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1

Role of bromine in restoring superconductivity in YBa2Cu3Oy  

Microsoft Academic Search

63,65Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), 63,65Cu and 79,81Br nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Br K-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurement techniques have been used to study the local structures of Cu and Br in well-characterized samples of deoxygenated and brominated YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). The combined results provide a detailed picture of the role of bromine in reoxygenating the YBCO structure and an

D. M. Potrepka; J. I. Budnick; D. B. Fenner; W. A. Hines; M. Balasubramanian; A. R. Moodenbaugh

1999-01-01

2

Role of bromine in restoring superconductivity in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

63,65Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), 63,65Cu and 79,81Br nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Br K-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurement techniques have been used to study the local structures of Cu and Br in well-characterized samples of deoxygenated and brominated YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). The combined results provide a detailed picture of the role of bromine in reoxygenating the YBCO structure and an explanation for the partial restoration of superconductivity in the YBCO system. Characterization of the powder samples, with particle sizes of 1, 20, 30, and 40 ?m, included x-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and magnetometry. From the XAFS and NMR results, it is concluded that, upon bromination at 260 °C, Br does not enter the YBCO lattice either substitutionally or interstitially. Instead, there is compelling evidence for the formation of nanoscale BaBr2 precipitates which result from the local destruction of the YBa2Cu3Oy phase. Furthermore, on the basis of the NQR and NMR experiments, it is concluded that through this decomposition into an inhomogeneous material, oxygen is liberated which repopulates the nearby O(4) chain sites, thus restoring superconductivity.

Potrepka, D. M.; Budnick, J. I.; Fenner, D. B.; Hines, W. A.; Balasubramanian, M.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.

1999-10-01

3

Phase transition in the vortex liquid and the critical endpoint in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vortex phase diagram of optimally doped untwinned YBa2Cu3Oy is studied. We find a first-order transition TL(H) in the vortex liquid above the terminal point Hmcp (?7 T) of both the vortex glass line Tg(H) and the field-driven disordering transition line H*(T). The obtained small entropy change (˜0.02 kB/vortex/layer) and the critical endpoint Hcep (?11 T) of the TL(H) line indicate that the vortex liquid undergoes the vortex slush regime before the solidification into the vortex glass phase. Below Hmcp, the vortex liquid phase shows the first-order melting transition into the Bragg glass phase. We also study the oxygen content y dependence of the vortex phase diagram and find that the vortex slush regime is located in the borderline (i.e., 6.90?y?6.92) below which the vortex lattice melting transition disappears. The result indicates that the point disorder with the intermediate strength plays an important role in the vortex slush regime.

Shibata, Kenji; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Sasaki, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Norio

2002-12-01

4

Thermo-Electric Study of Fermi Surface Reconstruction in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck and Nernst coefficients S and ? of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) were measured in a single crystal with a hole concentration p = 0.12 in magnetic fields up to H = 28 T. For temperatures down to 9 K, ? becomes independent of field by H ˜30 T, showing that by then the Nernst signal due to superconducting fluctuations has become negligible. In this field-induced normal state, S/T and ?/T are both large and negative in the T ->0 limit. The magnitude of S/T is consistent with the small Fermi surface pocket previously detected via quantum oscillations in YBCO at a similar doping and its negative sign confirms that the pocket is electron-like. The normal-state S(T) of YBCO is remarkably similar to that of La2-xBaxCuO4, La2-x-yNdySrxCuO4 and La2-x-yEuySrxCuO4 at p ˜1/8, all four materials showing a change of sign at T ˜50 K. Given that in the latter three materials this change of sign is clearly due to the onset of spin/charge density wave (`stripe') order, we infer that a similar density-wave mechanism must cause the Fermi surface reconstruction in YBCO.

Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Chang, J.; Daou, R.; Leboeuf, D.; Laliberte, F.; Pingault, B.; Taillefer, L.; Proust, C.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Takagi, H.; Antunes, A.; Sheikin, I.; Behnia, K.

2010-03-01

5

Evidence for a small hole pocket in the Fermi surface of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy  

PubMed Central

In underdoped cuprate superconductors, the Fermi surface undergoes a reconstruction that produces a small electron pocket, but whether there is another, as yet, undetected portion to the Fermi surface is unknown. Establishing the complete topology of the Fermi surface is key to identifying the mechanism responsible for its reconstruction. Here we report evidence for a second Fermi pocket in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy, detected as a small quantum oscillation frequency in the thermoelectric response and in the c-axis resistance. The field-angle dependence of the frequency shows that it is a distinct Fermi surface, and the normal-state thermopower requires it to be a hole pocket. A Fermi surface consisting of one electron pocket and two hole pockets with the measured areas and masses is consistent with a Fermi-surface reconstruction by the charge–density–wave order observed in YBa2Cu3Oy, provided other parts of the reconstructed Fermi surface are removed by a separate mechanism, possibly the pseudogap. PMID:25616011

Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Badoux, S.; René de Cotret, S.; Lepault, S.; LeBoeuf, D.; Laliberté, F.; Hassinger, E.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Park, J.-H..; Vignolles, D.; Vignolle, B.; Taillefer, L.; Proust, C.

2015-01-01

6

Evidence for a small hole pocket in the Fermi surface of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy.  

PubMed

In underdoped cuprate superconductors, the Fermi surface undergoes a reconstruction that produces a small electron pocket, but whether there is another, as yet, undetected portion to the Fermi surface is unknown. Establishing the complete topology of the Fermi surface is key to identifying the mechanism responsible for its reconstruction. Here we report evidence for a second Fermi pocket in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy, detected as a small quantum oscillation frequency in the thermoelectric response and in the c-axis resistance. The field-angle dependence of the frequency shows that it is a distinct Fermi surface, and the normal-state thermopower requires it to be a hole pocket. A Fermi surface consisting of one electron pocket and two hole pockets with the measured areas and masses is consistent with a Fermi-surface reconstruction by the charge-density-wave order observed in YBa2Cu3Oy, provided other parts of the reconstructed Fermi surface are removed by a separate mechanism, possibly the pseudogap. PMID:25616011

Doiron-Leyraud, N; Badoux, S; René de Cotret, S; Lepault, S; LeBoeuf, D; Laliberté, F; Hassinger, E; Ramshaw, B J; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, R; Park, J-H; Vignolles, D; Vignolle, B; Taillefer, L; Proust, C

2015-01-01

7

Influence of Preferred Orientation on the Electrical Conductivity of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 1020 cm-3. Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities.

Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D.; Ramsey, Philip M.; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

2014-01-01

8

Fluorine-doped tin oxide films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering with an Sn target.  

PubMed

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films have been deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with an Sn target. Various ratios of CF4/O2 gas were injected to enhance the optical and electrical properties of the films. The extinction coefficient was lower than 1.5×10(-3) in the range from 400 to 800?nm when the CF4O2 ratio was 0.375. The resistivity of fluorine-doped SnO2 films (1.63×10(-3)???cm) deposited at 300?°C was 27.9 times smaller than that of undoped SnO2 (4.55×10(-2)???cm). Finally, an FTO film was consecutively deposited for protecting the oxidation of indium tin oxide films. The resistivity of the double-layered film was 2.68×10(-4)???cm, which increased by less than 39% at a 450?°C annealing temperature for 1?h in air. PMID:21460922

Liao, Bo-Huei; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pin-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chung

2011-03-20

9

Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO2)/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO2/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO2/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO2/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10-2 ?-1, higher than 1.78 × 10-2 ?-1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO2/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10-2 ?-1, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

2014-01-01

10

Influence of preferred orientation on the electrical conductivity of fluorine-doped tin oxide films.  

PubMed

Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 10(20) cm(-3). Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities. PMID:24419455

Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D; Ramsey, Philip M; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

2014-01-01

11

Electron scattering mechanisms in fluorine-doped SnO2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) thin films have been grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. By varying growth conditions, several FTO specimens have been deposited and the study of their structural, electrical, and optical properties has been carried out. By systematically investigating the mobility as a function of carrier density, grain size, and crystallite size, the contribution of each physical mechanism involved in the electron scattering has been derived. A thorough comparison of experimental data and calculations allows to disentangle these different mechanisms and to deduce their relative importance. In particular, the roles of extended structural defects such as grain or twin boundaries as revealed by electron microscopy or x-ray diffraction along with ionized impurities are discussed. As a consequence, based on the quantitative analysis presented here, an experimental methodology leading to the improvement of the electro-optical properties of FTO thin films is reported. FTO thin films assuming an electrical resistivity as low as 3.7 . 10-4 ? cm (square sheet resistance of 8 ?/?) while retaining good transmittance up to 86% (including substrate effect) in the visible range have been obtained.

Rey, G.; Ternon, C.; Modreanu, M.; Mescot, X.; Consonni, V.; Bellet, D.

2013-11-01

12

Effect of annealing temperature on electrochemical luminescence properties of nanoporous fluorine-doped tin oxide films.  

PubMed

Nanoporous Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) materials were synthesized by sol-gel combustion method for electrochemical luminescence (ECL) application. The influence of annealing temperature on the structures and morphology of the nanoporous FTO films was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical transmittance and BET specific surface measurements. The naoporous FTO-based ECL cell is composed of FTO glass/nanoporous FTO/Ru(bpy)2+ electrolyte/FTO glass. The peak intensity of emitting light from the cell was obtained at the wavelength of about 615 nm, which corresponds to dark orange color. At 5 V bias, ECL efficiency of the cell using the 550 degrees C annealed FTO was about 975 cd/m2, which is much higher than those of other cells. The result shows that the nanoporous FTO layer was more effective for increasing ECL intensities. The sol-gel combustion method at annealing temperature of 550 degrees C could be employed to synthesize the nanoporous FTO materials with high porosity and ECL performance. PMID:23763189

Joo, Bong-Hyun; Yoon, Seog-Young; Sung, Youl-Moon

2013-04-01

13

Properties of highly oriented spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films on glass substrates of different thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) have been deposited onto the preheated glass substrates of different thickness by spray pyrolysis process using SnCl4·5H2O and NH4F precursors. Substrate thickness is varied from 1 to 6 mm. The films are grown using mixed solvent with propane-2-ol as organic solvent and distilled water at optimized substrate temperature of 475 °C. Films of thickness up to 1525 nm are grown by a fine spray of the source solution using compressed air as a carrier gas. The films have been characterized by the techniques such as X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, van der Pauw technique, and Hall effect. The as-deposited films are preferentially oriented along the (2 0 0) plane and are of polycrystalline SnO2 with a tetragonal crystal structure having the texture coefficient of 6.19 for the films deposited on 4 mm thick substrate. The lattice parameter values remain unchanged with the substrate thickness. The grain size varies between 38 and 48 nm. The films exhibit moderate optical transmission up to 70% at 550 nm. The figure of merit (?) varies from 1.36×10-4 to 1.93×10-3 ?-1. The films are heavily doped, therefore degenerate and exhibit n-type electrical conductivity. The lowest sheet resistance (Rs) of 7.5 ? is obtained for a typical sample deposited on 4 mm thick substrate. The resistivity (?) and carrier concentration (nD) vary over 8.38×10-4 to 2.95×10-3 ? cm and 4.03×1020 to 2.69×1021 cm-3, respectively.

Moholkar, A. V.; Pawar, S. M.; Rajpure, K. Y.; Patil, P. S.; Bhosale, C. H.

2007-10-01

14

Fluorine-doped tin oxide surfaces modified by self-assembled alkanethiols for thin-film devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have investigated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from alkanethiols on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surfaces, which were used as an anode for thin-film devices prepared from the conductive copolymer so-called sulfonated poly(thiophene-3-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]-2,5-diyl) (S-P3MEET). The assembled monolayers were characterized by using wetting contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. The results indicated that dodecanethiol molecules, CH3(CH2)11SH, were well assembled on the FTO surfaces. In addition, it was found similar values of wetting contact angle for dodecanethiol assembled on both FTO and Au surfaces. Concerning the thin-film device, current-voltage analysis revealed a hysteresis. This behavior was associated to a charge-trapping effect and also to structural changes of the SAMs. Finally, charge injection capability of tin oxide electrodes can be improved by using SAMs and then this approach can plays an important role in molecular-scale electronic devices.

Alves, A. C. T.; Gomes, D. J. C.; Silva, J. R.; Silva, G. B.

2013-08-01

15

Investigation of the ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films by square top-hat ultraviolet laser beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a square top-hat beam shaper in an ultraviolet (UV) laser processing system for electrode patterning and investigates the interaction between square laser beams and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited on glass substrates. The various patterning parameters to ablate the FTO films used in this experiment are included laser fluences, pulse repetition frequencies, and feeding rates of a motorized platform. The laser pulse repetition frequency and the feeding rate of the motorized platform were used to calculate the overlapping rate of laser spot and to determine the patterning quality. The line width and depth, edge quality, three-dimensional topography, and electrical conductivity properties of the patterned FTO films were measured and analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscope and a four-point probe instrument. Experimental results indicated that the ablated line width and depth increased with increasing laser fluence. After electrode patterning with laser fluence of 2.07 J/cm2 and 80% overlapping rate, no damages were observed in the patterned lines on the glass substrate. Moreover, the patterned line paths were narrow, smooth, clear, and flat in response to uniform laser energy distribution interacted in FTO films. The measured values of sheet resistance ranged from 109.7±3.8 ?/? to 139.3±4.9 ?/? at 2.07 J/cm2 to 9.37 J/cm2 laser fluences, respectively. The proposed process can reduce the fabrication steps and improve the removal efficiency of transparent conductive oxide materials and no waste etching chemical solution is produced.

Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Chiang, Donyau; Chung, Chien-Kai; Andrew Yeh, Jer-Liang

2014-01-01

16

Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T ? 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

Rene de Cotret, Samuel

17

Calcium substitution at yttrium site in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully synthesized single-phase superconducting Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3Oy for 0?x?0.4 using a coprecipitation technique. All these compounds are orthorhombic with lattice parameters a˜3.83 and c varying from 11.69 to 11.67 Å. The Tc remains unchanged around 90 K. It may be noted that in these compounds Ca substitutes for Y. On the other hand, it is known that in the compounds where Ca substitutes for Ba, the structure changes to tetragonal and Tc decreases rapidly. [See G. J. Baldha, R. B. Jotania, H. H. Joshi, H. N. Pandya, and R. G. Kulkarni, Solid State Commun. 71, 839 (1989)]. Furthermore, these compositions sinter much better than pure 1:2:3 and one gets high-density pellets (>95% of total density) at relatively lower temperature (<950 °C).

Chandrachood, M. R.; Mulla, I. S.; Gorwadkar, S. M.; Sinha, A. P. B.

1990-01-01

18

Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films deposited using a low-cost spray technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films were deposited from starting solutions having different values of solvent volume (10-50 ml) by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer. X-ray diffraction studies showed that there was a change in the preferential orientation from (2 1 1) plane to (1 1 0) plane as the volume of the solvent was increased. The sheet resistance ( Rsh) of undoped SnO 2 film was found to be minimum (13.58 K?/?) when the solvent volume was lesser (10 ml) and there was a sharp increase in Rsh for higher values of solvent volume. Interestingly, it was observed that while the Rsh increases sharply with the increase in solvent volume for undoped SnO 2 films, it decreases gradually in the case of fluorine doped SnO 2 films. The quantitative analysis of EDAX confirmed that the electrical resistivity of the sprayed tin oxide film was mainly governed by the number of oxygen vacancies and the interstitial incorporation of Sn atoms which in turn was governed by the impinging flux on the hot substrate. The films were found to have good optical characteristics suitable for opto-electronic devices.

Muruganantham, G.; Ravichandran, K.; Saravanakumar, K.; Ravichandran, A. T.; Sakthivel, B.

2011-12-01

19

Influence of RF power and fluorine doping on the properties of sputtered ITO thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly transparent and conducting ITO thin films were deposited at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering of ITO target (95wt% In2O3 and 5wt% SnO2) in pure argon atmosphere. Films were deposited at target to substrate spacing of 2cm and 4cm. The influences of RF power on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated. The influence of

M. Nisha; M. K. Jayaraj

2008-01-01

20

Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for photovoltaic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textured FTO thin films were deposited on corning glass substrates at 420°C by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the prepared functional FTO thin films were investigated. Homogeneous textured columnar grain morphology was observed through FESEM. As prepared thin films exhibits polycrystalline cassiterite structure with preferred orientation along (200). FTO is a promising TCO as front electrodes of thin film solar cells because of their good electrical properties (4.3×10-4?.cm) combined with high transmission properties (86%).

Muthukumar, Anusha; Rey, Germain; Giusti, Gael; Consonni, Vincent; Appert, Estelle; Roussel, Hervé; Dakshnamoorthy, Arivuoli; Bellet, Daniel

2013-02-01

21

Influence of RF power and fluorine doping on the properties of sputtered ITO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly transparent and conducting ITO thin films were deposited at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering of ITO target (95 wt% In 2O 3 and 5 wt% SnO 2) in pure argon atmosphere. Films were deposited at target to substrate spacing of 2 cm and 4 cm. The influences of RF power on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated. The influence of fluorine incorporation on the structural and electrical properties of the films was also investigated. Enhancement of crystallinity and conductivity was observed with increase in RF power. Film deposited on glass substrates at an RF power of 50 W was oriented in the (1 0 0) direction and it showed a minimum resistivity of 1.27 × 10 -3 ? cm.

Nisha, M.; Jayaraj, M. K.

2008-12-01

22

High-T sub c fluorine-doped YBa2Cu3O(y) films on ceramic substrates by screen printing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thick films of fluorine-doped YBa2Cu3O(y) were screen printed on highly polished alumina, magnesia spinel, strontium titanate, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. They were annealed at 1000 C and soaked in oxygen at 450 C, followed by slow cooling to room temperature. The films were characterized by electrical resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and x-ray diffraction. The film on YSZ showed the best characteristics with a T sub c (onset) of 91 K, T sub c (R equals 0) of 88.2 K, and a transition width, delta T sub c (10-90 percent), of approximately 1.7 K. The film adhesion, probably controlled by interdiffusion of cations between the film and the substrate, was good in all cases except on strontium titanate where the film completely detached from the substrate.

Bansal, Narottam P.

1991-01-01

23

Thermal oxidation-grown vanadium dioxide thin films on FTO (Fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By deposition of metallic vanadium on FTO substrate in Argon atmosphere at room temperature, the sample was then annealed in furnace for 2 h at the temperature of 410 °C in air ambient. (1 1 0) -orientated vanadium dioxide films were prepared on the FTO surface. A maximum transmittance of ˜40% happened at 900-1250 nm region at room temperature. The change of optical transmittance at this region was ˜25% between semiconducting and metallic states. In particular, vanadium dioxide thin films on FTO exhibit semiconductor-metal phase transition at ˜51 °C, the width of the hysteresis loop is ˜8 °C.

Tong, Guoxiang; Li, Yi; Wang, Feng; Huang, Yize; Fang, Baoying; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Liu; Shen, Yujian; Zheng, Qiuxin; Liang, Qian; Yan, Meng; Qin, Yuan; Ding, Jie

2013-11-01

24

Transparent conductivity of fluorine-doped anatase TiO2 epitaxial thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conductive anatase TiO2-xFx(F:TiO2) epitaxial thin films were fabricated by reactive pulsed laser deposition with a solid fluorine source. F-doping as high as 1.6 × 1021 cm-3 (TiO1.95F0.05) was achieved under optimal growth conditions, and the obtained anatase TiO1.95F0.05 film had a low resistivity of 1.6 × 10-3 ?cm and a high internal transmittance of >95%. Furthermore, the refractive index of a TiO1.95F0.05 film was >0.2 less than that of undoped TiO2. By comparing the refractive indices of F:TiO2 and Nb:TiO2, we concluded that the decreased refractive index in F:TiO2 can be attributed to a reduced electronic polarizability due to increased bond ionicity as well as doped electrons.

Mohri, Satoru; Hirose, Yasushi; Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

2012-05-01

25

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (F{sub O}) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the V{sub O} concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the F{sub O} concentration and a decrease in both n and V{sub O} concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO{sub 2} matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine F{sub O} and tin vacancy V{sub Sn} defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a V{sub Sn} through the migration of Sn{sub Sn} host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

El Akkad, Fikry; Joseph, Sudeep [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

2012-07-15

26

Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm2/V.s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses.

Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

2013-06-01

27

Fabrication of large-scale ripples on fluorine-doped tin oxide films by femtosecond laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale uniform self-organized ripples are fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass by femtosecond laser. They can be smoothly linked in a horizontal line with the moving of XYZ stage by setting its velocity and the repetition rate of the laser. The ripple-to-ripple linking can also be realized through line-by-line scanning on a vertical level. The mechanism analysis shows that the seeding effect plays a key role in the linking of ripples.

Han, Yan-Hua; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xiu-Li; Qu, Shi-Liang

2014-09-01

28

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

29

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

30

Attempts and success in texturing large single domains of cerium and silver doped YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As silver is known to improve the mechanical properties of the brittle superconducting oxide YBa2Cu3O7-? (Y123), studies are performed to texture large single domains of silver doped Y123. Here we report on the attempts realized to texture silver+cerium doped Y123. It is shown that, as silver decreases the peritectic decomposition temperature of cerium doped Y123 to approximately 960 °C, it becomes possible to texture samples with a maximal temperature of the thermal cycle of 1000 °C, which is interesting in terms of energy saving. However, it is very difficult, even impossible, to grow domains larger than 1 cm in diameter. Several thermal treatments have indeed been used, such as slow cooling ramps and different temperature dwells, without any success. The increase of the melting temperature and the use of a melt textured NdBa2Cu3Oy seed was proven to be efficient in solving this size limitation problem and a 30 mm diameter single domain was textured.

Harnois, C.

2002-06-01

31

Enhanced flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3Oy by dilute impurity doping for CuO chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of dilute impurity doping to the CuO chain of Y123 on the flux pinning properties were studied using single crystals and melt-solidified bulks. Cobalt-doped Y123 single crystals and iron-, cobalt- or gallium-doped Y123 melt-solidified bulks exhibited dramatically improved Jc-H characteristics accompanying huge secondary peaks in Jc-H curves. In field Jc of these samples are apparently higher than that of a low level zinc-doped bulk. These results strongly suggest that introduction of local disorders in the CuO chain by dilute impurity doping is a more promising way to improve Jc of RE123 materials than impurity doping to the CuO2 plane.

Ishii, Yui; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Tazaki, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Takayoshi; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

2006-11-01

32

Electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition of fluorine doped tin oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense and adherent fluorine doped tin oxide films were successfully deposited onto glass substrates using a novel, cost-effective electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition process. A mixture of tin acetate in the presence of HF in methanol was used as the precursor for deposition onto float glass at 550°C. The influence of substrate temperature on deposition was established. The microstructure of the film was established by a combination of XRD, SEM and AFM measurements. Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the prepared film in comparison with a commercial sample. The results show that the films are polycrystalline, highly conductive (electrical resistivity of 2×10 -4 ? cm) and have a high transmission of 78% in the visible range.

Chandrasekhar, R.; Choy, K. L.

2001-09-01

33

High critical current density and its magnetic fields dependence in (Sm,Eu,Gd)Ba2Cu3Oy films by using multiple targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt textured bulks of (Sm0.33Eu0.33Gd0.33)Ba2Cu3Oy (SEG123) show high Jc compared with that of YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123), because of nanoscopic network consisting of crossing rare earth (RE) compositional stripes. In this study, we fabricated SEG123 films by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates and evaluated the Jc and Tc in magnetic field. Jc of the SEG123 film was typically 1.4 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field. Jc in self-field of SEG123, Y123 and Sm123 films were almost the same value, however, Jc in magnetic fields showed a notable difference. The Jc of SEG123 film were 62.7 kA/cm2 at 5 T. We conclude that the Jc in magnetic fields were improved by RE-rich particle made of RE/Ba substitution acting as 3-dimensional pinning centers. Moreover we have confirmed that the superconducting properties changes by varying Sm, Eu and Gd composition ratio.

Takahashi, Yuya; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi; Ichinose, Ataru; Matsumoto, Kaname

2013-01-01

34

Ethylene Glycol Assisted Synthesis of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Nanorods Using Improved Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped tin oxide nanorod transparent thin films were fabricated with SnCl4·5H2O, NH4F, and ethylene glycol (EG) using an improved spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The fabricated nanorods showed a low resistance of 15.3 ?/sq and a good transparency of 70.8%. The nanorods have a higher surface area than the conventionally used thin films.

Liyanage, Devinda; Mudiyanselage Navaratne Bandara, Herath; Jayaweera, Viraj; Murakami, Kenji

2013-08-01

35

Optimizing the optical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin-coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of sol-gel spin-coated ZnO and F-doped ZnO (FZO) thin films were investigated using ultraviolet-visible and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopies. The FZO films showed on average of > 80% optical transmittance over the entire visible region, and the transmittance spectra and the optical bandgaps were blueshifted owing to the Burstein-Moss effect. The 4 at% FZO film showed the lowest Urbach energy and, thus, the best crystallinity of all the films. Changes in the free exciton, neutral-donor-bound exciton (D0X), donor-acceptor pair, and second-order longitudinal optical phonon replica peaks were represented from the temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra. The strength of the exciton-phonon coupling was investigated using the Bose-Einstein approximation to fit the experimental data, and the thermal activation energies of the as-deposited ZnO and 4 at% FZO thin films were determined using Arrhenius plots for the integrated PL intensities of the D0X peak.

Yoon, Hyunsik; Choi, Hyonkwang; Leem, Jae-Young; Lee, Sang-heon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Su; Son, Jeong-Sik

2014-08-01

36

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped zinc oxide and their application to amorphous silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting ZnO:F was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor\\u000a deposition (CVD) deposition at substrate temperatures of 480–500 °C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine\\u000a and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. The solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier\\u000a gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 °C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and

Haifan Liang; Roy G. Gordon

2007-01-01

37

Fabrication process of YBCO thin film starting from amorphous film for microstrip line device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the process for fabricating YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin film microstrip lines from amorphous thin films. First, we made amorphous YBCO thin films and then post-annealing was carried out. The amorphous 300-nm-thick YBCO thin films were deposited on a CeO2 buffered r-Al2O3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The 50-nm-thick CeO2 buffer layer was made by a facing target sputtering system. We examined the optimal conditions of the post-annealing process by using a two-step crystallization process. The heating rate of the first step was set to 360 K/min until 1023 K, and then the heating rate of the second step was set to 20 K/min until 1073 K. The oxygen pressure was kept to 3000 Pa at 1073 K for 210 min. From the XRD measurement, we observed that the YBCO thin films grew c-axis orientation on the CeO2/r-Al2O3 substrate. Both YBCO and CeO2 ?-scan peaks showed four-fold symmetry and rotated 45 degrees between YBCO (102) grain axis and CeO2 (220) grain axis. The surface roughness, ??, and ?? of YBCO thin films were 35.12 nm, 0.89 degree, and 1.51 degree, respectively. We found these to be the optimal post-annealing conditions in which to make a single phase of YBCO films with Tc of 87 K from amorphous YBCO thin films. Therefore, our process is useful to make high-quality YBCO microstrip lines.

Muyari, J.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, S.; Hayashi, K.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

38

Fluorine doped-tin oxide prepared using spray method for dye sensitized solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by spray deposition method. FTO films were prepared in different sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq. X-ray diffractograms showed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. The prepared FTO film have an average transmittance of 80% in the visible region (?=400-800 nm). These FTO films were then used to fabricate Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The working electrode was made from TiO2 paste using doctor blade technique. DSSC samples were characterized using solar simulator under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). It is found that the efficiency of DSSC was much affected by sheet resistance of FTO film. The efficiency of DCCS was 2.32, 2.4, 1.1 and 0.97 (%) for the FTO sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq, respectively. It is shown that the optimum DSSC efficiency was made from FTO with sheet resistance 12.1 ?/sq.

Widiyandari, Hendri; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Suyitno, Hidayanto, Eko

2013-09-01

39

Comparison of characteristics of fluorine doped zinc and gallium tin oxide composite thin films deposited on stainless steel 316 bipolar plate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.  

PubMed

In order to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plates currently used for the PEMFC stack, coated SUS 316 was employed. As a metallic bipolar plate, coated SUS 316 can provide higher mechanical strength, better durability to shocks and vibration, less permeability, improved thermal and bulk electrical conductivity, as well as being thinner and lighter. To enhance the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of SUS 316, the deposition of GTO:F and ZTO:F composite films was carried out by ECR-MOCVD. The surface morphology of the films consisted of tiny elliptically shaped grains with a thickness of 1 microm. The corrosion current for GTO:F was 0.13 Acm(-2) which was much lower than that of bare SUS 316 (50.16 Acm(-2)). The GTO:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The GTO:F coated film exhibited the highest cell voltage and power density due to its lower ICR values. PMID:22097519

Park, Jihun; Hudaya, Chairul; Lee, Joong Kee

2011-09-01

40

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method.  

PubMed

Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2. PMID:24200650

Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M

2014-01-01

41

Preparation of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres as an efficient anode material for Li-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Herein we report the design and synthesis of fluorine-doped, carbon-encapsulated hollow Fe3O4 spheres (h-Fe3O4@C/F) through mild heating of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated hollow Fe3O4 spheres. The spheres exhibit enhanced cyclic and rate performances. The as-prepared h-Fe3O4@C/F shows significantly improved electrochemical performance, with high reversible capacities of over 930 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 C after 70 cycles, 800 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.5 C after 120 cycles and 620 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 1 C after 200 cycles. This improved lithium storage performance is mainly ascribed to the encapsulation of the spheres with fluorine-doped carbon, which not only improves the reaction kinetics and stability of the solid electrolyte interface film but also prevents aggregation and drastic volume change of the Fe3O4 particles. These spheres thus represent a promising anode material in lithium-ion battery applications. PMID:24598908

Geng, Hongbo; Zhou, Qun; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei; Zheng, Junwei

2014-04-01

42

Slow magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in fluorine-doped NdFeAsO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the widely studied superconducting iron-pnictide compounds belonging to the Ln1111 family (with Ln a lanthanide), a systematic investigation of the crossover region between the superconducting and the antiferromagnetic phase for the Ln = Nd case has been missing. We fill this gap by focusing on the intermediate doping regime of NdFeAsO1 -xFx by means of dc-magnetometry and muon-spin spectroscopy (? SR ) measurements. The long-range order we detect at low fluorine doping is replaced by short-range magnetic interactions at x =0.08 , where also superconductivity appears. In this case, longitudinal-field ? SR experiments show clear evidence of slow magnetic fluctuations that disappear at low temperatures. This fluctuating component is ascribed to the glassy-like character of the magnetically ordered phase of NdFeAsO at intermediate fluorine doping.

Lamura, G.; Shiroka, T.; Bonfà, P.; Sanna, S.; De Renzi, R.; Putti, M.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Khasanov, R.; Karpinski, J.

2015-01-01

43

Carbon nanotubes on fluorine-doped tin oxide for fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells at low temperature condition.  

PubMed

The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), electrophoretically deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), were employed as charge-collecting channels in the TiO2 photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated at 200 degrees C. The CNT-networks at the conducting substrate increased the charge collection efficiency of the porous TiO2 film, while the short circuit current increased up to ca. 43% under optimized condition. However, the significant decrease in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) up to ca. 132 mV resulted in the failure of the overall cell efficiency improvement. Findings reveal that the transfer process for the back electron is mainly responsible for the significant Voc drop when the MWCNTs were deposited at the electron-collecting substrate of the photoelectrode. The study demonstrates that electrophoretic deposition of MWCNTs on charge collecting substrate would be applicable to introduce an effective charge-collecting channel for the fabrication of flexible DSSCs under low temperature sintering condition. PMID:22966574

Nath, Narayan Chandra Deb; Ahammad, A J Saleh; Sarker, Subrata; Rahman, M Mahbubur; Lim, Sung-Su; Choi, Won-Youl; Lee, Jae-Joon

2012-07-01

44

Fundamental electrochemiluminescence characteristics of fluorine-doped tin oxides synthesized by sol-gel combustion.  

PubMed

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) materials synthesized by sol-gel combustion method were investigated for electrochemical luminescence (ECL) application. Effects of sol-gel combustion conditions on the structures and morphology of the porous FTO (p-FTO) materials were studied. ECL efficiency of p-FTO-based cell was about 251 cd/m2 at 4 V bias, which is higher than the sell using only FTO electrodes (102.8 cd/m2). The highest intensity of the emitting light was obtained at the wavelength of about 610 nm. The porous FTO layer was effective for increasing ECL intensities. PMID:24245225

Moon, B H; Chaoumead, A; Sung, Y M

2013-10-01

45

Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 - 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

Anand, S.; Darak, Mayur Sudesh; Kumar, D. Sriram

2014-10-01

46

Surface functionalization of fluorine-doped tin oxide samples through electrochemical grafting.  

PubMed

Transparent conductive oxides are emerging materials in several fields, such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemistry, and optical biosensing. Their high chemical inertia, which ensured long-term stability on one side, makes challenging the surface modification of transparent conductive oxides; long-term robust modification, high yields, and selective surface modifications are essential prerequisite for any further developments. In this work, we aim at inducing chemical functionality on fluorine-doped tin oxide surfaces (one of the most inexpensive transparent conductive oxide) by means of electrochemical grafting of aryl diazonium cations. The grafted layers are fully characterized by photoemission spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and atomic force microscopy showing linear correlation between surface coverage and degree of modification. The electrochemical barrier effect of modified surfaces was studied at different pH to characterize the chemical nature of the coating. We showed immuno recognition of biotin complex built onto grafted fluorine-doped tin oxides, which opens the perspective of integrating FTO samples with biological-based devices. PMID:24171474

Lamberti, F; Agnoli, S; Brigo, L; Granozzi, G; Giomo, M; Elvassore, N

2013-12-26

47

Synthesis of Aligned Copper Oxide Nanowires on Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Glass Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of uniform and dense CuO nanowires on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate are reported. The procedure simply involved the vapor-solid thermal oxidation growth process of CuO nanowires on FTO surface in the air flow. The sample was annealed in air within the temperature range 300-600°C for 1 h. The morphology and density of the CuO nanowires could be controlled by annealing temperature. The SEM image analysis indicates that the nanowires feature uniform size with aligned structures. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) result of individual CuO nanowires shows that the nanowires were single-crystalline, and the selected area diffraction pattern (SEAD) of the same sample shows that the nanowires grow along the (110) direction. The XRD analysis shows that CuO was the only product when the sample annealed at the temperature higher than 500°C.

Li, Xuyang; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

2013-12-01

48

Electrochemical serotonin monitoring of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide by predeposition of self-assembled 4-pyridylporphyrin.  

PubMed

A 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (TPyP)-modified self-assembled functional layer was prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. We employed a bifunctional molecule, 3-iodopropionate (3IP), to covalently bind TPyP to the FTO substrate. The 3IP-monolayered FTO and the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Compared to conventional electropolymerized poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on bare FTO, the PEDOT:PSS film on the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO showed better sensitivity and selectivity in monitoring serotonin in the presence of high concentrations of interfering agents such as ascorbic acid, urea, D-(+)-glucose, epinephrine, and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Both PEDOT:PSS films on the bare FTO and the TPyP-3IP-bilayered FTO showed electrocatalytic effects in serotonin detection, and only the TPyP-3IP-based PEDOT:PSS film acted as a pH resistant buffer layer in the selective detection of serotonin. PMID:24125701

Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Sangsig; Ki Min, Nam; Jin, Joon-Hyung

2014-02-15

49

Optoelectrochemical biorecognition by optically transparent highly conductive graphene-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates.  

PubMed

Both optical and electrochemical graphene-based sensors have gone through rapid development, reaching high sensitivity at low cost and with fast response time. However, the complex validating biochemical operations, needed for their consistent use, currently limits their effective application. We propose an integration strategy for optoelectrochemical detection that overcomes previous limitations of these sensors used separately. We develop an optoelectrochemical sensor for aptamer-mediated protein detection based on few-layer graphene immobilization on selectively modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. Our results show that the electrochemical properties of graphene-modified FTO samples are suitable for complex biological detection due to the stability and inertness of the engineered electrodic interface. In addition, few-layer immobilization of graphene sheets through electrostatic linkage with an electrochemically grafted FTO surface allows obtaining an optically accessible and highly conductive platform. As a proof of concept, we used insulin as the target molecule to reveal in solution. Because of its transparency and low sampling volume (a few microliters), our sensing unit can be easily integrated in lab-on-a-chip cell culture systems for effectively monitoring subnanomolar concentrations of proteins relevant for biomedical applications. PMID:25438087

Lamberti, F; Brigo, L; Favaro, M; Luni, C; Zoso, A; Cattelan, M; Agnoli, S; Brusatin, G; Granozzi, G; Giomo, M; Elvassore, N

2014-12-24

50

Ab-initio study of fluorine-doped tin dioxide: A prospective catalyst support for water electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to identify new electrochemically stable catalyst supports for electrolysis of water, the electronic structure of SnO 2 doped with different fluorine concentrations has been calculated using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) in the projector-augmented wave (PAW) method with the general gradient approximation (GGA) for conducting the exchange-correlation corrections. The role of fluorine in improving the electronic conductivity is discussed. An increase in the density of electronic states at the Fermi level with increase in the concentration of fluorine incorporated into the main SnO 2 matrix agrees well with published experimental observations. Despite a gradual decrease in the cohesive energies for the fluorine-doped tin oxide with increase in fluorine concentration, the doped material still remains an appropriate candidate for use as catalyst supports in water electrolysis warranting further experimental validation.

Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kumta, Prashant N.

2011-02-01

51

Fluorine-doped porous single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorods for enhancing photoelectrochemical water splitting.  

PubMed

Fluorine-doped hierarchical porous single-crystal rutile TiO(2) nanorods have been synthesized through a silica template method, in which F(-) ions acts as both n-type dopants and capping agents to make the isotropic growth of the nanorods. The combination of high crystallinity, abundant surface reactive sites, large porosity, and improved electronic conductivity leads to an excellent photoelectrochemical activity. The photoanode made of F-doped porous single crystals displays a remarkably enhanced solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (?0.35?% at -0.33?V vs. Ag/AgCl) under 100?mW?cm(-2) of AM=1.5 solar simulator illumination that is ten times of the pristine solid TiO(2) single crystals. PMID:25059762

Fang, Wen Qi; Huo, Ziyang; Liu, Porun; Wang, Xue Lu; Zhang, Miao; Jia, Yi; Zhang, Haimin; Zhao, Huijun; Yang, Hua Gui; Yao, Xiangdong

2014-09-01

52

Superconductivity and phase diagram in iron-based arsenic-oxides ReFeAsO1?? (Re = rare-earth metal) without fluorine doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a new class of superconductors prepared by high-pressure synthesis in the quaternary family ReFeAsO1?? (Re=Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce, La) without fluorine doping. The onset superconducting critical temperature (Tc) in these compounds increases with the reduction of the Re atom size, and the highest Tc obtained so far is 55 K in SmFeAsO1??. For the NdFeAsO1?? compound with

Zhi-An Ren; Guang-Can Che; Xiao-Li Dong; Jie Yang; Wei Lu; Wei Yi; Xiao-Li Shen; Zheng-Cai Li; Li-Ling Sun; Fang Zhou; Zhong-Xian Zhao

2008-01-01

53

Micrometer-sized fluorine doped tin oxide as fast electron collector for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-layered fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) powder was synthesized and applied as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO powders are connected to form a direct electron pathway for the efficient extract of injected electrons, while the TiO2 layer serves as an energy barrier prohibiting the charge combination with oxidized dye or I3(-). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses suggest that electrons have a longer combination lifetime (?e = 233 ms) than that of the electron in the DSSCs using traditional P25 photoanodes (?e = 28 ms). The DSSCs using 5 ?m thick TiO2@FTO as photoanodes eventually give a respectable and long-term stable photovoltaic performance with a current density of 23.8 mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and power conversion efficiency of 7.4%. The results are received on a low dye loading level (0.25 × 10(-7) mol/cm(2)), which is (1)/10 of that for traditional photoanode (2.79 × 10(-7) mol/cm(2)). PMID:25226086

Cui, Xiao Rui; Wang, Ye Feng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Lu; Gao, Fei; Zeng, Jing Hui

2014-10-01

54

Fluorine-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} for 5 V cathode materials of lithium-ion battery  

SciTech Connect

Fluorine-doped 5 V cathode materials LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4-x}F{sub x} (0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.2) have been prepared by sol-gel and post-annealing treatment method. The results from X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the spinel structure changes little after fluorine doping, but the particle size varies with fluorine doping and the preparation conditions. The electrochemical measurements show that stable cycling performance can be obtained when the fluorine amount x is higher than 0.1, but the specific capacity is decreased and 4 V plateau capacity resulting from a conversion of Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+} remains. Moreover, influence of the particle size on the reversible capacity of the electrode, especially on the kinetic property, has been examined.

Du Guodong; NuLi, Yanna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang Jun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: yangj723@sjtu.edu.cn; Wang Jiulin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2008-12-01

55

Water oxidation and oxygen monitoring by cobalt-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes.  

PubMed

Electrocatalytic water oxidation occurs at fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes that have been surface-modified by addition of Co(II). On the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements, the active surface site appears to be a single site or small-molecule assembly bound as Co(II), with no evidence for cobalt oxide film or cluster formation. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry measurements, surface-bound Co(II) undergoes a pH-dependent 1e(-)/1H(+) oxidation to Co(III), which is followed by pH-dependent catalytic water oxidation. O2 reduction at FTO occurs at -0.33 V vs NHE, allowing for in situ detection of oxygen as it is formed by water oxidation on the surface. Controlled-potential electrolysis at 1.61 V vs NHE at pH 7.2 resulted in sustained water oxidation catalysis at a current density of 0.16 mA/cm(2) with 29,000 turnovers per site over an electrolysis period of 2 h. The turnover frequency for oxygen production per Co site was 4 s(-1) at an overpotential of 800 mV at pH 7.2. Initial experiments with Co(II) on a mesoporous, high-surface-area nanoFTO electrode increased the current density by a factor of ~5. PMID:23692429

Kent, Caleb A; Concepcion, Javier J; Dares, Christopher J; Torelli, Daniel A; Rieth, Adam J; Miller, Andrew S; Hoertz, Paul G; Meyer, Thomas J

2013-06-12

56

Effects of fluorine doping on thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics, doped with different contents of fluorine at the oxygen sites, were investigated in the temperature range of 323 to 1073 K. The electrical resistivity is reduced significantly after fluorine doping. However, the magnitudes of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient (S), and slope of S at high temperatures (dS/dT) vary non-monotonically with increasing doping contents, indicating that doped fluorine ions not only act as electron donors, but also influence band structure. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases when fluorine ions are slightly doped, and increases with increasing fluorine content because of the increasing average grain size. The thermoelectric performance is enhanced by slight fluorine doping due to the increase of the power factor and the reduction of thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric figure of merit reaches maximum value (0.21 at 1073 K) in the Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O5.95F0.05 sample.

Li, Yi; Liu, Jian; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, YuCheng; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Jichao; Zhu, Yuanhu; Li, Maokui; Mei, Liangmo

2015-02-01

57

Fluorine-doped nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} powders prepared via a single molecular precursor method as anode materials for Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Fluorine-doped nanocrystalline tin dioxide materials (F:SnO{sub 2}) have been successfully prepared by the sol-gel process from a single molecular precursor followed by a thermal treatment at 450-650 deg. C. The resulting materials were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption porosimetry (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mean particle size increased from 5 to 20 nm and the specific surface area decreased from 123 to 37 m{sup 2}/g as the temperature of heat treatment was risen from 450 to 650 deg. C. Fluorine-doped nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} exhibited capacity of 560, 502, and 702 mA h/g with 48%, 50%, and 40% capacity retention after 25 cycles between 1.2 V and 50 mV at the rate of 25 mA/g, respectively. In comparison, commercial SnO{sub 2} showed an initial capacity of 388 mA h/g, with only 23% capacity retention after 25 cycles.

Ha, Hyung-Wook [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon [Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kkim@korea.ac.kr; Borniol, Mervyn de [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802 CNRS, University Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Toupance, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802 CNRS, University Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)]. E-mail: t.toupance@lcoo.u-bordeaux1.fr

2006-03-15

58

Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of  

E-print Network

of energy-conserving fluorine-doped tin oxide coatings are made by APCVD on window w xglass over 3 m wide 2 of these films when they are re- duced in the presence of protons or lithium ions. 2. Synthesis of volatile

59

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 23 DECEMBER 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2502 Thermodynamic phase diagram of static charge  

E-print Network

of static charge order in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy David LeBoeuf1 *, S. Krämer2 , W. N. Hardy3,4 , Ruixing Liang of a nearby quantum phase transition3 . Recent evidence for charge modulation4 and its associated fluctuations5­7 in the pseudogap phase of YBa2Cu3Oy makes charge order a likely candidate for a competing order

Loss, Daniel

60

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped zinc oxide and their application  

E-print Network

crystal flat panel displays, energy efficient windows, gas sensors, surface acoustic wave devices loss or diffusion, which can lead to degra- dation in solar cell efficiency. Zinc oxide is more stable conducting oxides. This suggests zinc oxide may lead to higher solar cell efficiency than tin oxide

61

Nitrogen plasma treatment of fluorine-doped tin oxide for enhancement of photo-carrier collection in amorphous Si solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen plasma treatment was performed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) front electrodes, and its impact on the performance of pin type amorphous Si (a-Si) solar cells was investigated. Nitrogen plasma treatment reverses the surface band bending of SnO{sub 2}:F from accumulation to depletion, thus in turn reversing the band bending of the p type amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC) window layer. The reversal of band bending leads to the collection of carriers generated in p-a-SiC, and quantum efficiency in the short wavelength regime is thereby enhanced. On the other hand, surface depletion of SnO{sub 2}:F causes a reduction of the diode built-in voltage and increased series resistance, which could degrade the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), the degradation of which is strongly affected by the deposition time of p-a-SiC.

Baik, Seung Jae; Lim, Koeng Su [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15

62

The maximum limiting performance improved counter electrode based on a porous fluorine doped tin oxide conductive framework for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A novel porous fluorine doped tin oxide (PFTO) conductive framework was introduced to counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When modified by platinum (Pt) or carbon (C), the PFTO conductive framework displays high catalytic activity to I(-)/I3(-) redox couples. Power conversion efficiencies of 6.09% and 5.81% were obtained in the DSSCs based on Pt and C modified PFTO CEs respectively, which were close to that of DSSCs with Pt coated FTO glass (6.05%) and Pt sheet (6.26%) CEs. Maximum limiting performances of the CEs were obtained from the polarization curves. The CE based on PFTO showed higher maximum limiting power conversion efficiency (~20%) compared with the planar FTO substrate Pt CE (~18%), with the increase of its surface area and electrocatalytic activity. PMID:23632829

Bao, Chunxiong; Huang, Huan; Yang, Jie; Gao, Hao; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zhou, Yong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

2013-06-01

63

Poole-Frenkel effect in nanocrystalline SnO2:F thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical transport properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating technique have been studied in detail. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the crystalline nature of the films having a grain size in the nanometer range. The fluorine concentration in the films was varied from 1.62 to 12% and was measured by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It

A. N. Banerjee; R. Maity; S. Kundoo; K. K. Chattopadhyay

2004-01-01

64

Optoelectronic properties of ZnO film on silicon after SF6 plasma treatment and milliseconds annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide thin film is one of the most promising candidates for the transparent conductive layer in microelectronic and photovoltaic applications, due to its low resistivity and high transmittance in the visible spectral range. In this letter, we present optoelectronic and structural properties of fluorine doped ZnO films deposited at low temperature on a silicon substrate. The fluorine doping was made by post-deposition SF6 plasma treatment and activation by the millisecond range flash lamp annealing. Both the microstructural and optical investigations confirm the formation of a high-quality, highly doped n-type ZnO layer. The current-voltage characteristics show a heterojunction between n+-ZnO and Si. Moreover, it is shown that the SF6 plasma treatment efficiently passivates the surface state and bulk defects in the ZnO film.

Prucnal, S.; Gao, Kun; Zhou, Shengqiang; Wu, Jiada; Cai, Hua; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Larkin, G.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

2014-12-01

65

FTO films deposited in transition and oxide modes by magnetron sputtering using tin metal target.  

PubMed

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with a metal Sn target. Two different modes were applied to deposit the FTO films, and their respective optical and electrical properties were evaluated. In the transition mode, the minimum resistivity of the FTO film was 1.63×10(-3)????cm with average transmittance of 80.0% in the visible region. Furthermore, FTO films deposited in the oxide mode and mixed simultaneously with H2 could achieve even lower resistivity to 8.42×10(-4)????cm and higher average transmittance up to 81.1% in the visible region. PMID:24514207

Liao, Bo-Huei; Chan, Shih-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Chiang, Donyau

2014-02-01

66

In situ growth of superconducting NdFeAs(O,F) thin films by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting NdFeAs(O,F) thin films were grown on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown with a sufficiently long growth time exhibited a clear superconducting transition with an onset temperature up to 48 K and zero resistance temperature up to 42 K without the need of an ex situ annealing process. Electron probe microanalysis and Hall coefficient measurements indicated that the superconducting films are doped with fluorine, and depth-profile analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy revealed the formation of a NdOF layer near the surface, which is probably connected with the fluorine doping.

Kawaguchi, T.; Uemura, H.; Ohno, T.; Ujihara, T.; Takenaka, K.; Takeda, Y.; Ikuta, H. [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), JST, Sanbancho 5, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Tabuchi, M. [Venture Business Laboratory (VBL), Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), JST, Sanbancho 5, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

2010-07-26

67

Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2014-11-01

68

The origin of haze in CVD tin oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of haze was investigated in antimony-doped tin oxide thin films, and in double-stack thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide/antimony-doped tin oxide, both deposited by chemical vapor deposition onto soda-lime-silica float glass substrates. These transparent conductive oxide thin films are of great importance in the production of solar control architectural glazing units. Therefore, understanding the origins of haze is necessary to the development of coated, IR-reflecting glass windows with low overall haze levels. Haze measurements of as-prepared and polished samples were correlated with surface roughness and concentration of internal hole defects. Surface roughnesses were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, and characterized by estimated RMS values. In thin tin oxide films (<2000 Å) internal hole defects caused haze, while in thick tin oxide films (>4000 Å) surface roughness was the primary source of haze.

Szanyi, János

2002-01-01

69

TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.  

PubMed

We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures. PMID:24876070

Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

2014-07-01

70

TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures.

Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

2014-06-01

71

Studies on dynamic IV curves of semiconductor-liquid junction cells formed with Cd 0·8 Zn 0·2 S films prepared at various spray rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cd0·8Zn0·2S films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique on glass and conducting glass (fluorine doped tin oxide) substrates,\\u000a by spraying aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, zinc chloride and thiourea. The spray rate was varied from 4 cc\\/min to\\u000a 16 cc\\/min. It is found that film thickness increases with increase in spray rate. The electrical and optical properties of\\u000a the

M D Uplane; S H Pawar

1985-01-01

72

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis of nanostructured tungsten trioxide (WO3) films and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by a simple and low-cost crystal-seed-assisted hydrothermal method. The growth mechanism of the film is investigated. HRTEM analysis reveals the single crystalline quality of the WO3 nanostructure. The film exhibits tunable transmittance modulation under different voltages and repetitive cycling between the clear and blue states has no deleterious effect on its electrochromic performance after 3000 cycles. The electrochromic device composed of the WO3 film has high electrochromic stability, colour contrast and reasonable switching response with a colouration efficiency of 38.2 cm2 C-1 at 632.8 nm.

Jiao, Zhihui; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jinmin; Ke, Lin; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

2010-07-01

73

Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness. PMID:24435106

Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

2014-02-21

74

Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

2014-01-01

75

Electrochromic properties of vanadium oxide thin films prepared by PSPT: Effect of substrate temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromic vanadium oxide (V2O5) thin films were deposited onto glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from methanolic vanadium chloride solution by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique (PSPT). The films were synthesized at different substrate temperatures ranging from 350°C-450°C with a temperature step of 50°C. The structural, morphological, optical and electrochromic properties of the synthesized films were investigated. The films were polycrystalline with tetragonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy reveals compact morphology at high temperature. All films exhibited cathodic electrochromism in lithium containing electrolyte (0.5 M LiClO4 + Propylene Carbonate). Maximum coloration efficiency (CE) 15.16 cm2C-1, was observed for the films deposited at 350°C.

Patil, C. E.; Jadhav, P. R.; Tarwal, N. L.; Deshmukh, H. P.; Karanjakar, M. M.; Wali, A. A.; Patil, P. S.

2013-06-01

76

Hydrogenated TiO2 film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenated TiO2 film was obtained by annealing TiO2 film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO2 films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO2 film and pristine TiO2 film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO2 film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO2 surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO2 as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO2 film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO2 to generate more photocurrent.

He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun

2013-12-01

77

CuIn1-XAlXSe2 Thin Films Grown By Electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have grown CuIn1-xAlxSe2 thin films on fluorine doped tin oxide glass at a constant deposition potential of -650 mV by the electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical bath from which the CuIn1-XAlXSe2 (CIAS) thin films were grown was made up of a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.025 M CuCl2, 0.05 M InCl3, 0.05 M AlCl3 and 0.025 M SeO2. Ethylene-diamine-dihydrochloride (EDC) was used as a complexing agent which was found to reduce the particle size of the CIAS thin films. The electrodeposited films were characterized using XRD, SEM and EDAX. The results show that single phase CuIn1-xAlxSe2 films with Al content x around 0.28 and having good stoichiometry can be produced.

Prasher, Dixit; Sharma, Ranjana; Sharma, Ashok K.; Rajaram, P.

2011-07-01

78

Electrodeposition of Ga-O Thin Films from Aqueous Gallium Sulfate Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ga-O based thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate at room temperature from aqueous gallium sulfate solution with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Effects of different deposition parameters such as deposition voltage, amount of H2O2 and deposition time were investigated and presented. Nearly smooth and crack-free morphologies were attained at -1.0 V vs SCE deposition potential. As-deposited films showed O to Ga ratio of 2.0, which signified GaOOH formation. Thermal annealing of the as-deposited films in ambient air at 500-600 °C reduced the O/Ga ratio closer to stoichiometric gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and retained the morphology of Ga-O thin films. As-prepared films with ˜0.2 µm thickness had 80% transparency in the visible wavelength range.

Vequizo, Junie Jhon M.; Ichimura, Masaya

2013-07-01

79

Ti-doped hematite thin films for efficient water splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform Ti-doped hematite thin films were deposited on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide FTO coated glasses using a pulsed laser deposition method. An influence of dopant concentration on the photoelectrochemical characteristics was examined under water splitting. Photocurrent measurements indicated that 3 mol% of Ti atoms was optimal dopant concentration in hematite films produced by this method. The maximum photocurrent density of un-doped and 3 mol% Ti-doped Fe2O3 photoelectrodes was 0.67 and 1.64 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V versus RHE, respectively. The incorporation of Ti atoms into hematite photoelectrodes was found to drastically enhance the water splitting performance.

Atabaev, Timur Sh.; Ajmal, Muhammad; Hong, Nguyen Hoa; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

2014-12-01

80

Zn-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films for CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on Zn-doped TiO(2) (Zn-TiO(2)) film photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte were fabricated. Zn-TiO(2) nanoparticles were obtained via a hydrothermal method and screen printed on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass to prepare the photoanode. The structure, morphology and impedance of the Zn-TiO(2)/CdS film and the photovoltaic performance of the Zn-TiO(2)/CdS cell were investigated. It was found that the photovoltaic efficiency was improved by 24% when the Zn-TiO(2) film was adopted as the photoanode of CdS QDSSCs instead of only the TiO(2) layer. The improvement was ascribed to the reduction of electron recombination and the enhancement of electron transport in the TiO(2) film by Zn doping. PMID:20648354

Zhu, Guang; Cheng, Zujun; Lv, Tian; Pan, Likun; Zhao, Qingfei; Sun, Zhuo

2010-07-01

81

Photoelectrochemical behavior of mixed ZnO and GaN (ZnO:GaN) thin films prepared by sputtering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed zinc oxide and gallium nitride (ZnO:GaN) thin films with significantly reduced bandgaps were synthesized by using zinc oxide and gallium nitride target at 100 °C followed by post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in ammonia for 4 h. All the films were synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering on Fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass. We found that mixed zinc oxide and gallium nitride (ZnO:GaN) thin films exhibited significantly reduced bandgap, as a result showed improved PEC response, compared to ZnO thin film. Furthermore, mixed zinc oxide and gallium nitride (ZnO:GaN) thin films with various bandgaps were realized by varying the O2 mass flow rate in mixed O2 and N2 chamber ambient.

Shet, Sudhakar; Yan, Yanfa; Ravindra, Nuggehalli; Turner, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

2013-04-01

82

Photoelectrochemical properties of chemosynthesized CdS thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film of cadmium sulphide (CdS) consisting cabbage like morphology was chemically synthesized at room temperature from an aqueous alkaline bath onto soda lime glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. The synthesized cabbages of CdS were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed the formation of CdS particles with a cubic crystal structure. SEM micrographs show that the cabbage like morphology is composed of nanopetals. Further, the photoelectochemical (PEC) performance was tested in Na2S-NaOH-S electrolyte which has maximum short circuit current of (Isc) 359?A/cm2.

Pawar, S. B.; Pawar, S. A.; Bhosale, P. N.; Patil, P. S.

2012-06-01

83

Structural, compositional and morphological studies of thermally evaporated MoO{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect

Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanostructures were grown on different substrates such as glass, indium tin oxide coated glass and fluorine doped glass by thermal evaporation of MoO{sub 3} powder at elevated temperature (750°C) using tube furnace without any catalyst and then by subsequent O{sub 2}/Ar flow rate. The morphology, composition and crystal structure were examined by using SEM, EDAX, Laser Raman and XRD. The films are polycrystalline with well-defined diffraction peaks and it consist of MoO{sub 3} with ?-orthorhombic structure. The synthesized MoO{sub 3} belongs to different morphologies, generally nanobelt and nanohunk structures. The EDAX spectra confirm the films are composed only of Mo and O atoms. The O/Mo ratio is nearly equal to 3 that shows the stoichiometry of MoO{sub 3}.

Senthilkumar, R., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630003 (India)

2014-04-24

84

Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.  

PubMed

ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. PMID:24643984

Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

2014-04-14

85

The effect of the film thickness and doping content of SnO2:F thin films prepared by the ultrasonic spray method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the effects of film thickness and doping content on the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and HCl were used as the starting materials, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The doped films were deposited on a glass substrate at different concentrations varying between 0 and 5 wt% using an ultrasonic spray technique. The SnO2:F thin films were deposited at a 350 °C pending time (5, 15, 60 and 90 s). The average transmission was about 80%, and the films were thus transparent in the visible region. The optical energy gap of the doped films with 2.5 wt% F was found to increase from 3.47 to 3.89 eV with increasing film thickness, and increased after doping at 5 wt%. The decrease in the Urbach energy of the SnO2:F thin films indicated a decrease in the defects. The increase in the electrical conductivity of the films reached maximum values of 278.9 and 281.9 (?·cm)-1 for 2.5 and 5 wt% F, respectively, indicating that the films exhibited an n-type semiconducting nature. A systematic study on the influence of film thickness and doping content on the properties of SnO2:F thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray was reported.

Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

2013-09-01

86

Effects of carbon incorporation on doping state of YBa 2Cu 3O y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of carbon incorporation on the doping state of YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) were investigated. Quantitative carbon analysis revealed that carbon could be introduced into Y-123 from both the precursor and the sintering gas. Nearly carbon-free (<200ppm) samples were prepared from a vacuum-treated precursor by sintered at 900°C and cooling with 20°C\\/min in flowing oxygen gas. The lower Tc (=88K) and higher

A. Yamamoto; K. Hirose; Y. Itoh; T. Kakeshita; S. Tajima

2005-01-01

87

Growth and characterization of electrodeposited Cu2O thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates the electrodeposition of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrates from Cu(II) sulfate solution with C6H8O7 chelating agent. During cyclic voltammetry experiences, the potential interval where the electrodeposition of Cu2O is carried out was established. The thin films were obtained potentiostatically and were characterized through different techniques. From the Mott-Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the acceptor density for the Cu2O thin films are determined. All the films showed a p-type semiconductor character with a carrier density varying between 2.41 × 1018 cm-3 and 5.38 × 1018 cm-3. This little difference is attributed to the increase of the stoichiometric defects in the films with the deposition potential. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the Cu2O thin films obtained at high potential are more homogenous in appearance and present lower crystallites size. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a cubic structure with good crystallization state and the deposition potential was found to have an influence on the size of the crystallites. The optical measurements show a direct band gap between 2.07-2.49 eV depending on the applied potential.

Laidoudi, S.; Bioud, A. Y.; Azizi, A.; Schmerber, G.; Bartringer, J.; Barre, S.; Dinia, A.

2013-11-01

88

Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine-doped tin oxide by hot-wall epitaxy were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent ? , distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent H ) previously reported by Ferreira [Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from an intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with H??<1 at low temperatures to a super-rough regime with H??>1 at high temperatures was observed. The temperature is a growth parameter that controls both the interface roughness and dynamical scaling exponents. Nonlocal effects are pointed out as the factors ruling the anomalous scaling behavior.

Mata, Angélica S.; Ferreira, Silvio C., Jr.; Ribeiro, Igor R. B.; Ferreira, Sukarno O.

2008-09-01

89

Effect of the cathodic polarization on structural and morphological proprieties of FTO and ITO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals on the influence of the potentiodynamic stress on structural and morphological proprieties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, SnO2:F) and indium tin oxide (ITO, In2O3:Sn) commercial substrates. The potential range is between 0.0 and -2.0 (V/SCE) using an electrolyte with neutral pH. The electrochemical behavior was investigated from cyclic voltammetry technique and chronopotentiometric curves. These electrochemical results were associated to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and morphology images acquired by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main results show that structural and morphological properties of FTO substrates after cathodic polarization remain near constant when compared with ITO films. The ITO substrates show morphological changes after treatment and the XRD patterns indicate the formation of a crystalline structure with In metallic characteristic, at neutral pH.

Cid, C. C. Plá; Spada, E. R.; Sartorelli, M. L.

2013-05-01

90

Hierarchical growth of SnO2 nanostructured films on FTO substrates: structural defects induced by Sn(II) self-doping and their effects on optical and photoelectrochemical properties.  

PubMed

Direct hydrothermal growth of Sn(II)-doped SnO2 films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates results in the formation of upstanding SnO2 nanosheet arrays covered by hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers. The n-type semiconductor films show extended photoresponse in the visible spectrum arising from the coexistence of Sn(II) dopant ions and oxygen vacancies in these hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, which leads to a narrowed bandgap. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the emission in the UV, blue and red spectral ranges is related to the evolution of Sn(II) dopants and oxygen vacancies with annealing temperature, whereas oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for visible emission. The Sn(II)-doped SnO2 films show higher photocurrent when sensitized with narrow bandgap CdS nanoparticles, serving as efficient electron acceptors. PMID:24781385

Wang, Hongkang; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Yang, Haihua; He, Lifang; Hu, Chenyan; Teoh, Wey Yang; Rogach, Andrey L

2014-06-01

91

Hierarchical growth of SnO2 nanostructured films on FTO substrates: structural defects induced by Sn(ii) self-doping and their effects on optical and photoelectrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct hydrothermal growth of Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates results in the formation of upstanding SnO2 nanosheet arrays covered by hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers. The n-type semiconductor films show extended photoresponse in the visible spectrum arising from the coexistence of Sn(ii) dopant ions and oxygen vacancies in these hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, which leads to a narrowed bandgap. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the emission in the UV, blue and red spectral ranges is related to the evolution of Sn(ii) dopants and oxygen vacancies with annealing temperature, whereas oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for visible emission. The Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films show higher photocurrent when sensitized with narrow bandgap CdS nanoparticles, serving as efficient electron acceptors.Direct hydrothermal growth of Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates results in the formation of upstanding SnO2 nanosheet arrays covered by hierarchical SnO2 nanoflowers. The n-type semiconductor films show extended photoresponse in the visible spectrum arising from the coexistence of Sn(ii) dopant ions and oxygen vacancies in these hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures, which leads to a narrowed bandgap. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the emission in the UV, blue and red spectral ranges is related to the evolution of Sn(ii) dopants and oxygen vacancies with annealing temperature, whereas oxygen vacancies are mostly responsible for visible emission. The Sn(ii)-doped SnO2 films show higher photocurrent when sensitized with narrow bandgap CdS nanoparticles, serving as efficient electron acceptors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00672k

Wang, Hongkang; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Yang, Haihua; He, Lifang; Hu, Chenyan; Teoh, Wey Yang; Rogach, Andrey L.

2014-05-01

92

Effect of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the morphology and optical properties of Ti films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium films are deposited on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering process. Influences imposed by sputtering rate and substrate temperature on surface morphology and optical properties of the deposited Ti films are investigated. We observed that all the sputtered films exhibit uniform and compact surface morphology without peeling and cracking. Morphology of the films is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties of the films are investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphological studies indicate that by increasing the substrate temperature from room temperature to 250 °C and/or decreasing sputtering rate from 660 Å/min to 540 Å/min the surface roughness decreased from 73.4 to 31.0 nm and the grain size increases from 50.76 nm to 163.93 nm. An important effect of the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness and grain size is modification of the films optical properties. In fact, an enhancement of refractive index n for the Ti films deposited at high substrate temperature and/or high deposition rate is observed, that is attributed to reduction of RMS roughness. This effect is attributed to increment of fractional volume which leads to an increase in density of deposited film. Thus, by controlling the sputtering conditions one can reach to the desired morphological and optical properties.

Einollahzadeh-Samadi, M.; Dariani, R. S.

2013-09-01

93

An all low-temperature fabrication of macroporous, electrochemically addressable anatase thin films.  

PubMed

Macroporous TiO? (anatase) thin films are fabricated by an all low-temperature process in which substrates are dip-coated in suspensions of mixed anatase nanoparticles and polystyrene beads, and the templating agents are removed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at a temperature below 50 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy show that the templating polymer beads are removed by UV irradiation combined with the photocatalytic activity of TiO?. X-Ray diffraction reveals that nanoparticle growth is negligible in UV irradiated films, while nanoparticle size increases by almost 10 times in calcined films that are prepared for comparison. The macroporous films are prepared on FTO-(fluorine-doped tin oxide) coated glass and ITO (indium tin oxide) coated flexible plastics and thereby used as working electrodes. In both cases, the films are electrochemically addressable, and cyclic voltammetry is consistent with the response of bulk TiO? for calcined films and of nanoscale-TiO? for UV-irradiated films. PMID:24644269

Schröder, Michael; Sallard, Sébastien; Böhm, Matthias; Einert, Marcus; Suchomski, Christian; Smarsly, Bernd M; Mutisya, Stephen; Bertino, Massimo F

2014-04-24

94

Preparation of n-type semiconductor SnO2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied fluorine-doped tin oxide on a glass substrate at 350°C using an ultrasonic spray technique. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and NaOH were used as the starting material, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The SnO2 : F thin films were deposited at 350°C and a pending time of 60 and 90 s. The as-grown films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have (101) orientation. The G = 31.82 nm value of the grain size is attained from SnO2 : F film grown at 90 s, and the transmittance is greater than 80% in the visible region. The optical gap energy is found to measure 4.05 eV for the film prepared at 90 s, and the increase in the electrical conductivity of the film with the temperature of the sample is up to a maximum value of 265.58 (?·cm)-1, with the maximum activation energy value of the films being found to measure 22.85 meV, indicating that the films exhibit an n-type semiconducting nature.

Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

2013-08-01

95

Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The rigorous and systematized application of phenomenology to the study of film has been a comparatively late development\\u000a in film studies. Vivian Sobchack’s ground breaking book, The Address of the Eye: A Phenomenology of Film Experience (1992), has brought to light the relevance of maurice merleau-ponty’s existential phenomenology to major aesthetic and theoretical aspects of the film experience. In so

Elena del Río

96

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23

97

Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-CdSe thin films  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and selenourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configuration n-CdSe/1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2}S + S)/C is used for studying the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in dark, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark and under illumination, photovoltaic power output and spectral response characteristics of the as deposited films. Photoelectrochemical study shows that as deposited CdSe thin films exhibits n-type of conductivity. The spectral response characteristics of the films at room temperature show a prominent sharp peak at 725 nm. The measured values of efficiency ({eta}) and fill factor (FF) are found to be 0.50% and 0.44 respectively for film deposited at 300 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies show that the CdSe film deposited at 300 C shows better performance in PEC cell. (author)

Yadav, A.A.; Barote, M.A.; Masumdar, E.U. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India)

2010-05-15

98

Photoinduced charge transfer in ZnO/Cu(2)O heterostructure films studied by surface photovoltage technique.  

PubMed

ZnO/Cu(2)O heterostructure films were prepared by a two-step electrodeposition method in aqueous solution on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis transmission measurements were utilized to characterize the films. Surface photovoltage (SPV) technique was used to investigate the process of photoinduced charge transfer. The results show that there is an electric field located at the interface between ZnO and Cu(2)O film and the photoinduced electrons in Cu(2)O film inject into ZnO under the effect of interfacial electric field with visible light irradiation. While under ultraviolet light illumination, the photoinduced electrons in Cu(2)O film accumulate at the surface of Cu(2)O film instead of injecting into ZnO under the action of surface built-in electric field of Cu(2)O film. The work function measurements confirm that the direction of interfacial electric field is from ZnO to Cu(2)O. These results are help to future design of high performance heterostructure photovoltaic devices. PMID:20972495

Jiang, Tengfei; Xie, Tengfeng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Liping; Peng, Linlin; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Dejun

2010-12-21

99

Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film was obtained by annealing TiO{sub 2} film at 350?°C for 2?h with hydrogen, and TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film and pristine TiO{sub 2} film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO{sub 2} surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO{sub 2} to generate more photocurrent.

He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning-wang@uestc.edu.cn; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2013-12-07

100

Comparison of Electrochemical Luminescence Characteristics of Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared by Sputtering and Sol-Gel Combustion Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass by sputtering and sol-gel combustion (SGC) coating methods and investigated with respect to their electrochemical luminescence (ECL) performance. The sputtered TiO2 films were denser than the SGC-deposited films, while the SGC films were found to be superior in porosity to the sputtered films. The charge transfer resistance (R2) of the SGC (450 °C) TiO2-based cell was found to be lower than those of the sputtered TiO2-based cells. The SGC (450 °C) cell emitted a more intense ECL than the sputter (450 °C) cells. The threshold voltage at which the emission starts was 3.0 V for the SGC (450 °C) cell, which was lower than that (3.5 V) for the sputter (450 °C) cell. The efficiencies were 0.04 lm/W for the sputter (450 °C) cell (R2 = 22.3 ?, porosity= 27.2%) and 0.085 lm/W for the SGC (450 °C) cell (R2 = 12.8 ?, porosity= 65.8%). The SGC-deposited TiO2 films were found to be superior in ECL efficiency to the sputtered TiO2 films.

Park, Hee-Dae; Sung, Youl-Moon; Park, Min-Woo; Song, Jae-Eun

2013-05-01

101

Synthesis of cauliflower-like ZnO-TiO 2 composite porous film and photoelectrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of cauliflower-like TiO 2-ZnO composite porous films with various molar ratios of Zn/Ti were prepared by the screen printing technique on the fluorine-doped SnO 2 (FTO) conducting glasses. The composite films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and UV-vis transmittance spectrum. The results showed composite film electrode had a novel cauliflower-like morphology, which could effectively increase the dye absorption. The corresponding dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were made by the composite film, and effects of ZnO incorporation on the photovoltaic performances of the DSCs were studied. With the Zn/Ti molar ratio not more than 3% in ZnO-TiO 2 composite film of about 5 ?m-thickness, the photocurrent density ( Jsc) and the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency ( ?) were greatly improved compared with those of the DSC based on bare TiO 2 film of same thickness. This increases in efficiency and Jsc were attributed to high electron conductivity of ZnO, the improved dye adsorption and large light transmittance of composite film.

Jiang, Yinhua; Yan, Yun; Zhang, Wenli; Ni, Liang; Sun, Yueming; Yin, Hengbo

2011-05-01

102

Growth and characterization of pulse electrodeposited CuAlSe2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we have grown CuAlSe2 thin films on the fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrates by using Pulse electrodeposition technique. Thin films of CuAlSe2 were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl2, AlCl3 and SeO2 adjusted to pH=1.60. Ethylenediamine-di-hydrochloride was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant deposition potential of -650 mV using pulses of frequency 50 Hz.CuAlSe2 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) which indicate the good and reliable quality of the films. An interesting results of this work is that complexing agent plays an important role in reducing the grain size, thus all deposits were found to be in the range of 10-20 nm.

Singh, Joginder; Prasher, Dixit; Nigam, Kamlesh; Rajaram, P.

2013-06-01

103

Laser-assisted preparation and photoelectric properties of grating-structured Pt/FTO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the transparency and conductivity of commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, platinum (Pt) layers were deposited on the FTO film by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, followed by being irradiating with a 532 nm nanosecond pulsed laser for the dual purpose of inducing grating structures and annealing. Introducing a Pt layer decreased the average transmittance (400-800 nm) and the sheet resistance of the initial FTO film from 80.2% and 8.4 ?/sq to 68.6% and 7.9 ?/sq, respectively. The ideal grating-structured Pt/FTO film was obtained by laser irradiation with a fluence of 1.05 J/cm2, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that this film underwent optimal annealing. As a result, it exhibited an average transmittance (400-800 nm) of 84.1% and a sheet resistance of 6.8 ?/sq. These results indicated that laser-assisted treatment combined with introduction of metal layer can effectively improve photoelectric properties of FTO single-layer films.

Ren, Nai-fei; Huang, Li-jing; Li, Bao-jia; Zhou, Ming

2014-09-01

104

Electrochromic performance of sol-gel-deposited CeO2 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceria (CeO2) films were prepared by a sol-gel technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The coating solution was derived from cerium ammonium nitrate dissolved in ethanol with diethanolamine used as a complexing agent. Lithium intercalating properties of the films were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrochemical examinations were performed in a 0.5 M LiClO4 propylene carbonate electrolyte. The additional film characterizations were performed in X-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD of the films showed that they had an cerianite structure for heat treatment temperatures at or above 450 degree(s)C. The SEM examinations showed that the surface texture was uniform and homogeneous. CV examinations showed a reversible electrochemical insertion or extraction of Li+/e- ions maintaining a high optical transmissivity. Spectroelectrochemistry showed that these films can be used as optically passive counter-electrode in transmissive electrochromic devices.

Ozer, Nilgun; Cronin, John P.; Akyuz, Sevim

1999-10-01

105

Triton-X mediated interconnected nanowalls network of cadmium sulfide thin films via chemical bath deposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of cadmium sulfide (CdS) have been wet chemically deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by using non-ionic surfactant; Triton-X 100. An aqueous solution contains cadmium sulphate as a cadmium and thiourea as sulphur precursor. Ammonia used as a complexing agent. The results of measurements of the x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface areas and atomic force microscopy were used for the characterization of the films. These results revealed that the films are polycrystalline, consisting of CdS cubic phase. The films show a direct band gap with energy 2.39 eV. The films show interconnected nanowalls like morphology with well-defined surface area. Finally, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of Triton-X mediated CdS thin film samples were studied. The sample shows photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance with maximum short circuit current density (Jsc) 1.71 mA/cm2 for larger area (1 cm2) solar cells.

Vanalakar, S. A.; Mali, S. S.; Jo, E. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

2014-10-01

106

Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500 °C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH 4) 2WO 4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films. Doping concentrations were varied between 4 and 38%. The effect of TiO 2 doping concentration on structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films were studied. Values of room temperature electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and band gap energy ( Eg) were estimated. The films with 38% TiO 2 doping in WO 3 exhibited lowest resistivity, n-type electrical conductivity and improved electrochromic performance among all the samples. The values of thermoelectric power (TEP) were in the range of 23-56 ?V/K and the direct band gap energy varied between 2.72 and 2.86 eV.

Patil, P. S.; Mujawar, S. H.; Inamdar, A. I.; Shinde, P. S.; Deshmukh, H. P.; Sadale, S. B.

2005-12-01

107

Influence of the Electrodeposition Potential on the Co-Cu Alloys Thin Films Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-Cu alloy thin films were electrodeposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate from a sulfate solution at applied potentials ranging from -0.7 V to -1.3 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Voltammetric studies showed that the composition and, consequently, the potential dissolution of Co depend greatly on the applied potentials. The compositional measurement, which was made using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), demonstrated that the Co content of the films considerably increases as the applied potentials to tend toward negative values. The SEM study showed that a granular structure of the electrodeposited Co-Cu. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that all peaks of the Co-Cu films were consistent with those of a typical Co hcp and Co-fcc mixed phase and Cu-fcc phase at low potential. The increase of the applied potential induces a decrease in the grain size and the lattice constant. The magnetic hysteresis measurements carried out by an alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM) revealed the existence of a ferromagnetic behavior with an in-plane easy magnetization axis for the film deposited at -1.1 V versus SCE. However, for applied potentials of -1.2 V and -1.3 V, we observe the coexistence of a dominant in-plane easy magnetization along with a perpendicular one.

Mentar, L.; Khelladi, M. R.; Beniaiche, A.; Azizi, A.

2013-02-01

108

On the influence of DC electric fields on the aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition growth of photoactive titanium dioxide thin films.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate from the electric field assisted aerosol chemical vapor deposition (EACVD) reaction of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP, Ti(OC3H7)4) in toluene on glass substrates at a temperature of 450 °C. DC electric fields were generated by applying a potential difference between the electrodes of the transparent coated oxide coated glass substrates during the deposition. The deposited films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photoactivity and hydrophilicity of the deposited films were also analyzed using a dye-ink test and water-contact angle measurements. The characterization work revealed that the incorporation of DC electric fields produced significant reproducible changes in the film microstructure, preferred crystallographic orientation, roughness, and film thickness. Photocatalytic activity was calculated from the half-time (t1/2) or time taken to degrade 50% of the initial resazurin dye concentration. A large improvement in photocatalytic activity was observed for films deposited using an electric field with a strong orientation in the (004) direction (t1/2 17 min) as compared to a film deposited with no electric field (t1/2 40 min). PMID:24160408

Romero, Luz; Binions, Russell

2013-11-01

109

Growth of nanosheet array and nanosheet microsphere CuInS2 thin films on transparent conducting substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CuInS2 (CIS) thin films with controllable nanostructures were directly synthesized on transparent conductive fluorine- doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates through a solvothermal process, using the precursors of copper (II) chloride dihydrate, indium (III) nitrate, thiourea, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), oxalic acid, and ethanol. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and optical properties of the CIS thin films were then investigated. The results indicate that CIS thin films with two types of "nanosheet arrays and nanosheet microspheres" can be synthesized by controlling the deposition process parameters. The nanosheets are well-crystallized single crystals with chalcopyrite structures. They exhibit strong absorption in the UV-visible light region and a band gap of 1.51 eV, rendering them suitable for application as the absorber layer of a thin film solar cell. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that differences in nucleation and growth mechanism lead to CIS films with various nanostructures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Zhuang, Mixue; Wei, Aixiang; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Zhiqiang

2014-11-01

110

Luminescence and electrical properties of solution-processed ZnO thin films by adding fluorides and annealing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Systematic study of the fluorides doped solution-processed ZnO thin films via the luminescence and electrical behaviors. {yields} Defect-related visible emission bands are affected by annealing ambient and fluoride addition. {yields} Adding lithium fluoride followed by annealing in oxygen ambient leads to a controlled defect density with proper TFT performance. -- Abstract: To develop an efficient channel layer for thin film transistors (TFTs), understanding the defect-related luminescence and electrical property is crucial for solution-processed ZnO thin films. Film growth with the fluorides addition, especially using LiF, followed by the oxygen ambient post-annealing leads to decreased defect-related emission as well as enhanced switching property. The saturation mobility and current on/off ratio are 0.31 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and 1.04 x 10{sup 3}. Consequently, we can visualize an optimized process condition and characterization method for solution-processed TFT based on the fluorine-doped ZnO film channel layer by considering the overall emission behavior.

Choi, Sungho, E-mail: shochoi@krict.re.kr [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yoon [Chemical and Electronic Materials Division, LG Electronics, Hyangjeong-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical and Electronic Materials Division, LG Electronics, Hyangjeong-dong, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ha-Kyun [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

111

Deposition of F-doped ZnO transparent thin films using ZnF2-doped ZnO target under different sputtering substrate temperatures  

PubMed Central

Highly transparent and conducting fluorine-doped ZnO (FZO) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, using 1.5 wt% zinc fluoride (ZnF2)-doped ZnO as sputtering target. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of the FZO thin films were investigated as a function of substrate temperature ranging from room temperature (RT) to 300°C. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the FZO thin films were of polycrystalline nature with a preferential growth along (002) plane perpendicular to the surface of the glass substrate. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of the FZO thin films showed that there was incorporation of F atoms in the FZO thin films, even if the substrate temperature was 300°C. Finally, the effect of substrate temperature on the transmittance ratio, optical energy gap, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of the FZO thin films was also investigated. PMID:24572004

2014-01-01

112

Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.  

PubMed

A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes. PMID:21430326

Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

2011-05-13

113

Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency of TiO2 Thin Films Modified with Ta2O5 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tantalum-doped TiO2 thin films [(TiO2)1-x(Ta2O5)x, x=0-0.8%] were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated substrates by sol-gel technology for uses in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of Ta content on the growth and properties of the TiO2 thin films were investigated. The crystallization and microstructures of the thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses. The performance of DSSCs based on Ta-doped TiO2 thin films was also studied. From the obtained results, the increases in Jsc and Voc may be due to the increased electron concentration of TiO2 thin film and the flat-band potential of the TiO2 shifted by tantalum doping, respectively. The optimum properties of DSSCs of Voc=0.68 V, Jsc=7.84 mA/cm2, FF=45.1%, and ?=2.4% were obtained using the Ta-doped TiO2 thin film with x=0.5%.

Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hone-Zern; Young, San-Lin

2013-01-01

114

Spray pyrolysis deposition and photoelectrochemical properties of n-type BiOI nanoplatelet thin films.  

PubMed

Bismuth oxy-iodide is a potentially interesting visible-light-active photocatalyst; yet there is little research regarding its photoelectrochemical properties. Herein we report the synthesis of BiOI nanoplatelet photoelectrodes by spray pyrolysis on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates at various temperatures. The films exhibited n-type conductivity, most likely due to the presence of anion vacancies, and optimized films possessed incident photon conversion efficiencies of over 20% in the visible range for the oxidation of I(-) to I(3)(-) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl in acetonitrile. Visible-light photons (? > 420 nm) contributed approximately 75% of the overall photocurrent under AM1.5G illumination, illustrating their usefulness under solar light illumination. A deposition temperature of 260 °C was found to result in the best performance due to the balance of morphology, crystallinity, impurity levels, and optical absorption, leading to photocurrents of roughly 0.9 mA/cm(2) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Although the films performed stably in acetonitrile, their performance decreased significantly upon extended exposure to water, which was apparently caused by a loss of surface iodine and subsequent formation of an insulating bismuth hydroxide layer. PMID:22891667

Hahn, Nathan T; Hoang, Son; Self, Jeffrey L; Mullins, C Buddie

2012-09-25

115

An efficient and transparent copper sulfide nanosheet film counter electrode for bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper sulfide (CuS) with nanosheet structure has been synthesized at a low temperature in situ on copper (Cu) film coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were herein developed by using these CuS as counter electrodes (CEs). CuS is an environmental compatible and low toxic material. The obtained two-dimensional CuS nanosheet film presents high carrier mobility and exhibits highly catalytic performance for the polysulfide-based electrolyte. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65% by optimizing the thickness of the Cu film under front illumination. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE prepared with a 200 nm thick Cu film shows a very close PCE under front and rear illuminations in which the values are as high as 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively. All the PCEs of the CuS CEs are much higher than that of the Pt CE (1.34%).

Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Lei, Hongwei; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xingzhong

2014-02-01

116

Langmuir-Blodgett films of self-assembled (alkylether-derivatized Zn phthalocyanine)-(C?? imidazole adduct) dyad with controlled intermolecular distance for photoelectrochemical studies.  

PubMed

A multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the self-assembled electron donor-acceptor dyad of Zn phthalocyanine, appended with four long-chain aliphatic ether peripheral substituents, and an imidazole adduct of C60 was prepared and applied as a photoactive material in a photoelectrochemical cell. Changes in the simultaneously recorded surface pressure and surface potential vs area per molecule compression isotherms for Langmuir films of the dyad and, separately, of its components helped to identify phase transitions and mutual interactions of molecules in films. The Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of the Langmuir films showed circular condensed phase domains of the dyad molecules. The determined area per molecule was lower than that estimated for the dyad and its components, separately. The multilayer LB films of the dyad were transferred onto hydrophobized fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated (FTO) glass slides under different conditions. The presence of both components in the dyad LB films was confirmed with the UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. For the LB films transferred at different surface pressures, the PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the phthalocyanine macrocycle planes and ether moieties in films were tilted with respect to the FTO surface. The AFM imaging of the LB films indicated formation of relatively uniform dyad LB films. Then, the femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies evidenced photoinduced electron transfer in the LB film. The obtained transient signals corresponding to both Zn(TPPE)(•+) and C60im(•-) confirmed the occurrence of intramolecular electron transfer. The determined rate constants of charge separation, kcs = 2.6 × 10(11) s(-1), and charge recombination, kcr = 9.7 × 10(9) s(-1), indicated quite efficient electron transfer within the film. In the photoelectrochemical studies, either photoanodic or photocathodic current was generated depending on the applied bias potential when the dyad LB film-coated FTO was used as the working electrode and ascorbic acid or methylviologen, respectively, as the charge mediator in an aqueous solution. PMID:24785360

Obraztsov, Ievgen; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Hart, Aaron; Gobeze, Habtom B; Kc, Chandra B; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis

2014-06-11

117

Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.  

PubMed

New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (<20 nm) and exhibited nanoporous and homogeneous morphology. The electronic and optical properties of the films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ? = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ?2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications. PMID:25216058

Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

2014-10-01

118

Fabrication of ZnFe2O4 films and its application in photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

ZnFe2O4 thin films are successfully deposited onto bare and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated quartz substrate using the spray pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of ZnFe2O4 photoelectrodes were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the polycrystalline nature of films with a spinel cubic crystal structure. The AFM micrographs shows the granular nature of the films. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss shows dispersion behavior as a function of frequency measured in the range from 20Hz to 1MHz. Photoelectrocatalysis degradation of salicylic acid using ZnFe2O4 photoelectrode under sunlight illumination has been investigated. The result shows that the degradation percentage of salicylic acid on ZnFe2O4 photoelectrodes is reached 49% under neutral conditions after 320min illumination. The decrease in values of COD from 19.4mg/L to 6.4mg/L indicates there is mineralization of salicylic acid with time. PMID:25528302

Kumbhar, S S; Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

2015-01-01

119

Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO{sub 3} thin films for electrochromic devices  

SciTech Connect

The n-type tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250 deg. C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15 ml/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied. Mott-Schottky (M-S) studies of WO{sub 3}/FTO electrodes were conducted in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution to identify their nature and extract semiconductor parameters. The electrochromic properties of the as-deposited and lithiated WO{sub 3}/FTO thin films were analyzed by employing them as working electrodes in three electrode electrochemical cell using an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) solution.

Sivakumar, R.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.; Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M.; Trivedi, D.C.; Sanjeeviraja, C

2004-08-03

120

TiO2 paste formulation for crack-free mesoporous nanocrystalline film of dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Using a doctor-blade method, a highly viscous titanium dioxide (TiO2) paste was deposited on a glass substrate coated with fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). The paste was mainly composed of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as organic filler. Varying the content of HPC in the TiO2 paste changed the physical properties of the mesoporous TiO2 layer, particularly its porosity and surface area. From the quantification of dyes on Ti2, layer and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the surface area of the TiO2 film was found to have decreased. This came with the increase of HPC content while the porosity of the film increased, consistent with the concurrent decrease of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and efficiency (eta). The increased porosity greatly affected the electron transport through the TiO2 film by decreasing the coordination number of the TiO2 particles resulting to a decrease of the electron diffusion coefficient. PMID:22966572

Sarker, Subrata; Nath, Narayan Chandra Deb; Rahman, M Mahbubur; Lim, Sung-Su; Ahammad, A J Saleh; Choi, Won-Youl; Lee, Jae-Joon

2012-07-01

121

Performance and stability studies of inverted polymer solar cells with TiO2 film as a buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag presented excellent air stabilities,; the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices exhibited only 15 % decay as compared to the highest value while being exposed in air-condition for more than 20 days. Interestingly, an overall enhancement of PCE from 3.5 % to 3.9 % was observed while the PSCs were exposed in air-condition up to 3 days; the improvement of performance was attributed to the TiO2 films' oxygen and water protection effect and the oxidation of Ag, which will benefit to form an effective work function match with the HOMO of P3HT leading to improved ohmic contact. However, the performance slowly decreased when the exposure time remains longer due to the physical adsorbed oxygen. UV-ozone treatment on the TiO2 films' leads to the formation of a metal-deficient oxide that results in a decreased PCE for the devices. Finally, X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the compositional changes of the TiO2 films while they were exposed in air-condition or treated by UV-ozone.

Peng, Ruixiang; Yang, Feng; Ouyang, Xinhua; Liu, Ying; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ge, Ziyi

2014-02-01

122

Photovoltaic effect of TiO2 thick films with an ultrathin BiFeO3 as buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic (PV) effect of a bilayer anatase TiO2/BiFeO3 (BFO) film has been studied. The 20-nm ultrathin BFO layers were deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the chemical solution deposition method. An anatase TiO2 layer is deposited subsequently on the BFO surface via a screen-printing technique. It is found that the FTO/TiO2/Au cell exhibits negligible PV effect under solar exposure, while the one after introducing an ultrathin BFO film between TiO2 and FTO leads to a considerable PV effect with an open-circuit voltage of -0.58 V and a photocurrent density of 18.27 µA/cm2. The FTO/BiVO4 (BVO)/TiO2/Au cell was constructed to investigate the underlying mechanism for the observed effect. A negligible PV effect of the FTO/BVO/TiO2/Au cell indicates that the PV effect of the FTO/BFO/TiO2/Au cell arises mainly from a built-in electric field in the BFO film induced by the self-polarization. Our work opens up a new path to utilize TiO2 and may influence the future design of solar cells.

Wu, Fen; Song, Linyu; Guo, Yiping; Jin, Song; Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Duan, Huanan; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou; Kang, Hongmei

2014-06-01

123

Investigation of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), cyclic voltammetric analyses of WO3 films and their electrochromic response in FTO/WO3/electrolyte/FTO cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide (WO3) were prepared on transparent conducting oxide substrates, i.e., fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO or SnO2:F) glass and microscopic glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique using pure WO3 (99.99%) pellets at various substrate temperatures (i.e., Tsub = room temperature (RT, 30 °C), 100 °C and 200 °C). The films were prepared under vacuum of the order of 1 × 10-5 mbar. The room temperature prepared films were further post-heat-treated (Tanne) at 200 and 300 °C for about 1 h in the vacuum environment. The prepared films are in monoclinic phase. The chemical composition has been characterized by using the XPS technique. The W 4f and O 1s core levels of WO3 films have been studied on the samples. The obtained core level binding energies revealed the WO3 films contained six-valent tungsten (W6+). The electrochemical nature of the films was studied by a three-electrode electrochemical cell in the configuration of FTO/WO3/H2SO4/Pt, SCE, using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) of the general type FTO/WO3/electrolyte/FTO were studied. The films produced at higher substrate temperature show smaller modulation of the visible spectrum, compared with the films produced at lower temperatures. The significant chemical bonding nature associated with the coloring/bleaching process which follows the H+ ion incorporation in the film is studied by FTIR analysis. The W-O-W framework peak was observed at 563 cm-1 and confirms the stability of the films in the electrochemical analysis. The results obtained from cyclic voltammetry technique and ECD cell characterization are used to emphasize the suitability for some applications of the solar control systems.

Sivakumar, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Jayachandran, M.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

2006-06-01

124

Surfactant-mediated growth of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films via electrodeposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from an aqueous zinc acetate solution onto fluorine-doped thin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The effect of organic surfactants like polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on their structural, morphological, optical and photoelectrochemical properties was studied. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of phase-pure ZnO thin films. The films deposited using organic surfactants exhibit different surface morphologies. It was observed that the organic surfactants play important roles in modifying the surface morphology and size of the crystallites. A compact granular morphology was observed for the ZnO samples grown without organic surfactants. The films exhibit nanoparticles of size 100-150 nm for PVP, EG and PVA mediated growth. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites stem from the SDS, whereas microporous corrugated morphology is observed for PEG-mediated growth. All the samples exhibit room temperature photoluminescence (PL). Oxygen vacancies contribute to the active luminescent centers for the emission of green light in ZnO thin films. PL gets quenched for the SDS surfactant. All the samples were post-treated with ethanol to remove stray surfactant molecules. FTIR study was used to confirm the removal of adsorbed surfactant molecules from the samples. Moreover the samples are photoelectrochemically (PEC) active and exhibit the highest photocurrent of 231 µA, a photovoltage of 492 mV and 0.42 fill factor for the ZnO:SDS films.

Inamdar, A. I.; Mujawar, S. H.; Ganesan, V.; Patil, P. S.

2008-08-01

125

Electrochemical growth and studies of CuInSe2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of CuInSe2 were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (<10 ?/?) coated glass using the electrodeposition technique. The electrodeposition was carried out potentiostatically using an aqueous bath consisting of solutions of CuCl2, InCl3 and SeO2 with ethylenediamine-dihydrochloride (EDC) added for complexation. CuInSe2 films were also deposited without using any complexing agent in the bath. To improve the crystallinity the CuInSe2 films were annealed in vaccum at 300 °C for one hour. The annealed films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical spectra. The results obtained in this work show that by adding a suitable complexing agent to the electrochemical bath, nanocrystalline CuInSe2, 20 nm to 30 nm in size, can be grown. The composition of the CuInSe2 films can be controlled by means of the bath composition and stoichiometric films can be obtained for a bath with ionic Cu:In:Se composition close to 1:4:2. AFM micrographs show that the particles are generally oval shaped for near stoichiometric compositions. However for extreme copper rich layers, the morphology is completely different, the particles in this case appearing in the form of nanoflakes. Each flake has a thickness in the nano range, but the surface extends to a length of several microns.

Prasher, Dixit; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, Poolla

2014-04-01

126

CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting  

PubMed Central

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm?2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

2012-01-01

127

Effect of Fluorine Content on the Morphological, Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanostructured SnO2 Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports morphological and structural details, optical and electrical properties of fluorine doped SnO2 thin films prepared via spray pyrolysis route using SnCl2·2H2O as precursor and methanol as a solvent. The effect of fluorine concentration on the properties of the films is presented and discussed. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the presence of SnO2 films in the rutile structure with a preferential growth along the (200) direction. FTIR spectrum confirms the films to be made of SnO2. EDS was used to estimate the fluorine concentration. SEM reveals the surface of FTO to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The grain size calculated using Debye-Scherrer formula is in the range of 8-34 nm. Film thickness measured using optical transmission method is in the range of 425-538 nm. The sheet resistance was found to decrease with increase in fluorine concentration, to a minimum of 6.35 ?/? for 7.5 mol% of NH4F, and it showed an increase beyond this concentration. The 2.5 mol% of F doped films gave 95.20% transmission at 704 nm. The calculated reflectivity in the IR region is 93.57% for 7.5 mol% of F doping, and figure of merit for the same film is 0.025(?/?)-1 at 550 nm. The total work was optimized by fixing the temperature at 550°C for the usage of Electrochromic Device preparations on FTO coated glass substrates.

Purushothaman, K. K.; Dhanasankar, M.; Muralidharan, G.

128

TiO2 Coating for SnO2:F Films Produced by Filtered Cathodic Arc Evaporation for Improved Resistance to H+ Radical Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by filtered cathodic arc evaporation (FCAE) from a Ti target in an oxygen atmosphere onto (a) fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates SnO2:F (FTO) and (b) glass microscope slides. The growth rate calculated from film thickness profilometry measurements was found to be approximately 0.8 nm/s. The films were highly transparent to visible light. x-Ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis of the Ti 2p electron binding- energy shift confirmed the presence of a TiO2 stoichiometric compound. The results for the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of the films deposited onto FTO substrates evaluated by atomic force microscopy suggested nanostructured film surfaces. When exposed to hydrogen plasma, TiO2 films revealed insignificant changes in the optical spectra. The initial sheet resistance of the SnO2:F layer was 14 ?/sq. The deposition of the top TiO2 layer (45 nm thick) over the FTO electrode resulted in an increase of the sheet resistance of 2 ?/sq. In addition, the sheet resistance of the double-layer FTO/TiO2 transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrode increased by 1 ?/sq as a result of H+ plasma exposure. Regardless of the TiO2 film's low conductivity, a thin protective layer could be coated onto FTO films (presumably 15 nm thick) due to their high transparency, offering high resistance to aggressive H+ plasma conditions. In this paper we show that ˜50-nm-thick TiO2 coating on FTO films provides sufficient protection against deterioration of transparency and conductivity due to hydrogen radical exposure.

Ristova, M. M.; Gligorova, A.; Nasov, I.; Gracin, D.; Milun, M.; Kostadinova-Boskova, H.; Popeski-Dimovski, R.

2012-11-01

129

Enhancing light trapping properties of thin film solar cells by plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The preparation of thin film silicon solar cells containing Ag nanoparticles is reported in this article. Ag nanoparticles were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by the evaporation and condensation method. a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on these substrates by cluster type plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We discuss the double textured surface effect with respect to both the surface morphology of the substrate and the plasmonic effect of the Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles of various sizes from 10 to 100 nm were deposited. The haze values of the Ag embedded samples increased with increasing particle size whereas the optical transmittance decreased at the same conditions. The solar cell with the 30 nm size Ag nanoparticles showed a short circuit current density of 12.97 mA/cm2, which is 0.53 mA/cm2 higher than that of the reference solar cell without Ag nanoparticles, and the highest quantum efficiency for wavelengths from 550 to 800 nm. When 30 nm size nanoparticles were employed, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was increased from 6.195% to 6.696%. This study reports the application of the scattering effect of Ag nanoparticles for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells. PMID:24266153

Jung, Junhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Cho, Jaehyun; Ahn, Shihyun; Park, Hyeongsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Choi, Mansoo; Yi, Junsin

2013-12-01

130

Picosecond-laser structuring of amorphous-silicon thin-film solar modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scribing with nanosecond (ns) diode pumped solid-state laser sources is the industry standard in the fabrication of silicon-based thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) modules. Reducing the interconnection area is one of the on-going challenges for the next generation of TFPV modules. In this regard, replacing ns laser sources by picosecond (ps) laser sources is one of the logical steps. Ps-laser pulses reduce the heat-affected zones compared to ns pulses, and thus enable a reduction of the interconnection zone. This work describes the substrate-side ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and a-Si:H with an aluminum layer on top, using a 10-ps laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The investigation of single-pulse ablation and trench scribing demonstrates that the complete monolithic interconnection can be achieved at the fundamental wavelength. In addition, the evaluation of the ablation efficiency shows that the best trench quality is achieved at the efficiency maximum.

Canteli, D.; Torres, I.; Domke, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Cárabe, J.; Gandía, J. J.; Heise, G.; Huber, H. P.

2013-09-01

131

Solvothermal preparation of an electrocatalytic metalloporphyrin MOF thin film and its redox hopping charge-transfer mechanism.  

PubMed

A thin film of a metalloporphyrin metal-organic framework consisting of [5,10,15,20-(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin]Co(III) (CoTCPP) struts bound by linear trinuclear Co(II)-carboxylate clusters has been prepared solvothermally on conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates. Characterization of this mesoporous thin film material, designated as CoPIZA/FTO, which is equipped with large cavities and access to metal active sites, reveals an electrochemically active material. Cyclic voltammetry displays a reversible peak with E(1/2) at -1.04 V vs ferrocyanide attributed to the (Co(III/II)TCPP)CoPIZA redox couple and a quasi-reversible peak at -1.45 V vs ferrocyanide, which corresponds to the reduction of (Co(II/I)TCPP)CoPIZA. Analysis of the spectroelectrochemical response for the (Co(II/I)TCPP)CoPIZA redox couple revealed non-Nernstian reduction with a nonideality factor of 2 and an E(1/2) of -1.39 V vs ferrocyanide. The film was shown to retain its structural integrity with applied potential, as was demonstrated spectroelectrochemically with maintenance of isosbestic points at 430, 458, and 544 nm corresponding to the (Co(III/II)TCPP)CoPIZA transition and at 390 and 449 nm corresponding to the (Co(II/I)TCPP)CoPIZA transition. The mechanism of charge transport through the film is proposed to be a redox hopping mechanism, which is supported by both cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry. A fit of the time-dependent spectroelectrochemical data to a modified Cottrell equation gave an apparent diffusion coefficient of 7.55 (±0.05) × 10(-14) cm(2)/s for ambipolar electron and cation transport throughout the film. Upon reduction of the metalloporphyrin struts to (Co(I)TCPP)CoPIZA, the CoPIZA thin film demonstrated catalytic activity for the reduction of carbon tetrachloride. PMID:24437480

Ahrenholtz, Spencer R; Epley, Charity C; Morris, Amanda J

2014-02-12

132

All-nanoparticle self-assembly ZnO/TiO? heterojunction thin films with remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical activity.  

PubMed

The multilaminated ZnO/TiO2 heterojunction films were successfully deposited on conductive substrates including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and flexible indium tin oxide coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) via the layer-by-layer (LBL) self assembly method from the oxide colloids without using any polyelectrolytes. The positively charged ZnO nanoparticles and the negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles were directly used as the components in the consecutive deposition process to prepare the heterojunction thin films by varying the thicknesses. Moreover, the crystal growth of both oxides could be efficiently inhibited by the good connection between ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles even after calcination at 500 °C, especially for ZnO which was able to keep the crystallite size under 25 nm. The as-prepared films were used as the working electrodes in the three-electrode photoelectrochemical cells. Because the well-contacted nanoscale heterojunctions were formed during the LBL self-assembling process, the ZnO/TiO2 all-nanoparticle films deposited on both substrates showed remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical properties compared to that of the well-established TiO2 LBL thin films with similar thicknesses. The photocurrent response collected from the ZnO/TiO2 electrode on the FTO glass substrate was about five times higher than that collected from the TiO2 electrode. Owing to the absence of the insulating layer of dried polyelectrolytes, the ZnO/TiO2 all-nanoparticle heterojunction films were expected to be used in the photoelectrochemical device before calcination. PMID:24670479

Yuan, Sujun; Mu, Jiuke; Mao, Ruiyi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

2014-04-23

133

Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on V2O5 xerogel film for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation stability  

SciTech Connect

V2O5 xerogel films were fabricated by casting V2O5 sols onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates at room temperature. Five, ten and twenty atomic layers of Al2O3 were grown onto as-fabricated films respectively. The bare film and Al2O3-deposited films all exhibited hydrous V2O5 phase only. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed increased surface charge-transfer resistance of V2O5 films as more Al2O3 atomic layers were deposited. Lithium-ion intercalation tests at 600 mAg_1 showed that bare V2O5 xerogel film possessed high initial discharge capacity of 219 mAhg_1 but suffered from severe capacity degradation, i.e., having only 136 mAhg_1 after 50 cycles. After deposition of ten atomic layers of Al2O3, the initial discharge capacity was 195 mAhg_1 but increased over cycles before stabilizing; after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity was as high as 225 mAhg_1. The noticeably improved cyclic stability of Al2O3-deposited V2O5 xerogel film could be attributed to the improved surface chemistry and enhanced mechanical strength. During repeated lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation, atomic layers of Al2O3 which were coated onto V2O5 surface could prevent V2O5 electrode dissolution into electrolyte by reducing direct contact between active electrode and electrolyte while at the same time acting as binder to maintain good mechanical contact between nanoparticles inside the film. VC 2012 American Vacuum Society.

Liu, Dawei; Liu, Yanyi; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha

2012-01-29

134

Direct measurement of the upper critical field in cuprate superconductors  

PubMed Central

In the quest to increase the critical temperature Tc of cuprate superconductors, it is essential to identify the factors that limit the strength of superconductivity. The upper critical field Hc2 is a fundamental measure of that strength, yet there is no agreement on its magnitude and doping dependence in cuprate superconductors. Here we show that the thermal conductivity can be used to directly detect Hc2 in the cuprates YBa2Cu3Oy, YBa2Cu4O8 and Tl2Ba2CuO6+?, allowing us to map out Hc2 across the doping phase diagram. It exhibits two peaks, each located at a critical point where the Fermi surface of YBa2Cu3Oy is known to undergo a transformation. Below the higher critical point, the condensation energy, obtained directly from Hc2, suffers a sudden 20-fold collapse. This reveals that phase competition—associated with Fermi-surface reconstruction and charge-density-wave order—is a key limiting factor in the superconductivity of cuprates. PMID:24518054

Grissonnanche, G.; Cyr-Choinière, O.; Laliberté, F.; René de Cotret, S.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Dufour-Beauséjour, S.; Delage, M. -È.; LeBoeuf, D.; Chang, J.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Adachi, S.; Hussey, N. E.; Vignolle, B.; Proust, C.; Sutherland, M.; Krämer, S.; Park, J. -H.; Graf, D.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

2014-01-01

135

Dissipation mechanisms in polycrystalline YBCO prepared by sintering of ball-milled precursor powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoresistivity (?(T,H)) measurements of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) and YBa2Cu3Oy embedded with nanoparticles of Y-deficient Y-123, generated by the planetary ball milling, have been compared and analyzed by the Ambegaokar and Halperin phase slip model (AH) and thermally activated flux creep (TAFC). Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granular structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), were carried out. SEM analyses show that nanoparticles of Y-deficient Y-123, generated by ball milling, are embedded in the superconducting matrix. The broadening of the resistive transition under magnetic field is found to possess two distinct regions, which suggests that dissipation phenomenon in milled and unmilled samples is caused by two mechanisms: the order parameter fluctuations and the vortex-dynamics separated by a crossover temperature T. The critical current Jc(0) at zero temperature in the grain boundaries decreases as a power law, H, which is an indication of the sensitivity of a single junction between the superconducting grains to the applied magnetic field. Jc(0) of the milled material is higher than the one of the unmilled and the activation energies of vortex flux motion U(H) behavior in the applied magnetic field is enhanced by the presence of the nanoparticles embedded in the matrix.

Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Slimani, Y.; Hamrita, A.; Zouaoui, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Ben Salem, M.

2013-12-01

136

Electron pockets in the Fermi surface of hole-doped high-Tc superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides occurs when the materials are chemically tuned to have a carrier concentration intermediate between their metallic state at high doping and their insulating state at zero doping. The underlying evolution of the electron system in the absence of superconductivity is still unclear, and a question of central importance is whether it involves any intermediate phase with broken symmetry. The Fermi surface of the electronic states in the underdoped `YBCO' materials YBa2Cu3Oy and YBa2Cu4O8 was recently shown to include small pockets, in contrast with the large cylinder that characterizes the overdoped regime, pointing to a topological change in the Fermi surface. Here we report the observation of a negative Hall resistance in the magnetic-field-induced normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy and YBa2Cu4O8, which reveals that these pockets are electron-like rather than hole-like. We propose that these electron pockets most probably arise from a reconstruction of the Fermi surface caused by the onset of a density-wave phase, as is thought to occur in the electron-doped copper oxides near the onset of antiferromagnetic order. Comparison with materials of the La2CuO4 family that exhibit spin/charge density-wave order suggests that a Fermi surface reconstruction also occurs in those materials, pointing to a generic property of high-transition-temperature (Tc) superconductors.

Leboeuf, David; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Levallois, Julien; Daou, R.; Bonnemaison, J.-B.; Hussey, N. E.; Balicas, L.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Adachi, S.; Proust, Cyril; Taillefer, Louis

2007-11-01

137

Pulsing frequency induced change in optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of WO3 films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present the pulsing frequency induced change in the structural, optical, vibrational, and luminescence properties of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films deposited on microscopic glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) coated glass substrates by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering technique. The WO3 films deposited on SnO2:F substrate belongs to monoclinic phase. The pulsing frequency has a significant influence on the preferred orientation and crystallinity of WO3 film. The maximum optical transmittance of 85% was observed for the film and the slight shift in transmission threshold towards higher wavelength region with increasing pulsing frequency revealed the systematic reduction in optical energy band gap (3.78 to 3.13 eV) of the films. The refractive index (n) of films are found to decrease (1.832 to 1.333 at 550 nm) with increasing pulsing frequency and the average value of extinction coefficient (k) is in the order of 10-3. It was observed that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-Didomenico model, from which the dispersion energy (Ed) parameters, dielectric constants, plasma frequency, oscillator strength, and oscillator energy (Eo) of WO3 films were calculated and reported for the first time due to variation in pulsing frequency during deposition by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The Eo is change between 6.30 and 3.88 eV, while the Ed varies from 25.81 to 7.88 eV, with pulsing frequency. The Raman peak observed at 1095 cm-1 attributes the presence of W-O symmetric stretching vibration. The slight shift in photoluminescence band is attributed to the difference in excitons transition. We have made an attempt to discuss and correlate these results with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena.

Punitha, K.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

2014-03-01

138

Energy and charge transfers between (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (N719) and ZnO thin films  

SciTech Connect

ZnO thin films and (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (called N719) sensitized ZnO thin films are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet-visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and Raman scattering are employed to probe into the transition process of photogenerated charges and the interaction between ZnO and N719. The experimental results indicate that there is a significant electronic interaction between N719 and ZnO through chemiadsorption. The interaction greatly enhances the photogenerated charge separation and thus the photovoltaic response of the ZnO film but remarkedly weakens its radiative recombination, i.e., PL, implying strong energy and charge transfer occurring between N719 and ZnO. In addition, a new PL peak observed at about 720 nm in N719 sensitized ZnO/FTO is attributed to the electron-hole recombination of N719.

Ni Manman; Cheng Qiang; Zhang, W. F. [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)

2010-03-15

139

Fast Classification of Meat Spoilage Markers Using Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films and Unsupervised Feature Learning  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates a rapid and accurate detection system for spoilage in meat. We use unsupervised feature learning techniques (stacked restricted Boltzmann machines and auto-encoders) that consider only the transient response from undoped zinc oxide, manganese-doped zinc oxide, and fluorine-doped zinc oxide in order to classify three categories: the type of thin film that is used, the type of gas, and the approximate ppm-level of the gas. These models mainly offer the advantage that features are learned from data instead of being hand-designed. We compare our results to a feature-based approach using samples with various ppm level of ethanol and trimethylamine (TMA) that are good markers for meat spoilage. The result is that deep networks give a better and faster classification than the feature-based approach, and we thus conclude that the fine-tuning of our deep models are more efficient for this kind of multi-label classification task. PMID:23353140

Längkvist, Martin; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2013-01-01

140

Effects of Thickness and Annealing on Optoelectronic Properties of Electrodeposited ZnS Thin Films for Photonic Device Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin layers of ZnS with thicknesses of 400 nm, 500 nm, and 700 nm have been electrodeposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a simple two-electrode setup under similar conditions. Structural characterization of the layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that they were amorphous. The results of optical characterization carried out in the wavelength range of 315 nm to 800 nm using spectrophotometry revealed that the optical properties of the layers are strongly influenced by the film thickness as well as annealing conditions. The values of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant obtained from normal-incidence transmittance spectra were generally lower after annealing, showing also the influence of postdeposition annealing on the deposited ZnS layers. Electrical characterization of the layers, using direct-current current-voltage measurement under dark conditions at room temperature, shows that the resistivity of the as-deposited and annealed layers is in the range of 1.4 × 104 ? cm to 2.5 × 104 ? cm and 2.5 × 104 ? cm to 3.1 × 104 ? cm, respectively. The results suggest that the optoelectronic properties can be tuned for particular applications by adjusting the thickness of the layers appropriately.

Echendu, O. K.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

2013-12-01

141

Fast classification of meat spoilage markers using nanostructured ZnO thin films and unsupervised feature learning.  

PubMed

This paper investigates a rapid and accurate detection system for spoilage in meat. We use unsupervised feature learning techniques (stacked restricted Boltzmann machines and auto-encoders) that consider only the transient response from undoped zinc oxide, manganese-doped zinc oxide, and fluorine-doped zinc oxide in order to classify three categories: the type of thin film that is used, the type of gas, and the approximate ppm-level of the gas. These models mainly offer the advantage that features are learned from data instead of being hand-designed. We compare our results to a feature-based approach using samples with various ppm level of ethanol and trimethylamine (TMA) that are good markers for meat spoilage. The result is that deep networks give a better and faster classification than the feature-based approach, and we thus conclude that the fine-tuning of our deep models are more efficient for this kind of multi-label classification task. PMID:23353140

Längkvist, Martin; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2013-01-01

142

Large-area SnO{sub 2}: F thin films by offline APCVD  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Large-area (1245 mm x 635 mm) FTO thin films were successfully deposited by offline APCVD process. {yields} The as-prepared FTO thin films with sheet resistance 8-11 {Omega}/{open_square} and direct transmittance more than 83% exhibited better than that of the online ones. {yields} The maximum quantum efficiency of the solar cells based on offline FTO substrate was 0.750 at wavelength 540 nm. {yields} The power of the solar modules using the offline FTO as glass substrates was 51.639 W, higher than that of the modules based on the online ones. -- Abstract: In this paper, we reported the successful preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films on large-area glass substrates (1245 mm x 635 mm x 3 mm) by self-designed offline atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. The FTO thin films were achieved through a combinatorial chemistry approach using tin tetrachloride, water and oxygen as precursors and Freon (F-152, C2H4F2) as dopant. The deposited films were characterized for crystallinity, morphology (roughness) and sheet resistance to aid optimization of materials suitable for solar cells. We got the FTO thin films with sheet resistance 8-11 {Omega}/{open_square} and direct transmittance more than 83%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization suggested that the as-prepared FTO films were composed of multicrystal, with the average crystal size 200-300 nm and good crystallinity. Further more, the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that the films were produced with good surface morphology (haze). Selected samples were used for manufacturing tandem amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells and modules by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Compared with commercially available FTO thin films coated by online chemical vapor deposition, our FTO coatings show excellent performance resulting in a high quantum efficiency yield for a-Si:H solar cells and ideal open voltage and short circuit current for a-Si:H solar modules.

Wang, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Qin, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhihai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Shi, Chengwu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China); Zhang, Qingfeng [Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China) [Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China); Polar Photovoltaics Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233030 (China); Li, Changhao [Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China)] [Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China); Xia, Xiaohong; Sun, Stanley [Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China) [Reno Energy Saving Technology Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233010 (China); Polar Photovoltaics Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233030 (China); Chen, Leon [Polar Photovoltaics Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233030 (China)] [Polar Photovoltaics Co., Ltd., Bengbu, Anhui 233030 (China)

2011-08-15

143

Synchronous Electrochromism of Lithium Ion Battery with Chemically Fabricated Transparent Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromism synchronous to the charge/discharge of a novel Li ion battery having Li3Fe2(PO4)3 and Li4Ti5O12 thin-film electrodes fabricated by a chemical process, the molecular precursor method, was discovered. A cathode of transparent Li3Fe2(PO4)3 thin film with a thickness of 80 nm was fabricated by heat treating a precursor ethanol solution including a Li(I) complex of nitrilotriacetic acid, an Fe(III) complex of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and (dibutylammonium)2H2P2O7 ? 0.5H2O at 550°C for 10 min in air. An anode of transparent Li4Ti5O12 thin film with a thickness of 90 nm was fabricated by heat treating a precursor ethanol solution including a Li(I) complex of nitrilotriacetic acid, a Ti(IV) complex of the identical organic ligand, and hydrogen peroxide at 550°C for 30 min in air. The precursor films for both electrodes were fabricated with a spin-coating method. The thermal reactions of the novel precursors were examined in detail by means of thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis in order to examine the components and heat-treatment temperature. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin-film electrodes fabricated on glass substrates pre-coated with a fluorine-doped tin oxide film were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The rechargeable function of the assembled sandwich-type battery using an electrolytic solution containing LiPF6 was measured by the repeated charge and discharge test at a constant current of 10 ?A; a maximum voltage of 3.6 V was recorded. The color changes of the transparent thin-film battery between colorless before charging and a blue-gray color after charging occurred synchronously and repeatedly with the charge/discharge cycles. The intercalation of Li+ ions into the Li4Ti5O12 thin-film anode may be related to the drastic color change and the unprecedented visualization of the electrochemical reaction of a novel Li ion battery.

Nagai, Hiroki; Hara, Hiroki; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Honda, Tohru; Takano, Ichiro; Sato, Mitsunobu

2013-04-01

144

Strategies for stabilization of electrodeposited metal particles in electropolymerized films for H2O oxidation and H+ reduction.  

PubMed

Metal particles were electrodeposited on a variety of conducting substrates, and their electrocatalytic activity toward H2O oxidation to O2 and H(+) reduction to H2 was evaluated. Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, Ag, and Pt were all electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Particularly active were Pd and Pt for H(+) reduction and Co and Ag for H2O oxidation. When cycled reductively in 0.1 M HClO4, FTO electrodes derivatized with Pt and Pd reached current densities for hydrogen evolution of 18.3 and 13.2 mA/cm(2), respectively, at -0.6 V vs normal hydrogen electrode (NHE). FTO electrodes with electrodeposited Co or Ag were cycled oxidatively in H2O buffered to pH 7 with phosphate buffer. Current densities of 10.5 and 8.70 mA/cm(2), respectively, were reached at +1.8 V vs NHE with H2O oxidation onsets at +1.3 and +1.4 V, respectively. The impacts on catalytic stability and performance of electrodeposited metals in/on an electrically conductive polymer support were also investigated. Films of poly-[Fe(vbpy)3](PF6)2 (vbpy is 4-methyl-4'-vinyl-2,2'-bipyridine) were generated on FTO by reductive electropolymerization. Significant improvements to the long-term stability of electrodeposited Ag and Pt particles were observed in the poly-[Fe(vbpy)3](PF6)2 support. Films of poly-[M(vbpy)3](PF6)2 with M = Co(II) or Cu(II) were also prepared and evaluated as electrocatalysts for H2O oxidation. Films containing Co(II) reached current densities of 6.0 mA/cm(2) at +1.8 V vs NHE in H2O. PMID:23806103

Torelli, Daniel A; Harrison, Daniel P; Lapides, Alexander M; Meyer, Thomas J

2013-08-14

145

Multifunctional organized mesoporous tin oxide films templated by graft copolymers for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The synthesis of organized mesoporous SnO2 films with high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity, obtained by sol-gel templating with an amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate), is reported. An improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated by the introduction of a 400 nm thick organized mesoporous SnO2 interfacial (om-SnO2 IF) layer between nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2 ) and a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. To elucidate the improved efficiency, the structural, optical, and electrochemical properties of the devices were characterized by SEM, UV/Vis spectroscopy, noncontact 3D surface profilometry, intensity-modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The energy-conversion efficiency of the solid polymerized ionic liquid based DSSC fabricated with the om-SnO2 IF/nc-TiO2 photoanode reached 5.9% at 100 mW cm(-2) ; this is higher than those of neat nc-TiO2 (3.5%) and organized mesoporous TiO2 interfacial/nc-TiO2 layer (5.4%) photoanodes. The improved efficiency is attributed to the antireflective property, cascadal energy band gap, good interconnectivity, and high electrical conductivity of the om-SnO2 IF layer, which results in enhanced light harvesting, increased electron transport, reduced charge recombination, and decreased interfacial/internal resistance. PMID:24678065

Park, Jung Tae; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Roh, Dong Kyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

2014-07-01

146

Development of molecular precursors for deposition of indium sulphide thin film electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.  

PubMed

Symmetrical and unsymmetrical dithiocarbamato pyridine solvated and non-solvated complexes of indium(III) with the general formula [In(S2CNRR')3]·n(py) [where py = pyridine; R,R' = Cy, n = 2 (1); R,R' = (i)Pr, n = 1.5 (2); NRR' = Pip, n = 0.5 (3) and R = Bz, R' = Me, n = 0 (4)] have been synthesized. The compositions, structures and properties of these complexes have been studied by means of microanalysis, IR and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The applicability of these complexes as single source precursors (SSPs) for the deposition of ?-In2S3 thin films on fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at temperatures of 300, 350 and 400 °C is studied. All films have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) for the detection of phase and stoichiometry of the deposit. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that precursors (1)-(4), irrespective of different metal ligand design, generate comparable morphologies of ?-In2S3 thin films at different temperatures. Direct band gap energies of 2.2 eV have been estimated from the UV-vis spectroscopy for the ?-In2S3 films fabricated from precursors (1) and (4). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of ?-In2S3 were confirmed by recording the current-voltage plots under light and dark conditions. The plots showed anodic photocurrent densities of 1.25 and 0.65 mA cm(-2) at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl for the ?-In2S3 films made at 400 and 350 °C from the precursors (1) and (4), respectively. The photoelectrochemical performance indicates that the newly synthesised precursors are highly useful in fabricating ?-In2S3 electrodes for solar energy harvesting and optoelectronic application. PMID:23787951

Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Peiris, T A Nirmal; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad; Lo, K M; McKee, Vickie

2013-08-14

147

Electron transfer dynamics of peptide-derivatized Ru(II) -polypyridyl complexes on nanocrystalline metal oxide films.  

PubMed

The performance of dye-sensitized solar and photoelectrochemical cells is strongly dependent on the electron transfer events at the electrode-sensitizer interface. Surface-bound peptides derivatized with chromophores have not been used in dye-sensitized solar and photoelectrochemical cells, but they have properties for these applications that could be advantageous by exploiting secondary structure and the attachment of multiple chromophores. In this manuscript, we have investigated structure-property relationships for three metallopeptide-based assemblies to solution and chemically bound to nanocrystalline MO(2) (M = Ti, Zr) films. A particular interest was exploring the influence of increasing separation distance between a common chromophore, [Ru(bpy)(2) (4-Me-4'-(NHCO)bpy)](2+) , and the underlying oxide substrate on excited and ground state electron transfer. Rates of Ru(II) oxidation to Ru(III) at the interface were measured by cyclic voltammetry on fluorine-doped tin oxide and cross-surface electron transfer on TiO(2) . Excited state injection by [Ru(III) (bpy)(2) (bpy(-) )](2+) was monitored by transient absorption and time-resolved emission. There are discernible trends in the electron transfer rate data with approximated, fully extended distances between the [Ru(bpy)(2) (4-Me-4'-(NHCO)bpy)](2+) sites and the interface. However, the distance dependences that are observed are smaller than anticipated, a result consistent with a lack of ordered secondary structure in the surface-bound peptide chains and a distribution of local orientations. For the surface-bound excited states, only a small fraction undergo quenching by electron transfer to TiO(2) , presumably from those oriented near the surface. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 100: 25-37, 2013. PMID:23335165

Hanson, Kenneth; Wilger, Dale J; Jones, Sean T; Harrison, Daniel P; Bettis, Stephanie E; Luo, Hanlin; Papanikolas, John M; Waters, Marcey L; Meyer, Thomas J

2013-04-01

148

Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors  

PubMed Central

The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order. Here we use a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and La1.8?xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (Eu-LSCO) to show that the two materials exhibit the same process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping. The fact that in Eu-LSCO this reconstruction coexists with spin and charge modulations that break translational symmetry shows that stripe order is the generic non-superconducting ground state of hole-doped cuprates. PMID:21847106

Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Hassinger, E.; Daou, R.; Rondeau, M.; Ramshaw, B.J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.; Pyon, S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Sheikin, I.; Malone, L.; Proust, C.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

2011-01-01

149

Universal inhomogeneous magnetic-field response in the normal state of cuprate high-Tc superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a muon spin rotation (?SR) study of the bulk of Bi2+xSr2-xCaCu2O8+?, as well as pure and Ca-doped YBa2Cu3Oy, which together with prior measurements reveal a universal inhomogeneous magnetic-field response of hole-doped cuprates extending to temperatures far above the critical temperature Tc. The primary features of our data are incompatible with the spatially inhomogeneous response being dominated by known charge-density-wave and spin-density-wave orders. Instead, the normal-state inhomogeneous line broadening is found to scale with the maximum value Tcmax for each cuprate family, indicating it is controlled by the same energy scale as Tc. Since the degree of chemical disorder varies widely among the cuprates we have measured, the observed scaling constitutes evidence for an intrinsic electronic tendency toward inhomogeneity above Tc.

Mahyari, Z. Lotfi; Cannell, A.; de Mello, E. V. L.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Sonier, J. E.

2013-10-01

150

Dependence of transition temperature on hole concentration per CuO2 sheet in the Bi-based superconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently observed variations of the transition temperature (T sub c) with oxygen content in the Bi based (2212) and (2223) superconductors are analyzed in terms of p+, the hole concentration per CuO2 sheet. This analysis shows that in this system, T sub c increases with p+ initially, reaching maxima at p+ = 0.2 approx. 0.3, followed by monotonic decrease of T sub c with p+. The forms of these variations are similar to those observed in the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 and YBa2Cu3Oy systems, suggesting that p+ may be an important variable governing superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors.

Zhao, J.; Seehra, M. S.

1991-01-01

151

Doping evolution of nodal quasiparticles in the cuprate superconductor YBCO via low-temperature thermal conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy was measured at temperatures down to T ˜50 mK in magnetic fields up to H=15 T on high-quality single crystals with a hole doping ranging from p = 0.08 to p = 0.18. The residual linear term at T ->0, a direct measure of the nodal quasiparticle velocities [1], is tracked as a function of doping, and compared to recent, high-resolution ARPES measurements of the Fermi velocity and gap magnitude as a function of doping, in the related cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? [2]. [4pt] [1] D.G. Hawthorn et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 104518 (2007). [0pt] [2] I.M. Vishik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207002 (2010).

de Cotret, Samuel Rene; Reid, J.-Ph.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, L.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.

2011-03-01

152

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition of Fluorine-doped Tin(IV) Oxide from Fluoroalkyltin Precursors   

E-print Network

Perfluoroalkytin compounds R(4-n)Sn(Rf)n (R = Me, Et, Bu, Rf = C4F9, n = 1; R = Bu, Rf = C4F9, n = 2, 3; R = Bu, Rf = C6F13, n = 1) have been synthesised, characterised by 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn NMR and evaluated a ...

Stanley, Joanne E; Swain, Anthony C; Molloy, Kieran C; Rankin, David W H; Robertson, Heather E; Johnston, Blair F

2005-01-01

153

Copper NMR and NQR studies of fluorine-doped electron superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We report the observation of a Cu NMR signal with a pronounced quadrupole splitting (V[sub Q] approximately 13 MHz) in Nd[sub 2]CuO[sub 4[minus]y]F[sub y]. This finding gives evidence that the electric-field gradient (EFG) in electron-doped superconducting compound is almost the same as for undoped parent ones. In view of this result, the mysterious absence of an EFG, reported before for similar Ce-doped compounds, is discussed. It is attributed to the appearance of spherically symmetric d[sup 10] configuration with doping. It is more likely connected with the inhomogeneities of the quadropole splitting induced by doping, rather than with the changes of electronic configuration. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Kukovitsky, E. (Inst. of Technical Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)); Luetgemeier, H. (Forschungzentrum Juelich (Germany)); Teitel'baum, G. (Inst. of Technical Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation) Forschungzentrum Juelich (Germany))

1994-04-01

154

Pulsing frequency induced change in optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of WO{sub 3} films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we present the pulsing frequency induced change in the structural, optical, vibrational, and luminescence properties of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films deposited on microscopic glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) coated glass substrates by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering technique. The WO{sub 3} films deposited on SnO{sub 2}:F substrate belongs to monoclinic phase. The pulsing frequency has a significant influence on the preferred orientation and crystallinity of WO{sub 3} film. The maximum optical transmittance of 85% was observed for the film and the slight shift in transmission threshold towards higher wavelength region with increasing pulsing frequency revealed the systematic reduction in optical energy band gap (3.78 to 3.13?eV) of the films. The refractive index (n) of films are found to decrease (1.832 to 1.333 at 550?nm) with increasing pulsing frequency and the average value of extinction coefficient (k) is in the order of 10{sup ?3}. It was observed that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-Didomenico model, from which the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) parameters, dielectric constants, plasma frequency, oscillator strength, and oscillator energy (E{sub o}) of WO{sub 3} films were calculated and reported for the first time due to variation in pulsing frequency during deposition by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The E{sub o} is change between 6.30 and 3.88?eV, while the E{sub d} varies from 25.81 to 7.88?eV, with pulsing frequency. The Raman peak observed at 1095?cm{sup ?1} attributes the presence of W-O symmetric stretching vibration. The slight shift in photoluminescence band is attributed to the difference in excitons transition. We have made an attempt to discuss and correlate these results with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena.

Punitha, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630 004 (India)

2014-03-21

155

Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel film for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation stability  

SciTech Connect

V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel films were fabricated by casting V{sub 2}O{sub 5} sols onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates at room temperature. Five, ten and twenty atomic layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were grown onto as-fabricated films respectively. The bare film and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-deposited films all exhibited hydrous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase only. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed increased surface charge-transfer resistance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films as more Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layers were deposited. Lithium-ion intercalation tests at 600 mAg{sup -1} showed that bare V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel film possessed high initial discharge capacity of 219 mAhg{sup -1} but suffered from severe capacity degradation, i.e., having only 136 mAhg{sup -1} after 50 cycles. After deposition of ten atomic layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the initial discharge capacity was 195 mAhg{sup -1} but increased over cycles before stabilizing; after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity was as high as 225 mAhg{sup -1}. The noticeably improved cyclic stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-deposited V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel film could be attributed to the improved surface chemistry and enhanced mechanical strength. During repeated lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation, atomic layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which were coated onto V{sub 2}O{sub 5} surface could prevent V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode dissolution into electrolyte by reducing direct contact between active electrode and electrolyte while at the same time acting as binder to maintain good mechanical contact between nanoparticles inside the film.

Liu Dawei; Liu Yanyi; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Cao Guozhong; Liu, Jun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); National Center for Nanomaterials Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

156

1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES Housed in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Film Studies Program covers classical film aesthetics, surveys the history of world cinema and takes an in-depth look at films from America, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the Hispanic world. UNDERGRADUATE Minor · Minor

Vertes, Akos

157

Film Studies 121 Film Studies  

E-print Network

Film Studies · 121 Film Studies ADVISORY COMMITTEE: Lowry (Director, English), Stock (Modern Languages), Stock (Mod- ern Languages), Stoddard (Education), Zuber (English). The minor in Film Studies-is per- haps the predominant way that World cultures represent themselves. Film has become

Lewis, Robert Michael

158

Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of solutions, films, and nanoparticles of dithienylbenzothiadiazole-based donor-acceptor-donor red fluorophore. Fluorescence quenching study of organic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report here the electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from a solution, film, and nanoparticles (NPs) of a red-emitting dithienylbenzothiadiazole molecular fluorophore [4,7-bis(4-(n-hexyl)-5-(3,5-di(1-naphthyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 1a], which has a donor-acceptor-donor configuration. In addition, the quenching of the fluorescence of the organic NPs by KI was investigated. The 1a film and NPs exhibit two absorbance peaks at 350 and ~504 nm that are red-shifted compared to those of 1a dissolved in solution (340 and 486 nm). Fluorescence quenching of 1a NPs does not follow a linear Stern-Volmer relationship; i.e., the fluorescence emission with excitation wavelength at either 350 or 504 nm decreased with increasing concentration of KI. Static quenching and heterogeneity related to the size distribution of the 1a NPs are proposed to explain the nonlinearity. A lifetime of 4.49 ± 0.04 ns was found for 1a organic NPs in water saturated with N2. After addition of KI, the fluorescence lifetime decreased to 3.1 ns. The fluorescence emission of 1a film/NPs is red-shifted (~17 nm) compared with that of 1a solution in dichloromethane (DCM). Solution ECL was generated in DCM through an annihilation reaction, while film and NP ECL could be generated in water through oxidation with a coreactant, tri-n-propylamine (TPrA). A film of 1a with thickness of 100-900 nm was prepared by drop-casting 1a in DCM on fluorine-doped tin oxide, and the ECL of the 1a film was found in phosphate-buffered saline solution with TPrA. Both 1a in solution and the 1a film produce strong ECL (I(film) = 0.14I(solution)). The ECL spectrum of 1a in solution, produced by electron-transfer annihilation of the reduced and oxidized forms, consists of a single peak with maximum emission at about 637 ± 4 nm, ~20 nm red-shifted from its fluorescence, while the ECL spectrum of 1a film produced by reaction with TPrA consists of a single peak with maximum emission at 642 ± 3 nm, a 10 nm red shift compared with the fluorescence of 1a film. Organic fluorescent 1a NPs were prepared by a reprecipitation method in water saturated with N2, and they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, absorbance, fluorescence, and ECL. Strong ECL was also generated from the organic NPs in water by reduction with K2S2O8 coreactant. PMID:23721214

Shen, Mei; Zhu, Xu-Hui; Bard, Allen J

2013-06-19

159

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

Dowling, John, Ed.

1976-01-01

160

Film Boxes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

Osterer, Irv

2002-01-01

161

Film Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of Microbiology Films (Part I)Films for TeachingBacteriological Techniques. (2 parts) 81-004 and 81-005, Film-loop, colour, 7 min 45 sec Produced by Thorne\\/BSCS: U.S.A. 1964Microtechniques. (1) dilution plating (2) inoculation with a loop, Film loops, colour, (1) 3 min 50 sec, (2) 1 min 15 sec. Produced by Nuffield Foundation Science Teaching Project: U.K. 1966Neurospora Techniques. (2 parts) 81-007 and

H. V. Wyatt

1968-01-01

162

On Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

Watts, Marty

2006-01-01

163

Nanocomposite films  

DOEpatents

A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

2010-07-20

164

Pulse-reverse electrodeposition of transparent nickel phosphide film with porous nanospheres as a cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A Ni2P nanolayer with porous nanospheres was directly coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by pulse-reverse deposition as a low-cost counter electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.32% by using a porous nanosphere catalyst due to the significantly improved ion transport. PMID:24132176

Wu, Mao-Sung; Wu, Jia-Fang

2013-12-01

165

School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION Fall 2012 Name of these credits must be 300 or above. *Required for Film Gate SFP REQUIREMENTS (min. 65 Credits) A. REQUIRED COURSES (22 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photo. 3 _____ *FILM 106IA Film in America 3

Dyer, Bill

166

Growth of single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass for organicinorganic  

E-print Network

directly on FTO substrates by hydrothermal methods. The diameters and lengths of TiO2 NRs are easily-cost manufacturing and large-area conversion of solar energy to electricity [1­3]. One of the intrinsic drawbacks for fast electron transport to charge collecting electrode, demon- strating a high power conversion

Cao, Guozhong

167

Fabrication and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 by loaded with Ag.  

PubMed

F-doped TiO2 loaded with Ag (Ag/F-TiO2) was prepared by sol-gel process combined with photoreduction method. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL). XPS analysis indicated Ag species existed as Ag0 in the structure of Ag/F-TiO2 samples. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that the light absorption of Ag/F-TiO2 in the visible region had a significant enhancement compared with the F-doped TiO2 (F-TiO2). PL analysis indicated that the electron-hole recombination rate had been effectively inhibited when Ag loaded on the surface of F-TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated for the degradation of X-3B (Reactive Brilliant Red dye, C.I. reactive red 2) under visible light (lambda > 420 nm) irradiation. Compared with F-TiO2, the sample of 0.50 Ag/F-TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The interaction between F species and metallic Ag was responsible for improving the visible light photocatalytic activity. PMID:22413345

Lin, Xiaoxia; Rong, Fei; Ji, Xiang; Fu, Degang; Yuan, Chunwei

2011-11-01

168

Local structure around F in the fluorine-doped Nd sub 2 CuO sub 4 superconductor  

SciTech Connect

Soft-x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurements were performed at the F {ital K} edge on Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4{minus}{ital x}}F{sub {ital x}} compounds with {ital x}=0.15 and 0.30. It is found that a majority of F atoms substitute for the O(2) sites in fluorite-type NdO layers between CuO{sub 2} sheets. For the compositions {ital x}=0.15 and 0.30, a fraction of 0.33{plus minus}0.15 and 0.39{plus minus}0.14 of F dopants, respectively, substitute for the O(1) site in the CuO{sub 2} planes. Fluorine anions placed at the O(2) sites in the NdO layers form a reservoir of extra electrons for the superconducting CuO{sub 2} sheets in Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4{minus}{ital x}}F{sub {ital x}} superconductors, analogous to the substitution of Ce or Th cations for Nd. This observation thus provides evidence for a symmetry of anionic (F) and cationic (Ce and Th) substitution in the NdO layers in connection with superconductivity.

Krol, A.; Soo, Y.L.; Ming, Z.H.; Huang, S.; Kao, Y.H. (Department of Physics and New York State Institute on Superconductivity, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)); Smith, G.C. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Lee, K. (Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)); James, A.C.W.P.; Murphy, D.W. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States))

1992-07-01

169

Fluorine-doping concentration and fictive temperature dependence of self-trapped holes in SiO{sub 2} glasses  

SciTech Connect

Fictive temperature (T{sub f}) and fluorine (F)-doping concentration dependences of self-trapped holes (STHs) in silica glasses created by UV irradiation at low temperatures have been studied by the electron-paramagnetic-resonance method. It was found that the yield of STH decreases with decreasing T{sub f} and increasing F-doping concentration. In combination with infrared spectra measurements, the correlation among T{sub f}, F-doping concentration, Si-O bond length, and Si-O-Si bond angle was elucidated. We conclude that the change in both T{sub f} and F doping can modify the network of SiO{sub 2} glass, leading to the suppression of the formation of STHs.

Wang, R.P.; Tai, N.; Saito, K.; Ikushima, A.J. [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511, Japan and Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2005-07-15

170

About Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and briefly describes 46 college-level films. Films are arranged in the following categories: volcanism and earthquakes; plate tectonics; energy, water, and environmental concerns; petroleum and coal; astronomy; space exploration, space shuttle; paleontology; geomorphology; and mineralogy, petrology, and economic geology. (BC)

Christman, Robert; Krockover, Gerald H.

1984-01-01

171

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (?27), wide band gap (?4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (?10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

2014-11-01

172

Film Makers On Film Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

173

thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical scattering properties of nanostructured matter have crucial impact on performance efficiency of various photonic components, such as waveguides, display elements, and solar cells. In this paper, diffuse transmission properties of nanocrystalline Pb(Zr x Ti1- x )O3 thin films with a high refractive index of ~2.5 and optical transmittance are presented. Thin films with a thicknesses ranging from 50 to 500 nm were studied using integrating sphere technique and results were compared to simulations performed by a scalar scattering theory. Thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature on MgO(100) substrates and post-annealed at a temperature of 800 °C. Structural phase evolution-induced surface effects, which introduced periodicity on the film surface, cause the definite diffuse elements in transmission spectra of the films. Low and evenly distributed scattering amplitudes in k-space were seen for highly tetragonal- or trigonal-oriented films with non-textured surfaces, which led to low diffuse transmission values ( T D ? 5 %), while confined and increased scattering amplitudes in k-space were seen for tetragonal-trigonal-oriented films, with phase co-existence, which led to microstructure-induced textured surfaces and increased diffuse transmission values ( T D ? 50 %). For highly textured surfaces, scattering amplitudes distributed in tilted ellipsoid shape in k-space was observed. Difference between modeled and measured values was 3.8 % in maximum.

Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne

2014-07-01

174

Polymer films  

DOEpatents

A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

2008-12-30

175

Sex films  

Microsoft Academic Search

human films simultaneously, one hour in small groups to dig into feelings and attitudes, and lunch with a showing of erotic art from many cultures and ages with taped erotic music. Then we deal with the varieties of sex, with male and female masturbation, male and female homosexuality, and a couple of paraphilias films--sado-masochism, beastiality, and the like--shown simultaneously. These

Robert T. Francoeur

1977-01-01

176

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

177

Rainbow Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use clear nail polish to create a beautiful iridescent pattern on black paper. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a material's properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

178

Film Credits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of easy-to-use digital technology, schools are responding to the interests of their media-savvy students by offering more courses in filmmaking. In this article, the author features different films produced by students. Among other things, she discusses the students' growing interest in filmmaking.

Borja, Rhea R.

2006-01-01

179

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of solution flow rate on the physical properties of the films was investigated by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectrophotometry techniques. XRD analysis revealed the tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 with highly preferred (101) orientation. AFM images showed that grain size on top of TiO2 thin films depended on solution flow rate. An indirect band gap energy of 3.46 eV was determined by means of transmission and reflection measurements. The envelope method, based on the optical transmission spectrum, was used to determine film thickness and optical constants, for example real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, refractive index, and extinction coefficient. Ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at room temperature. These peaks were attributed to the intrinsic emission and to the surface defect states, respectively.

Naffouti, Wafa; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Mehdi, Ahmed; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

2014-11-01

180

Black Films and Film-Makers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

181

Hall, Seebeck, and Nernst Coefficients of Underdoped HgBa2CuO4+?: Fermi-Surface Reconstruction in an Archetypal Cuprate Superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge-density-wave order has been observed in cuprate superconductors whose crystal structure breaks the square symmetry of the CuO2 planes, such as orthorhombic YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), but not so far in cuprates that preserve that symmetry, such as tetragonal HgBa2CuO4+? (Hg1201). We have measured the Hall (RH), Seebeck (S), and Nernst (?) coefficients of underdoped Hg1201 in magnetic fields large enough to suppress superconductivity. The high-field RH(T) and S(T) are found to drop with decreasing temperature and become negative, as also observed in YBCO at comparable doping. In YBCO, the negative RH and S are signatures of a small electron pocket caused by Fermi-surface reconstruction, attributed to charge-density-wave modulations observed in the same range of doping and temperature. We deduce that a similar Fermi-surface reconstruction takes place in Hg1201, evidence that density-wave order exists in this material. A striking similarity is also found in the normal-state Nernst coefficient ?(T), further supporting this interpretation. Given the model nature of Hg1201, Fermi-surface reconstruction appears to be common to all hole-doped cuprates, suggesting that density-wave order is a fundamental property of these materials.

Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Lepault, S.; Cyr-Choinière, O.; Vignolle, B.; Grissonnanche, G.; Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Bariši?, N.; Chan, M. K.; Ji, L.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y.; Greven, M.; Proust, C.; Taillefer, Louis

2013-04-01

182

Nodal quasiparticle dynamics in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 revealed by precision microwave spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CeCoIn5 is a heavy fermion superconductor with strong similarities to the high-Tc cuprates, including quasi-two-dimensionality, proximity to antiferromagnetism and probable d-wave pairing arising from a non-Fermi-liquid normal state. Experiments allowing detailed comparisons of their electronic properties are of particular interest, but in most cases are difficult to realize, due to their very different transition temperatures. Here we use low-temperature microwave spectroscopy to study the charge dynamics of the CeCoIn5 superconducting state. The similarities to cuprates, in particular to ultra-clean YBa2Cu3Oy, are striking: the frequency and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle conductivity are instantly recognizable, a consequence of rapid suppression of quasiparticle scattering below Tc; and penetration-depth data, when properly treated, reveal a clean, linear temperature dependence of the quasiparticle contribution to superfluid density. The measurements also expose key differences, including prominent multiband effects and a temperature-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle mass.

Truncik, C. J. S.; Huttema, W. A.; Turner, P. J.; Özcan, S.; Murphy, N. C.; Carrière, P. R.; Thewalt, E.; Morse, K. J.; Koenig, A. J.; Sarrao, J. L.; Broun, D. M.

2013-09-01

183

Infrared pseudogap in cuprate and pnictide high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We investigate infrared manifestations of the pseudogap in the prototypical cuprate and pnictide superconductors, YBa2Cu3Oy and BaFe2As2 (Ba122) systems. We find remarkable similarities between the spectroscopic features attributable to the pseudogap in these two classes of superconductors. The hallmarks of the pseudogap state in both systems include a weak absorption feature at about 500cm?1 followed by a featureless continuum between 500 and 1500cm?1 in the conductivity data and a significant suppression in the scattering rate below 700–900 cm?1. The latter result allows us to identify the energy scale associated with the pseudogap ?PG. We find that in the Ba122-based materials the superconductivity-induced changes of the infrared spectra occur in the frequency region below 100–200 cm?1, which is much lower than the energy scale of the pseudogap. We performed theoretical analysis of the scattering rate data of the two compounds using the same model, which accounts for the effects of the pseudogap and electron-boson coupling. We find that the scattering rate suppression in Ba122-based compounds below ?PG is solely due to the pseudogap formation, whereas the impact of the electron-boson coupling effects is limited to lower frequencies. The magnetic resonance modes used as inputs in our modeling are found to evolve with the development of the pseudogap, suggesting an intimate correlation between the pseudogap and magnetism

Moon, S. J. [University of California; Lee, Y. S. [University of California; Schafgans, A. A. [University of California; Chubukov, A. V. [Universsity of Wisconsin - Madison; Kasahara, S. [Kyoto University; Shibauchi, T. [Kyoto University; Terashima, T. [Kyoto University; Matsuda, Y. [Kyoto University; Tanatar, M. A. [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, R. [Ames Laboratory; Thaler, A. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory; Bud'ko, Sergey L. [Ames Laboratory; Sefat, A. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Mandrus, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Segawa, K. [Osaka University; Ando, Y. [Osaka University; Basov, D. N. [University of California

2014-07-01

184

Particle-hole symmetry in the antiferromagnetic state of the cuprates  

PubMed Central

In the layered cuprate perovskites, the occurrence of high-temperature superconductivity seems deeply related to the unusual nature of the hole excitations. The limiting case of a very small number of holes diffusing in the antiferromagnetic (AF) background may provide important insights into this problem. We have investigated the transport properties in a series of crystals of YBa2Cu3Oy, and found that the temperature dependencies of the Hall coefficient RH and thermopower S change abruptly as soon as the AF phase boundary is crossed. In the AF state at low temperatures T, both RH and S are unexpectedly suppressed to nearly zero over a broad interval of T. We argue that this suppression arises from near-exact symmetry in the particle-hole currents. From the trends in RH and S, we infer that the symmetry is increasingly robust as the hole density x becomes very small (x ? 0.01). We discuss implications for electronic properties both within the AF state and outside. PMID:11562471

Wang, Yayu; Ong, N. P.

2001-01-01

185

Doping evolution of nodal quasiparticle velocities in cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy was measured at temperatures down to T ˜50 mK on high-quality single crystals with a hole doping ranging from p = 0.06 to p = 0.18. The residual linear term at T ->0 is a direct measure of the ratio of nodal quasiparticle velocities. When combined with published data on Tl2Ba2CuO6+? [1], our data spans the full superconducting phase. The ratio of quasiparticle velocities agrees well with recent, high-resolution ARPES measurements of the Fermi velocity and gap velocity at the nodes as a function of doping, in the related cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? [2,3]. [4pt] [1] D.G. Hawthorn et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 104518 (2007). [0pt] [2] I.M. Vishik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207002 (2010). [0pt] [3] I.M. Vishik et al., ArXiv, 1209.6514 (2012).

René de Cotret, S.; Reid, J.-Ph.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, L.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.

2013-03-01

186

Nernst and Seebeck Coefficients of the Cuprate Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.67: A Study of Fermi Surface Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck and Nernst coefficients S and ? of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) were measured in a single crystal with doping p=0.12 in magnetic fields up to H=28T. Down to T=9K, ? becomes independent of field by H?30T, showing that superconducting fluctuations have become negligible. In this field-induced normal state, S/T and ?/T are both large and negative in the T?0 limit, with the magnitude and sign of S/T consistent with the small electronlike Fermi surface pocket detected previously by quantum oscillations and the Hall effect. The change of sign in S(T) at T?50K is remarkably similar to that observed in La2-xBaxCuO4, La2-x-yNdySrxCuO4, and La2-x-yEuySrxCuO4, where it is clearly associated with the onset of stripe order. We propose that a similar density-wave mechanism causes the Fermi surface reconstruction in YBCO.

Chang, J.; Daou, R.; Proust, Cyril; Leboeuf, David; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Laliberté, Francis; Pingault, B.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Takagi, H.; Antunes, A. B.; Sheikin, I.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

2010-02-01

187

Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (Ic) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy or YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed.

Tomita, M.; Muralidhar, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

2013-10-01

188

Optical birefringence and dichroism of cuprate superconductors in the THz regime.  

PubMed

The presence of optical polarization anisotropies, such as Faraday or Kerr effects, linear birefringence, and magnetoelectric birefringence are evidence for broken symmetry states of matter. The recent discovery of a Kerr effect using near-IR light in the pseudogap phase of the cuprates can be regarded as a strong evidence for a spontaneous symmetry breaking and the existence of an anomalous long-range ordered state. In this work we present a high precision study of the polarimetry properties of the cuprates in the THz regime. While no Faraday effect was found in this frequency range to the limits of our experimental uncertainty (1.3 milli-radian or 0.07°), a small but significant polarization rotation was detected that derives from an anomalous linear dichroism. In YBa2Cu3Oy the effect has a temperature onset that mirrors the pseudogap temperature T* and is enhanced in magnitude in underdoped samples. In x=1/8 La2-xBaxCuO4, the effect onsets above room temperature, but shows a dramatic enhancement near a temperature scale known to be associated with spin- and charge-ordered states. These features are consistent with a loss of both C4 rotation and mirror symmetry in the electronic structure of the CuO2 planes in the pseudogap state. PMID:24766004

Lubashevsky, Y; Pan, LiDong; Kirzhner, T; Koren, G; Armitage, N P

2014-04-11

189

Film and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

Schaber, Robin L.

2002-01-01

190

Film, The Durable Medium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics of film--intrinsic and extrinsic--which affect durability of film are discussed. Recommendations for film preservation are made. An annotated bibliography is included. (42 references) (Author)

Wiest, Donald G.

1971-01-01

191

Filming The Man Hunters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Man Hunters" is a film about paleoanthropology. This article is a personal account of how the film was put together using anthropological knowledge and numerous anthropologists and how the film was received by the American public. (Author)

Hockings, Paul

1976-01-01

192

Contemporary Films' Mini Course on Film Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This minicourse on film study can be a unit in English, in arts, or in the humanities. It can help to launch a film study course or complement an introduction to theater. Whatever form it takes, it helps to build a bridge to the student's media environment. Part one, the language of images, utilizes four films which demonstrate the basic elements…

Schillaci, Peter

193

Archaeology on Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeology on Film, a database of archaeology film reviews, contains critical reviews of videos and films that are used as educational tools. The reviews in the database differ from simple synopses because they "focus on how films present archaeology in addition to what they present about archaeology." The database allows archaeology instructors to identify and compare relevant films quickly. Each film review provides title, date, format, running time, cost, subjects, and description. Archaeology on Film encourages instructors to submit reviews for inclusion in the database. A review form and standards for submission are available at the site.

194

Thin Film Interference Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thin Film Interference model investigates reflection and transmission of light through a thin film. The user can change the thickness and index of refraction of the thin film as well as the incident light wavelength. The Thin Film Interference Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_ThinFilm.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

195

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90 percent). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260 C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

Gordon, R. G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H.

1994-07-01

196

Eosin-Y and N3Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel nanocoral TiO 2: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanocorals containing nanopolyps have been synthesized by a cost effective hydrothermal route directly on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates. The morphological features and physical properties of TiO2 films were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron

Sawanta S. Mali; C. A. Betty; P. N. Bhosale; P. S. Patil

197

Thin Film Technology: Adhesion in Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Last month I addressed the subject of pinholes in thin films and ways to minimize them. The subject this month is another cause for success, or failure, of thin films, adhesion. I was motivated to discuss this horrendously complicated subject by a conference I recently attended, Adhesion Aspects of Thin Films (Orlando, December 15-17). This conference, organized by Dr.'s K.L. Mittal and R.H. Lacombe, was both stimulating and informative.

Martin, Peter M.

2004-02-01

198

Thick Film Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

Trefil, James

1983-01-01

199

Introduction to Film Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

Davis, Robert E.

200

Magnetic Film Memory Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin magnetic films of permalloy have characteristics ideal for high-speed digital storage. A simple rotational model modified to include the effects of wall switching and dispersion of the preferred direction of magnetization provides a basis for describing properties of engineering interest. A selection system has been chosen which allows great latitude in film uniformity. Production of films with magnetic properties

J. I. RAFFELt; T. S. Crowther; A. H. Anderson; T. O. Herndon

1961-01-01

201

Focus on Shakespearean Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an anthology of reviews and critical pieces of the significant and available Shakespearean films made between 1935 and 1966. Included are three general essays on Shakespearean film by Ian Johnson, Henri Lemaitre, and Geoffrey Reeves. The specific films and their reviewers are: A Midsummer's Night Dream (1935) Allardyce Nicoll and Richard…

Eckert, Charles W., Ed.

202

iFilm.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

iFilm was created to widen the availability and audience of films and filmed entertainment and to further the careers of their creators. It does this by placing an impressive selection of free and complete short films online in RealPlayer G2 format. Users may browse films by genre, location, category, or choose from the top ten lists of the most watched and most popular films. Viewer ratings and reviews are included for each film, and users are invited to add their own. iFilm recently unveiled the "first true debut of electronic cinema" by playing an original full-length feature film on May 3, and more are planned. Additional resources at the site include a Film News Channel, an internal search engine, and a free weekly email update service. Parents and teachers please note that some of the films contain adult themes. Users should also note that the films will only be viewable with a RealPlayer G2 player and that playback quality will vary significantly with connection speed.

203

The Craft of Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized fundamental principles of design, universalized practices and procedures, and standardized equipment specifications are presented in this film maker's manual. These essentials of film making are analyzed so that the work can stand as a reference for all film makers, from the amateur to the experienced professional. Topics covered…

Fisher, J. David, Ed.

204

Film Screening and Conversation  

E-print Network

Film Screening and Conversation 2011 6-9pm Smithsonian Asian Paci c American Program Rasmuson Director John Sayles Film Run Time: 124 minutes Closest Metro: L'Enfant Plaza Related Traveling Exhibition, the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program presents a screening of the film Amigo and a conversation

Mathis, Wayne N.

205

Film Screening Before Tomorrow  

E-print Network

Film Screening Before Tomorrow June 12 2014, 5:30 pm Synopsis: In 1840, two isolated Inuit families and the will to survive. Directed by Marie-Hélène Cousineau and Madeline Ivalu, the film is an adaptation of the novel Før Morgendagen by Danish writer Jørn Riel. It was the third film released by Igloolik Isuma Productions

Michelson, David G.

206

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

207

Magnetism driven by non-metal interstitials from first-principles prediction: The case of hydrogen- and fluorine-doped calcium monoxide with rock-salt structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our first-principles calculations based on density functional theory confirmed the formation of sp-ferromagnetic states of calcium monoxide with interstitial nonmagnetic F or H atoms. The hydrogen and fluorine interstitials in the oxides were found to be spin polarized and are more stable in the antiferromagnetic state and the ferromagnetic state, respectively. For H-doped CaO, no considerable charge transfer takes place and the spin remains localized on the impurity. For F-doped oxide, the observation may be attributed to the p-p interaction and the charge transfer between the interstitial atom and the neighboring O atoms. We demonstrate that H-doped compound is a potential n-type antiferromagnet, while F-doped material is a potential p-type ferromagnet. The different dopants would induce different magnetic couplings, thus show different ground-state magnetic configurations. The mechanism for the magnetism should be useful for understanding d0 magnetic semiconductors or insulators. The present potential d0 diluted magnetic materials, at least some of them, may be useful in spintronics.

Dong, Shengjie; Zhao, Hui

2014-12-01

208

Application of solution-processed V2O5 in inverted polymer solar cells based on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate.  

PubMed

We used a hydrothermal method to synthesis the solution-processed V2O5 as anode buffer layer, which applied on inverted polymer solar cells based on FTO substrate. The structure of the device is glass/FTO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5/Ag. We discussed the dependence of device performance on the concentrations of V2O5 solution. It is found that when the concentration of V2O5 is 300 microg/ml, the power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.38%) is the highest, which is much higher than that of the device without anode buffer layer (PCE of only 0.87%). Moreover, it can significantly reduce the energy consumption and make it more cost-effective. PMID:24738373

Wu, Jian; Zhang, Yupeng; He, Yeyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Guolt, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

2014-06-01

209

High performance fluorine doped (Sn,Ru)O2 oxygen evolution reaction electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane based water electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of electro-catalysts containing non-noble metal or significantly reduced amounts of expensive noble metals (e.g. RuO2) is highly desirable. Development of such a catalyst with comparable electrochemical performance to the standard noble metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a pioneering breakthrough in hydrogen generation by water electrolysis. In line with these goals, by exploiting a two-pronged theoretical first principles and experimental approach herein we demonstrate that a nano-structured solid solution of SnO2:10 wt% F containing only 20 at.% RuO2 [e.g. (Sn0.80Ru0.20)O2:10F] displays a remarkably similar electrochemical activity and moreover, comparable or even much improved electrochemical stability and durability compared to pure the noble metal counterpart, RuO2. Density functional theory calculations have demonstrated direct dependence of the catalytic activity on the electronic structure peculiarities of the F-doped (Ru,Sn)O2 which corresponds well with the experimental results.

Kadakia, Karan; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Jampani, Prashanth; Park, Sung Kyoo; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

2014-01-01

210

Major in Film About the Major: The major in Film combines the study of film history  

E-print Network

Major in Film About the Major: The major in Film combines the study of film history and analysis with film/video production and scriptwriting, providing a well-rounded understanding of film as a visual and narrative art form and of the process of filmmaking. Career Opportunities: Students who major in Film may

Berdichevsky, Victor

211

Electrically Conductive Polyimide Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconducting surfaces of SnO2 formed by curing polyamic acids containing tin complexes. Polyimide films made semiconductive via incorporation of semiconductive surface layers of SnO2. If SnO2-surfaced polyimide film used as free-standing film, then semiconductive layer protected by top coat of polyimide, deposited as film from solution directly onto SnO2. Resultant films flexible and resistant to both weather and high temperature. Used on aircraft to provide resistance to lightning strikes, and in microelectronics and flexible circuitry.

St. Clair, Anne K.; Ezzel, Stephen A.; Taylor, Larry T.; Boston, Harold G.

1993-01-01

212

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the 4848--HOUR SHORT FILM contestHOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Department of Film. are sponsoring the Fifth Annual 48- HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las

Hemmers, Oliver

213

Center for Film Studies Film Event Booking Form  

E-print Network

Center for Film Studies Film Event Booking Form Student Groups The Center for Film Studies welcomes venue for the legal presentation of films, we encourage any department, program, or group who is contemplating a screening to consult with the Center to schedule an event. Student group requests for film

Devoto, Stephen H.

214

Discovery in Film, Book Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 80 16 millimeter (16mm) short films are reviewed in this introduction and guide which attempts to be comprehensive in touching the major areas and styles of 16mm films now being produced. An attempt is made to describe as carefully as possible the style and content of each film and suggest ways in which the films might be used. Films

Gordon, Malcolm W.

215

Renaissance of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

Bellone, Julius, Ed.

216

FILM STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

RTH 36000. CONTEMpORaRY aRT CMLT 22200. CLaSSICaL TRaDITION IN MODERN DRaMa, FICTION, aND FILM [W, AH] COMM-CENTURY BRITISH NOvEL ON FILM [AH] FREN 32900. STUDIES IN THE TWENTIETH-CENTURY: FICTION aND FILM (in French) [CFILM STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE: Debra Shostak, Chair Ahmet Atay (Communication) Carolyn Durham

Wilson, Mark A.

217

Protective overcoating of films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

Maas, K. A.

1972-01-01

218

Research Strategy for Film 206 Research, Writing, and Presentation Methods  

E-print Network

, films and the history and criticism of film. BFI film classics / BFI modern classics Cambridge studies in film Cambridge film classics Film and culture Cambridge film handbooks series Reference publication and mystery films Gangster films Science fiction films Thrillers War films Western films In a citation

Abolmaesumi, Purang

219

Instructional Film Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a compendium of instructional units designed to supplement and thereby increase the effectiveness of 39 16mm films related to Mexican American studies available on loan from the Mexican American Curriculum Office. Units and films deal with a variety of topics such as applying for a job; arts, crafts, and architecture of Mexico;…

Flores, Isabel; And Others

220

Insects On Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A playful site dedicated to insects in films, with discussions of how the insects were portrayed in fiction as well as in documentaries. The site suffers a bit from having not been updated in the past few years, but there have been many good insect films to include.

0000-00-00

221

Thin Films Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Nano-Link contains the document required for the thin films module. The activity requires a background in eight grade science. This 9 page guide includes background information on thin film interference, a hands-on learning activity, links to multimedia resources, and further readings. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

222

Film Canister Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on botany activity, learners sprout vegetables in film canisters. Learners grow nine seeds each of cabbage, radish, and parsley, experimenting with changing one variable (light, water, or temperature) to explore differences in the germination preferences of the plants. If film canisters aren't available, other small, opaque containers with lids can be substituted.

Exploratorium

2013-01-30

223

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOEpatents

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01

224

Creative Film-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamentals of motion picture photography are introduced with a physiological explanation for the illusion of motion in a film. Film stock formats and emulsions, camera features, and lights are listed and described. Various techniques of exposure control are illustrated in terms of their effects. Photographing action with a stationary or a…

Smallman, Kirk

225

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

A. R. Nyaiesh; E. L. Garwin

1986-01-01

226

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

227

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

1995-09-19

228

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOEpatents

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04

229

Magnetite thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature process for converting hematite (?-Fe2O3) thin films into magnetite (Fe3O4is described. The films produced are unambiguously identified as magnetite by several complementary methods of analysis. These include ?-backscattering spectrography, X-ray powder diffractometry, and observations of electrical, magnetic, and optical properties.

J. Feng; C. Bajorek; M.-A. Nicolet

1972-01-01

230

Film As Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thesis of this classic, the major part of which was originally published in 1933, is that the peculiar virtues of film as art derive from an exploitation of the limitations of the medium: the absence of sound, the absence of color, the lack of three-dimensional depth. Silent-film artists made virtues of these necessities and were on their way…

Arnheim, Rudolf

231

Langmuir-Blodgett Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Langmuir trough enables high quality organic layers (Langmuir-Blodgett films) to be deposited onto a variety of substrates. This article describes the preparation and characterization of these monolayer and multilayer films and reviews many of their potential applications; these include two-dimensional magnetism, integrated and electro-optics, electron beam lithography, biological membranes, charge injection devices and field-effect transistors.

G. G. Roberts

1984-01-01

232

Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films  

SciTech Connect

Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-06-01

233

Film-Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part journal, part Internet salon, part discussion list, Film-Philosophy offers engaging and in-depth explorations of a wide variety of cinematic topics and lively email response and argument. Users can sign up to receive both the weekly review articles and discussion by email, or they may search and browse them at the site. The full text of all the articles from February 1997 to the present and discussion logs from February 1998 are available. In addition to articles from the current volume, the homepage lists calls for papers, film festivals, and related announcements. The site also features full-text book reviews, bibliographies, and links to journals, organizations, and sites about film philosophers (some broken links in the latter). Film-Philosophy is a terrific resource for film studies scholars and serious cinema fans.

234

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS  

E-print Network

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XX/SPRING 2010 CONVERSATIONS Michael Mann, COLLATERAL 2004 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James, and Humanities Institute, and by the Market Arcade Film & Arts Center, 639 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y. The series

Krovi, Venkat

235

Transparent conductive oxide electrode dependence of photocurrent characteristics in bacteriorhodopsin photocells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the photocurrent characteristics in photocells using bacteriorhodopsin (bR) thin films deposited on various kinds of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrodes. The photocurrent depends largely on the species of TCO and partly on the surface morphology. The photocell using a bR thin film deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode with a textured structure showed the largest photocurrent. Our results indicate that the variation of capacitance near the interface induced by the bR's light-driven proton pump function affects the transient photocurrent, while the capacitance near the interface is produced by the TCO electrode, bR thin film, and electrolyte solution.

Yamada, Toshiki; Haruyama, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Takahiro; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Otomo, Akira

2014-11-01

236

Preparation and Surface Analysis of a Fluorinated Amorphous Silicon for Photo-voltaic Device Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) have been routinely deposited on a variety of substrates. Surface and interfacial studies were carried out with a PHI 5600 X-ray photo electron spectrometer. Co-deposition with fluorine yielded films having oxygen present as bulk oxide. The higher the fluorine content, the greater the amount of bulk oxygen observed. The presence of oxygen may be a contributing factor to inconsistent film properties of fluorine doped silicon materials, reported else where. A definite chemical interface between a layer containing fluorine and a layer made from pure silane has been delineated.

McWhinney, Hylton G.; Burton, Dawn; Fogarty, Thomas N.

1998-01-01

237

Noncoherent Switching in Permalloy Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution Bitter pattern studies of the domain structure of permalloy films, with uniaxial anisotropy Hk and under the influence of applied fields in the film plane, are reported, and from these studies are inferred some aspects of noncoherent flux reversal processes. The threshold field for irreversible domain propagation across the film is measured for a variety of films differing

D. O. Smith; K. J. Harte

1962-01-01

238

The Art of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author prefaces his consideration of films as an art form with a discussion of the mechanics of filmmaking. He describes the division of talent on a movie set, details the history of the tools of filmmakers, and explains the production and reproduction of a film. The influence of film techniques on plot development in a fiction film is…

Lindgren, Ernest

239

Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films  

SciTech Connect

Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

2000-01-27

240

A water film motor  

E-print Network

We report on electrically-induced rotations in water films, which can function at many length scales. The device consists of a two-dimensional cell used for electrolysis of water films, as simple as an insulator frame with two electrodes on the sides, to which an external in-plane electric field perpendicular to the mean electrolysis current density is applied. If either the external field or the electrolysis current exceeds some threshold (while the other one is not zero), the liquid film begins to rotate.

R. Shirsavar; A. Amjadi; N. Hamedani Radja; M. D. Niry; M. Reza Rahimi Tabar; M. R. Ejtehadi

2006-05-01

241

Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films  

SciTech Connect

Modest thermal annealing to 600 degree sign C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5%-10%. We report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approx}15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Siegal, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Tallant, D. R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Provencio, P. N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Overmyer, D. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Simpson, R. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States); Martinez-Miranda, L. J. [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2000-05-22

242

Film Sound History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by the student chapter of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, this site offers a clear, informative timeline of film sound history. Breaking the century down by decades, the site discusses the main sound innovations of each period, and these brief histories link to related film history sites. The site also features a graph showing the specifications and capability of every major film sound format from Fantasound in 1940 to DTS introduced in 1993. An unannotated list of relevant links rounds out the site.

243

Electrostatically enhanced film condensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model for film-condensation heat transfer on a general cylindrical surface in the presence of a non-uniform electrostatic field. The steady-state liquid-film flow is assumed to be fully developed and smooth. The liquid is electrically non-conducting. The vapor in contact with the film is pure and saturated. Two experiments in which R113 is condensed in a tube are also described. In one case condensation occurs in an asymmetric electric field as described by the model. In the other case, done for comparison, it occurs in an axisymmetric one. Average heat-transfer measurements and visual observations are reported in both cases. Comparison of the theory with the first experiment is good, despite the model not accounting for the film's waviness.

Joos, F. M.; Snaddon, R. W. L.

1985-07-01

244

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a coated ceramic RF window and metal sleeve of a klystron comprising a stabilized chromium oxide film less than 200 angstroms thick deposited on a ceramic RF window and metal sleeve.

E. L. Garwin; A. R. Nyaiesh

1988-01-01

245

Postmodern film adaptation  

E-print Network

acknowledges its history of adaptation, the reflections creating a meta-textual theme. The film comments on its postmodern nature through its style, while it simultaneously exists as a product of the postmodern condition. Applying the concepts of Baudrillard...

Brannon, Courtney Elizabeth

2013-02-22

246

Turbine airfoil film cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental data obtained in this program gives insight into the physical phenomena that occur on a film cooled airfoil, and should provide a relevant data base for verification of new design tools. Results indicate that the downstream film cooling process is a complex function of the thermal dilution and turbulence augmentation parameters with trends actually reversing as blowing strength and coolant-to-gas temperature ratio varied. The pressure surface of the airfoil is shown to exhibit a considerably higher degree of sensitivity to changes in the film cooling parameters and, consequently, should prove to be more of a challenge than the suction surface in accurately predicting heat transfer levels with downsteam film cooling.

Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.

1987-01-01

247

Asian Film Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative effort hosted by the Asia Pacific Media Center (APMC) at the University of Southern California's Annenberg Center for Communication, this attractive and content-rich site is an excellent resource for students and aficionados of recent Asian filmmaking. At the site, visitors will find lists of all films made in China, India, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan since 1988, including information such as synopses, filmmakers, cast, length, format, and availability of prints. Sections for each of the countries will also include a general introduction with multiple essays and background, detailed information and video clips for eight to fifteen highlighted films and directors (most include only one of each at present), a list of all internationally awarded films since 1988, and links to course syllabi and other resources for developing educational curriculum on the respective country's film and culture. The site is available in English, Chinese, or Korean, with a Japanese version under development.

248

Amorphous diamond films  

DOEpatents

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1998-06-09

249

Tunneling between ferromagnetic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe-Ge-Co junctions conductance G(V) is studied when mean magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic film are parrallel or antiparallel. Conductance measurement, in these two cases, is related to the spin polarizations of the conduction electrons.

M. Julliere

1975-01-01

250

Film Report: Independent Multicultural Films at the Sundance Festival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews independent multicultural films and videos shown at the Sundance Film Festival, January 1997. The festival included a special symposium and reception honoring Native American writers and filmmakers. This article reviews 4 Native American videos and 10 other multicultural films the author was able to see, and it lists other noteworthy…

McDonald, Christine L.

1997-01-01

251

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS  

E-print Network

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XXIII/FALL 2011 CONVERSATIONS OF A COUNTRY PRIEST/JOURNAL D'UN CURÃ? DE CAMPAGNE Robert Bresson 1951 October 4 BLACK ORPHEUS/ORFEU NEGRO, and by the Market Arcade Film & Arts Center, 639 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y. The series has been supported

Krovi, Venkat

252

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS  

E-print Network

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XXII/SPRING 2011 19 Jafar Panahi DAYEREH/THE CIRCLE 2000 Apr 26 Ridley Scott BLADE RUNNER 1982 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James Agee Chair in American Culture, Center for Studies

Krovi, Venkat

253

Montana State University 1 Film Option  

E-print Network

Courses (typically taken in freshman year) FILM 100IH Intro to Film & Photography 3 FILM 112 Aesthetics of Film Prodctn I 3 FILM 101IA PHOT 113RA Understanding Photography 3 WRIT 101W College Writing I 3 of Film & Photography including THTR 304, MUST 380 and MUST 382 that are not serving to fulfill any

Maxwell, Bruce D.

254

Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

Reilly, Adam, Comp.

255

Geographical Film in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Film-based teaching can improve geography instruction in universities if the films are technically excellent, closely related to course content, and professionally presented. For journal availability, see SO 505 640. (Author/DB)

Clark, Michael J.

1977-01-01

256

Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-print Network

Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films have recently stimulated significant research interest to achieve better material functionality or multifunctionalities. In VAN thin films, both phases grow epitaxially in parallel on given...

Bi, Zhenxing

2012-07-16

257

Thin film solar cell workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

1993-01-01

258

The Nuclear Debate in Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

Dowling, John

1977-01-01

259

Fullerene thin films  

SciTech Connect

The authors have been involved in the production of the purified fullerenes C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. Previous research into fullerene thin films has been limited to mixtures of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. They plan to characterize high-purity C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} films in terms of photoconductivity, electrical conductivity, and optical absorption. They hope to do their studies with samples of purities better than 99% and 85% for C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}, respectively. Present work concerns the construction of an evaporation/deposition chamber. At this meeting, they hope to have grown and begun characterization of thin films on insulating and metallic substrates both with and without an additional metallic layer in {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes} structure.

Coram, G.J.; Castle, J.C.; Halas, N.J.

1992-12-01

260

Thin films and uses  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

261

Film Literature Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.

262

Thin film photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Thin films are considered a potentially attractive technological approach to making cost-effective electricity by photovoltaics. Over the last twenty years, many have been investigated and some (cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, amorphous silicon) have become leading candidates for future large-scale commercialization. This paper surveys the past development of these key thin films and gives their status and future prospects. In all cases, significant progress toward cost-effective PV electricity has been made. If this progress continues, it appears that thin film PV could provide electricity that is competitive for summer daytime peaking power requirements by the middle of the 1990s; and electricity in a range that is competitive with fossil fuel costs (i.e., 6 cents/kilowatt-hour) should be available from PV around the turn of the century. 22 refs., 9 figs.

Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

1989-05-01

263

Thin film temperature sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

1980-01-01

264

Photoconductivity in Mesostructured Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesostructured silica films are widely studied due to their different structures, properties and variety of possible applications. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-templated sol-gel silica films possess highly ordered lamellar phase structure. It is expected that molecules and polymer chains line up with these layered structures when incorporated into the films. Mesostructured thin films were doped with Dispersed Red 1 (DR1) and

G Valverde; J. García Macedo; Daniel Cruz; J. I. Zink; R. Hernández

2003-01-01

265

NMR characterization of thin films  

DOEpatents

A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

2008-11-25

266

Page 140 Film Studies Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

Page 140 Film Studies Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog FILM STUDIES PROGRAM OFFICE Art Programs Offered Minor in Film Studies Major in Film: See Art History: Film Emphasis The film studies minor is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental pro- gram that analyzes the history, theory, and practice of film

Ravikumar, B.

267

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

2006-11-06

268

Thin film ceramic thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

2011-01-01

269

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

1982-01-01

270

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

1982-08-03

271

Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

2005-05-01

272

Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

1993-01-01

273

Ferroelectricity in ultrathin perovskite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the suppression of ferroelectricity in perovskite thin films is a fundamental issue that has remained unresolved for decades. We report a synchrotron x-ray study of lead titanate as a function of temperature and film thickness for films as thin as a single unit cell. At room temperature, the ferroelectric phase is stable for thicknesses down to 3 unit cells

Dillon D. Fong; G. Brian Stephenson; Stephen K. Streiffer; Jeffrey A. Eastman; Orlando Auciello; Paul H. Fuoss; Carol Thompson

2004-01-01

274

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

275

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

1986-12-30

276

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

Smith, Henry I. (Sudbury, MA); Atwater, Harry A. (Somerville, MA); Thompson, Carl V. (Watertown, MA); Geis, Michael W. (Acton, MA)

1986-12-30

277

Films in Depth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bound in a slipcover rather than in signatures, this "book" is made up of thirteen separately bound booklets. The first booklet is an introduction to the use of film in the classroom both in teaching the filmic art and in increasing the visual literacy of students on the high school and early college levels. The twelve other booklets each treat a…

Schrievogel, Paul A.; Prete, Anthony T.

278

Thin-film photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe and CuIn1-xGaxSe2-ySy (CIGSS) are ideal candidates for thin-film solar cells. Present photovoltaic (PV) conversion efficiencies of champion thin-film solar cells are: CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) 19.5%, CdTe 16.5%, and a-Si:H 12.4%. Thin-film PV modules could spearhead production growth of photovoltaics in the United States because of their added production capacity. For this purpose, module efficiencies must be improved to the 13%-15% range. Obtaining Ohmic contacts is difficult, especially for CdTe, because of the inherently low p-type doping level. Therefore, increasing the p-type doping level is important. Growth of CIGSS film must be controlled carefully as it transitions from Cu-rich to In-rich composition. Other issues for CIGSS cells are minimizing indium consumption, and increasing process throughput of selenization/sulfurization and transparent conducting oxide deposition. Development of all-dry processing for CdS deposition would be beneficial for both cells. This paper discusses basic devices and related issues.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Dhere, Ramesh G.

2005-07-01

279

Thin film photovoltaic cell  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

1982-01-01

280

Mobile Library Filming Device.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains details of the study and performance test of the Mobile Filming Library Device which consists of a camera and self contained power source. Because of the cost savings and service improvement characteristics, this technique involving the use of a microfilm intermediate in the preparation of copies of material filed in full size…

Martin, Claud E.

281

Paradoxes in Film Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

Moore, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

282

Films on Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This filmography on deafness, which contains summaries of 192 16mm films arranged in alphabetical order by title, covers a wide variety of topics as evidenced by the categorical title index: communication, the nature of deafness, detection and measurement of deafness, education and training, multi-handicaps, and noise pollution. Running time, date…

Parlato, Salvatore J., Jr., Comp.

283

Electrochromic thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochromic material has the property of changing color when voltage is applied across it. It is possible electronically to alter a window's transmission and reflection properties by use of electrochromic thin films. This allows regulation of conductive and radiative heat transfer rates, with variable optical attenuation in the visible and infrared part of the solar radiation. Suitable materials for

C. Nyman; U. Gullenberg; M. Leppihalme

1987-01-01

284

A Film Canister Colorimeter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this instrument…

Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

2002-01-01

285

Method for making carbon films  

DOEpatents

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

286

Epitaxial gadolinium nitride thin films  

SciTech Connect

GdN thin films are deposited on MgO(100) by low-energy ion-beam-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy at elevated temperatures. Elemental analysis by secondary-ion mass spectrometry proves that a protective layer is imperative to avoid oxidation of the GdN films in air. In situ surface structural investigation of the growing GdN films by reflection high-energy electron diffraction reveals epitaxial film growth. This result is confirmed by x-ray diffraction structure and texture analysis. Accordingly, the GdN films on MgO(100) exhibit cube-on-cube epitaxy. Due to the epitaxial growth the crystalline quality of the films is by far higher than that of films previously reported of in literature.

Gerlach, J. W.; Mennig, J.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

2007-02-05

287

Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings  

DOEpatents

A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

1995-12-26

288

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

289

Method for making carbon films  

DOEpatents

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29

290

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

291

thin films as absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic structures were prepared using AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 as absorber and CdS as window layer at various conditions via a hybrid technique of chemical bath deposition and thermal evaporation followed by heat treatments. Silver antimony sulfo selenide thin films [AgSb(S x Se1- x )2] were prepared by heating multilayers of sequentially deposited Sb2S3/Ag dipped in Na2SeSO3 solution, glass/Sb2S3/Ag/Se. For this, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then, Ag thin films were thermally evaporated on glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of dipping was varied as 3, 4 and 5 h. Two different heat treatments, one at 350 °C for 20 min in vacuum followed by a post-heat treatment at 325 °C for 2 h in Ar, and the other at 350 °C for 1 h in Ar, were applied to the multilayers of different configurations. X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 thin films as the primary phase and AgSb(S,Se)2 and Sb2S3 as secondary phases. Morphology and elemental detection were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed the depthwise composition of the films. Optical properties were determined by UV-vis-IR transmittance and reflection spectral analysis. AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 formed at different conditions was incorporated in PV structures glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(S x Se1- x )2/C/Ag. Chemically deposited post-annealed CdS thin films of various thicknesses were used as window layer. J- V characteristics of the cells were measured under dark and AM1.5 illumination. Analysis of the J- V characteristics resulted in the best solar cell parameters of V oc = 520 mV, J sc = 9.70 mA cm-2, FF = 0.50 and ? = 2.7 %.

González, J. O.; Shaji, S.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Krishnan, B.

2014-09-01

292

Thin Hot-Film Sensors On Polyimide Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Array of closely spaced hot-film sensors with thickness well below critical reference height with regard to air-flow pattern nonintrusively detect laminar boundary-layer transitions with very high resolution. Method developed at NASA Langley Research Center to fabricate such sensors on polyimide films to detect boundary-layer transitions with resolution as high as 0.050 in. These films formed by combination of vacuum deposition and photolithography.

Hopson, Purnell

1993-01-01

293

Short Films for Physics Teaching, A Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated film catalog is a product of the Conference on Single Concept Films in College Physics Teaching sponsored by the Commission on College Physics. Both 8mm and 16mm single concept films are listed for physics and related disciplines. The catalog includes commercial, noncommercial, and foreign films. However, the film coverage was…

Bluestone, Barbara Z.; Roth, Richard F.

294

School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION Fall 2012 Name COURSES (20 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photography 3 _____ *FILM 112 Aesthetics of Film Production I 3 _____ *PHOT 113RA Understanding Photog. 3 _____ *PHOT 213 Intermediate Photography 3

Dyer, Bill

295

UCLA Film & Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) joined forces with the UCLA Theater Arts Department to create the ATAS/UCLA Television Library. 11 years later, the UCLA Film & Television Archive was formally established, and donations began arriving from Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and other major motion picture studios. On the ATAS website, visitors can learn about upcoming screenings and lectures, along with more about the prodigious collections. The Collections area is a great place to start investigating opportunities to borrow prints, donate materials, and license media. The online exhibitions are a pip, and visitors should not miss the UCLA Preserved Silent Animation area. Here they can watch eleven different remarkable (and very rare) films, including "The Enchanted Drawing" and "Bob's Electric Theatre." Finally, visitors can connect with the Archive via a range of social media, including Twitter and YouTube.

2012-05-11

296

Advanced thin film thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

1984-01-01

297

Magnetoresistance of Au films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.-G.

2014-12-01

298

Dry film lubricant evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The lubrication characteristics of a modified tungsten disulfide (WS[sub 2]) were compared to the exiting dry film lubricant, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS[sub 2])- WS[sub 2] was verified as meeting all Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) requirements for a replacement dry film lubricant. However, in life and wear characteristics, the present lubricant outperformed the WS[sub 2]. Two studies to determine if welding could be performed through the WS[sub 2] coating indicated functionally strong welds, but evaluation showed cracks which would not meet weld requirements. Bearing tests comparing WS[sub 2], a low molecular weight tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), and unlubricated bearings indicated that WS[sub 2] bearing torque was 70 percent higher than TFE.

Bryan, R.M.

1993-04-01

299

Thin film composite electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

2007-08-14

300

Nonlinear optical thin films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film-forming material in a working device is a complex, multifaceted endeavor. It requires close attention to maintaining the optical properties of the electro-optic active portion of the polymer while manipulating the polymer structure to obtain the desired secondary polymer properties.

Leslie, Thomas M.

1993-01-01

301

A Film Canister Colorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The light source and filter monochromator was an interchangeable LED. The detector for this system was a voltage-divider circuit composed of a photoresistor in series with a fixed resistor. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer–Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the

James Gordon; Alan James; Stephanie Harman; Kristen Weiss

2002-01-01

302

How to Read a Film: The Art, Technology, Language, History and Theory of Film and Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses film as a narrative technique directly comparable to expression in prose narrative, in painting, and in music; it presents an overview of film as technology, the language of film and television, the history of film in America, Europe, and Asia, and the growth of film criticism. Chapters include "Film As an Art,""Technology:…

Monaco, James

303

FilmSound.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted and maintained by Sven E. Carlsson, a Swedish educator, this Web site is an excellent source of information about that one element of filmmaking that is sometimes overlooked due to its ubiquity: sound. Persons curious to read a brief overview of film sound will want to start with an essay titled "An Introduction to Film Sound," by Jane Knowles Marshall. After this, they may want to look over the glossary on the right-hand side of the main page, which features definitions and explanations of terms such as "Ambience," "Foley," and "Production Sound." The sites other highlights include numerous essays by Oscar-winning sound designer Walter Murch (who won for The English Patient and Apocalypse Now) and Randy Thom (who won for The Right Stuff and has been nominated six times in total). Along with other essays on the use of sound in Indian cinema and the history of film sound, there are 10 essays (and sound samples) on the use of sound and sound effect design in the Star Wars trilogy. Visitors may be particularly interested to learn that the language of the Ewoks was created by altering and layering Tibetan, Mongolian, and Nepali languages.

1997-01-01

304

Thin Film Optical Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the scientific conception of the modern world, thin film optical coatings can be interpreted as one-dimensional photonic crystals. In general, they are composed of a sequence of single layers which consist of different transparent dielectrics with a thickness in the nanometer scale according to the operation wavelength range. The major function of these photonic structures is to adapt the properties of an optical surface to the needs of specific applications. By application of optical thin film coatings with optimized designs, the spectral characteristics of a surface can be modified to practically any required transfer function for a certain wavelength range. For example, the Fresnel reflection of a lens or a laser window can be suppressed for a broad wavelength range by depositing an antireflective coating containing only a few single layers. On the basis of a layer stack with alternating high- and low-refracting materials, high reflectance values up to 99.999% can be achieved for a certain laser wavelength. In addition to these basic functions, optical coatings can realize a broad variety of spectral filter characteristics according to even extremely sophisticated demands in modern precision optics and laser technology. Moreover, recent developments in optical thin film technology provide the means to combine selected optical properties with other features concerning, for instance, the thermal, mechanical or chemical stability of a surface. The latest progress in ophthalmic coatings even includes the integration of self-cleaning, photoactive or anti-fogging functions in antireflective coatings on glass.

Ristau, Detlev; Ehlers, Henrik

305

Polydiacetylene Films Prepared in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diffusive/kinetic rate equation was developed for the growth of polydiacetylene films from solution and compared with a microgravity experiment. The model takes into account both the kinetics of thin film growth and the diffusive transport limitations inherent to microgravity. In order to apply this model, measurements of the density and the ultraviolet extinction coefficient of the films, as well as of the diffusion coefficient of the monomer/solvent system, were made. The thin films grown in microgravity were predicted by the model to grow to a thickness of 0.148 micron, versus 0.150 micron for the ground control films. The flight films grew to 0.102 micron.

Carswell, William E.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Naumann, Robert J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

306

Fracture characteristics of balloon films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.

Portanova, Marc A.

1989-01-01

307

Nanotemplated lead telluride thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct lyotropic liquid crystalline templating has been successfully applied to produce nanostructured IV–VI semiconductor PbTe thin films by electrodeposition both on gold and n-type (100) silicon substrates. The PbTe films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy and the results show that the films have a regular hexagonal nanoarchitecture with a high crystalline rock salt

Xiaohong Li; Iris S. Nandhakumar; George S. Attard; Matthew L. Markham; David C. Smith; Jeremy J. Baumberg

2009-01-01

308

Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology  

SciTech Connect

Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

1991-03-01

309

A solid state film transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solid state film transport utilizing piezoelectric motion was evaluated and found to have potential in film positioning applications. The concept is particularly useful in flight equipment where torque motors and conventional transport mechanisms are difficult to apply. A demonstration model utilizing 5-inch film was designed, tested, and evaluated. Three basic operating modes were investigated. Design goals for step size were achieved under controlled conditions. The continuous mode test results were marred by an inability to transfer efficiently the piezoceramic motion to the film itself. The design, test results, and problem areas are described.

Davis, C. M.; Learish, D. B.

1972-01-01

310

Physics of polypeptide multilayer films.  

PubMed

Polypeptide multilayer films are promising for the development of coatings for implant devices, biosensors, and artificial cells. This paper discusses aspects of the physics of these films. Three sub-topics in the physics of peptide adsorption in multilayer film assembly covered here are peptide structure at the film/solid support interface, adsorbed layer thickness, and dynamics of peptide adsorption. A synopsis of work in these areas is preceded by an introduction to the subject and a review of some aspects of polymer theory. PMID:16447167

Haynie, Donald T

2006-08-01

311

Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles by solution based solid state reaction process and its application in dye sensitized solar cell as counter electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were synthesized by using solution based solid state reaction process and films were coated on FTO (Fluorine doped tin oxide) substrate using doctor blade technique. Phase identification, crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated with CZTS as counter electrode showed photo conversion efficiency 2.57 % compared to Pt based counter electrode 3.17 % efficiency. The charge transport at CZTS/ electrolyte interface was studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu

2014-04-01

312

{116} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays: facile synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performances.  

PubMed

Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11?0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field. PMID:25247926

Li, Feng; Li, Xiaoning; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Yang, Shangfeng; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

2014-11-01

313

Templated dewetting of thin solid films  

E-print Network

The dewetting of solid metal polycrystalline films to form metal nanoparticles occurs by the nucleation and growth of holes in the film. For typical films on flat substrates, this process is not well-controlled and results ...

Giermann, Amanda L. (Amanda Leah)

2009-01-01

314

Brittle Thin Films Andrea Braides Irene Fonseca  

E-print Network

for brittle thin films is obtained from a 3-dime* *nsional fracture model for elastic material. -convergence Brittle Thin Films Andrea Braides Irene Fonseca Words : -limit, thin films, functions of bounded variation, fracture mecha* *nics Introduction

315

ReportTechnical Image -Film -Discourse / Bild -Film -Diskurs  

E-print Network

(for example, in instruction manuals or unusually composed film clips, etc.), is surpris- ingly. The project specifically analysed images, image-text combinations, and films from two areas: visual narrative, it has been studied how cultural events and individuals are represented visually and how their automatic

316

Sundance Film Festival Announces Winners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Film festivals have become immensely popular during the last few decades, and it seems like almost every city or state now has some type of festival to showcase the work of local, national, and in some cases, international filmmakers, both young and old. Started by Robert Redford in 1981, the Sundance Film Festival (held annually in Park City, Utah) has quickly grown into one of the most prestigious celebrations of filmmaking in the world. Earlier this week, the Sundance Film Festival announced its awards in the Independent Feature Film Competition. Among the winners were "Capturing the Friedmans" (which won the Documentary Grand Jury Prize), "American Splendor" (which received the Dramatic Grand Jury Prize), and "My Flesh and Blood" (which received the Documentary Audience Award).The first site leads to the official 2003 Sundance Film Festival site that contains a wealth of material, including lists of all films shown at the festival and detailed information about the juries for the different competitions. The second link is to a news article from the Washington Post that reports on various award recipients of this year's Sundance Film Festival competition. The third link is to an online article that discusses the making of the film "Capturing the Friedmans" with the director, Andrew Jarecki. The fourth site leads to an interview with the noted comic book author Harvey Pekar, whose life was chronicled by director Shari Springer for her 2003 Sundance Festival award-winning film, "American Splendor." The fifth site leads to the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival home page, which was founded in 1998 to showcase the work of documentary filmmakers solely. The final site, Filmfestivals.com, is the clearinghouse for information about almost every single film festival in the world, and contains a search engine, detailed calendars of upcoming events, and frequently updated information about upcoming releases.

Grinnell, Max

317

Radiation grafting on natural films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

2014-01-01

318

Reference dosimetry using radiochromic film.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify factors that influence radiochromic film dose response and to determine whether such films are suitable for reference dosimetry. The influence of several parameters that may introduce systematic dose errors when performing reference dose measurements were investigated. The effect of the film storage temperature was determined by comparing the performance of three lots of GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films stored at either 4ºC or room temperature. The effect of high (> 80%) or low (< 20%) relative humidity was also determined. Doses measured in optimal conditions with EBT and EBT2 films were then compared with an A12 ionization chamber measurement. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality controls using EBT2 films were also performed in reference dose. The results obtained using reference dose measurements were compared with those obtained using relative dose measurements. Storing the film at 4ºC improves the stability of the film over time, but does not eliminate the noncatalytic film development, seen as a rise in optical density over time in the absence of radiation. Relative humidity variations ranging from 80% to 20% have a strong impact on the optical density and could introduce dose errors of up to 15% if the humidity were not controlled during the film storage period. During the scanning procedure, the film temperature influences the optical density that is measured. When controlling for these three parameters, the dose differences between EBT or EBT2 and the A12 chamber are found to be within ± 4% (2? level) over a dose range of 20-350 cGy. Our results also demonstrate the limitation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm for dose calculation of highly modulated treatment plans. PMID:23149793

Girard, Frédéric; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

2012-01-01

319

Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film  

DOEpatents

A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-03-30

320

Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals  

PubMed Central

We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

Olney, Andrew McGregor

2013-01-01

321

Beryllium thin films for resistor applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

Fiet, O.

1972-01-01

322

Strictly Bollywood? : story, camera and movement in Hindi film dance  

E-print Network

Film dances, or filmed dance sequences accompanying film songs, are an important part of popular Indian cinema. Over the years, Hindi film dance has evolved from a cinematically simplistic, filmed documentation of performance ...

Shresthova, Sangita.

2003-01-01

323

Film Option Curriculum 2012 -2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed under different headings, including  

E-print Network

Film Option Curriculum 2012 - 2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed; typically taken in freshman year) FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography 3 FILM 106IA ­ Film in America 3 FILM 112 ­ Aesthetics of Film Production I 3 PHOT 113RA ­ Understanding Photography 3 WRIT 101W

Dyer, Bill

324

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, L.

1988-04-27

325

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

326

Sputtered thin film research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactive RF sputtering technique was applied to the preparation of a wide variety of materials. Single crystal films of ZnO, TiO2, WO3 AlN and GaN were grown on one or more of the insulating crystalline substrates of Al2O3, MgAl2O3, SiC and LiNbO3. Data on the deposition parameters, structure and optical waveguiding characteristics of the heteroepitaxial structures are presented. Reactive

A. J. Shuskus; D. J. Quinn; E. L. Paradis; J. M. Berak; D. E. Cullen

1974-01-01

327

A Film Canister Colorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The light source and filter monochromator was an interchangeable LED. The detector for this system was a voltage-divider circuit composed of a photoresistor in series with a fixed resistor. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer–Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for the LED. Comparisons were made between this instrument and three commercial spectrometers and colorimeters.

Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

2002-08-01

328

The Public Library Film Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of three types of film--teaching, information, and entertainment--is presented. The numbers of films in each category, especially the last, which includes the animated, unnarrated, iconographic, underground, and avant-garde, has grown substantially. Libraries have quickly accepted all except the revolutionary philosophies…

Peltier, Euclid

1978-01-01

329

Symbolism in the Feature Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

Bakony, Edward

330

Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

1994-01-01

331

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

1986-01-01

332

Domain relaxation in Langmuir films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on theoretical studies of molecularly thin Langmuir films on the surface of a quiescent subfluid and qualitatively compare the results to both new and previous experiments. The film covers the entire fluid surface, but domains of different phases are observed. In the absence of external forcing, the compact domains tend to relax to circles, driven by a line

James C. Alexander; Andrew J. Bernoff; Elizabeth K. Mann; J. Adin Mann; Jacob R. Wintersmith; Lu Zou

2007-01-01

333

Domain relaxation in Langmuir films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on theoretical studies of molecularly thin Langmuir films on the surface of a quiescent subfluid and qualitatively compare the results to both new and previous experiments. The film covers the entire fluid surface, but domains of di!erent phases are observed. In the absence of external forcing, the compact domains tend to relax to circles, driven by a line

JAMES C. ALEXANDER; ANDREW J. BERNOFF; ELIZABETH K. MANN; J. ADIN; JACOB R. WINTERSMITH

2007-01-01

334

Photoelectrochemistry of disordered passive films  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model, which describes subband gap photoexcitation involving localized electronic states, was developed. The escape probability of a charge carrier trapped in a localized state is considered via Poole-Frenkel, direct tunneling, or phonon-assisted tunneling processes, as competing escape mechanisms. Photoelectrochemical experiments were performed on the passive films formed on zirconium and amorphous iron-zirconium alloys and on pure HfO/sub 2/ films and HfO/sub 2/ films implanted with varying concentrations of xenon. These films were found to possess some degree of disorder depending on the substrate, the thickness of the film, and the extent of implantation. The spectral dependence of the photocurrent in all of the films studied is considerably different from what was found for crystalline passive films. The potential dependence of the photocurrent yields Poole-Frenkel behavior. Reverse tunneling processes were also observed at low photon energies and low fields across the film, which is consistent with the theoretical results.

Newark, A.R.

1987-01-01

335

Photoconductivity of thin organic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2?m), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well

Nikolai V. Tkachenko; Vladimir Chukharev; Petra Kaplas; Antti Tolkki; Alexander Efimov; Kimmo Haring; Jukka Viheriälä; Tapio Niemi; Helge Lemmetyinen

2010-01-01

336

The Thin Oil Film Equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

1999-01-01

337

Internet Archive: Cultural & Academic Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Archive bills itself as "universal access to all knowledge," and lives up to this promise by hosting dozens of thematic collections. This collection, covering Cultural & Academic Films, includes materials from the Academic Film Archive and the Media Burn Independent Film Archive, as well as documentaries by noted filmmaker Dorothy Fadiman. Also, the collection includes works from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology by Watson Kintner, who used film to document his travels around the globe. One amazing highlight here is the Buckminster Fuller Archive, a subcollection within this larger group. It features 42 hours of lectures delivered by this futurist, architect, and thinker, delivered during the last two weeks of January, 1975. The other subcollections here include the Chicago Film Archives, California Light and Sound, and the Global Lives Project. The Chicago Film Archives includes 39 films that explore everything from the Chicago World's Fair to the film "Cause Without A Rebel" about political apathy at Northwestern University in the 1960s. [KMG

338

German Film Club Spring 2014  

E-print Network

a selection of German movies and to explore German culture and language. Movies are shown in GermanGerman Film Club Spring 2014 The German Film Club offers an opportunity for students to discover with English subtitles free of charge and all students enrolled in German language courses are welcome. Tuesday

Rohs, Remo

339

Method to prepare oxide films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention pertains to a method for producing metal oxide films characterized by the fact that the metal elements constituting the main metal alloys contain at least one kind of transition element, and that the metal elements which constitute said metal alloy are thin films of barium and titanium in almost the same mol ratio.

Hirota, T.

1986-01-01

340

Pectin films for various applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article presents 4 examples of new uses of pectin films: (I) edible pectin and protein films as packaging or coating materials; (II) pectin and poly(lactic acid) composites for antimicrobial packaging, (III) moisture-sensitive pectin-sponges for the controlled release of chlorine dioxide; and (...

341

Notable Children's Films, Filmstrips, Recordings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents list of notable audiovisual materials (12 films, 4 filmstrips, 18 recordings) for children through age 14 compiled by members of Film, Filmstrip, and Recording Evaluation Committees of the Association for Library Service to Children. Producers, distributors, length, price, and annotations are provided. Addresses for 20 distributors are…

Top of the News, 1984

1984-01-01

342

Novel nanocellulosic xylan composite film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocellulosic-xylan films were prepared employing oat spelt xylan, cellulose whiskers and a plasticizer. The mechanical properties of the films were evaluated using tensile testing under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The tensile data showed that the addition of sulfonated cellulose whiskers lead to a substantial improvement in strength properties. Addition of 7wt% of sulfonated whiskers increased the tensile energy absorption

Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Shaobo Pan; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2009-01-01

343

Giant magnetoresistance in electrodeposited films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodeposition is one of the simpler and cheaper processes available for the fabrication of thin metal films. Recent developments have made it possible to electrodeposit a wide range of nanostructured materials, including many that exhibit giant magnetoresistance (GMR). We review progress in the growth and characterization of such films, starting with electrodeposited ferromagnetic metal\\/non-magnetic metal superlattices in which the individual

W. Schwarzacher; D. S. Lashmore

1996-01-01

344

Laser refractometry of edible films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refraction index of edible films from polysaccharides (pectin, xanthan, carboxy-methyl-cellulose, polymixan) has been investigated using laser microrefractomeeter, constructed by the authors. Experimental data about the optical density and the thickness of the edible films have been obtained. The results from the investigation can be used in the development of new packing technologies for food products.

Panchev, I.; Nikolova, K.; Sainov, Simeon C.

2004-06-01

345

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOEpatents

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

346

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOEpatents

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01

347

Thin films: Past, present, future  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

Zweibel, K.

1995-04-01

348

System for measuring film thickness  

DOEpatents

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

349

Films in Early Childhood Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography provides descriptions of films concerning child development and various approaches to early childhood education. Some are for classroom use, and others are intended as guides and resource materials for teachers. Attachments give addresses and phone numbers of film distributors and addresses, managers and phone number of…

Cooke, Gary, Comp.

350

Magnetochromatic thin-film microplates.  

PubMed

A new type of magnetochromatic material is developed based on thin-film interference of microplates self-assembled from super-paramagnetic nanocrystals. Dynamic optical tuning can be achieved through orientational manipulation of free-standing super-paramagnetic thin-film microplates using external magnetic fields. PMID:25408459

He, Le; Janner, Michael; Lu, Qipeng; Wang, Mingsheng; Ma, Hua; Yin, Yadong

2015-01-01

351

Film Fabrication Technologies at NREL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has extensive capabilities for fabricating a variety of high-technology films. Much of the in-house work in NREL's large photovoltaics (PV) program involves the fabrication of multiple thin-film semiconducting layers constituting a thin-film PV device. NREL's smaller program in superconductivity focuses on the fabrication of superconducting films on long, flexible tape substrates. This paper focuses on four of NREL's in-house research groups and their film fabrication techniques, developed for a variety of elements, alloys, and compounds to be deposited on a variety of substrates. As is the case for many national laboratories, NREL's technology transfer efforts are focusing on Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA's) between NREL researchers and private industry researchers.

Mcconnell, Robert D.

1993-01-01

352

Anode film formation and control  

DOEpatents

A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

1990-05-01

353

Disentanglement in thin polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations of thin polymer films confined between structureless walls show accelerated in-plane dynamics with decreasing film thickness. Using the primitive path analysis (PPA) introduced by Everaers et al [Science 303 (2004) 823] for chain length up to N=1024, we can show that the entanglement density decreases with decreasing film thickness. However, the effect becomes pronounced only for films thinner than the bulk radius of gyration where also the chain structure becomes modified by the confinement [1]. The PPA algorithm can be modified to estimate the contribution of self-entanglements: The latter become more important for thinner films, however, they do not counterbalance the global decrease of entanglements. [1] H. Meyer et al Eur. Phys. J. Sp.Top. 141 (2007) 167.

Meyer, Hendrik

2008-03-01

354

Laser damage threshold of diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility that diamond films may inhibit laser-induced damage to optical components in laser systems films was investigated by measuring laser damage thresholds of free-standing diamond film windows, diamond films deposited on silicon substrates, and bare silicon substrate. Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a dc plasma-enhanced CVD process. It was found that free-standing diamond films had the highest laser damage threshold at 1064 nm. For a diamond film of 630 nm, the damage threshold was found to be 7 J/sq cm, as compared to a damage threshold of 4.5 J/sq cm for bare silicon, and a low value of 1.5 J/sq cm for the film/substrate combination. The damage mechanism is considered to involve melting or dielectric breakdown induced by laser radiation. The low value of the film/substrate combination is attributed to film stress and conditions of film deposition.

Albin, Sacharia; Cropper, Andre D.; Watkins, Linwood C.; Byvik, Charles E.; Buoncristiani, A. Martin

1989-03-01

355

Laser damage threshold of diamond films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that diamond films may inhibit laser-induced damage to optical components in laser systems films was investigated by measuring laser damage thresholds of free-standing diamond film windows, diamond films deposited on silicon substrates, and bare silicon substrate. Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a dc plasma-enhanced CVD process. It was found that free-standing diamond films had the highest laser damage threshold at 1064 nm. For a diamond film of 630 nm, the damage threshold was found to be 7 J/sq cm, as compared to a damage threshold of 4.5 J/sq cm for bare silicon, and a low value of 1.5 J/sq cm for the film/substrate combination. The damage mechanism is considered to involve melting or dielectric breakdown induced by laser radiation. The low value of the film/substrate combination is attributed to film stress and conditions of film deposition.

Albin, Sacharia; Cropper, Andre D.; Watkins, Linwood C.; Byvik, Charles E.; Buoncristiani, A. Martin

1989-01-01

356

High performance YBCO films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suitable low loss, low dielectric constant substrate for HTS circuitry has been identified and shown to permit the deposition of high quality YBCO films that are comparable to that achieved with lanthanum aluminate substrates. The substrate is magnesium fluoride which has a dielectric constant of 5.3 and a loss tangent of 0.0001 at 77 K. The benefits of this technology are higher speed interconnects for multichip module (MCM) assemblies applied to digital processing, higher power handling at microwave frequencies applied to multiplexers and other passive components, and lower frequency dispersion and lower loss at millimeter wave frequencies applied to antenna feed networks, T/R modules, and delay lines. We have developed a novel fabrication technique for MCM structures that features an ultra-thin YBCO-covered magnesium fluoride substrate glass bonded to a metal handle, which provides excellent mechanical support and good heat sinking characteristics. For a sample demonstration of this technology, an MCM structure with a YBCO signal plane that is suitable for microwave/millimeter wave circuitry was fabricated and tested to have excellent electrical characteristics with a YBCO film surface resistance of 1 mohm.

Denlinger, Edgar J.

1995-03-01

357

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

Hemmers, Oliver

358

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

Hemmers, Oliver

359

Improvement of the partial discharge resistance of polymer films by coating with plasma-polymerized films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene terephthalate films was coated with plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) film in a triode glow discharge system. The dielectric properties of PPHMDS films and their durability, the partial discharge characteristics and the surface morphology of coated polymer films were investigated. The lifetime of the coated PTFE films was longer than that of the uncoated PTFE

Minoru Kusabiraki; Masao Aozasa

1996-01-01

360

The National Film Board's Studio D: Feminists Making Films for Peace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studio D of the National Film Board of Canada, a women's film making unit established to make films by, for, and about women, has created a group of five films that effectively develop the argument that women can and must join the effort to bring peace to a nuclear world. The first of these peace films, "If You Love This Planet," consists of words…

Taylor, Anita

361

The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films  

E-print Network

The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films Nanshu Lu-supported copper films with a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture and with thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 1 lm. Films with thicknesses below 200 nm fail by intergranular fracture at elongations of only a few percent. Thicker films

Suo, Zhigang

362

FILM, VIDEO, AND AMERICAN HISTORY AMST S483 1 (30050) /HISTS187/FILMS247  

E-print Network

FILM, VIDEO, AND AMERICAN HISTORY AMST S483 1 (30050) /HISTS187/FILMS247 Summer Session B (July 8 the representation of American history on film and video through close analysis of American films, from the turn understand film as a document of a historical moment? Readings - All readings will be available as PDFs

363

Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES PROGRAM OFFICE Nichols@sonoma.edu Program Offered Minor in Film Studies The film studies minor is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental program that analyzes the theory, history, practice, and cultural signifi- cance of film. Students

Ravikumar, B.

364

Lifelong Learning Films; 1972-1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 450 newly acquired films are described in this brochure. They are, for the most part, short black-and-white 16 mm films produced by the University of California Extension Media Center and selected films from other producers. The main entry section arranges the films alphabetically by title; it gives an annotation, the running time,…

California Univ., Berkeley. Media Extension Center.

365

Using Popular Children's Films in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

2012-01-01

366

Language, Culture, and the Feature Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that one way to provide cultural contexts for language learning is by using feature films for instructional purposes. Highlights the benefits of feature films, discusses the selection of films, and describes a process for using feature films in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

Straub, Hans

2002-01-01

367

3D Film Making Cary Kornfeld  

E-print Network

Stereoscopic Films are special. They tickle parts of our brain that are "rarely" stimulated in this way. Making the talk a free screening of ETHZ student 3D films will take place at the School of Film and Animation aaabbbssstttrrraaaccctttsss... #12;Abstract Stereoscopic Films are special. They tickle parts of our brain "rarely" stimulated

Zanibbi, Richard

368

A 3M high temperature dielectric film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance characteristics of a dielectric film are summarized. Additionally, the film's environmental and chemical properties are listed: low shrinkage to 300 C; moisture insensitive; low outgassing under vacuum; excellent surface qualities--easy metallization of film; flame retardant; and low smoke generation. A series of graphs that display the performance characteristics of the film are also presented.

Hampl, Edward, Jr.

1994-01-01

369

Ignition characteristics of plutonium sputtered films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium sputtering produces thin plutonium films on shields and other parts in the apparatus. Occasionally, the thin film peels from the backing. Loose plutonium films have a high surface area to mass ratio and, therefore a low ignition temperature. The films are generated in a box with a low oxygen concentration (less than 5 volume percent oxygen in nitrogen). Subsequently,

Musgrave

1972-01-01

370

Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1994-01-01

371

Montana State University 1 Film and Photography  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Film and Photography The School of Film and Photography The School of Film and Photography (SFP) prepares students to meet the challenges of a rapidly expanding picture, photography, theatre and new media production. The School of Film and Photography offers

Maxwell, Bruce D.

372

FILM STUDIES www.theaterarts.pdx.edu  

E-print Network

's major when appropriate. *Film Elective Options: TA 135 Classic Movies (4) TA 252 Stage Makeup (2) TA 311 Culture Science Fiction Cinema Trading Places: Racial and Gender Transformations in Film and VisualFILM STUDIES www.theaterarts.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Minor in Film Studies Portland

373

Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees)  

E-print Network

94 Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art universities. Times Higher Education World Rankings 2012-2013. Features * Film Studies is open to those who have had no previous experience of learning about cinema as well as those who may have studied film

Brierley, Andrew

374

Thin Films Using Al Doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the influence of Al doping on the microstructural, optical, and electrical properties of spray-deposited WO3 thin films. XRD analyses confirm that all the films are of polycrystalline WO3 in nature, possessing monoclinic structure. EDX profiles of the Al-doped films show aluminum peaks implying incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. On Al doping, the average crystallite size decreases due to increase in the density of nucleation centers at the time of film growth. The observed variation in the lattice parameter values on Al doping is attributed to the incorporation of Al ions into WO3 lattice. Enhancement in the direct optical band gap compared to the undoped film has been observed on Al doping due to decrease in the width of allowed energy states near the conduction band edge. The refractive indices of the films follow the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Electrical resistivity compared to the undoped film has been found to increase on Al doping.

Mukherjee, Ramnayan; Prajapati, C. S.; Sahay, P. P.

2014-09-01

375

Transparent conducting zinc nitride films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly conducting Zn3N2 thin films were reactively sputtered on unheated glass. Well-crystallized polycrystalline films were obtained even though the films were deposited at a low temperature. Nitrogen-deficient Zn3N2 films exhibited n-type conductivity and resistivities of the order of 10-3 ? cm. All the obtained Zn3N2 films had sufficiently high electron mobilities in the range of 30 to 66 cm2 V-1 s-1. Such high mobilities probably originate from the small electron effective mass of 0.27m0 (where m0 denotes free electron mass), which was confirmed by infrared reflectance measurements. Furthermore, we found that intentional oxygen doping reduced the resistivities of Zn3N2 thin films to 8.9 × 10-4 ? cm. Optical measurements revealed that the direct optical band gap of the Zn3N2 films was in the range of 2.9-3.1 eV. These results suggest that impurity-doped Zn3N2 is a candidate for a new nitride-based transparent conductor.

Yamada, Naoomi; Watarai, Kouki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Sato, Atsushi; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

376

Precursor films in wetting phenomena  

E-print Network

The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are rather well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e., molecularly thin films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed.

M. N. Popescu; G. Oshanin; S. Dietrich; A. -M. Cazabat

2012-05-07

377

Defect formation in hafnium dioxide thin films.  

PubMed

Hafnium dioxide thin films were deposited by reactive electron-beam evaporation at six different substrate temperatures on fused-silica substrates. During the depositions, the scattering of light caused by the growth of defects in the films was recorded with in situ total internal reflection microscopy. After deposition the films were analyzed by angle-resolved scatterometery, spectrophotometric measurement of film reflectance and transmittance, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. We explore the effects of film defect formation on film optical properties and film surface topography using these data. PMID:18345056

Reicher, D; Black, P; Jungling, K

2000-04-01

378

Ferromagnetic thin films  

DOEpatents

A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

Krishnan, K.M.

1994-12-20

379

Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

2012-01-01

380

Ferromagnetic thin films  

DOEpatents

A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

Krishnan, Kannan M. (Berkeley, CA)

1994-01-01

381

Surface Nanostructures in Manganite Films  

PubMed Central

Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications. PMID:24941969

Gambardella, A.; Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Prezioso, M.; Pullini, D.; Milita, S.; Biscarini, F.; Dediu, V. A.

2014-01-01

382

Surface nanostructures in manganite films.  

PubMed

Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications. PMID:24941969

Gambardella, A; Graziosi, P; Bergenti, I; Prezioso, M; Pullini, D; Milita, S; Biscarini, F; Dediu, V A

2014-01-01

383

Film boiling of mercury droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

1975-01-01

384

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

1982-03-09

385

Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

2003-07-15

386

B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies  

E-print Network

and pulp imagery across a range of European traditions within a specific historical framework and including Linklater. Columbia University Press / Wallflower. Edited books Members of B-Film were responsible

Birmingham, University of

387

The Art of Teaching Social Studies with Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching with film is a powerful and meaningful instructional strategy. This article discusses five classroom-tested methods for teaching with film: (1) film as a visual textbook, (2) film as a depicter of atmosphere, (3) film as an analogy, (4) film as a historiography, and (5) film as a springboard. Each of the methods discussed includes…

Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

388

Significant effects of reaction temperature on morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectrical properties of rutile TiO2 nanorod array films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oriented single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays have been extensively studied as the electrode of photoelectrochemical cells due to their unique properties. In this study, oriented rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were directly synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by a facile hydrothermal method, and the effects of growth conditions (i.e. reaction temperature, growth time and titanium precursor) on their morphologies, crystal structures and photoelectrical properties were investigated. Reaction temperature played a more critical role in tailoring the surface morphology, crystal structures (i.e. length, diameter and crystallinity of nanorods) and photoelectrical properties of the nanorods than growth time did. With the increase in reaction temperature from 140 °C to 200 °C, both photocurrent density and external quantum efficiency (EQE) increased initially and then decreased, with a maximum value of 5.6 × 10-2 mA cm-2 at 170 °C and 2.7% at 160 °C, respectively. In addition, photoelectric measurements demonstrated that TiO2 nanorod arrays synthesized from TiCl4 at a relatively low reaction temperature exhibited a much higher EQE value than those obtained from titanium isopropoxide.

Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Qianqian; Dong, Hongzhou; Dong, Lifeng

2013-03-01

389

Development of ZnTe layers using an electrochemical technique for applications in thin-film solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc telluride layers were grown by an electrochemical technique using acidic and aqueous solutions containing ZnCl2 and TeO2. The layers were deposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a two-electrode system. The deposited ZnTe layers were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption, photoelectrochemical cell measurements, scanning electron microscopy and 3D-atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) for the structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties. The electrodeposited ZnTe layers grow as columns, and have cubic crystal structure, the band gap in the range of (2.00-2.20) eV and p-type electrical conductivity. Surface morphology studies using SEM indicate the presence of two types of material clusters varying in size up to ˜125 nm. 3D-AFM studies with higher magnification show that the material tends to grow as columns with different sizes leaving gaps in between in some areas.

Fauzi, F.; Diso, D. G.; Echendu, O. K.; Patel, V.; Purandare, Y.; Burton, R.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

2013-04-01

390

Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (inventor); Jow, T. Richard (inventor)

1995-01-01

391

Thin film cell development workshop report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

Woodyard, James R.

1991-01-01

392

Testing Bonds Between Brittle And Ductile Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple uniaxial strain test devised to measure intrinsic shear strength. Brittle film deposited on ductile stubstrate film, and combination stretched until brittle film cracks, then separates from substrate. Dimensions of cracked segments related in known way to tensile strength of brittle film and shear strength of bond between two films. Despite approximations and limitations of technique, tests show it yields semiquantitative measures of bond strengths, independent of mechanical properties of substrates, with results reproducible with plus or minus 6 percent.

Wheeler, Donald R.; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

1989-01-01

393

Thin film characterization using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of the multiple angle and wavelength (MAW) technique to measure the dielectric function of semiconducting films is discussed. This technique evaluates unambiguously the complex dielectric function, epsilon (E), of the film without any pre-assumptions. In some cases the effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to determine the volume fraction of the film components. Application of the MAW technique to several semiconducting films was published previously. Different applications and examples are given, including metal and insulator films.

Alterovitz, Samuel A.

1990-01-01

394

Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (inventor); Jow, T. Richard (inventor)

1993-01-01

395

Radiochromic film dosimetry for clinical proton beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth doses and lateral profiles for proton beams with energies of 100–250 MeV were measured with a high-sensitivity GafChromic™ MD-55 film, which requires no post-irradiation development. The exposed MD-55 films were evaluated with the RIT 113 film dosimetry system. Depth doses measured with MD-55 film were compared with those obtained with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The GafChromic™ film was found

Stanislav M. Vatnitsky

1997-01-01

396

Modeling of multilayer thin film recording media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously developed micromagnetic model for single-layer thin-film recording media is extended to model multilayer thin-film media. Effects of the magnetostatic interactions between the adjacent magnetic layers in the film are studied for a film with two magnetic layers separated by an ideal nonmagnetic layer. Magnetization reversal processes and hysteresis properties are studied for films with different separation layer thicknesses.

Jian-Gang Zhu

1992-01-01

397

LEAM Film Development Vibration Test Report  

E-print Network

LEAM Film Development Vibration Test Report Prepared by: L. Kaliniec MO. RIV. MO. ATM lOll PAGI 1 Of Z7 DATl! 6- 11 - 71 Approved by: ~~ P. Pilon r #12;LEAM Film Development Vibration Test Report OF LEVELS 7.3 FILM SUPPORT MESH 7.4 FILM FRAME MOUNTS 7.5 FILM FAILURES 8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 9

Rathbun, Julie A.

398

Characterization of microcomposite polyimide films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally stable microcomposite polyimide films were prepared by the homogeneous incorporation of either a soluble metal salt or a metal complex into a poly(amide-acid)/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution. The thermal processing of films solvent cast onto glass substrates and cured in an appropriate atmosphere yields films containing not only a fairly uniform dispersion of submicrometer particles, but also a new surface layer of metal or metal oxide. These polymeric systems have been characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy with depth profiling via argon ion etching, transmission electron microscopy of ultramicrotomed cross-sections, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, and variable temperature electrical resistivity determinations. The data from these techniques were used cooperatively to develop a model for these microcomposite polyimide films.

Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

1988-01-01

399

Boron doped nanostructured diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical vapor deposition hydrogen/methane/nitrogen feed-gas mixture with unconventionally high methane (15% CH4 by volume) normally used to grow ultra-hard and smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates was modified to include diborane B2H6 for boron-doping of diamond films. The flow rates for B2H 6 and N2 were varied to investigate their effect on plasma chemistry, film structure, boron incorporation, and mechanical properties. It was found that boron atoms can easily be incorporated into diamond films and change the lattice constant and film structure. Nitrogen, on the other hand, competes with boron in the plasma and acts to prevent boron incorporation into the diamond structure. In addition, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction and Micro-Raman were used as the main tools to investigate the relation between processing and structure. An optimal N2/CH4 ratio of 0.4 was found to result in a film with a minimum in grain size and surface roughness, along with high boron incorporation (˜4 x 1020 cm-3). Mechanical properties and thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films were examined by means of nanoindentation, open air thermal annealing, and nanotribometry. It was found that the films have high hardness close to that of undoped nanostructured diamond films. Thermal stability of these films was evaluated by heating in an oxygen environment above 700°C. Improved thermal stability of boron doped nanostructured diamond films was observed. Tribological tests show that although both undoped and boron doped nanostructured diamond films show extremely low coefficient of friction and wear rate as compared with uncoated titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) and cobalt chrome alloy (Co-Cr-Mo), a critical failure max stress of 2.2 GPa was observed for boron doped nanostructured diamond films. A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics, gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium calculations involving H 2/CH4/N2/B2H6 mixtures was employed to investigate the chemical interactions leading to boron incorporation and crystalline structure variations. The strong influence of the BH 3 in causing the boron incorporation and the role of CN radical in causing the nanocrystallinity are confirmed by the correlation of their modeled compositions in the gas phase with boron content and degree of nanocrystallinity as determined experimentally. A good degree of agreement was obtained between the theoretically predicted gas phase concentration of species and the experimental concentration trends as measured by the optical emission spectroscopy of the microwave plasma. Overall, high film hardness and toughness, combined with good thermal stability and low surface roughness, indicate that nanostructured boron doped diamond films can be used as wear resistant coatings that are able to withstand high temperature oxidizing environments.

Liang, Qi

400

Calendar of Events Film Festival  

E-print Network

the author of "Benevolence and Betrayal: Five Italian-Jewish Families Under Fascism" (Penguin), which won Culture, Art and Fascism," and "Strangers in America" as well as a feature film, "Dicembre", which won

Qian, Ning

401

College Course File: Film Noir.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 units in a course on "film noir," a cinema that tells stories of alienation linked to issues of social and sexual power. Includes units on visual and narrative style, space, classic detective tradition, and emotional solitude.(PD)

Polan, Dana

1985-01-01

402

PBS 2013 Online Film Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wanted to attend a film festival from the comfort of your own living room? With this collection of 25 short films under the PBS banner, that dream can become a reality. The films are featured under the headline "Watch Us Surprise You," which is a worthy byline. New visitors should start by watching the introduction to the history of online video and then looking over the About the Festival area. Here they can watch a one-minute introduction to the festival and then they should dive right in. The films here include an exploration of anagrams ("Ars Magna"), a look into the life of a disappearing cat ("CatCam"), and a piece on shell mounds in California titled "Injunuity: Buried." Overall, it's a wonderful collection that will inspire filmmakers young and old to get out there and craft their own narrative work.

2013-03-01

403

Fabrication of amorphous diamond films  

DOEpatents

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1995-12-12

404

Thermal diffusivity of diamond films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser pulse technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate is developed. The effective thermal diffusivity of diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by the laser pulses. An analytical model is developed to calculate the effective in-plane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film. Phase and amplitude measurements give similar results. The thermal conductivity of the films is found to be better than that of type 1a natural diamond.

Albin, Sacharia; Winfree, William P.; Crews, B. Scott

1990-01-01

405

Mechanical properties of thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of thin films on substrates are described and studied. It is shown that very large stresses may\\u000a be present in the thin films that comprise integrated circuits and magnetic disks and that these stresses can cause deformation\\u000a and fracture to occur. It is argued that the approaches that have proven useful in the study of bulk structural

William D. Nix

1989-01-01

406

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27

407

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

1998-01-01

408

Photoconductivity of thin organic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 ?m), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene ( PHT), fullerene ( C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide ( PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine ( CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 × 10 3 ? m and 3 × 10 4 ? m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 × 10 8 ? m in dark to 3.1 × 10 6 ? m under the light.

Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriälä, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

2010-04-01

409

Acid diffusion through polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10-10 cm2/s to 10-12 cm2/s. All the experiments are conducted at room temperature and are valid only for acid vapor. With different film thickness, it was found that the acid diffuses through the film with a similar diffusion constant. The diffusion is faster with increased solvent residue in the film (controlled by spin coating speed). The theoretical computer modeling of the local acid concentration with respect to acid diffusion is also performed.

Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.

1997-07-01

410

Border Film Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2005, three young Americans, Rudy Adler, Victoria Criado, and Brett Huneycutt, whose backgrounds include activism, economics, and advertising, wondered what would happen if they gave disposable cameras to two groups of people on different sides of the border between the United States and Mexico: undocumented migrants crossing into the United States, and American Minutemen trying to stop them. Both groups were asked to document their activities, given postage- paid mailers for the return of their unprocessed film, and were offered different incentives. Minutemen received $25 Shell gas cards, while migrants were given $25 Wal-Mart gift cards. The results can currently be viewed on this website and were published in book form in 2007. They have also been exhibited in galleries throughout the U.S. ranging from Venice, California to Buffalo, New York. The project has collected around 2,000 photos, most of which can be viewed here by clicking on the "Photos" section at the top of the page. There is also a 20-minute video, designed to play as a loop at an exhibition, divided into short segments for online viewing.

2008-01-01

411

Amorphous thin films for solar-cell applications. Final report, September 11, 1978-September 10, 1979  

SciTech Connect

In Section II, Theoretical Modeling, theories for the capture of electrons by deep centers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and for field-dependent quantum efficiency in a-Si:H are presented. In Section III, Deposition and Doping Studies, the optimization of phosphorus-doped a-Si:H carried out in four different discharge systems is described. Some details of the dc proximity and rf magnetron discharge systems are also provided. Preliminary mass spectroscopy studies of the rf magnetron discharge in both SiH/sub 4/ and SiF/sub 4/ are presented. In Section IV, Experimental Methods for Characterizing a-Si:H, recent work involving photoluminescence of fluorine-doped a-Si:H, photoconductivity spectra, the photoelectromagnetic effect, the photo-Hall effect and tunneling into a-Si:H is presented. Also, studies of the growth mechanism of Pt adsorbed on both crystalline Si and a-Si:H are described. Measurements of the surface photovoltage have been used to estimate the distribution of surface states of phosphorus-doped and undoped a-Si:H. Section V, Formation of Solar-Cell Structures, contains information on stacked or multiple-junction a-Si:H solar cells. In Section VI, Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Solar-Cell Parameters, an upper limit of approx. = 400 A is established for the hole diffusion length in undoped a-Si:H. A detailed description of carrier generation, recombination and transport in a-Si:H solar cells is given. Finally, some characteristics of Pd-Schottky-barrier cells are described for different processing histories.

Carlson, D E; Balberg, I; Crandall, R S; Goldstein, B C; Hanak, J J; Pankove, J I; Staebler, D L; Weakliem, H A; Williams, R

1980-02-01

412

Growth and Characterization of Carbon Nitride Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of carbon nitride films were deposited by sputtering of a graphite target in an argon / nitrogen atmosphere. The films were grown under varying conditions where the growth parameters like sputtering power, gas pressure and electrode separation were changed in a systematic manner. Initial characterizations of these films have indicated that both the carbon and nitrogen contents of the films were very uniform. These films were also analyzed using ESCA and Auger Spectroscopy. The effects of various growth paramenters on both nitrogen incorporation and bonding configuration and film hardness will be discussed.

Mitra, S.; Xie, Y.; Waddill, G. D.; Morosoff, N. C.; James, W. J.

1996-03-01

413

Method for the formation of graphene films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed to form graphene films using thermodiffusion of carbon atoms from an amorphous carbon or silicon-carbon film with a nanosized thickness through a catalyst film, their accumulation at the catalyst layer/barrier layer interface, and the subsequent carbon quasi-liquid-graphene phase transition. One of the advantages of this method of producing graphene films is the possibility of their formation directly on a dielectric layer and the subsequent suspension of a graphene film over the substrate surface using membrane technologies, which excludes the necessity of using complex procedures to separate a graphene film from the substrate.

Il'ichev, E. A.; Kirilenko, E. P.; Petrukhin, G. N.; Rychkov, G. S.; Sakharov, O. A.; Khamdokhov, Z. M.; Khamdokhov, E. Z.; Chernyavskaya, E. S.; Shupegin, M. L.; Shchekin, A. A.

2014-07-01

414

Thin films under chemical stress  

SciTech Connect

The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

415

The Foreign Language Feature Film and Language Teaching Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of foreign language films, featuring consideration of film sequence, image and film analysis, and literary adaptation, is an effective teaching activity with foreign language students. An example illustrates film analysis activities in a first-year French class. (CB)

Chappell, Martin

1986-01-01

416

Film Learning in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is a picture worth a thousand words? That is a bit of a trick question. We process films and photographs very differently from the way we wrestle with words. They literally work on a different part of our brain, and their testimony is typically weighed differently as well, both in terms of emotional and evidentiary value. Film rhetoric does not quite play with the same deck of cards as classical rhetoric: it shuffles in some jokers and wild cards. To effectively use film in the classroom, faculty need to understand that these visual texts resemble but at the same time differ from written texts. By training faculty in various disciplines in the social and natural sciences to become more aware of not just what a film they are showing in a course says, but how it says it, the faculty can help frame their discussions in a dramatic new way, underlining the crucial connections between content and form that are essential to all critical thinking. There is a real urgency to this task in a world where more and more of the information that students receive is transmitted through visual means from sources of varying degrees of integrity and objectivity. Although this is a life skill that needs to be developed at any age, it most definitely is required at the university level. Recognizing this need, we will share our experience using film in a constructive way for teaching students social and natural sciences at colleges and universities in New York City.

Kopp, R.; Liddicoat, J.

2012-04-01

417

Thin-film metal hydrides.  

PubMed

The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis. PMID:18980236

Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

2008-12-01

418

Oriented thin films of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide on frictiontransferred polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) is a promising material for application in organic electronics. In this study we report on the preparation of oriented thin films of PTCDI on the surface of oriented polymer substrates, which were prepared by friction transfer method. Two polymers, poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) were used as the orienting substrate for PTCDI for comparison studies. Characterization by polarized UV-vis absorption shows that the orienting ability of PPP is larger than that of PTFE substrate. Furthermore, polarization-sensitive photoelectric conversion devices were fabricated by using the oriented PTCDI thin film on the PPP substrate.

Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Heck, Claire; Mizokuro, Toshiko

419

Microsecond minority carrier lifetimes in HWCVD-grown films and implications for thin film solar cells  

E-print Network

-wire deposition; Silicon; Photoconductive decay; Photovoltaics 1. Introduction We propose the design for thin filmMicrosecond minority carrier lifetimes in HWCVD-grown films and implications for thin film solar design for thin-film photovoltaics. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Hot

Atwater, Harry

420

The Political Economy Of Independent Film: A Case Study Of Kevin Smith Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the U.S. film industry from a political economic perspective to determine the state of independent film in relation to ownership, financing, and content. Since its conception, the film industry has been controlled by a small number of companies—that is, as an oligopoly. As such, films produced outside the sphere of the majority have been labeled ‘independent.’ However,

Grace Kathleen Keenan

2009-01-01

421

The Native Forum at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival: Redefining Indigenous Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes films from the Native Forum of the 2001 Sundance Film Festival, focusing on the feature film, "Christmas in the Clouds," and also looking at a variety of documentaries on indigenous populations in North America and Mexico. Presents a brief annotation and contact information for each film. (SM)

McDonald, Christine

2001-01-01

422

The American Film Heritage; Impressions from the American Film Institute Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Film Institute has an archive which presently contains more than 9,000 films, many of them rare. The articles in this volume are based on some of the films in the collection. Among the topics of these essays are: pioneers like D. W. Griffith and Thomas H. Ince, treatment of blacks and Indians in films, development of the techniques…

Shales, Tom; And Others

423

B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies 2013-2014 Report  

E-print Network

B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies 2013-2014 Report The 2013-14 academic year was exciting and eventful for film studies at the University of Birmingham in association with other universities, institutions and organisations. B-Film co-organised two international academic conferences

Birmingham, University of

424

Why film studies? From the silent screen to the digital era, film has  

E-print Network

Why film studies? From the silent screen to the digital era, film has occupied a unique place in the imagination of audiences across the globe. As entertainment, art, documentary or propaganda, film has shaped by this fascinating and endlessly surprising medium, film studies has established itself as one of the most vital

Sussex, University of

425

The crystallographic texture of a great number of polyethylene films manufactured by the film  

E-print Network

The crystallographic texture of a great number of polyethylene films manufactured by the film blowing process has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Some films present a classical texture (c an original texture (c-axis in the film thickness) and no satisfactory morphological model has been proposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Wrinkle-Free Nanomechanical Film: Control and Prevention of Polymer Film  

E-print Network

Wrinkle-Free Nanomechanical Film: Control and Prevention of Polymer Film Buckling Troy R. Hendricks, 2006 ABSTRACT For the first time, we report on methods to control and prevent polymer films from(dimethylsiloxane) substrate coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer film. By variation of the dimensions of the surface

Lee, Ilsoon

427

Photooxidation and Photoconductivity of Polyferrocenylsilane Thin Films  

E-print Network

Photooxidation and Photoconductivity of Polyferrocenylsilane Thin Films Paul W. Cyr,1,2 Marian from the initial oxidation of Full Paper: Irradiation of thin films of poly.sargent@utoronto.ca Keywords: conducting polymers; inorganic polymers; photochemistry; photoconductivity Introduction Intense

428

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

SciTech Connect

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

2014-06-17

429

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

DOEpatents

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

2010-08-17

430

Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals  

E-print Network

We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

Mentzel, Tamar

431

Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films  

E-print Network

Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

Choi, Jae Hyeok

2007-01-01

432

Semiconducting Polymers for Thin?Film Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of practical issues related to the adoption of semiconducting polymers in thin?film electronic devices is presented. Performance requirements for organic light emitting diodes, thin?film transistors and photovoltaic devices are reviewed.

Michael L. Chabinyc

2006-01-01

433

Fire resistant films for aircraft applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

Kourtides, D. A.

1983-01-01

434

Thin film-coated polymer webs  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

1992-02-04

435

Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

1979-01-01

436

Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor  

DOEpatents

A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

2010-01-19

437

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2011-04-01

438

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2012-04-01

439

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2014-04-01

440

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2010-04-01

441

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a...

2013-04-01

442

Diamond Thin Films Handbook David S. Dandy  

E-print Network

1 Diamond Thin Films Handbook Chapter 4 David S. Dandy Department of Chemical Engineering Colorado Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 To appear in Diamond Thin Films Handbook J...............................................................................................................................3 II. Gas-phase processes in CVD diamond

Dandy, David

443

Low work function, stable thin films  

DOEpatents

Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

444

ITO films deposited by facing target sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sputtering voltage on indium tin oxide (ITO) film properties was investigated by using a facing target sputtering\\u000a system. The reduction in the sputtering voltage was found to promote (111) plane crystal orientation and improve the surface\\u000a roughness of the film, although the electrical properties of the film improved slightly. Moreover, compressive film stress\\u000a could not be reduced

Osamu Kamiya; Yusuke Onai; Hiro-omi Kato; Yoichi Hoshi

2007-01-01

445

Photoconductivity of Ultrathin Zinc Oxide Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and photoelectrical properties of nondoped and doped zinc oxide films coated on glass plates by the dip-coating method are investigated at room temperature in various ambient atmospheres. The dark conductivity of the nondoped films exponentially decreased with decreasing film thickness while the conductivity under illumination of 350 nm light was almost constant at 100 S·cm-1 irrespective of the film

Yasutaka Takahashi; Masaaki Kanamori; Akiko Kondoh; Hideki Minoura; Yutaka Ohya

1994-01-01

446

Electric breakdown of thin liquid films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is developed for assessing stability of thin liquid films by application of electrical forces and simultaneous measurement of the electric conductivity of the system. The concept involves creating a thin film at the intersection of two micro-channels etched onto a glass substrate. Once a thin film is created, a ramped DC potential difference can be applied across it. The electrical stresses developed at the film interfaces lead to its rupture above a threshold potential. The potential at which the film ruptures is used to assess the stability of the film. Small channel dimensions in this microfluidic platform allow characterization of thin films formed between micron-sized droplets at high capillary pressures, which is difficult to attain using conventional thin film characterization techniques. The results of DC potential breakdown of films show that critical potential can be considered as a measure of thin film stability. Stability measurements using this technique were in accord with Langmuir adsorption model. Furthermore, impedance spectroscopy is used to measure capacitance of the films formed using the developed microfluidic device. The capacitance measurements led to the estimation of the film area which is unknown in the microfluidic device to the vantage point along the surface of the film. The effect of drainage time and adsorption time of films is studied using impedance spectroscopy. Similar to DC measurements, capacitance measurements of the film also suggested a Langmuir adsorption trend. Moreover, capacitance measurement of films under the effect of DC potential was conducted. The results showed a dependence of capacitance to square of applied DC potential.

Karimi Mostowfi, Farshid

447

Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the nature of clean and contaminated diamond surfaces, Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond film deposition technology, analytical techniques and the results of research on CVD diamond films, and the general properties of CVD diamond films. Further, it describes the friction and wear properties of CVD diamond films in the atmosphere, in a controlled nitrogen environment, and in an ultra-high-vacuum environment.

Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

1999-01-01

448

Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

449

Deposition of diamondlike carbon films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diamondlike carbon film is deposited in the surface of a substrate by exposing the surface to an argon ion beam containing a hydrocarbon. The current density in the ion beam is low during initial deposition of the film. Subsequent to this initial low current condition, the ion beam is increased to full power. At the same time, a second argon ion beam is directed toward the surface of the substrate. The second ion beam has an energy level much greater than that of the ion beam containing the hydrocarbon. This addition of energy to the system increases mobility of the condensing atoms and serves to remove lesser bound atoms.

Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.; Banks, B. A. (inventors)

1984-01-01

450

Wrinkling of Ultrathin Polymer Films  

E-print Network

This paper presents a bilayer model to account for surface effects on the wrinkling of ultrathin polymer films. Assuming a surface layer of finite thickness, effects of surface properties on the critical strain, the equilibrium wavelength, and the wrinkle amplitude are discussed in comparison with conventional analysis. Experimental measurements of wrinkling in polymer films with thickness ranging from 200 nm to 5 nm are conducted. The bilayer model provides a consistent understanding of the experiments that deviate from conventional analysis for thickness less than 30 nm. A set of empirical surface properties is deduced from the experimental data.

Rui Huang; Christopher M. Stafford; Bryan D. Vogt

451

16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which specify how measurement of commodities should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still film is expressed in terms of the number of lineal feet of usable film contained therein. (b)...

2012-01-01

452

16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which specify how measurement of commodities should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still film is expressed in terms of the number of lineal feet of usable film contained therein. (b)...

2011-01-01

453

16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which specify how measurement of commodities should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still film is expressed in terms of the number of lineal feet of usable film contained therein. (b)...

2010-01-01

454

16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which specify how measurement of commodities should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still film is expressed in terms of the number of lineal feet of usable film contained therein. (b)...

2013-01-01

455

16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.  

...which specify how measurement of commodities should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still film is expressed in terms of the number of lineal feet of usable film contained therein. (b)...

2014-01-01

456

Squeeze-Film-Damped Spring for Turbopumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New use for squeeze-film damping proposed for turbopump bearings. Damping of axial shaft vibrations improved with properly-designed squeeze-film spring. Capillary-squeeze-film springs damp turbopump shaft axial vibrations. Disks deflect to left and right as pump bearing vibrates. Fluid fills and empties from spaces between disks to damp vibration.

Rothe, K.

1982-01-01

457

Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

Dematos, H. V.

1981-01-01

458

Using Contemporary Film in Human Service Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the use of contemporary film in human service education. A theoretical rationale for the use of films is presented and principles for bridging the world of the classroom and the realities of practice are discussed. Suggestions are included for selecting and processing films, as well as case studies to illustrate various uses…

Downey, Eleanor Pepi; Jackson, Robert L.; Furman, Rich

2002-01-01

459

Electrical properties of tungsten trioxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively doped semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) films have been shown to have applications as the sensing element in gas microsensors. Critical to the design and operation of these sensors is the SMO film. In the present work, the electrical properties of both intrinsic and extrinsic (doped with gold) tungsten trioxide (WOâ) films, which selectively sorb hydrogen sulfide (HâS), are investigated.

Z. Xu; J. F. Vetelino; R. Lec; D. C. Parker

1990-01-01

460

Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

461

A New Breed of Environmental Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports how today's environmental film festivals feature a new breed of documentary that offer nuanced narratives about intricate technologies. The author relates that the environmental films he grew up with sedately depicted the quiet sublimity of the wilderness. Today's films, the author observes, aim far beyond a…

Malamud, Randy

2008-01-01

462

Local stress in thin polystyrene films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin polymer films have received significant attention due to the deviation of material properties from bulk values. Part of the difficulty in describing the underlying physics is an incomplete understanding of how internal and surface stresses affect thin films. Here we exploit ``wrinkling'' to create a simple model system in which local stress can be easily tuned. When a thin polymer film bound to an elastic substrate is subjected to a compressive stress the film buckles out of plane. Due to the curvature at each crest and trough of the wrinkles, there arise local stresses in the polymer film. The curvature of the wrinkles is controlled by the modulus of the film and substrate, the film thickness and the applied stress, allowing us to apply an arbitrary local stress. After wrinkling, films are annealed above their glass transition temperature which allows flow and relaxes any stress. The local stress is then transferred to that of a thickness variation in the thin film. Importantly the flow of thin polymer films can be modeled using the well established lubrication theory, resulting in a simple scaling model. Our model allows us to investigate the response of thin films where deviations from bulk behavior are expected, as well as more complex thin diblock polymer films.

Gurmessa, Bekele; Croll, Andrew

2012-02-01

463

Lubrication by Transferred Films of Solid Lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are described to determine the lubricating ability of various solid films, particularly graphite and molybdenum disulfide, transferred from a compact to a steel surface. The amount of lubricant transferred depends markedly on the surface finish of the steel, and the most effective films are formed on relatively rough surfaces. In these conditions, bonding between the film and its substrate

J. K. Lancaster

1965-01-01

464

Nanometer scale chemomechanical characterization of antiwear films  

E-print Network

Nanometer scale chemomechanical characterization of antiwear films M.A. Nichollsa , P.R. Nortona of a tribologically derived zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear film. AFM permits identification by which ZDDP antiwears films are effective at inhibiting asperity contact between two metal surfaces. KEY

Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

465

Effects of annealing electrodeposited bismuth Telluride films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermoelectric thin films exhibit different qualities when compared with bulk materials. The goal however is to achieve thermoelectric properties of bulk materials from electrodeposited thin films. Thin films are produced by electrochemical deposition at room temperature. In order to optimize thermoelectric figure of merit proper carrierconcentration must be obtained.

Snyder, J.; Stoltz, N. G.

2002-01-01

466

Thin ORMOSIL Films with Different Organics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural, optical and electrical properties of silicate films modified by structure fragments containing different organic groups were studied. The ORMOSILs were produced by a cohydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane with different types of alkyl (aryl) substituted alkoxysilanes. Film structure and its evolution during heat treatment were studied by ellipsometry and IR spectroscopy. For methyl- and phenyl-modified silicate films the shrinkage is lower

K. A. Vorotilov; V. A. Vasiljev; M. V. Sobolevsky; A. S. Sigov

1998-01-01

467

Film and History, Foxes and Hedgehogs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the treatment of historical events within Hollywood (California) films. Addresses the idea of verisimilitude, or the true replication of history in all aspects. Examines films such as: "Pearl Harbor,""Park Row,""Verboten!,""October Sky," and "Thirteen Days," to demonstrate how films portray history. (CMK)

Doherty, Thomas

2002-01-01

468

Antimony sulfide thin films in chemically deposited thin film photovoltaic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony sulfide thin films of thickness ?500 nm have been deposited on glass slides from chemical baths constituted with SbCl3 and sodium thiosulfate. Smooth specularly reflective thin films are obtained at deposition temperatures from ?3 to 10 °C. The differences in the film thickness and improvement in the crystallinity and photoconductivity upon annealing the film in nitrogen are presented. These films can

Sarah Messina; M. T. S. Nair; P. K. Nair

2007-01-01

469

A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high resolution, quantitative, two-dimensional optical film scanner for use with a commercial high sensitivity radiochromic film (RCF) for measuring single fraction external-beam radiotherapy dose distributions. The film scanner was designed to eliminate artifacts commonly observed in RCF dosimetry. The scanner employed a stationary light source and detector with a moving antireflective glass film platen attached to a high precision computerized X-Y translation stage. An ultrabright red light emitting diode (LED) with a peak output at 633 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 16 nm was selected as the scanner light source to match the RCF absorption peak. A dual detector system was created using two silicon photodiode detectors to simultaneously measure incident and transmitted light. The LED light output was focused to a submillimeter (FWHM 0.67 mm) spot size, which was determined from a scanning knife-edge technique for measuring Gaussian optical beams. Data acquisition was performed with a 16-bit A/D card in conjunction with commercial software. The linearity of the measured densities on the scanner was tested using a calibrated neutral-density step filter. Sensitometric curves and three IMRT field scans were acquired with a spatial resolution of 1 mm for both radiographic film and RCF. The results were compared with measurements taken with a commercial diode array under identical delivery conditions. The RCF was rotated by 90 deg. and rescanned to study orientation effects. Comparison between the RCF and the diode array measurements using percent dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria produced average passing rates of 99.0% using 3%/3 mm criteria and 96.7% using 2%/2 mm criteria. The same comparison between the radiographic film and diode array measurements resulted in average passing rates 96.6% and 91.6% for the above two criteria, respectively. No measurable light-scatter or interference scanner artifacts were observed. The RCF rotated by 90 deg. showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15x15 cm{sup 2} area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners.

Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Dubose, Ryan S.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Spartanburg Regional Hospital Gibbs Cancer Center, Spartanburg, South Carolina 29303 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

2008-02-15

470

Transport anisotropy as a signature of electron nematicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong electron correlations often give rise to novel phenomena that are never found in ordinary materials. One of such phenomena is the emergence of electron nematicity (EN), which was theoretically proposed in 1998 to occur due to a combined effect of electron self- organization and quantum fluctuations. Experimentally, the EN was first discovered in 1999 in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at high Landau levels, where a clear transport anisotropy was found to grow upon lowering temperature in the mK region. In search for the signatures of the EN in cuprates, we have done extensive transport measurements of La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) and YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) systems using high-quality single crystals. We discovered in 2001 that the in-plane resistivity anisotropy in untwinned single crystals of LSCO and YBCO in the lightly hole-doped region grows below ˜150 K with decreasing temperature, similar to the case in 2DEG, albeit the much higher temperature scale. In those samples, the easy transport axis was apparently dictated by the orthorhombic crystal structure; however, the orthorhombicity ? was only up to 1.5%, while the resistivity anisotropy was up to a factor of 3, which was obviously too large for the small ?. Furthermore, the anisotropy in YBCO was found to be enhanced with decreasing y below ˜6.5 despite the decreasing ? until the crystal structure turns to tetragonal at y ˜ 6.30. While this result gave strong evidence for the self-organized EN in high-Tc cuprates, it was not completely conclusive because of the existence of the orthorhombicity that chooses the preferred direction; also, the lack of support from neutron scattering kept the skepticism remain. However, very recently, neutron scattering has finally found corroborating anisotropy in YBCO and convincing evidence for EN in a related oxide Sr3Ru2O7 was obtained, which together strengthened the case for cuprates considerably. In collaboration with Kouji Segawa, Seiki Komiya, and A. N. Lavrov.

Ando, Yoichi

2008-03-01

471

Bacterial contamination of dental radiographic film.  

PubMed

Three types of paper-covered and one type of plastic-covered Kodak dental film were used to determine if bacteria could penetrate the coverings and contaminate the inner film. Films from each group were immersed for 30 or 120 seconds in high concentrations of known bacterial suspensions with or without 10% sterilized calf serum added to the incubation media. The plastic-covered film effectively excluded all bacteria, whereas the paper-covered film showed contamination with all organisms even at 30 seconds. Increasing the viscosity of the incubation medium with calf serum decreased the level of contamination. PMID:8247509

Bajuscak, R E; Hall, E H; Giambarresi, L I; Weaver, T

1993-11-01

472

Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications  

DOEpatents

A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01

473

Light guiding properties of soap films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injection of a laser beam from the side in a horizontal free-standing draining soap film is reported. We observe the self-deflection of the beam that varies in a random way. The film thinning is affected by the injection and depends on the polarization of the light beam, not on the laser power. The liquid in the soap film is ejected towards the meniscus, without modifying its molecular structure. Besides, this injection seems to stabilize the film near the light beam propagation and to destabilize the film in the other zones. Consequences and applications are then discussed.

Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Casanova, Federico

2013-02-01

474

Electrically Conductive Polyimide Films Containing Gold Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide films exhibiting high thermo-oxidative stability and including electrically conductive surface layers containing gold made by casting process. Many variations of basic process conditions, ingredients, and sequence of operations possible, and not all resulting versions of process yield electrically conductive films. Gold-containing layer formed on film surface during cure. These metallic gold-containing polyimides used in film and coating applications requiring electrical conductivity, high reflectivity, exceptional thermal stability, and/or mechanical integrity. They also find commercial potential in areas ranging from thin films for satellite antennas to decorative coatings and packaging.

Caplan, Maggie L.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

1994-01-01

475

Nanosecond laser ablation of gold nanoparticle films  

SciTech Connect

Ablation of self-assembled monolayer protected gold nanoparticle films on polyimide was explored using a nanosecond laser. When the nanoparticle film was ablated and subsequently thermally sintered to a continuous film, the elevated rim structure by the expulsion of molten pool could be avoided and the ablation threshold fluence was reduced to a value at least ten times lower than the reported threshold for the gold film. This could be explained by the unusual properties of nanoparticle film such as low melting temperature, weak bonding between nanoparticles, efficient laser energy deposition, and reduced heat loss. Finally, submicron lines were demonstrated.

Ko, Seung H.; Choi, Yeonho; Hwang, David J.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Chung, Jaewon; Poulikakos, Dimos [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

2006-10-02

476

Fracture toughness of polyimide films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two aromatic polyimides and an aromatic polyamide-imide were tested in single edge notched tension. Fracture toughnesses, normalized to 25 micron film thickness ranged from 1.65 to 5.4 MPa m sup 1/2. LARC-TPI, a thermoplastic polyimide, showed evidence of crazing ahead of a growing crack whereas the other materials formed a shear yielded zone.

Hinkley, J. A.; Mings, S. L.

1989-01-01

477

The Oedipus Films: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical review of Bernard Knox's literary analysis of Sophocles'"Oedipus the King" in a four-lesson film series is offered largely as a "warning" to high school teachers. Central to the criticism is the author's belief that Professor Knox has imposed a reductive and marginal interpretation on the play which tends to obscure rather than enlarge…

Clarke, Howard

1965-01-01

478

Media Film a USGS Streamgage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists Joel Galloway and Dan Thomas bring a television news crew on a tour of the flooded Red River, where they take water level and streamflow measurements during the flood. Here, the crew films footage of the USGS Red River of the North at Fargo streamgage....

479

Thin Film Piezoelectrics for MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film piezoelectric materials offer a number of advantages in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), due to the large motions that can be generated, often with low hysteresis, the high available energy densities, as well as high sensitivity sensors with wide dynamic ranges, and low power requirements. This paper reviews the literature in this field, with an emphasis on the factors that

S. Trolier-McKinstry; P. Muralt

2004-01-01

480

Films/Videos for Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews six films designed for adults released between 1988 and 1992, most of which focus on the challenges that children face, including (1) See What I'm Saying; (2) Something Magical; (3) We Have Something to Say: Children, Computers, and Special Education; (4) Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America; (5) Take Me to Your Leaders; and (6) The…

Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

1993-01-01

481

Remote Sensing: A Film Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the content of 19 films on remote sensing published between 1973 and 1980. Concludes that they are overly simplistic, notably outdated, and generally too optimistic about the potential of remote sensing from space for resource exploration and environmental problem-solving. Provides names and addresses of more current remote sensing…

Carter, David J.

1986-01-01

482

Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

Benoy, Patricia A.

1997-01-01

483

Oil-film-parameter investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A counter rotating fixture was designed and built to measure starved EHD film thicknesses. Some good geometry glass races were obtained. A theoretical analysis of starvation was made. Measurements of retainer stability during bimode torque disturbances were made. The most common form of bimode was related to stability of retainer cock.

Kingsbury, E. P.

1972-01-01

484

Thin-Film Selective Emitter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy using a photovoltaic cell is called thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. One way to make this an efficient process is to have the thermal energy source be an efficient selective emitter of radiation. The emission must be near the band-gap energy of the photovoltaic cell. One possible method to achieve an efficient selective emitter is the use of a thin film of rare-earth oxides. The determination of the efficiency of such an emitter requires analysis of the spectral emittance of the thin film including scattering and reflectance at the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Emitter efficiencies (power emitted in emission band/total emitted power) in the range 0.35-0.7 are predicted. There is an optimum optical depth to obtain maximum efficiency. High emitter efficiencies are attained only for low (less than 0.05) substrate emittance values, both with and without scattering. The low substrate emittance required for high efficiency limits the choice of substrate materials to highly reflective metals or high-transmission materials such as sapphire.

Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.

1993-01-01

485

Integraf - Holographic Film and Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integraf is an international supplier of holographic film and materials. The instructional web site has a detailed index of links to other web sites with information on how to make holograms. You can also learn how to make holograms on-line.

Integraf

2003-10-10

486

Photoelectrolysis using Hematite Film Deposits  

E-print Network

Wire (Conductor) Photocurrent Solar Cell Applications What is Photoelectrolysis? #12; Band Gap ~2.2 e at a sufficient anodic potential to oxidize water Insulator ­ low mobility Introduce impurities to influence film PEC test a success for Hematite Zirconium doping not stable at high temperatures Conclusions #12

Petta, Jason

487

Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOEpatents

Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

1996-01-01

488

Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOEpatents

Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

1996-12-31

489

Microsensor Hot-Film Anemometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved hot-film anemometer developed for making high-bandwidth turbulence measurements in moderate-enthalpy supersonic and hypersonic flows (e.g., NASP inlets and control surfaces, HSCT jet exhaust). Features include low thermal inertia, ruggedness, and reduced perturbation of flow.

Mcginley, Catherine B.; Stephens, Ralph; Hopson, Purnell; Bartlett, James E.; Sheplak, Mark; Spina, Eric F.

1995-01-01

490

A film about teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

"Consequences," a film on teenage pregnancy, was made in Africa with support from the Pathfinder Fund, an American foundation, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Ford foundation. Its messages are the repercussions of pregnancy, the use of contraception (especially condoms, as they help to stop the transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and the need for teenagers to communicate with their parents. The abortion issue was handled by making the points that it is illegal and dangerous. Harriet Masembe, a Ugandan folk lorist helped develop the story line. A Zimbabwean, Olley Mauma, wrote the dialogue and directed the film. Segun Oyekunle, a Nigerian script writer, commented on the draft script. The story is that Rita, a 16- year-old African is bright and has a steady boy friend. She will soon graduate from high school and go on to university. Then she discovers her pregnancy. Her relationship with Richard, her boy friend, breaks down. Her school performance deteriorates. Both Rita and Rick get expelled from school. Rita is sent to her mother's village to have a child. She finds this is very hard, and includes a lot of responsibility. She comes home a year later, but finds it difficult to relate to her friends. The boy friend suddenly returns home, too. At the end of the 54-minute film, we are left wondering what will happen to Rita and Richard. The film was pretested with 250 teenagers in Kenya, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe, and others in London and the US. The script was translated into French, Shona, and Sindebele. A Swahili version is being made. The film is being placed with nongovernmental organizations and their agencies. There has been much publicity and the film has won 2 international awards. Parts of the film were shown on German television. Distribution began in May, 1988. Since then some 300 copies and 600 videos have been sent out. There is a copy in each of the 45 agencies affiliated with International Planned Parenthood Federation in Africa. Videos were distributed in October, 1988 to 40 national television networks throughout Africa. Copies of the video are being placed in lending libraries. It is expected that 20,000,000 Africans will see "Consequences." PMID:2637706

Smith, S

1989-01-01

491

Tear film measurement by optical reflectometry technique  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Evaluation of tear film is performed by an optical reflectometer system with alignment guided by a galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer system utilizes optical fibers to deliver illumination light to the tear film and collect the film reflectance as a function of wavelength. Film thickness is determined by best fitting the reflectance-wavelength curve. The spectral reflectance acquisition time is 15 ms, fast enough for detecting film thickness changes. Fast beam alignment of 1 s is achieved by the galvanometer scanner. The reflectometer was first used to evaluate artificial tear film on a model eye with and without a contact lens. The film thickness and thinning rate have been successfully quantified with the minimum measured thickness of about 0.3 ?m. Tear films in human eyes, with and without a contact lens, have also been evaluated. A high-contrast spectral reflect