-04-01

104

Fluorine-doping in titanium dioxide by ion implantation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implanted 200 keV F+ in single crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) rutile at a nominal fluence of 1×1016 to 1×1017 ionscm?2 and then thermally annealed the implanted sample in air. The radiation damage and its recovery process during the annealing were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry and variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy. The lattice disorder was completely recovered

T. Yamaki; T. Umebayashi; T. Sumita; S. Yamamoto; M. Maekawa; A. Kawasuso; H. Itoh

2003-01-01

105

Multicoloured electrochromic thin films of NiO/PANI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiO/polyaniline (PANI) thin films have been prepared by a two-step process. NiO thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution of NiCl2 · 6H2O at pH 7.5 on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates and a layer of PANI was formed on NiO thin films by chemical bath deposition. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic properties. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of NiO and PANI, in which NiO is of cubic structure. Scanning electron micrographs represent porous granular NiO, which get uniformly carpeted with PANI, leading to a matty morphology of NiO/PANI samples. The electrochromic performance of NiO/PANI films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry over the -1.2 to +2.2 V (versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) potential window in 1M LiClO4 + propylene carbonate. The NiO/PANI films exhibit electrochromism with colour that changes from pale yellow (leucoemeraldine base at -0.7 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.4 V versus SCE) to purple (pernigraniline at 0.8 V versus SCE) in the reduced states and dark blue (nigraniline at 0.5 V versus SCE) to dark green (emeraldine salt at 0.1 V versus SCE) to light green (photoemeraldine at -0.3 V versus SCE) in its oxidized states. These colours, though akin to pure PANI, have higher contrast, high speed of operation and high stability, owing to the properties of NiO. The colouration efficiency of the NiO/PANI film was estimated to be 85 cm2 C-1.

Sonavane, A. C.; Inamdar, A. I.; Deshmukh, H. P.; Patil, P. S.

2010-08-01

106

Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500 °C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH 4) 2WO 4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films. Doping concentrations were varied between 4 and 38%. The effect of TiO 2 doping concentration on structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films were studied. Values of room temperature electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and band gap energy ( Eg) were estimated. The films with 38% TiO 2 doping in WO 3 exhibited lowest resistivity, n-type electrical conductivity and improved electrochromic performance among all the samples. The values of thermoelectric power (TEP) were in the range of 23-56 ?V/K and the direct band gap energy varied between 2.72 and 2.86 eV.

Patil, P. S.; Mujawar, S. H.; Inamdar, A. I.; Shinde, P. S.; Deshmukh, H. P.; Sadale, S. B.

2005-12-01

107

Influence of the Electrodeposition Potential on the Co-Cu Alloys Thin Films Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-Cu alloy thin films were electrodeposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate from a sulfate solution at applied potentials ranging from -0.7 V to -1.3 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Voltammetric studies showed that the composition and, consequently, the potential dissolution of Co depend greatly on the applied potentials. The compositional measurement, which was made using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), demonstrated that the Co content of the films considerably increases as the applied potentials to tend toward negative values. The SEM study showed that a granular structure of the electrodeposited Co-Cu. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that all peaks of the Co-Cu films were consistent with those of a typical Co hcp and Co-fcc mixed phase and Cu-fcc phase at low potential. The increase of the applied potential induces a decrease in the grain size and the lattice constant. The magnetic hysteresis measurements carried out by an alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM) revealed the existence of a ferromagnetic behavior with an in-plane easy magnetization axis for the film deposited at -1.1 V versus SCE. However, for applied potentials of -1.2 V and -1.3 V, we observe the coexistence of a dominant in-plane easy magnetization along with a perpendicular one.

Mentar, L.; Khelladi, M. R.; Beniaiche, A.; Azizi, A.

2013-02-01

108

Optical and electrochemical properties of Cu-doped NiO films prepared by electrochemical deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu-doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were prepared by electrochemial deposition (cathodic deposition) technique onto the fluorine doped tin oxide (F: SnO 2; FTO) coated glass substrates from organic solutions. Effects of Cu content on the morphology, structure, optical and electrochromic properties of NiO films were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. SEM images indicated the formation of nanorods after Cu was added. The films were formed with amorphous or short-range ordered NiO grains and a trace of face-centered cubic Ni xCu 1- xO confirmed by XRD. The transmittances of both bleached state and colored state were significantly lowered when Cu was added. The NiO films doped with Cu (the molar ratio was 1/8) exhibited the optimum electrochromic behavior with a variation of transmittance (? T) up to ˜80% at the wavelength range of 350-600 nm. Cu doping reduces the response time for both the coloring and bleaching states, and the reversibility of the redox reaction was increased as well.

Zhao, Lili; Su, Ge; Liu, Wei; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Jing; Dong, Zheng; Song, Meiqin

2011-02-01

109

Poole-Frenkel effect in nanocrystalline SnO2:F thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical transport properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating technique have been studied in detail. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the crystalline nature of the films having a grain size in the nanometer range. The fluorine concentration in the films was varied from 1.62 to 12% and was measured by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was observed that the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the films were non-linear in nature, which could be explained by the Poole-Frenkel model of thermionic emission. With an increase in temperature, the non-linearity becomes more and more pronounced. The presence of adsorbed oxygen and fluorine atoms at grain boundaries is assumed to be the cause of this effect. These atoms produce defect levels, which trap electrons and create a potential barrier across the grain boundaries. In the presence of an external field, the barrier height is attenuated, resulting in the thermionic emission of electrons from the trapped level to the conduction band. The trapped potentials (t) are calculated for different doping concentrations in the films. These values range from 589 to 703 meV. The maximum room temperature conductivity of the films was found to be of the order of 1 -1 cm-1. Activation energies (Ea), calculated from Arrhenius plots, range from 85 to 130 meV for different fluorine concentrations in the films.

Banerjee, A. N.; Maity, R.; Kundoo, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

2004-04-01

110

On the influence of DC electric fields on the aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition growth of photoactive titanium dioxide thin films.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate from the electric field assisted aerosol chemical vapor deposition (EACVD) reaction of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP, Ti(OC3H7)4) in toluene on glass substrates at a temperature of 450 °C. DC electric fields were generated by applying a potential difference between the electrodes of the transparent coated oxide coated glass substrates during the deposition. The deposited films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photoactivity and hydrophilicity of the deposited films were also analyzed using a dye-ink test and water-contact angle measurements. The characterization work revealed that the incorporation of DC electric fields produced significant reproducible changes in the film microstructure, preferred crystallographic orientation, roughness, and film thickness. Photocatalytic activity was calculated from the half-time (t1/2) or time taken to degrade 50% of the initial resazurin dye concentration. A large improvement in photocatalytic activity was observed for films deposited using an electric field with a strong orientation in the (004) direction (t1/2 17 min) as compared to a film deposited with no electric field (t1/2 40 min). PMID:24160408

Romero, Luz; Binions, Russell

2013-11-01

111

Luminescence and electrical properties of solution-processed ZnO thin films by adding fluorides and annealing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Systematic study of the fluorides doped solution-processed ZnO thin films via the luminescence and electrical behaviors. {yields} Defect-related visible emission bands are affected by annealing ambient and fluoride addition. {yields} Adding lithium fluoride followed by annealing in oxygen ambient leads to a controlled defect density with proper TFT performance. -- Abstract: To develop an efficient channel layer for thin film transistors (TFTs), understanding the defect-related luminescence and electrical property is crucial for solution-processed ZnO thin films. Film growth with the fluorides addition, especially using LiF, followed by the oxygen ambient post-annealing leads to decreased defect-related emission as well as enhanced switching property. The saturation mobility and current on/off ratio are 0.31 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 1.04 x 10{sup 3}. Consequently, we can visualize an optimized process condition and characterization method for solution-processed TFT based on the fluorine-doped ZnO film channel layer by considering the overall emission behavior.

Choi, Sungho, E-mail: shochoi@krict.re.kr [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yoon [Chemical and Electronic Materials Division, LG Electronics, Hyangjeong-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical and Electronic Materials Division, LG Electronics, Hyangjeong-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ha-Kyun [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

112

films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With various pulse laser energy ( E pulse), La2/3Ca1/3MnO3:Ag x [La1- x Ca x MnO3 (LCMO):Ag x , x = 0.04, wt%] films were prepared on vicinal cut LaAlO3 substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. It is found that laser-induced voltage (LIV) of LCMO:Ag0.04 films was improved and enhanced by E pulse. With E pulse increasing, figure of merit ( F m) and anisotropic Seebeck coefficient (? S) of LCMO:Ag0.04 films reached the maximum value of 109.8 mV/ns and 0.29 ?V/K for E pulse = 300 mJ. The results suggested that the LIV enhancement of LCMO:Ag0.04 films was due to Seebeck tensor improvement, the high crystallization and oxygen balance in LCMO:Ag0.04 films.

Liu, Xiang; Guo, Zhi-ping; Chen, Qing-ming; Cao, Ming-gang; Duan, Yun-biao

2014-08-01

113

DOI: 10.1007/s00339-007-4274-4 Appl. Phys. A 90, 311315 (2008)  

E-print Network

the synthesis and charac- terization of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films via intermittent spray to demands for optically-transparent, conductive materials. Applications of these devices include thin-film Applied Physics A b. russo g.z. caou Fabrication and characterization of fluorine-doped thin oxide thin

Cao, Guozhong

114

Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency of TiO2 Thin Films Modified with Ta2O5 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tantalum-doped TiO2 thin films [(TiO2)1-x(Ta2O5)x, x=0-0.8%] were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated substrates by sol-gel technology for uses in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of Ta content on the growth and properties of the TiO2 thin films were investigated. The crystallization and microstructures of the thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses. The performance of DSSCs based on Ta-doped TiO2 thin films was also studied. From the obtained results, the increases in Jsc and Voc may be due to the increased electron concentration of TiO2 thin film and the flat-band potential of the TiO2 shifted by tantalum doping, respectively. The optimum properties of DSSCs of Voc=0.68 V, Jsc=7.84 mA/cm2, FF=45.1%, and ?=2.4% were obtained using the Ta-doped TiO2 thin film with x=0.5%.

Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hone-Zern; Young, San-Lin

2013-01-01

115

Deposition of F-doped ZnO transparent thin films using ZnF2-doped ZnO target under different sputtering substrate temperatures  

PubMed Central

Highly transparent and conducting fluorine-doped ZnO (FZO) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, using 1.5 wt% zinc fluoride (ZnF2)-doped ZnO as sputtering target. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of the FZO thin films were investigated as a function of substrate temperature ranging from room temperature (RT) to 300°C. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the FZO thin films were of polycrystalline nature with a preferential growth along (002) plane perpendicular to the surface of the glass substrate. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of the FZO thin films showed that there was incorporation of F atoms in the FZO thin films, even if the substrate temperature was 300°C. Finally, the effect of substrate temperature on the transmittance ratio, optical energy gap, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of the FZO thin films was also investigated. PMID:24572004

2014-01-01

116

Investigation of certain crystal growth characteristics in melt-textured YBCO superconductor using wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis, it is found that some non-superconducting Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) grains in the melt-textured YBCO superconductor demonstrate uneven distribution of Y atoms. Such a phenomenon can be explained by diffusion of Y atoms between the YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123)\\/liquid interface, the Y-211\\/liquid interface and the Y-211 grain inside. Moreover, ‘gaps’-generated due to different degrees of contractions of the matrix

J. C. L Chow; P. C. W Fung; Y. H Zhang

1995-01-01

117

Texture Analysis of Melt-Textured and Polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O y Using EBSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique to determine the texture and individual crystallite orientations on melt-textured and various polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) samples, doped with several Alkali metal additions (KClO3, K2CO3 and Rb2CO3). The EBSD analysis on melt-textured YBCO reveals a direct interplay between the crystal orientations of YBCO and the Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) particles. The Y-211 particles do not

Anjela Koblischka-Veneva; Michael R. Koblischka

2003-01-01

118

An efficient and transparent copper sulfide nanosheet film counter electrode for bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper sulfide (CuS) with nanosheet structure has been synthesized at a low temperature in situ on copper (Cu) film coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were herein developed by using these CuS as counter electrodes (CEs). CuS is an environmental compatible and low toxic material. The obtained two-dimensional CuS nanosheet film presents high carrier mobility and exhibits highly catalytic performance for the polysulfide-based electrolyte. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65% by optimizing the thickness of the Cu film under front illumination. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE prepared with a 200 nm thick Cu film shows a very close PCE under front and rear illuminations in which the values are as high as 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively. All the PCEs of the CuS CEs are much higher than that of the Pt CE (1.34%).

Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Lei, Hongwei; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xingzhong

2014-02-01

119

Synthesis and characterization of Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films for photoelectrochemical solar cell  

SciTech Connect

Optimum composition Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films have been deposited using the chemical bath containing cadmium sulfate octahydrate, lead nitrate, tartaric acid, potassium hydroxide, ammonia, and sodium selenosulfate onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The various deposition parameters such as composition of reactive bath, pH of the solution, deposition temperature, deposition time, speed of rotation, etc. have been optimized for obtaining good quality film. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the polycrystalline nature of sample with the solid solution of lead (II) ions in CdSe host lattice, having a hexagonal phase structure. Scanning electron micrograph suggested that the grains were non-uniformly distributed over the substrate surface. Film composition was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive X-ray atomic spectroscopy. Optical absorption data showed the presence of direct transition with energy band gap 1.80 eV for the deposited thin films. The dark specific conductance of Cd{sub 0.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Se thin films was found to the order of 10{sup -6} ({omega} cm){sup -1} having n-type semiconducting nature. Photoelectrochemical characterization was carried out using sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte with 1.401% efficiency. (author)

Delekar, S.D.; Patil, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub-center Osmanabad 413 501, Maharashtra (India); Jadhav, B.V.; Sanadi, K.R.; Hankare, P.P. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)

2010-03-15

120

Layer-by-Layer TiO2/WO3 Thin Films As Efficient Photocatalytic Self-Cleaning Surfaces.  

PubMed

New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (<20 nm) and exhibited nanoporous and homogeneous morphology. The electronic and optical properties of the films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ? = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ?2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications. PMID:25216058

Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

2014-10-01

121

TiO2 paste formulation for crack-free mesoporous nanocrystalline film of dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Using a doctor-blade method, a highly viscous titanium dioxide (TiO2) paste was deposited on a glass substrate coated with fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). The paste was mainly composed of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as organic filler. Varying the content of HPC in the TiO2 paste changed the physical properties of the mesoporous TiO2 layer, particularly its porosity and surface area. From the quantification of dyes on Ti2, layer and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the surface area of the TiO2 film was found to have decreased. This came with the increase of HPC content while the porosity of the film increased, consistent with the concurrent decrease of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and efficiency (eta). The increased porosity greatly affected the electron transport through the TiO2 film by decreasing the coordination number of the TiO2 particles resulting to a decrease of the electron diffusion coefficient. PMID:22966572

Sarker, Subrata; Nath, Narayan Chandra Deb; Rahman, M Mahbubur; Lim, Sung-Su; Ahammad, A J Saleh; Choi, Won-Youl; Lee, Jae-Joon

2012-07-01

122

Charge defects and highly enhanced multiferroic properties in Mn and Cu co-doped BiFeO3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and Mn, Cu co-doped BiFeO3 (BFMCO) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a chemical solution deposition method. Detailed investigations were made on the effects of Mn and Cu co-doping on the crystal structure, the defect chemistry, multiferroic properties of the BFO thin films. With the co-doping of Mn and Cu, a structural transition from the rhombohedral (R3c:H) to the biphasic structure (R3c:H + P1) is confirmed by XRD, Rietveld refinement and Raman analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the coexistence of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ ions in the co-doping films are demonstrated. Meanwhile, the way of the co-doping at B-sits is conducive to suppress Fe valence state of volatility and to decrease oxygen vacancies and leakage current. It's worth noting that the co-doping can induce the superior ferroelectric properties (a huge remanent polarization, 2Pr ? 220 ?C/cm2 and a relatively low coercive field, 2Ec ? 614 kV/cm). The introduction of Mn2+ and Cu2+ ions optimizes the magnetic properties of BFO thin films by the biphasic structure and the destruction of spin cycloid.

Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

2014-06-01

123

Investigation of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), cyclic voltammetric analyses of WO3 films and their electrochromic response in FTO/WO3/electrolyte/FTO cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide (WO3) were prepared on transparent conducting oxide substrates, i.e., fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO or SnO2:F) glass and microscopic glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique using pure WO3 (99.99%) pellets at various substrate temperatures (i.e., Tsub = room temperature (RT, 30 °C), 100 °C and 200 °C). The films were prepared under vacuum of the order of 1 × 10-5 mbar. The room temperature prepared films were further post-heat-treated (Tanne) at 200 and 300 °C for about 1 h in the vacuum environment. The prepared films are in monoclinic phase. The chemical composition has been characterized by using the XPS technique. The W 4f and O 1s core levels of WO3 films have been studied on the samples. The obtained core level binding energies revealed the WO3 films contained six-valent tungsten (W6+). The electrochemical nature of the films was studied by a three-electrode electrochemical cell in the configuration of FTO/WO3/H2SO4/Pt, SCE, using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) of the general type FTO/WO3/electrolyte/FTO were studied. The films produced at higher substrate temperature show smaller modulation of the visible spectrum, compared with the films produced at lower temperatures. The significant chemical bonding nature associated with the coloring/bleaching process which follows the H+ ion incorporation in the film is studied by FTIR analysis. The W-O-W framework peak was observed at 563 cm-1 and confirms the stability of the films in the electrochemical analysis. The results obtained from cyclic voltammetry technique and ECD cell characterization are used to emphasize the suitability for some applications of the solar control systems.

Sivakumar, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

2006-06-01

124

CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting.  

PubMed

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm-2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

2012-01-01

125

CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting  

PubMed Central

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm?2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

2012-01-01

126

Effect of Fluorine Content on the Morphological, Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanostructured SnO2 Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports morphological and structural details, optical and electrical properties of fluorine doped SnO2 thin films prepared via spray pyrolysis route using SnCl2·2H2O as precursor and methanol as a solvent. The effect of fluorine concentration on the properties of the films is presented and discussed. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the presence of SnO2 films in the rutile structure with a preferential growth along the (200) direction. FTIR spectrum confirms the films to be made of SnO2. EDS was used to estimate the fluorine concentration. SEM reveals the surface of FTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The grain size calculated using Debye-Scherrer formula is in the range of 8-34 nm. Film thickness measured using optical transmission method is in the range of 425-538 nm. The sheet resistance was found to decrease with increase in fluorine concentration, to a minimum of 6.35 ?/? for 7.5 mol% of NH4F, and it showed an increase beyond this concentration. The 2.5 mol% of F doped films gave 95.20% transmission at 704 nm. The calculated reflectivity in the IR region is 93.57% for 7.5 mol% of F doping, and figure of merit for the same film is 0.025(?/?)-1 at 550 nm. The total work was optimized by fixing the temperature at 550°C for the usage of Electrochromic Device preparations on FTO coated glass substrates.

Purushothaman, K. K.; Dhanasankar, M.; Muralidharan, G.

127

Photoelectrochemical properties of electrochemically deposited CdIn2S4 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of CdIn2S4 have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates from aqueous acidic bath using an electrodeposition technique. Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) disodium salt is used as complexing agent to obtain good-quality deposits by controlling the rate of the reaction. The different preparative parameters like concentration of bath, deposition time, bath temperature, pH of the bath have been optimized by the photoelectrochemical (PEC) technique in order to get good-quality photosensitive material. Different techniques have been used to characterize CdIn2S4 thin films. Optical absorption shows the presence of direct transition with band gap energy 2.17 eV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as-deposited and annealed films showed the presence of polycrystalline nature. Energy-dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) study for the sample deposited at optimized preparative parameters shows that the In-to-Cd ratio is almost 2 and S-to-Cd ratio is almost 4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for samples deposited at optimized preparative parameters reveals that spherical grains are uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate indicates the well-defined growth of polycrystalline CdIn2S4 thin film. PEC characterization of the films is carried out by studying photoresponse, spectral response and photovoltaic output characteristics. The fill factor (ff) and power conversion efficiency (?) of the cell are 69 and 2.94%, respectively.

Kokate, A. V.; Asabe, M. R.; Delekar, S. D.; Gavali, L. V.; Mulla, I. S.; Hankare, P. P.; Chougule, B. K.

2006-11-01

128

Enhancing light trapping properties of thin film solar cells by plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The preparation of thin film silicon solar cells containing Ag nanoparticles is reported in this article. Ag nanoparticles were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by the evaporation and condensation method. a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on these substrates by cluster type plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We discuss the double textured surface effect with respect to both the surface morphology of the substrate and the plasmonic effect of the Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles of various sizes from 10 to 100 nm were deposited. The haze values of the Ag embedded samples increased with increasing particle size whereas the optical transmittance decreased at the same conditions. The solar cell with the 30 nm size Ag nanoparticles showed a short circuit current density of 12.97 mA/cm2, which is 0.53 mA/cm2 higher than that of the reference solar cell without Ag nanoparticles, and the highest quantum efficiency for wavelengths from 550 to 800 nm. When 30 nm size nanoparticles were employed, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was increased from 6.195% to 6.696%. This study reports the application of the scattering effect of Ag nanoparticles for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells. PMID:24266153

Jung, Junhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Cho, Jaehyun; Ahn, Shihyun; Park, Hyeongsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Choi, Mansoo; Yi, Junsin

2013-12-01

129

Energy and charge transfers between (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (N719) and ZnO thin films  

SciTech Connect

ZnO thin films and (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (called N719) sensitized ZnO thin films are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet-visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and Raman scattering are employed to probe into the transition process of photogenerated charges and the interaction between ZnO and N719. The experimental results indicate that there is a significant electronic interaction between N719 and ZnO through chemiadsorption. The interaction greatly enhances the photogenerated charge separation and thus the photovoltaic response of the ZnO film but remarkedly weakens its radiative recombination, i.e., PL, implying strong energy and charge transfer occurring between N719 and ZnO. In addition, a new PL peak observed at about 720 nm in N719 sensitized ZnO/FTO is attributed to the electron-hole recombination of N719.

Ni Manman; Cheng Qiang; Zhang, W. F. [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)

2010-03-15

130

Effect of a ga-doped ZnO thin film with a ZTO buffer layer fabricated by using pulsed DC magnetron sputter for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical property of a Ga-doped ZnO(GZO) thin film is well known to be similar that of commercialized fluorine-doped tin oxide(FTO). However GZO is limited for use at high process temperatures for solar cells because of its unstable resistivity at temperatures above 300 °C. A GZO thin film compared to zinc tin oxide(ZTO)-GZO multilayer can be used at high process temperatures. A GZO thin film was deposited on glass by using pulsed DC magnetron sputter. Then, a ZTO buffer layer was deposited on the GZO surface. During the deposition, the working pressure was 5 mTorr (Z-1 glass) and 1 mTorr (Z-2 glass). Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using Z-1, Z-2 and commercialized FTO glasses. Z-2 showed a conversion efficiency of 4.265%, which was enhanced by 0.399% compared to that of the DSSCs using FTO(3.784%). The conversion efficiency for Z-1 (3.889%) was a little higher than that of FTO. Thus, the ZTO-GZO electrode showed better characteristics than those obtained using the FTO electrode, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance.

Song, Sang-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Roh, Ji-Hyung; Park, On-Jeon; Kim, Hwan-Sun; Moon, Byung-Moo; Ji, Min-Woo

2014-08-01

131

Pulsing frequency induced change in optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of WO3 films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present the pulsing frequency induced change in the structural, optical, vibrational, and luminescence properties of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films deposited on microscopic glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) coated glass substrates by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering technique. The WO3 films deposited on SnO2:F substrate belongs to monoclinic phase. The pulsing frequency has a significant influence on the preferred orientation and crystallinity of WO3 film. The maximum optical transmittance of 85% was observed for the film and the slight shift in transmission threshold towards higher wavelength region with increasing pulsing frequency revealed the systematic reduction in optical energy band gap (3.78 to 3.13 eV) of the films. The refractive index (n) of films are found to decrease (1.832 to 1.333 at 550 nm) with increasing pulsing frequency and the average value of extinction coefficient (k) is in the order of 10-3. It was observed that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-Didomenico model, from which the dispersion energy (Ed) parameters, dielectric constants, plasma frequency, oscillator strength, and oscillator energy (Eo) of WO3 films were calculated and reported for the first time due to variation in pulsing frequency during deposition by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The Eo is change between 6.30 and 3.88 eV, while the Ed varies from 25.81 to 7.88 eV, with pulsing frequency. The Raman peak observed at 1095 cm-1 attributes the presence of W-O symmetric stretching vibration. The slight shift in photoluminescence band is attributed to the difference in excitons transition. We have made an attempt to discuss and correlate these results with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena.

Punitha, K.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

2014-03-01

132

Fast classification of meat spoilage markers using nanostructured ZnO thin films and unsupervised feature learning.  

PubMed

This paper investigates a rapid and accurate detection system for spoilage in meat. We use unsupervised feature learning techniques (stacked restricted Boltzmann machines and auto-encoders) that consider only the transient response from undoped zinc oxide, manganese-doped zinc oxide, and fluorine-doped zinc oxide in order to classify three categories: the type of thin film that is used, the type of gas, and the approximate ppm-level of the gas. These models mainly offer the advantage that features are learned from data instead of being hand-designed. We compare our results to a feature-based approach using samples with various ppm level of ethanol and trimethylamine (TMA) that are good markers for meat spoilage. The result is that deep networks give a better and faster classification than the feature-based approach, and we thus conclude that the fine-tuning of our deep models are more efficient for this kind of multi-label classification task. PMID:23353140

Längkvist, Martin; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2013-01-01

133

Microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Ce-doped BiFeO3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi1-xCexFeO3 (x =0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.20) (BCFO) thin films were deposited on Pt/TiN/Si3N4/Si and fluorine-doped SnO2 glass substrates by sol-gel technique, respectively. The effect of Ce doping on the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of BCFO films was studied. Compared to counterparts of BiFeO3 (BFO) film, the fitted Bi 4f7/2, Bi 4f5/2, Fe 2p3/2, Fe 2p1/2, and O 1s peaks for Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film shift toward higher binding energy regions by amounts of 0.33, 0.29, 0.43, 0.58, and 0.49 eV, respectively. Raman redshifts of 2-4 cm-1 and shorter phonon lifetimes for the Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film might be related to anharmonic interactions among Bi-O, Ce-O, (Bi, Ce)-O, and Fe-O bonds in the distorted oxygen octahedron. Compared to the pure counterparts, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film are improved due to the decreased oxygen vacancies by the stabilized oxygen octahedron. Current density values for the BFO and Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film capacitors are 9.89×10-4 and 5.86×10-5 A/cm2 at 10 V, respectively. The current density-applied voltage characteristics indicate that the main conduction mechanism for the BCFO capacitors is the interface-controlled Schottky emission. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization-magnetic field hysteresis loops reveal that the saturation magnetization values of the BCFO films increase with increasing the Ce concentration. The enhanced magnetic properties for the BCFO films might be attributed to the presence of Fe2+ caused by oxygen vacancies, the suppressed spiral spin structure, and/or the increased canting angle induced by Ce doping.

Quan, Zuci; Liu, Wei; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sheng; Sebo, Bobby; Fang, Guojia; Li, Meiya; Zhao, Xingzhong

2008-10-01

134

Synchronous Electrochromism of Lithium Ion Battery with Chemically Fabricated Transparent Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromism synchronous to the charge/discharge of a novel Li ion battery having Li3Fe2(PO4)3 and Li4Ti5O12 thin-film electrodes fabricated by a chemical process, the molecular precursor method, was discovered. A cathode of transparent Li3Fe2(PO4)3 thin film with a thickness of 80 nm was fabricated by heat treating a precursor ethanol solution including a Li(I) complex of nitrilotriacetic acid, an Fe(III) complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and (dibutylammonium)2H2P2O7 ? 0.5H2O at 550°C for 10 min in air. An anode of transparent Li4Ti5O12 thin film with a thickness of 90 nm was fabricated by heat treating a precursor ethanol solution including a Li(I) complex of nitrilotriacetic acid, a Ti(IV) complex of the identical organic ligand, and hydrogen peroxide at 550°C for 30 min in air. The precursor films for both electrodes were fabricated with a spin-coating method. The thermal reactions of the novel precursors were examined in detail by means of thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis in order to examine the components and heat-treatment temperature. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin-film electrodes fabricated on glass substrates pre-coated with a fluorine-doped tin oxide film were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The rechargeable function of the assembled sandwich-type battery using an electrolytic solution containing LiPF6 was measured by the repeated charge and discharge test at a constant current of 10 ?A; a maximum voltage of 3.6 V was recorded. The color changes of the transparent thin-film battery between colorless before charging and a blue-gray color after charging occurred synchronously and repeatedly with the charge/discharge cycles. The intercalation of Li+ ions into the Li4Ti5O12 thin-film anode may be related to the drastic color change and the unprecedented visualization of the electrochemical reaction of a novel Li ion battery.

Nagai, Hiroki; Hara, Hiroki; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Honda, Tohru; Takano, Ichiro; Sato, Mitsunobu

2013-04-01

135

Solution-based deposition of ceramic thin films for electronic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the requirement of a low-temperature process which is compatible with flexible electronics, solution-based processes for ceramic thin films have received substantial attention in recent years. In this study, two different variations of solution processing were explored. Liquid phase deposition (LPD) was used to prepare for F-doped SiO2 and F-doped SnO2, and hydrothermal processing was used to prepare ZnO thin films consisting of vertically aligned nanorods. F-doped SiO2 thin films were developed from supersaturated hydrofluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) solution with the addition of boric acid (H3BO3). The microstructure dependence of LPD SiO2 films on solution parameters and deposition temperature was systematically investigated. The dielectric constant is lower than that of thermal SiO2, resulting from the fluorine doping. The remarkably low dielectric constant, relatively low leakage current and fairly high elastic modulus make these low temperature processed LPD SiO2 films very promising for an interlayer dielectric for flexible substrates. Using the same LPD method, smooth SnO2 films were deposited on both silicon and glass substrates at 60 ºC through supersaturated solutions of SnF 2 with a concentration range from 10 mM to 40 mM. They consist of nanoscale crystallites and the degree of crystallinity increase with annealing temperature. A hydrothermal process was employed to deposit ZnO films for energy harvesting devices. A polymer mask was patterned on top of a zinc acetate seed layer to generate a regular array of open holes (200 nm in diameter) using a nanoimprint. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on these open holes that expose the seed layer. The morphology and microstrucutre of the nanorods were studied according to chemical composition of the solution. Equimolar reduce of the concentration of ZnAc and HMTA results in decrease in nanorod diameter, as well as in length. The nanorods become thinner and slightly better aligned with decreased HMTA concentration, and thicker rods and faster deposition rate were observed for increased HMTA concentration. Temperature plays a critical role and nanorods gown at 90 ºC seems to have better alignment than those grown at 80 ºC. More process optimization will be needed to achieve the controlled growth of nanorod structures.

Yu, Shijun

136

Multifunctional organized mesoporous tin oxide films templated by graft copolymers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The synthesis of organized mesoporous SnO2 films with high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity, obtained by sol-gel templating with an amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate), is reported. An improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated by the introduction of a 400 nm thick organized mesoporous SnO2 interfacial (om-SnO2 IF) layer between nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2 ) and a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. To elucidate the improved efficiency, the structural, optical, and electrochemical properties of the devices were characterized by SEM, UV/Vis spectroscopy, noncontact 3D surface profilometry, intensity-modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The energy-conversion efficiency of the solid polymerized ionic liquid based DSSC fabricated with the om-SnO2 IF/nc-TiO2 photoanode reached 5.9% at 100 mW cm(-2) ; this is higher than those of neat nc-TiO2 (3.5%) and organized mesoporous TiO2 interfacial/nc-TiO2 layer (5.4%) photoanodes. The improved efficiency is attributed to the antireflective property, cascadal energy band gap, good interconnectivity, and high electrical conductivity of the om-SnO2 IF layer, which results in enhanced light harvesting, increased electron transport, reduced charge recombination, and decreased interfacial/internal resistance. PMID:24678065

Park, Jung Tae; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Roh, Dong Kyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

2014-07-01

137

Universal inhomogeneous magnetic-field response in the normal state of cuprate high-Tc superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a muon spin rotation (?SR) study of the bulk of Bi2+xSr2-xCaCu2O8+?, as well as pure and Ca-doped YBa2Cu3Oy, which together with prior measurements reveal a universal inhomogeneous magnetic-field response of hole-doped cuprates extending to temperatures far above the critical temperature Tc. The primary features of our data are incompatible with the spatially inhomogeneous response being dominated by known charge-density-wave and spin-density-wave orders. Instead, the normal-state inhomogeneous line broadening is found to scale with the maximum value Tcmax for each cuprate family, indicating it is controlled by the same energy scale as Tc. Since the degree of chemical disorder varies widely among the cuprates we have measured, the observed scaling constitutes evidence for an intrinsic electronic tendency toward inhomogeneity above Tc.

Mahyari, Z. Lotfi; Cannell, A.; de Mello, E. V. L.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Sonier, J. E.

2013-10-01

138

Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors  

PubMed Central

The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order. Here we use a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and La1.8?xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (Eu-LSCO) to show that the two materials exhibit the same process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping. The fact that in Eu-LSCO this reconstruction coexists with spin and charge modulations that break translational symmetry shows that stripe order is the generic non-superconducting ground state of hole-doped cuprates. PMID:21847106

Laliberte, F.; Chang, J.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Hassinger, E.; Daou, R.; Rondeau, M.; Ramshaw, B.J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.; Pyon, S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Sheikin, I.; Malone, L.; Proust, C.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

2011-01-01

139

Rapid Hydrolysis of Organophosphorous Esters Induced by Nanostructured, Fluorine-Doped Titania Replicas of Diatom Frustules  

E-print Network

hydrolysis of the organophosphorous esters, methyl paraoxon, and methyl parathion (insecticides and nerve and home gardening, and are structural mimics of nerve agents.6 3-D assemblies of titania nanoparticles silica-based assemblies can be con- verted into other non-silica-based oxides through the use of gas

Huang, Ching-Hua

140

Film Studies 121 Film Studies  

E-print Network

Film Studies · 121 Film Studies ADVISORY COMMITTEE: Lowry (Director, English), Stock (Modern Languages), Stock (Mod- ern Languages), Stoddard (Education), Zuber (English). The minor in Film Studies-is per- haps the predominant way that World cultures represent themselves. Film has become

Lewis, Robert Michael

141

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

Dowling, John, Ed.

1976-01-01

142

Film Boxes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

Osterer, Irv

2002-01-01

143

Humanistic Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for media specialists and educators, this issue includes seven articles focusing on humanistic films for children. Following a brief editorial encouraging the ideals of humanism, the first article presents an analysis of seven films with positive sex-role models. Included is a model for evaluating children's films. The second article…

Gaffney, Maureen, Ed.

1981-01-01

144

On Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

Watts, Marty

2006-01-01

145

Nanocomposite films  

DOEpatents

A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

2010-07-20

146

Photovoltaic cells made from conjugated polymers infiltrated into mesoporous titania  

E-print Network

a titanium ethoxide­block copolymer precursor mixture on a conducting glass substrate, and then calcining of a mesoporous TiO2 film that has been deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2 :F) substrate and calcined , which had been used previously, because indium diffuses out of ITO electrodes during the calcination

McGehee, Michael

147

School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION Fall 2012 Name of these credits must be 300 or above. *Required for Film Gate SFP REQUIREMENTS (min. 65 Credits) A. REQUIRED COURSES (22 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photo. 3 _____ *FILM 106IA Film in America 3

Dyer, Bill

148

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt ferrite thin films are deposited onto quartz glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures using ferric nitrate and cobalt nitrate as precursors. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study indicates the formation of CoFe2O4 by decomposition of cobalt and ferric nitrates after 800 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that annealed films are polycrystalline in nature and exhibit spinel cubic crystal structure. Crystallite size varies from 39 to 44 nm with the substrate temperatures. Direct optical band gap energy of CoFe2O4 thin films is found to be 2.57 eV. The AFM images show that roughness and grain size of the CoFe2O4 thin film are about 9 and 138 nm, respectively. The measured DC resistivity of the deposited thin films indicates that as temperature increases the resistivity decreases indicating the semiconductor nature of the films. Decrease in dielectric constant (?') and loss tangent (tan?) has been observed with frequency and attains the constant value at higher frequencies. The AC conductivity of cobalt ferrite thin films increases with increase in frequency. Thus, the prepared films show normal dielectric performance of the spinel ferrite thin film. Room-temperature complex impedance spectra show the incomplete semicircles as films exhibit high resistance values at lower frequencies.

Bagade, A. A.; Ganbavle, V. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.

2014-08-01

149

Anodic films  

SciTech Connect

Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution-precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation can be determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

Muller, R.H.

1983-08-01

150

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.

Gordon, R.G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Teff, D.

1998-09-01

151

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (?27), wide band gap (?4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (?10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

2014-11-01

152

About Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and briefly describes 46 college-level films. Films are arranged in the following categories: volcanism and earthquakes; plate tectonics; energy, water, and environmental concerns; petroleum and coal; astronomy; space exploration, space shuttle; paleontology; geomorphology; and mineralogy, petrology, and economic geology. (BC)

Christman, Robert; Krockover, Gerald H.

1984-01-01

153

Film Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eothen Film Loops: Digestion, Absorption and Distribution The set consists of 6 loops: ref 815\\/C1-6 Price: Standard 8 mm (silent) £7–75 each. Super 8 mm (silent) £6–50 eachFilm Loops for the Nuffield Advanced Biological Science Project Available from: Penguin Education Ltd, Harmondsworth, West Drayton, Middx UB7 8EP

Carol Hobbs; Alison Lovick; Kris Scheinkonig; Zoe Williams; Ann Boyce; Janice Newmarch; Geraldine Norris; Ruth Simmons

1974-01-01

154

Ephemeral Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ephemeral films are those films that are made "for educational, industrial, or promotional purposes" and they are a specialty over at the Internet Archive. This delightful collection is both informative and amusing and contains over 200 of these films. Visitors can view the "Most Downloaded Items Last Week" to get a sense of the wisdom of the crowds, or they can go their own way by browsing by subject or keyword. The site has a number of sub-collections, including one dedicated to drive-in movie ads and public information films created by the British government. Visitors shouldn't miss the public service announcements by the U.S. Civil Defense office aimed at farmers (the "actors" are marionettes) or the "Beginning Responsibility: Lunchroom Manners" instructional film.

155

thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical scattering properties of nanostructured matter have crucial impact on performance efficiency of various photonic components, such as waveguides, display elements, and solar cells. In this paper, diffuse transmission properties of nanocrystalline Pb(Zr x Ti1- x )O3 thin films with a high refractive index of ~2.5 and optical transmittance are presented. Thin films with a thicknesses ranging from 50 to 500 nm were studied using integrating sphere technique and results were compared to simulations performed by a scalar scattering theory. Thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature on MgO(100) substrates and post-annealed at a temperature of 800 °C. Structural phase evolution-induced surface effects, which introduced periodicity on the film surface, cause the definite diffuse elements in transmission spectra of the films. Low and evenly distributed scattering amplitudes in k-space were seen for highly tetragonal- or trigonal-oriented films with non-textured surfaces, which led to low diffuse transmission values ( T D ? 5 %), while confined and increased scattering amplitudes in k-space were seen for tetragonal-trigonal-oriented films, with phase co-existence, which led to microstructure-induced textured surfaces and increased diffuse transmission values ( T D ? 50 %). For highly textured surfaces, scattering amplitudes distributed in tilted ellipsoid shape in k-space was observed. Difference between modeled and measured values was 3.8 % in maximum.

Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne

2014-07-01

156

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)

Ladd, George T.

1974-01-01

157

Piezoelectric Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

Garrison, Steve

1992-01-01

158

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

159

Science Fiction on Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

Burmester, David

1985-01-01

160

Particle-hole symmetry in the antiferromagnetic state of the cuprates  

PubMed Central

In the layered cuprate perovskites, the occurrence of high-temperature superconductivity seems deeply related to the unusual nature of the hole excitations. The limiting case of a very small number of holes diffusing in the antiferromagnetic (AF) background may provide important insights into this problem. We have investigated the transport properties in a series of crystals of YBa2Cu3Oy, and found that the temperature dependencies of the Hall coefficient RH and thermopower S change abruptly as soon as the AF phase boundary is crossed. In the AF state at low temperatures T, both RH and S are unexpectedly suppressed to nearly zero over a broad interval of T. We argue that this suppression arises from near-exact symmetry in the particle-hole currents. From the trends in RH and S, we infer that the symmetry is increasingly robust as the hole density x becomes very small (x ? 0.01). We discuss implications for electronic properties both within the AF state and outside. PMID:11562471

Wang, Yayu; Ong, N. P.

2001-01-01

161

Hall, Seebeck, and Nernst Coefficients of Underdoped HgBa2CuO4+?: Fermi-Surface Reconstruction in an Archetypal Cuprate Superconductor  

Charge-density-wave order has been observed in cuprate superconductors whose crystal structure breaks the square symmetry of the CuO2 planes, such as orthorhombic YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), but not so far in cuprates that preserve that symmetry, such as tetragonal HgBa2CuO4+? (Hg1201). We have measured the Hall (RH), Seebeck (S), and Nernst (?) coefficients of underdoped Hg1201 in magnetic fields large enough to suppress superconductivity. The high-field RH(T) and S(T) are found to drop with decreasing temperature and become negative, as also observed in YBCO at comparable doping. In YBCO, the negative RH and S are signatures of a small electron pocket caused by Fermi-surface reconstruction, attributed to charge-density-wave modulations observed in the same range of doping and temperature. We deduce that a similar Fermi-surface reconstruction takes place in Hg1201, evidence that density-wave order exists in this material. A striking similarity is also found in the normal-state Nernst coefficient ?(T), further supporting this interpretation. Given the model nature of Hg1201, Fermi-surface reconstruction appears to be common to all hole-doped cuprates, suggesting that density-wave order is a fundamental property of these materials.

Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Lepault, S.; Cyr-Choinière, O.; Vignolle, B.; Grissonnanche, G.; Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Bariši?, N.; Chan, M. K.; Ji, L.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y.; Greven, M.; Proust, C.; Taillefer, Louis

2013-06-01

162

Control of Y2BaCuO5 particle formation in bulk, single grain Y-Ba-Cu-O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trapped field of undoped, bulk, single grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) fabricated by top seeded melt growth (TSMG) has been measured to investigate the field generating potential of this material. Bulk samples were prepared from precursor powders that incorporated Y2O3 of particle size 20-50 nm, rather than Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211), which is used more commonly, in order to introduce nano-Y-211 inclusions in the superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) matrix. Relatively small bulk samples of diameter 20 mm processed from this precursor are observed to trap a peak magnetic flux density of nearly 0.8 T at 77 K. This is the first time that such a trapped field of this magnitude has been observed in undoped YBCO (i.e. in the absence of chemical additions). The increase in trapped field is accompanied by an associated enhancement in Jc by up to a factor of five over the applied magnetic field up to 4 T at 77 K compared to standard single grain YBCO fabricated from precursor powders that contain the Y-211 phase.

Yeoh, W. K.; Pathak, S. K.; Shi, Y.-H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.; Hari Babu, N.; Iida, K.; Strasik, M.

2009-06-01

163

Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (Ic) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy or YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed.

Tomita, M.; Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

2013-10-01

164

Teaching with Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many feature length films and films made for television are adaptable to classroom use, especially in the arts, humanities, and social sciences, and students may accept a well-produced film (even if it is older) more readily than an inexpensively produced educational film. This booklet discusses how animated films, narrative feature films,…

Wegner, Hart

165

Film Festivals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that the Oscars and Golden Globes have all been awarded, some cineastes may think that the season of film celebration, award shows, and festivals is in a quiet slumber for a few months. Nothing could be farther from the truth, and a quick glance at the Film Festival website quickly dispels that misconception. Online since 1995, the site provides a great resource about previous and upcoming film festivals from all over the world. Here visitors can read the latest headline news from the various festivals, read coverage of the proceedings, and search a prodigious database of information. Visitors may also want to consider signing up to receive the free weekly newsletter or also viewing a selection of popular video clips culled from coverage of recent festivals.

166

Thin films  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a compilation of papers presented at the 1990 Spring Meeting of the Materials Research Society in a symposium entitled Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties II. As indicated by the title, the symposium was the second in a series, the first of which was held at the Fall Meeting in 1988. The importance of thin film mechanical properties is now recognized to the extent that basic characterization techniques such as microindentation and thin film stress measurement are performed routinely, and new characterization techniques are being developed on a daily basis. Many of the papers in the symposium dealt with the developments in these characterization methods and their application to a broad spectrum of materials such as compositionally modulated structures, ion implanted materials, optical coatings, and the numerous metals, ceramics and organics used in semiconductor device manufacture.

Doermer, M.F. (International Business Machines Corp., San Jose, CA (United States)); Oliver, W.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Pharr, G.M.; Brotzen, F.R. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1990-01-01

167

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of solution flow rate on the physical properties of the films was investigated by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectrophotometry techniques. XRD analysis revealed the tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 with highly preferred (101) orientation. AFM images showed that grain size on top of TiO2 thin films depended on solution flow rate. An indirect band gap energy of 3.46 eV was determined by means of transmission and reflection measurements. The envelope method, based on the optical transmission spectrum, was used to determine film thickness and optical constants, for example real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, refractive index, and extinction coefficient. Ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at room temperature. These peaks were attributed to the intrinsic emission and to the surface defect states, respectively.

Naffouti, Wafa; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Mehdi, Ahmed; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

2014-11-01

168

Rainbow Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use clear nail polish to create a beautiful iridescent pattern on black paper. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a material's properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

169

Black Films and Film-Makers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

170

Ultra-thin metal layer passivation of the transparent conductive anode in organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency of organic solar cells shows a strong improvement when the transparent conductive anode (indium tin oxide—ITO, aluminium-doped zinc oxide—AZO, fluorine-doped tin oxide—FTO), is covered with an ultra-thin metallic film. It is shown that the best results are achieved with a gold film (0.5nm). The efficiency of the solar cells using AZO or FTO is improved up to one order

J. C. Bernède; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; Y. Berredjem

2008-01-01

171

Facile fabrication of polypyrrole\\/functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite as counter electrodes in low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports facile fabrication of polypyrrole (Ppy)\\/functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) nanocomposite films on rigid fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and flexible ITO-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates by a drop casting method, and their application as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements of this solution processed Ppy\\/f-MWCNT nanocomposite film

Shengjie Peng; Yongzhi Wu; Peining Zhu; Velmurugan Thavasi; Subodh G. Mhaisalkar; Seeram Ramakrishna

2011-01-01

172

A Surface Resistance Effect on the Fabrication of Dye-sensitized Solar Cell with Various Widths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sputter deposition followed by surface treatment was studied using reactive RF plasma as a method for preparing titanium oxide (TiO2) films on the FTO (fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2: F) substrate for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Anatase structure TiO2 films deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering under the conditions of Ar\\/O2 (5%) mixing gas, RF power of 600 W and

Jin-Young Choi; Hyun-Woong Seo; Mi-Jeong Kim; Ji-Young Sim; Dong-Yoon Lee; Hee-Je Kim

2008-01-01

173

Film and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

Schaber, Robin L.

2002-01-01

174

LINA GOPAUL Film Producer  

E-print Network

LINA GOPAUL Film Producer Lina Gopaul has produced over thirty award-winning feature and documentary films. She runs Smoking Dogs Films established in 1998 with John Akomfrah and David Lawson. Lina and John were the founding members of the seminal film and video collective Black Audio Film Collective

Polz, Martin

175

Proposed semiconductor film improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Film grown in inert carriers (A, He, or N) displays low impurity, high mobility, and improved crystal structure. Annealing steps used in growing process improves film quality and allows utilization of film for Gunn and LSA devices.

Manasevit, H. M.

1972-01-01

176

Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

2013-12-10

177

Film As Cultural Antidote  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen (dir. Catherine Hardwicke), a small film about a girl's coming of age in southern California, was released in 2003 by Antidote Films, a production company named to suggest the film's interest in toxicity. This paper considers the ways Thirteen lives up to that name. Exposing an array of cultural poisons particularly deadly to girls, the film places its protagonists

Kathleen Rowe Karlyn

2006-01-01

178

A Festival of Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalogue consists of an alphabetical listing of more than 200 films, each with an annotation including a brief description of the film, intended audience, and length of film (most running from about 10 to 30 minutes). Titles were selected by Film Preview Committees of the National Association for the Education of Young Children. A list of…

National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

179

British Council Film: British Council Film Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Council Film "is the link between UK films and filmmakers and new international audiences." Along with their work promoting a set of productive artistic and commercial relationships and networks, they have also digitized 80 remarkable short films. The films were originally produced by the British Council during the 1940s and were designed "to show the world how Britain lived, worked, and played." By the 1960s, many people had forgotten about these delightful works, so it was fortunate that in 2010 a new project was started to bring the films online for the Web-browsing public. Today, visitors can look through the films, which include "Architects of England," "Cricket," and "Country Town." Visitors can search for films by year or by theme, and they can also read several essays which provide background on the collection.

180

Archaeology on Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeology on Film, a database of archaeology film reviews, contains critical reviews of videos and films that are used as educational tools. The reviews in the database differ from simple synopses because they "focus on how films present archaeology in addition to what they present about archaeology." The database allows archaeology instructors to identify and compare relevant films quickly. Each film review provides title, date, format, running time, cost, subjects, and description. Archaeology on Film encourages instructors to submit reviews for inclusion in the database. A review form and standards for submission are available at the site.

181

A quasi-liquid iontronic-electronic light-harvesting hybrid photodetector with giant response.  

PubMed

A heterostructure formed by a layer of agarose gel drop-cast on a hydrothermally grown layer of ZnO nanorods on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass is examined for photoresponse with a top platinum tip contact. This ionic-gel-based hybrid device shows three orders of magnitude higher photocurrent as compared to the case of bare ZnO nanorods film. PMID:22678545

Mandal, Lily; Deo, Meenal; Yengantiwar, Ashish; Banpurkar, Arun; Jog, Jyoti; Ogale, Satishchandra

2012-07-17

182

Thin Film Interference Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thin Film Interference model investigates reflection and transmission of light through a thin film. The user can change the thickness and index of refraction of the thin film as well as the incident light wavelength. The Thin Film Interference Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_ThinFilm.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

183

Visible-light-driven photocatalysis on fluorine-doped TiO 2 powders by the creation of surface oxygen vacancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

F-doped TiO2 (FT) powders were prepared by spray pyrolysis from an aqueous solution of H2TiF6. These FT powders demonstrated very high visible-light (Vis) photocatalytic activities for decompositions of both acetaldehyde and trichloroethylene, although their UV–Vis spectra indicated that F-doping had less effect on the optical absorption property of bulk TiO2. However, photoluminescence (PL) spectra revealed that two kinds of oxygen

Di Li; Hajime Haneda; Nitin K. Labhsetwar; Shunichi Hishita; Naoki Ohashi

2005-01-01

184

The effect of exceptionally high fluorine doping on the anisotropy of single crystalline SmFeAsO1-xFx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prepared single crystalline SmFeAsO1-xFx with an exceptionally high fluorine concentration by using a CsCl flux method. Comparing to conventional flux methods, this method can introduce about double the amount of fluorine into the oxygen site. The obtained single crystal shows the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc = 57.5 K) in single crystalline iron pnictides. In addition, the residual resistivity ratio is almost three times as large as that of previously reported single crystals. This suggests that our single crystals are suitable for investigation of the intrinsic superconducting properties, since they have few defects and impurities. Using both the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg model and the effective mass model, we demonstrated that a higher fluorine concentration suppresses the anisotropic superconductivity of SmFeAsO1-xFx.

Fujioka, Masaya; Denholme, Saleem J.; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takano, Yoshihiko

2014-09-01

185

Magnetism driven by non-metal interstitials from first-principles prediction: The case of hydrogen- and fluorine-doped calcium monoxide with rock-salt structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our first-principles calculations based on density functional theory confirmed the formation of sp-ferromagnetic states of calcium monoxide with interstitial nonmagnetic F or H atoms. The hydrogen and fluorine interstitials in the oxides were found to be spin polarized and are more stable in the antiferromagnetic state and the ferromagnetic state, respectively. For H-doped CaO, no considerable charge transfer takes place and the spin remains localized on the impurity. For F-doped oxide, the observation may be attributed to the p-p interaction and the charge transfer between the interstitial atom and the neighboring O atoms. We demonstrate that H-doped compound is a potential n-type antiferromagnet, while F-doped material is a potential p-type ferromagnet. The different dopants would induce different magnetic couplings, thus show different ground-state magnetic configurations. The mechanism for the magnetism should be useful for understanding d0 magnetic semiconductors or insulators. The present potential d0 diluted magnetic materials, at least some of them, may be useful in spintronics.

Dong, Shengjie; Zhao, Hui

2014-12-01

186

High performance fluorine doped (Sn,Ru)O2 oxygen evolution reaction electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane based water electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of electro-catalysts containing non-noble metal or significantly reduced amounts of expensive noble metals (e.g. RuO2) is highly desirable. Development of such a catalyst with comparable electrochemical performance to the standard noble metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a pioneering breakthrough in hydrogen generation by water electrolysis. In line with these goals, by exploiting a two-pronged theoretical first principles and experimental approach herein we demonstrate that a nano-structured solid solution of SnO2:10 wt% F containing only 20 at.% RuO2 [e.g. (Sn0.80Ru0.20)O2:10F] displays a remarkably similar electrochemical activity and moreover, comparable or even much improved electrochemical stability and durability compared to pure the noble metal counterpart, RuO2. Density functional theory calculations have demonstrated direct dependence of the catalytic activity on the electronic structure peculiarities of the F-doped (Ru,Sn)O2 which corresponds well with the experimental results.

Kadakia, Karan; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Jampani, Prashanth; Park, Sung Kyoo; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

2014-01-01

187

Application of solution-processed V2O5 in inverted polymer solar cells based on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate.  

PubMed

We used a hydrothermal method to synthesis the solution-processed V2O5 as anode buffer layer, which applied on inverted polymer solar cells based on FTO substrate. The structure of the device is glass/FTO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5/Ag. We discussed the dependence of device performance on the concentrations of V2O5 solution. It is found that when the concentration of V2O5 is 300 microg/ml, the power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.38%) is the highest, which is much higher than that of the device without anode buffer layer (PCE of only 0.87%). Moreover, it can significantly reduce the energy consumption and make it more cost-effective. PMID:24738373

Wu, Jian; Zhang, Yupeng; He, Yeyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Guolt, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

2014-06-01

188

Thin film nano solar cells--from device optimization to upscaling.  

PubMed

Stainless steel based dye solar cells have been upscaled from small, laboratory size test cells of 0.32 cm2 active area to 6 cm x 6 cm "mini-modules" with active areas ca. 15 cm2. Stainless steel works as the photoelectrode substrate whilst the counter electrode is prepared on indium-doped tin oxide coated polyethyleneterephtalate or polyethylenenaphtalate plastic foil (fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass as a reference). Additional current collector structures were deposited on the counter electrode substrate with inkjet-printing of silver nanoparticle ink in order to reduce the lateral resistance of the plastic foil. Flexible substrates enable roll-to-roll type industrial manufacturing of the cells and the steel's superior conductivity compared to the typical substrate materials such as glass and plastic makes it possible to prepare even substantially larger modules. The best efficiencies obtained this far with the "mini-module" using a stainless steel photoelectrode are 2.5% with a platinum-sputtered indium-doped tin oxide coated polyethyleneterephtalate counter electrode and 3.4% with a thermally platinized fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass counter electrode. These efficiencies are on the same level than those measured with small cells prepared with similar methods and materials (3.4%-4.7%, depending on configuration, which are amongst the highest reported for this kind of a dye solar cell). Replacing expensive conducting glass with steel and plastic foils as the substrate materials leads also to economical savings in the cell production. PMID:20352759

Toivola, Minna; Peltola, Time; Miettunen, Kati; Halme, Janne; Lund, Peter

2010-02-01

189

FILM STUDIES www.theaterarts.pdx.edu  

E-print Network

We're In the Money: Gangster Films & Musicals Gangster Films Hitchcock Independent Film 1950's Media (4) Asian American Film and Video Civilized Nightmares: Utopia and Dystopia in Film Films of Alfred Hitchcock Film Noir Film & Social Justice Films of Orson Welles The Films and Times of Charlie Chaplin

190

Actuating porous polyimide films.  

PubMed

We report a novel method for the fabrication of one-component self-folding polymer films. The approach is based on films with a vertical gradient of porosity and was demonstrated on an example of porous polyimide films. The inhomogeneous porosity of the films was achieved through the implementation of capillary forces and gravity during the drying of a dispersion of colloidal particles in a solution of polymer precursor. As a result, three-layered films were formed. A monolayer of particles comprises the top layer, the second layer is the pure polymer, and the third layer is formed by a mixture of particles and polymer. Etching out the particles leaves polyimide film with inhomogeneous distributed pores. These porous polymer films roll and form tubes in organic solvents as well as their vapors and reversibly unfold in air. The obtained films were used for design of actuators, which are able to capture and release different objects through the reversible folding. PMID:24903283

Zhang, Yaoming; Ionov, Leonid

2014-07-01

191

Thin Film Perovskites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilayer perovskite thin film resistive memory device has been developed comprised of: a Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO) perovskite oxide epitaxial layer on a YBCO bottom thin film electrode; a thin yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layer grown on the PCMO layer, and a gold thin film top electrode. The multi-layer thin film lattice structure has been characterized by XRD and TEM

Xin CHEN; Naijuan WU; Alex IGNATIEV

192

Postmodern film adaptation  

E-print Network

. The chapter specifically examines Love and Death (1975) as a postmodern pastiche. Typically studied as a parody of Russian literature, specifically Leo Tolstoy, Love and Death emulates many historically important films. From the films of Sergei Eisenstein.... The chapter specifically examines Love and Death (1975) as a postmodern pastiche. Typically studied as a parody of Russian literature, specifically Leo Tolstoy, Love and Death emulates many historically important films. From the films of Sergei Eisenstein...

Brannon, Courtney Elizabeth

2013-02-22

193

Film as Film; Understanding and Judging Movies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The criteria for judging movies which are presented here are based on the belief that film criticism becomes rational, if not "objective", when it displays and inspects the nature of its evidence and the bases of its arguments. The author dissents from the view of early film theorists that montage is the essence of cinema, and that cinema is to be…

Perkins, V. F.

194

Australian Film Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

Breen, Myles P.

195

film & television introduction.  

E-print Network

film & television introduction. Graduate programs in the Department of Film & Television aim to help each student find his or her calling. The Department's output represents the full scope of human interests. At any given moment, a student in our Film & Television Studies program might be writing about

Finzi, Adrien

196

Focus on Shakespearean Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an anthology of reviews and critical pieces of the significant and available Shakespearean films made between 1935 and 1966. Included are three general essays on Shakespearean film by Ian Johnson, Henri Lemaitre, and Geoffrey Reeves. The specific films and their reviewers are: A Midsummer's Night Dream (1935) Allardyce Nicoll and Richard…

Eckert, Charles W., Ed.

197

Film Screening and Conversation  

E-print Network

Film Screening and Conversation 2011 6-9pm Smithsonian Asian Paci c American Program Rasmuson Director John Sayles Film Run Time: 124 minutes Closest Metro: L'Enfant Plaza Related Traveling Exhibition, the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program presents a screening of the film Amigo and a conversation

Mathis, Wayne N.

198

Films courbés minces martensitiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a curved thin film made of a martensitic material. The behavior of the film is described by a free energy composed of a bulk energy and an interfacial energy term. When the thickness of the curved film goes to zero, we show with ?-convergence arguments that the minimizers of the free energy converge to the minimizers of an

Hervé Le Dret; Hamdi Zorgati

2004-01-01

199

Film Program Notes from the Current Holdings of the Anthology Film Archives; Outlines of 41 Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of film program notes includes mixed commentary on some of the films held in the Anthology Film Archives (a film and book library in New York City). Some of the films are described by synopsis of the episodes and others by translation into English of the foreign language subtitles. However, each film noted is identified by full…

Anthology Film Archives, New York, NY.

200

Pyrolyzed thin film carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

2010-01-01

201

National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

202

Thin film composite actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical properties of Ni50Ti50 deposited on Si substrates were studied focussing on the interaction of the film and substrate. This interaction determines the transformation characteristics through interface accommodation and mechanical constraints exerted by the substrate stiffness. Substrate stiffness, controlled by the film/substrate thickness ratio, was found to have a substantial influence on the output energy of the film/substrate composite. A switch type composite based on this knowledge was fabricated and tested. The thermo-mechanical properties of Terfenol-D thin films deposited on Si substrates were studied by static and dynamic measurements of film/substrate composite cantilevers. The Curie transition, (Delta) E effect and mechanical damping of the film were measured simultaneously. The stress in the film was controlled by annealing below the recrystallization temperature and determined to vary from -500 MPa, compression, in as deposited films to +480 MPa, tension, in annealed films. The Curie temperature shifts from 80 degree(s)C to 140 degree(s)C as the tension increases while the structure of the film remains amorphous. The stress change induced by annealing also drastically effects the film's damping characteristics. The (Delta) E effect of the amorphous material, about 20%, was used to estimate the magnetostriction, (lambda) s approximately equals 4 (DOT) 10-3.

Su, Quanmin; Kim, Taesung; Zheng, Yun; Wuttig, Manfred R.

1995-05-01

203

Depositing Diamondlike Carbon Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process demonstrated to make thin films (usually thousands of angstroms to few microns thick) that have properties of diamonds. Various plasma and ion-beam techniques employed to generate films. Films made by radio-frequency plasma decomposition of hydrocarbon gas or other alkanes, by low-energy carbon-ion-beam deposition, or by ion plating and dual ion technique using carbon target. Advantages of new process over others are films produced, though amorphous, are clear, extremely hard, chemically inert, of high resistivity, and have index of refraction of 3.2 properties similar to those of single-crystal diamonds. Films have possible uses in microelectronic applications, high-energy-laser and plastic windows, corrosion protection for metals, and other applications where desired properties of film shaped during the film-formation process.

Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.; Banks, B. A.

1986-01-01

204

Nanocrystalline chitin thin films.  

PubMed

Elucidating the interactions between crystalline chitin and various biomacromolecules is of fundamental importance for designing and fabricating chitin-based biomaterials. This work highlights a simple method to prepare ultrathin films of chitin nanocrystals (chitin NC) by spincoating chitin NCs from a colloidal suspension onto a gold surface modified by an amine-terminated self-assembled monolayer. Atomic force microscopy confirmed that chitin NC films are reasonably smooth and homogeneous, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) solvent exchange experiments demonstrated that chitin NC films have twice as much water as amorphous regenerated chitin (RChitin) films of similar thickness. QCM-D data also showed that chitinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of chitin NC films was much slower than that of RChitin films. Chitinase not only degraded, but also caused the swelling of the chitin nanocrystals. BSA adsorption studies demonstrated that chitin NC films have high protein loading capacity, and thus show potential applications for enzyme immobilization. PMID:24507267

Wang, Chao; Esker, Alan R

2014-02-15

205

National Film Preservation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do The Big Sleep, The Great Dictator, Harold and Maude, Knute Rockne, All American, and Wings have in common? They, along with 20 other films, have been selected to the National Film Registry of the National Film Preservation Board. The NFPB is a "public advisory group to the Librarian of Congress...that...works to ensure the survival, conservation and increased public availability of America's film heritage, including: advising the Librarian on the annual selection of films to the National Film Registry." In addition to the 1997 list, users can find a comprehensive list of titles added to the registry between 1989-1997, a list of NFPB members, and links from the 1989-96 National Film Registry to their credits as they appear in the Internet Movie Database. The NFPB also recently released a report and three public testimonies on the state of television and video preservation.

206

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the 4848--HOUR SHORT FILM contestHOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Department of Film. are sponsoring the Fifth Annual 48- HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las

Hemmers, Oliver

207

B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies  

E-print Network

B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies September 2012- June 2013 Interim Report B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies was established in September 2012 as an interdisciplinary, autonomous from Modern Languages, American and Canadian Studies and the new department of Art History, Film

Birmingham, University of

208

Film Study Course, Tenth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a language arts program developed under an ESEA Title 3 grant, this curriculum guide for film study in the 10th grade is intended to help students (1) view films more critically, (2) understand the procedures of film making, and (3) appreciate the film as a work of art. Nine films are recommended for viewing, and sample lessons, including…

Ziegler, Fred H.; Schulz, H. James

209

Dielectric Thin Films.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film technology is pervasive in the fabrication of all high performance integrated circuits. Success of this technology is due to its capability to achieve high volumetric efficiency by reducing the physical size of each element without disrupting its electrical performance. Along with other thin films, considerable attention has been paid in the area of ferroelectric thin films for device applications. Generally these films are amorphous in nature and an annealing process is required to enhance the crystallinity of the film. Measurement of dielectric properties of these films showed an increase in the values of dielectric constant and a decrease of coercive fields and annealing. Thus a larger volume efficiency can be achieved with ferroelectric materials. We chose to investigate ferroelectric antimony sulphur iodide (SbSI) and bismuth titanate (Bi(,4)Ti(,3)O(,12)) for dielectric thin film applications. SbSI is a member of the large family of A('V)B('VI)C('VII) ferroelectric compounds with a large anisotropy in the dielectric properties and a phase transition temperature at 20(DEGREES)C. It has a dielectric constant as high as 6.0 x 10('4) and a large pyroelectric coefficient of 60 x 10('3) (mu)c/m('2) (DEGREES)C at the phase transition. It also has very interesting piezoelectric properties. SbSI thin films were prepared by the vacuum thermal evaporation method. The c-axis oriented SbSI films were prepared by the recrystallization of as-grown films using a suitable annealing process. Bi(,4)Ti(,3)O(,12) is a member of the bismuth oxide layer structure family. The high Curie temperature (675(DEGREES)C) and mica-like morphology of the sheet structure suggest the potentiality of Bi(,4)Ti(,3)O(,12) as a stable thin film dielectric with high dielectric strength. Crystalline Bi(,4)Ti(,3)O(,12) films were deposited by RF sputtering in argon:oxygen gas atmosphere using heated substrates. Dielectric measurements on these films showed that SbSI thin films can be made reproducibly with the capacitance ranging up to 0.6 (mu)F/cm('2). Cracks due to high stress and pin-holes in films deteriorate the dielectric properties. On the other hand Bi(,4)Ti(,3)O(,12) films prepared on hot substrates showed permittivity (epsilon)(,R) > 200 and tan (delta) < 2%, suggesting the potential use of this material in thin film capacitors.

Ghosh, Prasanta K.

210

The Greatest Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Timothy Dirks, Manager of Public Programs at The Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose, California, also wears another hat, that of dedicated amateur film buff. This site is the result of that hobby, and it is one of the better amateur sites on its topic. At the heart of the site is a list of the author's choice for 100 greatest films of all time (English language films only). Each of these films is reviewed in depth. An introductory section explains criteria. A second list of the 100 runner-ups (more briefly annotated) is also provided, as well as sections on greatest film quotes and scenes, an essay on genres, and a beautiful collection of hundreds of film posters from Adam's Rib to You Can't Take it With You. While you may not agree with Mr. Dirks' picks, that is half the fun of a site like this. Note that the popularity of the site curtails access at times.

211

World's Smallest Film Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World's Smallest Film Festival "is the first competitive showcase of digital video content for the new generation of mobile phones, PDAs, and other mobile devices." The event concluded at the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association Wireless conference in March 2003, but the films that were submitted to the festival can be viewed online. Running up to seven minutes in length, the films demonstrate the rapid advancements in mobile multimedia technology.

212

Dipcoating of ITO films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniform, transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by dip-coating process using an organic sol composed of indium acetate—diethanolamine—tin octylate-n-propanol mixture and the relationship between their electrical properties, film morphology and dip-coating conditions have been investigated. The optimum Sn-doping concentration was about 4 mol% relative to In ion. The conductivity of as-prepared ITO films increased with an increase in

Yasutaka Takahashi; Shinya Okada; Radhouane Bel Hadj Tahar; Ken Nakano; Takayuki Ban; Yutaka Ohya

1997-01-01

213

Renaissance of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

Bellone, Julius, Ed.

214

The microstructure and superconducting properties of large single-domain superconductors prepared by a mixture of Y-123 and RE-211 phase precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The melt-textured superconductors were fabricated using mixed precursors of YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) and RE2BaCuO5 (RE-211, RE: Y, Sm and Gd) phase powders. The single-domain superconductors of 30 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness were formed using a seeding and temperature gradient method. The molar ratio value of Y/RE in the sample, which was prepared in the course of domain growing process, was estimated by SEM-EDX and EPMA. The Y/RE in the 123 phase increases from the single-domain towards the poly-grains region, while that in the 211 phase is the same value of 0.77/0.22 in both the single-domain and the poly-grains region. The Tc values of the superconductors are about 90 K. The Jc values at 77.3 K and 0.05 T of the samples mixed with Y-211, Sm-211 and Gd-211 precursors are about 3.20 × 104 A cm-2, 2.75 × 104 A cm-2 and 2.25 × 104 A cm-2, respectively. The maximum trapped fields at 77.3 K of the samples with the above mixture in sequence are 0.24 T, 0.15 T and 0.18 T, respectively. It is found that the superconducting properties of the samples mixed with Sm-211 and Gd-211 precursors are inferior to those of the sample with Y-211 precursor in this study.

Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Itoh, Hiromichi; Arakawa, Michikazu; Nagano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shuji; Kohayashi, Shuichi

2002-05-01

215

Seeded infiltration and growth of large, single domain Y Ba Cu O bulk superconductors with very high critical current densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single domain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) composed of a YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting bulk matrix with discrete, non-superconducting Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) phase inclusions has been fabricated by a seeded infiltration and growth (IG) technique in the form of cylindrical pellets up to 32 mm in diameter. Sample shrinkage in the radial direction for single domains prepared by this technique is relatively low at 5% and independent of sample size, in contrast to the shrinkage observed in samples grown by conventional melt processing, which increases significantly with increasing sample diameter. Furthermore, samples grown by the IG technique exhibit low porosity of typically 0.9% of the bulk volume fraction, compared with a corresponding value of around 4.9% observed in samples fabricated by conventional melt processing. Fine Y-211 particles were observed to be embedded within the Y-123 superconducting matrix for the IG processed samples, leading to a high critical current density, Jc, of over 100 000 A cm-2 at 77.3 K in self-field. The distribution of Y-211 particles in the IG sample microstructure, however, was inhomogeneous (unlike in previous reports), which leads to a variation in the spatial distribution of Jc. The volume fraction of Y-211 in the vicinity of the seed crystal (i.e. corresponding to the initial c-sector growth stage), in particular, is typically around 5%, compared with a value of up to 30% in the a growth sectors more distant from the seed crystal (which corresponds well to the theoretical value for the sample composition studied here). The volume fraction of Y-211 inclusions in the c growth sector more distant from the seed was around 22%. Finally, a trend of the variation in the distribution of Y-211 particles in the Y-123 matrix grown by the IG technique was similar to that in sample grown by conventional melt processing.

Iida, K.; Babu, N. Hari; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.

2005-11-01

216

Microfilm--Which Film Type, Which Application?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report on characteristics of different kinds of microfilm available indicates proper film for specific needs. Silver halide and nonsilver films, diazo film, vesicular film, reaction of films to light, effect of heat and humidity on films, film susceptibility to scratching, and potential longevity of film types are covered. (35 references) (EJS)

Dodson, Suzanne Cates

1985-01-01

217

Film-Makers' Cooperative Catalogue Number Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Film-Makers' Cooperative services as a film depository and rental agency for any film-makers who may choose to make their work available to the general public. Approximately 1,600 films are listed in film-maker sequence. Excerpts of film reviews are provided for each entry. An index by film title and policies and procedures for film rental are…

Film-Makers' Cooperative, New York, NY.

218

Transparent conductive oxide electrode dependence of photocurrent characteristics in bacteriorhodopsin photocells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the photocurrent characteristics in photocells using bacteriorhodopsin (bR) thin films deposited on various kinds of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrodes. The photocurrent depends largely on the species of TCO and partly on the surface morphology. The photocell using a bR thin film deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode with a textured structure showed the largest photocurrent. Our results indicate that the variation of capacitance near the interface induced by the bR's light-driven proton pump function affects the transient photocurrent, while the capacitance near the interface is produced by the TCO electrode, bR thin film, and electrolyte solution.

Yamada, Toshiki; Haruyama, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Takahiro; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Otomo, Akira

2014-11-01

219

Preparation and Surface Analysis of a Fluorinated Amorphous Silicon for Photo-voltaic Device Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) have been routinely deposited on a variety of substrates. Surface and interfacial studies were carried out with a PHI 5600 X-ray photo electron spectrometer. Co-deposition with fluorine yielded films having oxygen present as bulk oxide. The higher the fluorine content, the greater the amount of bulk oxygen observed. The presence of oxygen may be a contributing factor to inconsistent film properties of fluorine doped silicon materials, reported else where. A definite chemical interface between a layer containing fluorine and a layer made from pure silane has been delineated.

McWhinney, Hylton G.; Burton, Dawn; Fogarty, Thomas N.

1998-01-01

220

Investigation of chemically synthesized graphene as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene was synthesized and used as a counter electrode in place of platinum in dye sensitized solar cells. This study reveals that the graphene synthesized by reduction of graphene oxide still contains functional groups even after reduction. The synthesized graphene counter electrodes were prepared by screen printing fabrication techniques. The influence of temperature variation on the films morphology, crystallinity, and its interfacial adhesiveness to the fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass were studied. Screen printing technique has shown uniform surface, decreased agglomeration of nanoparticles and high film adhesiveness. The screen printed film annealed at 400°C reveals best surface morphology.

Prakash, Shejale Kiran; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Roy, Mahesh S.; Kumar, Mahesh

2014-10-01

221

Thin Films Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Nano-Link contains the document required for the thin films module. The activity requires a background in eight grade science. This 9 page guide includes background information on thin film interference, a hands-on learning activity, links to multimedia resources, and further readings. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

2014-09-10

222

Microporous film battery separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microporous film described has a matrix comprising 40 to 90 vol. % of a polyolefin having a number average molecular weight of 15,000 or more and 10 to 60 vol. % of an inorganic filler, said matrix having therein void spaces at a rate of 30 to 75 vol. % based on the volume of the film; and 2

Y. Doi; O. Fugii; T. Hanamura; S. Kaneko

1980-01-01

223

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

B. S. Hoffheins; R. J. Lauf

1995-01-01

224

Film Making in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program which used practical film study to extend powers of observation and comment and to help young people (ages 12 through 16) develop an understanding of contemporary society is described in this manual. The role of film in school curricula and its integration with other studies is discussed in an opening section. The next section contains a…

Lowndes, Douglas

225

FAA Film Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

226

Film Canister Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opaque film canisters are readily available, cheap, and useful for scientific inquiry in the classroom. They can also be surprisingly versatile and useful as a tool for stimulating scientific inquiry. In this article, the authors describe inquiry activities using film canisters for preservice teachers, including a "black box" activity and several…

Ferstl, Andrew; Schneider, Jamie L.

2007-01-01

227

Abstract Film and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

Le Grice, Malcolm

228

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOEpatents

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01

229

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOEpatents

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04

230

Langmuir-Blodgett Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Langmuir trough enables high quality organic layers (Langmuir-Blodgett films) to be deposited onto a variety of substrates. This article describes the preparation and characterization of these monolayer and multilayer films and reviews many of their potential applications; these include two-dimensional magnetism, integrated and electro-optics, electron beam lithography, biological membranes, charge injection devices and field-effect transistors.

G. G. Roberts

1984-01-01

231

Film Study Hang Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interest and delight which students find in film should be preserved from a teacher's excessive zeal to analyze and explain. As the beauty of poetry is frequently diminished through exhaustive analyses of similes, rhyme schemes, and other technical devices, the value of film to high school students can be weakened through too great an emphasis…

Grenier, Charles F.

1969-01-01

232

On Teaching Ethnographic Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

Clarfield, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

233

Dental Training Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

234

Gordon Knox Film Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon Knox was born in Greenville, Texas and during his long career he made a wide range of documentary films for the United States Armed Forces, state and federal government agencies, and private sector clients. In 1941, Knox formed the Princeton Film Center in Princeton, New Jersey, and over the coming years he would create profiles of Princeton ("University Town"), "Fortress in the Sky" (for Boeing), and "This is Macy's", which was an orientation film for new employees at this celebrated department store. Visitors can search all of the materials (including the films) in the Knox archive via the search engine here, and they can also look through the "Recent Additions" area to look at new photos, manuscripts, and other items of note. One film that should not be missed is the 1948 documentary "What is Modern Art", which explores the question of recent transformations throughout the art world.

235

Bright Lights Film Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially started as a print journal in 1974, the online publication of Bright Lights Film Journal began in 1996, and continues to today. As noted on its site, the journal is "a popular-academic hybrid of movie analysis, history, and commentary, looking at classic and commercial, independent, exploitation, and international film from a wide range of vantage points from the aesthetic to the political." The journal is edited by Gary Morris, and contains pieces by a number of persons, including independent writers, film critics, and freelance journalists. While users can browse the archives dating back to 1996, the articles are also thematically organized on a sidebar on the homepage. These themes include Animation, Hong Kong Films, Documentaries, and Film Noir. The interviews section is quite strong, and contains candid pieces with Frederico Fellini, Robert Wise, and John Woo.

236

Western University Film Studies 5 Minute Film Festival  

E-print Network

Western University Film Studies 5 Minute Film Festival Submission Form Applicant Information Name: Email: School: Short Bio about yourself: Film Information Title: Run-Time (no more than 5 minutes): Your/rational of the Film (200-250 words): Date Completed: Disclaimer: All Submissions to Western's Five Minute High School

Lennard, William N.

237

Using Films in Literature Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Films are becoming recognized as an important medium of foreign language instruction. Although there is a lack of instructional films in German, an abundance of excellent feature films is available through the German Embassy and various consulates. Well-edited scenarios are needed, however, in order to make using these films an effective teaching…

Littell, Katherine M.

1976-01-01

238

The Art of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author prefaces his consideration of films as an art form with a discussion of the mechanics of filmmaking. He describes the division of talent on a movie set, details the history of the tools of filmmakers, and explains the production and reproduction of a film. The influence of film techniques on plot development in a fiction film is…

Lindgren, Ernest

239

Ion beam deposited protective films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single or dual ion beam sources were used to deposit thin films for different applications. Metal and metal oxide films were evaluated as protective coatings for the materials. Film adherence was measured and the most promising films were then tested under environments similar to operating conditions. It was shown that some materials do protect die material (H-13 steel) and do reduce thermal fatigue. Diamondlike films have many useful applications. A series of experiments were conducted to define and optimize new approaches to the manufacture of such films. A dual beam system using argon and methane gases was developed to generate these films.

Mirtich, M. J.

1981-01-01

240

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

1999-03-23

241

A water film motor  

E-print Network

We report on electrically-induced rotations in water films, which can function at many length scales. The device consists of a two-dimensional cell used for electrolysis of water films, as simple as an insulator frame with two electrodes on the sides, to which an external in-plane electric field perpendicular to the mean electrolysis current density is applied. If either the external field or the electrolysis current exceeds some threshold (while the other one is not zero), the liquid film begins to rotate.

R. Shirsavar; A. Amjadi; N. Hamedani Radja; M. D. Niry; M. Reza Rahimi Tabar; M. R. Ejtehadi

2006-05-01

242

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

Cheng, Yang-Tse (Rochester Hills, MI); Poli, Andrea A. (Livonia, MI); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

1999-01-01

243

Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films  

SciTech Connect

Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

2000-01-27

244

Film Sound History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by the student chapter of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, this site offers a clear, informative timeline of film sound history. Breaking the century down by decades, the site discusses the main sound innovations of each period, and these brief histories link to related film history sites. The site also features a graph showing the specifications and capability of every major film sound format from Fantasound in 1940 to DTS introduced in 1993. An unannotated list of relevant links rounds out the site.

245

Film News Index: 1947-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Film News Index is an index to the 16mm nontheatrical film reviews and film history that were published in "Film News" over almost four decades, as well as an index to the location of the full reviews and articles in their original version. The Film News Index is composed of four sections: (1) Film Reviews, which provide film title, date,…

Lee, Rohama; And Others

246

Amorphous diamond films  

DOEpatents

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1998-06-09

247

Thin Film Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss thin film growth processes. Slide topics include plasma properties, DC glow discharge, ionization, plasma species, magnetrons, collisions, and chemical reactions. Numerous charts and mathematical formulas are presented.

Rack, Philip D.

2010-07-19

248

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

1998-06-16

249

Quantitative film radiography  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

1991-02-26

250

Magnetron sputtered boron films  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01

251

Tunneling between ferromagnetic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe-Ge-Co junctions conductance G(V) is studied when mean magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic film are parrallel or antiparallel. Conductance measurement, in these two cases, is related to the spin polarizations of the conduction electrons.

M. Julliere

1975-01-01

252

Protein Thin Film Machines  

E-print Network

We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fuelled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity ...

Federici, Stefania

253

Sprites on Film  

NASA Video Gallery

Filmed at 10,000 frames per second by Japan's NHK television, movies like this of electromagnetic bursts called "sprites" will help scientists better understand how weather high in the atmosphere r...

254

Ferroelectric thin films  

SciTech Connect

The area of ferroelectric thin films has expanded rapidly recently with the advent of high quality multi-oxide deposition technology. Advances in thin film quality has resulted in the realization of new technologies not achievable through classical bulk ceramic processing techniques. An example of this progress is the co-processing of ferroelectric thin films with standard semiconductor silicon and GaAs integrated circuits for radiation hard, non-volatile memory products. While the development of this class of products is still embryonic, the forecasted market potential is rapidly out distancing the combined developmental effort. Historically the greatest use of bulk ferroelectric material has been in sensor technology, utilizing the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the material. By comparison, a relatively small development effort has been reported for ferroelectric thin film senor technology, a field sure to provide exciting advances in the future. The papers in this proceedings volume were presented at the first symposium dedicated to the field of ferroelectric thin films held by the Materials Research Society at the Spring 1990 Meeting in San Francisco, CA, April 16-20, 1990. The symposium was designed to provide a comprehensive tutorial covering the newest advances of ferroelectric thin films, including material systems, new deposition techniques and physical, electrical and electro-optic characterization.

Myers, E.R. (National Semiconductor Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)); Kingon, A.I. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States))

1990-01-01

255

Directional dependence in film dosimetry: radiographic and radiochromic film.  

PubMed

The trend towards conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments has established the need for a true integrating dosimeter. In traditional radiotherapy, radiographic film dosimetry is commonly used. The accuracy and reproducibility of film optical density as an indicator of dose is influenced by several variables, including the chemical processing conditions. As a result radiochromic film, with all the advantages of radiographic film but without the need for chemical processing, has increased in popularity, although the low-dose sensitivity of radiochromic film does remain a disadvantage for some experiments. Several studies have investigated the reproducibility of radiochromic film results, but none have specifically addressed the well-known directional dependence seen with traditional radiographic film. In this study, the directional dependence of radiographic (Kodak X-omat V) and radiochromic (Gafchromic) films were measured. It was found that both films over responded when exposed parallel to the central axis of the beam as opposed to perpendicular exposure. An attempt is made to explain the reason for the responses of both films in terms of spectral effects and the air gap between the phantom segments. Although radiographic film exposed parallel rather than perpendicular to the central axis of the beam exhibits a measured difference in film response at depth, this over response does not occur when the extent of the film is restricted to a small region at the centre of the phantom (in this case an air gap is not introduced across the phantom). This suggests that it is the air gap rather than the orientation of the film that is the cause of the over response. Furthermore, when film occupies a slice through the entire phantom an over response occurs for both radiographic and radiochromic film, indicating that spectral effects are not the cause. PMID:11384060

Suchowerska, N; Hoban, P; Butson, M; Davison, A; Metcalfe, P

2001-05-01

256

Screen Printed PZT Thick Films Using Composite Film Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spin coating composite sol gel technique for producing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films has been modified for use with screen printing techniques. The resulting screen printing technique can be used to produce 10 ?m thick films in a single print. The resultant films are porous but the density can be increased through the use of repeated sol infiltration\\/pyrolysis

R. A. Dorey; R. W. Whatmore; S. P. Beeby; R. N. Torah; N. M. White

2003-01-01

257

Film Report: Independent Multicultural Films at the Sundance Festival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews independent multicultural films and videos shown at the Sundance Film Festival, January 1997. The festival included a special symposium and reception honoring Native American writers and filmmakers. This article reviews 4 Native American videos and 10 other multicultural films the author was able to see, and it lists other noteworthy…

McDonald, Christine L.

1997-01-01

258

The Nuclear Debate in Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

Dowling, John

1977-01-01

259

Thin film solar cell workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

1993-01-01

260

Science and Science Fiction Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate physics course for nonscience majors which combines physics with science fiction films. Includes course format, sample module on the concept of momentum, and an appendix with a listing of science fiction films used in this course. (DS)

Dubeck, Leroy W.

1981-01-01

261

School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION Fall 2012 Name COURSES (20 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photography 3 _____ *FILM 112 Aesthetics of Film for 12 Credits): Must include 303 or 304, may include any film or photography- related studies courses

Dyer, Bill

262

Thin film temperature sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

1980-01-01

263

Film Literature Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.

264

Public Information Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the time of their creation, public information films created by the British government after World War II may have been seen as overly didactic and pedestrian in their approach to filmmaking. Fifty years on, they are most correctly seen as a fascinating way to gain some insight into this particular moment in British history. The National Archives has created this website which contains several dozen of these public information films that deal with such diverse subjects as public health, a trip on a London bus, and the Berlin airlift. Before delving into the films, visitors may wish to peruse a timeline of pertinent events during the years 1945 to 1951 and also read about the austere conditions around much of the United Kingdom during the period.

265

Thin films and uses  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

266

Photographic film image enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments were undertaken to assess the feasibility of defogging color film by the techniques of optical spatial filtering. A coherent optical processor was built using red, blue, and green laser light input and specially designed Fourier transformation lenses. An array of spatial filters was fabricated on black and white emulsion slides using the coherent optical processor. The technique was first applied to laboratory white light fogged film, and the results were successful. However, when the same technique was applied to some original Apollo X radiation fogged color negatives, the results showed no similar restoration. Examples of each experiment are presented and possible reasons for the lack of restoration in the Apollo films are discussed.

Horner, J. L.

1975-01-01

267

Electroconvection in Sheared Annular Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report experiments on electroconvection in thin suspended films of a smectic A liquid crystal (8CB). These films behave as nearly ideal 2D isotropic fluids. The films were annular with radius ratio (inner\\/outer electrode radius) ~ 0.8. Shears may be applied by rotating the inner electrode. When no shear is applied, the film is unstable to a stationary roll state

Z. A. Daya; S. W. Morris; T. C. A. Molteno; J. R. de Bruyn

1996-01-01

268

NMR characterization of thin films  

DOEpatents

A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

2008-11-25

269

Thin film ceramic thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

2011-01-01

270

Film Analysis through Linguistic Base  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies made in the last few years show that using films in language classrooms is an effective way in teaching a foreign language. Well-chosen films can serve as a valuable pedagogical aid, both for classroom use and self-study. This article is about using films in language classrooms through a specially designed course, whose outline description…

Tanriverdi, Belgin

2007-01-01

271

Film Images of the Negro.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators can help students recognize the value of the motion picture as a social influence by exposing them to film stereotyping and the effect of this distortion on society. A historical study of the film image of the Negro will show him emerging from a humorous, fearful, "perverted" character in early films to "an unfortunate member of society"…

Manchel, Frank

1967-01-01

272

Dream Use in Film Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between film and dream has an extensive theoretical basis in both cognitive science and cinematic literature. Biographical and autobiographical reports from film makers document antidotal descriptions of the use of dream in creative aspects of screen writing, acting and directing film. However, no systematic or analytic approach has been used in the attempt to document dream utilization in

J. F. Pagel; C. Kwiatkowski; K. E. Broyles

1999-01-01

273

Francophone Films in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of francophone films produced in French-speaking areas outside France in the second-language classroom, using several films from African countries and Canada as examples. The idea is that such films give students more than an abstract idea of a francophone region outside France, and represent large views of language…

Rose, Russell G.

274

Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

1993-01-01

275

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

276

Infrared presensitization photography - Film comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of five common 35-mm black and white Kodak films showing their relative sensitivity to the IR presensitization photographic effect. The basis of comparison was the density versus IR energy (DIRE) curve. It was found that fine-grain films are more sensitive than coarse-grain films to the presensitization.

Joseph M. Geary; Ron Sessions; Dennis C. Duneman

1992-01-01

277

Teaching Argumentative Writing through Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how watching and discussing feature films and writing reviews of these films in the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom can be instrumental in teaching the principles of good argumentative writing within the confines of the simple movie review. Six steps for teaching a film review unit are provided. (Author/VWL)

Fluitt-Dupuy, Jan

2001-01-01

278

Nonfiction Film Theory and Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology offers significant writings on the subject of nonfiction film, with emphasis primarily on British and American films and film makers (although the work of Alberto Cavalcanti, Leni Riefenstahl, and Joris Ivens is also represented). The first section of the book offers essays that examine and define the essential nature and idea of…

Barsam, Richard Meran, Ed.

279

Coated Aluminized Film Resists Corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercially available corrosion-protection coating allows less costly metals - aluminum in particular used in heat-reflecting films for thermal barriers. Previously, such films had to incorporate gold as reflective layer to withstand humidity, moisture, and salt spray without corroding. This protective coating prevents corrosion of metalized films during evironmental exposure yet remains flexible, thermally stable and clear.

Rockoff, H. J.

1982-01-01

280

Optical Response of Graded Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graded materials have quite different physical properties from the homogeneous materials. Recently, it has been found that graded thin films may have better dielectric properties than a single-layer film. The materials properties of graded films can vary continuously in space. These materials have attracted much interest in various engineering applications. However, the traditional theories fail to deal with the composites

Joseph T. A. Kwok

2005-01-01

281

Film Studies Degree options  

E-print Network

communication, critical thinking, media literacy, and other transferable skills. * We consistently maintain high@st-andrews.ac.uk International Relations ItalianW Modern History Philosophy Psychology RussianW Scottish History Social with the demands of today's job market, where film and media literacy is of direct relevance to a variety

Brierley, Andrew

282

Thick film ink chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six thick film inks from two vendors were proved for hybrid microcircuit production use. A data base of chemical information was established for all the inks to aid in future diagnostic and failure analysis activities. Efforts included both organic chemical analysis of printing vehicles and binders and inorganic chemical analysis of glass frits and electrically active phases. Analytical methods included

R. W. Gehman

1982-01-01

283

Film, Radio, and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958 are…

Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

1990-01-01

284

Films on Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This filmography on deafness, which contains summaries of 192 16mm films arranged in alphabetical order by title, covers a wide variety of topics as evidenced by the categorical title index: communication, the nature of deafness, detection and measurement of deafness, education and training, multi-handicaps, and noise pollution. Running time, date…

Parlato, Salvatore J., Jr., Comp.

285

Intercultural Training with Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Films are a great medium to use not only to practice English, but also to facilitate intercultural learning. Today English is a global language spoken by people from many countries and cultural backgrounds. Since culture greatly impacts communication, it is helpful for teachers to introduce lessons and activities that reveal how different…

Roell, Christine

2010-01-01

286

Soap Films and Bubbles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops and explains a format for a workshop which focuses on soap films and bubbles. The plan consists of: a discussion to uncover what children know about bubbles; explanations of the demonstration equipment; the presentation itself; the assembly of the workshop kit; and time to play with the bubbles. (ML)

Rice, Karen

1986-01-01

287

A Film Canister Colorimeter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this instrument…

Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

2002-01-01

288

Diamond films: Historical perspective  

SciTech Connect

This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

1993-01-01

289

Electrochromic thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochromic material has the property of changing color when voltage is applied across it. It is possible electronically to alter a window's transmission and reflection properties by use of electrochromic thin films. This allows regulation of conductive and radiative heat transfer rates, with variable optical attenuation in the visible and infrared part of the solar radiation. Suitable materials for

C. Nyman; U. Gullenberg; M. Leppihalme

1987-01-01

290

Thin-film photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe and CuIn1-xGaxSe2-ySy (CIGSS) are ideal candidates for thin-film solar cells. Present photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies of champion thin-film solar cells are: CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) 19.5%, CdTe 16.5%, and a-Si:H 12.4%. Thin-film PV modules could spearhead production growth of photovoltaics in the United States because of their added production capacity. For this purpose, module efficiencies must be improved to the 13%-15% range. Obtaining Ohmic contacts is difficult, especially for CdTe, because of the inherently low p-type doping level. Therefore, increasing the p-type doping level is important. Growth of CIGSS film must be controlled carefully as it transitions from Cu-rich to In-rich composition. Other issues for CIGSS cells are minimizing indium consumption, and increasing process throughput of selenization/sulfurization and transparent conducting oxide deposition. Development of all-dry processing for CdS deposition would be beneficial for both cells. This paper discusses basic devices and related issues.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Dhere, Ramesh G.

2005-07-01

291

Exploring Materials: Thin Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a colorful bookmark using a super thin layer of nail polish on water. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a materials' properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

292

Introduction to Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

Burns, Gary

293

Films in Depth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bound in a slipcover rather than in signatures, this "book" is made up of thirteen separately bound booklets. The first booklet is an introduction to the use of film in the classroom both in teaching the filmic art and in increasing the visual literacy of students on the high school and early college levels. The twelve other booklets each treat a…

Schrievogel, Paul A.; Prete, Anthony T.

294

Contributions of Film Introductions and Film Summaries to Learning from Instructional Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study of the contribution to learning of typical introductory and summarizing sequences in instructional films underlined the need for further experimental work to determine what kinds of introductory and concluding sequences are most useful in promoting learning from films. The first part of the study was concerned with film

Lathrop, C. W., Jr.; Norford, C. A.

295

Process to form mesostructured films  

DOEpatents

This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN); Ganguli, Rahul (Camarillo, CA); Lu, Yunfeng (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

296

Thin-film optical initiator  

DOEpatents

A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

297

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

1986-12-30

298

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

Smith, Henry I. (Sudbury, MA); Atwater, Harry A. (Somerville, MA); Thompson, Carl V. (Watertown, MA); Geis, Michael W. (Acton, MA)

1986-12-30

299

Borosilicate films as permeability barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borosilicate films have been deposited using rf-sputtering techniques from a composite target at room temperature onto polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene(HDPE), low density polyethylene(LDPE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) substrates. Films were found to be smooth, flexible, with excellent adhesion to the substrates. Repeated rolling the coated substrates on a radius of 0.5mm resulted in no discernable damage for films less than 200nm in thickness. Creasing the substrates did result in local damage. However excellent adhesion did not allow the fractured glass to come off the substrate. Heat generated during deposition only influenced the films grown on LDPE where the thermal expansion mismatch between the film and substrate induced strains caused fractures in thick films. Modifications to processing parameters allowed thick films to be grown without fractures. Permeability measurements of nitrogen resulted in significant improvements in comparison to uncoated substrates.

Applegate, J. R.; Steinmetz, C. E.; Hettinger, J. D.; Carroll, J. F.; Krchnavek, R.

2009-03-01

300

Combustion effects on film cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of: (1) a reactive environment on film cooling effectiveness, and (2) film cooling on rocket engine performance were determined experimentally in a rocket thrust chamber assembly operating with hydrogen and oxygen propellants at 300 psi chamber pressure. Tests were conducted using hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen film coolants in an instrumented, thin walled, steel thrust chamber. The film cooling, performance loss, and heat transfer coefficient data were correlated with the ALRC entrainment film cooling model which relates film coolant effectiveness and mixture ratio at the wall to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. In addition, a comprehensive thermal analysis computer program, HOCOOL, was prepared from previously existing ALRC computer programs and analytical techniques.

Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

1977-01-01

301

Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings  

DOEpatents

A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

1995-12-26

302

Epitaxial gadolinium nitride thin films  

SciTech Connect

GdN thin films are deposited on MgO(100) by low-energy ion-beam-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy at elevated temperatures. Elemental analysis by secondary-ion mass spectrometry proves that a protective layer is imperative to avoid oxidation of the GdN films in air. In situ surface structural investigation of the growing GdN films by reflection high-energy electron diffraction reveals epitaxial film growth. This result is confirmed by x-ray diffraction structure and texture analysis. Accordingly, the GdN films on MgO(100) exhibit cube-on-cube epitaxy. Due to the epitaxial growth the crystalline quality of the films is by far higher than that of films previously reported of in literature.

Gerlach, J. W.; Mennig, J.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2007-02-05

303

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

304

Thin film mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This doctoral thesis details the methods of determining mechanical properties of two classes of novel thin films suspended two-dimensional crystals and electron beam irradiated microfilms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Thin films are used in a variety of surface coatings to alter the opto-electronic properties or increase the wear or corrosion resistance and are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical system fabrication. One of the challenges in fabricating thin films is the introduction of strains which can arise due to application techniques, geometrical conformation, or other spurious conditions. Chapters 2-4 focus on two dimensional materials. This is the intrinsic limit of thin films-being constrained to one atomic or molecular unit of thickness. These materials have mechanical, electrical, and optical properties ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems with truly novel device functionality. As such, the breadth of applications that can benefit from a treatise on two dimensional film mechanics is reason enough for exploration. This study explores the anomylously high strength of two dimensional materials. Furthermore, this work also aims to bridge four main gaps in the understanding of material science: bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and finite element analysis, bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and experimental results, nanoscale to microscale, and microscale to mesoscale. A nonlinear elasticity model is used to determine the necessary elastic constants to define the strain-energy density function for finite strain. Then, ab initio calculations-density functional theory-is used to calculate the nonlinear elastic response. Chapter 2 focuses on validating this methodology with atomic force microscope nanoindentation on molybdenum disulfide. Chapter 3 explores the convergence criteria of three density functional theory solvers to further verify the numerical calculations. Chapter 4 then uses this model to investigate the role of grain boundaries on the strength of chemical vapor deposited graphene. The results from these studies suggest that two dimensional films have remarkably high strength-reaching the intrinsic limit of molecular bonds. Chapter 5 explores the viscoelastic properties of heterogeneous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfilms through dynamic nanoindentation. PDMS microfilms are irradiated with an electron beam creating a 3 m-thick film with an increased cross-link density. The change in mechanical properties of PDMS due to thermal history and accelerator have been explored by a variety of tests, but the effect of electron beam irradiation is still unknown. The resulting structure is a stiff microfilm embedded in a soft rubber with some transformational strain induced by the cross-linking volume changes. Chapter 5 employs a combination of dynamic nanoindentation and finite element analysis to determine the change in stiffness as a function of electron beam irradiation. The experimental results are compared to the literature. The results of these experimental and numerical techniques provide exciting opportu- nities in future research. Two dimensional materials and flexible thin films are exciting materials for novel applications with new form factors, such as flexible electronics and microfluidic devices. The results herein indicate that you can accurately model the strength of two dimsensional materials and that these materials are robust against nanoscale defects. The results also reveal local variation of mechanical properties in PDMS microfilms. This allows one to design substrates that flex with varying amounts of strain on the surface. Combining the mechanics of two dimensional materials with that of a locally irradiated PDMS film could achieve a new class of flexible microelectromechanical systems. Large-scale growth of two dimensional materials will be structurally robust-even in the presence of nanostructural defects-and PDMS microfilms can be irradiated to vary strain of the electromechanical systems. These systems could be designed to investigate e

Cooper, Ryan C.

305

thin films as absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic structures were prepared using AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 as absorber and CdS as window layer at various conditions via a hybrid technique of chemical bath deposition and thermal evaporation followed by heat treatments. Silver antimony sulfo selenide thin films [AgSb(S x Se1- x )2] were prepared by heating multilayers of sequentially deposited Sb2S3/Ag dipped in Na2SeSO3 solution, glass/Sb2S3/Ag/Se. For this, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then, Ag thin films were thermally evaporated on glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of dipping was varied as 3, 4 and 5 h. Two different heat treatments, one at 350 °C for 20 min in vacuum followed by a post-heat treatment at 325 °C for 2 h in Ar, and the other at 350 °C for 1 h in Ar, were applied to the multilayers of different configurations. X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 thin films as the primary phase and AgSb(S,Se)2 and Sb2S3 as secondary phases. Morphology and elemental detection were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed the depthwise composition of the films. Optical properties were determined by UV-vis-IR transmittance and reflection spectral analysis. AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 formed at different conditions was incorporated in PV structures glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(S x Se1- x )2/C/Ag. Chemically deposited post-annealed CdS thin films of various thicknesses were used as window layer. J- V characteristics of the cells were measured under dark and AM1.5 illumination. Analysis of the J- V characteristics resulted in the best solar cell parameters of V oc = 520 mV, J sc = 9.70 mA cm-2, FF = 0.50 and ? = 2.7 %.

González, J. O.; Shaji, S.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Krishnan, B.

2014-09-01

306

PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive  

E-print Network

PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Film Dept. are sponsoring the Third Annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las Vegas, Nevada

Hemmers, Oliver

307

{116} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays: facile synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performances.  

PubMed

Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11[combining macron]0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field. PMID:25247926

Li, Feng; Li, Xiaoning; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Yang, Shangfeng; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

2014-10-01

308

One-step synthesis of titanium oxide with trilayer structure for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium oxide films with trilayer structure grown on fluorine doped tin oxide substrate were prepared from one-step hydrothermal process. The trilayer structure consists of microflowers, nanorod array and compact nanoparticulates, which is expected to possess the merits of good light harvesting, a high electron transport rate, while avoiding the issues of electron shunting. The photovoltaic performance was comprehensively studied and a 60% enhancement in short circuit photocurrent density was found from microflowers contribution as a light scattering layer. This unique trilayer structure exhibits great potential application in future dye-sensitized solar cells.

Liu, Meinan; Wang, Hongxia; Yan, Cheng; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John

2011-03-01

309

Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles by solution based solid state reaction process and its application in dye sensitized solar cell as counter electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were synthesized by using solution based solid state reaction process and films were coated on FTO (Fluorine doped tin oxide) substrate using doctor blade technique. Phase identification, crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated with CZTS as counter electrode showed photo conversion efficiency 2.57 % compared to Pt based counter electrode 3.17 % efficiency. The charge transport at CZTS/ electrolyte interface was studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu

2014-04-01

310

Mechanisms of polymeric film formation.  

PubMed

Polymeric films are applied to solid dosage forms for decorative, protective, and functional purposes. These films are generally applied by a spray atomization process, where the polymer is sprayed onto the solid substrate. The mechanism by which films are formed is dependent on whether the polymer is in the dissolved or dispersed state. For solutions, film formation occurs as the solvent evaporates, since the polymer chains are intimately mixed. Film formation from polymeric dispersions, however, requires the coalescence of individual polymer spheres and interpenetration of the polymer chains. Films prepared from polymeric dispersions exhibit a minimum film forming temperature and processing conditions must exceed this temperature in order to form the film. In addition, these systems generally require post-coating storage in temperature and humidity controlled environments to ensure complete polymer coalescence. Incomplete coalescence can lead to significant changes in drug release over time. This review article highlights the basic science principles involved in film formation from both polymeric solutions and dispersions and the variables that influence these film formation processes. PMID:23305867

Felton, Linda A

2013-12-01

311

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01

312

Advanced thin film thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

1984-01-01

313

UCLA Film & Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) joined forces with the UCLA Theater Arts Department to create the ATAS/UCLA Television Library. 11 years later, the UCLA Film & Television Archive was formally established, and donations began arriving from Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and other major motion picture studios. On the ATAS website, visitors can learn about upcoming screenings and lectures, along with more about the prodigious collections. The Collections area is a great place to start investigating opportunities to borrow prints, donate materials, and license media. The online exhibitions are a pip, and visitors should not miss the UCLA Preserved Silent Animation area. Here they can watch eleven different remarkable (and very rare) films, including "The Enchanted Drawing" and "Bob's Electric Theatre." Finally, visitors can connect with the Archive via a range of social media, including Twitter and YouTube.

2012-05-11

314

American Film Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a dazzling demonstration that technological history can repeat itself, the American Film Institute has begun to make full length films available at its web site. The first showing is of Charles Chaplin's The Rink, made in 1916. VDO live video and audio streaming technology (discussed in the April 12, 1996 Scout Report) is used to play the movie. It is viewed most clearly in a small window of your monitor, and performance is affected by such variables as network congestion and the speed of your connection. But it is a movie, just as early kinetoscope offerings were also "movies." Perhaps in three or four years this technology will mature, and we will really be able to watch movies over the net. Still, what AFI is doing is historic and a valuable experiment that should be recognized as such. The site also contains background information on Chaplin, as well as selected links to other Chaplin sites.

1997-01-01

315

Here to stay: Film study and the film books scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ARNO PRESS CINEMA LIBRARY. (Film Books Series.) New York: Arno Press, 1970–1973.THE WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE FILM. Edited by Tim Cawkwell and John M. Smith. New York: World Publishing, 1972; pp. 444. $25.00.THE HISTORY OF WORLD CINEMA. By David Robinson. New York: Stein and Day, 1973; pp. 440. $12.50.HORROR AND SCIENCE FICTION FILMS: A CHECKLIST. By Donald C. Willis.

Harry M. Geduld

1973-01-01

316

Thin Hot-Film Sensors On Polyimide Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Array of closely spaced hot-film sensors with thickness well below critical reference height with regard to air-flow pattern nonintrusively detect laminar boundary-layer transitions with very high resolution. Method developed at NASA Langley Research Center to fabricate such sensors on polyimide films to detect boundary-layer transitions with resolution as high as 0.050 in. These films formed by combination of vacuum deposition and photolithography.

Hopson, Purnell

1993-01-01

317

Nonlinear optical thin films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film-forming material in a working device is a complex, multifaceted endeavor. It requires close attention to maintaining the optical properties of the electro-optic active portion of the polymer while manipulating the polymer structure to obtain the desired secondary polymer properties.

Leslie, Thomas M.

1993-01-01

318

Gold thick film conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional thick film conductors rely for their adhesion on the formation of a glassy layer which keys them both chemically\\u000a and mechanically to the substrate surface. A newer type of conductor contains no glass frit but is reactively-bonded to the\\u000a substrate, resulting in different properties which may be advantageous for certain applications. This article is based upon\\u000a a contribution presented

M. V. Coleman; G. E. Gurnett

1977-01-01

319

Thin film composite electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

2007-08-14

320

[Therapy through film].  

PubMed

For psychiatric patients, playing the role of their life, producing a film, editing it and presenting it to the public with the support of a group made up of patients and caregivers is a real form of self-distancing, a type of therapy. The video group from the Saint Ouen day hospital has been carrying out this creative and therapeutic work for several years. Screenings and exchanges between care centres are regularly organised. PMID:23289249

Nicli, Pierrette

2012-01-01

321

How Reviews Affect Film Interest and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of published film reviews on viewers' interest in and evaluation of the reviewed film. In the film interest experiment, 89 undergraduate students were randomly assigned positive, mixed, or negative reviews of a British film. The control group received a review of a different film. Subjects were asked to read the…

Wyatt, Robert O.; Badger, David P.

322

High performance TAC film for LCDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tri-acetyl cellulose (TAC) films are widely used as a protective film for polarizers because it has high light transmittance, low birefringence, high moisture permeability, high uniformity and good curling property. This paper describes TAC film technologies, especially about the birefringence control of TAC film. Making use of the controlled birefringence, the TAC film comes to take an active role in

Hiroyuki Mori

2006-01-01

323

Short Films for Physics Teaching, A Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated film catalog is a product of the Conference on Single Concept Films in College Physics Teaching sponsored by the Commission on College Physics. Both 8mm and 16mm single concept films are listed for physics and related disciplines. The catalog includes commercial, noncommercial, and foreign films. However, the film coverage was…

Bluestone, Barbara Z.; Roth, Richard F.

324

OFFICIAL POLICY 3.8.1 Photography and Filming: Filming on Campus 07/01/09  

E-print Network

for commercial film, documentaries, TV or photography must review campus film guidelines and must sign a written for commercial film, documentaries, TV or photography must review campus film guidelines and must sign a writtenOFFICIAL POLICY 3.8.1 Photography and Filming: Filming on Campus 07/01/09 Policy Statement Any

Kasman, Alex

325

Tear film stability: a review.  

PubMed

Tear film stability can be assessed via a number of tools designed for clinical as well as research purposes. These techniques can give us insights into the tear film, and allow assessment of conditions that can lead to dry eye symptoms, and in severe cases, to significant ocular surface damage and deterioration of vision. Understanding what drives tear film instability and its assessment is also crucial for evaluating existing and new therapies. This review examines various techniques that are used to assess tear film instability: evaluation of tear break-up time and non-invasive break-time; topographic and interferometric techniques; confocal microscopic methods; aberrometry; and visual function tests. It also describes possible contributions of different tear film components; namely meibomian lipids, ocular mucins and proteins, and factors such as age, contact lens wear, ocular surgery and environmental stimuli, that may influence tear film instability. PMID:23973716

Sweeney, Deborah F; Millar, Thomas J; Raju, Shiwani R

2013-12-01

326

films using atomic layer deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated self-assembled silver nanoisland films using a recently developed technique based on out-diffusion of silver from an ion-exchanged glass substrate in reducing atmosphere. We demonstrate that the position of the surface plasmon resonance of the films depends on the conditions of the film growth. The resonance can be gradually shifted up to 100 nm towards longer wavelengths by using atomic layer deposition of titania, from 3 to 100 nm in thickness, upon the film. Examination of the nanoisland films in surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry showed that, in spite of a drop of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal after the titania spacer deposition, the Raman signal can be observed with spacers up to 7 nm in thickness. Denser nanoisland films show slower decay of the SERS signal with the increase in spacer thickness.

Chervinskii, Semen; Matikainen, Antti; Dergachev, Alexey; Lipovskii, Andrey A.; Honkanen, Seppo

2014-08-01

327

Borosilicate films as permeability barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borosilicate films have been deposited using rf-sputtering techniques from a composite target at room temperature onto polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene(HDPE), low density polyethylene(LDPE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) substrates. Films were found to be smooth, flexible, with excellent adhesion to the substrates. Repeated rolling the coated substrates on a radius of 0.5mm resulted in no discernable damage for films less

J. R. Applegate; C. E. Steinmetz; J. D. Hettinger; J. F. Carroll; R. Krchnavek

2009-01-01

328

Diamond films for laser hardening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser-damage experiments were performed on free-standing polycrystalline diamond films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD. The high laser-induced stress resistance found for this material makes it useful for thin-film coatings for laser optics. Results for diamond-coated silicon substrates demonstrate the enhanced damage threshold imparted by diamond thin-film coatings to materials susceptible to laser damage.

Albin, S.; Watkins, L.; Ravi, K.; Yokota, S.

1989-01-01

329

Drying of thin colloidal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

Routh, Alexander F.

2013-04-01

330

Process to form mesostructured films  

DOEpatents

This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

1999-01-12

331

Faculty of Arts Film & Television  

E-print Network

); representation and identity, and issues of gender; British television history; experimental film; documentary education, journalism, exhibition and marketing, and public relations. We also have an outstanding record

Davies, Christopher

332

Modified thin film processing sequence  

SciTech Connect

A modified thin film processing sequence in which tantalum nitride (TA/sub 2/N) resistors are stabilized prior to chromium/gold (Cr/Au) evaporation was investigated, and the effects of subsequent processing on unstabilized Cr/Au films were determined. Thin films evaporated using the modified process yielded results similar to those of films evaporated using the standard processing techniques. Work on the modified process was discontinued because of some metallization adhesion failures at the Cr/Au-to-Ta/sub 2/N interface, higher contact resistance, and the additional steps required in processing.

Baxter, C.R.

1980-06-01

333

Templated dewetting of thin solid films  

E-print Network

The dewetting of solid metal polycrystalline films to form metal nanoparticles occurs by the nucleation and growth of holes in the film. For typical films on flat substrates, this process is not well-controlled and results ...

Giermann, Amanda L. (Amanda Leah)

2009-01-01

334

Reflections on using film in fieldwork  

E-print Network

the villagers Using film in teaching; the idea of surrogate fieldwork or 'virtual reality day' Making films about how anthropologists actually do fieldwork Dilmaya's death and memorial ritual in 1995; a watershed in the filming Interviews wih Dilmaya; the value...

Macfarlane, Alan

2003-12-19

335

Drop dynamics on a thin film: Thin film rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spreading of a water drop on an oil film that covers a solid substrate is a common event in many industrial processes. We study in experiments the dynamics of a water drop on a thin silicone oil film and quantify its interaction with the solid substrate that supports the film. The oil film becomes unstable and ruptures for solids that are hydrophilic. We determine the ``waiting time,'' the time it takes the water drop to drain the silicone film. This timescale is found to highly depend on how well water wets the solid, illustrating the interplay between intermolecular and hydrodynamic forces in the phenomenon. A phase diagram for the thin film stability is extracted based on waters equilibrium contact angle on the solid, which shows that we can either promote or inhibit de-wetting. As water comes in direct contact with the solid, it spreads and peels off the silicone film. We show the influence of viscosity, equilibrium contact angle and film height on the opening radius of the hole formed as the solid de-wets.

Carlson, Andreas; Kim, Pilnam; Stone, Howard A.

2011-11-01

336

"Kuleshov on Film": A Spectator-Centered Film Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some of the theories of cinematography of Soviet film theorist and filmmaker Lev Kuleshov. It points out that for him, film was communication portraying people's activities emanating from the environment. It explains that he was especially interested in audience response, particularly that of the proletariat, and that he felt…

Curran, Trisha

337

La Raza in Films: A List of Films and Filmstrips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A listing of over 200 films and filmstrips concerning the Spanish-speaking people in the United States is given in this publication. This list includes films and filmstrips on the pre-Columbian civilizations of the American continents, the Spanish conquest and domination, modern Latin America (excluding Brazil), Spanish-speaking minorities in the…

Baird, Cynthia, Comp.

338

The Environment Film Review. A Critical Guide to Ecology Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical reviews of more than 600 environmental films selected from a field of several thousand are contained in this reference guide. Designed to provide a comprehensive selection of films covering all aspects of environmental affairs, from air pollution to wildlife, the guide is primarily user-oriented. It consists of two parts: a Review…

Environment Information Center, New York, NY.

339

Film Music: Implications for Instructional Films and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a critical review of the behavioral research on film music, indicates that there is a visual bias in media attribute research which needs to be balanced, and provides media producers and instructional developers with a theoretical basis and practical guidelines for using music in audiovisual presentations. The question of film

Hlynka, D.

340

National Film Preservation Foundation: The Film Preservation Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt many organizations and institutions have a canister of 16MM film lying around someplace and some diligent member of their organization might ask: "How can we preserve this item?" A very astute question, and this helpful guide from the National Film Preservation Foundation provides substantial guidance and assistance. The 121-page guide describes methods for handling, duplicating, making available, and storing film, which are practical for nonprofit and public organizations with limited resources. Visitors to this site can download all of the sections in this report, which include chapters like "Legal Context for Film Preservation" and "Understanding Film and How it Decays". The report also includes case studies, illustrations, charts, glossary, and a bibliography.

341

Antibacterial Biomimetic Hybrid Films  

PubMed Central

In this work, we present a novel method to prepare a hybrid coating based on dextran grafted to a substrate and embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). First, the Ag NPs are synthesized in situ in the presence of oxidized dextran in solution. Second, the oxidized dextran is exposed to an amine functionalized surface resulting in the simultaneous grafting of dextran and the trapping of Ag NPs within the layer. The NP loading is controlled by the concentration of silver nitrate, which is 2 mM (DEX-Ag2) and 5 mM (DEX-Ag5). The dried film thickness increases with silver nitrate concentration from 2 nm for dextran to 7 nm and 12 nm for DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, respectively. The grafted dextran film displays features with a diameter and height of ~ 50 nm and 2 nm, respectively. For the DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, the dextran features as well as individual Ag NPs (~ 5 nm) and aggregates of Ag NPs are observed. Larger and more irregular aggregates are observed for DEX-Ag5. Overall, the Ag NPs are embedded in the dextran film as suggested by AFM and UVO studies. In terms of its antimicrobial activity, DEX-Ag2 resists bacterial adhesion to a greater extent than DEX-Ag5, which in turn is better than dextran and silicon. Because these antibacterial hybrid coatings can be grafted to a variety of surfaces, many biomedical applications can be envisioned, ranging from coating implants to catheters. PMID:23807896

Ferrer, M. Carme Coll; Hickok, Noreen J.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

2012-01-01

342

Protective Film Moves Aside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

343

Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.  

PubMed

We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

Olney, Andrew McGregor

2012-01-01

344

Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film  

SciTech Connect

A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-03-30

345

Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals  

PubMed Central

We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

Olney, Andrew McGregor

2013-01-01

346

Liquid film demonstration experiment Skylab SL-4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid film demonstration experiment performed on Skylab 4 by Astronaut Gerald Carr, which involved the construction of water and soap films by boundary expansion and inertia, is discussed. Results include a 1-ml globule of water expanded into a 7-cm-diameter film as well as complex film structures produced by inertia whose lifetimes are longer in the low-g environment. Also discussed are 1-g acceleration experiments in which the unprovoked rupture of films was photographed and film lifetimes of stationary and rotated soap films were compared. Finally, there is a mathematical discussion regarding minimal surfaces, an isoperimetric problem, and liquid films.

Darbro, W.

1975-01-01

347

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

348

Sputtered thin film research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactive RF sputtering technique was applied to the preparation of a wide variety of materials. Single crystal films of ZnO, TiO2, WO3 AlN and GaN were grown on one or more of the insulating crystalline substrates of Al2O3, MgAl2O3, SiC and LiNbO3. Data on the deposition parameters, structure and optical waveguiding characteristics of the heteroepitaxial structures are presented. Reactive

A. J. Shuskus; D. J. Quinn; E. L. Paradis; J. M. Berak; D. E. Cullen

1974-01-01

349

Science Books and Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Books and Films bills itself as "the authoritative guide to science resources, bringing you the expert information you need to make the best decisions when choosing science materials for your library, classroom, or institution." The subscriber section of the site allows access to more than 9,000 science reviews that can be shaped into personalized bibliographies by subject area, grade level, and author. For non-subscribers, articles from past years are offered, including the Best Books for Children, Best Books for Junior High and High School Readers, and Best Videos and Software.

350

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, L.

1988-04-27

351

Strictly Bollywood? : story, camera and movement in Hindi film dance  

E-print Network

Film dances, or filmed dance sequences accompanying film songs, are an important part of popular Indian cinema. Over the years, Hindi film dance has evolved from a cinematically simplistic, filmed documentation of performance ...

Shresthova, Sangita.

2003-01-01

352

Film Option Curriculum 2012 -2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed under different headings, including  

E-print Network

Film Option Curriculum 2012 - 2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed; typically taken in freshman year) FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography 3 FILM 106IA ­ Film in America 3 FILM 112 ­ Aesthetics of Film Production I 3 PHOT 113RA ­ Understanding Photography 3 WRIT 101W

Dyer, Bill

353

Automatic marker for photographic film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercially-produced wire-marking machine is modified to title or mark film rolls automatically. Machine is used with film drive mechanism which is powered with variable-speed, 28-volt dc motor. Up to 40 frames per minute can be marked, reducing time and cost of process.

Gabbard, N. M.; Surrency, W. M.

1974-01-01

354

Transport properties of bismuth films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass-coated bismuth films were deposited onto a glass substrate at room temperature and their Hall coefficients and electrical resistivities were measured between 77 and 300°K. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the films prepared in this way were more polycrystalline than those deposited onto a heated mica substrate. Interesting features were found in the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient: the

Masasi Inoue; Yukio Tamaki; Hisao Yagi

1974-01-01

355

Thermoplastic film prevents proppant flowback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic film added to proppants is effective and economical for preventing proppant flowback after an hydraulic fracturing treatment. Most other methods, such as resin-coated proppant and fiber, for controlling proppant flowback have drawbacks that added to treatment costs by requiring long downtime, costly additives, or frequent equipment replacement. Thermoplastic film does not react chemically with fracturing fluids. After the proppant

P. D. Nguyen; J. D. Weaver; M. A. Parker; D. G. King

1996-01-01

356

Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

1994-01-01

357

Thin films in energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of thin plastic films as structural materials is discussed. The employment of air supported structure greenhouses utilizing very low cost highly transparent plastic film with a good life potential makes it possible to raise tomatoes in Ohio at costs which are much lower than those incurred in connection with the use of glass greenhouses. Attention is

R. S. Ross

1976-01-01

358

Internet Archive: Cultural & Academic Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Archive bills itself as "universal access to all knowledge," and lives up to this promise by hosting dozens of thematic collections. This collection, covering Cultural & Academic Films, includes materials from the Academic Film Archive and the Media Burn Independent Film Archive, as well as documentaries by noted filmmaker Dorothy Fadiman. Also, the collection includes works from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology by Watson Kintner, who used film to document his travels around the globe. One amazing highlight here is the Buckminster Fuller Archive, a subcollection within this larger group. It features 42 hours of lectures delivered by this futurist, architect, and thinker, delivered during the last two weeks of January, 1975. The other subcollections here include the Chicago Film Archives, California Light and Sound, and the Global Lives Project. The Chicago Film Archives includes 39 films that explore everything from the Chicago World's Fair to the film "Cause Without A Rebel" about political apathy at Northwestern University in the 1960s. [KMG

359

Film Study: A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide describes six popular approaches to the study of the cinema and provides a practical analysis of selected books, materials, and information about motion picture rentals. Highlighting this extensive survey of film studies are the annotated, critical bibliographies and filmographies of significant books, articles and films by and…

Manchel, Frank

360

Bibliography of Cinderella Stories & Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography considers diverse versions of Cinderella, including books for all ages and reading abilities and film versions. The bibliography is organized into four categories: picture books, books for youths, books for adults with a Cinderella theme, and Cinderella films. Noting that Cinderella is one of the few stories with many…

Rodriguez-Price, Marisol

361

System for measuring film thickness  

DOEpatents

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

362

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOEpatents

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

363

Lithographic film circuits – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductive lithographic films (CLF) are an emerging fabrication process for electronic interconnect and a range of passive component structures. This paper reviews the manufacture, properties and applications of CLF conductors, and discusses other lithographically deposited electronic materials including resistive, dielectric and ferrite films. Recent developments in CLF technology, including multilayer structures and concurrent printing of interconnect with printed passive components,

P. S. A. Evans; P. M. Harrey; B. J. Ramsey; D. J. Harrison

2001-01-01

364

Uses for Free Film Cans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

1973-01-01

365

Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

Gruber, C. L.

1977-01-01

366

Laser refractometry of edible films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refraction index of edible films from polysaccharides (pectin, xanthan, carboxy-methyl-cellulose, polymixan) has been investigated using laser microrefractomeeter, constructed by the authors. Experimental data about the optical density and the thickness of the edible films have been obtained. The results from the investigation can be used in the development of new packing technologies for food products.

Panchev, I.; Nikolova, K.; Sainov, Simeon C.

2004-06-01

367

Thin film corrosion. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

Raut, M.K.

1980-06-01

368

Film Fabrication Technologies at NREL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has extensive capabilities for fabricating a variety of high-technology films. Much of the in-house work in NREL's large photovoltaics (PV) program involves the fabrication of multiple thin-film semiconducting layers constituting a thin-film PV device. NREL's smaller program in superconductivity focuses on the fabrication of superconducting films on long, flexible tape substrates. This paper focuses on four of NREL's in-house research groups and their film fabrication techniques, developed for a variety of elements, alloys, and compounds to be deposited on a variety of substrates. As is the case for many national laboratories, NREL's technology transfer efforts are focusing on Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA's) between NREL researchers and private industry researchers.

Mcconnell, Robert D.

1993-01-01

369

Sub-micrometer-sized graphite as a conducting and catalytic counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Sub-micrometer-sized colloidal graphite (CG) was tested as a conducting electrode to replace transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes and as a catalytic material to replace platinum (Pt) for I(3)(-) reduction in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). CG paste was used to make a film via the doctor-blade process. The 9 ?m thick CG film showed a lower resistivity (7 ?/?) than the widely used fluorine-doped tin oxide TCO (8-15 ?/?). The catalytic activity of this graphite film was measured and compared with the corresponding properties of Pt. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies clearly showed a decrease in the charge transfer resistance with the increase in the thickness of the graphite layer from 3 to 9 ?m. Under 1 sun illumination (100 mW cm(-2), AM 1.5), DSSCs with submicrometer-sized graphite as a catalyst on fluorine-doped tin oxide TCO showed an energy conversion efficiency greater than 6.0%, comparable to the conversion efficiency of Pt. DSSCs with a graphite counter electrode (CE) on TCO-free bare glass showed an energy conversion efficiency greater than 5.0%, which demonstrated that the graphite layer could be used both as a conducting layer and as a catalytic layer. PMID:21351744

Veerappan, Ganapathy; Bojan, Karunagaran; Rhee, Shi-Woo

2011-03-01

370

The contributions of film introductions and film summaries to learning from instructional films  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 135 films viewed, the introductions were studied and classified as to length, functions and techniques. The three films which appeared to have the best introductory sequences were selected to be shown in complete form, and without their introductions. A rotating three-group program, in which some 500 ninth grade pupils served as subjects, made it possible to compare the scores

C. A. Norford; L. P. Greenhill

1953-01-01

371

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

Hemmers, Oliver

372

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

Hemmers, Oliver

373

Film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Film thickness equations are provided for four fluid-film lubrication regimes found in elliptical contacts. These regimes are isoviscous-rigid; viscous-rigid; elastohydrodynamic lubrication of low-elastic-modulus materials (soft EHL), or isoviscous-elastic; and elastohydrodynamic lubrication of high-elastic-modulus materials (hard EHL), or viscous-elastic. The influence or lack of influence of elastic and viscous effects is the factor that distinguishes these regimes. The results are presented as a map of the lubrication regimes, with film thickness contours on a log-log grid of the viscosity and elasticity for three values of the ellipticity parameter.

Hamrock, B. J.

1980-01-01

374

Calorimetry of epitaxial thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film growth allows for the manipulation of material on the nanoscale, making possible the creation of metastable phases not seen in the bulk. Heat capacity provides a direct way of measuring thermodynamic properties of these new materials, but traditional bulk calorimetric techniques are inappropriate for such a small amount of material. Microcalorimetry and nanocalorimetry techniques exist for the measurements of thin films but rely on an amorphous membrane platform, limiting the types of films which can be measured. In the current work, ion-beam-assisted deposition is used to provide a biaxially oriented MgO template on a suspended membrane microcalorimeter in order to measure the specific heat of epitaxial thin films. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction showed the biaxial order of the MgO template. X-ray diffraction was also used to prove the high quality of epitaxy of a film grown onto this MgO template. The contribution of the MgO layer to the total heat capacity was measured to be just 6.5% of the total addenda contribution. The heat capacity of a Fe.49Rh.51 film grown epitaxially onto the device was measured, comparing favorably to literature data on bulk crystals. This shows the viability of the MgO/SiNx-membrane-based microcalorimeter as a way of measuring the thermodynamic properties of epitaxial thin films.

Cooke, David W.; Hellman, F.; Groves, J. R.; Clemens, B. M.; Moyerman, S.; Fullerton, E. E.

2011-02-01

375

Fast dissolving films: a review.  

PubMed

Fast-dissolving drug delivery systems have been developed as an alternative to conventional dosage form as an oral means of drug delivery in case of chronic conditions. Now a day's fast dissolving films are preferred over conventional tablets and capsules for masking the taste of bitter drugs to increase the patient compliance. Fast dissolving films consist of a very thin oral strip which dissolves in less than one minute when placed on the tongue. Dissolvable oral thin films are in the market since past few years in the form of breath strips and are widely accepted by consumers for delivering vitamins, vaccines and other drug products. The various manufacturing techniques for the preparation of films have also been detailed in the review. The present review details most of the patents on such fast dissolving films in recent years. A brief study has been made on various parameters which are used to evaluate such films. In case of chronic disorders these fast dissolving films are better for delivering drugs and obtaining faster therapeutic blood levels and superior in comparison to other oral conventional dosage forms. PMID:21453260

Chaturvedi, Ankita; Srivastava, Pranati; Yadav, Sunita; Bansal, Mayank; Garg, Garima; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

2011-07-01

376

Wetting film dynamics and stability  

E-print Network

Although the wetting films are similar in many aspects to other thin liquid films, there are some differences in their behavior, too. In contrast to soap and emulsion films, whose surfaces are homogeneous, solid substrates of wetting films are heterogeneous as a rule, unless special measures for their homogenization are taken. Here we mean primarily heterogeneous distribution of surface energy leading to existence of hydrophobic domains on hydrophilic surfaces and vice versa. As is known, such hydrophobic domains could play the role of gas-phase nucleation centers and it is widely accepted nowadays that nano-bubbles can be formed there. The present paper reviews the effect of nano-bubbles adhered at solid surface on stability of wetting films. It is shown that the existence of nano-bubbles is crucial for the lifetime of wetting films. Another peculiarity typical for hydrophobic solid surface, the so-called slippage effect, is also investigated and its contribution to the dispersion equation of capillary waves on wetting films is accounted for.

B. Radoev; K. W. Stoeckelhuber; R. Tsekov; P. Letocart

2011-05-05

377

(Thin films under chemical stress)  

SciTech Connect

As stated above the purpose of this research is to enable workers in a variety of fields to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin films (primarily organic films) are placed under chemical stress. This stress may occur because the film is being swelled by penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). These questions are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers, which might have unique functional properties. In the past year we have concentrated on the following objectives: (1) understanding how the two possible diffusion mechanisms contribute to the swelling of thin films of organic polymers place in solution, (2) identifying systems which are appropriate polymer media for the construction of composite membranes for use in aqueous environments, and (3) understanding the self-assembly process for long chain fatty acids at model surfaces. Progress in meeting each of these objectives will be described in this report. 4 figs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

378

Thin Films Using Al Doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the influence of Al doping on the microstructural, optical, and electrical properties of spray-deposited WO3 thin films. XRD analyses confirm that all the films are of polycrystalline WO3 in nature, possessing monoclinic structure. EDX profiles of the Al-doped films show aluminum peaks implying incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. On Al doping, the average crystallite size decreases due to increase in the density of nucleation centers at the time of film growth. The observed variation in the lattice parameter values on Al doping is attributed to the incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. Enhancement in the direct optical band gap compared to the undoped film has been observed on Al doping due to decrease in the width of allowed energy states near the conduction band edge. The refractive indices of the films follow the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Electrical resistivity compared to the undoped film has been found to increase on Al doping.

Mukherjee, Ramnayan; Prajapati, C. S.; Sahay, P. P.

2014-09-01

379

FILM, VIDEO, AND AMERICAN HISTORY AMST S483 1 (30050) /HISTS187/FILMS247  

E-print Network

FILM, VIDEO, AND AMERICAN HISTORY AMST S483 1 (30050) /HISTS187/FILMS247 Summer Session B (July 8 the representation of American history on film and video through close analysis of American films, from the turn understand film as a document of a historical moment? Readings - All readings will be available as PDFs

380

The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films  

E-print Network

The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films Nanshu Lu-supported copper films with a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture and with thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 1 lm. Films with thicknesses below 200 nm fail by intergranular fracture at elongations of only a few percent. Thicker films

Suo, Zhigang

381

Superconductivity enhancement in screened ultrathin metal films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied superconductivity in thin quench-condensed bismuth films deposited on a 3 nm oxide layer covering a thick aluminium film. It was found that these Bi films have superconducting transition temperatures significantly larger than those of similar films deposited directly on glass. The enhancement of superconductivity is attributed to partial screening of the Coulomb interaction between conduction electrons in

E. G. Astrakharchik; C. J. Adkins

1998-01-01

382

Europa Heute: Filmbegleitheft (Europe Today: Film Manual).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide to the German promotional film "Europe Today", suitable for use in advanced courses, concentrates on linguistic preparation required for full appreciation. The film focuses on the role of European countries as participating members of the Common Market. The manual includes information on the German film industry, a film

Freudenstein, Reinhold; And Others

383

Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic

Joseph W. Tringe; Alexander E. Gash; Barbee Jr. Troy W

2010-01-01

384

Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1994-01-01

385

Film - The versatile X-ray detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of films used for X-ray spectroscopy is presented, noting the historical evolution of the technique. The disadvantages of using film for X-ray spectroscopy are identified as the fact that film does not yield an immediate response and that it has been difficult to relate density to intensity quantitatively. However, it is noted that film offers excellent spatial resolution

L. S. Birks

1977-01-01

386

Subjective sexual arousal to films of masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 male and 102 female undergraduate volunteers. Following the film, Ss responded to 3 measures of subjective sexual arousal and to 7 measures of affective responses. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Males

Donald L. Mosher; Paul R. Abramson

1977-01-01

387

Film Handbook. Communication Manual. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reference material is provided in this book for editors, producers, camera and sound technicians, others working in film, and film students. Each chapter is a self-contained unit about specific aspects of film-making, designed to accompany film courses being offered by the University of the West Indies, the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, and…

Beuthner, Reginald, Comp.; And Others

388

Are Wildlife Films Really "Nature Documentaries"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines origins of wildlife films. Outlines their tension between education and entertainment. Looks at how Disney codified wildlife films as a coherent genre by imposing conventionalized narrative frameworks upon them. Discusses factors influencing wildlife television in the 1990s. Concludes that wildlife films are a valid and distinct film and…

Bouse, Derek

1998-01-01

389

Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

1977-01-01

390

Using Popular Children's Films in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

2012-01-01

391

Multilayer Structure of Dense Anodic Alumina Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependences of the chemical etching of dense anodic alumina films with the simultaneous recording of a steady-state electrode potential and the film thickness are discussed. The film was determined to have up to 6 characteristic layers differing in the thickness and in the chemical dissolution rate. The procedure proposed is an express method to study characteristic layers throughout the oxide film thickness.

Sokol, V.; Yakovtseva, V.; Balucani, M.

2013-05-01

392

Squeeze-Film Damper Controls High Vibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual-clearance (two oil films) squeeze-film damper developed for controlling vibrations in aircraft turbine engines and other rotating machinery. New damper under normal conditions uses only one low-clearance film. Under high imbalance, both films active, controlling shaft vibration in nearoptimum manner and allowing continued operation until safe shutdown made.

Fleming, D. P.

1986-01-01

393

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

1994-11-22

394

Composite Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Composites are one of more versatile types of materials, and can be characterized as multicomponent, or multiphase, mixtures. They can have unique structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties not possible with a simple single component material. One of the best known composite materials is fiberglass, which is composed of glass fibers in a polymer matrix. This family of materials and thin films is highly disordered and inhomogeneous on a microstructural scale. Nanocrystalline and nanoclusters are now actively being investigated. The inhomogeneities can be fibers, clusters of atoms or molecules, grains with different crystalline phases (nanocrystalline clusters), inclusions with different electrical and magnetic properties. Note that the particles can have the same composition as the host material, but will have a different structural geometry. Carbon-carbon composites are a good example, where carbon fibers or threads are incorporated into carbonaceous resin

Martin, Peter M.

2003-02-01

395

Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

2012-01-01

396

Pyrolyzed carbon film diodes.  

PubMed

We have previously reported pyrolyzed parylene C (PPC) as a conductive carbon electrode material for use with micropipets, atomic force microscopy probes, and planar electrodes. Advantages of carbon electrode fabrication from PPC include conformal coating of high-aspect ratio micro/nanoscale features and the benefits afforded by chemical vapor deposition of carbon polymers. In this work, we demonstrate chemical surface doping of PPC through the use of previously reported methods. Chemically treated PPC films are characterized by multiple spectroscopic and electronic measurements. Pyrolyzed parylene C and doped PPC are used to construct diodes that are examined as both p-n heterojunction and Schottky barrier diodes. Half-wave rectification is achieved with PPC diodes and demonstrates the applicability of PPC as a conductive and semiconductive material in device fabrication. PMID:24090451

Morton, Kirstin C; Tokuhisa, Hideo; Baker, Lane A

2013-11-13

397

Film boiling of mercury droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

1975-01-01

398

Film boiling of mercury droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. For these data, diffusion from the upper surface of the drop is a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

1975-01-01

399

Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

2003-07-15

400

The Art of Teaching Social Studies with Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching with film is a powerful and meaningful instructional strategy. This article discusses five classroom-tested methods for teaching with film: (1) film as a visual textbook, (2) film as a depicter of atmosphere, (3) film as an analogy, (4) film as a historiography, and (5) film as a springboard. Each of the methods discussed includes…

Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

401

Thin film cell development workshop report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

Woodyard, James R.

1991-01-01

402

Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (inventor); Jow, T. Richard (inventor)

1995-01-01

403

Revised 4/14 Film Studies Minor  

E-print Network

.372 Sports, Entertainment and Art Law 41.489 Seminar in Law: Visual Fine Arts 42.232 Turning Fiction into Film 42.341 Studies in Film 43.348 Making an Historical Documentary 43.389 Ancient History in Film 45.225 History of Picturing 58.370 Art History & Film 74.456 Film Music 79.380 Understanding Movies: Cinema

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

404

Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (inventor); Jow, T. Richard (inventor)

1993-01-01

405

Nickel disulfide films synthesized by sulfidation of nickel oxide film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel Oxide films on gold substrates have been synthesized by sol-gel technique. Subsequently, the samples have been prepared by heat-treating the prepared nickel oxide films with sulfur in sealed quartz tubes at 400-800 °C. The crystal structures and micrograph of the samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy respectively, the nickel contents of samples have been determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that: the crystal structures of the film samples prepared by heat-treating the nickel oxide films and sulfur at 400-600 °C are nickel disulfide (NiS 2) with the pyrite structure, the average value of the cell constant a is 5.69 Å calculated from the XRD peaks of the synthesized nickel disulfide films, and the average crystallite size of the nickel disulfide is 60 nm estimated from the Scherrer equation. After sulfurization of the NiO film at 700-800 °C, there is loss of nickel contents from the Au substrate due to vaporization of the nickel sulfide.

Siyu, Huang; Xinyu, Liu; Qingyu, Li; Mianwu, Meng; Tengfa, Long; Zhiliang, Jiang

2011-07-01

406

System for depositing thin films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for depositing a thin film of one material on another is described. A mass filter is interposed between the source of material being deposited and the object upon which deposition is being made.

Tashbar, P. W. (inventor)

1974-01-01

407

Fabrication of amorphous diamond films  

DOEpatents

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1995-12-12

408

Curved film cooling admission tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective film cooling to protect a wall surface from a hot fluid which impinges on or flows along the surface is provided. A film of cooling fluid having increased area is provided by changing the direction of a stream of cooling fluid through an angle of from 135 deg. to 165 deg. before injecting it through the wall into the hot flowing gas. The 1, cooling fluid is injected from an orifice through a wall into a hot flowing gas at an angle to form a cooling fluid film. Cooling fluid is supplied to the orifice from a cooling fluid source via a turbulence control passageway having a curved portion between two straight portions. The angle through which the direction of the cooling fluid is turned results in less mixing of the cooling fluid with the hot gas, thereby substantially increasing the length of the film in a downstream direction.

Graham, R. W.; Papell, S. S. (inventors)

1980-01-01

409

Applications of film thickness equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1983-01-01

410

Surfactant instabilities on thin films  

E-print Network

The deposition of a surfactant drop over a thin liquid film may be accompanied by a fingering instability. In this work, we present experimental results which identify the critical parameters that govern the shape and ...

Aessopos, Angelica

2005-01-01

411

PBS 2013 Online Film Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to attend a film festival from the comfort of your own living room? With this collection of 25 short films under the PBS banner, that dream can become a reality. The films are featured under the headline "Watch Us Surprise You," which is a worthy byline. New visitors should start by watching the introduction to the history of online video and then looking over the About the Festival area. Here they can watch a one-minute introduction to the festival and then they should dive right in. The films here include an exploration of anagrams ("Ars Magna"), a look into the life of a disappearing cat ("CatCam"), and a piece on shell mounds in California titled "Injunuity: Buried." Overall, it's a wonderful collection that will inspire filmmakers young and old to get out there and craft their own narrative work.

2013-03-01

412

Dynamics of polymer bilayer films.  

SciTech Connect

We report grazing incidence coherent X-ray measurements from polymer bilayers consisting of spun-cast layers of Polystyrene (PS) and Poly(4-bromo styrene) (PBrS) supported on silicon wafers. For PS/PBrS/Si bilayers, the films are stable and we are able to probe equilibrium thermal surface height fluctuations using X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS). When the layers are inverted to PBrS/PS/Si, the films de-wet. In this geometry we can measure both the non-equilibrium evolution of the film structure using time-resolved surface diffuse X-ray scattering and quasi-equilibrium fluctuations of the de-wetting film using XPCS.

Hu, X.; Narayanan, S.; Lurio, L. B.; Lal, J.; Northern Illinois Univ.

2006-11-15

413

Process for forming planarized films  

DOEpatents

A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.

Pang, Stella W. (Arlington, MA); Horn, Mark W. (North Chelmsford, MA)

1991-01-01

414

Magnesium diboride: Superior thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional superconductors, such as niobium, may soon have competition from a recent upstart. A new technique for growing thin films of MgB2 removes one serious hurdle in the path to commercialization.

John Rowell

2002-01-01

415

Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-print Network

and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO 3)x:(Sm2O 3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO 3)x:(Mn3 O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

Bi, Zhenxing

2012-07-16

416

Thin-Film Resistive Heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin-film electrically resistive heater applies high, controlled flux of heat to surface of object. Heater mounted directly on surface of object. It is small, simple to operate, and less expensive than laser and arc heating facilities. Because only other equipment needed appropriate power supply, thin-film heater essentially portable device useful in wide range of eventual applications in research and in field.

Scotti, Stephen J.

1994-01-01

417

Mechanical properties of thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of thin films on substrates are described and studied. It is shown that very large stresses may\\u000a be present in the thin films that comprise integrated circuits and magnetic disks and that these stresses can cause deformation\\u000a and fracture to occur. It is argued that the approaches that have proven useful in the study of bulk structural

William D. Nix

1989-01-01

418

Liquid-film electron stripper  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with

Basil F

1986-01-01

419

Nikos Kazantzakis's Novels on Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three films made from Kazantzakis’s novels distort their sources. Celui qui doit mourir (1956) distorts Kazantzakis’s vision because the film, unlike the book, ends with the displaced villagers barricaded behind a rock shooting at their oppressors, which negates everything the book tries to say. Cacoyannis’s Zorba the Greek (1964) distorts its source not because the novel’s ending is changed,

Peter Bien

2000-01-01

420

Amorphous thin films for solar-cell applications. Final report, September 11, 1978-September 10, 1979  

SciTech Connect

In Section II, Theoretical Modeling, theories for the capture of electrons by deep centers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and for field-dependent quantum efficiency in a-Si:H are presented. In Section III, Deposition and Doping Studies, the optimization of phosphorus-doped a-Si:H carried out in four different discharge systems is described. Some details of the dc proximity and rf magnetron discharge systems are also provided. Preliminary mass spectroscopy studies of the rf magnetron discharge in both SiH/sub 4/ and SiF/sub 4/ are presented. In Section IV, Experimental Methods for Characterizing a-Si:H, recent work involving photoluminescence of fluorine-doped a-Si:H, photoconductivity spectra, the photoelectromagnetic effect, the photo-Hall effect and tunneling into a-Si:H is presented. Also, studies of the growth mechanism of Pt adsorbed on both crystalline Si and a-Si:H are described. Measurements of the surface photovoltage have been used to estimate the distribution of surface states of phosphorus-doped and undoped a-Si:H. Section V, Formation of Solar-Cell Structures, contains information on stacked or multiple-junction a-Si:H solar cells. In Section VI, Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Solar-Cell Parameters, an upper limit of approx. = 400 A is established for the hole diffusion length in undoped a-Si:H. A detailed description of carrier generation, recombination and transport in a-Si:H solar cells is given. Finally, some characteristics of Pd-Schottky-barrier cells are described for different processing histories.

Carlson, D E; Balberg, I; Crandall, R S; Goldstein, B C; Hanak, J J; Pankove, J I; Staebler, D L; Weakliem, H A; Williams, R

1980-02-01

421

Calorimetry of epitaxial thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film growth allows for the manipulation of material on the nanoscale, allowing for the creation of metastable phases not seen in the bulk. Heat capacity provides a direct way of measuring thermodynamic properties of these new materials, but traditional bulk calorimetric techniques are inappropriate for such a small amount of material. Micro- and nanocalorimetry techniques exist for the measurements of thin films but rely on an amorphous membrane platform, limiting the types of films which can be measured. In this work, ion-beam-assisted deposition is used to provide a biaxially-oriented MgO template on a suspended membrane microcalorimeter. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to successfully assess the biaxial order of the MgO template. X-ray diffraction was also used to prove the high level of epitaxy of a film grown onto this MgO template. The contribution of the MgO layer to the technique will be discussed. An Fe.49Rh.51 film grown epitaxially onto the device was measured, comparing favorably to literature data on bulk crystals. This shows the viability of the MgO microcalorimeter as a way of measuring the thermodynamic properties of epitaxial thin films.

Hellman, Frances; Cooke, David; Groves, James; Clemens, Bruce

2011-03-01

422

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

1998-01-01

423

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27

424

Quality assurance in film radiography  

SciTech Connect

The ISO 9000 standards were originally developed during the 1980`s to provide uniform, worldwide quality assurance requirements. The EC (European Communities) adopted these standards as part of their modular approach to ``conformity assessment`` procedures, for several product categories. This includes the development of standards (specifications) which define what the purchaser wants and what the supplier agrees to provide, as well as quality system registration (certification) which increases confidence in the supplier`s ability to produce consistently. The requirements are typically most rigorous for regulated products that have a major impact on health and safety i.e film radiographic systems. This is the main reason for making available the necessary Q.C. tools in film radiography to comply with Q.A. specifications and guarantee the required consistent performance. These tools can only give satisfying support if they are dedicated, easy to use, precise and cost effective at the user`s level. The main topics for such a Q.A. package are: (1) standard for Film System classification for industrial radiography; (2) film system certification; and (3) standard for control of film processing by means of reference values i.e. pre-exposed film wedges and archiving quality control method.

Van Bellegem, L.; Vaessen, B. [Agfa Gevaert nv., Mortsel (Belgium)

1993-12-31

425

Films by Doping I Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric properties of I-doped Bi2Te3 films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied. I-doped epitaxial (00 l) Bi2Te3 films were successfully grown on 4° tilted GaAs (001) substrates at 360 °C. I concentration in the Bi2Te3 films was easily controlled by the variation in a flow rate of H2 carrier gas for the delivery of an isopropyliodide precursor. As I ions in the as-grown Bi2Te3 films were not fully activated, they did not influence the carrier concentration and thermoelectric properties. However, a post-annealing process at 400 °C activated I ions as a donor, accompanied with an increase in the carrier concentration. Interestingly, the I-doped Bi2Te3 films after the post-annealing process also exhibited enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient at the same electron concentration compared to un-doped Bi2Te3 films. Through doping I ions into Bi2Te3, the thermopower was also enhanced in Bi2Te3, and a high power factor of 5 × 10-3 W K-2 m-1 was achieved.

Kim, Kwang-Chon; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Kim, Hyun Jae; Hyun, Dow-Bin; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Jin-Sang

2014-06-01

426

Electroconvection in Sheared Annular Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experiments on electroconvection in thin suspended films of a smectic A liquid crystal (8CB). These films behave as nearly ideal 2D isotropic fluids. The films were annular with radius ratio (inner/outer electrode radius) ~ 0.8. Shears may be applied by rotating the inner electrode. When no shear is applied, the film is unstable to a stationary roll state when the voltage between the inner and outer edges of the annulus exceeds a critical voltage, V_c^o. The periodic units of the flow pattern are pairs of symmetric counter-rotating vortices. From the current-voltage characteristic of the film, we find the onset to be supercritical. When the inner electrode is rotated at a constant angular velocity ?, the base state is 2D Couette flow. At a critical voltage V_c(?)>V_c^o, the film is unstable to a travelling roll state whose periodic units are pairs of asymmetric counter-rotating vortices. In each pair, the roll whose circulation is in the same sense as the rotation of the inner electrode is narrower while the opposite sense roll is broader. The pattern travels azimuthally at a constant angular speed which depends on ?. From the current-voltage characteristic, we find a subcritical bifurcation with an ?-dependent hysteresis.

Daya, Z. A.; Morris, S. W.; Molteno, T. C. A.; de Bruyn, J. R.

1996-11-01

427

The virtual blood film.  

PubMed

The computer and the digital camera offer unprecedented possibilities for improving hematology education, research, and patient service. Peripheral blood smear images of exceptional quality can be acquired rapidly and conveniently from the peripheral blood smear with a modern, high-resolution digital camera and a quality microscope. Digital cameras use CCD or CMOS image sensors to measure light energy and additional circuitry to convert the measured information into a digital signal. Because digital cameras do not use photographic film, images are immediately available for incorporation into web sites or digital publications, printing, transfer to other individuals by e-mail, or other applications. Several excellent consumer digital still cameras are now available for less than $1000 that capture high-quality images comprised of more than three megapixels. These images are essentially indistinguishable from conventional film images when viewed on a quality color monitor or printed on a quality color or black and white printer at sizes up to 8 x 10 in. Several recent dedicated digital photomicroscopy cameras provide an ultrahigh quality image output of more than 12 megapixels and have low noise circuit designs permitting the direct capture of darkfield and fluorescence images. There are many applications of digital images of peripheral blood smears. Because hematology is a visual science, the inclusion of quality digital images into lectures, teaching handouts, and electronic documents is essential. A few institutions have gone beyond the basic application of digital images to develop large electronic hematology atlases; animated, audio-enhanced learning experiences; multidisciplinary Internet conferences; and other innovative applications. Digital images of single microscopic fields (single-frame images) are the most widely used in hematology education at this time, but single images of many adjacent microscopic fields can be stitched together to prepare zoomable panoramas that encompass a large part of a microscope slide and closely stimulate observation through a real microscope. With further advances in computer speed and Internet streaming technology, the virtual microscope could easily replace the real microscope in pathology education. Interactive, immersive computer experiences may completely revolutionize hematology education and make the conventional lecture and laboratory format obsolete later in this decade. Patient care is enhanced by the transmission of digital images to other individuals for consultation and education, and by the inclusion of these images in patient care documents. In research laboratories, digital cameras are widely used to document experimental results and obtain experimental data. PMID:11933581

Riley, Roger S; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M; Massey, Davis; Cousar, John

2002-03-01

428

Adhesive transfer of thin viscoelastic films.  

PubMed

Micellar suspensions of acrylic diblock copolymers are excellent model materials for studying the adhesive transfer of viscoelastic solids. The micellar structure is maintained in films with a variety of thicknesses, giving films with a well-defined structure and viscoelastic character. Thin films were cast onto elastomeric silicone substrates from micellar suspensions in butanol, and the adhesive interactions between these coated elastomeric substrates and a rigid indenter were quantified. By controlling the adhesive properties of the film/indenter and film/substrate interfaces we were able to obtain very clean transfer of the film from the substrate to the portion of the glass indenter with which the film was in contact. Adhesive failure at the film/substrate interface occurs when the film/indenter interface is able to support an applied energy release rate that is sufficient to result in cavity nucleation at the film/substrate interface. Cavity formation is rapidly followed by delamination of the entire region under the indenter. The final stage in the transfer process involves the failure of the film that bridges the indenter and the elastomeric substrate. This film is remarkably robust and is extended to three times its original width prior to failure. Failure of this film occurs at the periphery of the indenter, giving a transferred film that conforms to the original contact area between the indenter and the coated substrate. PMID:15620300

Shull, Kenneth R; Martin, Elizabeth F; Drzal, Peter L; Hersam, Mark C; Markowitz, Alison R; McSwain, Rachel L

2005-01-01

429

Border Film Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2005, three young Americans, Rudy Adler, Victoria Criado, and Brett Huneycutt, whose backgrounds include activism, economics, and advertising, wondered what would happen if they gave disposable cameras to two groups of people on different sides of the border between the United States and Mexico: undocumented migrants crossing into the United States, and American Minutemen trying to stop them. Both groups were asked to document their activities, given postage- paid mailers for the return of their unprocessed film, and were offered different incentives. Minutemen received $25 Shell gas cards, while migrants were given $25 Wal-Mart gift cards. The results can currently be viewed on this website and were published in book form in 2007. They have also been exhibited in galleries throughout the U.S. ranging from Venice, California to Buffalo, New York. The project has collected around 2,000 photos, most of which can be viewed here by clicking on the "Photos" section at the top of the page. There is also a 20-minute video, designed to play as a loop at an exhibition, divided into short segments for online viewing.

2008-01-01

430

Thin-film microextraction.  

PubMed

The properties of a thin sheet of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane as an extraction phase were examined and compared to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) PDMS-coated fiber for application to semivolatile analytes in direct and headspace modes. This new PDMS extraction approach showed much higher extraction rates because of the larger surface area to extraction-phase volume ratio of the thin film. Unlike the coated rod formats of SPME using thick coatings, the high extraction rate of the membrane SPME technique allows larger amounts of analytes to be extracted within a short period of time. Therefore, higher extraction efficiency and sensitivity can be achieved without sacrificing analysis time. In direct membrane SPME extraction, a linear relationship was found between the initial rate of extraction and the surface area of the extraction phase. However, for headspace extraction, the rates were somewhat lower because of the resistance to analyte transport at the sample matrix/headspace barrier. It was found that the effect of this barrier could be reduced by increasing either agitation, temperature, or surface area of the sample matrix/headspace interface. A method for the determination of PAHs in spiked lake water samples was developed based on the membrane PDMS extraction coupled with GC/MS. A linearity of 0.9960 and detection limits in the low-ppt level were found. The reproducibility was found to vary from 2.8% to 10.7%. PMID:12622398

Bruheim, Inge; Liu, Xiaochuan; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2003-02-15

431

thin film capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Pt and La0.9Sr1.1NiO4 (LSNO) bottom electrodes. The electrical characteristics of the CCTO/Pt and CCTO/LSNO Schottky junctions have been analyzed by impedance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements as a function of frequency (40 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (300-475 K). Similar results were obtained for the two Schottky diodes. The conduction mechanism through the Schottky junctions was described using a thermionic emission model and the electrical parameters were determined. The strong deviation from the ideal I-V characteristics and the increase in capacitance at low frequency for -0.5 V bias are in agreement with the presence of traps near the interfaces. Results point toward the important effect of defects generated at the interface by deposition of CCTO.

Bodeux, Romain; Gervais, Monique; Wolfman, Jérôme; Gervais, François

2014-09-01

432

Freely Suspended Liquid Crystalline Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freely Suspended Liquid Crystalline Films Andrei A. Sonin Centre d'Etudes Atomiques de Saclay, France and Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences with a Foreword by Professor Noel Clark University of Colorado, USA This book provides a brief introduction to the physics of liquid crystals and to macroscopic physical parameters characterising freely suspended liquid crystalline (FSLC) films, and then reviews the experimental techniques for preparing these films, measuring their thicknesses, and investigating their physical properties and structural aspects. Molecular structures and defects of FSLC films and the problems of film stability, thinning and rupture are discussed in later chapters. Physical phenomena, such as orientational and phase transitions, Frederick's and flexoelectric effects, hydroelectrodynamics, etc., are also analysed. Finally, some applications of FSLC films in industry and in various branches of science are discussed. Specialists working in the physics of liquid crystals and in surface physics will find this book of interest. Industrial firms and their research centres investigating liquid crystals, biological membranes, detergent/surfactant/biomedical areas; and graduates and postgraduates in solid state physics and crystallography will also benefit from this book. The book has an easy-to-read style with just the minimum amount of mathematics necessary to explain important concepts. This is the first book dedicated exclusively to the physics of FSLC in almost a century since their discovery and last twenty years of their active studies. Andrei Sonin, a scientist in the area of FSLC and author of many articles on surface phenomena in liquid crystals, the properties and behaviour of thin liquid crystalline and surfactant films, has a long standing reputation in liquid crystals and surfactant systems and has been particularly active in issues involving surface interactions.

Sonin, A. A.

2003-05-01

433

Thin films under chemical stress  

SciTech Connect

The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

434

Brownian Motion of Dislocations in Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

The motion of edge dislocations in a single monolayer film of Cu on Ru(0001) was studied by time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy. The dislocations were observed to make rapid 1D random walks in the film. This dislocation motion is attributed to the equilibrium thermal exchange of atoms between the solid film and the adatom gas covering the film. These results highlight a fundamental difference between the dynamics of dislocations in thin films and the bulk, which is in principle important in understanding the mechanical properties of thin films. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Schmid, A.; Bartelt, N.; Hamilton, J.; Carter, C.; Hwang, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)

1997-05-01

435

FALL 2014 Film and Media Studies Guide 1  

E-print Network

as the ways film and media reflect and influence the historical moments in which GUIDEBOOK FALL 2014 #12;Film and Media Studies Guide 1 Table of Contents What is Film and Media Studies? 2 Why Study Film and Media

Subramanian, Venkat

436

High performance TAC film for LCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tri-acetyl cellulose (TAC) films are widely used as a protective film for polarizers because it has high light transmittance, low birefringence, high moisture permeability, high uniformity and good curling property. This paper describes TAC film technologies, especially about the birefringence control of TAC film. Making use of the controlled birefringence, the TAC film comes to take an active role in optical compensation of LCDs as well as protection of polarizers. The out-of-plane birefringence of the TAC film can be controlled by additives, and the in-plane birefringence can be controlled by stretching. Coating a discotic material on the TAC film gives an additional optical compensation layer. With these technologies, we were able to develop an optical compensation film called WV film, which remarkably improves the viewing angle characteristics for TN-LCDs. Recently, we have developed and commercialized a new WV film for the OCB mode. OCB is known to have a very fast optical response time and promising as a next generation LCD-TV. The OCB-WV film has realized excellent viewing angle characteristics for OCB as well as a high on-axis contrast ratio. TAC film technologies open up possibilities of developing various types of optical compensation films suited for all LCD modes.

Mori, Hiroyuki

2006-02-01

437

Characterization of sculptured thin films  

SciTech Connect

Physical vapor deposition can be used to synthesize sculptured thin films with high surface areas. Highly directional vapor deposition onto a tilted, rotating substrate has been shown to produce nanostructured materials with controlled columnar features, including zig-zag, cusp, chevron, and helical geometries. Nanoporous coatings such as these are desirable for optical sensing applications due to their accessible high surface area, but few techniques are available to quantify the surface area of thin films. Electron beam and thermal evaporation techniques are used to synthesize highly porous thin films from silicon dioxide and a germanium antimony selenide chalcogenide glass in order to explore their potential for optical applications in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. Characterization has been performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained with a quartz crystal microbalance. It is shown that surface area can be increased up to 375 times that of a flat film by deposition at oblique angles. A nitrogen adsorption technique is introduced as a means to examine the porosity of sculptured thin films at a nanoscale.

Ryan, Joseph V.; Horn, Mark; Lakhtakia, Ashlesh; Pantano, C. G.

2004-05-11

438

Spectroellipsometric Characterization Of Inhomogeneous Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the compositional depth profile of an inhomogeneous film structure is often approached via surface analysis techniques used in a sputter depth profiling mode. An alternative is to model the compositional profile to fit optical measurement data, such as multiple incident angle or spectroscopic ellipsometric data. This paper presents the application of a statistical approach to this analysis problem. Multiple incident angle and multiple wavelength ellipsometer measurements have been made on hafnia and alumina single films on borosilicate glass substrates. Theoretical sensitivity data of the measured quantities T, A on the index and thickness of the film is presented and discussed. The measurement data is then numerically fit to several models that express small inhomogeneities in the film refractive index as a system of multiple homogeneous films. Existence of local minima in the value of the chosen merit function and statistical techniques that permit location of the global minimum are addressed by 'this approach. Results are discussed in terms of the magnitude of the merit function and compared to spectral reflectance measurements made on the coated samples.

Tirri, B. A.; Turner, A.; Van Buskirk, P. C.

1987-04-01

439

high-k thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local symmetries around the Hf sites in thin films of Hf1- x Zr x O2/Si(100) were probed using grazing incidence extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The effects of the Zr incorporation on the local crystal symmetries were investigated using Hf L3 EXAFS at the Beamline X23A2 of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Zr ratios in the various films were set to between 0.0 and 1.0. Significant changes in the local environment were observed for x = 0.25 or greater values. For x = 0.0, the film local structure around Hf sites remain in the equilibrium monoclinic phase as referenced from our previous studies on HfO2 thin films on Si(100). When Zr is introduced, tetragonal symmetry around the Hf atom appears and becomes dominant at x = 0.63. Using the EXAFS theoretical simulations and non-linear least-square fit results, the fractions of the monoclinic versus tetragonal phases were identified in each film.

Sahiner, M. A.; Lysaght, P. S.; Price, J.; Kirsch, P. D.; Woicik, J. C.; Klump, A.; Reehil, C.; Manners, W. A.; Nabizadeh, A.

2014-10-01

440

Laser tracks in rainbow films on water  

SciTech Connect

It is found that narrow non-diverging laser tracks, earlier studied in free soap films, can also arise in thin rainbow films, e.g., of petrol, on water. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-08-31

441

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2010-04-01

442

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2011-04-01

443

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2013-04-01

444

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2012-04-01

445

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2014-04-01

446

Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor  

DOEpatents

A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

2010-01-19

447

Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films  

E-print Network

Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

Choi, Jae Hyeok

2007-01-01

448

Wastewater Treatment with Plants in Nutrient Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associ...

H. DeLancey-Pompe, J. J. Madras, R. M. Kabrick, W. J. Jewell, W. W. Clarkson

1983-01-01

449

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

DOEpatents

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

2010-08-17

450

Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

E-print Network

We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

Mentzel, Tamar

451

Fire resistant films for aircraft applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

Kourtides, D. A.

1983-01-01

452

Thin film-coated polymer webs  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

1992-02-04

453

US/Russian Joint Film Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint U.S./Russian film test was conducted during MIR Mission 18 to evaluate the effects of radiation on photographic film during long-duration space flights. Two duplicate sets of film were flown on this MIR mission: one set was processed and evaluated by the NASA/JSC Photographic Laboratory, and the other by the RKK Energia's Photographic Laboratory in Moscow. This preliminary report includes only the results of the JSC evaluation (excluding the SN-10 film which was not available for evaluation at the time this report was written). The final report will include an evaluation by JSC of the SN-10 film and an evaluation of the test data by the RKK Energia. ISC's evaluation of the test data showed the positive film flown was damaged very little when exposed to approximately 8 rads of radiation. Two of the three negative films were significantly damaged and the third film was damaged only moderately.

Slater, Richard

1996-01-01

454

Uniform Etching For Polycrystalline Photoconductor Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prewetting surface overcomes problem of nonuniformity of etching often occuring in polycrystalline films at PbS and PbSe. Believed prewetting causes etchant to attack film uniformly. Because process involves wet chemistry, inexpensive and easy to use.

Barrett, John

1988-01-01

455

An intelligence ink for photocatalytic films.  

PubMed

An ink is described which, when printed or coated onto a photocatalyst film, changes colour irreversibly and rapidly upon UV activation of the photocatalyst film and at a rate commensurate with its activity. PMID:15917932

Mills, Andrew; Wang, Jishun; Lee, Soo-Keun; Simonsen, Morten

2005-06-01

456

Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films  

E-print Network

copper films are synthesized on HF etched Si (110) substrates. These films show high hardness (~ 2.8 GPa) due to high density of coherent twin boundaries (CTBs) which effectively block the motion of dislocations similar to grain boundaries (GBs...

Anderoglu, Osman

2011-08-08

457

Film handling procedures for Apollo 17 lunar sounder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Film handling procedures for the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder are itemized, including purchase of flight film, establishment of processing standards, transportation of flight films, flight film certification, application of pre- and post-sensitometry, film loading and downloading, film processing, titling, and duplication.

Weinstein, M. S.

1972-01-01

458

The Political Economy Of Independent Film: A Case Study Of Kevin Smith Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the U.S. film industry from a political economic perspective to determine the state of independent film in relation to ownership, financing, and content. Since its conception, the film industry has been controlled by a small number of companies—that is, as an oligopoly. As such, films produced outside the sphere of the majority have been labeled ‘independent.’ However,

Grace Kathleen Keenan

2009-01-01

459

The Native Forum at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival: Redefining Indigenous Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes films from the Native Forum of the 2001 Sundance Film Festival, focusing on the feature film, "Christmas in the Clouds," and also looking at a variety of documentaries on indigenous populations in North America and Mexico. Presents a brief annotation and contact information for each film. (SM)

McDonald, Christine

2001-01-01

460

Wrinkle-Free Nanomechanical Film: Control and Prevention of Polymer Film  

E-print Network

by incorporating nanoparticles into the film. In addition, we studied the effect of the silica layer that results Common forms of buckling include the wrinkling of human skin, the surface of many dried fruits, and even, acid treatment after film formation creates a porous film morphol- ogy.16,17 The film morphology can

Lee, Ilsoon

461

Heritage Film Audiences 2.0: Period Film Audiences and Online Fan Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an update to my monograph Heritage Film Audiences: Period Films and Contemporary Audiences in the UK (Edinburgh University Press, 2011), this paper explores currently evolving forms of online audience behaviour and participatory fan activity around contemporary period films. Its detailed focus is on the online reception, (re-)appropriation and remixing of key films originally released in the 1980s to 1990s

Claire Monk

2011-01-01

462

B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies 2013-2014 Report  

E-print Network

B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies 2013-2014 Report The 2013-14 academic year was exciting and eventful for film studies at the University of Birmingham in association with other universities, institutions and organisations. B-Film co-organised two international academic conferences

Birmingham, University of

463

Measurement of Root Mean Square Granularity of X-ray Films Using a Commercial Film Scanner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root mean square granularity of films are generally measured using a microdensito-meter, although it is costly and not easily available. To solve the cost problem, we tried to use an inexpensive commercial film scanner. Films with different densities were prepared and the relationship between densities by a diffuse densitometer and pixel values by a film scanner was obtained. We found

Kazuhiko Ohnuma

2001-01-01

464

The American Film Institute Catalog Feature Films 1921-1930. Volumes I and II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-volume catalog describes all feature length films made and released in the United States from January 1, 1921, through December 31, 1930 (6606 films are listed). Each film entry includes its title, physical description, production credits, cast credits, and a description of the contents. Films are labeled by subject (for example,…

Munden, Kenneth W., Ed.

465

Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

supplementary preparation for graduate study and media or film-related careers. In consultation of the following courses): AMCS 392 Ethnic Images in Film and Media 4 CALS 393 Chicano/Latino Cinema 4 LIBS 204 in Film and Media 4 AMCS 390 Independent Film Study 1-2 CALS 393 Chicano/Latino Cinema 4 COMS 324

Ravikumar, B.

466

Exchange couplings in magnetic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the study of exchange couplings in magnetic films are introduced. To provide a comprehensive understanding of exchange coupling, we have designed different bilayers, trilayers and multilayers, such as anisotropic hard-/soft-magnetic multilayer films, ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers, [Pt/Co]/NiFe/NiO heterostructures, Co/NiO and Co/NiO/Fe trilayers on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The exchange-coupling interaction between soft- and hard-magnetic phases, interlayer and interfacial exchange couplings and magnetic and magnetotransport properties in these magnetic films have been investigated in detail by adjusting the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic layers and by changing the thickness of the spacer layer, ferromagnetic layer, and antiferromagnetic layer. Some particular physical phenomena have been observed and explained.

Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiong-Hua; Cui, Wei-Bin; Gong, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Dong

2013-02-01

467

Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

2007-05-01

468

Morphology of polycrystalline cassiterite films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline cassiterite films have been grown by the hydropyrolytic method from a 10(H2O) + 5(SnCl2 · 2H2O) solution (in weight fractions) on corundum substrates. The crystallization regularities are considered and a comparative analysis of the properties of natural and artificial cassiterite crystals is performed. The surface morphology is investigated and the size of crystalline grains is determined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray microprobe analysis showed that all films contain tin and oxygen atoms in a ratio corresponding (within the experimental error) to the chemical formula of tin dioxide. It is established that the surface morphology of cassiterite films is characterized by both single crystallites and aggregates of two or more crystals typical of twins. It is suggest that doping can efficiently be used to control the concentration of twins and the stability of their formation.

Tomaev, V. V.; Glazov, A. I.

2014-09-01

469

Magnetism in ultrathin film structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review some of the key concepts in ultrathin film magnetism which underpin nanomagnetism. We survey the results of recent experimental and theoretical studies of well characterized epitaxial structures based on Fe, Co and Ni to illustrate how intrinsic fundamental properties such as the magnetic exchange interactions, magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropies change markedly in ultrathin films as compared with their bulk counterparts, and to emphasize the role of atomic scale structure, strain and crystallinity in determining the magnetic properties. After introducing the key length scales in magnetism, we describe the 2D magnetic phase transition and survey studies of the thickness dependent Curie temperature and the critical exponents which characterize the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition. We next discuss recent experimental and theoretical results on the determination of the exchange constant, followed by an overview of measurements of the magnetic moment in the elemental 3d transition metal thin films in the various crystal phases that have been successfully stabilized, thereby illustrating the sensitivity of the magnetic moment to the local symmetry and to the atomic environment. Finally, we discuss briefly the magnetic anisotropies of Fe, Co and Ni in the fcc crystalline phase, to emphasize the role of structure and the details of the interface in influencing the magnetic properties. The dramatic effect that adsorbates can have on the magnetic anisotropies of thin magnetic films is also discussed. Our survey demonstrates that the fundamental properties, namely, the magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropies of ultrathin films have dramatically different behaviour compared with those of the bulk while the comparable size of the structural and magnetic contributions to the total energy of ultrathin structures results in an exquisitely sensitive dependence of the magnetic properties on the film structure.

Vaz, C. A. F.; Bland, J. A. C.; Lauhoff, G.

2008-05-01

470

Film and PACS: friends or foes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years of PACS experience have demonstrated that PACS needs film and film needs PACS, in order to fulfill all the imaging requirements of a contemporary hospital. This paper analyzes the major technological and functional differences between film and PACS and describes a hybrid PACS paradigm which combines the strengths of both film and PACS. A practical implementation of this hybrid PACS concept in an ultrasound department is briefly described.

Claeys, Geert; Wanchoo, Vishal

1992-07-01

471

Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate  

DOEpatents

A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

Finkikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2009-10-13

472

High Temperature Superconducting Thin Film Magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YBCO thin film double pancake units can be fabricated on a single wafer. It is possible to produce 5 tesla induction at 4.2 K in a background field of about 20 tesla by stacking these double pancake wafers. Small YBCO thin film flat coils can produce useful fields that can be very beneficial for MEMs. We have fabricated a proof-of-concept thin film coil from our YBCO thin films and tested it successfully.

Hascicek, Y. S.; Eyssa, Y.; van Sciver, S. W.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

2004-11-01

473

Direct-write of PZT thick films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films have been prepared on alumina substrates using a direct-write technology. Thick films of 50 to 200 ?m were deposited, dried and then sintered at 1000° to 1200°C for 30 minutes in PbO-rich atmosphere. Comparison of the thick film properties revealed that the dielectric constant and remnant polarization of the films sintered at 1100°C were

M. Allahverdi; A. Safari

2004-01-01

474

Thick titanium dioxide films for semiconductor photocatalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick paste TiO2 films are prepared and tested for photocatalytic and photoinduced superhydrophilic (PSH) activity. The films are effective photocatalysts for the destruction of stearic acid using near or far UV and all the sol–gel films tested exhibited a quantum yield for this process of typically 0.15%. These quantum yields are significantly greater (4–8-fold) than those for titania films produced

Andrew Mills; George Hill; Sharan Bhopal; Ivan P. Parkin; Shane A. O’Neill

2003-01-01

475

Mechanical properties of amorphous carbon nitride films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin carbon nitride (CN) films have been prepared by dc sputtering from a graphite target in an argon\\/nitrogen plasma. The film composition and structure were examined by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Rutherford back-scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The microhardness of the films was measured with both Vickers micro-indentation and a depth-sensing indentation technique. The resistance of the films to small-scale

H. Q. Lou; N. Axén; R. E. Somekh; I. M. Hutchings

1996-01-01

476

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOEpatents

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15

477

Dynamics of falling liquid films.  

PubMed

Falling liquid films are examples of open flows which undergo a sequence of supercritical instabilities giving way to a spatio-temporal weak disorder organized around interfacial waves in interaction. The long-wave nature of the waves and the laminar state of the flow enable to derive reduced sets of equations or models that are amenable to thorough analytic investigations. This paper reviews the phenomenology of falling film flows and discusses recent low-dimensional modeling attempts. Some open questions and perspectives are also considered. PMID:24771235

Ruyer-Quil, Christian; Kofman, Nicolas; Chasseur, Didier; Mergui, Sophie

2014-04-01

478

Thick silicate glass film for a waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of a borosilicate glass film of 10 - 20 micrometers in thickness on a silicon substrate via an interfacial polymerization technique has been studied as the first step for the preparation of a planer waveguide for optical communication. A gel film prepared from the partially hydrolyzed TMOS mixed with boron alkoxides could be densified into a glass film

Masayuki Yamane; Shuichi Shibata; Tetsuji Yano; Kenichi Watanabe

1997-01-01

479

Science Consultants, Fictional Films, and Scientific Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes films to be successful communicative devices within the scientific community by showing that other scientists respond to depictions in films and how they respond. Demonstrates that science consultants use fictional films as promotional devices for their research fields. (Author/NB)

Kirby, David A.

2003-01-01

480

Film Language: A Student-Made Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The failure of verbal descriptions to convey an understanding of film terminology led to a student production of a 20-minute color film that defines various film methods by illustrating them. A technique is shown on the screen and simultaneous soundtrack narration explains how this technique can be used. When the narration lasts longer than the…

Poteet, G. Howard

1967-01-01

481

Properties and Microstructure of Plasticized Zein Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 74(6):771-775 A new method for preparation of zein films involving plasticization of zein with oleic acid to form an intermediate moldable resin was pre- sented. The resin was stretched over rigid frames to form thin mem- branes that were set in flexible films. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of film preparation method on

Huey-Min Lai; Graciela W. Padua

1997-01-01