Sample records for fluorine-doped yba2cu3oy films

  1. Fabrication of highly balanced directly coupled YBa2Cu3Oy gradiometers and their noise properties in an unshielded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, A.; Fukazawa, T.; Takagi, K.; Yokosawa, K.; Suzuki, D.; Tsukada, K.

    2001-12-01

    We fabricated directly coupled gradiometers made of YBa2Cu3Oy thin films on bicrystal substrates. The parasitic effective area of the gradiometric pickup coil was found to be comparable with that of the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in each gradiometer. A gradiometer balance of below 10-3 was achieved by selecting the coupling direction of the SQUID so as to cancel the parasitic effective area of the pickup coil by the effective area of the SQUID itself. The noise of the gradiometers measured in an unshielded environment decreased in proportion to the improvement in the gradiometer balance; however, the noise of the gradiometer with a balance of 0.03% was limited by the gradient-field component of the environmental noise.

  2. Electronic ordering and disorder effects in the pseudogap state of YBa2Cu3Oy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Marc-Henri

    2014-03-01

    We report NMR measurements in the normal state of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy. While unambiguous indication of charge-density-wave ordering is found in the pseudogap state, we interpret this as short range CDW order nucleated around native defects. We discuss the connections of this result to the initial evidence of CDW order in YBa2Cu3Oy from NMR in high magnetic fields, to the more recent X-ray scattering data in the normal state as well as to a wider body of experimental results which have been considered to characterize the pseudogap state. Work performed in collaboration with Tao Wu, Hadrien Mayaffre, Steffen Krämer, Mladen Horvatic & Claude Berthier (LNCMI), Ruixing Liang, Walter N. Hardy and Douglas A. Bonn (UBC).

  3. Effect of microstructures on critical current density of textured YBa2Cu3Oy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Ding; J. W. Lin; J. G. Zheng; Q. Li; Z. Yu; H. L. Mou; L. Zhou; X. X. Yao

    1992-01-01

    Textured YBa2Cu3Oy(YBCO) bulk samples with Jc of magnitude of 105 A\\/cm2 were prepared by different melt procession (MP). Microstructure was examined by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. Very fine particles were observed by TEM. Transport critical current density, hysteresis and magnetization relaxation measurements for the samples show that the Jc and its field dependence vary significantly for the samples

  4. Incipient charge order observed by NMR in the normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Krämer, Steffen; Horvati?, Mladen; Berthier, Claude; Hardy, W.N.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.A.; Julien, Marc-Henri

    2015-01-01

    The pseudogap regime of high-temperature cuprates harbours diverse manifestations of electronic ordering whose exact nature and universality remain debated. Here, we show that the short-ranged charge order recently reported in the normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy corresponds to a truly static modulation of the charge density. We also show that this modulation impacts on most electronic properties, that it appears jointly with intra-unit-cell nematic, but not magnetic, order, and that it exhibits differences with the charge density wave observed at lower temperatures in high magnetic fields. These observations prove mostly universal, they place new constraints on the origin of the charge density wave and they reveal that the charge modulation is pinned by native defects. Similarities with results in layered metals such as NbSe2, in which defects nucleate halos of incipient charge density wave at temperatures above the ordering transition, raise the possibility that order–parameter fluctuations, but no static order, would be observed in the normal state of most cuprates if disorder were absent. PMID:25751448

  5. Competing charge, spin, and superconducting orders in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hücker, M.; Christensen, N. B.; Holmes, A. T.; Blackburn, E.; Forgan, E. M.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Gutowski, O.; Zimmermann, M. v.; Hayden, S. M.; Chang, J.

    2014-08-01

    To explore the doping dependence of the recently discovered charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa2Cu3Oy, we present a bulk-sensitive high-energy x-ray study for several oxygen concentrations, including strongly underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.44. Combined with previous data around the so-called 1/8 doping, we show that bulk CDW order exists at least for hole concentrations (p) in the CuO2 planes of 0.078?p?0.132. This implies that CDW order exists in close vicinity to the quantum critical point for spin-density-wave (SDW) order. In contrast to the pseudogap temperature T*, the onset temperature of CDW order decreases with underdoping to TCDW˜90 K in YBa2Cu3O6.44. Together with a weakened order parameter this suggests a competition between CDW and SDW orders. In addition, the CDW order in YBa2Cu3O6.44 shows the same type of competition with superconductivity as a function of temperature and magnetic field as samples closer to p =1/8. At low p the CDW incommensurability continues the previously reported linear increasing trend with underdoping. In the entire doping range the in-plane correlation length of the CDW order in b axis direction depends only very weakly on the hole concentration, and appears independent of the type and correlation length of the oxygen-chain order. The onset temperature of the CDW order is remarkably close to a temperature T† that marks the maximum of 1/(T1T) in planar Cu63 NQR/NMR experiments, potentially indicating a response of the spin dynamics to the formation of the CDW. Our discussion of these findings includes a detailed comparison to the charge stripe order in La2-xBaxCuO4.

  6. Effect of processing parameters on the characteristics of high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction,and measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, are presently used to characterize the influence of sintering temperature, sintering and annealing atmospheres, and quench-rate on the properties of the YBa2Cu3Oy superconducting oxide. It is established that annealing in oxygen, together with slow cooling rates, are required for preparation of high-Tc superconductors with sharp transitions; rapid quenching from high temperature does not yield good superconductors, due to low oxygen content.

  7. Microstructural development and control in YBa2Cu3OY coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holesinger, T. G.; Gibbons, B. J.; Foltyn, S. R.; Arendt, P. N.; Groves, J. R.; Coulter, J. Y.

    2002-05-01

    A study of some defect structures in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (Y-123) coated conductors based on ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on nickel alloy substrates is presented. Defect structures can originate anywhere in the coated conductor architecture. Defects can be additive and propagate through the entire film structure to affect the growth, orientation, and properties of the superconducting film. Interfacial reactions between Y-123 and the underlying buffer layer and the corresponding effects on the transport properties of the films can be controlled with the thickness of the underlying buffer layer. With a 90Å ceria buffer layer on an IBAD YSZ coated metal substrate, a Jc value of 1.7 MA/cm2 (self-field, 75 K) was obtained in a 1.5 ?m thick Y-123 film.

  8. Broader perspective on the high-temperature superconduct- ing YBa2Cu3Oy system: The real role of the oxygen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Y.; Torrance, P. J. B.; Huang, T. C.; Nazzal, A. I.

    1988-10-01

    A series of new YBa2Cu3Oy-like materials are reported in which the oxygen content and the average [Cu-O] charge (or Cu valence) are separately varied over a wide range. We find a distinct boundary between samples showing anomalous insulating behavior and those with high Tc. These data are interpreted to demonstrate that the [Cu-O] charge in the sheets largely determines Tc and that the varying oxygen content and the chains merely provide an insulating reservoir of charge.

  9. Study on Fluorine-Doped Indium Oxide Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzo Shigesato; Naoko Shin; Masayuki Kamei; P. K. Song; Itatu Yasui

    2000-01-01

    Fluorine-doped In2O3 films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering using an In2O3 target at substrate temperatures from RT to 300°C under Ar gas pressure of 1.0 Pa. The fluorine doping was carried out by the following two methods, (1) placing InF3 pellets on the erosion area of the In2O3 target, and (2) introducing CF4 gas into the sputtering chamber. In

  10. Fluorine doped tin oxide films from spray pyrolysis of stannous fluoride solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Morris; A. E. McElnea

    1996-01-01

    Transparent conducting films of fluorine doped tin oxide were deposited using spray pyrolysis. The spray solution was tin (II) fluoride in methanol with or without addition of acid. Film thickness, growth rates and polycrystal grain size increased with deposition time, substrate temperature and amount of hydrochloric acid added to the deposition solution. The crystallite orientations in the films depended also

  11. Preparation and properties of sprayed undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shanthi; C. Subramanian; P. Ramasamy

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide have been prepared on borosilicate glass plates by a spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of process parameters, such as tin chloride concentration in the precursor solution, substrate to nozzle distance, carrier gas (air) flow rate, substrate temperature, and doping level of fluorine in the spray solution, on the physical properties of

  12. Interaction between water and fluorine-doped silicon oxide film deposited by PECVD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yoshimaru; S. Koizumi; K. Shimokawa; J. Ida

    1997-01-01

    The interaction between water and fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films has been studied focusing on the relation between the fluorine bonding configuration in the film and film hygroscopicity. SiOF films with a high fluorine concentration have three IR absorption bands between 985 cm-1 and 920 cm-1. These bands are assumed to be attributable to silicon monofluoride and silicon difluoride sites.

  13. Fluorine-Doped Indium Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiro Maruyama; Kunihiro Fukui

    1990-01-01

    Transparent conductive fluorine-doped indium oxide thin films were prepared by an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition method without using an oxygen donor. The raw materials were indium 2-ethylhexanoate and indium fluoride. The polycrystalline films were obtained at a reaction temperature in the range of 330-430°C. For the 57.8-nm-thick film deposited at 400°C, the resistivity was 2.89× 10-4 Omega\\\\cdotcm, and the transmittance

  14. Preparation Nanostructure Thin Films of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide by Inkjet Printing Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan Zurina Samad; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Ashkan Shafiee; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited using inkjet printing technique. The FTO ink was synthesized by common mixture method between precursor tin chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4?5H2O) with ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as a dopant agent. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a piezoelectric inkjet printer with variations of deposition temperature. Morphology analysis using TEM

  15. Preparation Nanostructure Thin Films of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide by Inkjet Printing Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan Zurina Samad; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Ashkan Shafiee; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited using inkjet printing technique. The FTO ink was synthesized by common mixture method between precursor tin chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4.5H2O) with ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as a dopant agent. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a piezoelectric inkjet printer with variations of deposition temperature. Morphology analysis using TEM

  16. Preparation of in-plane textured buffer layers for YBa 2Cu 3O y film growth by modified bias sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Fukutomi; M Saitoh; K Komori; K Togano

    1996-01-01

    A modified bias sputtering technique has been proposed to grow in-plane textured yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers on polycrystalline metallic substrates for deposition of YBa2Cu3Oy films. The principle of developing an in-plane texturing by this technique is basically the same as that of ion beam assisted deposition; an in-plane texturing occurs by off-normal ion beam bombardment because of the higher sputtering

  17. Atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seigi Suh; Zuhua Zhang; Wei-Kan Chu; David M. Hoffman

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at 370–490°C by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition from (CH3(CH2)3)2Sn(O2CCF3)2 and oxygen. Backscattering spectra indicate the films are stoichiometric with O\\/Sn ratios of 1.9–2.0. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for fluorine gives F\\/Sn ratios of 0.005–0.015 with the amount of fluorine in the films increasing with increasing deposition temperature. The

  18. Structure characterization of carbon and fluorine-doped silicon oxide films with low dielectric constant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Jin Ding; Li Chen; Xin-Gong Wan; Peng-Fei Wang; Jian-Yun Zhang; David Wei Zhang; Ji-Tao Wang

    2001-01-01

    Carbon and fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiO2:C,F) films with low dielectric constant have been deposited from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), C4F8 and Ar using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that SiO2:C,F film is amorphous. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra illustrate that the intense absorption band between l000 and 1300cm?1 becomes broader with increasing C4F8 flow rate

  19. The preparation of fluorine doped cadmium oxide thin film by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Yea; Kim, Jong Sung

    2014-11-01

    During the several decades, CdO thin film has attracted many attentions as a candidate for the transparent conducting electrodes due to its high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance. Various dopants such as F, In, Al, Sn, and Cr have been used to improve the optical and electrical properties of the film. Generally, the optical and electrical property of the thin film is dependent on its oxidation state, the amount of dopant materials, and the fabrication process. In this study, fluorine doped CdO thin films were prepared by using sol-gel process with various atomic ratios of Cd:F, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The precursor solution for sol-gel film was prepared with pH 5 and pH 8, and the film was annealed at 350 degrees C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the cubic CdO:F phase formation, and the 10% fluorine doped film prepared with pH 8 precursor solution showed the lowest resistivity of 0.01574 ? cm. PMID:25958514

  20. Preparation Nanostructure Thin Films of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide by Inkjet Printing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Wan Zurina; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Shafiee, Ashkan; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2010-10-01

    The paper reports fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited using inkjet printing technique. The FTO ink was synthesized by common mixture method between precursor tin chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4?5H2O) with ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as a dopant agent. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a piezoelectric inkjet printer with variations of deposition temperature. Morphology analysis using TEM and AFM showed that variation of the deposition temperature may affect of the nanostructure grains size and surface morphology of the thin films. Hence, the performance thin films in term of optical transmittance and sheet resistivity were found dependence on the deposition temperatures. The film deposited at 40° C has optical transmittance of 91% and sheet resistances of 16 ?/?.

  1. Structure and properties of fluorine doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Q. Yao; P. Yang; N. Huang; H. Sun; J. Wang

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. Fluorine addition to a-C (amorphous carbon) thin films offers many advantages and a deeply understanding of the properties of a-C: F thin films is necessary for applications like biomedical implants and biosensor devices. Fluorine doped diamond-like carbon (a-C:F) films with different fluorine content were fabricated on Si wafer by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition. Film composition

  2. Study on fluorine-doped indium oxide films deposited by reactive evaporating in CF 4\\/O 2 gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoyuan Ning; Shanhua Cheng; Feng Huang; Yanbin Bian; Xiaohun Luo

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine doped In2O3 films were deposited by DC plasma enhanced evaporating in CF4\\/O2 mixture gases. The effects of F-doping and annealing on the electrical and optical properties of the films have been investigated. The film resistivity significantly decreased, but the transmittance became low due to F-doping. The film transmittance can be improved by annealing in the vacuum. The annealing at

  3. Fluorine-doped tin oxide films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering with an Sn target.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-Huei; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pin-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2011-03-20

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films have been deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with an Sn target. Various ratios of CF4/O2 gas were injected to enhance the optical and electrical properties of the films. The extinction coefficient was lower than 1.5×10(-3) in the range from 400 to 800?nm when the CF4O2 ratio was 0.375. The resistivity of fluorine-doped SnO2 films (1.63×10(-3)???cm) deposited at 300?°C was 27.9 times smaller than that of undoped SnO2 (4.55×10(-2)???cm). Finally, an FTO film was consecutively deposited for protecting the oxidation of indium tin oxide films. The resistivity of the double-layered film was 2.68×10(-4)???cm, which increased by less than 39% at a 450?°C annealing temperature for 1?h in air. PMID:21460922

  4. Electrical, structural and optical properties of fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films: Effect of the solution aging time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Rozati; S. Moradi; S. Golshahi; R. Martins; E. Fortunato

    2009-01-01

    In this paper ageing effects of the solution used to prepare fluorine-doped ZnO films by the spray pyrolysis technique were investigated, concerning its role on the structure, the electrical and optical properties of films produced. The data reveal that the sheet resistance of the ZnO:F thin film decreases with the age of the solution used, reaching a minimum of 24 ?\\/?,

  5. Composition and morphological characteristics of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited on Si(1 0 0)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Castañeda; A. Maldonado; J. C. Cheang-Wong; M. Terrones; M. de la L. Olvera

    2007-01-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:F) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by the chemical spray technique (CST) from an aged-solution. The effect of the substrate temperature on the morphology and composition of the ZnO:F thin films was studied. The films were polycrystalline, with a preferential growth along the ZnO (002) plane, irrespective of the deposition temperature. The average crystal size

  6. Fabrication and characterization of fluorine-doped thin oxide thin films and nanorod arrays via spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Russo; G. Z. Cao

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films via intermittent spray\\u000a pyrolysis utilizing a solution mixture of tin chloride pentahydrate and ammonia fluoride. Utilizing the same solution, nanorod\\u000a arrays were fabricated via template-based growth. Uniform and crack-free FTO films over 20×20 mm with a thickness up to 900 nm\\u000a have been routinely achieved; such FTO films

  7. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO2)/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO2/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO2/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO2/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10-2 ?-1, higher than 1.78 × 10-2 ?-1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO2/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10-2 ?-1, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  8. Correction: Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Isvar A; Peng, Qing; Ferrall, Isa L; Rieth, Adam J; Hoertz, Paul G; Glass, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-28

    Correction for 'Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films' by Isvar A. Cordova, et al., Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 8584-8592. PMID:26134090

  9. Effect of solvent ratio on the optoelectronic properties of fluorine doped tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, P.; Divya, V.; Sridharan, M.; Jeyadheepan, K.

    2015-06-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on to the well cleaned microscopic glass substrates using nebulized-spray pyrolysis (n-SP) technique by varying the water to ethanol solvent proportion. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Hall measurements to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the films, respectively. Results of the analyzes show that the films are polycrystalline, having tetragonal structure with the preferred orientation along (110) plane. The grain size varies between 7 to 20 nm. The optimized films exhibit the optical transparency of 85 % at the wavelength of 580 nm. The optical bandgap lies in the range of 3.94 to 4 eV. The optimized films, deposited with 40 % of ethanol proportion are having the mean resistivity 4.72×10-3 ?-cm, carrier concentration 1.79×1020 cm3 and the mobility 7 cm2/Vs.

  10. Influence of Preferred Orientation on the Electrical Conductivity of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Films

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D.; Ramsey, Philip M.; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5?cm2 V?1 s?1 without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 1020?cm?3. Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities. PMID:24419455

  11. Influence of preferred orientation on the electrical conductivity of fluorine-doped tin oxide films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D; Ramsey, Philip M; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 10(20) cm(-3). Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities. PMID:24419455

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of NanoCrystalline Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films by Sol-Gel Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Banerjee; S. Kundoo; P. Saha; K. K. Chattopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    Thin films of fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique. Stannous chloride (SnCl2c2H2O) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) were mixed with isopropyl alcohol to serve as source solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum showed all the peaks of the crystalline SnO2. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed the particle size to be nearly 6 nm, which indicated the nanocrystalline structure of

  13. Influence of the molar concentration and substrate temperature on fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films chemically sprayed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rodríguez-Báez; A. Maldonado; G. Torres-Delgado; R. Castanedo-Pérez; M. de la L. Olvera

    2006-01-01

    The effect of both the molar concentration of the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the electrical, morphological, structural and optical properties of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on glass substrates is analyzed in this work. All the starting solutions employed were aged for 10 days before the deposition. The results show that as the

  14. Fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films: influence of precursor flow rate on violet luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Anusha; Dakshnamoorthy, Arivuoli

    2015-06-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films were deposited by the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition method with variable precursor flow rates (0.5-2.5 ml/min). X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure of the derived FZO nanocrystalline thin films. Extensive crystallinity analysis of the film deposited at 1 ml/min was done by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Field emission scanning electron microscope images apparent the gradual evolution from spherical grains and hexagonal platelet like surface morphology with increased flow rate. Optical transparency and photoluminescence (PL) are strongly influenced by flow rate. PL intensity and transparency increase with decreased flow rate. The optical bandgap was tuned significantly by increase in flow rate and especially tuned the PL emission from violet to UV. High intense violet PL observed at flow rate of 1 ml/min and radiative transition of electrons from zinc vacancies level to the conduction band were found. Crystallinity, growth rate and roughness increase with increased flow rate.

  15. Electron scattering mechanisms in fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, G., E-mail: germrey@gmail.com; Consonni, V.; Bellet, D. [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS—Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Ternon, C. [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS—Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1/CEA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Modreanu, M. [Micro-Nanoelectronics Centre, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Mescot, X. [Institut de Microélectronique Electromagnétisme et Photonique-Laboratoire d'Hyperfréquences et de Caractérisation, Grenoble INP, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-14

    Polycrystalline fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) thin films have been grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. By varying growth conditions, several FTO specimens have been deposited and the study of their structural, electrical, and optical properties has been carried out. By systematically investigating the mobility as a function of carrier density, grain size, and crystallite size, the contribution of each physical mechanism involved in the electron scattering has been derived. A thorough comparison of experimental data and calculations allows to disentangle these different mechanisms and to deduce their relative importance. In particular, the roles of extended structural defects such as grain or twin boundaries as revealed by electron microscopy or x-ray diffraction along with ionized impurities are discussed. As a consequence, based on the quantitative analysis presented here, an experimental methodology leading to the improvement of the electro-optical properties of FTO thin films is reported. FTO thin films assuming an electrical resistivity as low as 3.7?·?10{sup ?4}???cm (square sheet resistance of 8??/?) while retaining good transmittance up to 86% (including substrate effect) in the visible range have been obtained.

  16. Effect of annealing on the transparent conducting properties of fluorine doped zinc oxide and tin oxide thin films - A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Anandhi, R.; Karthika, K.; Rajkumar, P. V.; Dineshbabu, N.; Ravidhas, C.

    2015-07-01

    Fluorine doped zinc oxide (FZO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films were deposited onto glass substrates at a temperature of 350 °C using spray pyrolysis technique. The annealing induced changes in the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were studied. The structural studies reveal that the post deposition annealing treatment causes drastic changes in the orientation of the crystallites in the case of FZO films whereas it does not affect significantly the structural properties of FTO films. These annealing induced changes in the structural properties of FZO film are reflected appropriately in optical, electrical and surface morphological properties also. But, no noticeable changes were observed in the case of FTO films.

  17. Integration of a stack of two fluorine doped silicon oxide thin films with interconnect metallization for a sub-0.35 ?m inter-metal dielectric application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Baud; G. Passemard; Y. Gobil; H. M'Saad; A. Corte; F. Pires; P. Fugier; P. Noel; P. Rabinzohn; I. Beinglass

    1997-01-01

    Fluorine doped silicon oxide films were deposited on HDP-CVD system and on PECVD system to realize a stack to be integrated in metal lines' architecture. Resistance to moisture absorption of both films was investigated by film exposure in humid atmosphere for 1 week followed by an annealing. Physical properties of uncapped FSG films were measured before and after test in

  18. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro; Takashi Ida; Hiroo Hashizume

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles

  19. Studies on micro-structural and electrical properties of spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films from low-cost precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Elangovan; K. Ramamurthi

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) on glass were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using stannous chloride (SnCl2) and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as precursors. The as-prepared films were characterized for their structural and electrical properties and are discussed in detail in this article. The surface morphology studies revealed that the films are grainy and the roughness of undoped films

  20. Epitaxial Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films on MgO deposited by high-pressure reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, K.; Lathrop, D. K.; Russek, S. E.; Buhrman, R. A.

    1989-10-01

    Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films have been prepared on MgO(100) substrates by rf reactive magnetron sputtering from a single ceramic target. By adopting high total pressures, typically 280 mTorr, and relatively low substrate temperatures of approximately 650 °C, epitaxial films with the relations (001) YBa2Cu3Oy?(001)MgO and [100]YBa2Cu3Oy?[100]MgO can be reproducibly obtained. A high degree of epitaxy is confirmed by x-ray pole figure measurements and ion channeling. These films require a brief rapid thermal oxygen anneal at typically 850 °C, to exhibit sharp superconducting transitions with zero resistance around 75 K. Films deposited at higher temperatures above 700 °C show transitions as deposited with zero resistance near 80 K. The quality of the transition is correlated with expanded lattice constants with the best transitions occurring in films whose lattice constants approach that of the bulk. The films have high critical current densities of 1-5×106 A/cm2 at 4.2 K. They also show good uniformity and excellent surface morphology with a roughness less than 10 nm and can be readily patterned to micrometer and submicrometer dimensions.

  1. Structural, mechanical and hydrophobic properties of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII–D)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zh. Q Yao; P Yang; N Huang; H Sun; J Wang

    2004-01-01

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (a-C:F) films with different fluorine content were fabricated on Si wafer by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII–D). Film composition and structure were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. Surface morphology and roughness were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hardness and scratch resistance were measured by nano-indentation and nano-scratch, respectively. Water

  2. Second harmonic generation of fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on soda-lime glass substrates by a chemical spray technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Morales-Saavedra; L. Castañeda

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) studies of fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates from an aged solution in conjunction with zinc pentanedionate, using the chemical spray deposition technique were carried out. The ?31(2) and ?33(2) independent tensorial components of the quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of the ZnO:F thin films were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray

  3. Fluorine-doped tin oxide surfaces modified by self-assembled alkanethiols for thin-film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A. C. T.; Gomes, D. J. C.; Silva, J. R.; Silva, G. B.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we have investigated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from alkanethiols on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surfaces, which were used as an anode for thin-film devices prepared from the conductive copolymer so-called sulfonated poly(thiophene-3-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]-2,5-diyl) (S-P3MEET). The assembled monolayers were characterized by using wetting contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. The results indicated that dodecanethiol molecules, CH3(CH2)11SH, were well assembled on the FTO surfaces. In addition, it was found similar values of wetting contact angle for dodecanethiol assembled on both FTO and Au surfaces. Concerning the thin-film device, current-voltage analysis revealed a hysteresis. This behavior was associated to a charge-trapping effect and also to structural changes of the SAMs. Finally, charge injection capability of tin oxide electrodes can be improved by using SAMs and then this approach can plays an important role in molecular-scale electronic devices.

  4. Preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:F) film on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Huang; Zhexun Yu; Shuqing Huang; Quanxin Zhang; Dongmei Li; Yanhong Luo; Qingbo Meng

    2010-01-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), one of the most popular transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials, coated on glass has been used in various applications including many new-generation solar cells. However, there is a lack of reporting when it comes to FTO coated on flexible transparent substrate. For this paper, spray pyrolysis technique was used to have FTO firstly coated on to

  5. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, Tatsuo; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ida, Takashi; Hashizume, Hiroo [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Tajimi, Gifu 507-0071 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2005-04-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles of 7 nm in average size show an ionization potential of 5.01 eV, as compared with {approx}4.76 and {approx}4.64 eV in ITO and FTO films, respectively, which decreases as the FTO particle size increases. The ionization potentials are practically invariant against oxidation and reduction treatments, promising a wide application of the films to transparent conducting oxide electrodes in organic electroluminescent devices and light-emitting devices of high efficiencies.

  6. Effect of concentration of SnCl 4 on sprayed fluorine doped tin oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale

    2008-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of F:SnO2 have been deposited onto preheated glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique by varying the concentration of SnCl4. A fine spray of the source solution using air as a carrier gas has grown films of thickness up to 1108nm. Optical absorption, X-ray diffraction, Van der Pauw technique for measurement of a sheet resistance and

  7. Spray deposition of highly transparent fluorine doped cadmium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Deokate; S. M. Pawar; A. V. Moholkar; V. S. Sawant; C. A. Pawar; C. H. Bhosale; K. Y. Rajpure

    2008-01-01

    The cadmium oxide (CdO) and F:CdO films have been deposited by spray pyrolysis method using cadmium acetate and ammonium fluoride as precursors for Cd and F ions, respectively. The effect of temperature and F doping on the structural, morphological, optical and Hall effect properties of sprayed CdO thin films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic

  8. Variation of applied field angular dependence of critical current density in YBCO thin films against deposition temperature and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, T.; Ichino, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichinose, A.; Matsumoto, K.

    For the magnetic flux pinning in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin films, artificial pinning centers (APC) like BaZrO3 and BaSnO3 nanorods act effectively when magnetic fields are applied parallel to the c-axis of the YBCO thin films. However, it is necessary that APC exist into a three dimentional shape and random distribution in order to enhance Jc against all angle range of applied magnetic fields. In this study, we reported YBCO thin films with low anisotropy of Jc against the magnetic field applied angle. As a result, using off-stoichiometric target composition of Y: Ba: Cu = 1: 2: 3.4 and high substrate temperatures, the YBCO thin films which were prepared by pulsed laser deposition method at more than 890 °C showed low anisotropic Jc, since the films included pinning centers acting against wide angle range of applied field.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    El Akkad, Fikry; Joseph, Sudeep [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

    2012-07-15

    The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (F{sub O}) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the V{sub O} concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the F{sub O} concentration and a decrease in both n and V{sub O} concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO{sub 2} matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine F{sub O} and tin vacancy V{sub Sn} defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a V{sub Sn} through the migration of Sn{sub Sn} host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

  10. Preparation of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconducting Thin Film by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Shinohara; Fumio Munakata; Mitsugu Yamanaka

    1988-01-01

    Y-Ba-Cu-O film was prepared by chemical vapor deposition using tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)yttrium(III) (Y(DPM)3), bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)barium(II) (Ba(HFA)2) and bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)copper(II) (Cu(HFA)2). Superconducting transition was observed with Tc(onset)=83 K and Tc(R{=}0){=}65 K for these CVD films after an annealing process. Typical films of Y-Ba-Cu-O on a (001) SrTiO3 substrate exhibited the presence of YBa2Cu3Oy according to X-ray diffraction patterns.

  11. Preparation of YBCO thin film by MOCVD method using new liquid metal organic precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tasaki; S. Yoshizawa; K. Koyama; Y. Fujino

    1999-01-01

    New low melting point yttrium, barium, and copper complexes were synthesized for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-octandionato)yttrium (Y(TMOD)3), Ba(TMOD)2, and bis(6-ethyl-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato)copper (Cu(EDMOD)2). The melting point of Y(TMOD)3, 95°C, is 80°C lower than that of the conventional tris(dipivalaylmethanato)yttrium (Y(DPM)3). The melting point of Cu(EDMOD)2 is 78°C, which is 120°C lower than that of Cu(DPM)2. For fabrication of YBa2Cu3Oy-? thin films,

  12. Effect of N2 Plasma Annealing on Properties of Fluorine Doped Silicon Dioxide Films with Low Dielectric Constant for Ultra-Large-Scale Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Peng-Fei; Ding, Shi-Jin; Wang, Ji-Tao; William, Wei Lee

    2002-06-01

    The influence of N2 plasma annealing on the properties of fluorine doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films is investigated. The stability of the dielectric constant of SiOF film is remarkably improved by the N2 plasma annealing. After enduring a moisture absorption test for six hours in a chamber with 60% humidity at 50°C, the dielectric constant variation of the annealed SiOF films is only 1.5%, while the variation for those SiOF films without annealing is 15.5%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic results show that the absorption peaks of Si-OH and H-OH of SiOF films are reduced after the N2 plasma annealing because the annealing can wipe off some unstable Si-F2 bonds in SiOF films. These unstable Si-F2 bonds are suitable to react with water, resulting in the degradation of SiOF film properties. Therefore, the N2 plasma annealing meliorates the properties of SiOF films with low dielectric constant.

  13. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

  14. The study of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (FSG) films property after thermal alloy for different film deposition temperature for sub-0.18 um logic yield improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Wu; Y. K. Wang; Y. Cheng; J. K. Wang; G. C. Wang; M. H. Yo; C. T. Lee; T. Lu; S. Wang; J. Li; Chenson Lai

    2000-01-01

    As feature size shrinks to the deep sub-micron regime, the RC delay of metal interconnection will increase and limit the performance of high-speed devices. To address this problem, fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) has been introduced in advanced IMD applications. Many deposition methods have been studied, including PECVD and HDP CVD. HDP CVD was finally applied to most deep sub-micron processes

  15. Electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition of fluorine doped tin oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chandrasekhar; K. L. Choy

    2001-01-01

    Dense and adherent fluorine doped tin oxide films were successfully deposited onto glass substrates using a novel, cost-effective electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition process. A mixture of tin acetate in the presence of HF in methanol was used as the precursor for deposition onto float glass at 550°C. The influence of substrate temperature on deposition was established. The microstructure of

  16. Low Dielectric Constant Interlayer Using Fluorine-Doped Silicon Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Usami; Kimiaki Shimokawa; Masaki Yoshimaru

    1994-01-01

    A new interlayer dielectric film using fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) for multilevel interconnection of very large scale integration (VLSI) has been fabricated. The film is deposited by a simple technique, which is hexafluoroethane ( C2F6) addition to conventional tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-based plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). Si F bond formation in the film is detected by chemical bonding structural studies using

  17. Organic light emitting diodes using fluorine doped tin oxide thin films, deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis, as anode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ouerfelli; S. Ouro Djobo; J. C. Bernède; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; Y. Berredjem

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of tin oxide doped with fluorine (SnO2:F) have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis. The SnO2:F thin films are crystallized in the excepted tetragonal structure, with a preferential orientation of their crystallites along the (200) direction. They exhibit a good transparency in the visible and a small resistivity (?=4.23×10?4?cm). These SnO2:F thin films have been used as anode

  18. Low-temperature growth of highly crystallized transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide films by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro

    2004-01-01

    Following the procedure by Sawada et al. (Thin Solid Films 409 (2002) 46), high-quality SnO2:F films were grown on glass substrates at relatively low temperatures of 325–340°C by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using a perfume atomizer for cosmetics use. Even though the substrate temperature is low, as-deposited films show a high optical transmittance of 92% in the visible range, a

  19. Characteristics of Fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films grown by Streaming process for Electrodeless Electrochemical Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Gbadebo; Khalilzadeh-Rezaie, Farnood; Cleary, Justin W.; Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Suu, Koukou; Schoenfeld, Winston V.; Peale, Robert E.; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.

    2015-04-01

    This work investigated the characteristics of SnO2: F films grown by Streaming Process for Electrodeless Electrochemical Deposition (SPEED). Stannic chloride (SnCl4) and ammonium fluoride (NH4 F) was dissolved in a mixture of deionized water and organic solvents. The preheated substrate temperature was varied between 450 and 530° C. High quality SnO2: F films were grown at all the substrate temperatures studied. The typical film thickness was 250 nm. XRD shows that the grown films are polycrystalline SnO2 with a tetragonal crystal structure. The average optical transmission of the films was around 93% throughout the wavelength of 400 to 1000 nm. The lowest electrical resistivity achieved was 6 x 10-4 ? cm. The Hall measurements showed that the film is an n-type semiconductor, with the highest carrier mobility of 8.3 cm2/V.s, and concentration of 1 x 1021 cm-3. The direct band gap was determined to be 4 eV from the transmittance spectrum.

  20. Study on precipitations of fluorine-doped silicon oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wu; Ying-Lang Wang; Chuan-Pu Liu; Shih-Chieh Chang; Cheng-Tzu Kuo; Chyung Ay

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation on fluorine-doped silicon oxide film (SiOF) was observed while exposure to air for a prolonged period of time (>4 h). Most of the precipitates are less than 1 ?m and clustered at wafer center. Under SEM view, the precipitation shows hexagonal shape, and mainly composed of Si and O. SIMS analysis showed that SiOF films without F precipitates showed

  1. Effect of solvent ratio on the properties of highly oriented sprayed fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of F:SnO2 have been deposited onto preheated glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique using pentahydrate stannic chloride (SnCl4·5H2O) and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as precursors and mixture of water and propane-2-ol as solvent. The concentration of SnCl4·5H2O and NH4F is kept fixed and the ratio of water and propane-2-ol solvent in the spraying solution is varied.

  2. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation via atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, Isvar A.; Peng, Qing; Ferrall, Isa L.; Rieth, Adam J.; Hoertz, Paul G.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 is an exemplary semiconductor anode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting electrodes due to its functionality, long-term stability in corrosive environments, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent density were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 onto a porous, transparent, and conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle (nanoFTO) scaffold fabricated by solution processing. The simplicity and disordered nature of the nanoFTO nanostructure combined with the ultrathin conformal ALD TiO2 coatings offers advantages including decoupling charge carrier diffusion length from optical penetration depth, increased photon absorption probability through scattering, complimentary photon absorption, and favorable interfaces for charge separation and transfer across the various junctions. We examine the effects of porosity of the nanoFTO scaffold and thickness of the TiO2 coating on PEC performance and achieve an optimal photocurrent of 0.7 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl under 100 mW cm-2 AM 1.5 G irradiation in a 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, the fundamental mechanisms behind the improvements are characterized via cyclic voltammetry, incident photon-to-current efficiency, transient photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and are contrasted with those of single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires. The strategies employed in this work highlight the opportunities inherent to these types of heteronanostructures, where the lessons may be applied to improve the PEC conversion efficiencies of other promising semiconductors, such as hematite (?-Fe2O3) and other materials more sensitive to visible light.TiO2 is an exemplary semiconductor anode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting electrodes due to its functionality, long-term stability in corrosive environments, nontoxicity, and low cost. In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with enhanced photocurrent density were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 onto a porous, transparent, and conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticle (nanoFTO) scaffold fabricated by solution processing. The simplicity and disordered nature of the nanoFTO nanostructure combined with the ultrathin conformal ALD TiO2 coatings offers advantages including decoupling charge carrier diffusion length from optical penetration depth, increased photon absorption probability through scattering, complimentary photon absorption, and favorable interfaces for charge separation and transfer across the various junctions. We examine the effects of porosity of the nanoFTO scaffold and thickness of the TiO2 coating on PEC performance and achieve an optimal photocurrent of 0.7 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl under 100 mW cm-2 AM 1.5 G irradiation in a 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, the fundamental mechanisms behind the improvements are characterized via cyclic voltammetry, incident photon-to-current efficiency, transient photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and are contrasted with those of single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires. The strategies employed in this work highlight the opportunities inherent to these types of heteronanostructures, where the lessons may be applied to improve the PEC conversion efficiencies of other promising semiconductors, such as hematite (?-Fe2O3) and other materials more sensitive to visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07377k

  3. YBCO films grown by reactive co-evaporation on simplified IBAD-MgO coated conductor templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, Vladimir; Rowley, E. John; Coulter, Yates; Maiorov, B.; Holesinger, Terry; Yung, Chris; Glyantsev, Viktor; Moeckly, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate coated conductors fabricated by reactive co-evaporation of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) by cyclic deposition and reaction (RCE-CDR) on ion-beam-assisted-deposition- (IBAD-) textured templates simplified by the elimination of the epitaxial buffer layer. Hastelloy substrates, both polished and unpolished, were used as a starting material for the IBAD templates. Y2O3 bed layers were then deposited followed by IBAD-textured MgO and a thin homoepitaxial MgO layer. The MgO-terminated templates were used for direct deposition of YBCO by RCE-CDR. Critical current densities obtained for the undoped YBCO material are comparable to the best values measured previously with the use of LaMnO3 or SrTiO3 epitaxial buffer layers and state-of-the-art coated conductor results. The structural characterization data indicate a well oriented YBCO film with a robust template. Electrical measurements also indicate no weak links and a typical magnetic field behavior of undoped YBCO, characterized by a low density of naturally occurring strong pinning centers and correlations along the ab direction.

  4. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles on fluorine-doped tin oxide: Control of particle density and size distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eoin Sheridan; Johan Hjelm; Robert J. Forster

    2007-01-01

    Electrodeposition of gold island films of nanometre dimensions (<100nm) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FDTO) coated glass is reported. The effect of altering the overpotential of the potentiostatic transient, the use of both nucleation and growth pulses as well as the immobilisation of a spontaneously adsorbed monolayer of, 3-aminopropyldimethylmethoxysilane, is reported. Deposits ranging from isolated particles to dense arrays of nanometre

  5. Fluorine doping into diamond-like carbon coatings inhibits protein adsorption and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Okazaki, Yuko; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    The first major event when a medical device comes in contact with blood is the adsorption of plasma proteins. Protein adsorption on the material surface leads to the activation of the blood coagulation cascade and the inflammatory process, which impair the lifetime of the material. Various efforts have been made to minimize protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Recently, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has received much attention because of their antithrombogenicity. We recently reported that coating silicon substrates with fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) drastically suppresses platelet adhesion and activation. Here, we evaluated the protein adsorption on the material surfaces and clarified the relationship between protein adsorption and platelet behaviors, using polycarbonate and DLC- or F-DLC-coated polycarbonate. The adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen were assessed using a colorimetric protein assay, and platelet adhesion and activation were examined using a differential interference contrast microscope. A higher ratio of albumin to fibrinogen adsorption was observed on F-DLC than on DLC and polycarbonate films, indicating that the F-DLC film should prevent thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion and activation on the F-DLC films were more strongly suppressed as the amount of fluorine doping was increased. These results show that the F-DLC coating may be useful for blood-contacting devices. PMID:17600326

  6. Optical properties of indium tin oxide and fluorine-doped tin oxide surfaces: correlation of reflectivity, skin depth, and plasmon frequency with conductivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Brewer; Stefan Franzen

    2002-01-01

    Variable angle reflectance FTIR was used to investigate the reflectance of thin films of either indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (SFO) on glass substrates in the mid-IR. The reflectance was observed to depend on the incident angle, wavenumber, and the polarization used. The Drude model and the Fresnel equations for reflection at a single dielectric boundary were

  7. The surface modification of fluorine-doped tin oxide by the underpotential deposition of noble metals

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.H.; Hager, H.E.

    1986-12-01

    The surface modification of fluorine-doped tin oxide by the underpotential deposition of noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt, and Au) strongly influences the rate of sulfide-polysulfide reduction at the SnO/sub 2/ electrode. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterize as-prepared and surface modified tin oxide preceding and following electrode operation. The noble metal coverages follow the relative ordering: Au, Pt < Ru, Pd < Rh, showing an identical trend as the observed enhancement effects. Depth profile analysis shows that rhodium is found more than 100A into the tin oxide film. This spatial distribution is apparently an artifact of the columnar SnO/sub 2/ structure. The XPS atom bonding peaks for the noble metals are shifted from the peak values associated with metallic states by an amount which is dependent on the exposure history of the tin oxide and yet independent of the noble metal species.

  8. Comparison of characteristics of fluorine doped zinc and gallium tin oxide composite thin films deposited on stainless steel 316 bipolar plate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihun; Hudaya, Chairul; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-09-01

    In order to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plates currently used for the PEMFC stack, coated SUS 316 was employed. As a metallic bipolar plate, coated SUS 316 can provide higher mechanical strength, better durability to shocks and vibration, less permeability, improved thermal and bulk electrical conductivity, as well as being thinner and lighter. To enhance the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of SUS 316, the deposition of GTO:F and ZTO:F composite films was carried out by ECR-MOCVD. The surface morphology of the films consisted of tiny elliptically shaped grains with a thickness of 1 microm. The corrosion current for GTO:F was 0.13 Acm(-2) which was much lower than that of bare SUS 316 (50.16 Acm(-2)). The GTO:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The GTO:F coated film exhibited the highest cell voltage and power density due to its lower ICR values. PMID:22097519

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2. PMID:24200650

  10. Fabrication of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon stamps for UV nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Altun, A O; Jeong, J H; Rha, J J; Choi, D G; Kim, K D; Lee, E S

    2006-09-28

    Two fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) stamps with sub-100 nm line patterns were fabricated using a direct etching method. These were applied successfully to ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography without requiring an anti-adhesion layer coating. Tests were performed to determine the optimum fluorine concentration for the F-DLC stamps. The ideal stamp material consisted of 25 at.% F-DLC with a contact angle of 85°, UV transmittance of 16.4-26.8%, and hardness of 4.5 GPa. The O(2) plasma etch rate of the DLC was increased considerably by the fluorine doping, making it comparable to the etch rate of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Thus, only PMMA was used as the etch mask in the fabrication of the stamps. PMID:21727593

  11. Investigation on the magnetic and electrical properties of fluorine-doped magnetites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Li, Ran; Chen, Qianwang

    2012-08-01

    A fluorine-doped magnetite was synthesized using ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) powder and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as starting materials by a hydrothermal method and by subsequently annealing in vacuum atmosphere at 1450 °C. The content of fluorine dopants was measured by x-ray electron spectroscopy. When an oxygen atom was replaced by a fluorine atom, it would introduce one excess electron to reduce an Fe3+ ion to an Fe2+ ion in a tetrahedral A site for charge compensation, leading to a large variation in magnetic and electrical properties. The appearance of Fe2+ ions in the tetrahedral A sites caused a decrease in the spin magnetic moment, resulting in an increase in the Landé g-factor between 110 and 200 K, and the magnetic susceptibility in the range 10-350 K. At the same time, the electrons of the Fe2+ ions in A sites may escape and turn into new carriers in the presence of an electrical bias field, resulting in a reduction in the resistance of the fluorine-doped magnetite from 30 to 292 K.

  12. Integration of fluorine-doped silicon oxide in copper pilot line for 0.12-?m technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P Reynard; C Verove; E Sabouret; P Motte; B Descouts; C Chaton; J Michailos; K Barla

    2002-01-01

    The FSG (fluorine-doped silicon glass) was introduced as dielectric for copper interconnects in order to take advantage of its lower dielectric constant. With a gain of 18% in the constant value, it makes the shrink of metal dimension possible for 0.12-?m technology devices with limited cross-talks or delays in the information transmission. In spite of its strong sensitivity to water

  13. Effect of the fluorine content on the structural and electrical properties of SnO 2 and ZnO–SnO 2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo I. Martinez; Dwight R. Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide thin films of SnO2 (TO) and of ZnO–SnO2 binary–binary system (ZO–TO system) have been prepared by the spray pyrolysis method. In this work, we study the influence of fluorine doping concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of films above mentioned. Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films on glass present resistivity around to 4×10?4 ?

  14. Effect of fluorine doping on phase formation and properties of Bi(Pb)-2223 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amira, A.; Saoudel, A.; Boudjadja, Y.; Amirouche, L.; Mahamdioua, N.; Varilci, A.; Akdogan, M.; Terzioglu, C.; Mosbah, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Superconducting ceramics of Bi 1.6Pb 0.4Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O yF x ( x = 0-0.6) are prepared in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized. The study shows that the melting point of the samples decreases as fluorine content increases. As a consequence, the grain size increases with the doping level and for x = 0.6, the sample is completely deformed and presents a concave shape making impossible the measurements on it. The Vickers microhardness reaches its maximum for x = 0.2. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction results reveals that all the samples are composed of only Bi(Pb)-2212 and Bi(Pb)-2223 phases. The highest proportion of the high T c phase (Bi(Pb)-2223) is also observed for x = 0.2 and is about 67.32%. The refinement of cell parameters is done by considering the structural modulation. The results show that the doping leads to a reduction of cell volume as well as the a axis component of modulation. From resistivity versus temperature measurements, it is shown that the doped phases exhibit higher onset critical transition temperatures than the undoped one. The residual resistivity increases with fluorine content suggesting that the doping introduces structural defects and disorder into the samples. The obtained critical current density at 77 K under zero magnetic field also increases with fluorine doping.

  15. Optoelectrochemical biorecognition by optically transparent highly conductive graphene-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, F; Brigo, L; Favaro, M; Luni, C; Zoso, A; Cattelan, M; Agnoli, S; Brusatin, G; Granozzi, G; Giomo, M; Elvassore, N

    2014-12-24

    Both optical and electrochemical graphene-based sensors have gone through rapid development, reaching high sensitivity at low cost and with fast response time. However, the complex validating biochemical operations, needed for their consistent use, currently limits their effective application. We propose an integration strategy for optoelectrochemical detection that overcomes previous limitations of these sensors used separately. We develop an optoelectrochemical sensor for aptamer-mediated protein detection based on few-layer graphene immobilization on selectively modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. Our results show that the electrochemical properties of graphene-modified FTO samples are suitable for complex biological detection due to the stability and inertness of the engineered electrodic interface. In addition, few-layer immobilization of graphene sheets through electrostatic linkage with an electrochemically grafted FTO surface allows obtaining an optically accessible and highly conductive platform. As a proof of concept, we used insulin as the target molecule to reveal in solution. Because of its transparency and low sampling volume (a few microliters), our sensing unit can be easily integrated in lab-on-a-chip cell culture systems for effectively monitoring subnanomolar concentrations of proteins relevant for biomedical applications. PMID:25438087

  16. Electrosynthesis of the molybdenum disulphide thin films and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S Patil

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of molybdenum disulphide have been prepared by electrodeposition from an aqueous bath by using molybdenum trioxide and sodium thiosulphate as Mo+ ion and S?2 ion sources, respectively. The films deposited onto stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates were adherent to the substrate. X-ray diffraction studies show that films are polycrystalline. SEM shows films are

  17. Effect of electrodeposition modes on surface characteristics and corrosion properties of fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite coatings on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, E. C.; Guan, S. K.; Wang, H. X.; Wang, L. G.; Zhu, S. J.; Hu, J. H.; Ren, C. X.; Gao, J. H.; Feng, Y. S.

    2011-03-01

    The microstructure, morphology and composition highly determine the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of coating. In traditional cathodic electrodeposition process, because of the unfavorable effects of the polarization of concentration difference and H 2 evolution, fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite coating was loose and porous. This coating could not ensure the long-term stability of the Mg alloy implants. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of coating, pulse electrodeposition and H 2O 2 were introduced into the electrodeposition to deposit fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite coating. As a comparative study, microstructure, corrosion resistance properties and bioactivity of traditional cathodic electrodeposition coating and pulse electrodeposition coating were investigated, respectively. The results revealed that nano fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite coating could be prepared by pulse electrodeposition, and the coating was dense and uniform. The potentiodynamic polarization experiment indicated that the dense and uniform coating could effectively protect Mg alloy substrate from corrosion. Immersion testing was performed in simulated body fluid. It was found that pulse electrodeposition coating could more effectively induce the precipitation of Mg 2+, Ca 2+ and PO 43- in comparison with traditional cathodic electrodeposition coating, because the nano phase had comparatively high specific surface area. Thus magnesium alloy coated with fluorine-doped nano-hydroxyapatite coating may be a promising candidate as biodegradable bone implants, and was worthwhile to further investigate the in vivo degradation behavior.

  18. Optical properties and dye adsorption characteristics of acicular crystal assembled TiO 2 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitake Masuda; Kazumi Kato

    2009-01-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates were modified with acicular crystal assembled TiO2 thin films. The thin films increased transparency and decreased reflectance of the substrates. The films had high transparency over 80% in the range from 400 to 850nm. They were about 8% higher than those of bare FTO substrates. The films had low reflectance of about 11% in

  19. Effect of post annealing treatment on electrochromic properties of spray deposited niobium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; C. A. Betty; V. Ganesan; P. S. Patil

    2007-01-01

    Niobium oxide thin films were deposited on the glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. During deposition of the films various process parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of sprayed solution were optimized to obtain well adherent and transparent films. The films prepared were further annealed and

  20. The REPUSIL process and the capability of fluorine doping for the adjustment of optical and thermochemical properties in silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, K.; Grimm, St.; Kalide, A.; Dellith, J.; Leich, M.; Schwuchow, A.; Unger, S.; Langner, A.; Schötz, G.; Bartelt, H.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the fluorine incorporation in powder based materials for the fabrication of Al and Al/Yb co-doped silica glasses. The achieved maximum Fluorine concentration of 1.55 mol% SiF4 corresponds to a refractive index decrease of -8 x 10-3. Simultaneously, the Tg of the doped material is reduced by about 200 K compared to pure silica. Moreover, the fluorine doping is also eminently suitable for the direct refractive index adjustment in active doped silica glass materials (e.g. Al/Yb or Al/Tm). The index matching with pure silica is possible to date up to 2.7 mol% Al2O3 and 0.1 mol% Yb2O3. The additional influence on the blue shift of the UV transmission will also be discussed.

  1. Efficient electrochromic nickel oxide thin films by electrodeposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Sonavane; A. I. Inamdar; P. S. Shinde; H. P. Deshmukh; R. S. Patil; P. S. Patil

    2010-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were prepared by electrodeposition technique onto the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates in one step deposition at 20, 30, 40 and 50min deposition times respectively. The effect of film thickness (thereby microstructural changes) on their structural, morphological, optical and electrochromic properties was investigated. The mass change with potential and cyclic voltammogram was

  2. Room temperature electrodeposition and characterization of bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films from aqueous nitrate bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Gujar; V. R. Shinde; S. S. Kulkarni; H. M. Pathan; C. D. Lokhande

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method from aqueous nitrate bath at room temperature. The various preparative parameters, such as bath composition, current density, deposition time, etc were optimized to get good quality BFO thin films. The structural, surface morphological, optical and dielectrical properties of the films

  3. Superconductivity and phase diagram in iron-based arsenic-oxides ReFeAsO1?? (Re = rare-earth metal) without fluorine doping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-An Ren; Guang-Can Che; Xiao-Li Dong; Jie Yang; Wei Lu; Wei Yi; Xiao-Li Shen; Zheng-Cai Li; Li-Ling Sun; Fang Zhou; Zhong-Xian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Here we report a new class of superconductors prepared by high-pressure synthesis in the quaternary family ReFeAsO1?? (Re=Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce, La) without fluorine doping. The onset superconducting critical temperature (Tc) in these compounds increases with the reduction of the Re atom size, and the highest Tc obtained so far is 55 K in SmFeAsO1??. For the NdFeAsO1?? compound with

  4. HTS dual-band bandpass filters using stub-loaded hair-pin resonators for mobile communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Sugiyama, S.

    2014-09-01

    A HTS dual-band bandpass filter is developed to obtain sharp-cut off characteristics for mobile communication systems. The filter is composed of five stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with H-shaped waveguides between them. The main advantage of the proposed filter is to allow independent control of the center frequency of the first and second bands. The bandwidths can be flexibly adjusted using the H-shaped waveguide. An electromagnetic simulator was used to design and analyze the filter, which have a 3.5-GHz center frequency and a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the first band and a 5.0-GHz center frequency and a 100-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the second band. The filter was fabricated using YBa2Cu3Oy thin film on an Al2O3 substrate. Ground plane was fabricated using Au thin film. The measured frequency responses of the filter tally well with the simulated ones.

  5. Studies on ionic intercalation properties of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D Kadam; S. H Pawar; P. S Patil

    2001-01-01

    Cobalt oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique onto the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from cobalt chloride solution. They were characterized by cyclic-voltammetry, chronoamperometry and spectrophotometry techniques. The films exhibited anodic electrochromism, changing colour from grey to pale yellow. Colouration efficiency at 633nm was calculated to be 12cm2C?1.

  6. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically sprayed CdO thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Bhosale; A. V. Kambale; A. V. Kokate; K. Y. Rajpure

    2005-01-01

    The cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been deposited onto amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The aqueous solution containing precursor of Cd has been used to obtain good quality deposits at optimized preparative parameters. The films have been characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric

  7. Detailed comparison of transparent front contacts for thin film silicon solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Calnan; S. Neubert; C. Nock; O. Gabriel; M. Rohde; F. Ruske; B. Stannowski; R. Schlatmann

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution we compare the optical, electronic and surface morphological properties of various textured transparent conducting oxides (TCO) based on zinc oxide and fluorine doped tin oxide. Since the TCO material properties tend to be interrelated, comparison of such films is a rather complex exercise. The TCO films were characterised by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, angle

  8. Effect of deposition methods on the properties of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis and magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight R Acosta

    2004-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis methods onto glass and glass coated with fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. For films deposited by the sputtering technique we have studied the effect of the total pressure of an

  9. Strong inter-conduction-band absorption in heavily fluorine doped tin oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla D. Canestraro; Marcela M. Oliveira; Rogério Valaski; Marcus V. S. da Silva; Denis G. F. David; Iuri Pepe; Antonio Ferreira da Silva; Lucimara S. Roman; Clas Persson

    2008-01-01

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of thin film tin oxide (TO), F-doped tin oxide (FTO; nF?6×1020cm?3) and highly F-doped tin oxide (hFTO; nF?10×1020cm?3), grown by spray pyrolysis technique, are studied by atomic force microscopy, Hall effect, X-ray fluorescence and transmission\\/reflection measurements. The resistivity (?=32×10?4?cm for intrinsic tin oxide) shows intriguing characteristics when F concentration nF is increased (?=6×10?4?cm for

  10. Growth and characterisation of electrodeposited ZnO thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Wellings; N. B. Chaure; S. N. Heavens; I. M. Dharmadasa

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical method has been used to deposit zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films from aqueous zinc nitrate solution at 80 °C onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. ZnO thin films were grown between ? 0.900 and ? 1.025 V vs Ag\\/AgCl as established by voltammogram. Characterisation of ZnO films was carried out for both as-deposited and annealed films in order to

  11. Effects of fluorine doping on thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Jian; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, YuCheng; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Jichao; Zhu, Yuanhu; Li, Maokui; Mei, Liangmo

    2015-02-01

    The thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics, doped with different contents of fluorine at the oxygen sites, were investigated in the temperature range of 323 to 1073 K. The electrical resistivity is reduced significantly after fluorine doping. However, the magnitudes of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient (S), and slope of S at high temperatures (dS/dT) vary non-monotonically with increasing doping contents, indicating that doped fluorine ions not only act as electron donors, but also influence band structure. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases when fluorine ions are slightly doped, and increases with increasing fluorine content because of the increasing average grain size. The thermoelectric performance is enhanced by slight fluorine doping due to the increase of the power factor and the reduction of thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric figure of merit reaches maximum value (0.21 at 1073 K) in the Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O5.95F0.05 sample.

  12. Electrochromic properties of spray-deposited niobium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; S. B. Patil; P. S. Patil

    2006-01-01

    Niobium oxide thin films were deposited on the glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Various preparative parameters like nozzle to substrate distance, spray rate, concentration of sprayed solution were optimized to obtain good substrate-adherent and transparent films. Morphological and structural characterizations of the films were carried out using scanning electron microscopy

  13. Microwave shielding of fluorine-doped tin oxide film obtained by spray pyrolysis studied by electrical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinger, C. P. L.; da Cunha, A. F.; Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G. M.; Costa, L. C.

    2009-04-01

    In this work, we report dc conductivity and Hall effect results for glasses coated with commercial In2O3:Sn and SnO2:F. Van der Pauw Hall effect and resistivity measurements were used to carry out the sheet resistance of the samples and to determine their carrier density, mobility, and conductivity from 10 to 325 K. We calculated the transmission from the dc measurements and compared it with the microwave response of a typical microwave oven door used as a barrier on a cavity resonator, at 2.8 GHz. By controlling the oxygen doping through the H2O amount in the solution, we were able to increase the mobility of SnO2:F sample and as a consequence obtained an improved microwave shielding power. We estimated that, for the best case, a coating 13.2 ?m thick should suffice for a shielding power similar to that of a microwave oven door.

  14. Spray pyrolytically deposited PbS thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Thangaraju; P. Kaliannan

    2000-01-01

    The spray pyrolysis technique has been employed to prepare uniform, large-area thin-film coatings of PbS on glass and on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting substrates at various substrate temperatures. Growth of polycrystalline PbS films occurred at a lower temperature (TS = 275 °C) on conducting substrate than on glass (TS = 325 °C) and oriented growth of polycrystalline cubic PbS

  15. Studies on electrochromic properties of nickel oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Kadam; P. S. Patil

    2001-01-01

    Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel chloride solution. Transparent NiO-thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature 350°C. The films were cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (111) direction. Infrared spectroscopy results show presence of free hydroxyl ion

  16. Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of SnS and SnS2 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Thangaraju; P. Kaliannan

    2000-01-01

    The spray pyrolysis technique is employed to prepare thin films of SnS on glass substrates and SnS2 on glass as well as fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. The pyrolysis temperatures of SnS and SnS2 are 350 °C and 275 °C, respectively. The films are found to be n-type semiconductors. The SnS thin film is amorphous, whereas the

  17. Large-area SnO 2: F thin films by offline APCVD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wang; Yucheng Wu; Yongqiang Qin; Zhihai Zhang; Chengwu Shi; Qingfeng Zhang; Changhao Li; Xiaohong Xia; Stanley Sun; Leon Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the successful preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films on large-area glass substrates (1245mm×635mm×3mm) by self-designed offline atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. The FTO thin films were achieved through a combinatorial chemistry approach using tin tetrachloride, water and oxygen as precursors and Freon (F-152, C2H4F2) as dopant. The deposited films were characterized

  18. Comparison of electrochromic amorphous and crystalline electron beam deposited WO 3 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Joraid

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films were prepared by an electron beam deposition technique. Films were deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates maintained at 523K. The as-deposited films were found to be amorphous and crystallized after annealing at 673K. The electrochromic and optical properties, structure, and morphology are strongly dependent on the annealing conditions. Cyclic voltammetry (C-V) was carried

  19. Stability and Application to Multilevel Metallization of Fluorine-Doped Silicon Oxide by High-Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Koyanagi; Koji Kishimoto; Tai-Chan Huo; Akira Matsumoto; Norio Okada; Naotaka Sumihiro; Hideki Gomi

    2000-01-01

    We report the application of biased high-density-plasma-chemical-vapor-deposited (HDP-CVD) SiOF films to multilevel metallization technology. We discuss the reason for the SiOF film's low dielectric constant and illustrate the optimal deposition conditions. The fluorine concentration in the HDP-CVD SiOF film can affect the gap filling characteristics. We observed that the dielectric constant of this SiOF film is 3.7 for a fluorine

  20. Effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO2: F thin films prepared by spray ultrasonic for solar cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaoua, Boubaker; Abbas, Soumaia; Rahal, Achour; Benhaoua, Atmane; Aida, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, undoped tin dioxide (SnO2) and fluorine doped tin dioxide (SnO2: F) thin films were deposited on 480 °C heated glass using spray ultrasonic technique. SnCl2 and NH4F were used as sources of SnO2 and fluorine doping respectively. Effects of films thickness on the optical, structural and opto-electrical properties of undoped and 6 wt.% fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) thin films were investigated. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency of about 76-84% in visible region. The optical gap, for SnO2 and 6 wt.% F doped SnO2 thin films, were found to be in 3.77-3.93 eV range. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that both SnO2 and SnO2: F films were polycrystalline with cassiterite tetragonal crystal structure. The preferential orientation for undoped SnO2 was along (2 1 1) plane whereas F doped SnO2 preferential orientations were along (2 0 0) planes. The calculated grain sizes were in 25.63-33.53 nm average. Figure of merit for FTO thin films revealed maximum value about 9.04 × 10-3 (?-1) at ? = 800 nm. The high conducting and transparent elaborated FTO thin films are promising to be used as window layer in solar cells.

  1. Studies on photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell formed with SILAR deposited Bi 2Se 3–Sb 2Se 3 multilayer thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Sankapal; C. D. Lokhande

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Bi2Se3–Sb2Se3 multilayer thin films were deposited by simple and less investigated successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method onto glass- and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate from aqueous solution. Characterizations such as XRD, surface morphology and optical absorption have been carried out for Bi2Se3–Sb2Se3 thin films onto glass substrates. The films deposited onto FTO-coated glass substrates were

  2. 12% efficient CdTe\\/CdS thin film solar cells deposited by low-temperature close space sublimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Schaffner; Markus Motzko; Alexander Tueschen; Andreas Swirschuk; Hermann-Josef Schimper; Andreas Klein; Thomas Modes; Olaf Zywitzki; Wolfram Jaegermann

    2011-01-01

    We report 12% efficient CdS\\/CdTe thin film solar cells prepared by low temperature close space sublimation (CSS). Both semiconductor films, CdS and CdTe, were deposited by high vacuum CSS in superstrate configuration on glass substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) front contact. The CdTe deposition was carried out at a substrate temperature (Tsub) of 500 &convolu;C). The CdTe films

  3. New transparent conductive films: FTO coated ITO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Kawashima; Hiroshi Matsui; Nobuo Tanabe

    2003-01-01

    New transparent conductive films, fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films coated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films, were developed. These transparent conductive films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis deposition method at a substrate temperature of 350 °C in ITO and 400 °C in FTO. For ITO deposition, an ethanol solution of indium(III) chloride, InCl3·4H2O, and tin(II) chloride, SnCl2·2H2O [Sn\\/(In+Sn), 5 at.%

  4. Photoelectrochemical study of organic–inorganic hybrid thin films via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da Chen; Geng Wang; Wu Lu; Hao Zhang; Jinghong Li

    2007-01-01

    The stepwise assembly of negatively charged organic molecules (poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) or tetrasodium-meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS)) and positively charged TiO2 colloids on pretreated substrate surfaces utilizing the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach was investigated. The step-by-step formation of these films was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometry and electrochemistry. Photocurrent was generated upon light irradiation of the hybrid thin films assembled on fluorine-doped tin oxide

  5. Effect of annealing on properties of electrochemically deposited CdTe thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kokate; M. R. Asabe; P. P. Hankare; B. K. Chougule

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of CdTe have been deposited onto stainless steel and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates from aqueous acidic bath using electrodeposition technique. The different preparative parameters, such as deposition time, bath temperature and pH of the bath have been optimized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) technique to get good quality photosensitive material. The deposited films are annealed at different temperature

  6. Simple and rapid synthesis of NiO\\/PPy thin films with improved electrochromic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Sonavane; A. I. Inamdar; D. S. Dalavi; H. P. Deshmukh; P. S. Patil

    2010-01-01

    Nickel oxide\\/polypyrrole (NiO\\/PPy) thin films were deposited by a two step process in which the NiO layer was electrodeposited potentiostatically from an aqueous solution of NiCl2·6H2O at pH 7.5 on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, followed by the deposition of polypyrrole (PPy) thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from pyrrole mixed with ammonium persulfate (APS).

  7. Effect of substrate temperature on electrochromic properties of spray-deposited Ir-oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale

    2005-01-01

    Electrochromic iridium oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates, from iridium chloride solution. The substrate temperature was varied between 250 and 400°C. The as-deposited samples were amorphous. The electrochromic properties of thin films were studied in aqueous electrolyte (0.5N H2SO4) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry

  8. Acicular crystal-assembled TiO 2 thin films and their deposition mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitake Masuda; Kazumi Kato

    2009-01-01

    Acicular crystal-assembled TiO2 thin films were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates in aqueous solutions. They consisted of anatase crystals grown along the c-axis, which caused high c-axis orientation in X-ray diffraction patterns and electron diffraction patterns. Morphologies of TiO2 crystals were controlled by growth conditions to fabricate several types of TiO2 thin films. Furthermore, deposition mechanism of acicular

  9. Photoelectrochemical cells based on chemically deposited nanocrystalline Bi 2S 3 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Mane; B. R. Sankapal; C. D. Lokhande

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) thin films of various thicknesses having grain size between 7 and 34nm have been prepared by using chemical bath deposition method onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates (sheet resistance 20–30?cm2) from an aqueous acidic bath (pH=5). Bismuth nitrate and thioacetamide were used as Bi3+ and S2? ion sources, respectively. Films were prepared at

  10. Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of lanthanum selenide (La 2Se 3) thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Bagde; S. D. Sartale; C. D. Lokhande

    2003-01-01

    The versatile spray pyrolysis technique was employed to prepare thin films of lanthanum selenide (La2Se3) on glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates under optimized conditions. The deposition temperature was 250°C. The X-ray studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with single La2Se3 phase. The estimated optical band gap was found to be 2.6eV. The dielectric properties

  11. Electrochromic performance of sol-gel-deposited CeO2 films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilgun Ozer; John P. Cronin; Sevim Akyuz

    1999-01-01

    Ceria (CeO2) films were prepared by a sol-gel technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The coating solution was derived from cerium ammonium nitrate dissolved in ethanol with diethanolamine used as a complexing agent. Lithium intercalating properties of the films were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrochemical examinations were performed in a 0.5 M

  12. Longitudinal and transverse spin dynamics of donor-bound electrons in fluorine-doped ZnSe: Spin inertia versus Hanle effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, F.; Zhukov, E. A.; Greilich, A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Korenev, V. L.; Pawlis, A.; Bayer, M.

    2015-06-01

    The spin dynamics of strongly localized donor-bound electrons in fluorine-doped ZnSe epilayers is studied using pump-probe Kerr rotation techniques. A method exploiting the spin inertia is developed and used to measure the longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 in a wide range of magnetic fields, temperatures, and pump densities. The T1 time of the donor-bound electron spin of about 1.6 ? s remains nearly constant for external magnetic fields varied from zero up to 2.5 T (Faraday geometry) and in a temperature range 1.8-45 K. These findings impose severe restrictions on possible spin relaxation mechanisms. In our opinion they allow us to rule out scattering between free and donor-bound electrons, jumping of electrons between different donor centers, scattering between phonons and donor-bound electrons, and with less certainty charge fluctuations in the environment of the donors caused by the 1.5 ps pulsed laser excitation.

  13. Electrodeposited zinc oxide thin films: Nucleation and growth mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Inamdar; S. H. Mujawar; S. B. Sadale; A. C. Sonavane; M. B. Shelar; P. S. Shinde; P. S. Patil

    2007-01-01

    The nucleation and growth mechanism of the electrodeposited zinc oxide thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated (10–20?\\/cm2) glass substrates from acetate solution, without and with ex situ oxygen bubbling, has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The cyclic

  14. Preparation and characterization of nickel sulphide thin films using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D Sartale; C. D Lokhande

    2001-01-01

    Semiconducting nickel sulphide (NiS) thin films were deposited onto glass, fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass and single crystal Si(111) wafer substrates using a new successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The deposition conditions for obtaining good quality films such as concentration, pH and temperature of cationic and anionic precursor solutions, immersion and rinsing times and number

  15. Growth kinetics and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of cadmium selenide thin films: pH and substrate effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. G. Gudage; Ramphal Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been electrochemically deposited on the stainless steel (SS) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at room temperature (27°C). The growth kinetics of CdSe thin films was studied by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry with variation in the pH of the electrolytic bath. In addition, the influence of the substrate on the microstructural

  16. Fabrication of hydrophobic surface of titanium dioxide films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. More; J. L. Gunjakar; C. D. Lokhande; Oh Shim Joo

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption and contact angle measurement were applied to study the structural, surface morphological, optical and surface wettability properties of the as-deposited and annealed TiO2 films. The

  17. A study of substrate variation effects on the properties of nSb 2S 3 thin film\\/polyiodide\\/C photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y Rajpure; C. H Bhosale

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Sb2S3 deposited by spray pyrolysis technique are characterized electrochemically and photoelectrochemically in a polyiodide electrolyte. The effect of substrates on the working of n-Sb2S3 thin film\\/polyiodide\\/C photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells has been investigated. The role of substrates like titanium, stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-pre-deposited glass slides on the Mott–Schottky plots is investigated at various

  18. Effect of cooling rate of pre-annealed CdS thin film electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition: Enhancement of photoelectrochemical characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hikmat S. Hilal; Rania M. A. Ismail; Amer El-Hamouz; Ahed Zyoud; Iyad Saadeddin

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of CdS, deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) onto films of fluorine-doped tin oxide\\/glass (glass\\/FTO) substrates were prepared and investigated for photoelectrochemical conversion (PEC) of light into electricity. Knowing the hazardous nature of CdS, the focal theme of this work was to modify the electrodes by simple economic ways to maximize their conversion efficiency and minimize their degradation

  19. Electrochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles on TiO 2\\/FTO thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa E. Dávila-Martínez; Luisa F. Cueto; Eduardo M. Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on titanium oxideIV (TiO2) thin films supported on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxideIV) glass using a double pulse electrochemical deposition method. A systematic study of particle nucleation and growth is presented as a function of applied potential and time. Samples were analyzed by grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique and morphology was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy and

  20. Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Patil; S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; P. S. Shinde; H. P. Deshmukh; S. B. Sadale

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 doped WO3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500°C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of TiO2

  1. A study of the electrodeposition of Co–Cu alloys thin films on FTO substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loubna Mentar

    In this work, the early stages and the properties of the electrodeposition process of Co–Cu alloys thin films on a fluorine-doped\\u000a tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate from a sulfate bath were investigated using conventional electrochemical\\u000a techniques and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). FTO was chosen as a foreign substrate because of its high transparence and\\u000a its properties as inert material.

  2. Photoelectrochemical properties of electrochemically deposited CdIn 2S 4 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kokate; M. R. Asabe; S. D. Delekar; L. V. Gavali; I. S. Mulla; P. P. Hankare; B. K. Chougule

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of CdIn2S4 have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates from aqueous acidic bath using an electrodeposition technique. Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) disodium salt is used as complexing agent to obtain good-quality deposits by controlling the rate of the reaction. The different preparative parameters like concentration of bath, deposition time, bath

  3. Characterisation of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films on different substrates using electrolyte contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Samantilleke; M. F. Cerqueira; S. Heavens; P. Warren; I. M. Dharmadasa; G. E. A. Muftah; C. J. R. Silva; B. Marí

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous electrolyte contacts have been used to characterize CdS thin films grown using chemical bath deposition (CBD) on 4 different fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates (identified by the supplier Pilkington Group Limited as TEC-15, TEC-7, NSG low-E, and NSG Solar). The porosity of CdS layers prepared on different substrates was evaluated by voltammetry using the oxidation of

  4. Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO2 doped WO3 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Patil; S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; P. S. Shinde; H. P. Deshmukh; S. B. Sadale

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 doped WO3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500 °C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of

  5. Studies on electrodeposited silver sulphide thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Prabhune; N. S. Shinde; V. J. Fulari

    2008-01-01

    Silver sulphide (Ag2S) thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the electrodeposition process, in potentiostatic mode using silver nitrate (AgNO3), sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) as a precursor sources and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The deposition potential of the compound was investigated by

  6. Electrosynthesis and characterization of Fe doped CdSe thin films from ethylene glycol bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Pawar; A. V. Moholkar; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale

    2007-01-01

    The CdSe and Fe doped CdSe (Fe:CdSe) thin films have been electrodeposited potentiostatically onto the stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates, from ethylene glycol bath containing (CH3COO)2·Cd·2H2O, SeO2, and FeCl3 at room temperature. The doping concentration of Fe is optimized by using (photo) electrochemical (PEC) characterization technique. The deposition mechanism and Fe incorporation are studied by

  7. Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO 3 thin films for electrochromic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sivakumar; A. Moses Ezhil Raj; B. Subramanian; M. Jayachandran; D. C. Trivedi; C. Sanjeeviraja

    2004-01-01

    The n-type tungsten oxide (WO3) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15ml\\/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited

  8. Photoelectrochemical investigations of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Yadav; E. U. Masumdar

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and thiourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configurations n-CdS\\/1M (NaOH+Na2S+S)\\/C were used for studying the capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics in dark, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in dark and under illumination,

  9. Influence of pH on electrochemically deposited CdSe thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Pawar; A. V. Moholkar; C. H. Bhosale

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline CdSe thin films have been electrodeposited at room temperature on stainless steel (ss) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate from aqueous electrolytes containing salts of cadmium acetate and selenium dioxide. The pH of the bath is varied from 1.75, at the interval of 0.25, to 3. The effect of pH on the photoelectrochemical (PEC), structural and

  10. Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-CdSe thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Yadav; M. A. Barote; E. U. Masumdar

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and selenourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configuration n-CdSe\\/1M (NaOH+Na2S+S)\\/C is used for studying the capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics in dark, current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in dark and under illumination,

  11. Studies on electrodeposited As 2S 3 thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Shinde; V. B. Prabhune; H. D. Dhaigude; C. D. Lokhande; V. J. Fulari

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic trisulphide (As2S3) thin films have been deposited onto stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by electrodeposition technique using arsenic trioxide (As2O3) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) as precursors and ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent. Double exposure holographic interferometry (DEHI) technique was used to determine the thickness and stress of As2S3 thin

  12. Studies on electrodeposited Cd 1? x Fe x S thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Deshmukh; A. V. Kokate; D. J. Sathe

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of Cd1?xFexS have been prepared on stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using electrodeposition technique. Double distilled water containing precursors of Cd, Fe and S are used with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) disodium salt as a complexing agent to obtain good quality deposits by controlling the rate of reactions. The different preparative

  13. Surfactant-mediated growth of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films via electrodeposition and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Inamdar; S. H. Mujawar; V. Ganesan; P. S. Patil

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous zinc acetate solution onto fluorine-doped thin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The effect of organic surfactants like polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on their structural, morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical properties was studied. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed

  14. Retarded phase transition by fluorine doping in Li-rich layered Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Song, B. H.; Chang, Y. L.; Xia, H.; Yang, J. R.; Lee, K. S.; Lu, L.

    2015-06-01

    Li-rich layered cathode materials with composition of Li1.2-xMn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-xFx (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08) are synthesized by co-precipitation method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area analysis, high-resolution transition electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements are employed to investigate the changes in crystal structure, chemical composition, particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Improved electrochemical performance is observed for fluorine doped materials, among which Li1.15Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O1.95F0.05 exhibits the best cyclic performance as well as rate capability at room temperature. The discharge voltage plateau is stabilized by F doping due to the retarded layered-to-spinel phase transition, thus a high energy density output of the cell could be maintained. The mechanisms for the improved electrochemical properties of fluorine doped Li-rich layered cathode are also discussed.

  15. Preparation of mixed oxide MoO 3–WO 3 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique and their characterisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R Patil; P. S Patil

    2001-01-01

    Mixed oxide MoO3–WO3 thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at 300°C by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Equimolar ammonium tungstate and ammonium molybdate solutions were mixed together in volume proportions and used as precursors for spraying. The samples were annealed at 400°C for 1 h. They

  16. The electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide thin films deposited by solution thermolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R Patil; S. H Pawar; P. S Patil

    2000-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were prepared by solution thermolysis (ST-WO3). Films were deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates maintained at 300°C, which were then used as working electrodes in a three-electrode electrochromic (EC) cell. The EC cell configuration was FTO\\/WO3\\/0.1 N H2SO4\\/C, SCE. Cyclic voltammetry (C-V) was carried out in the potential range ?0.7 to +0.7 V (SCE),

  17. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  18. Photoelectrochemical characterization of chemically deposited (CdS) X (Bi 2S 3) 1? X composite thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R Ahire; B. R Sankapal; C. D Lokhande

    2001-01-01

    (CdS)X(Bi2S3)1?X composite thin films were chemically deposited using simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method onto glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. The films were annealed in air at 200°C for 2h and used to fabricate photoelectrochemical cells of configuration: (CdS)X(Bi2S3)1?X\\/Na2S?S?NaOH\\/C and their properties, such as current–voltage (I–V), photovoltaic output, spectral response, capacitance–vo1tage (Mott–Schotttty

  19. Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-ZnIn 2Se 4 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Yadav; P. S. Shinde; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale

    2008-01-01

    Zinc indium selenide (ZnIn2Se4) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solution of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), indium trichloride (InCl3), and selenourea (CH4N2Se), onto preheated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates at optimized conditions of substrate temperature and a solution concentration. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell configuration of n-ZnIn2Se4\\/1M (NaOH+Na2S+S)\\/C has been used for studying the

  20. Photoelectrochemical investigation of Ag 2S thin films deposited by SILAR method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Pathan; P. V Salunkhe; B. R Sankapal; C. D Lokhande

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of Ag2S have deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at the optimised conditions by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations were carried out using cell configuration as n-Ag2S\\/(1M NaOH+1M Na2S+1M S)\\/C.The dynamic current–voltage characteristic has been examined at room temperature (27°C). It is concluded that the Ag2S

  1. Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films

    E-print Network

    Angélica S. Mata; Silvio C. Ferreira, Jr.; Igor R. B. Ribeiro; Sukarno O. Ferreira

    2011-01-06

    CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine doped tin oxide by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent $\\alpha$ distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent $H$), previously reported [Ferreira \\textit{et al}., Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from a intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with $H\

  2. TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

    2014-07-01

    We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures. PMID:24876070

  3. Continuous Microreactor-Assisted Solution Deposition for Scalable Production of CdS Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, Sudhir; Su, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hung; Paul, Brian; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-06-13

    Solution deposition offers an attractive, low temperature option in the cost effective production of thin film solar cells. Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) was used to produce nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates with excellent uniformity. We report a novel liquid coating technique using a ceramic rod to efficiently and uniformly apply reactive solution to large substrates (152 mm × 152 mm). This technique represents an inexpensive approach to utilize the MASD on the substrate for uniform growth of CdS films. Nano-crystalline CdS films have been produced from liquid phase at ~90°C, with average thicknesses of 70 nm to 230 nm and with a 5 to 12% thickness variation. The CdS films produced were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-Ray diffraction to demonstrate their suitability to thin-film solar technology.

  4. Hydrogenated TiO2 film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogenated TiO2 film was obtained by annealing TiO2 film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO2 films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO2 film and pristine TiO2 film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO2 film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO2 surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO2 as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO2 film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO2 to generate more photocurrent.

  5. Electrodeposition of Ga-O Thin Films from Aqueous Gallium Sulfate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vequizo, Junie Jhon M.; Ichimura, Masaya

    2013-07-01

    Ga-O based thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate at room temperature from aqueous gallium sulfate solution with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Effects of different deposition parameters such as deposition voltage, amount of H2O2 and deposition time were investigated and presented. Nearly smooth and crack-free morphologies were attained at -1.0 V vs SCE deposition potential. As-deposited films showed O to Ga ratio of 2.0, which signified GaOOH formation. Thermal annealing of the as-deposited films in ambient air at 500-600 °C reduced the O/Ga ratio closer to stoichiometric gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and retained the morphology of Ga-O thin films. As-prepared films with ˜0.2 µm thickness had 80% transparency in the visible wavelength range.

  6. Effect of molarity on properties of spray pyrolysed SnO{sub 2}:F thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deepu, D. R., E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in; Kartha, C. Sudha, E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in; Vijayakumar, K. P., E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin - 682022 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were prepared by using automated Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) machine and the effect of concentration of the precursors on the conductivity and transmittance of the films were studied. The resistivity (?) and mobility (?) are in the range of 10{sup ?3}–10{sup ?4} ?-cm and 8.2–13.5 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1} respectively. The electron density lies between 3.4 × 10{sup 20} and 6.6×10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3}. The film transmittance varies between 70 to 80% and the films shows very good reflectivity in the IR-NIR region. Prepared films can be used as transparent electrodes in photo voltaic and optoelectronic devices.

  7. (Photo)electrochemical investigations on spray deposited nSb 2S 3 thin film\\/polyiodide\\/C photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y Rajpure; C. H Bhosale

    2000-01-01

    Sb2S3 thin films have been prepared by spraying the mixture of non-aqueous equimolar solutions of antimony trichloride [SbCl3] and thiourea [CS(NH2)2] in acetic acid (glacial) onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. The cell configuration n-Sb2S3\\/0.5M (KCl+KI)+0.01M I2\\/C is used for studying the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in dark and light, photovoltaic output, spectral response, photoresponse and photovoltaic rise

  8. Enhanced photocurrent density of hematite thin films on FTO substrates: effect of post-annealing temperature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Soo; Kang, Myung Jong; Kang, Young Soo

    2015-06-28

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) is widely used as a substrate in the synthesis of a photo-reactive semiconductor electrode for solar water splitting. The hematite film on the surface of the FTO substrate annealed at 700 °C showed an enhanced photocurrent value with a maximum photocurrent of 0.39 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE under 1 sun illumination. This is a much enhanced photocurrent value of the hematite films than that of those annealed at temperatures lower than 700 °C. This is a promising approach for the enhancement of the photoelectrochemical properties of metal oxide thin films. This work reports on the mechanism of the annealing process of the synthesized hematite film to enhance the photocurrent value. Furthermore, this can be used for the enhanced efficiency of the solar water splitting reaction. PMID:26032403

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of In2S3 thin films with a wedgelike structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Haibin; Fu, Wuyou; Li, Minghui; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Jinwen

    2012-09-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films with a wedgelike structure were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a facile hydrothermal method. By properly monitoring the experimental conditions, including the reaction time, concentrations of tartaric acid, precursor concentration ratio and the reaction temperature, the In2S3 films with different morphologies and thickness could be obtained, and the growth mechanism of ?-In2S3 films was also proposed in this work. Furthermore, UV-vis absorption study revealed that the absorption range broadened with the growth of the In2S3 crystals. In addition, a photocurrent of 0.48 mA cm-2 was obtained under 100 mW cm-2 UV-visible illuminations of the wedgelike In2S3 thin films.

  10. Perovskite Solar Cell Using a Two-Dimensional Titania Nanosheet Thin Film as the Compact Layer.

    PubMed

    Li, Can; Li, Yahui; Xing, Yujin; Zhang, Zelin; Zhang, Xianfeng; Li, Zhen; Shi, Yantao; Ma, Tingli; Ma, Renzhi; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan

    2015-07-22

    The compact layer plays an important role in conducting electrons and blocking holes in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we use a two-dimensional titania nanosheet (TNS) thin film as the compact layer in CH3NH3PbI3 PSCs. TNS thin films with thicknesses ranging from 8 to 75 nm were prepared by an electrophoretic deposition method from a dilute TNS/tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution. The TNS thin films contact the fluorine-doped tin oxide grains perfectly. Our results show that a 8-nm-thick TNS film is sufficient for acting as the compact layer. Currently, the PSC with a TNS compact layer has a high efficiency of 10.7% and relatively low hysteresis behavior. PMID:26158908

  11. Effect of the immersion in CdCl2 and annealing on physical properties of CdS:F films grown by CBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moure-Flores, F.; Nieto-Zepeda, K. E.; Guillén-Cervantes, A.; Gallardo, S.; Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Hernández-Hernández, A.; de la L. Olvera, M.; Zapata-Torres, M.; Kundriavtsev, Yu; Meléndez-Lira, M.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorine-doped CdS films were deposited on glass substrates at 70 °C by chemical bath deposition using HF as fluorine source. The as-grown films were immersed in a 0.25 M CdCl2 solution and annealed at 400 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of doping and post-deposition treatment on structural, topography, optical and electrical properties were investigated. The post-deposition treatment causes an increase in the grain size, a decrease in the rms roughness and a reduction in the resistivity of the CdS:F films. After treatment a CdS:F film with a roughness of 2.39 nm and a resistivity of 2.96 ? cm was obtained.

  12. Investigations of the anisotropic g-factors for the Er 3+ doped YBa 2Cu 3O y (6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Yi Wu; Hui-Ning Dong

    2003-01-01

    The anisotropic g factors g\\/\\/ and g? for the tetragonal Er3+ center associated with Er3+ on Y3+ site in YBa2Cu3Oy (6

  13. Aqueous phase deposition of dense tin oxide films with nano-structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Yoshitake, E-mail: masuda-y@aist.go.jp; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-06-01

    Dense tin oxide films were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. The pH of the solutions was controlled to pH 1.3 by addition of HCl. Precise control of solution condition and crystal growth allowed us to obtain dense tin oxide films. Concave–convex surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates was entirely-covered with the continuous films. The films were about 65 nm in thickness and had nano-structured surfaces. Morphology of the films was strikingly different from our previous reported nano-sheet assembled structures. The films were not removed from the substrates by strong water flow or air blow to show strong adhesion strength. The aqueous solution process can be applied to surface coating of various materials such as nano/micro-structured surfaces, particles, fibers, polymers, metals or biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. They had nano-structured surfaces. Concave-convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films. - Highlights: • Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. • They had nano-structured surfaces. • Concave–convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films.

  14. Influence of RF power on physical properties of ZnO:ZnF2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Kang, Tsung-Kuei; Liu, Han-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with a ceramic ZnO target containing 1.5 wt% zinc fluoride (ZnF2). This study investigates the influences of RF powers of sputtering and H2 plasma treatment on properties of FZO films. For as-deposited films, all films had a highly (0 0 2) preferential c-axis orientation and film crystallinity was improved with increasing deposition power. The film resistivity decreased and the average optical transmittance in the visible range increased with increasing deposition power. The lowest resistivity of 9.29 × 10-4 ?-cm and the average transmittance above 90% were obtained at the power of 150 W. For plasma treated films, the crystal structure had no significant change but the film resistivity further decreased to 7.92 × 10-4 ?-cm and the optical bandgap increased to 3.725 eV. The calculated figures of merit exhibited that the film deposited with a high deposition power and a low H2 plasma power possessed the optimized optoelectronic properties. The H2 plasma treated FZO thin films have potential to be applied as transparent conducting electrodes.

  15. Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

    2013-04-23

    Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

  16. Study of p-type AlN-doped SnO2 thin films and its transparent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. J.; Liu, Y. S.; Hsieh, C. Y.; Lee, P. M.; Wei, Y. S.; Liao, C. H.; Liu, C. Y.

    2015-02-01

    The electrical properties of transparent Al-doped tin oxide (SnO2), N-doped SnO2, and AlN-doped SnO2 thin films were studied. The Al-doped tin oxide (SnO2) thin films all show n-type conduction regardless the annealing condition. The n-type conduction of the as-deposited N-doped SnO2, and AlN-doped SnO2 thin films could be converted to p-type conduction by annealing the films at an elevated temperature of 450 °C. XPS analysis verified that the substitution of N ions in the O ion sites in the annealed N-doped SnO2 and AlN-doped SnO2 thin films were responsible for the n-p conduction transition. The conduction of the annealed N-doped SnO2 and AlN-doped SnO2 thin films could be converted back to n-type conduction by thermally annealing the films at higher temperature, over 450 °C. The p-n conduction transition is related with the outgassing of N ions in the p-type N-doped SnO2 and AlN-doped SnO2 thin films. Remarkably, we found that the Al content can retard the outgassing of N ions in the p-type N-doped SnO2 and AlN-doped SnO2 thin films and prolong the p-n conduction transition temperature above 600 °C. XPS analysis revealed that the formation of the Snsbnd Nsbnd Al bond improved the stability of the N ions in the AlN-doped SnO2 thin films. I-V curve of the p-type AlN-doped SnO2/n-type fluorine-doped SnO2 junction exhibited clear p-n junction characteristics, a low leakage current under the revised bias (1.13 × 10-5 A at -5 V), and a low turn-on voltage (3.24 V). p-Type AlN-doped SnO2/n-type fluorine-doped SnO2 junction exhibited excellent transmittance (over 90%) in the visible region (470-750 nm).

  17. Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning-wang@uestc.edu.cn; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-12-07

    Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film was obtained by annealing TiO{sub 2} film at 350?°C for 2?h with hydrogen, and TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film and pristine TiO{sub 2} film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO{sub 2} surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO{sub 2} to generate more photocurrent.

  18. Photoinduced charge transfer in ZnO/Cu(2)O heterostructure films studied by surface photovoltage technique.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tengfei; Xie, Tengfeng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Liping; Peng, Linlin; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Dejun

    2010-12-21

    ZnO/Cu(2)O heterostructure films were prepared by a two-step electrodeposition method in aqueous solution on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis transmission measurements were utilized to characterize the films. Surface photovoltage (SPV) technique was used to investigate the process of photoinduced charge transfer. The results show that there is an electric field located at the interface between ZnO and Cu(2)O film and the photoinduced electrons in Cu(2)O film inject into ZnO under the effect of interfacial electric field with visible light irradiation. While under ultraviolet light illumination, the photoinduced electrons in Cu(2)O film accumulate at the surface of Cu(2)O film instead of injecting into ZnO under the action of surface built-in electric field of Cu(2)O film. The work function measurements confirm that the direction of interfacial electric field is from ZnO to Cu(2)O. These results are help to future design of high performance heterostructure photovoltaic devices. PMID:20972495

  19. Electrochromic performance of sol-gel-deposited CeO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Nilgun; Cronin, John P.; Akyuz, Sevim

    1999-10-01

    Ceria (CeO2) films were prepared by a sol-gel technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The coating solution was derived from cerium ammonium nitrate dissolved in ethanol with diethanolamine used as a complexing agent. Lithium intercalating properties of the films were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrochemical examinations were performed in a 0.5 M LiClO4 propylene carbonate electrolyte. The additional film characterizations were performed in X-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD of the films showed that they had an cerianite structure for heat treatment temperatures at or above 450 degree(s)C. The SEM examinations showed that the surface texture was uniform and homogeneous. CV examinations showed a reversible electrochemical insertion or extraction of Li+/e- ions maintaining a high optical transmissivity. Spectroelectrochemistry showed that these films can be used as optically passive counter-electrode in transmissive electrochromic devices.

  20. Effect of different sol concentrations on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on FTO substrates by sol-gel spin-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ikhyun; Kim, Younggyu; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Dongwan; Park, Minju; Kim, Haeun; Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on fluorine-doped tinoxide (FTO) substrates were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The structural and the optical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared using different sol concentrations were investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films, as observed in the SEM images, exhibited a mountain-chain structure. XRD results indicated that the thin films were preferentially orientated along the direction of the c-axis and that the grain size of the ZnO thin films increased with increasing sol concentration. The PL spectra showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak at 3.22 eV and a broad orange emission peak at 2.0 eV. The intensities of deep-level emission (DLE) gradually increased with increasing sol concentration from 0.4 to 1.0 M. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO thin films showed that the ZnO thin films were transparent (~85%) in the visible region and exhibited sharp absorption edges at 375 nm. Thus, The Urbach energy of ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sol concentration.

  1. Addition of new pinning center to unidirectionally melt solidified Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Ichi Shimoyama; Jun-Ichiro Kase; Shinji Kondoh; Eiji Yanagisawa; Toshiya Matsubara; Mitsuru Suzuki; Takeshi Morimoto

    1990-01-01

    Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor including small particles of BaSnO3 was synthesized by the unidirectional melt solidification method. Finely dispersed Y2BaCuO5 precipitates and BaSnO3 particles were observed in YBa2Cu3Oy matrix. The critical current density at 77 K in 8 kOe was 18,000 A\\/sq cm, which was about four times higher than that of the BaSnO3-free specimen. Fine particles of BaSnO3 can act

  2. An efficient and transparent copper sulfide nanosheet film counter electrode for bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Lei, Hongwei; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-02-01

    Copper sulfide (CuS) with nanosheet structure has been synthesized at a low temperature in situ on copper (Cu) film coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were herein developed by using these CuS as counter electrodes (CEs). CuS is an environmental compatible and low toxic material. The obtained two-dimensional CuS nanosheet film presents high carrier mobility and exhibits highly catalytic performance for the polysulfide-based electrolyte. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65% by optimizing the thickness of the Cu film under front illumination. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE prepared with a 200 nm thick Cu film shows a very close PCE under front and rear illuminations in which the values are as high as 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively. All the PCEs of the CuS CEs are much higher than that of the Pt CE (1.34%).

  3. Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO{sub 3} thin films for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar, R.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.; Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M.; Trivedi, D.C.; Sanjeeviraja, C

    2004-08-03

    The n-type tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250 deg. C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15 ml/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied. Mott-Schottky (M-S) studies of WO{sub 3}/FTO electrodes were conducted in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution to identify their nature and extract semiconductor parameters. The electrochromic properties of the as-deposited and lithiated WO{sub 3}/FTO thin films were analyzed by employing them as working electrodes in three electrode electrochemical cell using an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) solution.

  4. Effects of TiO{sub 2} film thickness on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cell and its enhanced performance by graphene combination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Wenguang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yiming [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Zhiwei [Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • DSSC based on TiO{sub 2} film with 8 printing layers showed the highest efficiency. • The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC increased from 5.52% to 6.49% by graphene combination. • A mechanism for the enhanced performance of the DSSC was proposed. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO{sub 2} films with different printing layers (6-10) were fabricated by screen printing method. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The effects of thickness on the photoelectric conversion performance of the as-fabricated DSSCs were investigated. An optimum photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.52% was obtained in a DSSC with 8 printing layers. Furthermore, after a moderate amount of graphene was combined with TiO{sub 2}, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on graphene/TiO{sub 2} composite film rose from 5.52% to 6.49%, with an increase of ? by 17.6%. The results indicated that graphene not only enhances the transport of electrons from the film to the fluorine doped tin oxide substrates and reduces the charge recombination rate, but also reduces the electrolyte–electrode interfacial resistance, clearly increasing the photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  5. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm-2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  6. Direct measurement of the upper critical field in cuprate superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Grissonnanche, G.; Cyr-Choinière, O.; Laliberté, F.; René de Cotret, S.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Dufour-Beauséjour, S.; Delage, M. -È.; LeBoeuf, D.; Chang, J.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Adachi, S.; Hussey, N. E.; Vignolle, B.; Proust, C.; Sutherland, M.; Krämer, S.; Park, J. -H.; Graf, D.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

    2014-01-01

    In the quest to increase the critical temperature Tc of cuprate superconductors, it is essential to identify the factors that limit the strength of superconductivity. The upper critical field Hc2 is a fundamental measure of that strength, yet there is no agreement on its magnitude and doping dependence in cuprate superconductors. Here we show that the thermal conductivity can be used to directly detect Hc2 in the cuprates YBa2Cu3Oy, YBa2Cu4O8 and Tl2Ba2CuO6+?, allowing us to map out Hc2 across the doping phase diagram. It exhibits two peaks, each located at a critical point where the Fermi surface of YBa2Cu3Oy is known to undergo a transformation. Below the higher critical point, the condensation energy, obtained directly from Hc2, suffers a sudden 20-fold collapse. This reveals that phase competition—associated with Fermi-surface reconstruction and charge-density-wave order—is a key limiting factor in the superconductivity of cuprates. PMID:24518054

  7. Direct measurement of the upper critical field in cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Grissonnanche, G; Cyr-Choinière, O; Laliberté, F; René de Cotret, S; Juneau-Fecteau, A; Dufour-Beauséjour, S; Delage, M-È; LeBoeuf, D; Chang, J; Ramshaw, B J; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, R; Adachi, S; Hussey, N E; Vignolle, B; Proust, C; Sutherland, M; Krämer, S; Park, J-H; Graf, D; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Taillefer, Louis

    2014-01-01

    In the quest to increase the critical temperature Tc of cuprate superconductors, it is essential to identify the factors that limit the strength of superconductivity. The upper critical field Hc2 is a fundamental measure of that strength, yet there is no agreement on its magnitude and doping dependence in cuprate superconductors. Here we show that the thermal conductivity can be used to directly detect Hc2 in the cuprates YBa2Cu3Oy, YBa2Cu4O8 and Tl2Ba2CuO6+?, allowing us to map out Hc2 across the doping phase diagram. It exhibits two peaks, each located at a critical point where the Fermi surface of YBa2Cu3Oy is known to undergo a transformation. Below the higher critical point, the condensation energy, obtained directly from Hc2, suffers a sudden 20-fold collapse. This reveals that phase competition-associated with Fermi-surface reconstruction and charge-density-wave order-is a key limiting factor in the superconductivity of cuprates. PMID:24518054

  8. Enhancing light trapping properties of thin film solar cells by plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Junhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Cho, Jaehyun; Ahn, Shihyun; Park, Hyeongsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Choi, Mansoo; Yi, Junsin

    2013-12-01

    The preparation of thin film silicon solar cells containing Ag nanoparticles is reported in this article. Ag nanoparticles were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by the evaporation and condensation method. a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on these substrates by cluster type plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We discuss the double textured surface effect with respect to both the surface morphology of the substrate and the plasmonic effect of the Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles of various sizes from 10 to 100 nm were deposited. The haze values of the Ag embedded samples increased with increasing particle size whereas the optical transmittance decreased at the same conditions. The solar cell with the 30 nm size Ag nanoparticles showed a short circuit current density of 12.97 mA/cm2, which is 0.53 mA/cm2 higher than that of the reference solar cell without Ag nanoparticles, and the highest quantum efficiency for wavelengths from 550 to 800 nm. When 30 nm size nanoparticles were employed, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was increased from 6.195% to 6.696%. This study reports the application of the scattering effect of Ag nanoparticles for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells. PMID:24266153

  9. Picosecond-laser structuring of amorphous-silicon thin-film solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canteli, D.; Torres, I.; Domke, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Cárabe, J.; Gandía, J. J.; Heise, G.; Huber, H. P.

    2013-09-01

    Laser scribing with nanosecond (ns) diode pumped solid-state laser sources is the industry standard in the fabrication of silicon-based thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) modules. Reducing the interconnection area is one of the on-going challenges for the next generation of TFPV modules. In this regard, replacing ns laser sources by picosecond (ps) laser sources is one of the logical steps. Ps-laser pulses reduce the heat-affected zones compared to ns pulses, and thus enable a reduction of the interconnection zone. This work describes the substrate-side ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and a-Si:H with an aluminum layer on top, using a 10-ps laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The investigation of single-pulse ablation and trench scribing demonstrates that the complete monolithic interconnection can be achieved at the fundamental wavelength. In addition, the evaluation of the ablation efficiency shows that the best trench quality is achieved at the efficiency maximum.

  10. Energy and charge transfers between (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (N719) and ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Manman; Cheng Qiang; Zhang, W. F. [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    ZnO thin films and (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (called N719) sensitized ZnO thin films are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet-visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and Raman scattering are employed to probe into the transition process of photogenerated charges and the interaction between ZnO and N719. The experimental results indicate that there is a significant electronic interaction between N719 and ZnO through chemiadsorption. The interaction greatly enhances the photogenerated charge separation and thus the photovoltaic response of the ZnO film but remarkedly weakens its radiative recombination, i.e., PL, implying strong energy and charge transfer occurring between N719 and ZnO. In addition, a new PL peak observed at about 720 nm in N719 sensitized ZnO/FTO is attributed to the electron-hole recombination of N719.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic properties of nanoclustered P-doped TiO2 films deposited by advanced atmospheric plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Kee; Elliott, C Michael; Ansari, S G

    2012-09-01

    A facile preparation of P-doped TiO2 nanoclusters onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by an advanced atmospheric plasma jet (AAP jet) is reported here. Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) were used as precursors. Radio frequencies were used to generate plasma at fix powder with Argon as carrier gas. Films were deposited at 500 degrees C for 10 minutes. For comparison, as-prepared, annealed and deposited at 500 degrees C samples were studied for chemical/physical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Optical properties were studied by using UV-Vis spectroscopy which indicated a reduction in optical band with P-doping. The rhodamine B (Rh-B) degradation by P-doped TiO2 deposited at 500 degrees C showed enhanced degradation efficiency than that of annealed TiO2. The suggested deposition method appears to be suitable for the synthesis of photocatalyst with proper control over dopants. PMID:23035425

  12. Effects of Thickness and Annealing on Optoelectronic Properties of Electrodeposited ZnS Thin Films for Photonic Device Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echendu, O. K.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    Thin layers of ZnS with thicknesses of 400 nm, 500 nm, and 700 nm have been electrodeposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a simple two-electrode setup under similar conditions. Structural characterization of the layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that they were amorphous. The results of optical characterization carried out in the wavelength range of 315 nm to 800 nm using spectrophotometry revealed that the optical properties of the layers are strongly influenced by the film thickness as well as annealing conditions. The values of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant obtained from normal-incidence transmittance spectra were generally lower after annealing, showing also the influence of postdeposition annealing on the deposited ZnS layers. Electrical characterization of the layers, using direct-current current-voltage measurement under dark conditions at room temperature, shows that the resistivity of the as-deposited and annealed layers is in the range of 1.4 × 104 ? cm to 2.5 × 104 ? cm and 2.5 × 104 ? cm to 3.1 × 104 ? cm, respectively. The results suggest that the optoelectronic properties can be tuned for particular applications by adjusting the thickness of the layers appropriately.

  13. Fast classification of meat spoilage markers using nanostructured ZnO thin films and unsupervised feature learning.

    PubMed

    Längkvist, Martin; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a rapid and accurate detection system for spoilage in meat. We use unsupervised feature learning techniques (stacked restricted Boltzmann machines and auto-encoders) that consider only the transient response from undoped zinc oxide, manganese-doped zinc oxide, and fluorine-doped zinc oxide in order to classify three categories: the type of thin film that is used, the type of gas, and the approximate ppm-level of the gas. These models mainly offer the advantage that features are learned from data instead of being hand-designed. We compare our results to a feature-based approach using samples with various ppm level of ethanol and trimethylamine (TMA) that are good markers for meat spoilage. The result is that deep networks give a better and faster classification than the feature-based approach, and we thus conclude that the fine-tuning of our deep models are more efficient for this kind of multi-label classification task. PMID:23353140

  14. Low-cost solution processed nano millet like structure CoS2 film superior to pt as counter electrode for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. Srinivasa; Punnosse, Dinah; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-05-01

    Cobalt Sulfide (CoS2) counter electrodes (CE) with uniform size distribution were obtained on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate as counter electrodes for polysulfide redox electrolyte in CdS/CdSe/ ZnS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. In this study, we optimized the cobalt source, deposition temperature and time in the preparation of CoS2 thin film to achieve greater conversion efficiency with strong adhesion on FTO. Relative to the platinum (Pt) electrodes, the CoS2 electrode shows a higher catalytic activity, faster electron transport and lower chargetransfer resistance, which can play a role in rendering higher power conversion efficiency. As a result, QDSSCs with the optimized CoS2 CE achieved a higher short-circuit current density of 13.08 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage of 0.47 V, fill factor of 0.34 and overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 2.17% obtained under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2). Therefore, CoS2 CE can be used as a promising CE in QDSSCs with efficiency exceeding that of high-cost Pt-based cells (1.64%). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Synchronous Electrochromism of Lithium Ion Battery with Chemically Fabricated Transparent Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Hara, Hiroki; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Honda, Tohru; Takano, Ichiro; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2013-04-01

    Electrochromism synchronous to the charge/discharge of a novel Li ion battery having Li3Fe2(PO4)3 and Li4Ti5O12 thin-film electrodes fabricated by a chemical process, the molecular precursor method, was discovered. A cathode of transparent Li3Fe2(PO4)3 thin film with a thickness of 80 nm was fabricated by heat treating a precursor ethanol solution including a Li(I) complex of nitrilotriacetic acid, an Fe(III) complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and (dibutylammonium)2H2P2O7 ? 0.5H2O at 550°C for 10 min in air. An anode of transparent Li4Ti5O12 thin film with a thickness of 90 nm was fabricated by heat treating a precursor ethanol solution including a Li(I) complex of nitrilotriacetic acid, a Ti(IV) complex of the identical organic ligand, and hydrogen peroxide at 550°C for 30 min in air. The precursor films for both electrodes were fabricated with a spin-coating method. The thermal reactions of the novel precursors were examined in detail by means of thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis in order to examine the components and heat-treatment temperature. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin-film electrodes fabricated on glass substrates pre-coated with a fluorine-doped tin oxide film were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The rechargeable function of the assembled sandwich-type battery using an electrolytic solution containing LiPF6 was measured by the repeated charge and discharge test at a constant current of 10 ?A; a maximum voltage of 3.6 V was recorded. The color changes of the transparent thin-film battery between colorless before charging and a blue-gray color after charging occurred synchronously and repeatedly with the charge/discharge cycles. The intercalation of Li+ ions into the Li4Ti5O12 thin-film anode may be related to the drastic color change and the unprecedented visualization of the electrochemical reaction of a novel Li ion battery.

  16. Solution-based deposition of ceramic thin films for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shijun

    With the requirement of a low-temperature process which is compatible with flexible electronics, solution-based processes for ceramic thin films have received substantial attention in recent years. In this study, two different variations of solution processing were explored. Liquid phase deposition (LPD) was used to prepare for F-doped SiO2 and F-doped SnO2, and hydrothermal processing was used to prepare ZnO thin films consisting of vertically aligned nanorods. F-doped SiO2 thin films were developed from supersaturated hydrofluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) solution with the addition of boric acid (H3BO3). The microstructure dependence of LPD SiO2 films on solution parameters and deposition temperature was systematically investigated. The dielectric constant is lower than that of thermal SiO2, resulting from the fluorine doping. The remarkably low dielectric constant, relatively low leakage current and fairly high elastic modulus make these low temperature processed LPD SiO2 films very promising for an interlayer dielectric for flexible substrates. Using the same LPD method, smooth SnO2 films were deposited on both silicon and glass substrates at 60 ºC through supersaturated solutions of SnF 2 with a concentration range from 10 mM to 40 mM. They consist of nanoscale crystallites and the degree of crystallinity increase with annealing temperature. A hydrothermal process was employed to deposit ZnO films for energy harvesting devices. A polymer mask was patterned on top of a zinc acetate seed layer to generate a regular array of open holes (200 nm in diameter) using a nanoimprint. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on these open holes that expose the seed layer. The morphology and microstrucutre of the nanorods were studied according to chemical composition of the solution. Equimolar reduce of the concentration of ZnAc and HMTA results in decrease in nanorod diameter, as well as in length. The nanorods become thinner and slightly better aligned with decreased HMTA concentration, and thicker rods and faster deposition rate were observed for increased HMTA concentration. Temperature plays a critical role and nanorods gown at 90 ºC seems to have better alignment than those grown at 80 ºC. More process optimization will be needed to achieve the controlled growth of nanorod structures.

  17. Development of molecular precursors for deposition of indium sulphide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad; Lo, K M; McKee, Vickie

    2013-08-14

    Symmetrical and unsymmetrical dithiocarbamato pyridine solvated and non-solvated complexes of indium(III) with the general formula [In(S2CNRR')3]·n(py) [where py = pyridine; R,R' = Cy, n = 2 (1); R,R' = (i)Pr, n = 1.5 (2); NRR' = Pip, n = 0.5 (3) and R = Bz, R' = Me, n = 0 (4)] have been synthesized. The compositions, structures and properties of these complexes have been studied by means of microanalysis, IR and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The applicability of these complexes as single source precursors (SSPs) for the deposition of ?-In2S3 thin films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C is studied. All films have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) for the detection of phase and stoichiometry of the deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that precursors (1)-(4), irrespective of different metal ligand design, generate comparable morphologies of ?-In2S3 thin films at different temperatures. Direct band gap energies of 2.2 eV have been estimated from the UV-vis spectroscopy for the ?-In2S3 films fabricated from precursors (1) and (4). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of ?-In2S3 were confirmed by recording the current-voltage plots under light and dark conditions. The plots showed anodic photocurrent densities of 1.25 and 0.65 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the ?-In2S3 films made at 400 and 350 °C from the precursors (1) and (4), respectively. The photoelectrochemical performance indicates that the newly synthesised precursors are highly useful in fabricating ?-In2S3 electrodes for solar energy harvesting and optoelectronic application. PMID:23787951

  18. Phase diagram studies in the SrO-CuO-Ti02 system: applications to YBCO coated conductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, A. (Alicia); Holesinger, T. G. (Terry G.); Peterson, E. J. (Eric J.); Archuleta, M. C. (Milena C.)

    2001-01-01

    SrTiO3 (STO) is a potential buffer layer material for use in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) coated conductors based on the IBAD MgO process. However, the interactions with YBCO are not yet fully understood and little information exists in the way of phase diagrams. With this in mind, the tie-line between STO and SrCuO2 in the pseudo-ternary system SrO-CuO-TiO2 was investigated. Phase assemblages and compositions were determined by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy in the temperature range of 1000oC to 1100oC in oxygen partial pressures of 1%, 10%, and 100%. Preliminary results showed that an appreciable amount of copper substitutes into the STO crystal structure. Conversely, Ti substitution into the SrCuO2 phase was not detected.

  19. Catalytic and photoelectrochemical performances of Cu-Zn-Sn-Se thin films prepared using selenization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Pin-Wen; Li, Chun-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Cheng, Kong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    In this study, Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) films are deposited onto the fluorine-doped-tin-oxide-coated glass substrate via the selenization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors in an acidic solution with the applied potential of -0.9 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the samples are the quaternary tetragonal CZTSe phase. The thicknesses and direct band gaps of the samples are in the ranges of 2.3 to 2.7 ?m and 0.95 to 1.02 eV, respectively. All samples are p-type semiconductors with carrier density, mobility and flat-band potential in the ranges of 3.88 × 1017 to 1.37 × 1018 cm-3, 10.31 to 12.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and -0.01 V to -0.08 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode, respectively. The sample with [Cu]/[Zn + Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] molar ratios of 0.87 and 0.66, respectively, has a maximum photo-enhanced current density of 0.41 mA cm-2 at an applied bias of -0.5 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution under illumination. The best photo-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using CZTSe with [Cu]/[Zn + Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] molar ratios of 0.87 and 0.66, respectively, as the counter electrode was 7.98%. The results show the high quality CZTSe films have potentials in applications of photoelectrochemical water splitting and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Anion-vacancy-induced magneto-crystalline anisotropy in fluorine-doped hexagonal cobaltites.

    PubMed

    Mentré, Olivier; Kabbour, Houria; Ehora, Ghislaine; Tricot, Grégory; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    The two cobalt hexagonal perovskites 6H-Ba(6)Co(6)F(0.93)O(16) and 10H-Ba(5)Co(5)F(0.77)O(12.88) were prepared, and their structures were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction and by (19)F solid state NMR spectroscopy. The magnetic and transport properties of these compounds were probed by magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements, and their electronic structures by density functional and tight-binding calculations. The [BaOF(1-x)] layers of these compounds create corner-sharing tetrahedral Co(2)O(7) dimers at the interface between their face-sharing octahedral oligomers. Our density functional calculations leads to an unambiguous charge distribution model, which assigns high-spin Co(3+) ions for the tetrahedral sites and low-spin Co(3+)/Co(4+) ions for the octahedral sites, and this model should be valid for the parent BaCoO(3-delta) and the related oxychlorides and oxybromides as well. The F(-) vacancies in the [BaOF(1-x)] layers cause a strong distortion in the tetrahedral dimer Co(2)O(7), which in turn affects the spin orientation of the high-spin Co(3+) ions of the CoO(4) tetrahedra, i.e., parallel to the c-direction in Ba(6)Co(6)F(1-x)O(16-delta) but perpendicular to the c-direction in Ba(5)Co(5)F(1-x)O(13-delta). This difference in the spin orientations is related to the d-states of the distorted CoO(4) tetrahedra with high-spin Co(3+) (d(6)) ion on the basis of tight binding calculations and spin-orbit coupling as perturbation. PMID:20225851

  1. Near-infrared luminescence of bismuth in fluorine-doped-core silica fibres.

    PubMed

    Bazakutsa, A P; Golant, K M

    2015-02-01

    Photoluminescence spectra and decay kinetics of bismuth inclusions in silica optical fibres containing fluorine additive in the core glass are studied in the vicinity of a wavelength of 1420 nm at temperatures of 80-900 K under a continuous wave (CW) and a pulsed diode laser pump at a wavelength of 808 nm. At high fluorine concentration and low temperatures, luminescence decay kinetics becomes essentially bi-exponential, typical lifetimes being 720 and 1200 µs. Hydrogen and deuterium loading at pressures of up to 125 bar leads to a decrease of the steady-state luminescence intensity and lifetime. We attribute this to the appearance of an energy transfer bridge from bismuth clusters to vibrational degrees of freedom of diatomic molecules. It is found that in the presence of H2 or D2 molecules experiencing random walking in silica, luminescence decay kinetics stop following a single exponential function even in fluorine-free silica-core fibre, deviation from the single exponent being greater at higher temperatures. The induced quenching rate increases with the increase of temperature as well and is greater for H2 molecules. All conditions being equal, the equilibrium concentration of hydrogen molecules is greater in heavily fluorinated silica. At temperatures below ~250 K, the presence of dissolved molecules has no effect, which speaks for the primary importance of having rotational degrees of freedom of migrating interstitial diatomic molecules in an excited state for effective quenching of bismuth electronic excitations. It is found that the influence of dissolved deuterium is weaker than that of hydrogen. We attribute this feature to a greater angular momentum of the D2 molecule and correspondingly smaller energy of the molecule's rotational quantum. The results of the experiments show that bismuth clusters mainly located in voids of the silica network, rather than bismuth point defects, are responsible for near-infrared luminescence. PMID:25836233

  2. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition of Fluorine-doped Tin(IV) Oxide from Fluoroalkyltin Precursors 

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Joanne E; Swain, Anthony C; Molloy, Kieran C; Rankin, David W H; Robertson, Heather E; Johnston, Blair F

    2005-01-01

    Perfluoroalkytin compounds R(4-n)Sn(Rf)n (R = Me, Et, Bu, Rf = C4F9, n = 1; R = Bu, Rf = C4F9, n = 2, 3; R = Bu, Rf = C6F13, n = 1) have been synthesised, characterised by 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn NMR and evaluated a ...

  3. Fluorine-doped tin oxide—selenium heterojunction for photovoltaic conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Athwal; R. K. Bedi

    1986-01-01

    Selenium, being a low-cost material and readily available in high purity form, is attracting interest for solar cell applications. It has been calculated theoretically [1] that selenium-based heterojunction solar cells can have an efficiency as high as 20%. Shaw and Ghosh [2] have reported that cells with efficiency better than 10% can be fabricated with selenium in the form of

  4. Enhanced lifetime in porous silicon light-emitting diodes with fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andréia G. Macedo; Elder A. de Vasconcelos; Rogério Valaski; Fábio Muchenski; Eronides F. da Silva; Antônio F. da Silva; Lucimara S. Roman

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the electrical and optical properties of porous Si (PS) light-emitting diodes using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) as transparent electrodes. At high forward bias, the current–voltage characteristic is space charge limited. At low forward bias, it follows an exponential law. Whereas the electroluminescence (EL) in devices with non-fluorinated indium–tin oxide electrodes degrades in few minutes, EL intensity in devices

  5. Pulsing frequency induced change in optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of WO{sub 3} films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Punitha, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630 004 (India)

    2014-03-21

    In this work, we present the pulsing frequency induced change in the structural, optical, vibrational, and luminescence properties of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films deposited on microscopic glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) coated glass substrates by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering technique. The WO{sub 3} films deposited on SnO{sub 2}:F substrate belongs to monoclinic phase. The pulsing frequency has a significant influence on the preferred orientation and crystallinity of WO{sub 3} film. The maximum optical transmittance of 85% was observed for the film and the slight shift in transmission threshold towards higher wavelength region with increasing pulsing frequency revealed the systematic reduction in optical energy band gap (3.78 to 3.13?eV) of the films. The refractive index (n) of films are found to decrease (1.832 to 1.333 at 550?nm) with increasing pulsing frequency and the average value of extinction coefficient (k) is in the order of 10{sup ?3}. It was observed that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-Didomenico model, from which the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) parameters, dielectric constants, plasma frequency, oscillator strength, and oscillator energy (E{sub o}) of WO{sub 3} films were calculated and reported for the first time due to variation in pulsing frequency during deposition by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The E{sub o} is change between 6.30 and 3.88?eV, while the E{sub d} varies from 25.81 to 7.88?eV, with pulsing frequency. The Raman peak observed at 1095?cm{sup ?1} attributes the presence of W-O symmetric stretching vibration. The slight shift in photoluminescence band is attributed to the difference in excitons transition. We have made an attempt to discuss and correlate these results with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena.

  6. Film Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  7. 1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES Housed in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Film Studies Program covers classical film aesthetics, surveys the history of world cinema and takes an in-depth look at films from America, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the Hispanic world. UNDERGRADUATE Minor · Minor

  8. Electrode modified with a composite film of ZnO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles as a sensor for hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Yu Lin; Yi-Hsuan Lai; A. Balamurugan; R. Vittal; Chii-Wann Lin; Kuo-Chuan Ho

    2010-01-01

    A conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode, first modified with zinc oxide nanorods (ZnONRs) and subsequently attached with photosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), designated as AgNPs\\/ZnONRs\\/FTO electrode, was used as an amperometric sensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. The first layer (ZnONRs) was obtained by chemical bath deposition (CBD), and was utilized simultaneously as the catalyst for the photoreduction of

  9. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of solutions, films, and nanoparticles of dithienylbenzothiadiazole-based donor-acceptor-donor red fluorophore. Fluorescence quenching study of organic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mei; Zhu, Xu-Hui; Bard, Allen J

    2013-06-19

    We report here the electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from a solution, film, and nanoparticles (NPs) of a red-emitting dithienylbenzothiadiazole molecular fluorophore [4,7-bis(4-(n-hexyl)-5-(3,5-di(1-naphthyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 1a], which has a donor-acceptor-donor configuration. In addition, the quenching of the fluorescence of the organic NPs by KI was investigated. The 1a film and NPs exhibit two absorbance peaks at 350 and ~504 nm that are red-shifted compared to those of 1a dissolved in solution (340 and 486 nm). Fluorescence quenching of 1a NPs does not follow a linear Stern-Volmer relationship; i.e., the fluorescence emission with excitation wavelength at either 350 or 504 nm decreased with increasing concentration of KI. Static quenching and heterogeneity related to the size distribution of the 1a NPs are proposed to explain the nonlinearity. A lifetime of 4.49 ± 0.04 ns was found for 1a organic NPs in water saturated with N2. After addition of KI, the fluorescence lifetime decreased to 3.1 ns. The fluorescence emission of 1a film/NPs is red-shifted (~17 nm) compared with that of 1a solution in dichloromethane (DCM). Solution ECL was generated in DCM through an annihilation reaction, while film and NP ECL could be generated in water through oxidation with a coreactant, tri-n-propylamine (TPrA). A film of 1a with thickness of 100-900 nm was prepared by drop-casting 1a in DCM on fluorine-doped tin oxide, and the ECL of the 1a film was found in phosphate-buffered saline solution with TPrA. Both 1a in solution and the 1a film produce strong ECL (I(film) = 0.14I(solution)). The ECL spectrum of 1a in solution, produced by electron-transfer annihilation of the reduced and oxidized forms, consists of a single peak with maximum emission at about 637 ± 4 nm, ~20 nm red-shifted from its fluorescence, while the ECL spectrum of 1a film produced by reaction with TPrA consists of a single peak with maximum emission at 642 ± 3 nm, a 10 nm red shift compared with the fluorescence of 1a film. Organic fluorescent 1a NPs were prepared by a reprecipitation method in water saturated with N2, and they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, absorbance, fluorescence, and ECL. Strong ECL was also generated from the organic NPs in water by reduction with K2S2O8 coreactant. PMID:23721214

  10. Formation of core@multi-shell CdSe@CdZnS-ZnS quantum dot heterostructure films by pulse electrophoresis deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Sudarsan; Yun, Jin Hyeon; Adilbish, Ganpurev; Ch, Rama Krishna; Lee, In Hwan; Lee, Min Sang; Yu, Yeon-Tae

    2015-07-01

    CdSe@CdZnS-ZnS core@multi-shell quantum dot (QD) heterostructures were deposited on fluorine doped tinoxide (FTO) glass substrate by pulse electrophoresis deposition (EPD). Field emissions scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images reveal that the number of QDs deposited on the substrate increased with prolonged deposition time. Ethanol is the better solution medium as compared to 2-propanol for pulse electrophoresis deposition. For longer deposition time the intensity of photo luminescence (PL) peak increased.

  11. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  12. Film Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

  13. Nanocomposite films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

    2010-07-20

    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  14. Fluorine-doping concentration and fictive temperature dependence of self-trapped holes in SiO{sub 2} glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.P.; Tai, N.; Saito, K.; Ikushima, A.J. [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511, Japan and Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    Fictive temperature (T{sub f}) and fluorine (F)-doping concentration dependences of self-trapped holes (STHs) in silica glasses created by UV irradiation at low temperatures have been studied by the electron-paramagnetic-resonance method. It was found that the yield of STH decreases with decreasing T{sub f} and increasing F-doping concentration. In combination with infrared spectra measurements, the correlation among T{sub f}, F-doping concentration, Si-O bond length, and Si-O-Si bond angle was elucidated. We conclude that the change in both T{sub f} and F doping can modify the network of SiO{sub 2} glass, leading to the suppression of the formation of STHs.

  15. Growth of single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass for organicinorganic

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    hybrid solar cells. In addition, such inorganic semicon- ductors, when appropriately incorporated into the solar cell structures, have demonstrated the ability to significantly improve the physical and chemical]. However, the full potential of the organic­ inorganic hybrid solar cells has been suppressed so far

  16. A bi-overlayer type plasmonic photocatalyst consisting of mesoporous Au/TiO2 and CuO/SnO2 films separately coated on FTO.

    PubMed

    Naya, Shin-Ichi; Kume, Takahiro; Okumura, Nozomi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-07-21

    The principal purpose of this study is to present a new design for preparing highly active immobilized gold nanoparticle-based plasmonic photocatalysts. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on rutile TiO2 particles with a mean size of 80 nm (Au/TiO2) by the deposition precipitation method. The surface of SnO2 particles with a mean size of 100 nm was modified by copper(ii) oxide clusters (CuO/SnO2) with the loading amount (?/Cu ions nm(-2)) precisely controlled by the chemisorption-calcination cycle technique. Two mesoporous overlayers of Au/TiO2 and CuO/SnO2 were coated side by side on glass substrates with a fluorine-doped tin oxide film (FTO) using the doctor blade method (Au/mp-TiO2|FTO|CuO/mp-SnO2). As test reactions for assessing the visible-light activity, we carried out gas-phase decomposition of acetaldehyde and liquid-phase oxidation of alcohol. In each reaction, this bi-overlayer type catalyst shows a high level of visible-light activity much exceeding those of Au/TiO2 particles and a Au/mp-TiO2|FTO mono-overlayer type catalyst [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 118, 26887]. To confirm the origin of the striking visible-light activity, we studied the electrocatalytic activity of CuO/mp-SnO2|FTO electrodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Both the visible-light activity of Au/mp-TiO2|FTO|CuO/mp-SnO2 and the electrocatalytic activity of CuO/mp-SnO2|FTO for ORR strongly depend on the ? value. A good positive correlation has been found between the visible-light activities and the electrocatalytic activity for ORR. The striking activity of the present bi-overlayer type catalyst can be attributed to the efficient and long-range charge separation by the vectorial electron transport (Au(oxidation sites) ? TiO2? FTO, SnO2? CuO(reduction sites)) and the excellent electrocatalytic activity of the CuO clusters. PMID:26094620

  17. I. Synthesis of group 13 fluoroalkoxide complexes and the chemical vapor deposition of indium oxide films. II. Synthesis of gallium hydrido-thiolate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miinea, Liliana Angela

    A synthetic route to indium fluoroalkoxide complexes was developed and fluorine-doped indium oxide films were prepared from one of the new complexes by chemical vapor deposition. The reaction of indium amide complexes with fluorinated alcohols was found to be a convenient synthetic route to indium fluoroalkoxide complexes. In[N-t-Bu(SiMe3)]3 reacted with (CF3)Me2COH to give the dimer [In{mu-OCMe 2(CF3)}{OCMe2(CF3)}2] 2. In contrast, reactions involving the more acidic alcohols (CF 3)2MeCOH and (CF3)2CHOH yielded products containing t-BuNH2, which was derived from the amide ligands of the starting material. Reactions of (CF3) 2MeCOH and (CF3)2CHOH with In(tmp)3 (tmp = the anion derived from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) and In(NEt 2)3 gave In[OCH(CF3)2]3(Htmp), [H2tmp][In{OCR(CF3)2}4] (R = H or Me), and mer-In[OCMe(CF3)2]3(py) 3. Polycrystalline indium oxide films were deposited at 400-550°C in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition process from In[OCMe(CF3 )2]3(H2N-t-Bu) and O2 precursors. The films deposited at ?500°C contained 2-3 atom % fluorine while the film deposited at 550°C had no detectable fluorine incorporation. Films deposited on quartz (˜3600-A thickness) showed >85% transmittance in the 400-800 nm region, and resistivities of 2.56 x 10 -1-2.02 x 10-2 O cm were measured for the as-deposited films. The observed transmittance is in the range reported previously for doped and undoped In2O3, while the resistivity values are higher than those reported for tin, fluorine or sulfur-doped indium oxide. The work on the synthesis of indium fluoroalkoxide complexes prompted an examination of the synthesis of related aluminum and gallium fluoroalkoxide complexes. Aluminum and gallium fluoroalkoxide complexes of formula M(ORf) 3(HNMe2) [M = Al, Rf = CH(CF3)2, CMe 2(CF3) or CMe(CF3)2; M = Ga, Rf = CMe 2(CF3) or CMe(CF3)2] were prepared by reacting the corresponding metal dimethylamide complexes with fluorinated alcohols. An attempt was made to prepare gallium hydrido-thiolate complexes for possible use as precursors to gallium sulfide films. Reactions of GaH 3L (L = NMe3 or quinuclidine) with 1 or 2 equivalents of t-BuSH and GaH3-xClx(quin) with 1 or 2 equivalents of LiS-t-Bu produced mixtures of products. GaH(S- t-Bu)2(NMe3) and GaH2(S- t-Bu)(quin) were isolated as crystalline solids from the product mixtures. The complexes Ga(S-t-Bu)3L (L = NMe 3 or quinuclidine) were synthesized from GaH3L and a slight excess of t-BuSH.

  18. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Teff, D.

    1998-09-01

    Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.

  19. Anodic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, R. H.

    1983-08-01

    Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical, machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation are determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

  20. About Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and briefly describes 46 college-level films. Films are arranged in the following categories: volcanism and earthquakes; plate tectonics; energy, water, and environmental concerns; petroleum and coal; astronomy; space exploration, space shuttle; paleontology; geomorphology; and mineralogy, petrology, and economic geology. (BC)

  1. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  2. Film Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, George T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)

  3. Film Making

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Allan

    2008-09-21

    Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

  4. Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, M.; Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (Ic) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy or YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed.

  5. Berry phase in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Szkopek, T.; Pereg-Barnea, T.; Proust, C.; Gervais, G.

    2015-06-01

    The geometrical Berry phase is widely recognized as having profound implications for the properties of electronic systems. Over the last decade or so, the Berry phase has been essential to our understanding of new materials such as graphene and topological insulators. In general, a nontrivial Berry phase is a result of band crossing as in the case of a massless Dirac point. The Berry phase can be accessed in quantum oscillation measurements as it contributes to the phase mismatch of electrons in their cyclotron orbits. With their enigmatic pseudogap and superconducting phases, the cuprates are materials where the Berry phase is thus far unknown. Based on quantum oscillation data in the high-field normal state of underdoped cuprates, we determined the Berry phase contribution to the phase mismatch unambiguously in this family of materials. In the hole-doped materials YBa2Cu3Oy , YBa2Cu4O8 , and HgBa2CuO4 +? , a trivial Berry phase of 0 mod (2 ? ) is systematically observed, while the electron-doped Nd2 -xCexCuO4 exhibits a significant nonzero Berry phase of 1.4 ? . Our results set significant constraints on the microscopic description of the high-field normal state and, in particular, do not support a nodal structure or broken time-reversal symmetry in the hole-doped compounds.

  6. Successive Antiferromagnetic Transitions and Magnetic Susceptibility of YBa2Cu3-xCoxOy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Tokumoto, Madoka; Waki, Shinya

    1992-05-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of YBa2Cu3-xCoxOy (x{=}0.06˜0.3 with tetragonal structure) has been studied, being focused on the successive antiferromagnetic transitions, TN2 and TN3, where the susceptibility(?)-versus-temperature(T) curve has kinks. The TN2, ranging between 18 K and 90 K, was nearly proportional to x, but little dependent on y. The TN3, near 6 K, was almost independent both on x and y. The transitions were analyzed based on a molecular field approximation, as secondary antiferromagnetic transitions accompanying a magnetic order of Co ions in the chain site. The characteristics of these transitions have been well explained with parameters of J0{=}1400 K, |J1|{\\cong}160 K, J2+8D{=}(180± 60) K, and J4{=}(80± 40) K; where the parameters are exchange interactions between Cu2+ spins (J0, J2), between Cu2+ and Co3+ spins (J1), between Co3+ spins (J4) and a crystalline magnetic anisotropy (D). The good fitting of the model suggests that these magnetic orders are inherent in the YBa2Cu3Oy structure.

  7. Science Fiction on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  8. School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION Fall 2012 Name in the School of Film & Photography that are not serving to fulfill any requirements listed above. Any & Photography that are not serving to fulfill university CORE requirements

  9. Film Festivals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Now that the Oscars and Golden Globes have all been awarded, some cineastes may think that the season of film celebration, award shows, and festivals is in a quiet slumber for a few months. Nothing could be farther from the truth, and a quick glance at the Film Festival website quickly dispels that misconception. Online since 1995, the site provides a great resource about previous and upcoming film festivals from all over the world. Here visitors can read the latest headline news from the various festivals, read coverage of the proceedings, and search a prodigious database of information. Visitors may also want to consider signing up to receive the free weekly newsletter or also viewing a selection of popular video clips culled from coverage of recent festivals.

  10. Graphene nanosheet counter-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Zhang; X. D. Li; S. Chen; H. B. Li; Z. Sun; X. J. Yin; S. M. Huang

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) have been investigated as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Mesoporous TiO2 films are prepared from the commercial TiO2 nano-powders by screen-printing technique on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) slides. GNs are applied to substitute for platinum as counter-electrode materials. GN films are screen printed on FTO glass using a paste based on GNs dispersed in

  11. Rainbow Film

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    In this activity, learners use clear nail polish to create a beautiful iridescent pattern on black paper. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a material's properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

  12. Energy on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Alliance to Save Energy, Inc., New York.

    This publication is a guide to films on energy conservation issues. The first section is a film source index which lists the organizations, their addresses and telephone numbers. The main body of the publication lists and describes films. This film listing is organized by topics to which the films relate. Topics include: (1) What is energy?; (2)…

  13. LINA GOPAUL Film Producer

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    LINA GOPAUL Film Producer Lina Gopaul has produced over thirty award-winning feature and documentary films. She runs Smoking Dogs Films established in 1998 with John Akomfrah and David Lawson. Lina and John were the founding members of the seminal film and video collective Black Audio Film Collective

  14. War. Peace. Film Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougall, Lucy

    The revised and expanded film guide designed for educators includes annotations of over 200 films, plus a large number of program resources for intelligent film use. Selected from over five hundred films previewed from 1969, up-to-date films were chosen that would help interpret the causes of war, increase awareness of the dehumanizing effects of…

  15. Film reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Henley; Lesley Griffiths

    1999-01-01

    Survivors of the Rainforest. Director and Camera, Andy Jillings; Consultant Anthropologist, Jacques Lizot; Sound, David Goodale; Editor, John Mister; Narration, Graham Townsley; Producer, Chris Curling (CSL Films for Channel 4); Distributor (video only): enquiries to Royal Anthropological Institute, 50 Fitzroy St., London W1P 5HS, tel: +44(171) 387–0455, fax: 383–4235, email: rai@cix.compulink.co.uk. 1994, 52 mins, color. Language: original Yanomami, subtitles and

  16. Film reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Sherratt; David Zeitlyn; Darrell A. Posey

    1995-01-01

    Frozen tombs of SiberiaThe Mystery of the Frozen Tombs of Siberia. Directed by Françoise Lévie; camera, Sacha Wiernik; sound, Sarah Moon Howe; editing, Michèle Maquet; produced by Sofidoc Production. 1994,26 minutes, color and black & white, English narration.Imbalu, a ritual of manhoodImbalu: Ritual of Manhood of the Bagisu of Uganda. A film by Richard Hawkins and Suzette Heald; director: Richard

  17. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  18. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

  19. Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schillaci, Peter

    This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

  20. Highly efficient 1 ?m thick CdTe solar cells with textured TCOs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nowshad Amin; Takayuki Isaka; Akira Yamada; Makoto Konagai

    2001-01-01

    Thickness reduction of CdTe absorption layer down to 1?m has been achieved by controlling the temperature profile used during the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) growth. Transparent conducting oxides, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and textured fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) films have been investigated as transparent electrodes for such 1-?m-thick CdTe absorption layers to increase the incident light confinement and

  1. Ultraviolet-Infrared dual band detector using ZnO\\/PbS composite nanostructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala; P. V. V. Jayaweera; J. Shao; K. Tennakone; A. G. U. Perera; P. M. Jayaweera; J. Baltrusaitis

    2009-01-01

    Sensors for detecting ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) photons, fabricated by complex epitaxial methods are costly. A low cost UV-NIR detector is fabricated using ZnO nonporous powder and PbS quantum size particles is demonstrated. A nonporous film of ZnO was fabricated on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass with a scribe, separating the FTO layer in to two electrodes. PbS

  2. Battery effects in organic photovoltaics based on polybithiophene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Biancardo; Frederik C. Krebs

    2008-01-01

    Homopolymer photovoltaic devices based on thin films of polybithiophene, prepared by direct electrodeposition onto transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes followed by evaporation of an aluminium electrode to complete the device, were reported by Leguenza et al. [J. Solid State Electrochem. 11 (2007) 577.] to exhibit very high open-circuit voltages (Voc) of up to 2V at a very low light intensity

  3. Sputtered thin magnetic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mayer

    1966-01-01

    Sputtered magnetic thin films have been studied for the purpose of evaluating both the deposition technique and the films fabricated by this technique. Results of these studies show the sputtering process to be relatively simple to control and the films to be highly uniform and reproducible. Some indications of correlation between crystalline structure and the magnetic properties of the films

  4. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  5. Synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nano-powder by sol–gel combustion hybrid method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Hwan Han; Sang-Do Han; Jihye Gwak; S. P. Khatkar

    2007-01-01

    ITO and FTO nano-powders were synthesized employing a new route sol–gel combustion hybrid method using acetylene black as a fuel. The dried gels exhibited an auto-catalytic combustion behavior. ITO and FTO nano-powders with narrow size distribution were obtained at 750 °C. Crystal structures were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphology as well as crystal size was investigated by

  6. High performance fluorine doped (Sn,Ru)O2 oxygen evolution reaction electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane based water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadakia, Karan; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Jampani, Prashanth; Park, Sung Kyoo; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of electro-catalysts containing non-noble metal or significantly reduced amounts of expensive noble metals (e.g. RuO2) is highly desirable. Development of such a catalyst with comparable electrochemical performance to the standard noble metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a pioneering breakthrough in hydrogen generation by water electrolysis. In line with these goals, by exploiting a two-pronged theoretical first principles and experimental approach herein we demonstrate that a nano-structured solid solution of SnO2:10 wt% F containing only 20 at.% RuO2 [e.g. (Sn0.80Ru0.20)O2:10F] displays a remarkably similar electrochemical activity and moreover, comparable or even much improved electrochemical stability and durability compared to pure the noble metal counterpart, RuO2. Density functional theory calculations have demonstrated direct dependence of the catalytic activity on the electronic structure peculiarities of the F-doped (Ru,Sn)O2 which corresponds well with the experimental results.

  7. Film as Film; Understanding and Judging Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, V. F.

    The criteria for judging movies which are presented here are based on the belief that film criticism becomes rational, if not "objective", when it displays and inspects the nature of its evidence and the bases of its arguments. The author dissents from the view of early film theorists that montage is the essence of cinema, and that cinema is to be…

  8. Films and Video: Literature Film Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    Intended for teachers of literature, this 37-page film catalog lists a wide selection of film adaptations of literary works and literary topics that are available for rental through the Learning Resources Services of the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. The catalog is organized both by title and author. Entries include plays, short…

  9. Major in Film About the Major: The major in Film combines the study of film history

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Major in Film About the Major: The major in Film combines the study of film history and analysis with film/video production and scriptwriting, providing a well-rounded understanding of film as a visual and narrative art form and of the process of filmmaking. Career Opportunities: Students who major in Film may

  10. Amorphous-Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes structure, preparation, characterization, and applications of films of amorphous-carbon. Amorphous-carbon films potentially useful as masks in x-ray lithography, layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits, hard films to protect magnetic recording media and optical components from degradation by chemical etching or wear, and radiation detectors.

  11. 8MM Film Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, Grace Ann, Comp.

    All 8mm films in general distribution in the United States, regardless of length or subject, are listed in this directory: Standard or Super 8, silent or sound, cartridge or reel-to-reel. Indexed alphabetically and by the Dewey Decimal System, films and film series are entered under the headings of Arts, Education, Fiction, Language, Recreation,…

  12. Films for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tringo, John L.

    Listed are approximately 500 films in the various areas of special education. The listing has been compiled from film company catalogs, social agency listings, and National Audiovisual Center listings. Information stated is that which was in the source materials (usually name, length, source, and brief description). Films are listed under the…

  13. AAAS Science Film Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltz-Petrash, Ann, Ed.; Wolff, Kathryn, Ed.

    Currently available American 16mm films in the areas of pure science, applied science and technology, and science and society are identified and listed. Included are films that are available from commercial, government, university, and industry producers. The first section of the catalog lists in Dewey Decimal order films intended for junior high…

  14. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  15. Playing With Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Maureen, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Designed for media specialists and educators, this issue includes five articles on innovative museum film programs. The first article describes a successful film program conducted at the Staten Island Children's Museum. The second article describes inventive children's programs at the Delaware Museum of Art. The programs use films and activities…

  16. Film Screening and Conversation

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Film Screening and Conversation 2011 6-9pm Smithsonian Asian Paci c American Program Rasmuson Director John Sayles Film Run Time: 124 minutes Closest Metro: L'Enfant Plaza Related Traveling Exhibition, the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program presents a screening of the film Amigo and a conversation

  17. Film Screening Before Tomorrow

    E-print Network

    Michelson, David G.

    Film Screening Before Tomorrow June 12 2014, 5:30 pm Synopsis: In 1840, two isolated Inuit families and the will to survive. Directed by Marie-Hélène Cousineau and Madeline Ivalu, the film is an adaptation of the novel Før Morgendagen by Danish writer Jørn Riel. It was the third film released by Igloolik Isuma Productions

  18. Emotion elicitation using films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

    1995-01-01

    Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

  19. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  20. The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the 4848--HOUR SHORT FILM contestHOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Department of Film. are sponsoring the Fifth Annual 48- HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las

  1. National Film Preservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

  2. Depositing Diamondlike Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.; Banks, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    New process demonstrated to make thin films (usually thousands of angstroms to few microns thick) that have properties of diamonds. Various plasma and ion-beam techniques employed to generate films. Films made by radio-frequency plasma decomposition of hydrocarbon gas or other alkanes, by low-energy carbon-ion-beam deposition, or by ion plating and dual ion technique using carbon target. Advantages of new process over others are films produced, though amorphous, are clear, extremely hard, chemically inert, of high resistivity, and have index of refraction of 3.2 properties similar to those of single-crystal diamonds. Films have possible uses in microelectronic applications, high-energy-laser and plastic windows, corrosion protection for metals, and other applications where desired properties of film shaped during the film-formation process.

  3. B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies September 2012- June 2013 Interim Report B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies was established in September 2012 as an interdisciplinary, autonomous from Modern Languages, American and Canadian Studies and the new department of Art History, Film

  4. Center for Film Studies Film Event Booking Form

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    Center for Film Studies Film Event Booking Form Student Groups The Center for Film Studies welcomes venue for the legal presentation of films, we encourage any department, program, or group who is contemplating a screening to consult with the Center to schedule an event. Student group requests for film

  5. Faculty of Arts Film & Television

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    Faculty of Arts Film & Television Studies Postgraduate Study #12;Film & Television Studies www.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/film/postgrads/ 2 Graduate Programmes In Film And Television Studies Introduction The Department of Film and Television Studies has a worldwide reputation for the quality of its teaching and research within the fields

  6. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  7. Étude par résonance quadrupolaire nucléaire de la rétention de carbone dans l'{YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grévin, B.; Berthiercw, Y.; Monot, I.; Wang, J.; Weiss, F.

    1998-03-01

    We present a Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) study of Cu(2) (planes) and Cu(1) (chains) sites in two YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7} powder samples with carbon concentration equal to 500 ppm and 3000 ppm, and in a free-carbon sample. By comparison with standard spectra in YBa_2Cu_3Oy, we show that a new NQR line appears at 30.90 MHz, the intensity of which is strongly correlated with the amount of carbon in the sample. Moreover, according to the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T_1 measurements at different frequencies of the spectrum, we attribute this anomalous line to the formation of clusters in which the superconductivity is destroyed by the presence of carbonate groups, which substitute preferentially for copper chain site. Those results are in good agreement with those of Wang et al. [CITE], obtained by high resolution electron microscopy. Nous présentons une étude par Résonance Quadrupolaire Nucléaire (RQN) des sites Cu(2) (plans) et Cu(1) (chaînes) dans deux échantillons de poudre d'YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7} contenant 500 ppm et 3000 ppm de carbone, ainsi que dans un échantillon de poudre supposé ne pas contenir de carbone. Par comparaison avec les spectres traditionnellement obtenus dans l'YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7}, nous avons mis en évidence l'apparition d'une raie supplémentaire à 30,90 MHz dont l'intensité augmente sensiblement avec le taux de carbone. De plus, l'analyse du taux de relaxation spin-réseau 1/T_1 mesuré à différentes fréquences nous a permis d'attribuer l'origine de cette raie anormale à la formation de domaines ou la supraconductivité est détruite par la présence de carbonates localisés de manière préférentielle sur les sites des chaînes. Cette étude confirme les résultats de Wang et al. [CITE] obtenus en microscopie électronique à haute résolution.

  8. Paraelectric film phase shifter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Poplavko; Y. Prokopenko; S. Baik; B. Kim

    2000-01-01

    A key component of a phased array antenna is a phase shifter. The current status of ferroelectric (and paraelectric) thin film processing enables one to expect that a tuned microwave device based on this film can be competitive with microwave ferrite and PIN diode phase shifters. An epitaxial film of BST-Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3-composition was deposited by laser ablation on an MgO substrate.

  9. Permalloy film NDRO memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Janisch

    1965-01-01

    A thin magnetic film NDRO storage cell has been developed for very high-speed word-organized memories. The storage cell contains two 500-Å, 15-mil-square Permalloy film elements with a read and sense line between them. One film element is deposited on a metallic ground plane, so that the read line and its image in the ground plane are coupled to the readout

  10. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  11. Self Healing Soap Films

    E-print Network

    Killian, Taylor; Bryson, Joshua; Truscott, Tadd

    2012-01-01

    In 1904, while experimenting with high-speed photography, Lucien Bull recorded a pellet passing through a soap bubble. We investigate the dynamics that allow for a rigid body to pass through a hemispherical soap film without rupturing it. Spheres were dropped from rest above a hemispherical soap film. At impact, the soap film stretches into a cavity around the sphere. As the sphere continues to descend, the film cavity pinches off and the film returns to its initial hemispherical shape. Upon closer observation of the film-sphere-air interface, the stability of the soap film appears to arise through a balance between the forces of the sphere inertia and the film tension. Therefore the relevant experimental parameter is the Weber number: We=(rho 2ghR)/sigma, where R is the sphere radius and h is the height that the sphere is dropped from. We vary the sphere radius and velocity to provide a range of Weber numbers in order to investigate the dependence of film stability. Three subtly distinct regimes arise across...

  12. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  13. Detection system for film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-jiang; Liu, Wen-yao; Ren, Li; Mo, Xu-tao; Wang, Bing-zhen

    2005-12-01

    Film is one kind of important record median. Its quality will affect image quality directly. So, it is necessary to study how to assure its quality. Because the situation of film production in dark room, normal detect method could not satisfied the film. In order to avoid to damage film, an infrared detect system is studied. This system is design to set at the position of spreader head. If the defect of film could be found at this position, the beginner of film production line, worker could tread with it in time and reduce waster. The infrared detect system include two sub systems. The two sub system need to detect one position all the time. One sub system is used to detect if there is defect. One CCD camera captures film image. The film image will be monitor by worker through screen. The screen should be set in light room. Another sub system is composed of object lens, image intensifier micro-channel plate and eye lens. If worker find defect from screen, he will inform another worker who worker in dark room. Another worker could find the defect through image intensifier system, and treat with it. The communication method between two workers is sound, not alarm light, because there is dark room. All of the two sub systems use infrared light as light source. The wavelength of light source is 940 nm, which is safe to film. This system is designed for Lekai, the biggest film company of China. This system could find detect early and help worker to deal with it on site, because the detect position is the starting of film production line.

  14. Film Canister Farming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2013-01-30

    In this hands-on botany activity, learners sprout vegetables in film canisters. Learners grow nine seeds each of cabbage, radish, and parsley, experimenting with changing one variable (light, water, or temperature) to explore differences in the germination preferences of the plants. If film canisters aren't available, other small, opaque containers with lids can be substituted.

  15. Children As Film Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, John; McIntosh, Don

    Based on the premise that film making can be of much greater value in education than is generally realized, this book tells the classroom teacher how to help children make their own films from beginning to end. A detailed text illustrated by drawings and photographs explains the basics of camera operation, editing, splicing, animation, titling,…

  16. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  17. Creative Film-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallman, Kirk

    The fundamentals of motion picture photography are introduced with a physiological explanation for the illusion of motion in a film. Film stock formats and emulsions, camera features, and lights are listed and described. Various techniques of exposure control are illustrated in terms of their effects. Photographing action with a stationary or a…

  18. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  19. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  20. FAA Film Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  1. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  2. Thin Films Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from Nano-Link contains the document required for the thin films module. The activity requires a background in eight grade science. This 9 page guide includes background information on thin film interference, a hands-on learning activity, links to multimedia resources, and further readings. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

  3. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  4. Magnetite thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Feng; C. Bajorek; M.-A. Nicolet

    1972-01-01

    A low temperature process for converting hematite (?-Fe2O3) thin films into magnetite (Fe3O4is described. The films produced are unambiguously identified as magnetite by several complementary methods of analysis. These include ?-backscattering spectrography, X-ray powder diffractometry, and observations of electrical, magnetic, and optical properties.

  5. Electrohydrodynamically coupled film boiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Jones

    1976-01-01

    A strong nonuniform electric field is known to have a significant effect on convective, nucleate, and film boiling heat transfer. The principal electrohydrodynamic coupling mechanism in the film boiling regime of pool boiling is an interfacial mechanism which alters the surface wave dispersion. A theoretical model for this coupling is favorably compared to experiment for the insulating liquid, a-c electric

  6. Electrolytic or film capacitors?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bramoulle

    1998-01-01

    Over the last eight years, significant improvements have been made in the field of polypropylene capacitors. Thinner films and more sophisticated metallization techniques have allowed the range of operating voltages to be lowered to some hundreds of volts. The upper voltage area of the electrolytic capacitors is now covered by the polymer film capacitors. This overlapping is examined through a

  7. Gordon Knox Film Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gordon Knox was born in Greenville, Texas and during his long career he made a wide range of documentary films for the United States Armed Forces, state and federal government agencies, and private sector clients. In 1941, Knox formed the Princeton Film Center in Princeton, New Jersey, and over the coming years he would create profiles of Princeton ("University Town"), "Fortress in the Sky" (for Boeing), and "This is Macy's", which was an orientation film for new employees at this celebrated department store. Visitors can search all of the materials (including the films) in the Knox archive via the search engine here, and they can also look through the "Recent Additions" area to look at new photos, manuscripts, and other items of note. One film that should not be missed is the 1948 documentary "What is Modern Art", which explores the question of recent transformations throughout the art world.

  8. Films Kids Like. A Catalog of Short Films For Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Susan, Ed.

    Information on the Children's Film Theater and a list of short films are contained in this catalog. The first section reviews the purpose of the Children's Film Theater, its history and what has been learned as a result of its efforts. Details on the mechanics of showing films for children are also covered, including matters such as screening…

  9. Western University Film Studies 5 Minute Film Festival

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Western University Film Studies 5 Minute Film Festival Submission Form Applicant Information Name: Email: School: Short Bio about yourself: Film Information Title: Run-Time (no more than 5 minutes): Your/rational of the Film (200-250 words): Date Completed: Disclaimer: All Submissions to Western's Five Minute High School

  10. Film and the Liberal Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, T. J.

    The essays in this book explore the relationship between films and some of the liberal arts. The first set of essays revolves around the topic of films and rhetoric. They describe the special language of films and its unique mode of communication. A second group of essays deals with films and literature and includes discussions on writing for…

  11. Children's Film Programming: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallery Association of New York State, Inc.

    Directed at the staffs of art institutions, community centers, libraries, historical societies, and schools, this practical guide is intended to help in the selection and use of films for children. "Film," in this handbook refers to 16mm films presented in public screenings--not videotape versions of films, and not material originally produced in…

  12. The Art of the Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Ernest

    The author prefaces his consideration of films as an art form with a discussion of the mechanics of filmmaking. He describes the division of talent on a movie set, details the history of the tools of filmmakers, and explains the production and reproduction of a film. The influence of film techniques on plot development in a fiction film is…

  13. Noncoherent Switching in Permalloy Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. Smith; K. J. Harte

    1962-01-01

    High resolution Bitter pattern studies of the domain structure of permalloy films, with uniaxial anisotropy Hk and under the influence of applied fields in the film plane, are reported, and from these studies are inferred some aspects of noncoherent flux reversal processes. The threshold field for irreversible domain propagation across the film is measured for a variety of films differing

  14. A Film Guide on China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Christopher J., Ed.

    Over 80 films are listed in this annotated film guide on China. Designed to help educators select films about China, each entry contains a short annotation which gives a capsule and sometimes evaluative summary of film content. The booklet is divided into four sections on China before and after 1949, Taiwan, and Chinese culture. Each listing…

  15. Capacitor film surface assessment studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Galperin; W. White

    1985-01-01

    In the present investigation of the optical surface of the three widely used, biaxially oriented capacitor films, polypropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, and polyester, with attention to film surface defects and thickness variation, the defects and their rate of occurrence proved traceable in terms of polymer structure, chemical grouping, and fabrication processing. Film thickness variation was small, yet differed for each film

  16. Chicago Film Archives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chicago Film Archives is an amazing regional film archive that collects, preserves, and provides access to films that represent the spirit of the Midwest. They work together with a range of other partners to host film festivals, develop seminars, and also sponsor public lectures. Visitors should click on over to the Explore Collections area to browse through over 600 films. This section contains finding aids, information about historic home movies, and access to very unique films. First-time visitors might start with some of the great home movies of Chicago in the 1950s and 1960s. Moving on, the Conservation Projects section is a real pip. Here, visitors can look over two remarkable dance performances from the Ravinia Music Festival from 1928 and seven short films that document the social and cultural upheavals that swept across Chicago in the late 1960s. It's a remarkable site where anyone with an interest in the history of documentary filmmaking and related matters will find much to enjoy.

  17. Ion beam deposited protective films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Single or dual ion beam sources were used to deposit thin films for different applications. Metal and metal oxide films were evaluated as protective coatings for the materials. Film adherence was measured and the most promising films were then tested under environments similar to operating conditions. It was shown that some materials do protect die material (H-13 steel) and do reduce thermal fatigue. Diamondlike films have many useful applications. A series of experiments were conducted to define and optimize new approaches to the manufacture of such films. A dual beam system using argon and methane gases was developed to generate these films.

  18. A water film motor

    E-print Network

    R. Shirsavar; A. Amjadi; N. Hamedani Radja; M. D. Niry; M. Reza Rahimi Tabar; M. R. Ejtehadi

    2006-05-01

    We report on electrically-induced rotations in water films, which can function at many length scales. The device consists of a two-dimensional cell used for electrolysis of water films, as simple as an insulator frame with two electrodes on the sides, to which an external in-plane electric field perpendicular to the mean electrolysis current density is applied. If either the external field or the electrolysis current exceeds some threshold (while the other one is not zero), the liquid film begins to rotate.

  19. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  20. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  1. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  2. Film Noir Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

  3. Postmodern film adaptation

    E-print Network

    Brannon, Courtney Elizabeth

    2013-02-22

    Chapter one explores the reflexive nature of Stephen Daldry's The Hours (2002) as an adaptation from two previous novels: Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway and Michael Cunningham's The Hours. Through the motif of mirror images, the film consciously...

  4. Thin Film Growth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss thin film growth processes. Slide topics include plasma properties, DC glow discharge, ionization, plasma species, magnetrons, collisions, and chemical reactions. Numerous charts and mathematical formulas are presented.

  5. Tunneling between ferromagnetic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Julliere

    1975-01-01

    Fe-Ge-Co junctions conductance G(V) is studied when mean magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic film are parrallel or antiparallel. Conductance measurement, in these two cases, is related to the spin polarizations of the conduction electrons.

  6. Protein Thin Film Machines

    E-print Network

    Federici, Stefania

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fuelled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity ...

  7. Electroluminescence in thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiner H. Mauch

    1996-01-01

    The three most important technologies for future display applications where electroluminescence (EL) in thin films is used for light generation are discussed. These technologies are firstly, Alq- and PPV-based organic light emitting diodes (LED); secondly, inorganic a-SiC LED and thirdly, ac-driven thin film electroluminescent devices based on II–VI compounds. The last of these is of the high-field EL-type whereas the

  8. Buckling in nanomechanical films

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Troy R [ORNL; Lee, Professor Ilsoon [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2010-01-01

    Wrinkling is a common everyday occurrence. Over the last decade wrinkling in thin films has become an interesting topic. Nearly all studies to date have focused on the underlying physics or how the wrinkles can be used for a final purpose. With more and more devices being created from stacked materials, a need for ways to prevent buckling has arisen. In this article we highlight the prevention of wrinkling of nanoscale thin films.

  9. Peel testing metalized films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivins, L.; Smith, T.

    1980-01-01

    Flimsy ultrathin sheets are mounted on glass for peel-strength measurements. Technique makes it easier to perform peel tests on metalized plastic films. Technique was developed for determining peel strength of thin (1,000 A) layers of aluminum on Kapton film. Previously, material has been difficult to test because it is flimsy and tends to curl up and blow away at slightest disturbance. Procedure can be used to measure effects on metalization bond strength of handling, humidity, sunlight, and heat.

  10. Defects in Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Defects have been the bane of, and led to the failure of many a thin film. Defects come in many shapes, forms and sizes, and are a fact of life in the coating business. Virtually every technology and product related to thin film materials has had to deal with these little menaces. Defects include voids, uncompensated bonds, cracks, nodules, particulates, bubbles, inclusions, pin holes, and chemical defects such as impurities and chemisorbed materials.

  11. Film and history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Goodwin

    1984-01-01

    Pierre Sorlin. The Film in History: Restaging the Past. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes and Noble, 1980, 226 pp. $22.50 cloth.K.R.M. Short, ed. Feature Films As History. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1981. 192 pp. $16.50 cloth.Lary May. Screening Out the Past: The Birth of Mass Culture and the Motion Picture Industry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. 304 pp.

  12. Oligatomic Film Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Benrud; G. L. Forslund; M. M. Hanson; R. L. Horst; A. D. Kaske; J. A. Kolling; D. S. Lo; M. J. Nordstrom; H. N. Oredson; W. J. Simon; C. H. Tolman; E. J. Torok

    1971-01-01

    For years the desideratum of flat-film fabricators has been a simply constructed high-density random-access NDRO bit organized memory with word and digit current levels low enough for high-density integrated electronics. This paper describes a new direction in flat-film memories that achieves that goal and a projected cost?bit an order-of-magnitude less than that of integrated circuit wire or core memories. Permalloy

  13. Polymer film composite transducer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-09-20

    A composite piezoelectric transducer, whose piezoeletric element is a "ribbon wound" film of piezolectric material. As the film is excited, it expands and contracts, which results in expansion and contraction of the diameter of the entire ribbon winding. This is accompanied by expansion and contraction of the thickness of the ribbon winding, such that the sound radiating plate may be placed on the side of the winding.

  14. Wrinkling of Stiff Films on Stretched Compliant Films: Experimental and Theoretical Studies 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yi

    2013-12-06

    on wrinkling of stiff films with finite widths on stretched compliant thin sheet via experimental and theoretical approach. Polyester films and low density polyethylene films have been utilized as the surface films and substrate films, respectively. Flexible...

  15. Mercuric iodide polycrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn R.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Skinner, Neal; Hoffman, Edward J.; Fornaro, Laura; Mussio, Luis; Saucedo, Edgardo; Gancharov, Alvaro

    2001-12-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) polycrystalline films are being developed as a new detector technology for digital x-ray imaging. Films have been grown with areas up to 80 cm2 (4' diameter) and thickness of 20-250 micrometers using sublimation. The growth techniques used can be easily extended to produce much larger film areas (>10'x10'). Thickness of the grown layers and size of the grains can be regulated over a wide range by adjusting the growth parameters. The films were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and in response to ionizing radiation. Leakage current as low as 40 pA/cm2 at the operating bias voltage of ~50 V has been observed. High sensitivity and excellent linearity in the response to x-rays was measured. Signals from these HgI2 polycrystalline detectors, in response to ionizing radiation, compare favorably to the best published results for all high Z polycrystalline films grown elsewhere, including TlBr, PbI2 and HgI2. The low dark current, good sensitivity, and linearity of the response to x-rays put HgI2 polycrystalline semiconductor detectors in position as a leading candidate material for use in digital x-ray imaging systems. Our future efforts will concentrate on optimization of film growth techniques specifically for deposition on a-Si:H flat panel readout arrays.

  16. Greatest Films of All Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dirks, Tim.

    Greatest Films of All Time is a loving tribute to great films, provided by Tim Dirks. Here you can find plot information on hundreds of classic films, arranged by year, genre, and title. Also, there are sections on memorable film quotations (which are linked to the movie they came from), as well as great scenes. Possibly the best part of the entire site is the large bibliography of film reference books. The only drawback to the site is that it is not searchable. Are these the best films of all time? Half the fun of this site is comparing your list to Mr. Dirks'.

  17. Capacitor film surface assessment studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, I.; White, W.

    1985-02-01

    In the present investigation of the optical surface of the three widely used, biaxially oriented capacitor films, polypropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, and polyester, with attention to film surface defects and thickness variation, the defects and their rate of occurrence proved traceable in terms of polymer structure, chemical grouping, and fabrication processing. Film thickness variation was small, yet differed for each film type. Film breakdown voltages have been determined, and alternative causes for the voltage values obtained are proposed. A reciprocal relation is noted between the film breakdown voltage and the dielectric constant.

  18. Films and Film Sources for Materials Science and Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Edward B.

    1972-01-01

    A selected list of films that are suitable for secondary schools through universities. They cover all phases of materials science and engineering. The films may be obtained, usually free of charge, for listed sources. (DF)

  19. Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ?450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 ?S/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 ?S/cm for films containing 100 ?M virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films. PMID:22856875

  20. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  1. Black thin film silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koynov, Svetoslav; Brandt, Martin S.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2011-08-01

    "Black etching" has been proposed previously as a method for the nanoscale texturing of silicon surfaces, which results in an almost complete suppression of reflectivity in the spectral range of absorption relevant for photovoltaics. The method modifies the topmost 150 to 300 nm of the material and thus also is applicable for thin films of silicon. The present work is focused on the optical effects induced by the black-etching treatment on hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon thin films, in particular with respect to their application in solar cells. In addition to a strong reduction of the reflectivity, efficient light trapping within the modified thin films is found. The enhancement of the optical absorption due to the light trapping is investigated via photometric measurements and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The correlation of the texture morphology (characterized via atomic force microscopy) with the optical effects is discussed in terms of an effective medium with gradually varying optical density and in the framework of the theory of statistical light trapping. Photoconductivity spectra directly show that the light trapping causes a significant prolongation of the light path within the black silicon films by up to 15 ?m for ˜1 ?m thick films, leading to a significant increase of the absorption in the red.

  2. Mechanical stability of sol-gel films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Atkinson; R. M. Guppy

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between film cracking and film thickness has been studied experimentally for films of ceria gel deposited by spinning on to stainless steel substrates from an aqueous ceria sol. A critical film thickness below which films were crack-free was observed at about 0.6 µm. For films thicker than the critical thickness the crack spacing was approximately ten times the

  3. Depositing Adherent Ag Films On Ti Films On Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses cleaning of ceramic (principally, alumina) substrates in preparation for sputter deposition of titanium intermediate films on substrates followed by sputter deposition of outer silver films. Principal intended application, substrates sliding parts in advanced high-temperature heat engines, and outer silver films serve as solid lubricants: lubricating properties described in "Solid Lubricant for Alumina" (LEW-15495).

  4. Film properties and integration of a variety of FSG films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wistrom; G. Bomberger; S. Cohen; S. Hazel; M. Lavoie; J. Gambino; D. Poley; O. Dokumaci

    2001-01-01

    FSG films were deposited using a wide variety of manufacturing processes employing PECVD, HDP-CVD with both SiH 4-based and TEOS-based chemistries. Physical and chemical properties were compared for blanket films, and parametric and defect analysis was performed on integrated circuit test structures. Blanket wafer results indicate that the TEOS-based films had the best stability.

  5. Film Report: Independent Multicultural Films at the Sundance Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Christine L.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews independent multicultural films and videos shown at the Sundance Film Festival, January 1997. The festival included a special symposium and reception honoring Native American writers and filmmakers. This article reviews 4 Native American videos and 10 other multicultural films the author was able to see, and it lists other noteworthy…

  6. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  7. The Nuclear Debate in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    1977-01-01

    Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

  8. Foam films stabilized by dodecyl maltoside. 1. Film thickness and free energy of film formation.

    PubMed

    Muruganathan, R M; Krustev, R; Müller, H-J; Möhwald, H; Kolaric, B; Klitzing, R V

    2004-07-20

    Foam films stabilized by a sugar-based nonionic surfactant, beta-dodecyl maltoside, are investigated. The film thickness and the film contact angle (which is formed at the transition between the film and the bulk solution) are measured as a function of NaCl concentration, surfactant concentration, and temperature. The film thickness measurements provide information about the balance of the surface forces in the film whereas the contact angle measurements provide information about the specific film interaction free energy. The use of the glass ring cell and the thin film pressure balance methods enables studies under a large variety of conditions. Thick foam films are formed at low electrolyte concentration. The film thickness decreases (respectively the absolute value of the interaction film free energy increases) with the increase of the electrolyte concentration according to the classical DLVO theory. This indicates the existence of a repulsive double layer electrostatic component of the disjoining pressure. An electrostatic double layer potential of 16 mV was calculated from the data. A decrease of the film thickness on increase of the surfactant concentration in the solution is observed. The results are interpreted on the basis of the assumption that the surface double layer potential originates in the adsorption of hydroxyl ions at the film surfaces. These ions are expelled from the surface at higher surfactant concentration. PMID:15248722

  9. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  10. Film Literature Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.

  11. Spin-coated PMMA films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Semaltianos

    2007-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spin-coated thin films are commonly used as resist films in micro\\/nanofabrication processes. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, scratching lithography and force–distance curves spectroscopy, the spin coating and post-processing conditions were determined, for obtaining films whose surface morphology appears featureless or is dominated by pinholes and other surface defects. Featureless appear the surfaces of films spin coated

  12. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  13. Dual clearance squeeze film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A dual clearance hydrodynamic liquid squeeze film damper for a gas turbine engine is described. Under normal operating conditions, the device functions as a conventional squeeze film damper, using only one of its oil films. When an unbalance reaches abusive levels, as may occur with a blade loss or foreign object damage, a second, larger clearance film becomes active, controlling vibration amplitudes in a near optimum manner until the engine can be safely shut down and repaired.

  14. Page 140 Film Studies Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog FILM STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Page 140 Film Studies Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog FILM STUDIES PROGRAM OFFICE Art Programs Offered Minor in Film Studies Major in Film: See Art History: Film Emphasis The film studies minor is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental pro- gram that analyzes the history, theory, and practice of film

  15. DCOUVREZ LES PLUS BEAUX FILMS

    E-print Network

    Laemmli, Ulrich

    adaptent la nouvelle de Gottfried Keller, dont le titre évoque celui de Shakespeare Romeo et Juliette. LaDÉCOUVREZ LES PLUS BEAUX FILMS DE LA LANGUE ET DE LA CULTURE ALLEMANDE AU kinoKLUB DU 30 SEPTEMBRE;Édito Loupé un film? Vous trouverez une grande partie des films que nous projettons et bien d

  16. Optical Response of Graded Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. A. Kwok

    2005-01-01

    Graded materials have quite different physical properties from the homogeneous materials. Recently, it has been found that graded thin films may have better dielectric properties than a single-layer film. The materials properties of graded films can vary continuously in space. These materials have attracted much interest in various engineering applications. However, the traditional theories fail to deal with the composites

  17. Teaching Argumentative Writing through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluitt-Dupuy, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how watching and discussing feature films and writing reviews of these films in the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom can be instrumental in teaching the principles of good argumentative writing within the confines of the simple movie review. Six steps for teaching a film review unit are provided. (Author/VWL)

  18. Further Developments of Film Emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN BRANDES

    The aerial imaging process has experienced many changes over the last decade due to the introduction of scanning of film, softcopy photogrammetry, digital workflow and the evolution of digital imaging sensors. Through all of these evolutionary changes, analog film remains a viable, and in many cases, a most desirable choice for data capture. The adaptability of silver halide films has

  19. Film Images of the Negro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchel, Frank

    1967-01-01

    Educators can help students recognize the value of the motion picture as a social influence by exposing them to film stereotyping and the effect of this distortion on society. A historical study of the film image of the Negro will show him emerging from a humorous, fearful, "perverted" character in early films to "an unfortunate member of society"…

  20. carleton.ca Film Studies

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    carleton.ca Film Studies #12;Ever since the first spectator pressed his eye to the peephole has been transfixed by the motion picture. The year was 1894 and the film industry has never looked on the British coast crashed over them. By the 1920s and 30s, audiences worshipped film stars such as Gloria

  1. Automatic recognition of film genres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

    1995-01-01

    Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

  2. Ferroelectricity in ultrathin perovskite films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dillon D. Fong; G. Brian Stephenson; Stephen K. Streiffer; Jeffrey A. Eastman; Orlando Auciello; Paul H. Fuoss; Carol Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the suppression of ferroelectricity in perovskite thin films is a fundamental issue that has remained unresolved for decades. We report a synchrotron x-ray study of lead titanate as a function of temperature and film thickness for films as thin as a single unit cell. At room temperature, the ferroelectric phase is stable for thicknesses down to 3 unit cells

  3. Switched photocurrent direction in Au/TiO2 bilayer thin films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjun; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-01-01

    Switched photocurrent direction in photoelectrodes is a very interesting phenomenon and has demonstrated their potentials in important applications including photodiodes, phototransistors, light-driven sensors and biosensors. However, the design and mechanism understanding of such photoelectrodes remain challenging to date. Here we report a new phenomenon of sequence-driven the photocurrent direction on a simple bilayer structure of 5?nm thick Au and 10?nm TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. It is found that when Au layer are deposited as the outer layer on TiO2 coated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate (designated as FTO/TiO2/Au), anodic photocurrent is obtained due to the band bending formed at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Interestingly, simply swapping the deposition sequence of Au and TiO2 leads to cathodic photocurrent on FTO/Au/TiO2 electrode. Characterization and calculations on the photoelectrode reveals that the photogenerated electrons can be easily trapped in the energy well formed between the band bending and the Schottky contact, which allows electronic tunnelling through the 1.6?nm thick space charge layer, resulting in a unique anodic to cathodic photocurrent conversion. The understanding of this new phenomenon can be important for designing new generation optoelectronic converting devices in a low-cost and facile manner. PMID:26028118

  4. Switched photocurrent direction in Au/TiO2 bilayer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongjun; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-01-01

    Switched photocurrent direction in photoelectrodes is a very interesting phenomenon and has demonstrated their potentials in important applications including photodiodes, phototransistors, light-driven sensors and biosensors. However, the design and mechanism understanding of such photoelectrodes remain challenging to date. Here we report a new phenomenon of sequence-driven the photocurrent direction on a simple bilayer structure of 5?nm thick Au and 10?nm TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. It is found that when Au layer are deposited as the outer layer on TiO2 coated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate (designated as FTO/TiO2/Au), anodic photocurrent is obtained due to the band bending formed at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Interestingly, simply swapping the deposition sequence of Au and TiO2 leads to cathodic photocurrent on FTO/Au/TiO2 electrode. Characterization and calculations on the photoelectrode reveals that the photogenerated electrons can be easily trapped in the energy well formed between the band bending and the Schottky contact, which allows electronic tunnelling through the 1.6?nm thick space charge layer, resulting in a unique anodic to cathodic photocurrent conversion. The understanding of this new phenomenon can be important for designing new generation optoelectronic converting devices in a low-cost and facile manner. PMID:26028118

  5. Films: 1971/72 Catalog of Films, Film Loops and Filmstrips for Schools, Colleges and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Corp. of America, New York, NY.

    The films in this catalog are available for sale or rent from Learning Corporation of America. For elementary grades, films are available for use in the language arts and social studies classes. For junior and senior high, college, and adult courses, films are listed for instruction in art, music, and dance; environmental studies; United States…

  6. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN); Ganguli, Rahul (Camarillo, CA); Lu, Yunfeng (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

  7. Detection of Boundary Films.

    PubMed

    Wise, W S; Munro, R E; King, P P

    1960-12-16

    Results, obtained with a photoelectric refractometer and sucrose solutions, indicate that a concentrated surface layer rapidly builds up when sucrose solutions are allowed to stand under conditions where evaporation can occur from the surface. The phenomenon is similar to the formation of a cool boundary film which has recently been shown to occur on the surface of the ocean. PMID:17797363

  8. Rating Films on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Ginette; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the film viewing habits of Belgian television viewers reveals that movies with advisories regarding sex and violence are watched more than the movies without them. However, movies with qualifications tend to be judged less interesting than movies without qualifications. (JMF)

  9. film & television introduction.

    E-print Network

    Finzi, Adrien

    Internship Program butv10 Producing content for iPods and cell phones BU Cinémathèque International Film various programs drives home the point: diversity defines us. special opportunities. Los Angeles, and criticism. This program stresses that it is the producer who is the intellectual driving force behind all

  10. Multiferroic thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilma Eerenstein; Finlay Morrison

    2005-01-01

    Multiferroic materials are both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic. This combination opens up new applications, as the magnetization can be addressed with an electric field and the polarization by a magnetic field. However, most multiferroic materials either have low polarizations and\\/or low transition temperatures, thus limiting their potential use in novel devices. We report on high quality epitaxial films of two candidate

  11. Thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Dhere, Ramesh G.

    2005-07-01

    CdTe and CuIn1-xGaxSe2-ySy (CIGSS) are ideal candidates for thin-film solar cells. Present photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies of champion thin-film solar cells are: CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) 19.5%, CdTe 16.5%, and a-Si:H 12.4%. Thin-film PV modules could spearhead production growth of photovoltaics in the United States because of their added production capacity. For this purpose, module efficiencies must be improved to the 13%-15% range. Obtaining Ohmic contacts is difficult, especially for CdTe, because of the inherently low p-type doping level. Therefore, increasing the p-type doping level is important. Growth of CIGSS film must be controlled carefully as it transitions from Cu-rich to In-rich composition. Other issues for CIGSS cells are minimizing indium consumption, and increasing process throughput of selenization/sulfurization and transparent conducting oxide deposition. Development of all-dry processing for CdS deposition would be beneficial for both cells. This paper discusses basic devices and related issues.

  12. Black thin film silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetoslav Koynov; Martin S. Brandt; Martin Stutzmann

    2011-01-01

    ``Black etching'' has been proposed previously as a method for the nanoscale texturing of silicon surfaces, which results in an almost complete suppression of reflectivity in the spectral range of absorption relevant for photovoltaics. The method modifies the topmost 150 to 300 nm of the material and thus also is applicable for thin films of silicon. The present work is

  13. Mobile Library Filming Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Claud E.

    This report contains details of the study and performance test of the Mobile Filming Library Device which consists of a camera and self contained power source. Because of the cost savings and service improvement characteristics, this technique involving the use of a microfilm intermediate in the preparation of copies of material filed in full size…

  14. Films in Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrievogel, Paul A.; Prete, Anthony T.

    Bound in a slipcover rather than in signatures, this "book" is made up of thirteen separately bound booklets. The first booklet is an introduction to the use of film in the classroom both in teaching the filmic art and in increasing the visual literacy of students on the high school and early college levels. The twelve other booklets each treat a…

  15. Electrochromic thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Nyman; U. Gullenberg; M. Leppihalme

    1987-01-01

    An electrochromic material has the property of changing color when voltage is applied across it. It is possible electronically to alter a window's transmission and reflection properties by use of electrochromic thin films. This allows regulation of conductive and radiative heat transfer rates, with variable optical attenuation in the visible and infrared part of the solar radiation. Suitable materials for

  16. Films on Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlato, Salvatore J., Jr., Comp.

    This filmography on deafness, which contains summaries of 192 16mm films arranged in alphabetical order by title, covers a wide variety of topics as evidenced by the categorical title index: communication, the nature of deafness, detection and measurement of deafness, education and training, multi-handicaps, and noise pollution. Running time, date…

  17. Intercultural Training with Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roell, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Films are a great medium to use not only to practice English, but also to facilitate intercultural learning. Today English is a global language spoken by people from many countries and cultural backgrounds. Since culture greatly impacts communication, it is helpful for teachers to introduce lessons and activities that reveal how different…

  18. FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

  19. PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Film Dept. are sponsoring the Third Annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las Vegas, Nevada

  20. Mechanisms of polymeric film formation.

    PubMed

    Felton, Linda A

    2013-12-01

    Polymeric films are applied to solid dosage forms for decorative, protective, and functional purposes. These films are generally applied by a spray atomization process, where the polymer is sprayed onto the solid substrate. The mechanism by which films are formed is dependent on whether the polymer is in the dissolved or dispersed state. For solutions, film formation occurs as the solvent evaporates, since the polymer chains are intimately mixed. Film formation from polymeric dispersions, however, requires the coalescence of individual polymer spheres and interpenetration of the polymer chains. Films prepared from polymeric dispersions exhibit a minimum film forming temperature and processing conditions must exceed this temperature in order to form the film. In addition, these systems generally require post-coating storage in temperature and humidity controlled environments to ensure complete polymer coalescence. Incomplete coalescence can lead to significant changes in drug release over time. This review article highlights the basic science principles involved in film formation from both polymeric solutions and dispersions and the variables that influence these film formation processes. PMID:23305867

  1. How Reviews Affect Film Interest and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Robert O.; Badger, David P.

    A study examined the effects of published film reviews on viewers' interest in and evaluation of the reviewed film. In the film interest experiment, 89 undergraduate students were randomly assigned positive, mixed, or negative reviews of a British film. The control group received a review of a different film. Subjects were asked to read the…

  2. Effect of Repetitive Film Showings on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Tavish, C. L.

    In a study made in 1949 to determine the increment in learning that could be attributed to repetition, four general science films were shown to each of four groups of college students in such a way that each group saw one of the films once, a second film twice, a third film three times, and a fourth film four times. The experimental population…

  3. FILM STUDIES www.theaterarts.pdx.edu

    E-print Network

    of the Creative Industries (4) Art 455 Time Arts Studio (4) ArH 291 History of Animation (4) BSt 424 African (4) TA 370 Topics: Theater, Media, and Culture (4) Shakespeare on Film Film Genres Film Goes to War and Culture Musicals The Road Movie Robert Altman The 1970's Film and Television Renaissance Scorsese Film

  4. School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION Fall 2012 Name COURSES (20 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photography 3 _____ *FILM 112 Aesthetics of Film Production I 3 _____ *PHOT 113RA Understanding Photog. 3 _____ *PHOT 213 Intermediate Photography 3

  5. Here to stay: Film study and the film books scene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry M. Geduld

    1973-01-01

    THE ARNO PRESS CINEMA LIBRARY. (Film Books Series.) New York: Arno Press, 1970–1973.THE WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE FILM. Edited by Tim Cawkwell and John M. Smith. New York: World Publishing, 1972; pp. 444. $25.00.THE HISTORY OF WORLD CINEMA. By David Robinson. New York: Stein and Day, 1973; pp. 440. $12.50.HORROR AND SCIENCE FICTION FILMS: A CHECKLIST. By Donald C. Willis.

  6. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  7. American Film Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    In a dazzling demonstration that technological history can repeat itself, the American Film Institute has begun to make full length films available at its web site. The first showing is of Charles Chaplin's The Rink, made in 1916. VDO live video and audio streaming technology (discussed in the April 12, 1996 Scout Report) is used to play the movie. It is viewed most clearly in a small window of your monitor, and performance is affected by such variables as network congestion and the speed of your connection. But it is a movie, just as early kinetoscope offerings were also "movies." Perhaps in three or four years this technology will mature, and we will really be able to watch movies over the net. Still, what AFI is doing is historic and a valuable experiment that should be recognized as such. The site also contains background information on Chaplin, as well as selected links to other Chaplin sites.

  8. Softly Constrained Films

    E-print Network

    Luca Giomi

    2013-04-03

    The shape of materials is often subject to a number of geometric constraints that limit the size of the system or fix the structure of its boundary. In soft and biological materials, however, these constraints are not always hard, but are due to other physical mechanisms that affect the overall force balance. A capillary film spanning a flexible piece of wire or a cell anchored to a compliant substrate by mean of adhesive contacts are examples of these softly constrained systems in the macroscopic and microscopic world. In this article I review some of the important mathematical and physical developments that contributed to our understanding of shape formation in softly constrained films and their recent application to the mechanics of adherent cells.

  9. Ferroelectric Thin Films: Deposition, Advanced Film Characterization and Novel Device Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Suchaneck; G. Gerlach

    2006-01-01

    In this work, current problems of ferroelectric thin film deposition are reviewed: Film stoichiometry, mechanical film stress, and self-polarization. Advanced film characterization includes the profiling of film properties over film thickness: the refractive index by Multi Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, the pyroelectric coefficient profile by Laser Intensity Modulation Method, and polarization and space charge profiling by Atomic Force Microscopy. Novel device

  10. Nanogranular Layered Magnetic Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Kakazei; Yu. G. Pogorelov; J. B. Sousa; J. M. Santos; S. Cardoso; P. P. Freitas

    Nanogranular layered magnetic films are a new class of magnetoresistive (MR) systems, consisting of well separated layers\\u000a of closely spaced ferromagnetic nanoparticles within an insulating matrix. Most commonly they are realized in the form of\\u000a discontinuous metal-insulator magnetic multilayers (DMIM), representing a general similarity with the formerly known magnetic\\u000a multilayered giant magnetoresistance (GMR) systems (Baibich et al., 1988). Compared to

  11. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film-forming material in a working device is a complex, multifaceted endeavor. It requires close attention to maintaining the optical properties of the electro-optic active portion of the polymer while manipulating the polymer structure to obtain the desired secondary polymer properties.

  12. Destabilization of film boiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Bankoff

    1980-01-01

    Some recent results are reviewed on the destabilization of film boiling, both under quasi-steady and fast-transient conditions, and with both solid-liquid and liquid-liquid systems. Interest has been generated in this phenomenon in connection with the triggering of vapor explosions and the rewetting of hot dry surfaces. Several theoretical and experimental models are used in calculations: an adsorption theory for the

  13. FilmSound.org

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hosted and maintained by Sven E. Carlsson, a Swedish educator, this Web site is an excellent source of information about that one element of filmmaking that is sometimes overlooked due to its ubiquity: sound. Persons curious to read a brief overview of film sound will want to start with an essay titled "An Introduction to Film Sound," by Jane Knowles Marshall. After this, they may want to look over the glossary on the right-hand side of the main page, which features definitions and explanations of terms such as "Ambience," "Foley," and "Production Sound." The sites other highlights include numerous essays by Oscar-winning sound designer Walter Murch (who won for The English Patient and Apocalypse Now) and Randy Thom (who won for The Right Stuff and has been nominated six times in total). Along with other essays on the use of sound in Indian cinema and the history of film sound, there are 10 essays (and sound samples) on the use of sound and sound effect design in the Star Wars trilogy. Visitors may be particularly interested to learn that the language of the Ewoks was created by altering and layering Tibetan, Mongolian, and Nepali languages.

  14. Tear film stability: a review.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Deborah F; Millar, Thomas J; Raju, Shiwani R

    2013-12-01

    Tear film stability can be assessed via a number of tools designed for clinical as well as research purposes. These techniques can give us insights into the tear film, and allow assessment of conditions that can lead to dry eye symptoms, and in severe cases, to significant ocular surface damage and deterioration of vision. Understanding what drives tear film instability and its assessment is also crucial for evaluating existing and new therapies. This review examines various techniques that are used to assess tear film instability: evaluation of tear break-up time and non-invasive break-time; topographic and interferometric techniques; confocal microscopic methods; aberrometry; and visual function tests. It also describes possible contributions of different tear film components; namely meibomian lipids, ocular mucins and proteins, and factors such as age, contact lens wear, ocular surgery and environmental stimuli, that may influence tear film instability. PMID:23973716

  15. Diamond films for laser hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Watkins, L.; Ravi, K.; Yokota, S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-damage experiments were performed on free-standing polycrystalline diamond films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD. The high laser-induced stress resistance found for this material makes it useful for thin-film coatings for laser optics. Results for diamond-coated silicon substrates demonstrate the enhanced damage threshold imparted by diamond thin-film coatings to materials susceptible to laser damage.

  16. Method for quality film formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Lampkin; R. B. Nikodem; G. A. Roderick

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for forming films of materials which are component layers of solar energy conversion devices, e.g. photovoltaic cells and heat collector panels. A selected substrate is heated while being sprayed with solutions which react on the heated surface to form a particular film. Films of SnOx and CdS are particularly produced. According to the present invention,

  17. Hall effect in superconducting films

    E-print Network

    Michaeli, Karen

    Near the superconducting phase transition, fluctuations significantly modify the electronic transport properties. Here we study the fluctuation corrections to the Hall conductivity in disordered films, extending previous ...

  18. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

    1999-01-12

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

  19. Templated dewetting of thin solid films

    E-print Network

    Giermann, Amanda L. (Amanda Leah)

    2009-01-01

    The dewetting of solid metal polycrystalline films to form metal nanoparticles occurs by the nucleation and growth of holes in the film. For typical films on flat substrates, this process is not well-controlled and results ...

  20. Film Music: Implications for Instructional Films and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlynka, D.

    This paper provides a critical review of the behavioral research on film music, indicates that there is a visual bias in media attribute research which needs to be balanced, and provides media producers and instructional developers with a theoretical basis and practical guidelines for using music in audiovisual presentations. The question of film

  1. Strictly Bollywood? : story, camera and movement in Hindi film dance

    E-print Network

    Shresthova, Sangita.

    2003-01-01

    Film dances, or filmed dance sequences accompanying film songs, are an important part of popular Indian cinema. Over the years, Hindi film dance has evolved from a cinematically simplistic, filmed documentation of performance ...

  2. Film Option Curriculum 2012 -2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed under different headings, including

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Film Option Curriculum 2012 - 2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed; typically taken in freshman year) FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography 3 FILM 106IA ­ Film in America 3 FILM 112 ­ Aesthetics of Film Production I 3 PHOT 113RA ­ Understanding Photography 3 WRIT 101W

  3. Liquid film demonstration experiment Skylab SL-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbro, W.

    1975-01-01

    The liquid film demonstration experiment performed on Skylab 4 by Astronaut Gerald Carr, which involved the construction of water and soap films by boundary expansion and inertia, is discussed. Results include a 1-ml globule of water expanded into a 7-cm-diameter film as well as complex film structures produced by inertia whose lifetimes are longer in the low-g environment. Also discussed are 1-g acceleration experiments in which the unprovoked rupture of films was photographed and film lifetimes of stationary and rotated soap films were compared. Finally, there is a mathematical discussion regarding minimal surfaces, an isoperimetric problem, and liquid films.

  4. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    PubMed

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

  5. Sundance Film Festival Announces Winners

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    Film festivals have become immensely popular during the last few decades, and it seems like almost every city or state now has some type of festival to showcase the work of local, national, and in some cases, international filmmakers, both young and old. Started by Robert Redford in 1981, the Sundance Film Festival (held annually in Park City, Utah) has quickly grown into one of the most prestigious celebrations of filmmaking in the world. Earlier this week, the Sundance Film Festival announced its awards in the Independent Feature Film Competition. Among the winners were "Capturing the Friedmans" (which won the Documentary Grand Jury Prize), "American Splendor" (which received the Dramatic Grand Jury Prize), and "My Flesh and Blood" (which received the Documentary Audience Award).The first site leads to the official 2003 Sundance Film Festival site that contains a wealth of material, including lists of all films shown at the festival and detailed information about the juries for the different competitions. The second link is to a news article from the Washington Post that reports on various award recipients of this year's Sundance Film Festival competition. The third link is to an online article that discusses the making of the film "Capturing the Friedmans" with the director, Andrew Jarecki. The fourth site leads to an interview with the noted comic book author Harvey Pekar, whose life was chronicled by director Shari Springer for her 2003 Sundance Festival award-winning film, "American Splendor." The fifth site leads to the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival home page, which was founded in 1998 to showcase the work of documentary filmmakers solely. The final site, Filmfestivals.com, is the clearinghouse for information about almost every single film festival in the world, and contains a search engine, detailed calendars of upcoming events, and frequently updated information about upcoming releases.

  6. Radiation grafting on natural films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  7. Protective Film Moves Aside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

    The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Science Books and Films

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Books and Films bills itself as "the authoritative guide to science resources, bringing you the expert information you need to make the best decisions when choosing science materials for your library, classroom, or institution." The subscriber section of the site allows access to more than 9,000 science reviews that can be shaped into personalized bibliographies by subject area, grade level, and author. For non-subscribers, articles from past years are offered, including the Best Books for Children, Best Books for Junior High and High School Readers, and Best Videos and Software.

  9. Antireflective polyimide based films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuanmei

    The goal of this work was to prepare antireflective and anti-abrasion films using polyimide and organically modified silica nanoparticle thin films. A series of thin film were prepared from colorless and soluble polyimide with organically modified silica colloids via a solution casting method. The polyimide was selected for its optical properties. Three type of organically modified silica nanoparticles were prepared by grafting polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and fluoroalkyl groups onto silica nanoparticles. The molecular weight of the polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and the amount of fluorinated alkyl groups were varied. The organically modified silica colloids were characterized by TEM, DLS, FTIR, 1H NMR, solid state 13C NMR and solid state 29Si NMR. The coatings were characterized by UV-Vis transmittance spectra and SEM. The effect of modified silica loading, the molecular weight of polymer and type of solvent on AR properties were studied. An enhancement in antireflective activity was observed for 1 wt% LPDMS modified (low molecular weight) silica coatings, 3 wt% fluorosilica-10 and 3% L-MPS-PF-SILICA nanoparticles (low molecular weight polyfluoroester modified silica) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). In comparison with cyclopentanone (CPT), DMAc favors migration of silica particles towards coating-air interface giving higher transmittance. The migration of particles to the surface and consequent increased surface roughness were observed by SEM. The present study suggested a roll to roll solution casting method to create antireflective coatings. This approach had potential to be used for a one-step large-scale manufacturing of antireflective coating. Four acrylated bismaleimide were made via two-step process. The first step involved the solution imidization to form hydroxylated bismaleimide. In the second step, hydroxylated bismaleimide was reacted with acryloyl chloride to form acrylated bismaleimide. The acrylated bismaleimide were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC and mass spectra. The acrylated bismaleimide was formulated with acryloyl morpholine and photoinitiator with or without addition of PDMS-silica nanoparticles to achieve UV-curable thin films. The photo-cure kinetics of four neat acrylated bismaleimide and the formulation were investigated by real-time FTIR, photo-DSC and rheometer. The kinetic analysis revealed that PDMS-silica accelerated the photocure rate and increased the conversion of both acrylate double bond and maleimide double bond. The dispersion of PDMS-silica nanoparticles affected the abrasion resistance. The optimal abrasion resistance was achieved with 3.0% wt PDMS modified silica nanoparticle loading.

  10. Carbonaceous film coating

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, L.

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of making a carbonaceous film. It comprises heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1 2 -e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes. The decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  11. Thin films: Past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  12. Growth defects in diamond films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Shechtman; J. L. Hutchison; L. H. Robins; E. N. Farabaugh; A. Feldman

    1993-01-01

    Growth defects in diamond films grown by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were studied by high resolution electron microscopy. Several features of the microstructure were resolved and their importance to the growth of the diamond film was evaluated. The observations included various twin boundaries of the type Sigma = 3, as well as Sigma = 9, Sigma = 27, and

  13. INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films Lecture notes La Rosa Portland State University PH-213 #12;#12;Reflection and transmission at an air- glass interface The effects of interference can be best through, a sheet of glass #12;Out of phase #12;In phase #12;#12;Interference from thin films Key reasoning

  14. Method to prepare oxide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirota, T.

    1986-01-01

    This invention pertains to a method for producing metal oxide films characterized by the fact that the metal elements constituting the main metal alloys contain at least one kind of transition element, and that the metal elements which constitute said metal alloy are thin films of barium and titanium in almost the same mol ratio.

  15. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  16. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai V. Tkachenko; Vladimir Chukharev; Petra Kaplas; Antti Tolkki; Alexander Efimov; Kimmo Haring; Jukka Viheriälä; Tapio Niemi; Helge Lemmetyinen

    2010-01-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2?m), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well

  17. Dewetting of thin polymer films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Reiter

    1992-01-01

    Thin polystyrene films (<100 nm) on silicon substrates undergo dewetting when annealed above the glass transition temperature. Three different stages can be distinguished: The smooth films break up by the creation of cylindrical holes. The holes then grow and form rims ahead of them which finally contact each other creating ``cellular'' structures. The rims are unstable and decay into droplets.

  18. Stresses in thin film metallization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Hodge; Sue Ann Bidstrup-Allen; Paul A. Kohl

    1997-01-01

    Stresses in conductors used in microelectronic interconnections are a critical processing and reliability issue. This work examines: 1) the temperature-dependent stress behavior of sputtered and electroplated silver and gold films on silicon substrates; 2) the use of wafer curvature using multiple substrates for the simultaneous determination of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and modulus for thin films. The stress-temperature behavior

  19. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  20. Falling films on flexible inclines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Matar; R. V. Craster; S. Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear stability and dynamic behavior of falling fluid films is studied for flow over a flexible substrate. We use asymptotic methods to deduce governing equations valid in various limits. Long-wave theory is used to derive Benney-like coupled equations for the film thickness and substrate deflection. Weakly nonlinear equations are then derived from these equations that, in the limit of

  1. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  2. Diplomarbeit in Organic Thin Films

    E-print Network

    Schreiber, Frank

    with an ultra-high vacuum chamber · In situ preparation and characterization of organic thin films Low EnergyDiplomarbeit in Organic Thin Films 2013 Title: Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy of Organic Thin varies strongly for different molecules and metal substrates. Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) can

  3. Amorphous niobium oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ramírez; S. E. Rodil; S. Muhl; D. Turcio-Ortega; J. J. Olaya; M. Rivera; E. Camps; L. Escobar-Alarcón

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous niobium oxide thin films were deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering under different conditions of pressure (2 to 4Pa) and oxygen percentage (9, 17, and 23%). The films were characterized to obtain the relationships between the deposition parameters and the most relevant physical properties (structural, optical, mechanical, surface morphology and optical). The composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

  4. Dielectric Breakdown of Polymer Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blok; D. G. Legrand

    1969-01-01

    Strong electric fields have been applied to dielectric polymer films to study field-induced mechanical stresses. For voltages near breakdown the mechanical forces are sufficient to cause localized deformation in some polymer films. Considerable field enhancement can occur at the deformation sites, leading to reduced nominal dielectric strength for the samples. Experimental evidence for electromechanical deformation is presented as a possible

  5. Film Preferences Following a Murder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehor O. Boyanowsky; Darren Newtson; Elaine Walster

    1974-01-01

    Evidence from various sources suggests that, under safe conditions of exposure, people may show preference for potentially fear-inducing events. To test for the existence of this phenomenon, general attendance at a film depicting cold-blooded murder and at a control film were compared on the two days following the occurrence of a murder and on the same two days one week

  6. Thin film concentrator panel development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Zimmerman

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice

  7. Film Study: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchel, Frank

    This resource guide describes six popular approaches to the study of the cinema and provides a practical analysis of selected books, materials, and information about motion picture rentals. Highlighting this extensive survey of film studies are the annotated, critical bibliographies and filmographies of significant books, articles and films by and…

  8. What's New in Film Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Sherrill

    1998-01-01

    Argues English teachers should stop treating film as a back-up activity and instead embrace it as a visual reinforcement of the curriculum. Describes how film can be used to teach literary terms such as protagonist, antagonist, conflict, setting, and characterization; to introduce material; and to introduce students to authors they may not…

  9. Films for Sociology, First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Bryan, Comp.

    This catalog contains a listing of over 1,000 16mm films of interest to students, teachers, and researchers in sociology. Whenever possible, content reflects current trends toward increased interdisciplinary investigation. In the main body of the catalog, the films are listed alphabetically by title. For each entry, information is given on…

  10. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  11. Hydrogen Storage in Diamond Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Prelas; T. K. Ghosh; S. K. Loyalka; R. V. Tompson

    2002-01-01

    Field Enhanced Diffusion with Optical Activation (FEDOA), a method developed in the authors' laboratory for adding impurities to diamond, has demonstrated that many types of impurities can be incorporated into natural diamond plates and CVD diamond films. This work reports the incorporation of hydrogen in type IIa diamond plates and CVD diamond films. The results indicate that hydrogen is attracted

  12. Laser damage threshold of diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharia; Cropper, Andre D.; Watkins, Linwood C.; Byvik, Charles E.; Buoncristiani, A. Martin

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that diamond films may inhibit laser-induced damage to optical components in laser systems films was investigated by measuring laser damage thresholds of free-standing diamond film windows, diamond films deposited on silicon substrates, and bare silicon substrate. Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a dc plasma-enhanced CVD process. It was found that free-standing diamond films had the highest laser damage threshold at 1064 nm. For a diamond film of 630 nm, the damage threshold was found to be 7 J/sq cm, as compared to a damage threshold of 4.5 J/sq cm for bare silicon, and a low value of 1.5 J/sq cm for the film/substrate combination. The damage mechanism is considered to involve melting or dielectric breakdown induced by laser radiation. The low value of the film/substrate combination is attributed to film stress and conditions of film deposition.

  13. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, Oscar (Richland, WA); Marschman, Steven C. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  14. Film Fabrication Technologies at NREL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has extensive capabilities for fabricating a variety of high-technology films. Much of the in-house work in NREL's large photovoltaics (PV) program involves the fabrication of multiple thin-film semiconducting layers constituting a thin-film PV device. NREL's smaller program in superconductivity focuses on the fabrication of superconducting films on long, flexible tape substrates. This paper focuses on four of NREL's in-house research groups and their film fabrication techniques, developed for a variety of elements, alloys, and compounds to be deposited on a variety of substrates. As is the case for many national laboratories, NREL's technology transfer efforts are focusing on Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA's) between NREL researchers and private industry researchers.

  15. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    E-print Network

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  16. Thermopower of thin iron films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Randy; Schröder, Klaus

    1992-02-01

    Thin iron films were prepared by evaporation in a high vacuum system (pressure in the 10 -5 MPa range). The thermopower was measured in situ near room temperature as a function of film thickness. Iron films with rather high resistivity values showed a strong thickness effect of the Seeback coefficient, S, with the difference between S (bulk) and S (film) reaching values of up to (19±3) ?V/K for a sample 5 nm thick. The difference between S (bulk) and S (film) decreased with increasing d values. However, a sample with a resistance value of 50 ?? cm at d = 5 n had an S value which differed by less than 3 ?V/K from S (bulk).

  17. Thermodynamics of epitaxial ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Desu, S.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Dudkevich, V.P.; Dudkevich, P.V.; Zakharchenko, I.N.; Kushlyan, G.L. [Rostov State Univ., Stachki (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The problem of phase transitions and physical properties of the BaTiO{sub 3}-type films on the (001) single-crystal substrates of the cubic syngony was solved in the limits of the Landau-Devonshire thermodynamics. The thermoelastic film-substrate interaction caused by the difference between thermal expansion coefficients was strictly taken into consideration. The model was based on the following assumptions: (1) the film is closely conjugated with the substrate; (2) the film is sufficiently thick to find itself unstrained at the growth temperature T{sub s} (growth stresses were compensated by misfit dislocations), and (3) the film is sufficiently thin, and the stresses arising at the temperatures T > T{sub s} may be considered to be uniform.

  18. High performance YBCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denlinger, Edgar J.

    1995-03-01

    A suitable low loss, low dielectric constant substrate for HTS circuitry has been identified and shown to permit the deposition of high quality YBCO films that are comparable to that achieved with lanthanum aluminate substrates. The substrate is magnesium fluoride which has a dielectric constant of 5.3 and a loss tangent of 0.0001 at 77 K. The benefits of this technology are higher speed interconnects for multichip module (MCM) assemblies applied to digital processing, higher power handling at microwave frequencies applied to multiplexers and other passive components, and lower frequency dispersion and lower loss at millimeter wave frequencies applied to antenna feed networks, T/R modules, and delay lines. We have developed a novel fabrication technique for MCM structures that features an ultra-thin YBCO-covered magnesium fluoride substrate glass bonded to a metal handle, which provides excellent mechanical support and good heat sinking characteristics. For a sample demonstration of this technology, an MCM structure with a YBCO signal plane that is suitable for microwave/millimeter wave circuitry was fabricated and tested to have excellent electrical characteristics with a YBCO film surface resistance of 1 mohm.

  19. The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

  20. The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

  1. Development of ZnTe layers using an electrochemical technique for applications in thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, F.; Diso, D. G.; Echendu, O. K.; Patel, V.; Purandare, Y.; Burton, R.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2013-04-01

    Zinc telluride layers were grown by an electrochemical technique using acidic and aqueous solutions containing ZnCl2 and TeO2. The layers were deposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a two-electrode system. The deposited ZnTe layers were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, photoelectrochemical cell measurements, scanning electron microscopy and 3D-atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) for the structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties. The electrodeposited ZnTe layers grow as columns, and have cubic crystal structure, the band gap in the range of (2.00-2.20) eV and p-type electrical conductivity. Surface morphology studies using SEM indicate the presence of two types of material clusters varying in size up to ˜125 nm. 3D-AFM studies with higher magnification show that the material tends to grow as columns with different sizes leaving gaps in between in some areas.

  2. Using the Voids. Evidence for an Antenna Effect in Dye-Sensitized Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hoertz, Paul G; Goldstein, Anna; Donley, Carrie; Meyer, Thomas J

    2010-11-18

    Composite structures of Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy){sup 2+} surface bound to nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with an overlayer of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} ion exchanged into Nafion, FTO|nanoTiO{sub 2}-[Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy)]{sup 2+}/Nafion,Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} (FTO = fluorine-doped tin oxide), have been prepared and characterized. Steady-state emission and time-resolved lifetime measurements demonstrate that energy transfer occurs from Nafion,Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+*} to adsorbed Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy){sup 2+} with an efficiency of ?0.49. Energy transfer sensitizes photoinjection by the adsorbed metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state by an “antenna effect.”

  3. OFFICIAL POLICY 3.8.1 Photography and Filming: Filming on Campus 07/01/09

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    OFFICIAL POLICY 3.8.1 Photography and Filming: Filming on Campus 07/01/09 Policy Statement Any for commercial film, documentaries, TV or photography must review campus film guidelines and must sign a written for commercial film, TV, documentaries and photography. From neoclassical 18th and 19th-century architecture

  4. ANNUAL GERMAN FILM SERIES ORGANIZED BY THE DEFA FILM LIBRARY AT UMASS AMHERST

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    10th ANNUAL GERMAN FILM SERIES ORGANIZED BY THE DEFA FILM LIBRARY was an artistic melting pot, bringing together strange bedfellows: Ufa artists who had worked in the German film and thematic similarities to films of the Ufa period. The films of this period thus defy and complicate

  5. Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES PROGRAM OFFICE Nichols@sonoma.edu Program Offered Minor in Film Studies The film studies minor is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental program that analyzes the theory, history, practice, and cultural signifi- cance of film. Students

  6. The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films Nanshu Lu-supported copper films with a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture and with thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 1 lm. Films with thicknesses below 200 nm fail by intergranular fracture at elongations of only a few percent. Thicker films

  7. FILM, VIDEO, AND AMERICAN HISTORY AMST S483 1 (30050) /HISTS187/FILMS247

    E-print Network

    FILM, VIDEO, AND AMERICAN HISTORY AMST S483 1 (30050) /HISTS187/FILMS247 Summer Session B (July 8 the representation of American history on film and video through close analysis of American films, from the turn understand film as a document of a historical moment? Readings - All readings will be available as PDFs

  8. Film-Making and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elizabeth

    A guide to filmmaking techniques and the use of class-made films in the curriculum covers techniques of both animated and live-action films. The purposes of single concept, documentary, interpretive, and time-lapse films are discussed briefly. Production techniques covered include organization of personnel, scripting, filming, directing, editing,…

  9. Thin-film structures for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.D. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalejs, J. [ed.] [ASE Americas Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Noufi, R.; Sopori, B. [eds.] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    These proceedings contain 48 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Silicon-based thin films (18 papers); Group II-VI-based thin films (17 papers); Group III-V-based thin films (5 papers); and Thin films--General (9 papers). Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Lifelong Learning Films; 1972-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Media Extension Center.

    Over 450 newly acquired films are described in this brochure. They are, for the most part, short black-and-white 16 mm films produced by the University of California Extension Media Center and selected films from other producers. The main entry section arranges the films alphabetically by title; it gives an annotation, the running time,…

  11. Film Handbook. Communication Manual. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuthner, Reginald, Comp.; And Others

    Reference material is provided in this book for editors, producers, camera and sound technicians, others working in film, and film students. Each chapter is a self-contained unit about specific aspects of film-making, designed to accompany film courses being offered by the University of the West Indies, the Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation, and…

  12. A 3M high temperature dielectric film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampl, Edward, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a dielectric film are summarized. Additionally, the film's environmental and chemical properties are listed: low shrinkage to 300 C; moisture insensitive; low outgassing under vacuum; excellent surface qualities--easy metallization of film; flame retardant; and low smoke generation. A series of graphs that display the performance characteristics of the film are also presented.

  13. Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Eugene S.; Poliks, Mark D.

    2003-07-01

    An experiment is described in which students prepare biopolymer (agar, gelatin, and starch) films from aqueous solution and measure the tensile strengths of the films using easily constructed equipment. Agar and gelatin form moderately strong films. Starch forms weak films but the strength is increased by combining with agar and gelatin.

  14. swinburne.edu.au Film and Television

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    swinburne.edu.au Film and Television }2014 Degrees and diplomas #12;2 #12;3 }}Put your career into action A Swinburne course in film and television can help you master production skills, develop your short film The Globe Collector, by graduates of our film and television course, was named best

  15. Thin film passive ring resonator laser gyro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Segre; J. R. Haavisto

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a thin film laser gyro comprising: a solid state laser; a thin film passive ring resonator; a thin film delivery loop waveguide means evanescently coupled to the resonator to deliver light from the laser into the resonator; a thin film electro-optic switch means to alternatingly inject a clockwise and a counterclockwise beam of light from the laser

  16. Montana State University 1 Film and Photography

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Film and Photography The School of Film and Photography The School of Film and Photography (SFP) prepares students to meet the challenges of a rapidly expanding picture, photography, theatre and new media production. The School of Film and Photography offers

  17. A Long Look at the Short Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The history of the short film and the single concept film loop is presented. Lists fourteen reasons why it may be necessary to make and use a film loop. Film loop projectors are analyzed according to present features and deficiencies with predictions on future improvements. (DS)

  18. LEAM Film Development Test Report Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ~~ ··········~~~ LEAM Film Development Test Report Prepared by: R. Sii'r'...ms ~1 rf\\:'3· ~ ij ATM Film Development Test Report -~~'·.· ··..· .··. . ~...=-~ ~ IWitJY~W ' ~· CONTENTS 1. PURPOSE 2. SCOPE 3. OBJECTIVES 4. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION 4.1 TEST ARTICLE 4.1.1 Film and Film Frame 4.1. 2 Calorimeter

  19. Step-edge magnetoresistance of magnetite films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ziese; R. Hohne; K. Zimmer; P. Esquinazi

    2002-01-01

    The magnetoresistance induced by step edges in magnetite films was investigated. The films were fabricated on MgAl2O4 substrates patterned by ion-beam etching prior to film deposition. If the crystallographic quality of the magnetite film is good enough, a clear magnetoresistance anisotropy is observed with respect to the relative direction of current and step edge.

  20. Producing Student Films: Shakespeare on Screen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franek, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Makes a case for asking students to produce their own film version of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Explains how to manage student filming projects logistically; how to teach students about filming techniques through the study of modern movies; and how filming becomes a lesson in the interpretation of Shakespeare. (TB)

  1. Are Wildlife Films Really "Nature Documentaries"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouse, Derek

    1998-01-01

    Examines origins of wildlife films. Outlines their tension between education and entertainment. Looks at how Disney codified wildlife films as a coherent genre by imposing conventionalized narrative frameworks upon them. Discusses factors influencing wildlife television in the 1990s. Concludes that wildlife films are a valid and distinct film and…

  2. Optical absorption, photosensitization, and ultrafast carrier dynamic investigations of CdSe quantum dots grafted onto nanostructured SnO 2 electrode and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Shen; Makoto Yanai; Kenji Katayama; Tsuguo Sawada; Taro Toyoda

    2007-01-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are adsorbed onto nanostructured SnO2 and planar FTO electrodes by a chemical adsorption technique. Optical absorption and the incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) are studied by using photoacoustic and photoelectrochemical methods. The growth rate of the CdSe QDs depends on the morphology of the substrate. Larger IPCE peak values and larger integrated area for the IPCE spectra

  3. Calorimetry of epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, David W.; Hellman, F. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Groves, J. R.; Clemens, B. M. [Department of Materials Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Moyerman, S.; Fullerton, E. E. [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0401 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Thin film growth allows for the manipulation of material on the nanoscale, making possible the creation of metastable phases not seen in the bulk. Heat capacity provides a direct way of measuring thermodynamic properties of these new materials, but traditional bulk calorimetric techniques are inappropriate for such a small amount of material. Microcalorimetry and nanocalorimetry techniques exist for the measurements of thin films but rely on an amorphous membrane platform, limiting the types of films which can be measured. In the current work, ion-beam-assisted deposition is used to provide a biaxially oriented MgO template on a suspended membrane microcalorimeter in order to measure the specific heat of epitaxial thin films. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction showed the biaxial order of the MgO template. X-ray diffraction was also used to prove the high quality of epitaxy of a film grown onto this MgO template. The contribution of the MgO layer to the total heat capacity was measured to be just 6.5% of the total addenda contribution. The heat capacity of a Fe{sub .49}Rh{sub .51} film grown epitaxially onto the device was measured, comparing favorably to literature data on bulk crystals. This shows the viability of the MgO/SiN{sub x}-membrane-based microcalorimeter as a way of measuring the thermodynamic properties of epitaxial thin films.

  4. (Thin films under chemical stress)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    As stated above the purpose of this research is to enable workers in a variety of fields to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin films (primarily organic films) are placed under chemical stress. This stress may occur because the film is being swelled by penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). These questions are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers, which might have unique functional properties. In the past year we have concentrated on the following objectives: (1) understanding how the two possible diffusion mechanisms contribute to the swelling of thin films of organic polymers place in solution, (2) identifying systems which are appropriate polymer media for the construction of composite membranes for use in aqueous environments, and (3) understanding the self-assembly process for long chain fatty acids at model surfaces. Progress in meeting each of these objectives will be described in this report. 4 figs.

  5. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15083740

  6. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  7. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

    2003-07-15

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  8. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  9. Surface Nanostructures in Manganite Films

    PubMed Central

    Gambardella, A.; Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Prezioso, M.; Pullini, D.; Milita, S.; Biscarini, F.; Dediu, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications. PMID:24941969

  10. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

    1982-03-09

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  11. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  12. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Kannan M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  13. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Toshio [Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, Fukuroi (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The stoichiometry of film compositions prepared by RF magnetron sputtering and laser ablation is discussed. Control of the crystal orientation of the films was determined from the relation between the films and substrates. In addition, a new bottom electrode material in place of platinum was developed for use with ferroelectric thin films. The ferroelectric properties and fatigue behavior of the films were evaluated with the new electrodes.

  15. Thin film cell development workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

  16. Production of Ti films with controlled texture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Musil; J. Vl?ek; V. Ježek; M. Benda; M. Kolega; R. Boomsma

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of (i) the substrate bias; (ii) the mixing of one or several additional elements with Ti; (iii) plasma nitriding of the presputtered film; and (iv) the film deposition rate on the structural properties of pure Ti and Ti-based films. The Ti-based films investigated were: Ti?SS (stainless steel), Ti?6A1-4V, Ti?Cu and Ti?Cr. The films were sputtered

  17. Radiochromic film dosimetry for clinical proton beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav M. Vatnitsky

    1997-01-01

    Depth doses and lateral profiles for proton beams with energies of 100–250 MeV were measured with a high-sensitivity GafChromic™ MD-55 film, which requires no post-irradiation development. The exposed MD-55 films were evaluated with the RIT 113 film dosimetry system. Depth doses measured with MD-55 film were compared with those obtained with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The GafChromic™ film was found

  18. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (inventor); Jow, T. Richard (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  19. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (inventor); Jow, T. Richard (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  20. Film thickness and roughness of ZDDP antiwear films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ksenija Topolovec-Miklozic; T. Reg Forbus; Hugh A. Spikes

    2007-01-01

    The two experimental techniques, spacer layer interferometry imaging (SLIM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), have been used\\u000a to measure the thickness and roughness of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) reaction films formed in a rolling-sliding minitraction\\u000a machine (MTM) tribometer. The AFM method has been complemented by a novel ZDDP film removal method based on ethylenediaminetetraacetic\\u000a acid (EDTA) solution. It has been

  1. Wrinkling of Stiff Films on Stretched Compliant Films: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yi

    2013-12-06

    Wrinkling of stiff film on semi-infinite compliant substrates has attracted attentions recently due to its important applications in stretchable electronics and micro-pattern metrology. However, wrinkling of a stiff film on a compliant thin film...

  2. Improved Electrical Conductivity of Graphene Films Integrated with Metal Nanowires

    E-print Network

    tin oxide films in electrochromic (EC) devices. The successful integration of such graphene/NW films. KEYWORDS: Graphene, nanowires, transparent conductive films, electrochromic devices Due to low electron

  3. System for depositing thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tashbar, P. W. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for depositing a thin film of one material on another is described. A mass filter is interposed between the source of material being deposited and the object upon which deposition is being made.

  4. Heteroepitaxial CVD diamond film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhongning; Bednarski-Meinke, Connie; Golding, Brage

    2003-03-01

    We have studied the conditions necessary for growth of (001) oriented CVD diamond films on iridium films grown epitaxially on sapphire substrates. Using sequential interrupted growth experiments, we have followed the coalescence of individual crystallites by interface annihilation at an early growth stage. After one-hour growth, an extremely smooth, continuous film of single crystal diamond covers the entire surface of the substrate, an area of 10 mm^2. By growing for extended periods, to a maximum of 48 hr, diamond plates of thickness 35 ?m were produced. XRD, Raman, AFM, EBSD, and SEM analyses were used to characterize the crystallographic and surface quality of the diamond film. Freestanding crystals exhibited (111) cleavage surfaces, the same as natural diamond, and were transparent in visible light. The discovery that (001) Ir on sapphire can be used as a substrate to grow diamond promises to lead to improvements in diamond quality and will enable scale-up to large-area crystals.

  5. Surfactant instabilities on thin films

    E-print Network

    Aessopos, Angelica

    2005-01-01

    The deposition of a surfactant drop over a thin liquid film may be accompanied by a fingering instability. In this work, we present experimental results which identify the critical parameters that govern the shape and ...

  6. Metallo-organic decomposition films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B. D.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of metallo-organic deposition (MOD) films for solar cells was presented. The MOD materials are metal ions compounded with organic radicals. The technology is evolving quickly for solar cell metallization. Silver compounds, especially silver neodecanoate, were developed which can be applied by thick-film screening, ink-jet printing, spin-on, spray, or dip methods. Some of the advantages of MOD are: high uniform metal content, lower firing temperatures, decomposition without leaving a carbon deposit or toxic materials, and a film that is stable under ambient conditions. Molecular design criteria were explained along with compounds formulated to date, and the accompanying reactions for these compounds. Phase stability and the other experimental and analytic results of MOD films were presented.

  7. Fabrication of amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1995-12-12

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  8. Resistivity of Permalloy thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Mayadas; J. F. Janak; A. Gangulee

    1974-01-01

    Data on resistivity at room temperature in polycrystalline and single-crystal Permalloy (80 Ni-20 Fe) thin films are analyzed in terms of grain boundary scattering and the dc size effect, respectively.

  9. Characterization of microcomposite polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    Thermally stable microcomposite polyimide films were prepared by the homogeneous incorporation of either a soluble metal salt or a metal complex into a poly(amide-acid)/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution. The thermal processing of films solvent cast onto glass substrates and cured in an appropriate atmosphere yields films containing not only a fairly uniform dispersion of submicrometer particles, but also a new surface layer of metal or metal oxide. These polymeric systems have been characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy with depth profiling via argon ion etching, transmission electron microscopy of ultramicrotomed cross-sections, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, and variable temperature electrical resistivity determinations. The data from these techniques were used cooperatively to develop a model for these microcomposite polyimide films.

  10. Measurement of opaque film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Jaarinen, J.; Reyes, C.; Oppenheim, I. C.; Favro, L. D.; Kuo, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental framework for thickness measurements of thin metal films by low frequency thermal waves is described. Although it is assumed that the films are opaque and the substrates are comparatively poor thermal conductors, the theory is easily extended to other cases of technological interest. A brief description is given of the thermal waves and the experimental arrangement and parameters. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated for making absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivities of isotropic substrate materials. This measurement on pure elemental solids provides a check on the three dimensional theory in the limiting case of zero film thickness. The theoretical framework is then presented, along with numerical calculations and corresponding experimental results for the case of copper films on a glass substrate.

  11. FRAP in thin film flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wexler, Jason; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2013-11-01

    A new technique is proposed for measuring the velocity field within thin liquid films, which combines Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) measurements with two-dimensional Taylor dispersion analysis. FRAP is a technique used largely by biologists to measure the diffusion coefficient of compounds in living cells. A small spot of fluorescent dye is bleached and then monitored for subsequent fluorescence recovery. The rate of recovery can be related to the coefficient of molecular diffusion. In our experiments we apply FRAP to a flowing liquid film, where advection, in addition to molecular diffusion, contributes to the evolution of the bleached spot. By employing simple optical measurements of the rate of advection and diffusion, combined with an analysis of dispersion, we can uniquely determine the velocity profile within a thin film. As a proof of concept we apply this technique to shear-driven flow over a liquid film within a micro-patterned surface.

  12. Thin-film temperature sensor.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    A new device has been developed for sensing small and rapid temperature changes accompanying biochemical reactions. The active element consists of an evaporated thin-film capacitor having a relatively strong temperature dependence. This dependence is derived from electron trapping effects in the thin amorphous dielectric film. A voltage output of at least 50 mV/deg can be obtained prior to amplification by using a resonant ac bridge circuit operating at 100 kHz. The corresponding noise output for a 10 kHz bandwidth can with an optimum circuit be as low as 4 microvolts. Therefore, the minimum detectable temperature change would be 80 microdegrees at 10 kHz. Rapid thermal response is assured by supporting the thin-film capacitor on a thin anodic tantalum oxide film suspended across an electrolytically etched window in a tantalum foil.

  13. Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate composite films: effect of film thickness on physical characteristics and permeability.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-01-01

    The different film thicknesses of the sodium alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate (SA-MAS) microcomposite films were prepared by varying volumes of the composite dispersion for casting. Effect of film thickness on thermal behavior, solid-state crystallinity, mechanical properties, water uptake and erosion, and water vapor and drug permeability of the microcomposite films were investigated. The film thickness caused a small change in thermal behavior of the films when tested using DSC and TGA. The crystallinity of the thin films seemed to increase when compared with the thick films. The thin films gave higher tensile strength than the thick films, whereas % elongation of the films was on the contrary resulted in the lower Young's modulus of the films when the film thickness was increased. This was due to the weaker of the film bulk, suggesting that the microscopic matrix structure of the thick films was looser than that of the thin films. Consequently, water uptake and erosion, water vapor permeation and drug diffusion coefficient of the thick films were higher than those of the thin films. The different types of drug on permeability of the films also showed that a positive charge and large molecule of drug, propranolol HCl, had higher lag time and lower diffusion coefficient that acetaminophen, a non-electrolyte and small molecule. This was because of a higher affinity of positive charge drug on MAS in the films. The findings suggest that the evaporation rate of solvent in different volumes of the composite dispersion used in the preparation method could affect crystallinity and strength of the film surface and film bulk of the microcomposite films. This led to a change in water vapor and drug permeability of the films. PMID:17611056

  14. The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive present the 6th

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive present the 6th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM Participant (or team) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5 min in 48) will be given: a genre for the film, a character, a prop and a line of dialogue that must appear in each film

  15. Amorphous transition metal oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Heiman; N. S. Kazama

    1979-01-01

    We have been able to prepare amorphous oxides of Fe and Cr by sputter deposition. Magnetization measurements were made between 4.2 K and 300 K. Mössbauer spectra were obtained for the iron oxide samples in the same temperature range. Amorphous CrO2 films showed no evidence of magnetic order. For the amorphous Fe oxide films, the 4.2 K Mössbauer spectrum showed

  16. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films

    E-print Network

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16

    and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO 3)x:(Sm2O 3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO 3)x:(Mn3 O 4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

  17. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-print Network

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16

    and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO3)x:(Sm2O3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)x:(Mn3O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

  18. Field emission from DLC films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Groning; O. M. Küttel; P. Gröning; L. Schlapbach

    1997-01-01

    Field emission measurements on diamond like carbon (DLC) films with different amounts of sp3 and sp2 carbon were carried out. Depending on the amount of sp2 carbon in the film, activated and non-activated Fowler-Nordheim like emission could be observed. The emission spots were investigated using a combination of AFM and STM, by simultaneously measuring the topography and the conductivity of

  19. Electron Conductivity on Helium Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Klier; I. Doicescu; P. Leiderer; V. Shikin

    2008-01-01

    Electrons on liquid helium films form a two-dimensional (2D) array with a wide range of electron density. This system is also\\u000a very interesting for applications in restricted geometry. The conductivity ? of the electron arrays, however, strongly depends on the thickness d of the helium films adsorbed above solid substrates. This behaviour of ? is discussed in detail for a

  20. Thin Films for Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Carmo, J. P.; Gonçalves, L. M.; Correia, J. H.

    The introduction of nanotechnology opened new horizons previously unattainable by thermoelectric devices. The nano-scale phenomena began to be exploited through techniques of thin-film depositions to increase the efficiency of thermoelectric films. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of the phenomenon of thermoelectricity and its evolution since it was discovered in 1822. This chapter also reviews the thermoelectric devices, the macro to nano devices, describing the most used techniques of physical vapor depositions to deposit thermoelectric thin-films. A custom made deposition chamber for depositing thermoelectric thin films by the thermal co-evaporation technique, where construction issues and specifications are discussed, is then presented. All the steps for obtaining a thermoelectric generator in flexible substrate with the custom deposition chamber (to incorporate in thermoelectric microsystems) are described. The aim of thermoelectric microsystem relays is to introduce an energy harvesting application to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) or biomedical devices. The scanning probe measuring system for characterization of the thermoelectric thin films are also described in this chapter. Finally, a few of the prototypes of thermoelectric thin films (made of bismuth and antimony tellurides, {Bi}2{Te}3, and {Sb}2{Te}3, respectively) obtained by co-evaporation (using the custom made deposition chamber) and characterized for quality assessment are dealt with. All the issues involved in the co-evaporation and characterization are objects of analysis in this chapter.

  1. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  2. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  3. Graphene as an efficient interfacial layer for electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Bult, Justin B; Nanayakkara, Sanjini; Dillon, Anne C; Richards, Ryan M; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Engtrakul, Chaiwat

    2015-06-01

    This study presents an interfacial modification strategy to improve the performance of electrochromic films that were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering technique. High-quality graphene sheets, synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, were used to modify fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates, followed by the deposition of high-performance nanocomposite nickel oxide electrochromic films. Electrochromic cycling results revealed that a near-complete monolayer graphene interfacial layer improves the electrochromic performance in terms of switching kinetics, activation period, coloration efficiency, and bleached-state transparency, while maintaining ?100% charge reversibility. The present study offers an alternative route for improving the interfacial properties between electrochromic and transparent conducting oxide films without relying on conventional methods such as nanostructuring or thin film composition control. PMID:25950270

  4. Border Film Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, three young Americans, Rudy Adler, Victoria Criado, and Brett Huneycutt, whose backgrounds include activism, economics, and advertising, wondered what would happen if they gave disposable cameras to two groups of people on different sides of the border between the United States and Mexico: undocumented migrants crossing into the United States, and American Minutemen trying to stop them. Both groups were asked to document their activities, given postage- paid mailers for the return of their unprocessed film, and were offered different incentives. Minutemen received $25 Shell gas cards, while migrants were given $25 Wal-Mart gift cards. The results can currently be viewed on this website and were published in book form in 2007. They have also been exhibited in galleries throughout the U.S. ranging from Venice, California to Buffalo, New York. The project has collected around 2,000 photos, most of which can be viewed here by clicking on the "Photos" section at the top of the page. There is also a 20-minute video, designed to play as a loop at an exhibition, divided into short segments for online viewing.

  5. thin film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Romain; Gervais, Monique; Wolfman, Jérôme; Gervais, François

    2014-09-01

    CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Pt and La0.9Sr1.1NiO4 (LSNO) bottom electrodes. The electrical characteristics of the CCTO/Pt and CCTO/LSNO Schottky junctions have been analyzed by impedance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements as a function of frequency (40 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (300-475 K). Similar results were obtained for the two Schottky diodes. The conduction mechanism through the Schottky junctions was described using a thermionic emission model and the electrical parameters were determined. The strong deviation from the ideal I-V characteristics and the increase in capacitance at low frequency for -0.5 V bias are in agreement with the presence of traps near the interfaces. Results point toward the important effect of defects generated at the interface by deposition of CCTO.

  6. Wear resistance of iron oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mao-Min; Lin, Judy; Wu, Tsai-Wei; Castillo, Gilbert

    1988-04-01

    Magnetite films (Fe3O4) were reactively sputtered onto (100) silicon substrates in an Ar+O2 gas environment from a target containing Fe and 0.75 at. % Os. The films were then oxidized in air to form ?-Fe2O3. The wear resistance of the films was evaluated using an oscillatory wear tester and a contact start/stop tester with IBM 3380 type of sliders. Magnetite films exhibited poor durability independent of the deposition substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Upon oxidizing the magnetite films in air at elevated temperatures, the wear resistance increased. For fixed deposition conditions, the wear resistance of the film increased with oxidation temperature. However, too high an oxidation temperature will transform the film into ?-Fe2O3, which is antiferromagnetic material. For a fixed oxidation temperature of 300 °C, the wear resistance of the film increased with increasing deposition substrate temperature. Durable ?-Fe2O3 thin film can be produced by depositing 1000-Å-thick film at 325 °C and subsequently oxidizing the film at 300 °C. A visible wear track was detected only after 16 000 contact start/stop cycles for ?-Fe2O3 film media without additional layers of overcoat or lubricant in ambient environment. The friction coefficient was low and remained stable with sliding cycles. The dependence of friction coefficient of the film on deposition conditions will be discussed.

  7. Film Learning in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Is a picture worth a thousand words? That is a bit of a trick question. We process films and photographs very differently from the way we wrestle with words. They literally work on a different part of our brain, and their testimony is typically weighed differently as well, both in terms of emotional and evidentiary value. Film rhetoric does not quite play with the same deck of cards as classical rhetoric: it shuffles in some jokers and wild cards. To effectively use film in the classroom, faculty need to understand that these visual texts resemble but at the same time differ from written texts. By training faculty in various disciplines in the social and natural sciences to become more aware of not just what a film they are showing in a course says, but how it says it, the faculty can help frame their discussions in a dramatic new way, underlining the crucial connections between content and form that are essential to all critical thinking. There is a real urgency to this task in a world where more and more of the information that students receive is transmitted through visual means from sources of varying degrees of integrity and objectivity. Although this is a life skill that needs to be developed at any age, it most definitely is required at the university level. Recognizing this need, we will share our experience using film in a constructive way for teaching students social and natural sciences at colleges and universities in New York City.

  8. high-k thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, M. A.; Lysaght, P. S.; Price, J.; Kirsch, P. D.; Woicik, J. C.; Klump, A.; Reehil, C.; Manners, W. A.; Nabizadeh, A.

    2014-10-01

    The local symmetries around the Hf sites in thin films of Hf1- x Zr x O2/Si(100) were probed using grazing incidence extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The effects of the Zr incorporation on the local crystal symmetries were investigated using Hf L3 EXAFS at the Beamline X23A2 of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Zr ratios in the various films were set to between 0.0 and 1.0. Significant changes in the local environment were observed for x = 0.25 or greater values. For x = 0.0, the film local structure around Hf sites remain in the equilibrium monoclinic phase as referenced from our previous studies on HfO2 thin films on Si(100). When Zr is introduced, tetragonal symmetry around the Hf atom appears and becomes dominant at x = 0.63. Using the EXAFS theoretical simulations and non-linear least-square fit results, the fractions of the monoclinic versus tetragonal phases were identified in each film.

  9. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

  10. Characterization of sculptured thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Joseph V.; Horn, Mark; Lakhtakia, Ashlesh; Pantano, C. G.

    2004-05-11

    Physical vapor deposition can be used to synthesize sculptured thin films with high surface areas. Highly directional vapor deposition onto a tilted, rotating substrate has been shown to produce nanostructured materials with controlled columnar features, including zig-zag, cusp, chevron, and helical geometries. Nanoporous coatings such as these are desirable for optical sensing applications due to their accessible high surface area, but few techniques are available to quantify the surface area of thin films. Electron beam and thermal evaporation techniques are used to synthesize highly porous thin films from silicon dioxide and a germanium antimony selenide chalcogenide glass in order to explore their potential for optical applications in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. Characterization has been performed using nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained with a quartz crystal microbalance. It is shown that surface area can be increased up to 375 times that of a flat film by deposition at oblique angles. A nitrogen adsorption technique is introduced as a means to examine the porosity of sculptured thin films at a nanoscale.

  11. Study-Teaching Guide for the Independent Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    This booklet is both an explanation of the independent film (also known as "avant-garde" or underground film) and a catalog of Grove Press' underground films, which are available for sale or rent. The topics covered include ways the independent film differs from the commercial film, the importance of and a short history of the independent film,…

  12. The Native Forum at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival: Redefining Indigenous Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes films from the Native Forum of the 2001 Sundance Film Festival, focusing on the feature film, "Christmas in the Clouds," and also looking at a variety of documentaries on indigenous populations in North America and Mexico. Presents a brief annotation and contact information for each film. (SM)

  13. Performance of hard DLC protective film prepared by PECVD method for thin film magnetic disk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keigo Iechika; Yuichi Kokaku; Mitsuyoshi Ootake; Katsuo Abe; Hiroshi Tani; Hiroshi Inaba

    1994-01-01

    Performance of a diamondlike carbon (DLC) film prepared by the PECVD method has been investigated as the protective film of a rigid thin film disk. An in-line sputtering PECVD multilayer deposition system was used for preparation of disk samples. The disks were found to be superior to those disks with conventionally sputtered carbon films in many aspects such as high

  14. Enviro-Films: Candid Reviews of 16mm. Films About Natural Resources and Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Diane D.

    Film is a powerful tool, if used properly, to facilitate learning about our internal and external environments. These candid reviews of environment films have as a central theme the affective use of film as a medium. As a former science teacher, the author has been repeatedly disappointed in discovering upon preview that films described in…

  15. The Political Economy Of Independent Film: A Case Study Of Kevin Smith Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Kathleen Keenan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the U.S. film industry from a political economic perspective to determine the state of independent film in relation to ownership, financing, and content. Since its conception, the film industry has been controlled by a small number of companies—that is, as an oligopoly. As such, films produced outside the sphere of the majority have been labeled ‘independent.’ However,

  16. B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies 2013-2014 Report

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies 2013-2014 Report The 2013-14 academic year was exciting and eventful for film studies at the University of Birmingham in association with other universities, institutions and organisations. B-Film co-organised two international academic conferences

  17. Why film studies? From the silent screen to the digital era, film has

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Why film studies? From the silent screen to the digital era, film has occupied a unique place in the imagination of audiences across the globe. As entertainment, art, documentary or propaganda, film has shaped by this fascinating and endlessly surprising medium, film studies has established itself as one of the most vital

  18. Heritage Film Audiences 2.0: Period Film Audiences and Online Fan Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Monk

    2011-01-01

    In an update to my monograph Heritage Film Audiences: Period Films and Contemporary Audiences in the UK (Edinburgh University Press, 2011), this paper explores currently evolving forms of online audience behaviour and participatory fan activity around contemporary period films. Its detailed focus is on the online reception, (re-)appropriation and remixing of key films originally released in the 1980s to 1990s

  19. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  20. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films

    E-print Network

    Choi, Jae Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

  1. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  2. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

  3. Laser tracks in rainbow films on water

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    It is found that narrow non-diverging laser tracks, earlier studied in free soap films, can also arise in thin rainbow films, e.g., of petrol, on water. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Alternative Dewetting Pathways of Thin Liquid Films

    E-print Network

    Klein, Jacob

    Klein2 An alternative pathway for the initiation of dewetting in thin metastable films of partially, , is predicted to vary strongly with the film thick- ness h0 as h0 5 . Heterogeneous nucleation is expected

  5. Skyrmion in a real magnetic film 

    E-print Network

    Abanov, Artem; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    1998-01-01

    Skyrmions are magnetic defects in ultrathin magnetic films, similar to the bubble domains in the thicker films. Even weak uniaxial anisotropy determines their radii unambiguously. We derive equations of slow dynamics for Skyrmions. We show...

  6. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  7. Morphology of polycrystalline cassiterite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaev, V. V.; Glazov, A. I.

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline cassiterite films have been grown by the hydropyrolytic method from a 10(H2O) + 5(SnCl2 · 2H2O) solution (in weight fractions) on corundum substrates. The crystallization regularities are considered and a comparative analysis of the properties of natural and artificial cassiterite crystals is performed. The surface morphology is investigated and the size of crystalline grains is determined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray microprobe analysis showed that all films contain tin and oxygen atoms in a ratio corresponding (within the experimental error) to the chemical formula of tin dioxide. It is established that the surface morphology of cassiterite films is characterized by both single crystallites and aggregates of two or more crystals typical of twins. It is suggest that doping can efficiently be used to control the concentration of twins and the stability of their formation.

  8. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOEpatents

    Finkikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  9. Stable aqueous film coating dispersion of zein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. X. Guo; J. Heinämäki; J. Yliruusi

    2008-01-01

    The effects of plasticizers, pH, and electrolytes on film formation and physical stability of aqueous film coating dispersions (pseudolatexes) of zein were evaluated. The influence of plasticizer on film formation mechanism and minimum film-formation temperature (MFT) were monitored by means of hot stage microscopy (HSM). Furthermore, the effects of pH and electrolytes on the short-term physical stability of pseudolatexes were

  10. Surface Wettability of Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Han; Wei Gao

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanograin and nanorod films were prepared by magnetron sputter deposition and an aqueous solution growth\\u000a method. Their surface wettability was studied in relation to their surface morphologies. While the surfaces of both films\\u000a were hydrophobic, the nanorod films exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity. A superhydrophobic surface was obtained on a\\u000a ZnO nanorod film with a water contact angle

  11. SFP FILM EQUIPMENT CHECKOUT Montana State University

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    SFP FILM EQUIPMENT CHECKOUT Montana State University School of Film and Photography Room 214 Visual Communications Building P.O. Box 173350 Bozeman, MT 59717 Equipment Checkout: 994-6254 Commons: 994 CONTRACT (v. sp2011) GENERAL USE POLICY The Film Equipment Checkout facilities and gear are available

  12. SFP FILM EQUIPMENT CHECKOUT Montana State University

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    1 SFP FILM EQUIPMENT CHECKOUT Montana State University School of Film and Photography Room 214 Visual Communications Building P.O. Box 173350 Bozeman, MT 59717 Equipment Checkout: 994-6254 Commons of Operation SFP STUDENT CONTRACTS (v. sp2010) GENERAL USE POLICY The Film Equipment Checkout facilities

  13. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  14. Interacting with pictures: film, narrative and interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Boyd Davis

    2002-01-01

    The article explores the spatial practices of film in order to better understand the design of digital in- teractive media. The criteria used in the design and selection of the film image are discussed and a novel view of film as a pragmatic and highly eco- nomical form of picture-making is proposed. The difficulties are highlighted of simply transferring such

  15. Go Abroad in Writing, Literature and Film

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    . Go Abroad in Writing, Literature and Film Go Beyond. Go Abroad! Writing, Literature, and Film degrees are ideally suited for students whoWriting, Literature, and Film degrees are ideally suited at OSU. Study post-colonial literature in Cape Town, creative writing in Rome, or Shakespeare in Sydney

  16. Downward laser trimming of thick film resistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Badri Narayana; K. Ramkumar; M. Satyam

    1991-01-01

    A method of laser trimming thick-film resistors to lower resistance is presented. It involves heating of certain regions of the resistor film in the form of tracks (to a temperature where a certain transformation in the structure of the film takes place, like segregation of the constituents of the resistor material, but not high enough to evaporate the material) by

  17. The Enthymeme and Contemporary Film Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Robert

    Aristotle's "Rhetoric" offers a model for applying the concept of the enthymeme to the work of film scholars to understand the role of the audience. Used from an analytic perspective, enthymemes emphasize audience reaction to a film, with the focus on how the film is seen, not on how it was made. Applying viewing skills to a sample of narrative…

  18. Script Design for Information Film and Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, S. M. (Marty); And Others

    1993-01-01

    Shows how the empathy created in the audience by each of the five genres of film/video is a function of the five elements of film design: camera angle, close up, composition, continuity, and cutting. Discusses film/video script designing. Illustrates these concepts with a sample script and story board. (SR)

  19. Magnetic Character of Very Thin Permalloy Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. Humphrey

    1963-01-01

    The quasistatic magnetic characteristics of thin Permalloy films have been investigated using a sensitive automatic magnetic torque balance. The most striking feature of the many films investigated in the thickness range below 250 Å is their similarity to thicker films. The data for K are essentially constant until about 80 Å where it drops quickly and smoothly to zero at

  20. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films