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1

Local Lattice Distortions in YBa2Cu3Oy Probed by Xas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local lattice distortions in YBa2Cu3Oy single crystals are studied by polarized x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for E\\/\\/ab and E\\/\\/c orientations between 300 K and 20 K. From the Fourier transform analysis of the Cu K-EXAFS oscillations, we find that the out-of-plane Cu-O correlation shows an anomalous temperature dependence of radial distribution below Tl=240-250 K, indicating an increase of lattice fluctuations,

H. Oyanagi; N. L. Saini; A. Bianconi

2000-01-01

2

Role of bromine in restoring superconductivity in YBa2Cu3Oy  

Microsoft Academic Search

63,65Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), 63,65Cu and 79,81Br nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Br K-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurement techniques have been used to study the local structures of Cu and Br in well-characterized samples of deoxygenated and brominated YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). The combined results provide a detailed picture of the role of bromine in reoxygenating the YBCO structure and an

D. M. Potrepka; J. I. Budnick; D. B. Fenner; W. A. Hines; M. Balasubramanian; A. R. Moodenbaugh

1999-01-01

3

Role of bromine in restoring superconductivity in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

63,65Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), 63,65Cu and 79,81Br nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Br K-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurement techniques have been used to study the local structures of Cu and Br in well-characterized samples of deoxygenated and brominated YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). The combined results provide a detailed picture of the role of bromine in reoxygenating the YBCO structure and an explanation for the partial restoration of superconductivity in the YBCO system. Characterization of the powder samples, with particle sizes of 1, 20, 30, and 40 ?m, included x-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and magnetometry. From the XAFS and NMR results, it is concluded that, upon bromination at 260 °C, Br does not enter the YBCO lattice either substitutionally or interstitially. Instead, there is compelling evidence for the formation of nanoscale BaBr2 precipitates which result from the local destruction of the YBa2Cu3Oy phase. Furthermore, on the basis of the NQR and NMR experiments, it is concluded that through this decomposition into an inhomogeneous material, oxygen is liberated which repopulates the nearby O(4) chain sites, thus restoring superconductivity.

Potrepka, D. M.; Budnick, J. I.; Fenner, D. B.; Hines, W. A.; Balasubramanian, M.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.

1999-10-01

4

Magnetoresistivity and microstructure of YBa2Cu3Oy prepared using planetary ball milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the microstructure and the magnetoresistivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO or Y-123 for brevity) embedded with nanoparticles of Y-deficient YBCO, generated by the planetary ball milling technique. Bulk samples were synthesized from a precursor YBCO powder, which was prepared from commercial high purity Y2O3, Ba2CO3 and CuO via a one-step annealing process in air at 950 °C. After planetary ball milling of the precursor, the powder was uniaxially pressed and subsequently annealed at 950 °C in air. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granular structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microstructure investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) were carried out. TEM analyses show that nanoparticles of Y-deficient YBCO, generated by ball milling, are embedded in the superconducting matrix. Electrical resistance as a function of temperature, ?(T), revealed that the zero resistance temperature, Tco, is 84.5 and 90 K for the milled and unmilled samples respectively. The milled ceramics exhibit a large magnetoresistance in weak magnetic fields at liquid nitrogen temperature. This attractive effect is of high significance as it makes these materials promising candidates for practical application in magnetic field sensor devices.

Hamrita, A.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Madani, A.; Ben Salem, M.

2012-01-01

5

Thermo-Electric Study of Fermi Surface Reconstruction in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck and Nernst coefficients S and ? of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) were measured in a single crystal with a hole concentration p = 0.12 in magnetic fields up to H = 28 T. For temperatures down to 9 K, ? becomes independent of field by H ˜30 T, showing that by then the Nernst signal due to superconducting fluctuations has become negligible. In this field-induced normal state, S/T and ?/T are both large and negative in the T ->0 limit. The magnitude of S/T is consistent with the small Fermi surface pocket previously detected via quantum oscillations in YBCO at a similar doping and its negative sign confirms that the pocket is electron-like. The normal-state S(T) of YBCO is remarkably similar to that of La2-xBaxCuO4, La2-x-yNdySrxCuO4 and La2-x-yEuySrxCuO4 at p ˜1/8, all four materials showing a change of sign at T ˜50 K. Given that in the latter three materials this change of sign is clearly due to the onset of spin/charge density wave (`stripe') order, we infer that a similar density-wave mechanism must cause the Fermi surface reconstruction in YBCO.

Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Chang, J.; Daou, R.; Leboeuf, D.; Laliberte, F.; Pingault, B.; Taillefer, L.; Proust, C.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Takagi, H.; Antunes, A.; Sheikin, I.; Behnia, K.

2010-03-01

6

Incipient charge order observed by NMR in the normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pseudogap regime of high-temperature cuprates harbours diverse manifestations of electronic ordering whose exact nature and universality remain debated. Here, we show that the short-ranged charge order recently reported in the normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy corresponds to a truly static modulation of the charge density. We also show that this modulation impacts on most electronic properties, that it appears jointly with intra-unit-cell nematic, but not magnetic, order, and that it exhibits differences with the charge density wave observed at lower temperatures in high magnetic fields. These observations prove mostly universal, they place new constraints on the origin of the charge density wave and they reveal that the charge modulation is pinned by native defects. Similarities with results in layered metals such as NbSe2, in which defects nucleate halos of incipient charge density wave at temperatures above the ordering transition, raise the possibility that order–parameter fluctuations, but no static order, would be observed in the normal state of most cuprates if disorder were absent.

Wu, Tao; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Krämer, Steffen; Horvati?, Mladen; Berthier, Claude; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Julien, Marc-Henri

2015-03-01

7

Incipient charge order observed by NMR in the normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy  

PubMed Central

The pseudogap regime of high-temperature cuprates harbours diverse manifestations of electronic ordering whose exact nature and universality remain debated. Here, we show that the short-ranged charge order recently reported in the normal state of YBa2Cu3Oy corresponds to a truly static modulation of the charge density. We also show that this modulation impacts on most electronic properties, that it appears jointly with intra-unit-cell nematic, but not magnetic, order, and that it exhibits differences with the charge density wave observed at lower temperatures in high magnetic fields. These observations prove mostly universal, they place new constraints on the origin of the charge density wave and they reveal that the charge modulation is pinned by native defects. Similarities with results in layered metals such as NbSe2, in which defects nucleate halos of incipient charge density wave at temperatures above the ordering transition, raise the possibility that order–parameter fluctuations, but no static order, would be observed in the normal state of most cuprates if disorder were absent. PMID:25751448

Wu, Tao; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Krämer, Steffen; Horvati?, Mladen; Berthier, Claude; Hardy, W.N.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.A.; Julien, Marc-Henri

2015-01-01

8

Temperature and doping dependence of x-ray absorption spectral weight in YBa2Cu3Oy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comprehensive study of the temperature dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) could be attributed to a dynamical spectral weight ? in YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO). Large spectral weight changes with the temperature for both the Upper Hubbard band and the Zhang-Rice band due to dynamics of holes are experimentally found in the underdoped regime. These spectral weight changes become larger when the doping level p goes deeper into the underdoped regime, but quickly vanishes as p goes to the undoped limit. Our results clearly indicate that the pseudogap is related to the double occupancy and originates from bands in higher energies.

Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Mou, Chung-Yu; Chen, J. M.

2013-03-01

9

Evidence for a small hole pocket in the Fermi surface of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy  

PubMed Central

In underdoped cuprate superconductors, the Fermi surface undergoes a reconstruction that produces a small electron pocket, but whether there is another, as yet, undetected portion to the Fermi surface is unknown. Establishing the complete topology of the Fermi surface is key to identifying the mechanism responsible for its reconstruction. Here we report evidence for a second Fermi pocket in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy, detected as a small quantum oscillation frequency in the thermoelectric response and in the c-axis resistance. The field-angle dependence of the frequency shows that it is a distinct Fermi surface, and the normal-state thermopower requires it to be a hole pocket. A Fermi surface consisting of one electron pocket and two hole pockets with the measured areas and masses is consistent with a Fermi-surface reconstruction by the charge–density–wave order observed in YBa2Cu3Oy, provided other parts of the reconstructed Fermi surface are removed by a separate mechanism, possibly the pseudogap. PMID:25616011

Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Badoux, S.; René de Cotret, S.; Lepault, S.; LeBoeuf, D.; Laliberté, F.; Hassinger, E.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Park, J.-H..; Vignolles, D.; Vignolle, B.; Taillefer, L.; Proust, C.

2015-01-01

10

Texture control of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The texture control of transparent oxide thin film, the crystalline orientation, is very important, because it is related to the electrical resistivity and the optical transparency. It is known that the crystal orientation could be controlled by varying precursor source, gas flow rate, and deposition temperature. We deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film on aluminoborosilicate glass by spraying water-based

Chang-Yeoul Kim; Doh-Hyung Riu

2011-01-01

11

Effect of fluorine doping on highly transparent conductive spray deposited nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The undoped and fluorine doped thin films are synthesized by using cost-effective spray pyrolysis technique. The dependence of optical, structural and electrical properties of SnO2 films, on the concentration of fluorine is reported. Optical absorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Hall effect studies have been performed on SnO2:F (FTO) films coated on glass substrates. The film thickness varies

A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; C. H. Bhosale; J. H. Kim

2009-01-01

12

Temperature dependence of Fluorine-doped tin oxide films produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were prepared at different substrate temperatures by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. Among F-doped tin oxide films, the lowest resistivitiy was found to be 6.2×10?4 ?-cm for a doping percentage of 50 mol% of fluorine in 0.5 M solution, deposited at 400 °C. Hall coefficient analyses and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measured the electron carrier concentration

Chin-Ching Lin; Mei-Ching Chiang; Yu-Wei Chen

2009-01-01

13

Preparation Nanostructure Thin Films of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide by Inkjet Printing Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited using inkjet printing technique. The FTO ink was synthesized by common mixture method between precursor tin chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4?5H2O) with ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as a dopant agent. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a piezoelectric inkjet printer with variations of deposition temperature. Morphology analysis using TEM

Wan Zurina Samad; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Ashkan Shafiee; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

2010-01-01

14

Preparation Nanostructure Thin Films of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide by Inkjet Printing Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films deposited using inkjet printing technique. The FTO ink was synthesized by common mixture method between precursor tin chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4.5H2O) with ammonium fluoride (NH4F) as a dopant agent. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a piezoelectric inkjet printer with variations of deposition temperature. Morphology analysis using TEM

Wan Zurina Samad; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Ashkan Shafiee; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

2010-01-01

15

Polycrystalline fluorine-doped tin oxide as sensoring thin film in EGFET pH sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor (EGFET) is a device composed of a conventional ion-sensitive electrode and a MOSFET\\u000a device, which can be applied for the measurement of ion content in a solution. The EGFET is fabricated connecting the sensitive\\u000a membrane to a commercial MOSFET. We investigated the use of fluorine-doped tin oxide films (FTO) as sensitive membrane to\\u000a EGFET.

Pablo Diniz Batista; Marcelo Mulato

2010-01-01

16

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped zinc oxide and their application  

E-print Network

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped+Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Transparent conducting ZnO:F was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass the other transparent conducting oxides. Cadmium in all its compounds is toxic and carcinogenic

17

Improving the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide films by various post-annealing treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from cost saving metal targets. We observed lower resistivity and higher average transmittance in the visible range after the application of various post heating treatments. The electrical and optical properties of FTO films were investigated. When the annealing temperature is 400°C in

Pin-Jen Chen; Bo-Huei Liao; Chien-Cheng Kuo; Cheng-Chung Lee

2010-01-01

18

Fast Responsive Gas Sensor of Vertically Aligned Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanorod Thin Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prepared fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanorod films and a conventional FTO thin film for the application of a semiconducting gas sensor by spray pyrolysis method. The lengths of FTO nanorods (FTON, 100 and 500 nm) were controlled by changing deposition times, and FTO thin film (FTOT) was also prepared as a reference. The gas sensitivity test shows FTON with long nanorods had higher sensitivity for both hydrogen and ethanol gases but slow response and recovery times, despite an advantage of the higher gas sensitivity. FTO nanorod film with short length about 100 nm showed relatively lower sensitivity, but fast gas response and recovery characteristics. The fast response and recovery for the analyte gases are attributed to the conductance of FTO nanorods, which is closely related to the diameter and length of nanorods.

Cho, Chan-Woo; Lee, Jong-Heun; Riu, Doh-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Yeoul

2012-04-01

19

Fabrication of high-performance fluorine doped–tin oxide film using flame-assisted spray deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance fluorine–doped tin oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by flame-assisted spray deposition method. By varying the NH4F doping concentration, the optimal concentration was established as 8at.%. X-ray diffractograms confirmed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. In addition, the FTO film was comprised of nano-sized grains ranging from 40 to 50nm. The heat-treated FTO film exhibited a sheet

Agus Purwanto; Hendri Widiyandari; Arif Jumari

20

Fabrication and characterization of fluorine-doped thin oxide thin films and nanorod arrays via spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films via intermittent spray\\u000a pyrolysis utilizing a solution mixture of tin chloride pentahydrate and ammonia fluoride. Utilizing the same solution, nanorod\\u000a arrays were fabricated via template-based growth. Uniform and crack-free FTO films over 20×20 mm with a thickness up to 900 nm\\u000a have been routinely achieved; such FTO films

B. Russo; G. Z. Cao

2008-01-01

21

Properties of highly oriented spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films on glass substrates of different thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) have been deposited onto the preheated glass substrates of different thickness by spray pyrolysis process using SnCl4·5H2O and NH4F precursors. Substrate thickness is varied from 1 to 6mm. The films are grown using mixed solvent with propane-2-ol as organic solvent and distilled water at optimized substrate temperature of 475°C. Films of

A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; P. S. Patil; C. H. Bhosale

2007-01-01

22

Mechanical and optoelectric properties of post-annealed fluorine-doped tin oxide films by ultraviolet laser irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film deposited on a soda–lime glass substrate was annealed by a defocus ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation at ambient temperature. The mechanical and optoelectric properties of FTO films annealed by using the various laser processing parameters were reported. After the FTO films were subjected to laser post-annealing, the microhardness were slightly less but the reduced

Shih-Feng Tseng; Wen-Tse Hsiao; Donyau Chiang; Kuo-Cheng Huang; Chang-Pin Chou

2011-01-01

23

Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO2)/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO2/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO2/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO2/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10-2 ?-1, higher than 1.78 × 10-2 ?-1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO2/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10-2 ?-1, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

2014-01-01

24

Properties of highly oriented spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films on glass substrates of different thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) have been deposited onto the preheated glass substrates of different thickness by spray pyrolysis process using SnCl4·5H2O and NH4F precursors. Substrate thickness is varied from 1 to 6 mm. The films are grown using mixed solvent with propane-2-ol as organic solvent and distilled water at optimized substrate temperature of 475 °C.

A. V. Moholkar; S. M. Pawar; K. Y. Rajpure; P. S. Patil; C. H. Bhosale

2007-01-01

25

The combined effects of molar concentration of the precursor solution and fluorine doping on the structural and electrical properties of tin oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films have been fabricated by employing a simplified and inexpensive spray technique\\u000a using perfume atomizer at comparatively lesser substrate temperature (320 °C). The combined effects of molar concentration\\u000a of the precursor solution and fluorine doping on the structural and electrical properties of tin oxide films have been reported.\\u000a The X-ray diffraction studies of undoped

L. Chinnappa; K. Ravichandran; K. Saravanakumar; G. Muruganantham; B. Sakthivel

26

Influence of Preferred Orientation on the Electrical Conductivity of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Films  

PubMed Central

Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5?cm2 V?1 s?1 without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 1020?cm?3. Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities. PMID:24419455

Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D.; Ramsey, Philip M.; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

2014-01-01

27

Influence of preferred orientation on the electrical conductivity of fluorine-doped tin oxide films.  

PubMed

Current development of high-performance transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films is limited with tradeoff between carrier mobility and concentration since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we prepare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films by chemical vapor deposition with inclusions of different additives and report that the mobility can be varied from 0.65 to 28.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) without reducing the achieved high carrier concentration of 4 × 10(20) cm(-3). Such an increase in mobility is shown to be clearly associated with the development of (200) preferred orientation (PO) but concurrent degradation of (110) PO in films. Thus, at a constant high carrier concentration, the electrical conductivity can be improved via carrier mobility simply by PO control. Such a one-step approach avoiding conventional post-deposition treatment is suggested for developing next-generation FTO as well as other TCO films with better than ever conductivities. PMID:24419455

Wang, Jian Tao; Shi, Xiang Lei; Liu, Wei Wei; Zhong, Xin Hua; Wang, Jian Nong; Pyrah, Leo; Sanderson, Kevin D; Ramsey, Philip M; Hirata, Masahiro; Tsuri, Keiko

2014-01-01

28

Synthesis and Characterization of NanoCrystalline Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films by Sol-Gel Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique. Stannous chloride (SnCl2c2H2O) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) were mixed with isopropyl alcohol to serve as source solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum showed all the peaks of the crystalline SnO2. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed the particle size to be nearly 6 nm, which indicated the nanocrystalline structure of

A. N. Banerjee; S. Kundoo; P. Saha; K. K. Chattopadhyay

2003-01-01

29

Electron scattering mechanisms in fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) thin films have been grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. By varying growth conditions, several FTO specimens have been deposited and the study of their structural, electrical, and optical properties has been carried out. By systematically investigating the mobility as a function of carrier density, grain size, and crystallite size, the contribution of each physical mechanism involved in the electron scattering has been derived. A thorough comparison of experimental data and calculations allows to disentangle these different mechanisms and to deduce their relative importance. In particular, the roles of extended structural defects such as grain or twin boundaries as revealed by electron microscopy or x-ray diffraction along with ionized impurities are discussed. As a consequence, based on the quantitative analysis presented here, an experimental methodology leading to the improvement of the electro-optical properties of FTO thin films is reported. FTO thin films assuming an electrical resistivity as low as 3.7?·?10{sup ?4}???cm (square sheet resistance of 8??/?) while retaining good transmittance up to 86% (including substrate effect) in the visible range have been obtained.

Rey, G., E-mail: germrey@gmail.com; Consonni, V.; Bellet, D. [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS—Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Ternon, C. [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS—Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1/CEA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Modreanu, M. [Micro-Nanoelectronics Centre, Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Mescot, X. [Institut de Microélectronique Electromagnétisme et Photonique-Laboratoire d'Hyperfréquences et de Caractérisation, Grenoble INP, 3 Parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble (France)

2013-11-14

30

Textured fluorine-doped tin dioxide films formed by chemical vapour deposition.  

PubMed

The use of an aerosol delivery system enabled fluorine-doped tin dioxide films to be formed from monobutyltin trichloride methanolic solutions at 350-550 °C with enhanced functional properties compared with commercial standards. It was noted that small aerosol droplets (0.3 ?m) gave films with better figures of merit than larger aerosol droplets (45 ?m) or use of a similar precursor set using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (CVD) conditions. Control over the surface texturing and physical properties of the thin films were investigated by variation in the deposition temperature and dopant concentration. Optimum deposition conditions for low-emissivity coatings were found to be at a substrate temperature of about 450 °C with a dopant concentration of 1.6 atm% (30 mol% F:Sn in solution), which resulted in films with a low visible light haze value (1.74%), a high charge-carrier mobility (25 cm(2) V s(-1)) and a high charge-carrier density (5.7×10(20) cm(-3)) resulting in a high transmittance across the visible (?80%), a high reflectance in the IR (80% at 2500 nm) and plasma-edge onset at 1400 nm. Optimum deposition conditions for coatings with applications as top electrodes in thin film photovoltaics were found to be a substrate temperature of about 500 °C with a dopant concentration of 2.2 atm% (30 mol% F:Sn in solution), which resulted in films with a low sheet resistance (3 ? sq(-1)), high charge-carrier density (6.4×10(20) cm(-3)), a plasma edge onset of 1440 nm and the films also showed pyramidal surface texturing on the micrometer scale which corresponded to a high visible light haze value (8%) for light scattering and trapping within thin film photovoltaic devices. PMID:21882265

Bhachu, Davinder S; Waugh, Mathew R; Zeissler, Katharina; Branford, Will R; Parkin, Ivan P

2011-10-01

31

Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles

Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro; Takashi Ida; Hiroo Hashizume

2005-01-01

32

Enhanced Carrier Densities in Indium Tin Oxide Films Covered with Nanoparticles of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide for Transparent Conducting Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carrier density and Hall mobility of indium tin oxide (ITO) films uniformly deposited with single layers of monodispersive nanoparticles of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) show intriguing variations as functions of the average size of FTO particles (Dav). For Davs smaller than about 10 nm, the bilayer has conduction-electron densities lower than bare ITO films, accompanied by increased Hall mobilities.

Tatsuo Fukano; Tomoyoshi Motohiro; Hiroo Hashizume

2005-01-01

33

EFFECT OF ANTIMONY AND FLUORINE DOPING ON ELECTRICAL, OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF TIN OXIDE FILMS PREPARED BY SPRAY PYROLYSIS METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped, antimony doped and fluorine doped tin oxide films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The films were deposited on glass substrates at temperatures ranging between 300°C and 370°C by spraying an alcoholic solution of tin tetra chloride (SnCl4). Dopants used were antimony tri chloride (SbCl3) for antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) films, and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) for fluorine

K. S. SHAMALA; L. C. S. MURTHY; K. NARASIMHA RAO

2006-01-01

34

Fluorine-doped tin oxide surfaces modified by self-assembled alkanethiols for thin-film devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have investigated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from alkanethiols on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surfaces, which were used as an anode for thin-film devices prepared from the conductive copolymer so-called sulfonated poly(thiophene-3-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]-2,5-diyl) (S-P3MEET). The assembled monolayers were characterized by using wetting contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. The results indicated that dodecanethiol molecules, CH3(CH2)11SH, were well assembled on the FTO surfaces. In addition, it was found similar values of wetting contact angle for dodecanethiol assembled on both FTO and Au surfaces. Concerning the thin-film device, current-voltage analysis revealed a hysteresis. This behavior was associated to a charge-trapping effect and also to structural changes of the SAMs. Finally, charge injection capability of tin oxide electrodes can be improved by using SAMs and then this approach can plays an important role in molecular-scale electronic devices.

Alves, A. C. T.; Gomes, D. J. C.; Silva, J. R.; Silva, G. B.

2013-08-01

35

Optimization of the deposition and annealing conditions of fluorine-doped indium oxide films for silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Fluorine-doped indium oxide (IFO) films are deposited onto (pp{sup +})Si and (n{sup +}nn{sup +})Si structures made of single-crystal silicon by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The effect of the IFO deposition time and annealing time in an argon atmosphere with methanol vapor on the IFO chemical composition, the photovoltage and fill factor of the Illumination-U{sub oc} curves of IFO/(pp{sup +})Si structures, and the sheet resistance of IFO/(n{sup +}nn{sup +})Si structures, correlating with the IFO/(n{sup +})Si contact resistance, is studied. The obtained features are explained by modification of the properties of the SiO{sub x} transition layer at the IFO/Si interface during deposition and annealing. Analysis of the results made it possible to optimize the fabrication conditions of solar cells based on IFO/(pp{sup +})Si heterostructures and to increase their efficiency from 17% to a record 17.8%.

Untila, G. G., E-mail: GUntila@mics.msu.su; Kost, T. N.; Chebotareva, A. B.; Timofeyev, M. A. [Moscow State University, Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15

36

Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films deposited using a low-cost spray technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undoped and fluorine doped tin oxide films were deposited from starting solutions having different values of solvent volume (10-50 ml) by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer. X-ray diffraction studies showed that there was a change in the preferential orientation from (2 1 1) plane to (1 1 0) plane as the volume of the solvent was increased. The sheet resistance ( Rsh) of undoped SnO 2 film was found to be minimum (13.58 K?/?) when the solvent volume was lesser (10 ml) and there was a sharp increase in Rsh for higher values of solvent volume. Interestingly, it was observed that while the Rsh increases sharply with the increase in solvent volume for undoped SnO 2 films, it decreases gradually in the case of fluorine doped SnO 2 films. The quantitative analysis of EDAX confirmed that the electrical resistivity of the sprayed tin oxide film was mainly governed by the number of oxygen vacancies and the interstitial incorporation of Sn atoms which in turn was governed by the impinging flux on the hot substrate. The films were found to have good optical characteristics suitable for opto-electronic devices.

Muruganantham, G.; Ravichandran, K.; Saravanakumar, K.; Ravichandran, A. T.; Sakthivel, B.

2011-12-01

37

Preparation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:F) film on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), one of the most popular transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials, coated on glass has been used in various applications including many new-generation solar cells. However, there is a lack of reporting when it comes to FTO coated on flexible transparent substrate. For this paper, spray pyrolysis technique was used to have FTO firstly coated on to

Xiaoming Huang; Zhexun Yu; Shuqing Huang; Quanxin Zhang; Dongmei Li; Yanhong Luo; Qingbo Meng

2010-01-01

38

Fluorine-doped tin dioxide thin films prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin dioxide thin films doped with fluorine were prepared by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The target was SnOâ powder mixed with either SnFâ or SnFâ powder. The deposition conditions for obtaining films of low resistivity and their physical characteristics were systematically studied. The crystallinity, which was inferior to that of the CVD prepared film, was not improved

Toshiro Maruyama; Hisao Akagi

1996-01-01

39

High-T sub c fluorine-doped YBa2Cu3O(y) films on ceramic substrates by screen printing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thick films of fluorine-doped YBa2Cu3O(y) were screen printed on highly polished alumina, magnesia spinel, strontium titanate, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. They were annealed at 1000 C and soaked in oxygen at 450 C, followed by slow cooling to room temperature. The films were characterized by electrical resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and x-ray diffraction. The film on YSZ showed the best characteristics with a T sub c (onset) of 91 K, T sub c (R equals 0) of 88.2 K, and a transition width, delta T sub c (10-90 percent), of approximately 1.7 K. The film adhesion, probably controlled by interdiffusion of cations between the film and the substrate, was good in all cases except on strontium titanate where the film completely detached from the substrate.

Bansal, Narottam P.

1991-01-01

40

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (F{sub O}) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the V{sub O} concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the F{sub O} concentration and a decrease in both n and V{sub O} concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO{sub 2} matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine F{sub O} and tin vacancy V{sub Sn} defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a V{sub Sn} through the migration of Sn{sub Sn} host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

El Akkad, Fikry; Joseph, Sudeep [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

2012-07-15

41

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (FO) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (VO) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the VO concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the FO concentration and a decrease in both n and VO concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO2 matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine FO and tin vacancy VSn defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a VSn through the migration of SnSn host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

Akkad, Fikry El; Joseph, Sudeep

2012-07-01

42

Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature  

PubMed Central

Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2?hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1?cm2/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses. PMID:23803977

Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

2013-01-01

43

Thickness effects on the texture development of fluorine-doped SnO2 thin films: The role of surface and strain energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline fluorine-doped SnO2 thin films have been grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis with a thickness varying in the range of 40 to 600 nm. A texture transition from ?110? to ?100? and ?301? crystallographic orientations has experimentally been shown by x-ray diffraction measurements as film thickness is increased, showing that a process of abnormal grain growth has occurred. The texture effects are considered within a thermodynamic approach, in which the minimization of total free energy constitutes the driving force for grain growth. For very small film thickness, it is found that the ?110? preferred orientation is due to surface energy minimization, as the (110) planes have the lowest surface energy in the rutile structure. In contrast, as film thickness is increased, the ?100? and ?301? crystallographic orientations are progressively predominant, owing to elastic strain energy minimization in which the anisotropic character is considered in the elastic biaxial modulus. A texture map is eventually determined, revealing the expected texture as a function of elastic strain and film thickness.

Consonni, V.; Rey, G.; Roussel, H.; Bellet, D.

2012-02-01

44

Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Annealed Under Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine doped tin oxide thin film was deposited as window layer on diffused mono- crystalline silicon wafers (100) for photovoltaic purposes. At the time of screen printing metallization (1), thin films SnO2: F is confronted to an annealing under air for temperatures beyond 800°C. In order to study the optical properties of this transparent and conductive oxide TCO, thin film

R. Tala-Ighil; M. Boumaour; A. Maallemia; A. Iratni; Bd F. Fanon

45

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

46

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

47

The study of fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (FSG) films property after thermal alloy for different film deposition temperature for sub-0.18 um logic yield improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

As feature size shrinks to the deep sub-micron regime, the RC delay of metal interconnection will increase and limit the performance of high-speed devices. To address this problem, fluorine-doped silicon dioxide (SiOF) has been introduced in advanced IMD applications. Many deposition methods have been studied, including PECVD and HDP CVD. HDP CVD was finally applied to most deep sub-micron processes

S. A. Wu; Y. K. Wang; Y. Cheng; J. K. Wang; G. C. Wang; M. H. Yo; C. T. Lee; T. Lu; S. Wang; J. Li; Chenson Lai

2000-01-01

48

Organic light emitting diodes using fluorine doped tin oxide thin films, deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis, as anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of tin oxide doped with fluorine (SnO2:F) have been deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis. The SnO2:F thin films are crystallized in the excepted tetragonal structure, with a preferential orientation of their crystallites along the (200) direction. They exhibit a good transparency in the visible and a small resistivity (?=4.23×10?4?cm). These SnO2:F thin films have been used as anode

J. Ouerfelli; S. Ouro Djobo; J. C. Bernède; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; Y. Berredjem

2008-01-01

49

Grain-boundary sliding in fluorine-doped silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the effect of small additions of fluorine impurity on the relaxation and creep behavior of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics was conducted. A model polycrystal, consisting of equiaxed grains and containing only pure (glassy) SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundary, was selected for this investigation. The boundary SiO{sub 2}-glass film, completely surrounding the grains, was doped with increased amounts of the glass-network modifier fluorine to systematically lower its bulk viscosity. The addition of the fluorine made both the grain-boundary relaxation peak and the background of internal friction notably shift toward lower temperatures; the scaling was in accordance with the lowered viscosity of the bulk fluorine-doped SiO{sub 2} glass. Invoking basic viscoelasticity principles, the grain-boundary relaxation phenomenon could be rationalized and the internal friction data consistently related to the macroscopic (torsional) creep behavior of the polycrystal.

Pezzotti, G. [Kyoto Inst. of Tech., Matsugasaki, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Materials; Ota, Kenichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

1997-03-01

50

Fluorine-doped tin oxide-selenium heterojunction for photovoltaic conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Se to solar cells is studied. Transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were prepared on clean glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique, and high-purity Se or an ultrathin Te layer were deposited on the FTO-coated glass. The spectral response of the FTO-Se solar cell is evaluated and compared to the CdO-Se cell data of Shaw and

I. S. Athwal; R. K. Bedi

1986-01-01

51

Rapid Hydrolysis of Organophosphorous Esters Induced by Nanostructured, Fluorine-Doped Titania Replicas of Diatom Frustules  

E-print Network

Rapid Hydrolysis of Organophosphorous Esters Induced by Nanostructured, Fluorine-Doped Titania Three-dimensional microscale assemblies of fluorine-doped tit- ania nanoparticles were synthesized from agent mimics), under mild con- ditions (pH 4.5­7.9, 221C) and in the absence of light. Fluorine doping

Huang, Ching-Hua

52

Improvement of the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared the inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as a transparent electrode and with TiO2, WO3 and WOx as selective charge transport layers. An adequately thick TiO2 nanoparticles layer was employed for covering a very rough FTO surface. Using a solution-based WOx film instead of a vacuum deposited WO3 layer in inverted polymer solar

Jae-Ryoung Kim; Jung Min Cho; A-Rum Lee; Eun Ah Chae; Jin-Uk Park; Won-Bae Byun; Sang Kyu Lee; Jong-Cheol Lee; Won-Wook So; Seunghyup Yoo; Sang-Jin Moon; Won Suk Shin

2011-01-01

53

Fluorine doped-tin oxide prepared using spray method for dye sensitized solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) film was fabricated by spray deposition method. FTO films were prepared in different sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq. X-ray diffractograms showed that the as-grown FTO film was tetragonal SnO2. The prepared FTO film have an average transmittance of 80% in the visible region (?=400-800 nm). These FTO films were then used to fabricate Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The working electrode was made from TiO2 paste using doctor blade technique. DSSC samples were characterized using solar simulator under AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2). It is found that the efficiency of DSSC was much affected by sheet resistance of FTO film. The efficiency of DCCS was 2.32, 2.4, 1.1 and 0.97 (%) for the FTO sheet resistance 6.7, 12.1, 19.3, and 23.5 ?/sq, respectively. It is shown that the optimum DSSC efficiency was made from FTO with sheet resistance 12.1 ?/sq.

Widiyandari, Hendri; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Suyitno, Hidayanto, Eko

2013-09-01

54

Comparison of characteristics of fluorine doped zinc and gallium tin oxide composite thin films deposited on stainless steel 316 bipolar plate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.  

PubMed

In order to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plates currently used for the PEMFC stack, coated SUS 316 was employed. As a metallic bipolar plate, coated SUS 316 can provide higher mechanical strength, better durability to shocks and vibration, less permeability, improved thermal and bulk electrical conductivity, as well as being thinner and lighter. To enhance the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of SUS 316, the deposition of GTO:F and ZTO:F composite films was carried out by ECR-MOCVD. The surface morphology of the films consisted of tiny elliptically shaped grains with a thickness of 1 microm. The corrosion current for GTO:F was 0.13 Acm(-2) which was much lower than that of bare SUS 316 (50.16 Acm(-2)). The GTO:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The GTO:F coated film exhibited the highest cell voltage and power density due to its lower ICR values. PMID:22097519

Park, Jihun; Hudaya, Chairul; Lee, Joong Kee

2011-09-01

55

Relations between the optical, electrical, and structural properties of fluorine-doped tin dioxide coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relations between the optical, electrical and structural properties of pyrolytically sprayed, Fluorine-doped tinoxide coatings have been examined by analyzing coatings having a different Fluorine doping, different preparation temperature and different coating thickness. The results show that doping tinoxide coatings with fluorine increases the electron density and the mobility ii the coating. The maximum electron density which can be obtained is about 410 6/m . The maximum mobility of about 45 cm /Vs which has been obtained, roughly equals the maximum mobility predicted by the theory for ionized impurity scattering. This leads to a minimum attainable thermal emittance of about 0. 15. When the maximum mobility has not been reached, this can be due to a too weak preferential orientation in the (200) direction or to a small electron density in the coating.

Haitjema, Han

1990-08-01

56

Slow magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in fluorine-doped NdFeAsO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the widely studied superconducting iron-pnictide compounds belonging to the Ln1111 family (with Ln a lanthanide), a systematic investigation of the crossover region between the superconducting and the antiferromagnetic phase for the Ln = Nd case has been missing. We fill this gap by focusing on the intermediate doping regime of NdFeAsO1 -xFx by means of dc-magnetometry and muon-spin spectroscopy (? SR ) measurements. The long-range order we detect at low fluorine doping is replaced by short-range magnetic interactions at x =0.08 , where also superconductivity appears. In this case, longitudinal-field ? SR experiments show clear evidence of slow magnetic fluctuations that disappear at low temperatures. This fluctuating component is ascribed to the glassy-like character of the magnetically ordered phase of NdFeAsO at intermediate fluorine doping.

Lamura, G.; Shiroka, T.; Bonfà, P.; Sanna, S.; De Renzi, R.; Putti, M.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Katrych, S.; Khasanov, R.; Karpinski, J.

2015-01-01

57

Microwave-electrochemical formation of colloidal zinc oxide at fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal ZnO is obtained during microwave-enhanced electrochemical deposition experiments from an aqueous solution containing 0 1 M Zn(NO(3))(2) and 0 02 M H(2)O(2) via repetitive negative going potential cycles from 03 to 0 8 V vs SCE The effects of temperature and temperature gradients on ZnO electro formation at fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes are investigated with both a

Liza Rassaei; Robben Jaber; Stephen E. Flower; Karen J. Edler; Richard G. Compton; Tony D. James; Frank Marken

2010-01-01

58

Electrochemistry behavior of endogenous thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the electrochemical behavior of different thiols on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes is reported. To this end, the mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (HCys) and acetyl-cysteine (ACys) at different pH was investigated. FTO showed electroactivity for the oxidation of the first three thiols at pH between 2.0 and 4.0, but under

Luciana Rojas; Leonard Molero; Ricardo A. Tapia; Rodrigo del Rio; M. Angélica del Valle; Mónica Antilén; Francisco Armijo

2011-01-01

59

Synthesis of fluorine doped tin oxide nanoparticles by sol–gel technique and their characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents novel attempt to synthesis of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles by sol–gel technique. The\\u000a synthesized FTO nanoparticles were obtained after calcination. Temperatures of calcination were 600 and 700 °C due to identify\\u000a changes in the particles size growth. A DG\\/DTA and FTIR study identifies the oxide and formation of the nanopowders. The XRD\\u000a studies confirm the tetragonal

V. Senthilkumar; P. Vickraman; R. Ravikumar

2010-01-01

60

Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 - 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

Anand, S.; Darak, Mayur Sudesh; Kumar, D. Sriram

2014-10-01

61

Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 – 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

Anand, S., E-mail: anand.s.krishna@gmail.com, E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com, E-mail: srk@nitt.edu; Darak, Mayur Sudesh, E-mail: anand.s.krishna@gmail.com, E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com, E-mail: srk@nitt.edu; Kumar, D. Sriram, E-mail: anand.s.krishna@gmail.com, E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com, E-mail: srk@nitt.edu [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

2014-10-15

62

Cis-bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2?-bipyridyl-4,4?dicarboxylato)Ru(II) (N719) dark-reactivity when bound to fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) or titanium dioxide (TiO 2) surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar cell sensitizer cis-bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2?-bipyridyl-4,4?dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II) (N719) is adsorbed and investigated at two electrode surfaces: (i) at a bare fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and (ii) at a nano-particulate anatase (TiO2) film in contact with FTO. N719 is adsorbed from acetonitrile onto FTO surfaces giving poor quality partial or multi-layer coverage commencing at 10?7M concentration. In contrast, from 50% acetonitrile 50% tBuOH

Alberto Fattori; Laurence M. Peter; Stephen R. Belding; Richard G. Compton; Frank Marken

2010-01-01

63

Transparent conducting oxide films for thin film silicon photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for applications of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films in thin film silicon solar cells are reviewed with a focus on sputtered Al doped zinc oxide and fluorine doped tin oxide films. TCO films are employed as a front contact and as part of a highly reflective back contact so that the silicon absorber layer is embedded by TCO

W. Beyer; J. Hupkes; H. Stiebig

2007-01-01

64

Formation of Pt\\/Pb nanoparticles by electrodeposition and redox replacement cycles on fluorine doped tin oxide glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage approach that combines electrodeposition with redox replacement has been used to deposit Pt\\/Pb nanoparticles on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The deposition takes place by cycling between the two steps in a single electrolyte bath containing both Pb2+ and Pt2+ ions. In the first step, Pb is electrodeposited on FTO glass at a potential E1 and in

K. a b Yliniemi; D. b Wragg; B. P. a Wilson; H. N. b McMurray; D. A. b Worsley; P.c Schmuki; K. a Kontturi

2013-01-01

65

Performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells by surface patterning of fluorine-doped tin oxide transparent electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface modification of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent electrodes was carried out by lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching to improve the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The concentration of Cl2 gas and dc-bias voltage to the substrate were varied as the main etch parameters. The transmittance and sheet resistance of the FTO electrodes were compared before

Seon Mi Kong; Yubin Xiao; Kyung Ha Kim; Wan In Lee; Chee Won Chung

2011-01-01

66

Controlled growth of hematite (?-Fe 2O 3) nanorod array on fluorine doped tin oxide: Synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematite nanorods were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by hydrothermal means utilizing urea as a pH regulating agent. XRD for nanorods revealed pure hematite phase after annealing at 500°C for 30min with preferential orientation in the [110] direction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out to investigate the electrical properties. Using Mott–Schottky analysis, charge carrier density was estimated

H. K. Mulmudi; N. Mathews; X. C. Dou; L. F. Xi; S. S. Pramana; Y. M. Lam; S. G. Mhaisalkar

2011-01-01

67

Behaviour of a fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode: a study by quartz crystal microbalance in propylene carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) was deposited onto a gold electrode evaporated onto a quartz crystal. The FTO material was cycled in propylene carbonate in the presence of 1 M LiClO4. Voltammetric and gravimetric responses of the FTO electrode were recorded between +2.75 and +0.75 V vs. Li|Li+ for 180 cycles. During the first few cycles, reduction of trace water was

M. Székely; C. Mathieu; N. E. Moulayat; M. Herlem; H. Cachet; M. Keddam; H. Perrot; B. Fahys; B. Eid; E. Caillot

1996-01-01

68

Influences of textures in fluorine-doped tin oxide on characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influences of textures in the transparent conductor fluorine-doped tin oxides (FTO) on characteristics and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO conductors having varied textures were characterized for their physical, electrical and optical properties and were subjected to device studies to establish the correlation between FTO textures and DSSC characteristics\\/performances. The results suggest that the highly textured

Tsai Chih-Hung; Hsu Sui-Ying; Huang Tsung-Wei; Tsai Yu-Tang; Chen Yan-Fang; Yuan Hsuan Jhang; Lun Hsieh; Wu Chung-Chih; Chen Yen-Shan; Chen Chieh-Wei; Li Chung-Chun

2011-01-01

69

Photoacoustic and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of CdSe Quantum Dots Grafted onto Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the optical absorption properties, measured by the photoacoustic (PA) method, and photoelectrochemical current (PEC) characteristics (including transient measurements) of CdSe quantum dots (Q-dots) grafted onto a planar fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrate. CdSe Q-dots were fabricated by the chemical solution deposition (CD) technique. With increasing deposition time, the redshift of the PA spectra can be clearly observed and

Taro Toyoda; Dai Arae; Qing Shen

2005-01-01

70

Reductive Electropolymerization of a Vinyl-containing Poly-pyridyl Complex on Glassy Carbon and Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Electrodes.  

PubMed

Controllable electrode surface modification is important in a number of fields, especially those with solar fuels applications. Electropolymerization is one surface modification technique that electrodeposits a polymeric film at the surface of an electrode by utilizing an applied potential to initiate the polymerization of substrates in the Helmholtz layer. This useful technique was first established by a Murray-Meyer collaboration at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the early 1980s and utilized to study numerous physical phenomena of films containing inorganic complexes as the monomeric substrate. Here, we highlight a procedure for coating electrodes with an inorganic complex by performing reductive electropolymerization of the vinyl-containing poly-pyridyl complex onto glassy carbon and fluorine doped tin oxide coated electrodes. Recommendations on electrochemical cell configurations and troubleshooting procedures are included. Although not explicitly described here, oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole-containing compounds follows similar procedures to vinyl-based reductive electropolymerization but are far less sensitive to oxygen and water. PMID:25741745

Harrison, Daniel P; Carpenter, Logan S; Hyde, Jacob T

2015-01-01

71

Impact of carbon-fluorine doped titanium dioxide in the performance of an electrochemical sensing of dopamine and rosebengal sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of Fluorine and Carbon as dopants in the TiO2 based electrochemical sensor and DSSC were presented in this work. A series of Carbon nano-cones and disc doped TiO2 (TC), Fluorine doped TiO2 (FT) and C & F co-doped TiO2 (CFT) powdered samples were prepared via solid state synthesis. The CFT film showed excellent electrochemical sensitivity to the oxidation of dopamine in aqueous solution and could be employed as a dopamine sensor. The proposed sensor exhibited good linear response in the range of 10-820 ?M with a detection limit of 3.6 ?M under optimum conditions. The photovoltaic performances of Rose Bengal sensitized solar cells were assessed through I-V measurements. The CFT based DSSC shows a short-circuit current density and a power conversion efficiency (?) of 0.908 mA/cm2 and 0.163% respectively, which is 35% and 38% greater than the performance of other PT based cells. The characterization studies such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, TEM and EPR spectroscopy were utilized for further investigation, which helps us to understand how fluorine and carbon play a part in dopamine sensing and solar energy conversion.

C, Abinaya; Dinesh, Bose; Sangari, M.; Ramar, A.; Umadevi, M.; Mayandi, J.

2015-01-01

72

Studies on electrochromism of spray pyrolyzed cobalt oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on to fluorine doped tin oxide (F.T.O.) coated glass substrates. The electrochromic cell was formed by using these films as working electrodes and the electrochromic characteristics were determined by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The films exhibited anodic electrochromism; changing colour from grey to pale yellow.

P. S Patil; L. D Kadam; C. D Lokhande

1998-01-01

73

HTS dual-band bandpass filters using stub-loaded hair-pin resonators for mobile communication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A HTS dual-band bandpass filter is developed to obtain sharp-cut off characteristics for mobile communication systems. The filter is composed of five stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with H-shaped waveguides between them. The main advantage of the proposed filter is to allow independent control of the center frequency of the first and second bands. The bandwidths can be flexibly adjusted using the H-shaped waveguide. An electromagnetic simulator was used to design and analyze the filter, which have a 3.5-GHz center frequency and a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the first band and a 5.0-GHz center frequency and a 100-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the second band. The filter was fabricated using YBa2Cu3Oy thin film on an Al2O3 substrate. Ground plane was fabricated using Au thin film. The measured frequency responses of the filter tally well with the simulated ones.

Sekiya, N.; Sugiyama, S.

2014-09-01

74

Superconductivity and phase diagram in iron-based arsenic-oxides ReFeAsO1?? (Re = rare-earth metal) without fluorine doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a new class of superconductors prepared by high-pressure synthesis in the quaternary family ReFeAsO1?? (Re=Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce, La) without fluorine doping. The onset superconducting critical temperature (Tc) in these compounds increases with the reduction of the Re atom size, and the highest Tc obtained so far is 55 K in SmFeAsO1??. For the NdFeAsO1?? compound with

Zhi-An Ren; Guang-Can Che; Xiao-Li Dong; Jie Yang; Wei Lu; Wei Yi; Xiao-Li Shen; Zheng-Cai Li; Li-Ling Sun; Fang Zhou; Zhong-Xian Zhao

2008-01-01

75

Use of fluorine-doped tin oxide instead of indium tin oxide in highly efficient air-fabricated inverted polymer solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability and efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) were improved using thermally stable fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the bottom electrode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and TiO2 as the buffer layers. The TiO2 layer between FTO and the P3HT:PCBM active layer improved the interface characteristics for a better charge transfer. The PEDOT:PSS layer retarded the oxygen diffusion to the active

Woon-Hyuk Baek; Mijung Choi; Tae-Sik Yoon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim

2010-01-01

76

Micrometer-sized fluorine doped tin oxide as fast electron collector for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-layered fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) powder was synthesized and applied as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO powders are connected to form a direct electron pathway for the efficient extract of injected electrons, while the TiO2 layer serves as an energy barrier prohibiting the charge combination with oxidized dye or I3(-). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses suggest that electrons have a longer combination lifetime (?e = 233 ms) than that of the electron in the DSSCs using traditional P25 photoanodes (?e = 28 ms). The DSSCs using 5 ?m thick TiO2@FTO as photoanodes eventually give a respectable and long-term stable photovoltaic performance with a current density of 23.8 mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and power conversion efficiency of 7.4%. The results are received on a low dye loading level (0.25 × 10(-7) mol/cm(2)), which is (1)/10 of that for traditional photoanode (2.79 × 10(-7) mol/cm(2)). PMID:25226086

Cui, Xiao Rui; Wang, Ye Feng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Lu; Gao, Fei; Zeng, Jing Hui

2014-10-01

77

Studies on ionic intercalation properties of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique onto the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from cobalt chloride solution. They were characterized by cyclic-voltammetry, chronoamperometry and spectrophotometry techniques. The films exhibited anodic electrochromism, changing colour from grey to pale yellow. Colouration efficiency at 633nm was calculated to be 12cm2C?1.

L. D Kadam; S. H Pawar; P. S Patil

2001-01-01

78

Transparent nanoporous tin-oxide film electrode fabricated by anodization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transparent nanoporous tin oxide film electrode was fabricated by anodizing a tin film on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film electrode. The resulting anodized nanoporous tin oxide (ANPTO) film has columnar-type pore channels with around 50nm in diameter and is optically transparent. Electrochemical measurements with Fe(CN)63? as a redox probe clearly revealed that the ANPTO film could be used

Akira Yamaguchi; Teruhiko Iimura; Kazuhiro Hotta; Norio Teramae

2011-01-01

79

Strong inter-conduction-band absorption in heavily fluorine doped tin oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical, electrical and structural properties of thin film tin oxide (TO), F-doped tin oxide (FTO; nF?6×1020cm?3) and highly F-doped tin oxide (hFTO; nF?10×1020cm?3), grown by spray pyrolysis technique, are studied by atomic force microscopy, Hall effect, X-ray fluorescence and transmission\\/reflection measurements. The resistivity (?=32×10?4?cm for intrinsic tin oxide) shows intriguing characteristics when F concentration nF is increased (?=6×10?4?cm for

Carla D. Canestraro; Marcela M. Oliveira; Rogério Valaski; Marcus V. S. da Silva; Denis G. F. David; Iuri Pepe; Antonio Ferreira da Silva; Lucimara S. Roman; Clas Persson

2008-01-01

80

Effects of fluorine doping on thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 ceramics, doped with different contents of fluorine at the oxygen sites, were investigated in the temperature range of 323 to 1073 K. The electrical resistivity is reduced significantly after fluorine doping. However, the magnitudes of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient (S), and slope of S at high temperatures (dS/dT) vary non-monotonically with increasing doping contents, indicating that doped fluorine ions not only act as electron donors, but also influence band structure. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases when fluorine ions are slightly doped, and increases with increasing fluorine content because of the increasing average grain size. The thermoelectric performance is enhanced by slight fluorine doping due to the increase of the power factor and the reduction of thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric figure of merit reaches maximum value (0.21 at 1073 K) in the Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O5.95F0.05 sample.

Li, Yi; Liu, Jian; Wang, Zhen; Zhou, YuCheng; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Jichao; Zhu, Yuanhu; Li, Maokui; Mei, Liangmo

2015-02-01

81

Electrochromism in spray deposited iridium oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochromic iridium oxide thin films were deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates from an aqueous iridium chloride solution by pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The as-deposited samples were X-ray amorphous. The electrochromic properties of thin films were studied in an aqueous electrolyte (0.5N H2SO4) using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and spectrophotometry. Iridium oxide films show pronounced anodic

P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale

2005-01-01

82

Compositional analysis and depth profile studies on undoped and doped tin oxide films prepared by spray technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin oxide (TO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films of different thicknesses and varying impurity concentrations have been prepared by spray technique. The XRD results are in good agreement with ASTM data. From the XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) studies, the presence of tin and oxygen in tin oxide has been confirmed and also the ratio of Sn\\/O has

F. M Amanullah; K. J Pratap; V Hari Babu

1998-01-01

83

Synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanotube arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly ordered arrays of Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanotubes have been successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate using ZnO nanorod arrays as sacrificial templates. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the Cu2ZnSnSe4 arrays were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The diameter and length of the Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanotubes can be adjusted by tuning the diameter and length of the ZnO nanorods. In addition, the effect of the length on the performance of the photoelectrochemical cells was also investigated.

Zhang, Wei; Yu, Wenxue; Zhang, Lina; Yang, Haibin; Fu, Wuyou; Li, Minghui; Li, Yixing

2012-10-01

84

The maximum limiting performance improved counter electrode based on a porous fluorine doped tin oxide conductive framework for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A novel porous fluorine doped tin oxide (PFTO) conductive framework was introduced to counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When modified by platinum (Pt) or carbon (C), the PFTO conductive framework displays high catalytic activity to I(-)/I3(-) redox couples. Power conversion efficiencies of 6.09% and 5.81% were obtained in the DSSCs based on Pt and C modified PFTO CEs respectively, which were close to that of DSSCs with Pt coated FTO glass (6.05%) and Pt sheet (6.26%) CEs. Maximum limiting performances of the CEs were obtained from the polarization curves. The CE based on PFTO showed higher maximum limiting power conversion efficiency (~20%) compared with the planar FTO substrate Pt CE (~18%), with the increase of its surface area and electrocatalytic activity. PMID:23632829

Bao, Chunxiong; Huang, Huan; Yang, Jie; Gao, Hao; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zhou, Yong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

2013-06-01

85

Nitrogen plasma treatment of fluorine-doped tin oxide for enhancement of photo-carrier collection in amorphous Si solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen plasma treatment was performed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) front electrodes, and its impact on the performance of pin type amorphous Si (a-Si) solar cells was investigated. Nitrogen plasma treatment reverses the surface band bending of SnO{sub 2}:F from accumulation to depletion, thus in turn reversing the band bending of the p type amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC) window layer. The reversal of band bending leads to the collection of carriers generated in p-a-SiC, and quantum efficiency in the short wavelength regime is thereby enhanced. On the other hand, surface depletion of SnO{sub 2}:F causes a reduction of the diode built-in voltage and increased series resistance, which could degrade the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), the degradation of which is strongly affected by the deposition time of p-a-SiC.

Baik, Seung Jae; Lim, Koeng Su [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-15

86

Studies on electrochromic properties of nickel oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochromic nickel oxide thin films were prepared by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel chloride solution. Transparent NiO-thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature 350°C. The films were cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (111) direction. Infrared spectroscopy results show presence of free hydroxyl ion

L. D. Kadam; P. S. Patil

2001-01-01

87

Preparing thick, defect-free films of anatase titania for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatase titania (TiO2) nanoparticle films were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, Raman spectroscopy, and optical microscopy. The results show that defects are initiated during the sintering step and continue to propagate once the film is cooled. The sintering and annealing steps were

Fahd M. Rajab; David Loaring; Kirk J. Ziegler

2011-01-01

88

Photoelectrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline p-type HgS thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline mercury sulfide (HgS) thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method onto the glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate from an aqueous alkaline bath (pH?8) at room temperature (300K). Mercuric acetate and thiourea were used as Hg2+ and S2? ion sources, respectively. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies of HgS films were carried out, and

R. S. Patil; T. P. Gujar; C. D. Lokhande; R. S. Mane; Sung-Hwan Han

2007-01-01

89

Photoelectrochemical study of organic–inorganic hybrid thin films via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stepwise assembly of negatively charged organic molecules (poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) or tetrasodium-meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS)) and positively charged TiO2 colloids on pretreated substrate surfaces utilizing the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach was investigated. The step-by-step formation of these films was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometry and electrochemistry. Photocurrent was generated upon light irradiation of the hybrid thin films assembled on fluorine-doped tin oxide

Da Chen; Geng Wang; Wu Lu; Hao Zhang; Jinghong Li

2007-01-01

90

Use of fluorine-doped tin oxide instead of indium tin oxide in highly efficient air-fabricated inverted polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability and efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) were improved using thermally stable fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as the bottom electrode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and TiO2 as the buffer layers. The TiO2 layer between FTO and the P3HT:PCBM active layer improved the interface characteristics for a better charge transfer. The PEDOT:PSS layer retarded the oxygen diffusion to the active layer. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.3% was obtained for the inverted structure of FTO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag with a stable performance, and the cell retained over 65% of its initial efficiency after 500 h. Additionally, the OSCs were fabricated using all-solution based vacuum-free processes with screen printing for the Ag electrode and the results were comparable to the device that used an evaporated Ag electrode.

Baek, Woon-Hyuk; Choi, Mijung; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Yong-Sang

2010-03-01

91

Fabrication of hydrophobic surface of titanium dioxide films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption and contact angle measurement were applied to study the structural, surface morphological, optical and surface wettability properties of the as-deposited and annealed TiO2 films. The

A. M. More; J. L. Gunjakar; C. D. Lokhande; Oh Shim Joo

2009-01-01

92

Efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells by interfacial modification of conducting glass\\/mesoporous TiO 2 using a novel ZnO compact blocking film  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and thin ZnO compact blocking film is employed at the interface of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and mesoporous TiO2, and its influence on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. The ZnO film prepared by spin-coating method on FTO is characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis spectrophotometer. The ZnO film is firstly

Yumin Liu; Xiaohua Sun; Qidong Tai; Hao Hu; Bolei Chen; Niu Huang; Bobby Sebo; Xing-zhong Zhao

2011-01-01

93

Effect of cooling rate of pre-annealed CdS thin film electrodes prepared by chemical bath deposition: Enhancement of photoelectrochemical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of CdS, deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) onto films of fluorine-doped tin oxide\\/glass (glass\\/FTO) substrates were prepared and investigated for photoelectrochemical conversion (PEC) of light into electricity. Knowing the hazardous nature of CdS, the focal theme of this work was to modify the electrodes by simple economic ways to maximize their conversion efficiency and minimize their degradation

Hikmat S. Hilal; Rania M. A. Ismail; Amer El-Hamouz; Ahed Zyoud; Iyad Saadeddin

2009-01-01

94

Influences on photovoltage performance by interfacial modification of FTO\\/mesoporous TiO 2 using ZnO and TiO 2 as the compact film  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective ZnO compact film (ZCF) has been introduced at the interface of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and mesoporous TiO2 layer, and its effect on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been compared to that of conventional TiO2 compact film (TCF). The ZCF and TCF prepared by spin-coating method on FTO are characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning

Yumin Liu; Xiaohua Sun; Qidong Tai; Hao Hu; Bolei Chen; Niu Huang; Bobby Sebo; Xing-Zhong Zhao

2011-01-01

95

Surface treatment of TiO 2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium DC pulse discharge plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the utilization of the DC pulse discharge plasma jet technique as a means for the preparation of titanium oxide (TiO2) films on fluorine dope tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The TiO2 film made on these experimental bases exhibited the BET specific surface area of 95m2\\/g, the pore volume

T. Yuji; H. Akatsuka; N. Mungkung; B. W. Park; Y. M. Sung

2008-01-01

96

Properties of mixed molybdenum oxide iridium oxide thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdenum-doped iridium oxide thin films have been deposited onto corning glass- and fluorine-doped tin oxide coated corning glass substrates at 350 °C by using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. An aqueous solution of 0.01 M ammonium molybdate was mixed with 0.01 M iridium trichloride solution in different volume proportions and the resultant solution was used as a precursor solution for

P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale; A. I. Inamdar; H. P. Deshmukh

2006-01-01

97

Properties of mixed molybdenum oxide–iridium oxide thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdenum-doped iridium oxide thin films have been deposited onto corning glass- and fluorine-doped tin oxide coated corning glass substrates at 350°C by using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. An aqueous solution of 0.01M ammonium molybdate was mixed with 0.01M iridium trichloride solution in different volume proportions and the resultant solution was used as a precursor solution for spraying. The as-deposited

P. S. Patil; R. K. Kawar; S. B. Sadale; A. I. Inamdar; H. P. Deshmukh

2006-01-01

98

Structural, electrical and optical properties of TiO 2 doped WO 3 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 doped WO3 thin films were deposited onto glass substrates and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates, maintained at 500°C by pyrolytic decomposition of adequate precursor solution. Equimolar ammonium tungstate ((NH4)2WO4) and titanyl acetyl acetonate (TiAcAc) solutions were mixed together at pH 9 in volume proportions and used as a precursor solution for the deposition of TiO2

P. S. Patil; S. H. Mujawar; A. I. Inamdar; P. S. Shinde; H. P. Deshmukh; S. B. Sadale

2005-01-01

99

Electrochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles on TiO2\\/FTO thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles were deposited on titanium oxideIV (TiO2) thin films supported on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxideIV) glass using a double pulse electrochemical deposition method. A systematic study of particle nucleation and growth is presented as a function of applied potential and time. Samples were analyzed by grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique and morphology was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy and

Rosa E. Dávila-Martínez; Luisa F. Cueto; Eduardo M. Sánchez

2006-01-01

100

Room temperature electrodeposition and characterization of bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films from aqueous nitrate bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth ferric oxide (BFO) thin films were prepared on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method from aqueous nitrate bath at room temperature. The various preparative parameters, such as bath composition, current density, deposition time, etc were optimized to get good quality BFO thin films. The structural, surface morphological, optical and dielectrical properties of the films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical absorption and dielectric measurement techniques. The results show that electrodeposition method allows to synthesis BFO films. The films are free from pinholes and cracks. The magnitudes of dielectric constant and loss tangent showed inverse frequency dependence.

Gujar, T. P.; Shinde, V. R.; Kulkarni, S. S.; Pathan, H. M.; Lokhande, C. D.

2006-03-01

101

Preparation of mixed oxide MoO 3–WO 3 thin films by spray pyrolysis technique and their characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed oxide MoO3–WO3 thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at 300°C by using a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Equimolar ammonium tungstate and ammonium molybdate solutions were mixed together in volume proportions and used as precursors for spraying. The samples were annealed at 400°C for 1 h. They

P. R Patil; P. S Patil

2001-01-01

102

The effects of hydrothermal temperature and thickness of TiO 2 film on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the preparation of TiO2 colloids, and their film thickness on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, toward the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were investigated. Pore diameter and surface area of the TiO2 are of paramount importance in determining the cell efficiency. With the increase of hydrothermal temperature, the pore diameter increases linearly;

Chung-Yi Huang; Ying-Chan Hsu; Jian-Ging Chen; Vembu Suryanarayanan; Kun-Mu Lee; Kuo-Chuan Ho

2006-01-01

103

Optimal ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film layers adopting a simple pulsed Nd:YAG laser with TEM 00 mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In material processing, a laser system with optimal laser parameters has been considered to be significant. Especially, the laser ablation technology is thought to be very important for fabricating a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) module with good quality. Moreover, the TEM00 mode laser beam is the most dominant factor to decide the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) characteristics.

Hee-Je Kim; Myung-Sik Lee; Dong-Gil Lee; Min-Kyu Son; Kyoung-Jun Lee

2009-01-01

104

Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2014-11-01

105

The origin of haze in CVD tin oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of haze was investigated in antimony-doped tin oxide thin films, and in double-stack thin films of fluorine-doped tin oxide/antimony-doped tin oxide, both deposited by chemical vapor deposition onto soda-lime-silica float glass substrates. These transparent conductive oxide thin films are of great importance in the production of solar control architectural glazing units. Therefore, understanding the origins of haze is necessary to the development of coated, IR-reflecting glass windows with low overall haze levels. Haze measurements of as-prepared and polished samples were correlated with surface roughness and concentration of internal hole defects. Surface roughnesses were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, and characterized by estimated RMS values. In thin tin oxide films (<2000 Å) internal hole defects caused haze, while in thick tin oxide films (>4000 Å) surface roughness was the primary source of haze.

Szanyi, János

2002-01-01

106

TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures.

Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

2014-06-01

107

TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.  

PubMed

We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures. PMID:24876070

Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

2014-07-01

108

Effect of temperature on the Hurst and growth exponents of CdTe polycrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the influence of substrate temperature on the Hurst and growth exponents of CdTe thin films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine doped tin oxide. The sample roughness profile was measured with a stylus profiler at different growth times and substrate temperatures in order to determine the critical exponents. The Hurst exponent increases linearly from 0.72 to 0.8, whereas the growth exponent increases exponentially from 0.14 to 0.62, for temperatures between 150 and 300°C. The global roughness also increases with growth temperature, which turns to be a very good parameter for roughness control.

Ferreira, S. O.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.; Suela, J.; Menezes-Sobrinho, I. L.; Ferreira, S. C.; Alves, S. G.

2006-06-01

109

Photoelectrochemical investigation of Ag 2S thin films deposited by SILAR method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline thin films of Ag2S have deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at the optimised conditions by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations were carried out using cell configuration as n-Ag2S\\/(1M NaOH+1M Na2S+1M S)\\/C.The dynamic current–voltage characteristic has been examined at room temperature (27°C). It is concluded that the Ag2S

H. M Pathan; P. V Salunkhe; B. R Sankapal; C. D Lokhande

2001-01-01

110

Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) light-emitting devices prepared via the precursor route onto indium tin oxide and fluorine-doped tin dioxide substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the preparation of organic light-emitting devices (LEDs) an optically transparent and electrically conducting thin film\\u000a is needed as anode. Usually, a glass substrate coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) is used. We show that ITO is unsuitable\\u000a in the case of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) prepared by the precursor route. We have found that a reaction in which hydrogen\\u000a chloride

M. HEROLD; J. GMEINER; C. DRUMMER; M. SCHWOERER

1997-01-01

111

Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.  

PubMed

Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films. PMID:22097539

Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

2011-09-01

112

Using modified poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) film as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), assembling with nano-crystalline TiO2 adsorbed cis-Ru(dcb)2(NCS)2 dye (known as N3) using polar solvent-treated poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) coating on a conductive glass (fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO) as a counter electrode, were studied. The conductivity of a bare PEDOT:PSS film was only 2±0.05S\\/cm. However, the conductivities of PEDOT:PSS films treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethyl acetamide

Jian-Ging Chen; Hung-Yu Wei; Kuo-Chuan Ho

2007-01-01

113

Double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4/Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film as composite photocathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solvothermal method was used to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles. CZTS/CZTSe bilayer films have been fabricated via a layer-by-layer blade coating process on the fluorine dope tin oxide (FTO) substrates. We converted conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) into double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells with the replacement of the Pt-coated counter electrode with the as-prepared films as composite photocathodes. Compared with conventional DSSCs, the cells show an increased short circuit current and power conversion efficiency.

Zhu, L.; Qiang, Y. H.; Zhao, Y. L.; Gu, X. Q.

2014-02-01

114

Formation of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by introducing an interfacial layer of hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous TiO 2 film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous TiO2 films (Ti-Ma-Me) were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates through the confinement self-assembly method.\\u000a The prepared Ti-Ma-Me possesses periodically ordered structure and a large specific surface area, which was applied as an\\u000a interfacial layer between the nanocrystalline TiO2 film (P25-TiO2) and FTO electrode in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The introduction of a Ti-Ma-Me interfacial

Jiang Du; XiaoYong Lai; Jonathan E. Halpert; Yu Yang; Dan Wang

2011-01-01

115

Growth of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films by pulsed-laser-induced liquid-deposition method and preliminary applications for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique, the pulsed-laser-induced liquid-deposition (PLLD) method, has been employed to grow nanocrystalline TiO2 films on fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated (FTO) glass substrates at room temperature. The PLLD method was implemented by directing\\u000a a pulsed laser into a liquid precursor and depositing the photosynthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 on an FTO glass substrate immersed in the liquid precursor. The as-grown nanocrystalline TiO2 films

Guo-Bing Wang; Min-Gong Fu; Bin Lu; Guo-Ping Du; Li Li; Xiao-Mei Qin; Wang-Zhou Shi

2010-01-01

116

Fabrication and Properties of a Branched (NH4)xWO3 Nanowire Array Film and a Porous WO3 Nanorod Array Film.  

PubMed

We describe the successful fabrication of a three-dimensional branched (NH4)xWO3 nanowire array film on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The porous WO3 nanorod array film formed after heat treatment and recrystallization. Specifically, the branched (NH4)xWO3 nanowire array film has very thin nanowires that were about 10 nm in diameter. The results of an optical and photoelectrochemical test show that the branched (NH4)xWO3 nanowire array film could be used as a near-infrared shielder, while the porous WO3 nanorod array film can be used as a photoanode for water splitting. Moreover, the morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared films are revealed, and the related changes caused by heat treatment are discussed in detail. PMID:25623076

Liu, Ya; Zhao, Liang; Su, Jinzhan; Li, Mingtao; Guo, Liejin

2015-02-18

117

Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

2014-01-01

118

Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness. PMID:24435106

Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

2014-02-21

119

Continuous Microreactor-Assisted Solution Deposition for Scalable Production of CdS Films  

SciTech Connect

Solution deposition offers an attractive, low temperature option in the cost effective production of thin film solar cells. Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) was used to produce nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates with excellent uniformity. We report a novel liquid coating technique using a ceramic rod to efficiently and uniformly apply reactive solution to large substrates (152 mm × 152 mm). This technique represents an inexpensive approach to utilize the MASD on the substrate for uniform growth of CdS films. Nano-crystalline CdS films have been produced from liquid phase at ~90°C, with average thicknesses of 70 nm to 230 nm and with a 5 to 12% thickness variation. The CdS films produced were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-Ray diffraction to demonstrate their suitability to thin-film solar technology.

Ramprasad, Sudhir; Su, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hung; Paul, Brian; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-06-13

120

Hydrogenated TiO2 film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenated TiO2 film was obtained by annealing TiO2 film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO2 films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO2 film and pristine TiO2 film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO2 film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO2 surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO2 as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO2 film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO2 to generate more photocurrent.

He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun

2013-12-01

121

Effect of molarity on properties of spray pyrolysed SnO{sub 2}:F thin films  

SciTech Connect

Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were prepared by using automated Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) machine and the effect of concentration of the precursors on the conductivity and transmittance of the films were studied. The resistivity (?) and mobility (?) are in the range of 10{sup ?3}–10{sup ?4} ?-cm and 8.2–13.5 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1} respectively. The electron density lies between 3.4 × 10{sup 20} and 6.6×10{sup 20} cm{sup ?3}. The film transmittance varies between 70 to 80% and the films shows very good reflectivity in the IR-NIR region. Prepared films can be used as transparent electrodes in photo voltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Deepu, D. R., E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in; Kartha, C. Sudha, E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in; Vijayakumar, K. P., E-mail: kpv@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin - 682022 (India)

2014-01-28

122

Effect of molarity on properties of spray pyrolysed SnO2:F thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were prepared by using automated Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) machine and the effect of concentration of the precursors on the conductivity and transmittance of the films were studied. The resistivity (?) and mobility (?) are in the range of 10-3-10-4 ?-cm and 8.2-13.5 cm2V-1s-1 respectively. The electron density lies between 3.4 × 1020 and 6.6×1020 cm-3. The film transmittance varies between 70 to 80% and the films shows very good reflectivity in the IR-NIR region. Prepared films can be used as transparent electrodes in photo voltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Deepu, D. R.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

2014-01-01

123

A study on low cost-high conducting fluorine and antimony-doped tin oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of undoped, fluorine- and antimony-doped tin oxide on glass at 400 °C was prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl 2), ammonium fluoride (NH 4F), and antimony trichloride (SbCl 3) were used as source for tin (Sn), fluorine (F), and antimony (Sb), respectively. To ensure the control of solution concentration on growth rate, fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:F) thin films were first prepared with different amount of tin precursor, in the range of 5-12 g, which has resulted in deposition of films with different thickness values. The optimum amount of tin precursor found from this study (11 g) was fixed constant for preparing SnO 2 films with different doping levels of F and Sb. From the X-ray diffraction analyses, it is understood that the preferred orientation of SnO 2:F films is dependent on their thickness and the solution concentration. The variation in the solution concentration and orientation of the films was reflected in their morphology as examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM studies showed that the variation in the solution concentration lead to different grain shapes for different orientations. The AFM study showed that the RMS roughness of undoped films reduced considerably from 86 to 24 nm due to fluorine doping (15 wt.%), whereas the antimony doping (2 wt.%) has no significance effect on RMS roughness (93 nm). The electrical properties of the films were examined by a Hall measurements setup in van der Pauw configuration. A minimum sheet resistance of 1.75 and 2.17 ?/ ? were obtained for F and Sb doped films, respectively. From the optical studies, it is found that the transmittance of undoped films increased from 42% to a maximum 85% on 30 wt.% fluorine doping, whereas that has been decreased to a minimum of 12% on 4 wt.% antimony doping (800 nm). A discussion on the effect of type of dopants and their concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the SnO 2 film have been presented.

Elangovan, E.; Ramamurthi, K.

2005-08-01

124

Ti-doped hematite thin films for efficient water splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uniform Ti-doped hematite thin films were deposited on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide FTO coated glasses using a pulsed laser deposition method. An influence of dopant concentration on the photoelectrochemical characteristics was examined under water splitting. Photocurrent measurements indicated that 3 mol% of Ti atoms was optimal dopant concentration in hematite films produced by this method. The maximum photocurrent density of un-doped and 3 mol% Ti-doped Fe2O3 photoelectrodes was 0.67 and 1.64 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V versus RHE, respectively. The incorporation of Ti atoms into hematite photoelectrodes was found to drastically enhance the water splitting performance.

Atabaev, Timur Sh.; Ajmal, Muhammad; Hong, Nguyen Hoa; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

2015-03-01

125

Inhomogeneous Fluctuating Superconductivity Near Room Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, a diverse set of experiments on high-transition temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors have produced evidence for the existence of superconducting correlations on short time and\\/or length scales at temperatures well above the bulk Tc. This includes the discovery of an unusual magnetic-field induced effect in YBa2Cu3Oy and La2-xSrxCuO4 above Tc using an intense beam of spin-polarized muons

Jeff Sonier

2009-01-01

126

Effect of the immersion in CdCl2 and annealing on physical properties of CdS:F films grown by CBD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped CdS films were deposited on glass substrates at 70 °C by chemical bath deposition using HF as fluorine source. The as-grown films were immersed in a 0.25 M CdCl2 solution and annealed at 400 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of doping and post-deposition treatment on structural, topography, optical and electrical properties were investigated. The post-deposition treatment causes an increase in the grain size, a decrease in the rms roughness and a reduction in the resistivity of the CdS:F films. After treatment a CdS:F film with a roughness of 2.39 nm and a resistivity of 2.96 ? cm was obtained.

de Moure-Flores, F.; Nieto-Zepeda, K. E.; Guillén-Cervantes, A.; Gallardo, S.; Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Hernández-Hernández, A.; de la L. Olvera, M.; Zapata-Torres, M.; Kundriavtsev, Yu; Meléndez-Lira, M.

2013-04-01

127

Structural, compositional and morphological studies of thermally evaporated MoO{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect

Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanostructures were grown on different substrates such as glass, indium tin oxide coated glass and fluorine doped glass by thermal evaporation of MoO{sub 3} powder at elevated temperature (750°C) using tube furnace without any catalyst and then by subsequent O{sub 2}/Ar flow rate. The morphology, composition and crystal structure were examined by using SEM, EDAX, Laser Raman and XRD. The films are polycrystalline with well-defined diffraction peaks and it consist of MoO{sub 3} with ?-orthorhombic structure. The synthesized MoO{sub 3} belongs to different morphologies, generally nanobelt and nanohunk structures. The EDAX spectra confirm the films are composed only of Mo and O atoms. The O/Mo ratio is nearly equal to 3 that shows the stoichiometry of MoO{sub 3}.

Senthilkumar, R., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630003 (India)

2014-04-24

128

Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine-doped tin oxide by hot-wall epitaxy were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent ? , distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent H ) previously reported by Ferreira [Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from an intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with H??<1 at low temperatures to a super-rough regime with H??>1 at high temperatures was observed. The temperature is a growth parameter that controls both the interface roughness and dynamical scaling exponents. Nonlocal effects are pointed out as the factors ruling the anomalous scaling behavior.

Mata, Angélica S.; Ferreira, Silvio C., Jr.; Ribeiro, Igor R. B.; Ferreira, Sukarno O.

2008-09-01

129

Effect of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the morphology and optical properties of Ti films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium films are deposited on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering process. Influences imposed by sputtering rate and substrate temperature on surface morphology and optical properties of the deposited Ti films are investigated. We observed that all the sputtered films exhibit uniform and compact surface morphology without peeling and cracking. Morphology of the films is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties of the films are investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphological studies indicate that by increasing the substrate temperature from room temperature to 250 °C and/or decreasing sputtering rate from 660 Å/min to 540 Å/min the surface roughness decreased from 73.4 to 31.0 nm and the grain size increases from 50.76 nm to 163.93 nm. An important effect of the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness and grain size is modification of the films optical properties. In fact, an enhancement of refractive index n for the Ti films deposited at high substrate temperature and/or high deposition rate is observed, that is attributed to reduction of RMS roughness. This effect is attributed to increment of fractional volume which leads to an increase in density of deposited film. Thus, by controlling the sputtering conditions one can reach to the desired morphological and optical properties.

Einollahzadeh-Samadi, M.; Dariani, R. S.

2013-09-01

130

Preparation of n-type semiconductor SnO2 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied fluorine-doped tin oxide on a glass substrate at 350°C using an ultrasonic spray technique. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and NaOH were used as the starting material, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The SnO2 : F thin films were deposited at 350°C and a pending time of 60 and 90 s. The as-grown films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have (101) orientation. The G = 31.82 nm value of the grain size is attained from SnO2 : F film grown at 90 s, and the transmittance is greater than 80% in the visible region. The optical gap energy is found to measure 4.05 eV for the film prepared at 90 s, and the increase in the electrical conductivity of the film with the temperature of the sample is up to a maximum value of 265.58 (?·cm)-1, with the maximum activation energy value of the films being found to measure 22.85 meV, indicating that the films exhibit an n-type semiconducting nature.

Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

2013-08-01

131

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23

132

Photoelectrochemical properties of spray deposited n-CdSe thin films  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline cadmium selenide (CdSe) thin films have been prepared by spraying a mixture of an equimolar aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and selenourea on preheated fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures. The cell configuration n-CdSe/1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2}S + S)/C is used for studying the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics in dark, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in dark and under illumination, photovoltaic power output and spectral response characteristics of the as deposited films. Photoelectrochemical study shows that as deposited CdSe thin films exhibits n-type of conductivity. The spectral response characteristics of the films at room temperature show a prominent sharp peak at 725 nm. The measured values of efficiency ({eta}) and fill factor (FF) are found to be 0.50% and 0.44 respectively for film deposited at 300 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies show that the CdSe film deposited at 300 C shows better performance in PEC cell. (author)

Yadav, A.A.; Barote, M.A.; Masumdar, E.U. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India)

2010-05-15

133

Oxide film formation from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The formation of SiO{sub x} films and fluorine-doped SiO{sub x} films using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma deposition is described. Parametric studies of the film composition and hydrogen content as a function of feed gas composition and RF biasing are presented. By replacing SiH{sub 4} with SiF{sub 4} in the gas feed, samples with F content from 2 at.% F to 12 at.% F are deposited, and the dielectric constant of the deposited layers decrease linearly with increasing fluorine concentration. The stability of these low dielectric constant SiO{sub x}F{sub y} layers is examined under hydrating conditions, and conditions typically found for interlayer dielectric processing in microelectronics. The hydrogen content of the SiO{sub 2} and F-doped SiO{sub 2} is characterized as a function of deposition conditions, and a model is given to describe the thermal release of H from SiO{sub 2}.

Barbour, J.C.; Apblett, C.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [and others

1997-06-01

134

Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film was obtained by annealing TiO{sub 2} film at 350?°C for 2?h with hydrogen, and TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film and pristine TiO{sub 2} film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO{sub 2} surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO{sub 2} to generate more photocurrent.

He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning, E-mail: ning-wang@uestc.edu.cn; Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2013-12-07

135

Comparison of Electrochemical Luminescence Characteristics of Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared by Sputtering and Sol-Gel Combustion Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass by sputtering and sol-gel combustion (SGC) coating methods and investigated with respect to their electrochemical luminescence (ECL) performance. The sputtered TiO2 films were denser than the SGC-deposited films, while the SGC films were found to be superior in porosity to the sputtered films. The charge transfer resistance (R2) of the SGC (450 °C) TiO2-based cell was found to be lower than those of the sputtered TiO2-based cells. The SGC (450 °C) cell emitted a more intense ECL than the sputter (450 °C) cells. The threshold voltage at which the emission starts was 3.0 V for the SGC (450 °C) cell, which was lower than that (3.5 V) for the sputter (450 °C) cell. The efficiencies were 0.04 lm/W for the sputter (450 °C) cell (R2 = 22.3 ?, porosity= 27.2%) and 0.085 lm/W for the SGC (450 °C) cell (R2 = 12.8 ?, porosity= 65.8%). The SGC-deposited TiO2 films were found to be superior in ECL efficiency to the sputtered TiO2 films.

Park, Hee-Dae; Sung, Youl-Moon; Park, Min-Woo; Song, Jae-Eun

2013-05-01

136

Effect of freon flow rate on tin oxide thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:F) films on glass substrates were been prepared using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The electrical properties, surface morphologies, structural properties and optical properties of the films were studied by varying the freon flow rates. The structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the morphology. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was conducted to understand the surface fluorine composition of the film. The results showed that crystalline structure of the film had a have cassiterite-like diffraction patterns with a preferred orientation of (1 1 0). Surface roughness was evaluated by atomic force microscopy, characterized by root mean square (RMS) and average value (Ra). The SnO 2:F resistivity decreased as the freon flow rate increased. The films had a uniform thickness and a transmittance of 80-90% within the visible region of the spectrum.

Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin

2003-12-01

137

Electrochromic performance of sol-gel-deposited CeO2 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceria (CeO2) films were prepared by a sol-gel technique onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The coating solution was derived from cerium ammonium nitrate dissolved in ethanol with diethanolamine used as a complexing agent. Lithium intercalating properties of the films were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrochemical examinations were performed in a 0.5 M LiClO4 propylene carbonate electrolyte. The additional film characterizations were performed in X-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD of the films showed that they had an cerianite structure for heat treatment temperatures at or above 450 degree(s)C. The SEM examinations showed that the surface texture was uniform and homogeneous. CV examinations showed a reversible electrochemical insertion or extraction of Li+/e- ions maintaining a high optical transmissivity. Spectroelectrochemistry showed that these films can be used as optically passive counter-electrode in transmissive electrochromic devices.

Ozer, Nilgun; Cronin, John P.; Akyuz, Sevim

1999-10-01

138

Chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition of metal oxide and nitride thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes for depositing thin films with various electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties are indispensable in many industries today. Of the many deposition methods available, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has proved over time to be one of the most flexible, efficient, and cost-effective. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a newer process that is gaining favor as a method for depositing films with excellent properties and unparalleled precision. This work describes the development of novel CVD and ALD processes to deposit a variety of materials. Hafnium oxide and zirconium oxide show promise as replacements for SiO 2 as gate dielectrics in future-generation transistors. These high-k materials would provide sufficient capacitance with layers thick enough to avoid leakage from tunneling. An ALD method is presented here for depositing conformal hafnium oxide from tetrakis-(diethylamido)hafnium and oxygen gas. A CVD method for depositing zirconium oxide from tetrakis-(dialkylamido)zirconium and either oxygen gas or water vapor is also described. The use of copper for interconnects in integrated circuits requires improved diffusion barrier materials, given its high diffusivity compared to the previously-used aluminum and tungsten. Tungsten nitride has a low resistivity among barrier materials, and can be deposited in amorphous films that are effective diffusion barriers in layers as thin as a few nanometers. Here we demonstrate CVD and plasma-enhanced CVD methods to deposit tungsten nitride films from bis-(dialkylamido)bis-( tert-butylimido)tungsten precursors and ammonia gas. Recent findings had shown uniform copper growth on tantalum silicate films, without the dewetting that usually occurs on oxide surfaces. Tantalum and tungsten silicates were deposited by a CVD reaction from the reaction of either tris-(diethylamido)ethylimido tantalum or bis-(ethylmethylamido)-bis-( tert-butylimido)tungsten with tris-(tert-butoxy)silanol. The ability of evaporated copper layers to wet these surfaces was also investigated. Electrochromic materials are being developed for use in energy-conserving "smart windows" that can control light transmission by varying the voltage across the layer Electrochromic tungsten oxide was deposited from the reaction of tungsten pentacarbonyl alkylisonitriles with oxygen gas. Fluorine-doped tin oxide is a well known transparent conducting oxide (TCO), and zinc stannate has shown promise as a useful TCO with potentially high carrier mobility. A method for depositing fluorine-doped tin oxide from a single-source precursor, dimethyltin-bis-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-hexanedionate), and oxygen gas is presented. Zinc stannate was also deposited by CVD, using zinc acetylacetonate and dibutyltin-bis-(acetylacetonate) and oxygen gas.

Barton, Jeffrey Thomas

139

Triton-X mediated interconnected nanowalls network of cadmium sulfide thin films via chemical bath deposition and their photoelectrochemical performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of cadmium sulfide (CdS) have been wet chemically deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates by using non-ionic surfactant; Triton-X 100. An aqueous solution contains cadmium sulphate as a cadmium and thiourea as sulphur precursor. Ammonia used as a complexing agent. The results of measurements of the x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface areas and atomic force microscopy were used for the characterization of the films. These results revealed that the films are polycrystalline, consisting of CdS cubic phase. The films show a direct band gap with energy 2.39 eV. The films show interconnected nanowalls like morphology with well-defined surface area. Finally, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of Triton-X mediated CdS thin film samples were studied. The sample shows photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance with maximum short circuit current density (Jsc) 1.71 mA/cm2 for larger area (1 cm2) solar cells.

Vanalakar, S. A.; Mali, S. S.; Jo, E. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

2014-10-01

140

Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of lanthanum selenide (La 2Se 3) thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The versatile spray pyrolysis technique was employed to prepare thin films of lanthanum selenide (La 2Se 3) on glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates under optimized conditions. The deposition temperature was 250 °C. The X-ray studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with single La 2Se 3 phase. The estimated optical band gap was found to be 2.6 eV. The dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the films deposited on FTO coated glass substrates were measured with FTO-La 2Se 3-Ag structure as a function of frequency and the results are reported. At room temperature dielectric constant and dielectric loss for 1 kHz frequency were found to be 6.2 and 0.048, respectively. The room temperature electrical resistivity was of the order of 10 5 ? cm. The La 2Se 3 films are found to be n-type semiconductor.

Bagde, G. D.; Sartale, S. D.; Lokhande, C. D.

2003-05-01

141

Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic thin films of Ta/NiO/Ni81Fe19/NiO/Ta were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method. The effects of NiO layer thickness and substrate temperature on the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the magnetic field sensitivity of these Ni81Fe19 films have been investigated. The results show that the AMR of 20-nm Ni81Fe19 film with 4-nm NiO achieves 5.02% at 450°C, while the magnetic field sensitivity achieves 9.00% × 10-3 m A-1 at the same conditions. These enhanced 40% and 230% comparing with the film without NiO layer, respectively.

Wang, Shuyun; Zhang, Hui; Yao, Yuan

2014-09-01

142

On the influence of DC electric fields on the aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition growth of photoactive titanium dioxide thin films.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate from the electric field assisted aerosol chemical vapor deposition (EACVD) reaction of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP, Ti(OC3H7)4) in toluene on glass substrates at a temperature of 450 °C. DC electric fields were generated by applying a potential difference between the electrodes of the transparent coated oxide coated glass substrates during the deposition. The deposited films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photoactivity and hydrophilicity of the deposited films were also analyzed using a dye-ink test and water-contact angle measurements. The characterization work revealed that the incorporation of DC electric fields produced significant reproducible changes in the film microstructure, preferred crystallographic orientation, roughness, and film thickness. Photocatalytic activity was calculated from the half-time (t1/2) or time taken to degrade 50% of the initial resazurin dye concentration. A large improvement in photocatalytic activity was observed for films deposited using an electric field with a strong orientation in the (004) direction (t1/2 17 min) as compared to a film deposited with no electric field (t1/2 40 min). PMID:24160408

Romero, Luz; Binions, Russell

2013-11-01

143

Growth of nanosheet array and nanosheet microsphere CuInS2 thin films on transparent conducting substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CuInS2 (CIS) thin films with controllable nanostructures were directly synthesized on transparent conductive fluorine- doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates through a solvothermal process, using the precursors of copper (II) chloride dihydrate, indium (III) nitrate, thiourea, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), oxalic acid, and ethanol. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and optical properties of the CIS thin films were then investigated. The results indicate that CIS thin films with two types of "nanosheet arrays and nanosheet microspheres" can be synthesized by controlling the deposition process parameters. The nanosheets are well-crystallized single crystals with chalcopyrite structures. They exhibit strong absorption in the UV-visible light region and a band gap of 1.51 eV, rendering them suitable for application as the absorber layer of a thin film solar cell. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that differences in nucleation and growth mechanism lead to CIS films with various nanostructures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Zhuang, Mixue; Wei, Aixiang; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Zhiqiang

2014-11-01

144

High Rate Reactive Sputter Deposition of TiO2 Films for Photocatalyst and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using TiO2 films deposited on various substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering with midfrequency pulsing and process control units, and evaluated their performance. Two pulse modes, i.e., unipolar pulse and pulse packet modes, were utilized to deposit TiO2. The highest conversion efficiency achieved was 3.7% when 10-µm-thick TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrates coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) using the unipolar pulse mode in the oxide mode and postannealing in air. On the other hand, the conversion efficiency achieved was 2.7% for cells with 10-µm-thick TiO2 films deposited on glass substrates coated with FTO using the pulse packet mode without postannealing, and it dropped to 1.3% when the unipolar pulse mode was used. The relationships between the photocatalytic decomposition activity and the DSC characteristics with regard to the TiO2 films were investigated in detail. The reduction in the density of defects in the TiO2 films led to an improvement in both the photocatalytic activity and the DSC characteristics.

Sato, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Miyamura, Amica; Ohno, Singo; Oka, Nobuto; Suzuki, Koichi; Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter; Shigesato, Yuzo

2011-04-01

145

Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

2011-05-01

146

Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.  

PubMed

A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes. PMID:21430326

Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

2011-05-13

147

Deposition of F-doped ZnO transparent thin films using ZnF2-doped ZnO target under different sputtering substrate temperatures  

PubMed Central

Highly transparent and conducting fluorine-doped ZnO (FZO) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, using 1.5 wt% zinc fluoride (ZnF2)-doped ZnO as sputtering target. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of the FZO thin films were investigated as a function of substrate temperature ranging from room temperature (RT) to 300°C. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the FZO thin films were of polycrystalline nature with a preferential growth along (002) plane perpendicular to the surface of the glass substrate. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of the FZO thin films showed that there was incorporation of F atoms in the FZO thin films, even if the substrate temperature was 300°C. Finally, the effect of substrate temperature on the transmittance ratio, optical energy gap, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of the FZO thin films was also investigated. PMID:24572004

2014-01-01

148

Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency of TiO2 Thin Films Modified with Ta2O5 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tantalum-doped TiO2 thin films [(TiO2)1-x(Ta2O5)x, x=0-0.8%] were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated substrates by sol-gel technology for uses in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of Ta content on the growth and properties of the TiO2 thin films were investigated. The crystallization and microstructures of the thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses. The performance of DSSCs based on Ta-doped TiO2 thin films was also studied. From the obtained results, the increases in Jsc and Voc may be due to the increased electron concentration of TiO2 thin film and the flat-band potential of the TiO2 shifted by tantalum doping, respectively. The optimum properties of DSSCs of Voc=0.68 V, Jsc=7.84 mA/cm2, FF=45.1%, and ?=2.4% were obtained using the Ta-doped TiO2 thin film with x=0.5%.

Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hone-Zern; Young, San-Lin

2013-01-01

149

Nanomechanical characteristics of SnO 2:F thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanoindentation characterizations and mechanical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:F) films deposited on glass substrates, using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, were studied, which included the effects of the indentation loads, the loading time and the hold time on the thin film. The surface roughness, fractal dimension and frictional coefficient were also studied by varying the freon flow rates. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and frictional force microscopy (FFM) were used to analyze the morphology of the microstructure. The results showed that crystalline structure of the film had a high intensity (1 1 0) peak orientation, especially at a low freon flow rate. According to the nanoindentation records, the Young's modulus ranged from 62.4 to 75.1 GPa and the hardness ranged from 5.1 to 9.9 GPa at a freon flow rate of 8000 sccm. The changes in measured properties were due to changing loading rate.

Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin

2005-12-01

150

An efficient and transparent copper sulfide nanosheet film counter electrode for bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper sulfide (CuS) with nanosheet structure has been synthesized at a low temperature in situ on copper (Cu) film coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were herein developed by using these CuS as counter electrodes (CEs). CuS is an environmental compatible and low toxic material. The obtained two-dimensional CuS nanosheet film presents high carrier mobility and exhibits highly catalytic performance for the polysulfide-based electrolyte. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE presents a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65% by optimizing the thickness of the Cu film under front illumination. The QDSSC based on a CuS CE prepared with a 200 nm thick Cu film shows a very close PCE under front and rear illuminations in which the values are as high as 2.70% and 2.40%, respectively. All the PCEs of the CuS CEs are much higher than that of the Pt CE (1.34%).

Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Lei, Hongwei; Qin, Pingli; Tao, Hong; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xingzhong

2014-02-01

151

Preparation and characterization of indium doped CdS{sub 0.2}Se{sub 0.8} thin films by spray pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The CdS{sub 0.2}Se{sub 0.8} and indium doped CdS{sub 0.2}Se{sub 0.8} thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous glass and fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The doping concentration of indium has been optimized by photoelectrochemical characterization technique. The structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdS{sub 0.2}Se{sub 0.8} and indium doped CdS{sub 0.2}Se{sub 0.8} thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal that the grains are uniform with uneven spherically shaped, distributed over the entire substrate surface. The complete surface morphology has been changed after doping. In optical studies, the transition of the deposited films is found to be direct allowed with optical energy gaps decreasing from 1.91 to 1.67 eV with indium doping. Semiconducting behavior has been observed from resistivity measurements. The thermoelectric power measurements reveal that the films exhibit n-type conductivity.

Yadav, A.A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India); Masumdar, E.U. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413512, Maharashtra (India)

2010-10-15

152

Growth of nanocrystalline TiO2 films by pulsed-laser-induced liquid-deposition method and preliminary applications for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel technique, the pulsed-laser-induced liquid-deposition (PLLD) method, has been employed to grow nanocrystalline TiO2 films on fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated (FTO) glass substrates at room temperature. The PLLD method was implemented by directing a pulsed laser into a liquid precursor and depositing the photosynthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 on an FTO glass substrate immersed in the liquid precursor. The as-grown nanocrystalline TiO2 films were found to have a rutile crystal structure and consist of a number of flower-like TiO2 crystal units arrayed together on the FTO glass substrate. Each of the flower-like TiO2 crystal units was composed of many nanostructured TiO2 whiskers, and their building blocks were found to be bundles of TiO2 nanorods with diameter of about 5 nm. The growth of these TiO2 nanorods is highly anisotropic, with the preferential growth direction along [001]. As-grown nanocrystalline TiO2 films were annealed at 450°C in air for 30 min for the applications of dye-sensitized solar cells, and the nanostructured characteristics with good porosity were preserved after annealing. A preliminary dye-sensitized solar cell was built based on the annealed nanocrystalline TiO2 film. The results suggest that the PLLD method is a promising technique for growing nanocrystalline TiO2 films for photovoltaic applications.

Wang, Guo-Bing; Fu, Min-Gong; Lu, Bin; Du, Guo-Ping; Li, Li; Qin, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Wang-Zhou

2010-09-01

153

Langmuir-Blodgett films of self-assembled (alkylether-derivatized Zn phthalocyanine)-(C?? imidazole adduct) dyad with controlled intermolecular distance for photoelectrochemical studies.  

PubMed

A multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the self-assembled electron donor-acceptor dyad of Zn phthalocyanine, appended with four long-chain aliphatic ether peripheral substituents, and an imidazole adduct of C60 was prepared and applied as a photoactive material in a photoelectrochemical cell. Changes in the simultaneously recorded surface pressure and surface potential vs area per molecule compression isotherms for Langmuir films of the dyad and, separately, of its components helped to identify phase transitions and mutual interactions of molecules in films. The Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) imaging of the Langmuir films showed circular condensed phase domains of the dyad molecules. The determined area per molecule was lower than that estimated for the dyad and its components, separately. The multilayer LB films of the dyad were transferred onto hydrophobized fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated (FTO) glass slides under different conditions. The presence of both components in the dyad LB films was confirmed with the UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. For the LB films transferred at different surface pressures, the PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the phthalocyanine macrocycle planes and ether moieties in films were tilted with respect to the FTO surface. The AFM imaging of the LB films indicated formation of relatively uniform dyad LB films. Then, the femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies evidenced photoinduced electron transfer in the LB film. The obtained transient signals corresponding to both Zn(TPPE)(•+) and C60im(•-) confirmed the occurrence of intramolecular electron transfer. The determined rate constants of charge separation, kcs = 2.6 × 10(11) s(-1), and charge recombination, kcr = 9.7 × 10(9) s(-1), indicated quite efficient electron transfer within the film. In the photoelectrochemical studies, either photoanodic or photocathodic current was generated depending on the applied bias potential when the dyad LB film-coated FTO was used as the working electrode and ascorbic acid or methylviologen, respectively, as the charge mediator in an aqueous solution. PMID:24785360

Obraztsov, Ievgen; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Hart, Aaron; Gobeze, Habtom B; Kc, Chandra B; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; D'Souza, Francis

2014-06-11

154

Formation of an electron hole doped film in the ?-Fe2O3 photoanode upon electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

Solar hydrogen generation by water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) is an appealing technology for a future hydrogen economy. Hematite is a prospective photoanode material in this respect because of its visible light conjugated band gap, its corrosion stability, its environmentally benign nature and its low cost. Its bulk and surface electronic structure has been under scrutiny for many decades and is considered critical for improvement of efficiency. In the present study, hematite films of nominally 500 nm thickness were obtained by dip-coating on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass slides and then anodised in 1 molar KOH at 500, 600, and 700 mV for 1, 10, 120 and 1440 minutes under dark conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectra recorded at the Fe 3p resonant absorption threshold show that the e(g) transition before the Fermi energy, which is well developed in the pristine hematite film, becomes depleted upon anodisation. The spectral weight of the e(g) peak decreases with the square-root of the anodisation time, pointing to a diffusion controlled process. The speed of this process increases with the anodisation potential, pointing to Arrhenius behaviour. Concomitantly, the weakly developed t(2g) peak intensity becomes enhanced in the same manner. This suggests that the surface of the photoanode contains Fe(2+) species which become oxidized toward Fe(3+) during anodisation. The kinetic behaviour derived from the experimental data suggests that the anodisation forms an electron hole doped film on and below the hematite surface. PMID:23165453

Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Tymen, Simon; Boudoire, Florent; Toth, Rita; Bora, Debajeet K; Calvet, Wolfram; Grätzel, Michael; Constable, Edwin C; Braun, Artur

2013-02-01

155

Performance and stability studies of inverted polymer solar cells with TiO2 film as a buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with a structure of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag presented excellent air stabilities,; the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices exhibited only 15 % decay as compared to the highest value while being exposed in air-condition for more than 20 days. Interestingly, an overall enhancement of PCE from 3.5 % to 3.9 % was observed while the PSCs were exposed in air-condition up to 3 days; the improvement of performance was attributed to the TiO2 films' oxygen and water protection effect and the oxidation of Ag, which will benefit to form an effective work function match with the HOMO of P3HT leading to improved ohmic contact. However, the performance slowly decreased when the exposure time remains longer due to the physical adsorbed oxygen. UV-ozone treatment on the TiO2 films' leads to the formation of a metal-deficient oxide that results in a decreased PCE for the devices. Finally, X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the compositional changes of the TiO2 films while they were exposed in air-condition or treated by UV-ozone.

Peng, Ruixiang; Yang, Feng; Ouyang, Xinhua; Liu, Ying; Kim, Yong-Sang; Ge, Ziyi

2014-02-01

156

Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO{sub 3} thin films for electrochromic devices  

SciTech Connect

The n-type tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250 deg. C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15 ml/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied. Mott-Schottky (M-S) studies of WO{sub 3}/FTO electrodes were conducted in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution to identify their nature and extract semiconductor parameters. The electrochromic properties of the as-deposited and lithiated WO{sub 3}/FTO thin films were analyzed by employing them as working electrodes in three electrode electrochemical cell using an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) solution.

Sivakumar, R.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.; Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M.; Trivedi, D.C.; Sanjeeviraja, C

2004-08-03

157

Photovoltaic effect of TiO2 thick films with an ultrathin BiFeO3 as buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic (PV) effect of a bilayer anatase TiO2/BiFeO3 (BFO) film has been studied. The 20-nm ultrathin BFO layers were deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the chemical solution deposition method. An anatase TiO2 layer is deposited subsequently on the BFO surface via a screen-printing technique. It is found that the FTO/TiO2/Au cell exhibits negligible PV effect under solar exposure, while the one after introducing an ultrathin BFO film between TiO2 and FTO leads to a considerable PV effect with an open-circuit voltage of -0.58 V and a photocurrent density of 18.27 µA/cm2. The FTO/BiVO4 (BVO)/TiO2/Au cell was constructed to investigate the underlying mechanism for the observed effect. A negligible PV effect of the FTO/BVO/TiO2/Au cell indicates that the PV effect of the FTO/BFO/TiO2/Au cell arises mainly from a built-in electric field in the BFO film induced by the self-polarization. Our work opens up a new path to utilize TiO2 and may influence the future design of solar cells.

Wu, Fen; Song, Linyu; Guo, Yiping; Jin, Song; Bi, Enbing; Chen, Han; Duan, Huanan; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou; Kang, Hongmei

2014-06-01

158

Charge defects and highly enhanced multiferroic properties in Mn and Cu co-doped BiFeO3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure BiFeO3 (BFO) and Mn, Cu co-doped BiFeO3 (BFMCO) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a chemical solution deposition method. Detailed investigations were made on the effects of Mn and Cu co-doping on the crystal structure, the defect chemistry, multiferroic properties of the BFO thin films. With the co-doping of Mn and Cu, a structural transition from the rhombohedral (R3c:H) to the biphasic structure (R3c:H + P1) is confirmed by XRD, Rietveld refinement and Raman analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the coexistence of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Mn2+/Mn3+ ions in the co-doping films are demonstrated. Meanwhile, the way of the co-doping at B-sits is conducive to suppress Fe valence state of volatility and to decrease oxygen vacancies and leakage current. It's worth noting that the co-doping can induce the superior ferroelectric properties (a huge remanent polarization, 2Pr ? 220 ?C/cm2 and a relatively low coercive field, 2Ec ? 614 kV/cm). The introduction of Mn2+ and Cu2+ ions optimizes the magnetic properties of BFO thin films by the biphasic structure and the destruction of spin cycloid.

Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

2014-06-01

159

Direct measurement of the upper critical field in cuprate superconductors  

PubMed Central

In the quest to increase the critical temperature Tc of cuprate superconductors, it is essential to identify the factors that limit the strength of superconductivity. The upper critical field Hc2 is a fundamental measure of that strength, yet there is no agreement on its magnitude and doping dependence in cuprate superconductors. Here we show that the thermal conductivity can be used to directly detect Hc2 in the cuprates YBa2Cu3Oy, YBa2Cu4O8 and Tl2Ba2CuO6+?, allowing us to map out Hc2 across the doping phase diagram. It exhibits two peaks, each located at a critical point where the Fermi surface of YBa2Cu3Oy is known to undergo a transformation. Below the higher critical point, the condensation energy, obtained directly from Hc2, suffers a sudden 20-fold collapse. This reveals that phase competition—associated with Fermi-surface reconstruction and charge-density-wave order—is a key limiting factor in the superconductivity of cuprates. PMID:24518054

Grissonnanche, G.; Cyr-Choinière, O.; Laliberté, F.; René de Cotret, S.; Juneau-Fecteau, A.; Dufour-Beauséjour, S.; Delage, M. -È.; LeBoeuf, D.; Chang, J.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Adachi, S.; Hussey, N. E.; Vignolle, B.; Proust, C.; Sutherland, M.; Krämer, S.; Park, J. -H.; Graf, D.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

2014-01-01

160

Dissipation mechanisms in polycrystalline YBCO prepared by sintering of ball-milled precursor powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoresistivity (?(T,H)) measurements of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) and YBa2Cu3Oy embedded with nanoparticles of Y-deficient Y-123, generated by the planetary ball milling, have been compared and analyzed by the Ambegaokar and Halperin phase slip model (AH) and thermally activated flux creep (TAFC). Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granular structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), were carried out. SEM analyses show that nanoparticles of Y-deficient Y-123, generated by ball milling, are embedded in the superconducting matrix. The broadening of the resistive transition under magnetic field is found to possess two distinct regions, which suggests that dissipation phenomenon in milled and unmilled samples is caused by two mechanisms: the order parameter fluctuations and the vortex-dynamics separated by a crossover temperature T. The critical current Jc(0) at zero temperature in the grain boundaries decreases as a power law, H, which is an indication of the sensitivity of a single junction between the superconducting grains to the applied magnetic field. Jc(0) of the milled material is higher than the one of the unmilled and the activation energies of vortex flux motion U(H) behavior in the applied magnetic field is enhanced by the presence of the nanoparticles embedded in the matrix.

Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Slimani, Y.; Hamrita, A.; Zouaoui, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Ben Salem, M.

2013-12-01

161

CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting.  

PubMed

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm-2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

2012-01-01

162

CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting  

PubMed Central

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm?2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

2012-01-01

163

Formation of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by introducing an interfacial layer of long-range ordered mesoporous TiO2 thin film.  

PubMed

Long-range ordered cubic mesoporous TiO 2 films with 300 nm thickness were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process using F127 as a structure-directing agent. The prepared mesoporous TiO 2 film (Meso-TiO 2) was applied as an interfacial layer between the nanocrystalline TiO 2 film (NC-TiO 2) and the FTO electrode in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The introduction of Meso-TiO 2 increased J sc from 12.3 to 14.5 mA/cm (2), and V oc by 55 mV, whereas there was no appreciable change in the fill factor (FF). As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency ( eta) was improved by 30.0% from 5.77% to 7.48%. Notably, introduction of Meso-TiO 2 increased the transmittance of visible light through the FTO glass by 23% as a result of its excellent antireflective role. Thus the increased transmittance was a key factor in enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In addition, the presence of interfacial Meso-TiO 2 provided excellent adhesion between the FTO and main TiO 2 layer, and suppressed the back-transport reaction by blocking direct contact between the electrolyte and FTO electrode. PMID:18922027

Kim, Yong Joo; Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Mi Hyeon; Kim, Hark Jin; Pan, Jia Hong; Lim, Goo Il; Choi, Young S; Kim, Kyungkon; Park, Nam-Gyu; Lee, Chongmu; Lee, Wan In

2008-11-18

164

TiO2 Coating for SnO2:F Films Produced by Filtered Cathodic Arc Evaporation for Improved Resistance to H+ Radical Exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited by filtered cathodic arc evaporation (FCAE) from a Ti target in an oxygen atmosphere onto (a) fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates SnO2:F (FTO) and (b) glass microscope slides. The growth rate calculated from film thickness profilometry measurements was found to be approximately 0.8 nm/s. The films were highly transparent to visible light. x-Ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis of the Ti 2p electron binding- energy shift confirmed the presence of a TiO2 stoichiometric compound. The results for the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of the films deposited onto FTO substrates evaluated by atomic force microscopy suggested nanostructured film surfaces. When exposed to hydrogen plasma, TiO2 films revealed insignificant changes in the optical spectra. The initial sheet resistance of the SnO2:F layer was 14 ?/sq. The deposition of the top TiO2 layer (45 nm thick) over the FTO electrode resulted in an increase of the sheet resistance of 2 ?/sq. In addition, the sheet resistance of the double-layer FTO/TiO2 transparent conductive oxide (TCO) electrode increased by 1 ?/sq as a result of H+ plasma exposure. Regardless of the TiO2 film's low conductivity, a thin protective layer could be coated onto FTO films (presumably 15 nm thick) due to their high transparency, offering high resistance to aggressive H+ plasma conditions. In this paper we show that ˜50-nm-thick TiO2 coating on FTO films provides sufficient protection against deterioration of transparency and conductivity due to hydrogen radical exposure.

Ristova, M. M.; Gligorova, A.; Nasov, I.; Gracin, D.; Milun, M.; Kostadinova-Boskova, H.; Popeski-Dimovski, R.

2012-11-01

165

Enhancing light trapping properties of thin film solar cells by plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The preparation of thin film silicon solar cells containing Ag nanoparticles is reported in this article. Ag nanoparticles were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by the evaporation and condensation method. a-Si:H solar cells were deposited on these substrates by cluster type plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We discuss the double textured surface effect with respect to both the surface morphology of the substrate and the plasmonic effect of the Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles of various sizes from 10 to 100 nm were deposited. The haze values of the Ag embedded samples increased with increasing particle size whereas the optical transmittance decreased at the same conditions. The solar cell with the 30 nm size Ag nanoparticles showed a short circuit current density of 12.97 mA/cm2, which is 0.53 mA/cm2 higher than that of the reference solar cell without Ag nanoparticles, and the highest quantum efficiency for wavelengths from 550 to 800 nm. When 30 nm size nanoparticles were employed, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was increased from 6.195% to 6.696%. This study reports the application of the scattering effect of Ag nanoparticles for the improvement of the conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells. PMID:24266153

Jung, Junhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Cho, Jaehyun; Ahn, Shihyun; Park, Hyeongsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Choi, Mansoo; Yi, Junsin

2013-12-01

166

All-nanoparticle self-assembly ZnO/TiO? heterojunction thin films with remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical activity.  

PubMed

The multilaminated ZnO/TiO2 heterojunction films were successfully deposited on conductive substrates including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and flexible indium tin oxide coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) via the layer-by-layer (LBL) self assembly method from the oxide colloids without using any polyelectrolytes. The positively charged ZnO nanoparticles and the negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles were directly used as the components in the consecutive deposition process to prepare the heterojunction thin films by varying the thicknesses. Moreover, the crystal growth of both oxides could be efficiently inhibited by the good connection between ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles even after calcination at 500 °C, especially for ZnO which was able to keep the crystallite size under 25 nm. The as-prepared films were used as the working electrodes in the three-electrode photoelectrochemical cells. Because the well-contacted nanoscale heterojunctions were formed during the LBL self-assembling process, the ZnO/TiO2 all-nanoparticle films deposited on both substrates showed remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical properties compared to that of the well-established TiO2 LBL thin films with similar thicknesses. The photocurrent response collected from the ZnO/TiO2 electrode on the FTO glass substrate was about five times higher than that collected from the TiO2 electrode. Owing to the absence of the insulating layer of dried polyelectrolytes, the ZnO/TiO2 all-nanoparticle heterojunction films were expected to be used in the photoelectrochemical device before calcination. PMID:24670479

Yuan, Sujun; Mu, Jiuke; Mao, Ruiyi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

2014-04-23

167

Solvothermal preparation of an electrocatalytic metalloporphyrin MOF thin film and its redox hopping charge-transfer mechanism.  

PubMed

A thin film of a metalloporphyrin metal-organic framework consisting of [5,10,15,20-(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin]Co(III) (CoTCPP) struts bound by linear trinuclear Co(II)-carboxylate clusters has been prepared solvothermally on conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates. Characterization of this mesoporous thin film material, designated as CoPIZA/FTO, which is equipped with large cavities and access to metal active sites, reveals an electrochemically active material. Cyclic voltammetry displays a reversible peak with E(1/2) at -1.04 V vs ferrocyanide attributed to the (Co(III/II)TCPP)CoPIZA redox couple and a quasi-reversible peak at -1.45 V vs ferrocyanide, which corresponds to the reduction of (Co(II/I)TCPP)CoPIZA. Analysis of the spectroelectrochemical response for the (Co(II/I)TCPP)CoPIZA redox couple revealed non-Nernstian reduction with a nonideality factor of 2 and an E(1/2) of -1.39 V vs ferrocyanide. The film was shown to retain its structural integrity with applied potential, as was demonstrated spectroelectrochemically with maintenance of isosbestic points at 430, 458, and 544 nm corresponding to the (Co(III/II)TCPP)CoPIZA transition and at 390 and 449 nm corresponding to the (Co(II/I)TCPP)CoPIZA transition. The mechanism of charge transport through the film is proposed to be a redox hopping mechanism, which is supported by both cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry. A fit of the time-dependent spectroelectrochemical data to a modified Cottrell equation gave an apparent diffusion coefficient of 7.55 (±0.05) × 10(-14) cm(2)/s for ambipolar electron and cation transport throughout the film. Upon reduction of the metalloporphyrin struts to (Co(I)TCPP)CoPIZA, the CoPIZA thin film demonstrated catalytic activity for the reduction of carbon tetrachloride. PMID:24437480

Ahrenholtz, Spencer R; Epley, Charity C; Morris, Amanda J

2014-02-12

168

Fabrication of a double layered FTO/AZO film structure having enhanced thermal, electrical and optical properties, as a substitute for ITO films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal transparent conducting oxide (TCO) should possess high optical transparency and electrical conductivity along with good chemical and thermal stabilities while it is subjected to high temperature processes. In the present study, a novel TCO film which possesses good figure of merit (?) (i.e. good optical transparency and electrical conductivity) along with good chemical and thermal stabilities and especially which can acts as a substitute for ITO has been realized. To achieve the combined unique characteristics of ZnO (thermal stability) and SnO2 (chemical stability), a double layered structure which consists of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) as the top layer on AZO layer, has been deposited using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique. In order to optimize the thickness proportions of FTO/AZO double layer for obtaining improved quality factors, five sets of samples were fabricated with different thickness proportions (1:5, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 5:1) of AZO and FTO layers. Then, for the better understanding of physical properties of FTO/AZO double layered films, structural, optical and electrical studies were carried out and the results are reported. The minimum electrical resistivity of 9.141 × 10-3 ? cm with 80 % of optical transparency obtained for the FTO/AZO bilayer film having 5:1 thickness proportion, prompts us to conclude that this thickness proportion is suitable to achieve improved quality factor (1.185 × 10-3 (?/?)-1). The quality factor is found to be increased nearly four times after annealing (3.965 × 10-3 (?/?)-1).

Ravichandran, K.; Jabena Begum, N.; Swaminathan, K.; Sakthivel, B.

2013-12-01

169

Energy and charge transfers between (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (N719) and ZnO thin films  

SciTech Connect

ZnO thin films and (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}(Ru)(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} (called N719) sensitized ZnO thin films are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet-visible absorption, photoluminescence (PL), surface photovoltage spectroscopy, and Raman scattering are employed to probe into the transition process of photogenerated charges and the interaction between ZnO and N719. The experimental results indicate that there is a significant electronic interaction between N719 and ZnO through chemiadsorption. The interaction greatly enhances the photogenerated charge separation and thus the photovoltaic response of the ZnO film but remarkedly weakens its radiative recombination, i.e., PL, implying strong energy and charge transfer occurring between N719 and ZnO. In addition, a new PL peak observed at about 720 nm in N719 sensitized ZnO/FTO is attributed to the electron-hole recombination of N719.

Ni Manman; Cheng Qiang; Zhang, W. F. [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)

2010-03-15

170

Fast Classification of Meat Spoilage Markers Using Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films and Unsupervised Feature Learning  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates a rapid and accurate detection system for spoilage in meat. We use unsupervised feature learning techniques (stacked restricted Boltzmann machines and auto-encoders) that consider only the transient response from undoped zinc oxide, manganese-doped zinc oxide, and fluorine-doped zinc oxide in order to classify three categories: the type of thin film that is used, the type of gas, and the approximate ppm-level of the gas. These models mainly offer the advantage that features are learned from data instead of being hand-designed. We compare our results to a feature-based approach using samples with various ppm level of ethanol and trimethylamine (TMA) that are good markers for meat spoilage. The result is that deep networks give a better and faster classification than the feature-based approach, and we thus conclude that the fine-tuning of our deep models are more efficient for this kind of multi-label classification task. PMID:23353140

Längkvist, Martin; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

2013-01-01

171

Microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Ce-doped BiFeO3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bi1-xCexFeO3 (x =0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.20) (BCFO) thin films were deposited on Pt/TiN/Si3N4/Si and fluorine-doped SnO2 glass substrates by sol-gel technique, respectively. The effect of Ce doping on the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of BCFO films was studied. Compared to counterparts of BiFeO3 (BFO) film, the fitted Bi 4f7/2, Bi 4f5/2, Fe 2p3/2, Fe 2p1/2, and O 1s peaks for Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film shift toward higher binding energy regions by amounts of 0.33, 0.29, 0.43, 0.58, and 0.49 eV, respectively. Raman redshifts of 2-4 cm-1 and shorter phonon lifetimes for the Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film might be related to anharmonic interactions among Bi-O, Ce-O, (Bi, Ce)-O, and Fe-O bonds in the distorted oxygen octahedron. Compared to the pure counterparts, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film are improved due to the decreased oxygen vacancies by the stabilized oxygen octahedron. Current density values for the BFO and Bi0.8Ce0.2FeO3 film capacitors are 9.89×10-4 and 5.86×10-5 A/cm2 at 10 V, respectively. The current density-applied voltage characteristics indicate that the main conduction mechanism for the BCFO capacitors is the interface-controlled Schottky emission. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization-magnetic field hysteresis loops reveal that the saturation magnetization values of the BCFO films increase with increasing the Ce concentration. The enhanced magnetic properties for the BCFO films might be attributed to the presence of Fe2+ caused by oxygen vacancies, the suppressed spiral spin structure, and/or the increased canting angle induced by Ce doping.

Quan, Zuci; Liu, Wei; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sheng; Sebo, Bobby; Fang, Guojia; Li, Meiya; Zhao, Xingzhong

2008-10-01

172

Probing commensurate ground states of Josephson vortex in layered superconductors.  

PubMed

Because of the commensurability condition between the vortex lattice constant determined by external magnetic field and the nano-scale layered structure, interlayer Josephson vortices (JVs) in high-Tc cuprate superconductors can take various configurations. We have simulated with Langevin scheme the in-plane flux-flow dynamics of JVs subject to point-like pinning centers. Oscillation in resistivity is found with the applied magnetic field, where the resistivity peaks occur around commensurate JV configurations. We have also measured the resistivity experimentally using single crystals of underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy with the anisotropy parameter gamma approximately equal to 50. A unique JV lattice has been detected for the first time. PMID:24734701

Takahashi, Y; Luo, M-B; Nishizaki, T; Kobayashi, N; Hu, X

2014-04-01

173

Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors  

PubMed Central

The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order. Here we use a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and La1.8?xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (Eu-LSCO) to show that the two materials exhibit the same process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping. The fact that in Eu-LSCO this reconstruction coexists with spin and charge modulations that break translational symmetry shows that stripe order is the generic non-superconducting ground state of hole-doped cuprates. PMID:21847106

Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Hassinger, E.; Daou, R.; Rondeau, M.; Ramshaw, B.J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.; Pyon, S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Sheikin, I.; Malone, L.; Proust, C.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

2011-01-01

174

Frequency-Locked Submillimeter Wave Generation from Josephson Junction Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a Josephson junction array with an additional inductive coupling line to detect the high frequency and power of Josephson self-radiation. The YBa2Cu3Oy Josephson junctions are fabricated by a pulsed laser deposition method on bicrystal MgO substrates. We measured the submillimeter wave and the Josephson self-radiation power in an external waveguide system. The Josephson junction arrays showed the resistively shunted junction (RSJ)-like current voltage characteristics and good frequency-locking of Josephson self-radiation.As the number of Josephson junctions increased, the maximum detected power was increased. We observed the maximum frequency of above 6 THz for Josephson self-radiation in the array with 11 Josephson junctions from the Shapiro steps under 22 GHz irradiation.

Song, Insang; Park, Kwang-Yong

1999-01-01

175

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition of Fluorine-doped Tin(IV) Oxide from Fluoroalkyltin Precursors   

E-print Network

Perfluoroalkytin compounds R(4-n)Sn(Rf)n (R = Me, Et, Bu, Rf = C4F9, n = 1; R = Bu, Rf = C4F9, n = 2, 3; R = Bu, Rf = C6F13, n = 1) have been synthesised, characterised by 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn NMR and evaluated a ...

Stanley, Joanne E; Swain, Anthony C; Molloy, Kieran C; Rankin, David W H; Robertson, Heather E; Johnston, Blair F

2005-01-01

176

Fluorine-doped tin oxide—selenium heterojunction for photovoltaic conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium, being a low-cost material and readily available in high purity form, is attracting interest for solar cell applications. It has been calculated theoretically [1] that selenium-based heterojunction solar cells can have an efficiency as high as 20%. Shaw and Ghosh [2] have reported that cells with efficiency better than 10% can be fabricated with selenium in the form of

I. S. Athwal; R. K. Bedi

1986-01-01

177

Enhanced lifetime in porous silicon light-emitting diodes with fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the electrical and optical properties of porous Si (PS) light-emitting diodes using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) as transparent electrodes. At high forward bias, the current–voltage characteristic is space charge limited. At low forward bias, it follows an exponential law. Whereas the electroluminescence (EL) in devices with non-fluorinated indium–tin oxide electrodes degrades in few minutes, EL intensity in devices

Andréia G. Macedo; Elder A. de Vasconcelos; Rogério Valaski; Fábio Muchenski; Eronides F. da Silva; Antônio F. da Silva; Lucimara S. Roman

2008-01-01

178

Pulsing frequency induced change in optical constants and dispersion energy parameters of WO{sub 3} films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we present the pulsing frequency induced change in the structural, optical, vibrational, and luminescence properties of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films deposited on microscopic glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F) coated glass substrates by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering technique. The WO{sub 3} films deposited on SnO{sub 2}:F substrate belongs to monoclinic phase. The pulsing frequency has a significant influence on the preferred orientation and crystallinity of WO{sub 3} film. The maximum optical transmittance of 85% was observed for the film and the slight shift in transmission threshold towards higher wavelength region with increasing pulsing frequency revealed the systematic reduction in optical energy band gap (3.78 to 3.13?eV) of the films. The refractive index (n) of films are found to decrease (1.832 to 1.333 at 550?nm) with increasing pulsing frequency and the average value of extinction coefficient (k) is in the order of 10{sup ?3}. It was observed that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-Didomenico model, from which the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) parameters, dielectric constants, plasma frequency, oscillator strength, and oscillator energy (E{sub o}) of WO{sub 3} films were calculated and reported for the first time due to variation in pulsing frequency during deposition by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The E{sub o} is change between 6.30 and 3.88?eV, while the E{sub d} varies from 25.81 to 7.88?eV, with pulsing frequency. The Raman peak observed at 1095?cm{sup ?1} attributes the presence of W-O symmetric stretching vibration. The slight shift in photoluminescence band is attributed to the difference in excitons transition. We have made an attempt to discuss and correlate these results with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena.

Punitha, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630 004 (India)

2014-03-21

179

UV sensor based on TiO 2 nanorod arrays on FTO thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly oriented TiO2 nanorod arrays were fabricated directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass (FTO) substrate by the hydrothermal method. The diameter, length, and density of the nanorods could be varied by changing the growth parameters, such as time, temperature, and initial reactant concentration. The fabricated samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, field-emission-scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission

Chunlan Cao; Chenguo Hu; Xue Wang; Shuxia Wang; Yongshu Tian; Hulin Zhang

2011-01-01

180

Communiqu de presse Film, film, film !  

E-print Network

Communiqué de presse Film, film, film ! Festival de cinéma comique soviétique à Besançon ! Organisé'une importante production de comédies soviétiques, cinématographiques ou d'animation. L'existence même d elles ont assuré elles-mêmes et intégralement la traduction des deux films de M. Zakharov. Ce festival

Jeanjean, Louis

181

1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

1 Film Studies FILM STUDIES Housed in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Film Studies Program covers classical film aesthetics, surveys the history of world cinema and takes an in-depth look at films from America, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the Hispanic world. UNDERGRADUATE Minor · Minor

Vertes, Akos

182

Surface Treatment of TiO2 Films by Pulse Plasma for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface processing was studied using a dc atmospheric nonthermal plasma jet with nitrogen gas as a method for preparing the glass plate with a fluorine-dope-tin-oxide membrane, coated with titanium oxide (TiO2) and sintered at 450degC for dye-sensitized solar cells. The results showed that characteristics of the TiO2 surface were enhanced by the dc atmospheric nonthermal plasma jet and, hence, the

Toshifumi Yuji; Youl-Moon Sung

2007-01-01

183

Film Studies 121 Film Studies  

E-print Network

Film Studies · 121 Film Studies ADVISORY COMMITTEE: Lowry (Director, English), Stock (Modern Languages), Stock (Mod- ern Languages), Stoddard (Education), Zuber (English). The minor in Film Studies-is per- haps the predominant way that World cultures represent themselves. Film has become

Lewis, Robert Michael

184

Film Reviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

Dowling, John, Ed.

1976-01-01

185

Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de la phenomenologie entourant le comportement des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu3Oy, avec des systemes dans lesquels l'existence d'un ordre du type DW est etablie, notamment des cuprates a structure tetragonale a basse temperature ("Low Temperature Tetragonal", LTT), indique que l'ordre causant la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi est stabilise au voisinage du dopage p = 1/8, et est en competition directe avec la supraconductivite.

Le Boeuf, David

186

On Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

Watts, Marty

2006-01-01

187

Nanocomposite films  

DOEpatents

A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

2010-07-20

188

Growth of TiO 2 nanosheet-array thin films by quick chemical bath deposition for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutile TiO2 nanofilms, which were composed of many nanosheet-array domains with different orientations, were synthesized directly on\\u000a fluorine-doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) substrates by a chemical deposition method in a short time in this paper. The average thickness of\\u000a the nanosheets is about 10 nm; the nanosheets in each domain were parallel to each other and perpendicular to the substrate.

Hu Zhu; Junyou Yang; Shuanglong Feng; Ming Liu; Jiansheng Zhang; Gen Li

189

Growth of single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass for organicinorganic  

E-print Network

blend and silver electrode and an enhanced PCE from 2.70 to 3.07%. 1 Introduction Organic photovoltaics length of excitons (pairs of a hole and an electron), typically around 20 nm. To alleviate the impact of short diffusion length of excitons, bulk heterojunction (BHJ), which is based on two interpenetrating

Cao, Guozhong

190

Fluorine-doping concentration and fictive temperature dependence of self-trapped holes in SiO{sub 2} glasses  

SciTech Connect

Fictive temperature (T{sub f}) and fluorine (F)-doping concentration dependences of self-trapped holes (STHs) in silica glasses created by UV irradiation at low temperatures have been studied by the electron-paramagnetic-resonance method. It was found that the yield of STH decreases with decreasing T{sub f} and increasing F-doping concentration. In combination with infrared spectra measurements, the correlation among T{sub f}, F-doping concentration, Si-O bond length, and Si-O-Si bond angle was elucidated. We conclude that the change in both T{sub f} and F doping can modify the network of SiO{sub 2} glass, leading to the suppression of the formation of STHs.

Wang, R.P.; Tai, N.; Saito, K.; Ikushima, A.J. [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511, Japan and Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2005-07-15

191

School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Film & Photography FILM OPTION Fall 2012 Name of these credits must be 300 or above. *Required for Film Gate SFP REQUIREMENTS (min. 65 Credits) A. REQUIRED COURSES (22 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photo. 3 _____ *FILM 106IA Film in America 3

Dyer, Bill

192

Patterning of periodic high-aspect-ratio nanopores in anatase titanium dioxide from titanium fluoride hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report straight pores in titanium dioxide produced by a pattern transfer method with titanium fluoride hydrolysis. The resulting films on fluorine-doped tin oxide had pores with diameters of 30 nm and depths of 500 nm, corresponding to aspect ratios of 1 : 17.We report straight pores in titanium dioxide produced by a pattern transfer method with titanium fluoride hydrolysis.

Ian D. Tevis; Samuel I. Stupp

2011-01-01

193

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cobalt ferrite thin films are deposited onto quartz glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures using ferric nitrate and cobalt nitrate as precursors. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) study indicates the formation of CoFe2O4 by decomposition of cobalt and ferric nitrates after 800 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that annealed films are polycrystalline in nature and exhibit spinel cubic crystal structure. Crystallite size varies from 39 to 44 nm with the substrate temperatures. Direct optical band gap energy of CoFe2O4 thin films is found to be 2.57 eV. The AFM images show that roughness and grain size of the CoFe2O4 thin film are about 9 and 138 nm, respectively. The measured DC resistivity of the deposited thin films indicates that as temperature increases the resistivity decreases indicating the semiconductor nature of the films. Decrease in dielectric constant (?') and loss tangent (tan?) has been observed with frequency and attains the constant value at higher frequencies. The AC conductivity of cobalt ferrite thin films increases with increase in frequency. Thus, the prepared films show normal dielectric performance of the spinel ferrite thin film. Room-temperature complex impedance spectra show the incomplete semicircles as films exhibit high resistance values at lower frequencies.

Bagade, A. A.; Ganbavle, V. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.

2014-08-01

194

Film ispalators  

SciTech Connect

New physical objects, ispalators based on free soap films, exhibit persistent flows of the soap solution in open and closed volumes in air with additions of gases of the C{sub 8}F{sub 18} type (p = 20 Torr) at temperature drops on the films of the order of tenths and hundredths of kelvin. The flows move continuously at a velocity of 5 - 20 cm s{sup -1}. It is found that the parts of an inclined ispalator film show anomalous behaviour upon heating: their weight increases and they move downward over the film, whereas the unheated parts of the film move upward. Continuous radial vortex flows accompanied by the formation and washing of the regions of a thin black film are observed on circular films in closed volumes upon their uniform external cooling by evaporating water for 5 - 10 hours. The rapid flows make film ispalators the efficient heat carriers, which operate at small temperature drops (tenths and hundredths of kelvin) and surpass copper in the amount of thermal energy being transferred. The outlook for the further study and applications of film ispalators for detecting thermal fields and laser radiation is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-05-31

195

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.

Gordon, R.G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Teff, D.

1998-09-01

196

About Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists and briefly describes 46 college-level films. Films are arranged in the following categories: volcanism and earthquakes; plate tectonics; energy, water, and environmental concerns; petroleum and coal; astronomy; space exploration, space shuttle; paleontology; geomorphology; and mineralogy, petrology, and economic geology. (BC)

Christman, Robert; Krockover, Gerald H.

1984-01-01

197

Thin Film?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the critical surface tension of lead sulfite (PbSO3) crystalline thin film produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass).The PbSO3 thin films were deposited at room temperature at different deposition times. The structural properties of the films were defined and examined according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the XRD results such as dislocation density, average grain size, and no. of crystallites per unit area. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the film thickness and the surface properties. The critical surface tension of the PbSO3 thin films was measured with an optical tensiometer instrument and calculated using the Zisman method. The results indicated that the critical surface tension of films changed in accordance with the average grain size and film thickness. The film thickness increased with deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension. The average grain size increased according to deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension.

Kariper, ?. Af?in

2014-09-01

198

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (?27), wide band gap (?4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (?10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).

Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

2014-11-01

199

Ephemeral Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ephemeral films are those films that are made "for educational, industrial, or promotional purposes" and they are a specialty over at the Internet Archive. This delightful collection is both informative and amusing and contains over 200 of these films. Visitors can view the "Most Downloaded Items Last Week" to get a sense of the wisdom of the crowds, or they can go their own way by browsing by subject or keyword. The site has a number of sub-collections, including one dedicated to drive-in movie ads and public information films created by the British government. Visitors shouldn't miss the public service announcements by the U.S. Civil Defense office aimed at farmers (the "actors" are marionettes) or the "Beginning Responsibility: Lunchroom Manners" instructional film.

200

Enhanced light-conversion efficiency of titanium-dioxide dye-sensitized solar cells with the addition of indium-tin-oxide and fluorine-tin-oxide nanoparticles in electrode films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared of electrodes that consist of TiO2 with addition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles and the application of such electrodes on dye-sensitized solar cell. As compared to TiO2 alone, the addition of ITO and FTO nanoparticles resulted in an efficiency improvement of ~ 20% up to ~ 54% for the TiO2- ITO and

Tammy P. Chou; Qifeng Zhang; Bryan Russo; Guozhong Cao

2008-01-01

201

Film Makers On Film Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

202

Polymer films  

DOEpatents

A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

2004-05-25

203

Polymer films  

DOEpatents

A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

2008-12-30

204

Optical birefringence and dichroism of cuprate superconductors in the THz regime.  

PubMed

The presence of optical polarization anisotropies, such as Faraday or Kerr effects, linear birefringence, and magnetoelectric birefringence are evidence for broken symmetry states of matter. The recent discovery of a Kerr effect using near-IR light in the pseudogap phase of the cuprates can be regarded as a strong evidence for a spontaneous symmetry breaking and the existence of an anomalous long-range ordered state. In this work we present a high precision study of the polarimetry properties of the cuprates in the THz regime. While no Faraday effect was found in this frequency range to the limits of our experimental uncertainty (1.3 milli-radian or 0.07°), a small but significant polarization rotation was detected that derives from an anomalous linear dichroism. In YBa2Cu3Oy the effect has a temperature onset that mirrors the pseudogap temperature T* and is enhanced in magnitude in underdoped samples. In x=1/8 La2-xBaxCuO4, the effect onsets above room temperature, but shows a dramatic enhancement near a temperature scale known to be associated with spin- and charge-ordered states. These features are consistent with a loss of both C4 rotation and mirror symmetry in the electronic structure of the CuO2 planes in the pseudogap state. PMID:24766004

Lubashevsky, Y; Pan, LiDong; Kirzhner, T; Koren, G; Armitage, N P

2014-04-11

205

Nernst and Seebeck Coefficients of the Cuprate Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.67: A Study of Fermi Surface Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck and Nernst coefficients S and ? of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) were measured in a single crystal with doping p=0.12 in magnetic fields up to H=28T. Down to T=9K, ? becomes independent of field by H?30T, showing that superconducting fluctuations have become negligible. In this field-induced normal state, S/T and ?/T are both large and negative in the T?0 limit, with the magnitude and sign of S/T consistent with the small electronlike Fermi surface pocket detected previously by quantum oscillations and the Hall effect. The change of sign in S(T) at T?50K is remarkably similar to that observed in La2-xBaxCuO4, La2-x-yNdySrxCuO4, and La2-x-yEuySrxCuO4, where it is clearly associated with the onset of stripe order. We propose that a similar density-wave mechanism causes the Fermi surface reconstruction in YBCO.

Chang, J.; Daou, R.; Proust, Cyril; Leboeuf, David; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Laliberté, Francis; Pingault, B.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Takagi, H.; Antunes, A. B.; Sheikin, I.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

2010-02-01

206

The study on SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires added YBCuO: Microstructure and normal state electrical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles and nanowires additions on the microstructure and the normal state transport properties of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO, or Y-123) were systematically studied. Samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 3 wt.%. Phases, microstructure, superconductivity, have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrical measurements. When nanosized SiO2 entities are added to the YBCO the orthorhombic structure is maintained. SEM results reveal that the grain size is reduced with increasing the content of SiO2. TEM investigation shows the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples. Nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. To analyze the normal state properties of the samples, the percolation theory based on localized states is applied. A change from Coulomb gap to variable-range hopping mechanisms is observed as a result of increasing the nano-entities concentration. The SiO2 nanowires addition modifies the electrical behavior of samples from metallic to insulating with a much lower concentration comparatively to SiO2 nanoparticles addition. The localization length d and the range hopping R of samples are estimated.

Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Hannachi, E.; Slimani, Y.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

2014-03-01

207

Hall, Seebeck, and Nernst Coefficients of Underdoped HgBa2CuO4+?: Fermi-Surface Reconstruction in an Archetypal Cuprate Superconductor  

DOE PAGESBeta

Charge-density-wave order has been observed in cuprate superconductors whose crystal structure breaks the square symmetry of the CuO2 planes, such as orthorhombic YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), but not so far in cuprates that preserve that symmetry, such as tetragonal HgBa2CuO4+? (Hg1201). We have measured the Hall (RH), Seebeck (S), and Nernst (?) coefficients of underdoped Hg1201 in magnetic fields large enough to suppress superconductivity. The high-field RH(T) and S(T) are found to drop with decreasing temperature and become negative, as also observed in YBCO at comparable doping. In YBCO, the negative RH and S are signatures of a small electron pocket caused by Fermi-surface reconstruction, attributed to charge-density-wave modulations observed in the same range of doping and temperature. We deduce that a similar Fermi-surface reconstruction takes place in Hg1201, evidence that density-wave order exists in this material. A striking similarity is also found in the normal-state Nernst coefficient ?(T), further supporting this interpretation. Given the model nature of Hg1201, Fermi-surface reconstruction appears to be common to all hole-doped cuprates, suggesting that density-wave order is a fundamental property of these materials.

Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Lepault, S.; Cyr-Choinière, O.; Vignolle, B.; Grissonnanche, G.; Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Bariši?, N.; Chan, M. K.; Ji, L.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y.; Greven, M.; Proust, C.; Taillefer, Louis

2013-06-01

208

Infrared pseudogap in cuprate and pnictide high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We investigate infrared manifestations of the pseudogap in the prototypical cuprate and pnictide superconductors, YBa2Cu3Oy and BaFe2As2 (Ba122) systems. We find remarkable similarities between the spectroscopic features attributable to the pseudogap in these two classes of superconductors. The hallmarks of the pseudogap state in both systems include a weak absorption feature at about 500cm?1 followed by a featureless continuum between 500 and 1500cm?1 in the conductivity data and a significant suppression in the scattering rate below 700–900 cm?1. The latter result allows us to identify the energy scale associated with the pseudogap ?PG. We find that in the Ba122-based materials the superconductivity-induced changes of the infrared spectra occur in the frequency region below 100–200 cm?1, which is much lower than the energy scale of the pseudogap. We performed theoretical analysis of the scattering rate data of the two compounds using the same model, which accounts for the effects of the pseudogap and electron-boson coupling. We find that the scattering rate suppression in Ba122-based compounds below ?PG is solely due to the pseudogap formation, whereas the impact of the electron-boson coupling effects is limited to lower frequencies. The magnetic resonance modes used as inputs in our modeling are found to evolve with the development of the pseudogap, suggesting an intimate correlation between the pseudogap and magnetism

Moon, S. J. [University of California; Lee, Y. S. [University of California; Schafgans, A. A. [University of California; Chubukov, A. V. [Universsity of Wisconsin - Madison; Kasahara, S. [Kyoto University; Shibauchi, T. [Kyoto University; Terashima, T. [Kyoto University; Matsuda, Y. [Kyoto University; Tanatar, M. A. [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, R. [Ames Laboratory; Thaler, A. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory; Bud'ko, Sergey L. [Ames Laboratory; Sefat, A. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Mandrus, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Segawa, K. [Osaka University; Ando, Y. [Osaka University; Basov, D. N. [University of California

2014-07-01

209

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Mrs. Allan

2008-09-21

210

Electropolymerization of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and functionalized, multi-walled, carbon nanotubes counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells and characterization of its performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and functionalized, multi-walled, carbon nanotubes (PEDOT–MWCNT) were fabricated by a simple oxidative electropolymerization method. These films were formed on fluorine-doped, tin oxide, glass substrates as counter electrodes (CEs) of platinum-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphology, formation mechanism and electrochemical nature of PEDOT–MWCNT films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM),

Jun Zhang; Xiaoxue Li; Wei Guo; Tubshin Hreid; Jinfeng Hou; Haiquan Su; Zhuobin Yuan

2011-01-01

211

Film Festivals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that the Oscars and Golden Globes have all been awarded, some cineastes may think that the season of film celebration, award shows, and festivals is in a quiet slumber for a few months. Nothing could be farther from the truth, and a quick glance at the Film Festival website quickly dispels that misconception. Online since 1995, the site provides a great resource about previous and upcoming film festivals from all over the world. Here visitors can read the latest headline news from the various festivals, read coverage of the proceedings, and search a prodigious database of information. Visitors may also want to consider signing up to receive the free weekly newsletter or also viewing a selection of popular video clips culled from coverage of recent festivals.

212

Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of solution flow rate on the physical properties of the films was investigated by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectrophotometry techniques. XRD analysis revealed the tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2 with highly preferred (101) orientation. AFM images showed that grain size on top of TiO2 thin films depended on solution flow rate. An indirect band gap energy of 3.46 eV was determined by means of transmission and reflection measurements. The envelope method, based on the optical transmission spectrum, was used to determine film thickness and optical constants, for example real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, refractive index, and extinction coefficient. Ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at room temperature. These peaks were attributed to the intrinsic emission and to the surface defect states, respectively.

Naffouti, Wafa; Nasr, Tarek Ben; Mehdi, Ahmed; Kamoun-Turki, Najoua

2014-11-01

213

Rainbow Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use clear nail polish to create a beautiful iridescent pattern on black paper. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a material's properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

2012-06-08

214

Piezoelectric films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of piezoelectric materials for use in microelectronics are described with particular emphasis on SAW propagation. Piezoelectric-film (PF) fabrication processes are discussed, with consideration given to sputtering and chemical vapor deposition. The properties (acoustic, optical, and mechanical) of PFs are examined along with their applications (e.g., in BAW and SAW devices).

Shermergor, Timofei Dmitrievich; Strel'Tsova, Natalia Nikolaevna

215

Graphene nanosheet counter-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene nanosheets (GNs) have been investigated as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Mesoporous TiO2 films are prepared from the commercial TiO2 nano-powders by screen-printing technique on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) slides. GNs are applied to substitute for platinum as counter-electrode materials. GN films are screen printed on FTO glass using a paste based on GNs dispersed in

D. W. Zhang; X. D. Li; S. Chen; H. B. Li; Z. Sun; X. J. Yin; S. M. Huang

2010-01-01

216

A Surface Resistance Effect on the Fabrication of Dye-sensitized Solar Cell with Various Widths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sputter deposition followed by surface treatment was studied using reactive RF plasma as a method for preparing titanium oxide (TiO2) films on the FTO (fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2: F) substrate for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Anatase structure TiO2 films deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering under the conditions of Ar\\/O2 (5%) mixing gas, RF power of 600 W and

Jin-Young Choi; Hyun-Woong Seo; Mi-Jeong Kim; Ji-Young Sim; Dong-Yoon Lee; Hee-Je Kim

2008-01-01

217

Performance and electron transport properties of TiO2 nanocomposite dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2 nanowire (NW)\\/nanoparticle (NP) composite films have been fabricated by hybridizing various ratios of hydrothermal anatase NWs and TiO2 NPs for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that uniform NW\\/NP composite films were formed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the dip-coating method. The NWs are randomly but neither vertically nor horizontally oriented

Jih-Jen Wu; Guan-Ren Chen; Chia-Chun Lu; Wei-Ting Wu; Jen-Sue Chen

2008-01-01

218

Film and History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

Schaber, Robin L.

2002-01-01

219

Carbon films from polyacrylonitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been fabricated by both spin and solvent casting techniques, and pyrolyzed to produce carbon films in the thickness range of 200--50 000 A. These films have higher electrical conductivities than carbon films produced from most other precursors at similar temperatures. The chemical structure of the films at different stages of processing was investigated by UV, IR,

C. L. Renschler; A. P. Sylwester; L. V. Salgado

1989-01-01

220

International Film Guide 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of film production activity in 44 countries and reviews of important films from these countries are presented, along with lists of films recently in production. A paragraph-long description of film festivals slated for 1972 is given. Sound track music available on records, 16mm films available in the United Kingdom and the…

Cowie, Peter, Ed.

221

LINA GOPAUL Film Producer  

E-print Network

LINA GOPAUL Film Producer Lina Gopaul has produced over thirty award-winning feature and documentary films. She runs Smoking Dogs Films established in 1998 with John Akomfrah and David Lawson. Lina and John were the founding members of the seminal film and video collective Black Audio Film Collective

Polz, Martin

222

Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

2013-12-10

223

[Films in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This list of approximately 100 educational films in French covers a wide variety of topics including films for use in social studies, language arts, humanities, physical and natural sciences, safety and health, and fine arts classes. Many films feature life patterns among particular ethnic groups. Catalogue numbers and sale prices of films in both…

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

224

[Films: China and Japan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

Gumport, Roberta H.

225

film & television introduction.  

E-print Network

film & television introduction. Graduate programs in the Department of Film & Television aim interests. At any given moment, a student in our Film & Television Studies program might be writing about black comedy is being made into a short by a Film Production student. Any survey of recent work from our

Finzi, Adrien

226

Film Studies Degree options  

E-print Network

102 Film Studies Degree options MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Anthropology SpanishW Theological Studies FilmStudieswww.st-andrews.ac.uk/filmstudies Features * The Department of Film Studies consistently receives excellent ratings of student satisfaction in course evaluations

Brierley, Andrew

227

Hydrogen film cooling investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects of flow turning, flow acceleration, and supersonic flow on film cooling were determined experimentally and correlated in terms of an entrainment film cooling model. Experiments were conducted using thin walled metal test sections, hot nitrogen mainstream gas, and ambient hydrogen or nitrogen as film coolants. The entrainment film cooling model relates film cooling effectiveness to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. The experimental apparatus and the analytical model used are described in detail and correlations for the entrainment fraction and film coolant-to-wall heat transfer coefficient are presented.

Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

1973-01-01

228

Archaeology on Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeology on Film, a database of archaeology film reviews, contains critical reviews of videos and films that are used as educational tools. The reviews in the database differ from simple synopses because they "focus on how films present archaeology in addition to what they present about archaeology." The database allows archaeology instructors to identify and compare relevant films quickly. Each film review provides title, date, format, running time, cost, subjects, and description. Archaeology on Film encourages instructors to submit reviews for inclusion in the database. A review form and standards for submission are available at the site.

229

British Council Film: British Council Film Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Council Film "is the link between UK films and filmmakers and new international audiences." Along with their work promoting a set of productive artistic and commercial relationships and networks, they have also digitized 80 remarkable short films. The films were originally produced by the British Council during the 1940s and were designed "to show the world how Britain lived, worked, and played." By the 1960s, many people had forgotten about these delightful works, so it was fortunate that in 2010 a new project was started to bring the films online for the Web-browsing public. Today, visitors can look through the films, which include "Architects of England," "Cricket," and "Country Town." Visitors can search for films by year or by theme, and they can also read several essays which provide background on the collection.

230

High resistivity zinc stannate as a buffer layer in cds\\/cdte solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical conductivity of transparent conducting oxides is well exploited in front surface electrodes for solar cells where high transmission is also important. Fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2: F) is the most popular choice of front contacts for CdTe solar cells. In this thesis, Cd2SnO4 and Zn2SnO4 thin films are investigated focusing on their electrical and optical properties and used

Sudhakar R Gayam

2005-01-01

231

Novel Shallow Trench Isolation Process from Viewpoint of Total Strain Process Design for 45 nm Node Devices and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel shallow trench isolation (STI) process is proposed for 45 nm node technologies and beyond. The major features of this process are the use of a fluorine-doped (F-doped) SiO2 film for gap filling and high-temperature rapid thermal oxidation (HT-RTO) for gate oxidation. Voidless filling of a narrow trench can be realized by F-doped high-density plasma chemical

Masato Ishibashi; Katsuyuki Horita; Mahito Sawada; Masashi Kitazawa; Motoshige Igarashi; Takashi Kuroi; Takahisa Eimori; Kiyoteru Kobayashi; Masahide Inuishi; Yuzuru Ohji

2005-01-01

232

Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)\\/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited

Katsuhiro Onozuka; Bin Ding; Yosuke Tsuge; Takayuki Naka; Michiyo Yamazaki; Shinichiro Sugi; Shingo Ohno; Masato Yoshikawa; Seimei Shiratori

2006-01-01

233

UV-reduction of graphene oxide and its application as an interfacial layer to reduce the back-transport reactions in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and TiO2 nanocomposites was reduced photocatalytically by UV-irradiation and applied as interfacial layer between a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) layer and a nanocrystalline TiO2 film. Impedance spectra implied a decreased back-transport reaction of electrons. The graphene–TiO2 interfacial layer effectively reduced the contact between I3- ions in the electrolyte and FTO layer, which inhibited

Sung Ryong Kim; Manish Chhowalla

2009-01-01

234

An efficient and low-cost TiO 2 compact layer for performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A TiO2 organic sol was synthesised for the preparation of a compact TiO2 layer on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a dip-coating technique. The resultant thin film was used for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The compact layer typically has a thickness of ca. 110nm as indicated by its SEM, and consists of anatase as confirmed by

Hua Yu; Shanqing Zhang; Huijun Zhao; Geoffrey Will; Porun Liu

2009-01-01

235

Thin film nano solar cells--from device optimization to upscaling.  

PubMed

Stainless steel based dye solar cells have been upscaled from small, laboratory size test cells of 0.32 cm2 active area to 6 cm x 6 cm "mini-modules" with active areas ca. 15 cm2. Stainless steel works as the photoelectrode substrate whilst the counter electrode is prepared on indium-doped tin oxide coated polyethyleneterephtalate or polyethylenenaphtalate plastic foil (fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass as a reference). Additional current collector structures were deposited on the counter electrode substrate with inkjet-printing of silver nanoparticle ink in order to reduce the lateral resistance of the plastic foil. Flexible substrates enable roll-to-roll type industrial manufacturing of the cells and the steel's superior conductivity compared to the typical substrate materials such as glass and plastic makes it possible to prepare even substantially larger modules. The best efficiencies obtained this far with the "mini-module" using a stainless steel photoelectrode are 2.5% with a platinum-sputtered indium-doped tin oxide coated polyethyleneterephtalate counter electrode and 3.4% with a thermally platinized fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass counter electrode. These efficiencies are on the same level than those measured with small cells prepared with similar methods and materials (3.4%-4.7%, depending on configuration, which are amongst the highest reported for this kind of a dye solar cell). Replacing expensive conducting glass with steel and plastic foils as the substrate materials leads also to economical savings in the cell production. PMID:20352759

Toivola, Minna; Peltola, Time; Miettunen, Kati; Halme, Janne; Lund, Peter

2010-02-01

236

Thin Film Technology: Adhesion in Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Last month I addressed the subject of pinholes in thin films and ways to minimize them. The subject this month is another cause for success, or failure, of thin films, adhesion. I was motivated to discuss this horrendously complicated subject by a conference I recently attended, Adhesion Aspects of Thin Films (Orlando, December 15-17). This conference, organized by Dr.'s K.L. Mittal and R.H. Lacombe, was both stimulating and informative.

Martin, Peter M.

2004-02-01

237

Carbon films from polyacrylonitrile  

SciTech Connect

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been fabricated by both spin and solvent casting techniques, and pyrolyzed to produce carbon films in the thickness range of 200--50 000 A. These films have higher electrical conductivities than carbon films produced from most other precursors at similar temperatures. The chemical structure of the films at different stages of processing was investigated by UV, IR, Raman, and XPS spectroscopies. An extra degree of control over the final electrical conductivity was obtained by varying the PAN content of copolymer precursors. Oxidation rates and an activation energy were determined. Finally, processing techniques are described which allow both dry and wet film transfer and lithographic patterning.

Renschler, C.L.; Sylwester, A.P.; Salgado, L.V.

1989-03-01

238

The effect of exceptionally high fluorine doping on the anisotropy of single crystalline SmFeAsO1-xFx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prepared single crystalline SmFeAsO1-xFx with an exceptionally high fluorine concentration by using a CsCl flux method. Comparing to conventional flux methods, this method can introduce about double the amount of fluorine into the oxygen site. The obtained single crystal shows the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc = 57.5 K) in single crystalline iron pnictides. In addition, the residual resistivity ratio is almost three times as large as that of previously reported single crystals. This suggests that our single crystals are suitable for investigation of the intrinsic superconducting properties, since they have few defects and impurities. Using both the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg model and the effective mass model, we demonstrated that a higher fluorine concentration suppresses the anisotropic superconductivity of SmFeAsO1-xFx.

Fujioka, Masaya; Denholme, Saleem J.; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takano, Yoshihiko

2014-09-01

239

In situ control of phenol adsorption on conductive Pd-fluorine-doped tin dioxide-supported and Pd-alumina-supported catalysts in electrocatalytic hydrogenation.  

PubMed

In the context of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) process of unsaturated organic molecules, we have shown using infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements that catalysts powders made of palladium on conductive tin dioxide (10% Pd/SnO2:F) and on alumina (10% Pd/Al2O3) are functionalized with organic chains when they were dipped in supporting electrolyte aqueous solutions containing different carboxylic acids. The carboxylic acids are bound to the supports (SnO2:F and Al2O3) through either the carboxyl or carboxylate groups. The measurement of contact angles confirmed that the support surface is functionalized by the carboxylic acids but also indicated the hydrophobic or hydrophilic character of the resultant surface. With these functionalized catalysts, the effectiveness of electrocatalytic hydrogenation of phenol could be modulated by controlling the adsorption of phenol. The adsorption depends mainly on the functionalization agent (carboxylic acid) and to a lesser extent on the identity of the support material (SnO2:F or Al2O3). Because adsorption is the step that induces the selectivity of the ECH process, controlling this phenomenon by functionalizing the catalyst support in situ is promising for obtaining molecules of choice. PMID:19735154

Tountian, Dihourahouni; Brisach-Wittmeyer, Anne; Nkeng, Paul; Poillerat, Gérard; Ménard, Hugues

2009-09-15

240

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structural Studies of Barium Borosilicate Glasses, Fluorine-Doped Silicate Glasses, and Glasses Containing Selenium-Oxide and Mercuric -  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of BaO-B_2O _3-SiO_2 glasses presented in this thesis utilizes ^{11} B and ^{29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in measuring directly the amounts of boron species involved in tetrahedral and trigonal units as a function of BaO and SiO_2 contents. Analysis and interpretation of the data incorporates the use of a glass structure model which quantifies all borate and

Phillip Elton Stallworth

1989-01-01

241

Synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nano-powder by sol–gel combustion hybrid method  

Microsoft Academic Search

ITO and FTO nano-powders were synthesized employing a new route sol–gel combustion hybrid method using acetylene black as a fuel. The dried gels exhibited an auto-catalytic combustion behavior. ITO and FTO nano-powders with narrow size distribution were obtained at 750 °C. Crystal structures were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphology as well as crystal size was investigated by

Chi-Hwan Han; Sang-Do Han; Jihye Gwak; S. P. Khatkar

2007-01-01

242

Black Film Center Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Black Film Center Archive (BFC/A) of Indiana University "is a repository of films and related materials by and about African Americans." Its holdings list of over 700 films and video cassettes, as well as archival photographs, is available. It also provides information about its "Black Camera" newsletter, as well as contact information, a collections use policy, and pointers to other film sites of interest. http://www.indiana.edu/~bfca/index.html

243

Film as Film; Understanding and Judging Movies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The criteria for judging movies which are presented here are based on the belief that film criticism becomes rational, if not "objective", when it displays and inspects the nature of its evidence and the bases of its arguments. The author dissents from the view of early film theorists that montage is the essence of cinema, and that cinema is to be…

Perkins, V. F.

244

iFilm.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

iFilm was created to widen the availability and audience of films and filmed entertainment and to further the careers of their creators. It does this by placing an impressive selection of free and complete short films online in RealPlayer G2 format. Users may browse films by genre, location, category, or choose from the top ten lists of the most watched and most popular films. Viewer ratings and reviews are included for each film, and users are invited to add their own. iFilm recently unveiled the "first true debut of electronic cinema" by playing an original full-length feature film on May 3, and more are planned. Additional resources at the site include a Film News Channel, an internal search engine, and a free weekly email update service. Parents and teachers please note that some of the films contain adult themes. Users should also note that the films will only be viewable with a RealPlayer G2 player and that playback quality will vary significantly with connection speed.

245

Focus on Shakespearean Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an anthology of reviews and critical pieces of the significant and available Shakespearean films made between 1935 and 1966. Included are three general essays on Shakespearean film by Ian Johnson, Henri Lemaitre, and Geoffrey Reeves. The specific films and their reviewers are: A Midsummer's Night Dream (1935) Allardyce Nicoll and Richard…

Eckert, Charles W., Ed.

246

Australian Film Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

Breen, Myles P.

247

Health Careers Film Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which represents a survey of the entire health career film field, was designed to provide information for people interested in a health career. The guide indicates that a major criteria for film selection was recency; however, some older films that give a fairly accurate image of a profession were included, with some emphasis given…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.

248

Film Screening Before Tomorrow  

E-print Network

Film Screening Before Tomorrow June 12 2014, 5:30 pm Synopsis: In 1840, two isolated Inuit families and the will to survive. Directed by Marie-Hélène Cousineau and Madeline Ivalu, the film is an adaptation of the novel Før Morgendagen by Danish writer Jørn Riel. It was the third film released by Igloolik Isuma Productions

Michelson, David G.

249

The Craft of Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized fundamental principles of design, universalized practices and procedures, and standardized equipment specifications are presented in this film maker's manual. These essentials of film making are analyzed so that the work can stand as a reference for all film makers, from the amateur to the experienced professional. Topics covered…

Fisher, J. David, Ed.

250

Getting into Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

London, Mel

251

Analysis of Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to understand the communicative interaction of film, it is necessary to carefully analyze the special qualities of film as a visual medium, to understand the elements of audience identification with what happens in the film, and to interpret the use of symbolism that enables an audience to derive meaning from it. Among the special…

Stupp, Vicki O'Donnell

252

99 Films on Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog describes and evaluates 16-millimeter films about various aspects of drug use. Among the subjects covered by the 99 films are the composition and effects of different drugs, reasons why people use drugs, life in the drug culture, the problem of law enforcement, and various means of dealing with drug users. Each film is synopsized. Two…

Weber, David O., Ed.

253

Amorphous-Carbon Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes structure, preparation, characterization, and applications of films of amorphous-carbon. Amorphous-carbon films potentially useful as masks in x-ray lithography, layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits, hard films to protect magnetic recording media and optical components from degradation by chemical etching or wear, and radiation detectors.

Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

1993-01-01

254

Particle film technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Particle Film Technology involves establishing a mineral particle film on the surface of a plant or plant product that: (1) is chemically inert, (2) has a mean particle diameter < 2 um, (3) is formulated to spread and create a uniform film, (4) does not physically disrupt gas exchange from the le...

255

Film Screening and Conversation  

E-print Network

Film Screening and Conversation 2011 6-9pm Smithsonian Asian Paci c American Program Rasmuson Director John Sayles Film Run Time: 124 minutes Closest Metro: L'Enfant Plaza Related Traveling Exhibition, the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program presents a screening of the film Amigo and a conversation

Mathis, Wayne N.

256

Emotion elicitation using films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film

James J. Gross; Robert W. Levenson

1995-01-01

257

Film Program Notes from the Current Holdings of the Anthology Film Archives; Outlines of 41 Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of film program notes includes mixed commentary on some of the films held in the Anthology Film Archives (a film and book library in New York City). Some of the films are described by synopsis of the episodes and others by translation into English of the foreign language subtitles. However, each film noted is identified by full…

Anthology Film Archives, New York, NY.

258

UV actinometer film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cumulative UV radiation can be measured by low-cost polymer film that is unaffacted by visible light. Useful for virtually any surface, film can help paint and plastics manufacturers determine how well their products stand up against UV radiation. Actinometer film uses photochemically sensitive compound that changes its chemical composition in response to solar radiation. Extent of chemical conversion depends on length exposure and can be measured by examining film sample with spectrophotometer. Film can be exposed from several seconds up to month.

Coulbert, C. D.; Gupta, A.; Pitts, J.

1980-01-01

259

Electrically Conductive Polyimide Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Semiconducting surfaces of SnO2 formed by curing polyamic acids containing tin complexes. Polyimide films made semiconductive via incorporation of semiconductive surface layers of SnO2. If SnO2-surfaced polyimide film used as free-standing film, then semiconductive layer protected by top coat of polyimide, deposited as film from solution directly onto SnO2. Resultant films flexible and resistant to both weather and high temperature. Used on aircraft to provide resistance to lightning strikes, and in microelectronics and flexible circuitry.

St. Clair, Anne K.; Ezzel, Stephen A.; Taylor, Larry T.; Boston, Harold G.

1993-01-01

260

Pyrolyzed thin film carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

2010-01-01

261

National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

262

Ceramic Composite Thin Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

263

Depositing Diamondlike Carbon Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process demonstrated to make thin films (usually thousands of angstroms to few microns thick) that have properties of diamonds. Various plasma and ion-beam techniques employed to generate films. Films made by radio-frequency plasma decomposition of hydrocarbon gas or other alkanes, by low-energy carbon-ion-beam deposition, or by ion plating and dual ion technique using carbon target. Advantages of new process over others are films produced, though amorphous, are clear, extremely hard, chemically inert, of high resistivity, and have index of refraction of 3.2 properties similar to those of single-crystal diamonds. Films have possible uses in microelectronic applications, high-energy-laser and plastic windows, corrosion protection for metals, and other applications where desired properties of film shaped during the film-formation process.

Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.; Banks, B. A.

1986-01-01

264

National Film Preservation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do The Big Sleep, The Great Dictator, Harold and Maude, Knute Rockne, All American, and Wings have in common? They, along with 20 other films, have been selected to the National Film Registry of the National Film Preservation Board. The NFPB is a "public advisory group to the Librarian of Congress...that...works to ensure the survival, conservation and increased public availability of America's film heritage, including: advising the Librarian on the annual selection of films to the National Film Registry." In addition to the 1997 list, users can find a comprehensive list of titles added to the registry between 1989-1997, a list of NFPB members, and links from the 1989-96 National Film Registry to their credits as they appear in the Internet Movie Database. The NFPB also recently released a report and three public testimonies on the state of television and video preservation.

265

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film andThe Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive present thepresent the 4848--HOUR SHORT FILM contestHOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Department of Film. are sponsoring the Fifth Annual 48- HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las

Hemmers, Oliver

266

B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies  

E-print Network

B-FILM: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies September 2012- June 2013 Interim Report B-Film: The Birmingham Centre for Film Studies was established in September 2012 as an interdisciplinary, autonomous from Modern Languages, American and Canadian Studies and the new department of Art History, Film

Birmingham, University of

267

Center for Film Studies Film Event Booking Form  

E-print Network

Center for Film Studies Film Event Booking Form Student Groups The Center for Film Studies welcomes venue for the legal presentation of films, we encourage any department, program, or group who is contemplating a screening to consult with the Center to schedule an event. Student group requests for film

Devoto, Stephen H.

268

Étude par résonance quadrupolaire nucléaire de la rétention de carbone dans l'{YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7}}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) study of Cu(2) (planes) and Cu(1) (chains) sites in two YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7} powder samples with carbon concentration equal to 500 ppm and 3000 ppm, and in a free-carbon sample. By comparison with standard spectra in YBa_2Cu_3Oy, we show that a new NQR line appears at 30.90 MHz, the intensity of which is strongly correlated with the amount of carbon in the sample. Moreover, according to the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T_1 measurements at different frequencies of the spectrum, we attribute this anomalous line to the formation of clusters in which the superconductivity is destroyed by the presence of carbonate groups, which substitute preferentially for copper chain site. Those results are in good agreement with those of Wang et al. [CITE], obtained by high resolution electron microscopy. Nous présentons une étude par Résonance Quadrupolaire Nucléaire (RQN) des sites Cu(2) (plans) et Cu(1) (chaînes) dans deux échantillons de poudre d'YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7} contenant 500 ppm et 3000 ppm de carbone, ainsi que dans un échantillon de poudre supposé ne pas contenir de carbone. Par comparaison avec les spectres traditionnellement obtenus dans l'YBa_2Cu_3O_{{y}? 7}, nous avons mis en évidence l'apparition d'une raie supplémentaire à 30,90 MHz dont l'intensité augmente sensiblement avec le taux de carbone. De plus, l'analyse du taux de relaxation spin-réseau 1/T_1 mesuré à différentes fréquences nous a permis d'attribuer l'origine de cette raie anormale à la formation de domaines ou la supraconductivité est détruite par la présence de carbonates localisés de manière préférentielle sur les sites des chaînes. Cette étude confirme les résultats de Wang et al. [CITE] obtenus en microscopie électronique à haute résolution.

Grévin, B.; Berthiercw, Y.; Monot, I.; Wang, J.; Weiss, F.

1998-03-01

269

University film societies and series  

Microsoft Academic Search

J N A SURVEY of the 100 largest colleges and universities in this country, begun in 1952, four major film activities assumed prominence: (a) provision of 16ram educational and documentary films by film libraries at minimum rentals for campus, state, or regional use; (b) film production providing for cooperative work of university students and staffs; (c) film research on the

Jack C. Ellis

1956-01-01

270

Coating of plasma polymerized film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

1980-01-01

271

Books on Film and Filmmaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography of books on film and filmmaking contains references on materials related to animation production, general reference materials, student film production, film study, experimental film, critics and directors, sources of funds for filmmaking, local resources, periodicals for filmmaking classes, sources of free films, and…

Ruth, Deborah D.

272

The Greatest Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Timothy Dirks, Manager of Public Programs at The Tech Museum of Innovation in San Jose, California, also wears another hat, that of dedicated amateur film buff. This site is the result of that hobby, and it is one of the better amateur sites on its topic. At the heart of the site is a list of the author's choice for 100 greatest films of all time (English language films only). Each of these films is reviewed in depth. An introductory section explains criteria. A second list of the 100 runner-ups (more briefly annotated) is also provided, as well as sections on greatest film quotes and scenes, an essay on genres, and a beautiful collection of hundreds of film posters from Adam's Rib to You Can't Take it With You. While you may not agree with Mr. Dirks' picks, that is half the fun of a site like this. Note that the popularity of the site curtails access at times.

273

World's Smallest Film Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World's Smallest Film Festival "is the first competitive showcase of digital video content for the new generation of mobile phones, PDAs, and other mobile devices." The event concluded at the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association Wireless conference in March 2003, but the films that were submitted to the festival can be viewed online. Running up to seven minutes in length, the films demonstrate the rapid advancements in mobile multimedia technology.

274

Self Healing Soap Films  

E-print Network

In 1904, while experimenting with high-speed photography, Lucien Bull recorded a pellet passing through a soap bubble. We investigate the dynamics that allow for a rigid body to pass through a hemispherical soap film without rupturing it. Spheres were dropped from rest above a hemispherical soap film. At impact, the soap film stretches into a cavity around the sphere. As the sphere continues to descend, the film cavity pinches off and the film returns to its initial hemispherical shape. Upon closer observation of the film-sphere-air interface, the stability of the soap film appears to arise through a balance between the forces of the sphere inertia and the film tension. Therefore the relevant experimental parameter is the Weber number: We=(rho 2ghR)/sigma, where R is the sphere radius and h is the height that the sphere is dropped from. We vary the sphere radius and velocity to provide a range of Weber numbers in order to investigate the dependence of film stability. Three subtly distinct regimes arise across...

Killian, Taylor; Bryson, Joshua; Truscott, Tadd

2012-01-01

275

The Possibility of Film Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

1989-01-01

276

Microfilm--Which Film Type, Which Application?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report on characteristics of different kinds of microfilm available indicates proper film for specific needs. Silver halide and nonsilver films, diazo film, vesicular film, reaction of films to light, effect of heat and humidity on films, film susceptibility to scratching, and potential longevity of film types are covered. (35 references) (EJS)

Dodson, Suzanne Cates

1985-01-01

277

Nanostructured polymer thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial structures of polymer thin films in nanometer scale have been investigated. Various types of polymer thin films, i.e. thin films on a solid substrate, bilayer systems, a polymer thin film standing without any substrate, self-assembled polymer thin films including Langmuir ultrathin films and Langmuir-Blodgett films, and polyelectrolyte thin films in various solvents and thin films under high pressured CO2 are described and characterized by a number of modern characterization tools. The thickness of the oxide layer of Si wafers as a function of annealing temperature following treatment with either a modified Shiraki method or HF stripping have been measured. In both cases there exists a well defined oxide layer, approximately 20 A thick. The activation energies, obtained 31.6 and 19.3 kJ/mol for the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces are consistent with the evaporation energy of water. X-ray specular (XR) and off-specular measurements of free standing polystyrene thin films as a function of molecular weight and thickness performed have been performed. Films thicker than a few radii of gyration (Rg) are well fit by a simple liquid model. The simple liquid model was found to be insufficient to fit the transverse diffuse data for films thinner than a few Rg. Combined x-ray and neutron reflectivity (NR) studies of PS-P4VP/R+X-(X = Br or I) polyelectrolytes show that even though the polyelectrolyte block is water soluble it remains adsorbed to the water surface. NR to measure the concentration profiles of sulfonated Polystyrene films with three different degrees of sulfonation in water, CCl4, and mixture of the two solvents have been used. The data show that, except for the x = 3.4% films where CCl4 is a good solvent, the largest degree of swelling occurred in the mixed solvent. In situ NR of d-PS thin films in CO2 at P < 700 bar were reported. A large swelling maximum occurs only at the supercritical/gas phase boundary. I introduce a new analysis method of XR using Fourier transformation with advantage of higher qz range and better resolution than those of neutron scattering can be applied for the "smaller contrast" interface.

Shin, Kwanwoo

2000-12-01

278

Preparation and Surface Analysis of a Fluorinated Amorphous Silicon for Photo-voltaic Device Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) have been routinely deposited on a variety of substrates. Surface and interfacial studies were carried out with a PHI 5600 X-ray photo electron spectrometer. Co-deposition with fluorine yielded films having oxygen present as bulk oxide. The higher the fluorine content, the greater the amount of bulk oxygen observed. The presence of oxygen may be a contributing factor to inconsistent film properties of fluorine doped silicon materials, reported else where. A definite chemical interface between a layer containing fluorine and a layer made from pure silane has been delineated.

McWhinney, Hylton G.; Burton, Dawn; Fogarty, Thomas N.

1998-01-01

279

Authors on Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

280

Construction of Meaning: Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that film has no clear set of rules, unlike all languages, which are deductive systems interpreted according to clear sets of rules. Suggests that film is an inductive system whose interpretation is based on a general understanding of events depicted as modified by production variables such as lighting, camera angles, and the context of…

Pryluck, Calvin

1995-01-01

281

Creative Film-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamentals of motion picture photography are introduced with a physiological explanation for the illusion of motion in a film. Film stock formats and emulsions, camera features, and lights are listed and described. Various techniques of exposure control are illustrated in terms of their effects. Photographing action with a stationary or a…

Smallman, Kirk

282

Film Study Hang Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interest and delight which students find in film should be preserved from a teacher's excessive zeal to analyze and explain. As the beauty of poetry is frequently diminished through exhaustive analyses of similes, rhyme schemes, and other technical devices, the value of film to high school students can be weakened through too great an emphasis…

Grenier, Charles F.

1969-01-01

283

Magnetite thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature process for converting hematite (?-Fe2O3) thin films into magnetite (Fe3O4is described. The films produced are unambiguously identified as magnetite by several complementary methods of analysis. These include ?-backscattering spectrography, X-ray powder diffractometry, and observations of electrical, magnetic, and optical properties.

J. Feng; C. Bajorek; M.-A. Nicolet

1972-01-01

284

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

285

On Teaching Ethnographic Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

Clarfield, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

286

Anthropological Film in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the conceptualization and design of anthropological film in Colombia since the 1960's. The intent has been to establish this type of film as a culturally appropriate communication technique related to the solution of social problems and involving the expression of culturally specific values. The paper describes the historical…

Duncan, Ronald J.

287

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOEpatents

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01

288

Thin Films Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Nano-Link contains the document required for the thin films module. The activity requires a background in eight grade science. This 9 page guide includes background information on thin film interference, a hands-on learning activity, links to multimedia resources, and further readings. Visitors must complete a quick and free registration to access the materials.

289

Protolytic carbon film technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

1996-04-01

290

Children As Film Makers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that film making can be of much greater value in education than is generally realized, this book tells the classroom teacher how to help children make their own films from beginning to end. A detailed text illustrated by drawings and photographs explains the basics of camera operation, editing, splicing, animation, titling,…

Lidstone, John; McIntosh, Don

291

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

1995-09-19

292

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOEpatents

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04

293

Dental Training Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

294

FAA Film Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

295

Film Canister Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Opaque film canisters are readily available, cheap, and useful for scientific inquiry in the classroom. They can also be surprisingly versatile and useful as a tool for stimulating scientific inquiry. In this article, the authors describe inquiry activities using film canisters for preservice teachers, including a "black box" activity and several…

Ferstl, Andrew; Schneider, Jamie L.

2007-01-01

296

Langmuir-Blodgett Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Langmuir trough enables high quality organic layers (Langmuir-Blodgett films) to be deposited onto a variety of substrates. This article describes the preparation and characterization of these monolayer and multilayer films and reviews many of their potential applications; these include two-dimensional magnetism, integrated and electro-optics, electron beam lithography, biological membranes, charge injection devices and field-effect transistors.

G. G. Roberts

1984-01-01

297

Film Canister Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on botany activity, learners sprout vegetables in film canisters. Learners grow nine seeds each of cabbage, radish, and parsley, experimenting with changing one variable (light, water, or temperature) to explore differences in the germination preferences of the plants. If film canisters aren't available, other small, opaque containers with lids can be substituted.

2013-01-30

298

Film-Philosophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part journal, part Internet salon, part discussion list, Film-Philosophy offers engaging and in-depth explorations of a wide variety of cinematic topics and lively email response and argument. Users can sign up to receive both the weekly review articles and discussion by email, or they may search and browse them at the site. The full text of all the articles from February 1997 to the present and discussion logs from February 1998 are available. In addition to articles from the current volume, the homepage lists calls for papers, film festivals, and related announcements. The site also features full-text book reviews, bibliographies, and links to journals, organizations, and sites about film philosophers (some broken links in the latter). Film-Philosophy is a terrific resource for film studies scholars and serious cinema fans.

299

Gordon Knox Film Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gordon Knox was born in Greenville, Texas and during his long career he made a wide range of documentary films for the United States Armed Forces, state and federal government agencies, and private sector clients. In 1941, Knox formed the Princeton Film Center in Princeton, New Jersey, and over the coming years he would create profiles of Princeton ("University Town"), "Fortress in the Sky" (for Boeing), and "This is Macy's", which was an orientation film for new employees at this celebrated department store. Visitors can search all of the materials (including the films) in the Knox archive via the search engine here, and they can also look through the "Recent Additions" area to look at new photos, manuscripts, and other items of note. One film that should not be missed is the 1948 documentary "What is Modern Art", which explores the question of recent transformations throughout the art world.

300

Bright Lights Film Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Initially started as a print journal in 1974, the online publication of Bright Lights Film Journal began in 1996, and continues to today. As noted on its site, the journal is "a popular-academic hybrid of movie analysis, history, and commentary, looking at classic and commercial, independent, exploitation, and international film from a wide range of vantage points from the aesthetic to the political." The journal is edited by Gary Morris, and contains pieces by a number of persons, including independent writers, film critics, and freelance journalists. While users can browse the archives dating back to 1996, the articles are also thematically organized on a sidebar on the homepage. These themes include Animation, Hong Kong Films, Documentaries, and Film Noir. The interviews section is quite strong, and contains candid pieces with Frederico Fellini, Robert Wise, and John Woo.

301

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS  

E-print Network

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XXIII/FALL 2011 CONVERSATIONS 1964 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James Agee Chair in American, and by the Market Arcade Film & Arts Center, 639 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y. The series has been supported

Krovi, Venkat

302

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS  

E-print Network

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XX/SPRING 2010 CONVERSATIONS Michael Mann, COLLATERAL 2004 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James, and Humanities Institute, and by the Market Arcade Film & Arts Center, 639 Main Street, Buffalo, N.Y. The series

Krovi, Venkat

303

The National Film Registry: Acquiring Our Film Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Film Registry, which is primarily a designated list of films to be preserved by the Library of Congress, is also a valuable tool for selecting "films that are culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant." Following a brief discussion of the history and selection process of the National Film Registry, Southeast Missouri…

Ziegler, Roy A.

304

Western University Film Studies 5 Minute Film Festival  

E-print Network

Western University Film Studies 5 Minute Film Festival Submission Form Applicant Information Name: Email: School: Short Bio about yourself: Film Information Title: Run-Time (no more than 5 minutes): Your/rational of the Film (200-250 words): Date Completed: Disclaimer: All Submissions to Western's Five Minute High School

Lennard, William N.

305

Taught degree MA in Film Studies: Global Film Cultures  

E-print Network

Essentials Taught degree MA in Film Studies: Global Film Cultures Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Film Studies Related degrees MA in Creative Media Practice (p119) MA in Digital Documentary (p120) MA, film or another discipline in the humanities or social sciences. We also welcome applications from

Sussex, University of

306

Jacheon International Music Film Festival in Korea TRIBECA FILM FESTIVAL  

E-print Network

Jacheon International Music Film Festival in Korea TRIBECA FILM FESTIVAL your favorite directors. The other good thing is Drivein, a big screen installed outside so we are able to see films with fresh, who also wrote the script, and acted in the film. It is so nice to have one man show in a movie

Qiu, Weigang

307

Reference for radiographic film interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

Austin, D. L.

1970-01-01

308

The Art of the Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author prefaces his consideration of films as an art form with a discussion of the mechanics of filmmaking. He describes the division of talent on a movie set, details the history of the tools of filmmakers, and explains the production and reproduction of a film. The influence of film techniques on plot development in a fiction film is…

Lindgren, Ernest

309

Using Film in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over ten years ago, in a report on the process of education, Jerome Bruner dealt with the advantages of using film and other audiovisual materials. First he said that film can help use and develop attention. Secondly, he identified film as one of the "devices for vicarious experience." He said that film can be used as a dramatizing device, as a…

Johnson, Ted

310

Calendar of Events Film Festival  

E-print Network

: Luchino Visconti Guest Speaker: Richard Peña BIO: Richard Peña is program director of the Film Society1 Calendar of Events Film Festival Visions of the South: Geography as Character in Italian Cinema of Lincoln Center and director of the New York Film Festival. He is an associate professor of film

Qian, Ning

311

Study Abroad foreign film at  

E-print Network

Study Abroad Watch a foreign film at the Harpur Film Society Join an LxC section for one of your Studies Departments: www2.binghamton.edu/harpur/departments-programs/index.html Harpur Film: www2.binghamton.edu/cinema/harpur-film.html Student Association: http://sa.binghamton.edu Go to an International

Suzuki, Masatsugu

312

Chicago Film Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chicago Film Archives is an amazing regional film archive that collects, preserves, and provides access to films that represent the spirit of the Midwest. They work together with a range of other partners to host film festivals, develop seminars, and also sponsor public lectures. Visitors should click on over to the Explore Collections area to browse through over 600 films. This section contains finding aids, information about historic home movies, and access to very unique films. First-time visitors might start with some of the great home movies of Chicago in the 1950s and 1960s. Moving on, the Conservation Projects section is a real pip. Here, visitors can look over two remarkable dance performances from the Ravinia Music Festival from 1928 and seven short films that document the social and cultural upheavals that swept across Chicago in the late 1960s. It's a remarkable site where anyone with an interest in the history of documentary filmmaking and related matters will find much to enjoy.

313

Ion beam deposited protective films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single or dual ion beam sources were used to deposit thin films for different applications. Metal and metal oxide films were evaluated as protective coatings for the materials. Film adherence was measured and the most promising films were then tested under environments similar to operating conditions. It was shown that some materials do protect die material (H-13 steel) and do reduce thermal fatigue. Diamondlike films have many useful applications. A series of experiments were conducted to define and optimize new approaches to the manufacture of such films. A dual beam system using argon and methane gases was developed to generate these films.

Mirtich, M. J.

1981-01-01

314

Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films  

SciTech Connect

Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

2000-01-27

315

A water film motor  

E-print Network

We report on electrically-induced rotations in water films, which can function at many length scales. The device consists of a two-dimensional cell used for electrolysis of water films, as simple as an insulator frame with two electrodes on the sides, to which an external in-plane electric field perpendicular to the mean electrolysis current density is applied. If either the external field or the electrolysis current exceeds some threshold (while the other one is not zero), the liquid film begins to rotate.

R. Shirsavar; A. Amjadi; N. Hamedani Radja; M. D. Niry; M. Reza Rahimi Tabar; M. R. Ejtehadi

2006-05-01

316

Film Sound History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by the student chapter of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, this site offers a clear, informative timeline of film sound history. Breaking the century down by decades, the site discusses the main sound innovations of each period, and these brief histories link to related film history sites. The site also features a graph showing the specifications and capability of every major film sound format from Fantasound in 1940 to DTS introduced in 1993. An unannotated list of relevant links rounds out the site.

317

Films on the arms race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicists are seldom comportable with physics films in the classroom, let alone films on the arms race and nuclear war. Part of this discomfort stems from the ego of physicists, most mistakenly think they can better any film with regard to most any topic. But partly, it stems from the lack of good films. While there are very few good physics films, there are now many excellent productions on the arms race and nuclear war.

Dowling, John

1983-10-01

318

Thin Film Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss thin film growth processes. Slide topics include plasma properties, DC glow discharge, ionization, plasma species, magnetrons, collisions, and chemical reactions. Numerous charts and mathematical formulas are presented.

Rack, Philip D.

319

Asian Film Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaborative effort hosted by the Asia Pacific Media Center (APMC) at the University of Southern California's Annenberg Center for Communication, this attractive and content-rich site is an excellent resource for students and aficionados of recent Asian filmmaking. At the site, visitors will find lists of all films made in China, India, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan since 1988, including information such as synopses, filmmakers, cast, length, format, and availability of prints. Sections for each of the countries will also include a general introduction with multiple essays and background, detailed information and video clips for eight to fifteen highlighted films and directors (most include only one of each at present), a list of all internationally awarded films since 1988, and links to course syllabi and other resources for developing educational curriculum on the respective country's film and culture. The site is available in English, Chinese, or Korean, with a Japanese version under development.

320

"Young" soap films  

E-print Network

If we pull out rapidly a metallic frame out of a surfactant solution, we arrive at a "young" soap film with relatively simple features, as noticed first by Lucassen. The weight of the film is equilibrated by a vertical gradient of surface tension. At each level, the local solution concentration equilibrates with the local monolayers. A detailed analysis of the young films was started by us in 1987. We present here an approach which is more illuminating a) the concentration profiles decay exponentially at large heights, with a characteristic length in the range of meters b) the surface is protected up to a different (larger) height c) we also review the dynamic requirements. The surfactant must reach the surface in a time shorter than the free fall time of a pure water film.

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

2000-11-06

321

Amorphous diamond films  

DOEpatents

Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

Falabella, S.

1998-06-09

322

Postmodern film adaptation  

E-print Network

Chapter one explores the reflexive nature of Stephen Daldry's The Hours (2002) as an adaptation from two previous novels: Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway and Michael Cunningham's The Hours. Through the motif of mirror images, the film consciously...

Brannon, Courtney Elizabeth

2013-02-22

323

Tunneling between ferromagnetic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe-Ge-Co junctions conductance G(V) is studied when mean magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic film are parrallel or antiparallel. Conductance measurement, in these two cases, is related to the spin polarizations of the conduction electrons.

M. Julliere

1975-01-01

324

Film Noir Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

325

A water film motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on electrically-induced rotations in water films, which can\\u000afunction at many length scales. The device consists of a two-dimensional cell\\u000aused for electrolysis of water films, as simple as an insulator frame with two\\u000aelectrodes on the sides, to which an external in-plane electric field\\u000aperpendicular to the mean electrolysis current density is applied. If either\\u000athe external

R. Shirsavar; A. Amjadi; N. Hamedani Radja; M. D. Niry; M. Reza Rahimi Tabar; M. R. Ejtehadi

2006-01-01

326

A water film motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on electrically-induced rotations in water films, which can function at many length scales. The device consists of a two-dimensional cell used for electrolysis of water films, as simple as an insulator frame with two electrodes on the sides, to which an external in-plane electric field perpendicular to the mean electrolysis current density is applied. If either the external

R. Shirsavar; A. Amjadi; N. Hamedani Radja; M. D. Niry; M. Reza Rahimi Tabar; M. R. Ejtehadi

2006-01-01

327

Polymer film composite transducer  

DOEpatents

A composite piezoelectric transducer, whose piezoeletric element is a "ribbon wound" film of piezolectric material. As the film is excited, it expands and contracts, which results in expansion and contraction of the diameter of the entire ribbon winding. This is accompanied by expansion and contraction of the thickness of the ribbon winding, such that the sound radiating plate may be placed on the side of the winding.

Owen, Thomas E.

2005-09-20

328

Langmuir-Blodgett films.  

PubMed

The controlled transfer of organized monolayers of amphiphilic molecules from the airwater interface to a solid substrate was the first molecular-scale technology for the creation of new materials. However, the potential benefits of the technology envisioned by Langmuir and Blodgett in the 1930s have yet to be fully realized. Problems of reproducibility and defects and the lack of basic understanding of the packing of complex molecules in thin films have continued to thwart practical applications of Langmuir-Blodgett films and devices made from such films. However, modern high-resolution x-ray diffraction and scanning probe microscopy have proven to be ideal tools to resolve many of the basic questions involving thin organic films. Here, studies are presented of molecular order and organization in thin films of fatty acid salts, the prototypical system of Katharine Blodgett. Even these relatively simple systems present liquid, hexatic, and crystalline order; van der Waals and strained layer epitaxy on various substrates; wide variations in crystal symmetry and interfacial area with counterions; modulated superstructures; and coexisting lattice structures. The wide variety of possible structures presents both a challenge and an opportunity for future molecular design of organic thin-film devices. PMID:8134836

Zasadzinski, J A; Viswanathan, R; Madsen, L; Garnaes, J; Schwartz, D K

1994-03-25

329

Dynamic Processes in Soap Films  

PubMed Central

Some relations between the two main types of thin liquid films, the water-in-air "soap" films and the invert oil-in-water "lipid" films, are outlined, and several dynamic aspects of film behavior are illustrated and briefly reviewed with reference to more complete treatments. These dynamic processes are important in both types of films, but are easier to study in soap films. The topics include the difference between rigid and mobile films and their interconversion; the origin and measurement of film elasticity; the effect of rate of formation upon film thickness, and the evidence against the existence of thick rigid water layers at the surface; and the kinetics of drainage and the role played in it by viscous flow, marginal regeneration, and intermolecular forces. PMID:19873617

Mysels, Karol J.

1968-01-01

330

“Femme/s, Film/s, Noir/e: Revisions”  

E-print Network

displacement came about in society and film noir in part asfilm noir narrative, what was previously considered to be normal in society,films… hints that important shifts in the position of women in American society [

Stulman, Valerie

2007-01-01

331

Epitaxial thin films  

DOEpatents

Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

2006-04-25

332

Thin film ellipsometry metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of commercial ellipsometers are available in the market today. They all measure the change in the state of polarization of light on reflection, but the measurement techniques adopted vary from instrument to instrument. Further, the models used to evaluate the thickness and refractive index of the oxide film during analysis of measurement data vary in complexity. The two main techniques of measurement are single wavelength ellipsometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The NIST Standard Reference Materials available today are based on conventional single wavelength ellipsometry. We discuss the challenges encountered in providing reference materials by using spectroscopic ellipsometry. First, the limits of conventional single wavelength ellipsometric determination of film thickness are investigated and then possible new technologies are explored. We present a discussion comparing the different types of instruments available and how their unique designs affect the accuracy of thickness determinations. Manufacturing, and accurate determination, of thickness of films this thin (<10 nm) is a challenging task. Results from independent ellipsometric measurements on two different types of instruments are compared for the case of ultra thin thermally grown silicon dioxide films on silicon crystal substrates. Stability curves for the thickness of thin dielectric films over a period of two years are also presented.

Durgapal, Prabha; Ehrstein, James R.; Nguyen, Nhan V.

1998-11-01

333

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS  

E-print Network

THE MARKET ARCADE FILM & ARTS CENTER THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS SERIES XXII/SPRING 2011 19 Jafar Panahi DAYEREH/THE CIRCLE 2000 Apr 26 Ridley Scott BLADE RUNNER 1982 THE BUFFALO FILM SEMINARS are presented by University at Buffalo's James Agee Chair in American Culture, Center for Studies

Krovi, Venkat

334

Film properties and integration of a variety of FSG films  

Microsoft Academic Search

FSG films were deposited using a wide variety of manufacturing processes employing PECVD, HDP-CVD with both SiH 4-based and TEOS-based chemistries. Physical and chemical properties were compared for blanket films, and parametric and defect analysis was performed on integrated circuit test structures. Blanket wafer results indicate that the TEOS-based films had the best stability.

R. Wistrom; G. Bomberger; S. Cohen; S. Hazel; M. Lavoie; J. Gambino; D. Poley; O. Dokumaci

2001-01-01

335

The New Film Technologies: Computerized Video-Assisted Film Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few years, video technology has been used to assist film directors after they have shot a scene, to control costs, and to create special effects, especially computer assisted graphics. At present, a computer based editing system called "Film 5" combines computer technology and video tape with film to save as much as 50% of the cost…

Mott, Donald R.

336

Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

Reilly, Adam, Comp.

337

School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Film & Photography PHOTOGRAPHY OPTION Fall 2012 Name COURSES (20 Credits) CR GR *FILM 100IH Intro. to Film & Photography 3 _____ *FILM 112 Aesthetics of Film for 12 Credits): Must include 303 or 304, may include any film or photography- related studies courses

Dyer, Bill

338

Foundation for Film and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a comprehensive discussion on the Stichting Film en Wetenschap, SFW (Foundation for Film and Science), in Utrecht. Various aspects of the use of audio-visual aids in university teaching are looked at in detail. (Editor/RK)

van der Veen, G.

1976-01-01

339

Mesilla Valley Film Society Logo  

Microsoft Academic Search

I designed this proposed logo for the Mesilla Valley Film Society located in Old Mesilla, NM. The logo is based upon the historic architecture of the Fountain Theatre, where the society shows its films.

Anne M Giangiulio

2005-01-01

340

The Nuclear Debate in Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

Dowling, John

1977-01-01

341

Geographical Film in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Film-based teaching can improve geography instruction in universities if the films are technically excellent, closely related to course content, and professionally presented. For journal availability, see SO 505 640. (Author/DB)

Clark, Michael J.

1977-01-01

342

Thin film interconnect processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

Malik, Farid

343

Thin film temperature sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

1980-01-01

344

Thin films and uses  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

345

Film Literature Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.

346

Push Tester For Laminated Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small instrument used to measure brittleness of polymer film adhesively bonded to hard substrate. Penlike instrument has microball tip. Small pointer in slot on side of instrument used to calibrate and indicate spring force applied by point. Microball dents only small area of specimen. Such measurements used to measure rates of embrittlement in environmental tests of candidate laminated-film covers for photovoltaic modules. Not limited to transparent films; also used on opaque laminated films on back panels of photovoltaic modules.

Sugimura, Russell S.

1991-01-01

347

NMR characterization of thin films  

DOEpatents

A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

2010-06-15

348

NMR characterization of thin films  

DOEpatents

A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

2008-11-25

349

Page 140 Film Studies Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

Page 140 Film Studies Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog FILM STUDIES PROGRAM OFFICE Art Programs Offered Minor in Film Studies Major in Film: See Art History: Film Emphasis The film studies minor is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental pro- gram that analyzes the history, theory, and practice of film

Ravikumar, B.

350

Thin film ceramic thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

2011-01-01

351

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

1982-01-01

352

Nanostructured Metal Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schatz GC, McMahon JM, Gray SK (2007) Tailoring the parameters of nanohole arrays in gold films for sensing applications.\\u000a Proc SPIE 6641 664103\\/1–8 DOI:10.1117\\/12.790647. McMahon JM, Henzie J, Odom TW, Schatz GC, Gray SK (2007) Tailoring the sensing\\u000a capabilities of nanohole arrays in gold films with Rayleigh anomaly-surface plasmon polaritons. Opt Express 15:18119–18129.\\u000a DOI:10.1364\\/OE.15.018119. Gao H, McMahon JM, Lee MH,

Jeffrey Michael McMahon

353

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

354

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

1982-08-03

355

Calendar of Events Film Festival  

E-print Network

(Cambridge University Press), and the third edition of American Film and Society(Praeger, December 20011 Calendar of Events Film Festival Beyond Cinecitta: Highlights of Italian Cinema from 1980: Antonio Monda BIO: Antonio Monda is an Assistant Professor of Film and Television at New York University

Qian, Ning

356

Dream Use in Film Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between film and dream has an extensive theoretical basis in both cognitive science and cinematic literature. Biographical and autobiographical reports from film makers document antidotal descriptions of the use of dream in creative aspects of screen writing, acting and directing film. However, no systematic or analytic approach has been used in the attempt to document dream utilization in

J. F. Pagel; C. Kwiatkowski; K. E. Broyles

1999-01-01

357

Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Film Underwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermotropic liquid crystal film was produced in distilled water successfully. A lecithin suspension was utilized to make the film. Polarizing microscopic observations were carried out. The molecular arrangement was seemed to be homeotoropic. An expected electrooptic response of the film underwater was confirmed.

Uto, Sadahito; Nakanishi, Yuuji; Matsumoto, Takahumi

2005-05-01

358

Automatic recognition of film genres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Film genres in digital video can be detected automatically. In a three-step approach we analyze first the syntactic properties of digital films: color statistics, cut detection, camera motion, object motion and audio. In a second step we use these statistics to derive at a more abstract level film style attributes such as camera panning and zooming, speech and music. These

Stephan Fischer; Rainer Lienhart; Wolfgang Effelsberg

1995-01-01

359

carleton.ca Film Studies  

E-print Network

carleton.ca Film Studies #12;Ever since the first spectator pressed his eye to the peephole has been transfixed by the motion picture. The year was 1894 and the film industry has never looked on the British coast crashed over them. By the 1920s and 30s, audiences worshipped film stars such as Gloria

Dawson, Jeff W.

360

Transparent, Conductive Carbon Nanotube Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films to various substrates. For equivalent sheet resistance, the films exhibit optical transmittance comparable to that of commercial indium tin oxide in the visible spectrum, but far superior transmittance in the technologically relevant 2-

Zhuangchun Wu; Zhihong Chen; Xu Du; Jonathan M. Logan; Jennifer Sippel; Maria Nikolou; Katalin Kamaras; John R. Reynolds; David B. Tanner; Arthur F. Hebard; Andrew G. Rinzler

2004-01-01

361

Process to form mesostructured films  

DOEpatents

This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN); Ganguli, Rahul (Camarillo, CA); Lu, Yunfeng (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

362

Thin-film optical initiator  

DOEpatents

A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

363

Orientation filtering for crystalline films  

DOEpatents

A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

1986-12-30

364

Mobile Library Filming Device.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains details of the study and performance test of the Mobile Filming Library Device which consists of a camera and self contained power source. Because of the cost savings and service improvement characteristics, this technique involving the use of a microfilm intermediate in the preparation of copies of material filed in full size…

Martin, Claud E.

365

Superconducting electronic film structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from Nb/Sn and Nb/Al diffusion couple experiments provided supporting evidence for a proposed hypothesis that superconducting A15 compounds are formed via an oxygen catalyzed reaction. Both epitaxy, and the addition of an impurity (carbon) were successful in increasing the critical temperatures of NbN deposited at low temperature. Critical temperatures of over 16K were obtained in epitaxially grown NbN films sputtered on substrates held at less than 100 C. RHEED (reflection high energy electron diffraction) and X-ray rocking curve data show that the new UHV deposition and analytical facility has the capability for epitaxially growing high quality single crystals of the technologically important A15 and B1 superconductors. Low-leakage all-NbN tunnel junctions have been developed with ion-beam oxidized Al and Mg barriers, or rf-sputtered MgO barriers. The first Nb-Sn based junctions with refractory counterelectrodes were fabricated. XPS, RHEED, and tunneling have been used to characterize: (1)the structure of epitaxial films, (2)the role of ion-beam oxidation in the preparation of tunnel barriers that can be used with refractory counter electrodes, and (3)anisotropic surface oxide growth on single crystal films. Nb single crystal films were prepared which have three times lower rf surface losses compared to polycrystalline Nb.

Braginski, A. I.; Gavaler, J. R.

1985-08-01

366

Hispanic film and society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susan Fanshel. A Decade of Cuban Documentary Film, 1972–1982. New York: Young Filmmakers Foundation, inc. 1982. 48 pp. Illus.Carl J. Mora. Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, 1896–1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. 287 pp. Illus. $29.50 cloth.

Katherine S. Kovács

1985-01-01

367

Paradoxes in Film Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

Moore, Thomas L.

2006-01-01

368

Intercultural Training with Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Films are a great medium to use not only to practice English, but also to facilitate intercultural learning. Today English is a global language spoken by people from many countries and cultural backgrounds. Since culture greatly impacts communication, it is helpful for teachers to introduce lessons and activities that reveal how different…

Roell, Christine

2010-01-01

369

Diamond films: Historical perspective  

SciTech Connect

This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

1993-01-01

370

Film, Radio, and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958 are…

Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

1990-01-01

371

Thin film photovoltaic cell  

DOEpatents

A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

1982-01-01

372

Films in Depth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bound in a slipcover rather than in signatures, this "book" is made up of thirteen separately bound booklets. The first booklet is an introduction to the use of film in the classroom both in teaching the filmic art and in increasing the visual literacy of students on the high school and early college levels. The twelve other booklets each treat a…

Schrievogel, Paul A.; Prete, Anthony T.

373

Affective understanding in film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Affective understanding of film plays an important role in sophisticated movie analysis, ranking and indexing. How- ever, due to the seemingly inscrutable nature of emotions and the broad affective gap from low-level features, this problem is seldom addressed. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach grounded upon psychology and cinematography to address several important issues in affective understanding. An

Hee Lin Wang; Loong-Fah Cheong

2006-01-01

374

A Film Canister Colorimeter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this instrument…

Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

2002-01-01

375

Exploring Materials: Thin Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a colorful bookmark using a super thin layer of nail polish on water. Learners discover that a thin film creates iridescent, rainbow colors. This is a very fun and engaging activity for learners, and a great way to talk about how nanoscale structures often affect a materials' properties. SAFETY: Do this activity in a well-ventilated area.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

376

Thin Film Reliability SEMICONDUCTORS  

E-print Network

, and sensors. Objective Impact and Customers · Semiconductor products represent a global market of more than of thin films and interconnects in their as-manufactured states. Such tests are particularly important the effects of process variations on performance, illustrating the importance of novel metrologies during

377

Efficient hole-blocking layer-free planar halide perovskite thin-film solar cells.  

PubMed

Efficient lead halide perovskite solar cells use hole-blocking layers to help collection of photogenerated electrons and to achieve high open-circuit voltages. Here, we report the realization of efficient perovskite solar cells grown directly on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated substrates without using any hole-blocking layers. With ultraviolet-ozone treatment of the substrates, a planar Au/hole-transporting material/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/substrate cell processed by a solution method has achieved a power conversion efficiency of over 14% and an open-circuit voltage of 1.06?V measured under reverse voltage scan. The open-circuit voltage is as high as that of our best reference cell with a TiO2 hole-blocking layer. Besides ultraviolet-ozone treatment, we find that involving Cl in the synthesis is another key for realizing high open-circuit voltage perovskite solar cells without hole-blocking layers. Our results suggest that TiO2 may not be the ultimate interfacial material for achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:25798925

Ke, Weijun; Fang, Guojia; Wan, Jiawei; Tao, Hong; Liu, Qin; Xiong, Liangbin; Qin, Pingli; Wang, Jing; Lei, Hongwei; Yang, Guang; Qin, Minchao; Zhao, Xingzhong; Yan, Yanfa

2015-01-01

378

Borosilicate films as permeability barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borosilicate films have been deposited using rf-sputtering techniques from a composite target at room temperature onto polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene(HDPE), low density polyethylene(LDPE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) substrates. Films were found to be smooth, flexible, with excellent adhesion to the substrates. Repeated rolling the coated substrates on a radius of 0.5mm resulted in no discernable damage for films less than 200nm in thickness. Creasing the substrates did result in local damage. However excellent adhesion did not allow the fractured glass to come off the substrate. Heat generated during deposition only influenced the films grown on LDPE where the thermal expansion mismatch between the film and substrate induced strains caused fractures in thick films. Modifications to processing parameters allowed thick films to be grown without fractures. Permeability measurements of nitrogen resulted in significant improvements in comparison to uncoated substrates.

Applegate, J. R.; Steinmetz, C. E.; Hettinger, J. D.; Carroll, J. F.; Krchnavek, R.

2009-03-01

379

Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings  

DOEpatents

A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

1995-12-26

380

Method for making carbon films  

DOEpatents

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29

381

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

FILM OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR FILM OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography ...................................................................... 3

Lawrence, Rick L.

382

PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive  

E-print Network

PRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILMPRESENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FILM The UNLV Short Film ArchiveThe UNLV Short Film Archive 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest The UNLV Short Film Archive and the Film Dept. are sponsoring the Third Annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM CONTEST in Las Vegas, Nevada

Hemmers, Oliver

383

thin films as absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic structures were prepared using AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 as absorber and CdS as window layer at various conditions via a hybrid technique of chemical bath deposition and thermal evaporation followed by heat treatments. Silver antimony sulfo selenide thin films [AgSb(S x Se1- x )2] were prepared by heating multilayers of sequentially deposited Sb2S3/Ag dipped in Na2SeSO3 solution, glass/Sb2S3/Ag/Se. For this, Sb2S3 thin films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3. Then, Ag thin films were thermally evaporated on glass/Sb2S3, followed by selenization by dipping in an acidic solution of Na2SeSO3. The duration of dipping was varied as 3, 4 and 5 h. Two different heat treatments, one at 350 °C for 20 min in vacuum followed by a post-heat treatment at 325 °C for 2 h in Ar, and the other at 350 °C for 1 h in Ar, were applied to the multilayers of different configurations. X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 thin films as the primary phase and AgSb(S,Se)2 and Sb2S3 as secondary phases. Morphology and elemental detection were done by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed the depthwise composition of the films. Optical properties were determined by UV-vis-IR transmittance and reflection spectral analysis. AgSb(S x Se1- x )2 formed at different conditions was incorporated in PV structures glass/FTO/CdS/AgSb(S x Se1- x )2/C/Ag. Chemically deposited post-annealed CdS thin films of various thicknesses were used as window layer. J- V characteristics of the cells were measured under dark and AM1.5 illumination. Analysis of the J- V characteristics resulted in the best solar cell parameters of V oc = 520 mV, J sc = 9.70 mA cm-2, FF = 0.50 and ? = 2.7 %.

González, J. O.; Shaji, S.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Krishnan, B.

2014-09-01

384

Molecular films associated with LDEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The molecular films deposited on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) originated from the paints and room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone materials intentionally used on the satellite and not from residual contaminants. The high silicone content of most of the films and the uniformity of the films indicates a homogenization process in the molecular deposition and suggests a chemically most favored composition for the final film. The deposition on interior surfaces and vents indicated multiple bounce trajectories or repeated deposition-reemission cycles. Exterior surface deposits indicated a significant return flux. Ultraviolet light exposure was required to fix the deposited film as is indicated by the distribution of the films on interior surfaces and the thickness of films at the vent locations. Thermal conditions at the time of exposure to ultraviolet light seems to be an important factor in the thickness of the deposit. Sunrise facing (ram direction) surfaces always had the thicker film. These were the coldest surfaces at the time of their exposure to ultraviolet light. The films have a layered structure suggesting cyclic deposition. As many as 34 distinct layers were seen in the films. The cyclic nature of the deposition and the chemical uniformity of the film one layer to the next suggest an early deposition of the films though there is evidence for the deposition of molecular films throughout the nearly six year exposure of the satellite. A final 'spray' of an organic material associated with water soluble salts occurred very late in the mission. This may have been the result of one of the shuttle dump activities.

Crutcher, E. R.; Warner, K. J.

1992-01-01

385

How Reviews Affect Film Interest and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of published film reviews on viewers' interest in and evaluation of the reviewed film. In the film interest experiment, 89 undergraduate students were randomly assigned positive, mixed, or negative reviews of a British film. The control group received a review of a different film. Subjects were asked to read the…

Wyatt, Robert O.; Badger, David P.

386

Short Films for Physics Teaching, A Catalog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated film catalog is a product of the Conference on Single Concept Films in College Physics Teaching sponsored by the Commission on College Physics. Both 8mm and 16mm single concept films are listed for physics and related disciplines. The catalog includes commercial, noncommercial, and foreign films. However, the film coverage was…

Bluestone, Barbara Z.; Roth, Richard F.

387

Dry film lubricant evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The lubrication characteristics of a modified tungsten disulfide (WS[sub 2]) were compared to the exiting dry film lubricant, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS[sub 2])- WS[sub 2] was verified as meeting all Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) requirements for a replacement dry film lubricant. However, in life and wear characteristics, the present lubricant outperformed the WS[sub 2]. Two studies to determine if welding could be performed through the WS[sub 2] coating indicated functionally strong welds, but evaluation showed cracks which would not meet weld requirements. Bearing tests comparing WS[sub 2], a low molecular weight tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), and unlubricated bearings indicated that WS[sub 2] bearing torque was 70 percent higher than TFE.

Bryan, R.M.

1993-04-01

388

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01

389

Philip Elwood Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip Elwood was born in New York in 1884, and after he took his degree in landscape architecture from Cornell University, he worked in New York City and eventually ended up working as a professor of landscape architecture at Iowa State University. He had a long and productive career, and his accomplishments include service on the National Resources Planning Board and working as a site planner for Boys Town outside of Omaha. He enjoyed using his 16mm camera to document his travels, and this online collection created by the Iowa State University Libraries brings together seventeen of his short travelogues. The films are silent, and Professor Elwood inserted title cards so viewers will know what they are seeing as they watch. Visitors shouldn't miss the "California to Ames" film as it features great footage of the Mesa Verde National Park, a Zuni Indian village near Gallup, New Mexico, and the annual Shrine picnic on the ISU campus.

390

UCLA Film & Television Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS) joined forces with the UCLA Theater Arts Department to create the ATAS/UCLA Television Library. 11 years later, the UCLA Film & Television Archive was formally established, and donations began arriving from Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and other major motion picture studios. On the ATAS website, visitors can learn about upcoming screenings and lectures, along with more about the prodigious collections. The Collections area is a great place to start investigating opportunities to borrow prints, donate materials, and license media. The online exhibitions are a pip, and visitors should not miss the UCLA Preserved Silent Animation area. Here they can watch eleven different remarkable (and very rare) films, including "The Enchanted Drawing" and "Bob's Electric Theatre." Finally, visitors can connect with the Archive via a range of social media, including Twitter and YouTube.

2012-05-11

391

American Film Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a dazzling demonstration that technological history can repeat itself, the American Film Institute has begun to make full length films available at its web site. The first showing is of Charles Chaplin's The Rink, made in 1916. VDO live video and audio streaming technology (discussed in the April 12, 1996 Scout Report) is used to play the movie. It is viewed most clearly in a small window of your monitor, and performance is affected by such variables as network congestion and the speed of your connection. But it is a movie, just as early kinetoscope offerings were also "movies." Perhaps in three or four years this technology will mature, and we will really be able to watch movies over the net. Still, what AFI is doing is historic and a valuable experiment that should be recognized as such. The site also contains background information on Chaplin, as well as selected links to other Chaplin sites.

1997-01-01

392

Thin film composite electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

2007-08-14

393

Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles by solution based solid state reaction process and its application in dye sensitized solar cell as counter electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were synthesized by using solution based solid state reaction process and films were coated on FTO (Fluorine doped tin oxide) substrate using doctor blade technique. Phase identification, crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated with CZTS as counter electrode showed photo conversion efficiency 2.57 % compared to Pt based counter electrode 3.17 % efficiency. The charge transport at CZTS/ electrolyte interface was studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu

2014-04-01

394

Preparation of TiO 2\\/NiO composite particles and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the applicability of n-type TiO2 and p-type NiO on the FTO-glass (Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F) substrate of the working electrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The working electrode was designed and fabricated by depositing a film of TiO2\\/NiO composite particles, which were prepared by mixing the Ni powder with TiO2 particles using dry mixing method,

Chuen-Shii Chou; You-Jen Lin; Ru-Yuan Yang; Kuan-Hung Liu

2011-01-01

395

How to Read a Film: The Art, Technology, Language, History and Theory of Film and Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses film as a narrative technique directly comparable to expression in prose narrative, in painting, and in music; it presents an overview of film as technology, the language of film and television, the history of film in America, Europe, and Asia, and the growth of film criticism. Chapters include "Film As an Art,""Technology:…

Monaco, James

396

Focus on Young Film Makers: Student Film Making--Types and Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of 10 styles of student film making include references to specific films employing the techniques. The styles of film making listed are animation, pixillation animation, collage, draw-on, documentary, bio-documentary, story line, impressionistic, commercials, and the school film. Directions for submitting films to the Young Film

Putsch, Henry E.

1968-01-01

397

FilmSound.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted and maintained by Sven E. Carlsson, a Swedish educator, this Web site is an excellent source of information about that one element of filmmaking that is sometimes overlooked due to its ubiquity: sound. Persons curious to read a brief overview of film sound will want to start with an essay titled "An Introduction to Film Sound," by Jane Knowles Marshall. After this, they may want to look over the glossary on the right-hand side of the main page, which features definitions and explanations of terms such as "Ambience," "Foley," and "Production Sound." The sites other highlights include numerous essays by Oscar-winning sound designer Walter Murch (who won for The English Patient and Apocalypse Now) and Randy Thom (who won for The Right Stuff and has been nominated six times in total). Along with other essays on the use of sound in Indian cinema and the history of film sound, there are 10 essays (and sound samples) on the use of sound and sound effect design in the Star Wars trilogy. Visitors may be particularly interested to learn that the language of the Ewoks was created by altering and layering Tibetan, Mongolian, and Nepali languages.

398

Spring magnet films.  

SciTech Connect

The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

1999-03-29

399

Films on the arms race  

SciTech Connect

Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

Dowling, J.

1983-01-01

400

films using atomic layer deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated self-assembled silver nanoisland films using a recently developed technique based on out-diffusion of silver from an ion-exchanged glass substrate in reducing atmosphere. We demonstrate that the position of the surface plasmon resonance of the films depends on the conditions of the film growth. The resonance can be gradually shifted up to 100 nm towards longer wavelengths by using atomic layer deposition of titania, from 3 to 100 nm in thickness, upon the film. Examination of the nanoisland films in surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry showed that, in spite of a drop of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal after the titania spacer deposition, the Raman signal can be observed with spacers up to 7 nm in thickness. Denser nanoisland films show slower decay of the SERS signal with the increase in spacer thickness.

Chervinskii, Semen; Matikainen, Antti; Dergachev, Alexey; Lipovskii, Andrey A.; Honkanen, Seppo

2014-08-01

401

Fracture characteristics of balloon films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.

Portanova, Marc A.

1989-01-01

402

Soft Janus colloidal crystal film.  

PubMed

Two-faced character in a film: Soft "Janus" two-dimensional colloidal crystal films were made using polystyrene (PS) particles, on an air-water interface as a mold for a flexible polypyrrole layer. By removing the PS particles, an array of femtoliter-sized cups was produced. These two-dimensional colloidal crystal films can also be transferred onto substrates with curvature. PMID:22936602

Fujii, Syuji; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

2012-09-24

403

Conelike soap films spanning tetrahedra  

E-print Network

In this paper we provide the first examples of non-flat soap films proven to span tetrahedra. These are members of a continuous two parameter family of soap films with tetrahedral boundaries. Of particular interest is a two parameter subfamily where each spanning soap film has the property that two minimal surfaces meet along an edge of the boundary at an angle greater than 120 degrees.

Huff, Robert

2008-01-01

404

Nanoporous glass films on liquids.  

PubMed

Glass-like thin films are used in many applications as dielectric layers, barrier coatings, abrasion-resistant films, and/or transparent films. We report the first direct application of such materials to liquid substrates using a plasma-deposition process at atmospheric pressure. The study demonstrates the broader utilization of these materials, for example, as robust membranes for water harvesting or drug delivery. PMID:24295063

Zuber, Kamil; Evans, Drew; Murphy, Peter

2014-01-01

405

Process to form mesostructured films  

DOEpatents

This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

1999-01-12

406

Drying of thin colloidal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

Routh, Alexander F.

2013-04-01

407

Templated dewetting of thin solid films  

E-print Network

The dewetting of solid metal polycrystalline films to form metal nanoparticles occurs by the nucleation and growth of holes in the film. For typical films on flat substrates, this process is not well-controlled and results ...

Giermann, Amanda L. (Amanda Leah)

2009-01-01

408

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin...

2011-04-01

409

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin...

2014-04-01

410

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin...

2010-04-01

411

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin...

2013-04-01

412

21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food and...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin...

2012-04-01

413

Bombshells on Film: Women, Military Films, and Hegemonic Gender Ideologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the gendered representation of women in mainstream military films produced in the United States over a 70-year period when the official capacity of women in armed service underwent significant transformation. Utilizing contextualized visual semiotics, findings reveal that these films present women's standing as uncertain at best by reinforcing their exclusion from many nontraditional feminine roles or by

Stacie R. Furia; Denise D. Bielby

2009-01-01

414

Film Music: Implications for Instructional Films and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a critical review of the behavioral research on film music, indicates that there is a visual bias in media attribute research which needs to be balanced, and provides media producers and instructional developers with a theoretical basis and practical guidelines for using music in audiovisual presentations. The question of film

Hlynka, D.

415

Radiation grafting on natural films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

2014-01-01

416

Sundance Film Festival Announces Winners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Film festivals have become immensely popular during the last few decades, and it seems like almost every city or state now has some type of festival to showcase the work of local, national, and in some cases, international filmmakers, both young and old. Started by Robert Redford in 1981, the Sundance Film Festival (held annually in Park City, Utah) has quickly grown into one of the most prestigious celebrations of filmmaking in the world. Earlier this week, the Sundance Film Festival announced its awards in the Independent Feature Film Competition. Among the winners were "Capturing the Friedmans" (which won the Documentary Grand Jury Prize), "American Splendor" (which received the Dramatic Grand Jury Prize), and "My Flesh and Blood" (which received the Documentary Audience Award).The first site leads to the official 2003 Sundance Film Festival site that contains a wealth of material, including lists of all films shown at the festival and detailed information about the juries for the different competitions. The second link is to a news article from the Washington Post that reports on various award recipients of this year's Sundance Film Festival competition. The third link is to an online article that discusses the making of the film "Capturing the Friedmans" with the director, Andrew Jarecki. The fourth site leads to an interview with the noted comic book author Harvey Pekar, whose life was chronicled by director Shari Springer for her 2003 Sundance Festival award-winning film, "American Splendor." The fifth site leads to the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival home page, which was founded in 1998 to showcase the work of documentary filmmakers solely. The final site, Filmfestivals.com, is the clearinghouse for information about almost every single film festival in the world, and contains a search engine, detailed calendars of upcoming events, and frequently updated information about upcoming releases.

Grinnell, Max

417

Liquid film demonstration experiment Skylab SL-4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The liquid film demonstration experiment performed on Skylab 4 by Astronaut Gerald Carr, which involved the construction of water and soap films by boundary expansion and inertia, is discussed. Results include a 1-ml globule of water expanded into a 7-cm-diameter film as well as complex film structures produced by inertia whose lifetimes are longer in the low-g environment. Also discussed are 1-g acceleration experiments in which the unprovoked rupture of films was photographed and film lifetimes of stationary and rotated soap films were compared. Finally, there is a mathematical discussion regarding minimal surfaces, an isoperimetric problem, and liquid films.

Darbro, W.

1975-01-01

418

Fire resistant films for aircraft applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

Kourtides, D. A.

1983-01-01

419

Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film  

DOEpatents

A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-03-30

420

National Film Preservation Foundation: The Film Preservation Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt many organizations and institutions have a canister of 16MM film lying around someplace and some diligent member of their organization might ask: "How can we preserve this item?" A very astute question, and this helpful guide from the National Film Preservation Foundation provides substantial guidance and assistance. The 121-page guide describes methods for handling, duplicating, making available, and storing film, which are practical for nonprofit and public organizations with limited resources. Visitors to this site can download all of the sections in this report, which include chapters like "Legal Context for Film Preservation" and "Understanding Film and How it Decays". The report also includes case studies, illustrations, charts, glossary, and a bibliography.

421

OntoFilm: A Core Ontology for Film Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present OntoFilm, a core ontology for film production. OntoFilm provides a standardized model which conceptualizes the domain and workflows used at various stages of the film production process starting from pre-production and planning, shooting on set, right through to editing and post-production. The main contributions in this paper are: we discuss how OntoFilm models the semantics necessary to interpret these workflows consistently for all users (Directors, DoP's, grips, post-production, lighting). We also discuss how our ontology forms a common bridge between the low level descriptive metadata generated for the video footage and the high level semantics used in software tools during the production process.

Chakravarthy, Ajay; Beales, Richard; Matskanis, Nikos; Yang, Xiaoyu

422

Strictly Bollywood? : story, camera and movement in Hindi film dance  

E-print Network

Film dances, or filmed dance sequences accompanying film songs, are an important part of popular Indian cinema. Over the years, Hindi film dance has evolved from a cinematically simplistic, filmed documentation of performance ...

Shresthova, Sangita.

2003-01-01

423

Film Option Curriculum 2012 -2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed under different headings, including  

E-print Network

Film Option Curriculum 2012 - 2014 Please note that some Film program-related courses are listed; typically taken in freshman year) FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film & Photography 3 FILM 106IA ­ Film in America 3 FILM 112 ­ Aesthetics of Film Production I 3 PHOT 113RA ­ Understanding Photography 3 WRIT 101W

Dyer, Bill

424

Protective Film Moves Aside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

425

Antibacterial Biomimetic Hybrid Films.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a novel method to prepare a hybrid coating based on dextran grafted to a substrate and embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). First, the Ag NPs are synthesized in situ in the presence of oxidized dextran in solution. Second, the oxidized dextran is exposed to an amine functionalized surface resulting in the simultaneous grafting of dextran and the trapping of Ag NPs within the layer. The NP loading is controlled by the concentration of silver nitrate, which is 2 mM (DEX-Ag2) and 5 mM (DEX-Ag5). The dried film thickness increases with silver nitrate concentration from 2 nm for dextran to 7 nm and 12 nm for DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, respectively. The grafted dextran film displays features with a diameter and height of ~ 50 nm and 2 nm, respectively. For the DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, the dextran features as well as individual Ag NPs (~ 5 nm) and aggregates of Ag NPs are observed. Larger and more irregular aggregates are observed for DEX-Ag5. Overall, the Ag NPs are embedded in the dextran film as suggested by AFM and UVO studies. In terms of its antimicrobial activity, DEX-Ag2 resists bacterial adhesion to a greater extent than DEX-Ag5, which in turn is better than dextran and silicon. Because these antibacterial hybrid coatings can be grafted to a variety of surfaces, many biomedical applications can be envisioned, ranging from coating implants to catheters. PMID:23807896

Ferrer, M Carme Coll; Hickok, Noreen J; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell J

2013-02-28

426

Antibacterial Biomimetic Hybrid Films  

PubMed Central

In this work, we present a novel method to prepare a hybrid coating based on dextran grafted to a substrate and embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). First, the Ag NPs are synthesized in situ in the presence of oxidized dextran in solution. Second, the oxidized dextran is exposed to an amine functionalized surface resulting in the simultaneous grafting of dextran and the trapping of Ag NPs within the layer. The NP loading is controlled by the concentration of silver nitrate, which is 2 mM (DEX-Ag2) and 5 mM (DEX-Ag5). The dried film thickness increases with silver nitrate concentration from 2 nm for dextran to 7 nm and 12 nm for DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, respectively. The grafted dextran film displays features with a diameter and height of ~ 50 nm and 2 nm, respectively. For the DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, the dextran features as well as individual Ag NPs (~ 5 nm) and aggregates of Ag NPs are observed. Larger and more irregular aggregates are observed for DEX-Ag5. Overall, the Ag NPs are embedded in the dextran film as suggested by AFM and UVO studies. In terms of its antimicrobial activity, DEX-Ag2 resists bacterial adhesion to a greater extent than DEX-Ag5, which in turn is better than dextran and silicon. Because these antibacterial hybrid coatings can be grafted to a variety of surfaces, many biomedical applications can be envisioned, ranging from coating implants to catheters. PMID:23807896

Ferrer, M. Carme Coll; Hickok, Noreen J.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

2012-01-01

427

Science Books and Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Books and Films bills itself as "the authoritative guide to science resources, bringing you the expert information you need to make the best decisions when choosing science materials for your library, classroom, or institution." The subscriber section of the site allows access to more than 9,000 science reviews that can be shaped into personalized bibliographies by subject area, grade level, and author. For non-subscribers, articles from past years are offered, including the Best Books for Children, Best Books for Junior High and High School Readers, and Best Videos and Software.

428

Antireflective polyimide based films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to prepare antireflective and anti-abrasion films using polyimide and organically modified silica nanoparticle thin films. A series of thin film were prepared from colorless and soluble polyimide with organically modified silica colloids via a solution casting method. The polyimide was selected for its optical properties. Three type of organically modified silica nanoparticles were prepared by grafting polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and fluoroalkyl groups onto silica nanoparticles. The molecular weight of the polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and the amount of fluorinated alkyl groups were varied. The organically modified silica colloids were characterized by TEM, DLS, FTIR, 1H NMR, solid state 13C NMR and solid state 29Si NMR. The coatings were characterized by UV-Vis transmittance spectra and SEM. The effect of modified silica loading, the molecular weight of polymer and type of solvent on AR properties were studied. An enhancement in antireflective activity was observed for 1 wt% LPDMS modified (low molecular weight) silica coatings, 3 wt% fluorosilica-10 and 3% L-MPS-PF-SILICA nanoparticles (low molecular weight polyfluoroester modified silica) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). In comparison with cyclopentanone (CPT), DMAc favors migration of silica particles towards coating-air interface giving higher transmittance. The migration of particles to the surface and consequent increased surface roughness were observed by SEM. The present study suggested a roll to roll solution casting method to create antireflective coatings. This approach had potential to be used for a one-step large-scale manufacturing of antireflective coating. Four acrylated bismaleimide were made via two-step process. The first step involved the solution imidization to form hydroxylated bismaleimide. In the second step, hydroxylated bismaleimide was reacted with acryloyl chloride to form acrylated bismaleimide. The acrylated bismaleimide were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC and mass spectra. The acrylated bismaleimide was formulated with acryloyl morpholine and photoinitiator with or without addition of PDMS-silica nanoparticles to achieve UV-curable thin films. The photo-cure kinetics of four neat acrylated bismaleimide and the formulation were investigated by real-time FTIR, photo-DSC and rheometer. The kinetic analysis revealed that PDMS-silica accelerated the photocure rate and increased the conversion of both acrylate double bond and maleimide double bond. The dispersion of PDMS-silica nanoparticles affected the abrasion resistance. The optimal abrasion resistance was achieved with 3.0% wt PDMS modified silica nanoparticle loading.

Cao, Yuanmei

429

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOEpatents

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

430

Cardiovascular Cine Film Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of a cardiovascular stenosis involves the complex interaction of technique selection, system performance and anatomy. Technique selection for instance involves choosing the correct focal spot, pulse width, KVp, and frame rate for a given patient and projection angle. In order to provide guidance in this selection process, these variables were investigated in terms of their impact on image quality. Conclusions which were confirmed clinically are summarized in terms of recommended techniques for a range of patient sizes. The confirmation includes clinical films which demonstrates the effects of parameter changes.

Scheid, Carl C.

1983-12-01

431

A Film Canister Colorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The light source and filter monochromator was an interchangeable LED. The detector for this system was a voltage-divider circuit composed of a photoresistor in series with a fixed resistor. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer–Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for the LED. Comparisons were made between this instrument and three commercial spectrometers and colorimeters.

Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

2002-08-01

432

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

433

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOEpatents

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, L.

1988-04-27

434

Faculty of Arts Film & Television  

E-print Network

); representation and identity, and issues of gender; British television history; experimental film; documentary of film and television aesthetics, history and theory. In 2013, the Department launched their new MA students greater scope to choose which of our world-leading scholars they wish to work with: all of our

Davies, Christopher

435

Symbolism in the Feature Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

Bakony, Edward

436

Pectin films for various applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article presents 4 examples of new uses of pectin films: (I) edible pectin and protein films as packaging or coating materials; (II) pectin and poly(lactic acid) composites for antimicrobial packaging, (III) moisture-sensitive pectin-sponges for the controlled release of chlorine dioxide; and (...

437

Novel nanocellulosic xylan composite film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocellulosic-xylan films were prepared employing oat spelt xylan, cellulose whiskers and a plasticizer. The mechanical properties of the films were evaluated using tensile testing under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The tensile data showed that the addition of sulfonated cellulose whiskers lead to a substantial improvement in strength properties. Addition of 7wt% of sulfonated whiskers increased the tensile energy absorption

Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Shaobo Pan; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2009-01-01

438

Latino Film and Video Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" examines media stereotypes of Latinos and presents examples of alternatives. "From Assimilation to Annihilation: Puerto Rican Images in U.S. Films" (R. Perez) traces the representation of Puerto Ricans from the early days of television to the films of the 1970s. "The Latino 'Boom' in Hollywood" (C. Fusco)…

Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

1990-01-01

439

Teaching the Holocaust through Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Holocaust-related films and Holocaust survivors as classroom resources is analyzed. The perspective and function of four film genres are outlined as follows. Newsreels, made by the Nazis to chronicle their "progress," provide powerful raw footage of the concentration camp experience. Documentaries, generally made by Allied sources after…

Michalczyk, John J.

440

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

1986-01-01

441

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOEpatents

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01

442

Teaching Bank Runs through Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films

Flynn, David T.

2009-01-01

443

Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

Gruber, C. L.

1977-01-01

444

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOEpatents

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

445

Film Animation: A Simplified Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph on film animation is a presentation of basic animation techniques for those already familiar with film making. Included are: (1) basic principles of animation, (2) the range of animation techniques, (3) animation mechanisms, (4) pre-production of animation, (5) production of animation, (6) the right kinds of economy, and (7) an…

Halas, John

446

The REL animated film language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion picture films generated by computers have now been produced by a number of groups across the country. We wish to report here on the design and implementation of the REL Animated Film Language (AFL), designed primarily for use by artists interested in the aesthetics of abstract motion graphics. The language is simple enough to be used by the artist

F. Thompson; R. Bigelow; N. Greenfeld; J. Odden; D. Reece; P. Szolovits

1974-01-01

447

Teaching Film Animation to Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under the author's direction, students from 5 to 18 years old have been making prize-winning animated films. In this guide intended for any adult who wishes to teach film animation, she describes and illustrates the techniques she has developed in her seven years of experience teaching animation to children in a workshop setting. All essential…

Andersen, Yvonne

448

The Public Library Film Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of three types of film--teaching, information, and entertainment--is presented. The numbers of films in each category, especially the last, which includes the animated, unnarrated, iconographic, underground, and avant-garde, has grown substantially. Libraries have quickly accepted all except the revolutionary philosophies…

Peltier, Euclid

1978-01-01

449

Bibliography of Cinderella Stories & Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography considers diverse versions of Cinderella, including books for all ages and reading abilities and film versions. The bibliography is organized into four categories: picture books, books for youths, books for adults with a Cinderella theme, and Cinderella films. Noting that Cinderella is one of the few stories with many…

Rodriguez-Price, Marisol

450

System for measuring film thickness  

DOEpatents

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

451

Uses for Free Film Cans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

1973-01-01

452

Internet Archive: Cultural & Academic Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Archive bills itself as "universal access to all knowledge," and lives up to this promise by hosting dozens of thematic collections. This collection, covering Cultural & Academic Films, includes materials from the Academic Film Archive and the Media Burn Independent Film Archive, as well as documentaries by noted filmmaker Dorothy Fadiman. Also, the collection includes works from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology by Watson Kintner, who used film to document his travels around the globe. One amazing highlight here is the Buckminster Fuller Archive, a subcollection within this larger group. It features 42 hours of lectures delivered by this futurist, architect, and thinker, delivered during the last two weeks of January, 1975. The other subcollections here include the Chicago Film Archives, California Light and Sound, and the Global Lives Project. The Chicago Film Archives includes 39 films that explore everything from the Chicago World's Fair to the film "Cause Without A Rebel" about political apathy at Northwestern University in the 1960s. [KMG

453

Anode film formation and control  

DOEpatents

A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

Koski, Oscar (Richland, WA); Marschman, Steven C. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01

454

Film Fabrication Technologies at NREL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has extensive capabilities for fabricating a variety of high-technology films. Much of the in-house work in NREL's large photovoltaics (PV) program involves the fabrication of multiple thin-film semiconducting layers constituting a thin-film PV device. NREL's smaller program in superconductivity focuses on the fabrication of superconducting films on long, flexible tape substrates. This paper focuses on four of NREL's in-house research groups and their film fabrication techniques, developed for a variety of elements, alloys, and compounds to be deposited on a variety of substrates. As is the case for many national laboratories, NREL's technology transfer efforts are focusing on Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA's) between NREL researchers and private industry researchers.

Mcconnell, Robert D.

1993-01-01

455

Soap film gas flowmeter  

SciTech Connect

A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.

Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

1987-09-08

456

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 8th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

Hemmers, Oliver

457

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest  

E-print Network

The Department Of Film and The UNLV Short Film Archive presents the 7 th annual 48-HOUR SHORT FILM contest This event is open to anyone who) will write, shoot and edit a film no less than 1 minute and no more than 5

Hemmers, Oliver

458

Major in Film About the Major: The major in Film combines the study of film history  

E-print Network

­ Topics in Production Design and Theory (3 credits, max. 6) COM 5420 ­ Director's Workshop (3 credits, max Art (3 credits) AIN 3220 ­ Computer Art (3 credits) AIN 4220 ­ Computer Animation (3 credits) APH 2400) ENG 5060 - Styles and Genres in Film (4 credits, max. 12) ENG 5070 -Topics in Film (4 credits, max. 12

Berdichevsky, Victor

459

The National Film Board's Studio D: Feminists Making Films for Peace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studio D of the National Film Board of Canada, a women's film making unit established to make films by, for, and about women, has created a group of five films that effectively develop the argument that women can and must join the effort to bring peace to a nuclear world. The first of these peace films, "If You Love This Planet," consists of words…

Taylor, Anita

460

American Film Genres: Approaches to a Critical Theory of Popular Film.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is divided into twelve sections and contains photographs from many of the films discussed. The introduction defines film genre and describes the general theories behind this book; "The Individual Film" analyzes the film "Little Caesar" as it relates to the genre of gangster films; "Comparative Forms" describes the similarities and…

Kaminsky, Stuart M.

461

ANNUAL GERMAN FILM SERIES ORGANIZED BY THE DEFA FILM LIBRARY AT UMASS AMHERST  

E-print Network

10th ANNUAL GERMAN FILM SERIES ORGANIZED BY THE DEFA FILM LIBRARY was an artistic melting pot, bringing together strange bedfellows: Ufa artists who had worked in the German film and thematic similarities to films of the Ufa period. The films of this period thus defy and complicate

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

462

The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films  

E-print Network

The effect of film thickness on the failure strain of polymer-supported metal films Nanshu Lu-supported copper films with a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture and with thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 1 lm. Films with thicknesses below 200 nm fail by intergranular fracture at elongations of only a few percent. Thicker films

Suo, Zhigang

463

Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES  

E-print Network

Film Studies Page 143Sonoma State University 2014-2015 Catalog FILM STUDIES PROGRAM OFFICE Nichols@sonoma.edu Program Offered Minor in Film Studies The film studies minor is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental program that analyzes the theory, history, practice, and cultural signifi- cance of film. Students

Ravikumar, B.

464

film studies CurriCulum Committee  

E-print Network

) Mareike Herrmann (German) Dale Seeds (Theatre and Dance) the minor in film studies focuses on film understanding of film's significance as an art form, a means of literary and cultural expression, and a tool) [AH] THTD 30300. TOPICS IN THE PHYSICAL TEXT (as appropriate to film studies; see Chair) [AH] Category

Wilson, Mark A.

465

Film Analyticity: Variations in Viewer Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation consists of four studies which identify some areas of difference between viewers who use the film medium in a personally profitable manner and those who use it less well. In Study 1 a theoretical definition of "film analyticity" is developed. An analytical film viewer is defined as an individual who (1) values the film medium for…

Robinson, Deanna Compbell

466

Dynamic delamination of patterned thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate laser-induced dynamic delamination of a patterned thin film on a substrate. Controlled delamination results from our insertion of a weak adhesion region beneath the film. The inertial forces acting on the weakly bonded portion of the film lead to stable propagation of a crack along the film\\/substrate interface. Through a simple energy balance, we extract the critical energy

Soma S. V. Kandula; Phuong Tran; Philippe H. Geubelle; Nancy R. Sottos

2008-01-01

467

Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

1977-01-01

468

"Space slitter" for film or tape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device cuts film or tape into strips by guiding film in channel under cutting blades. Device is operated by lifting pressure bar to insert blades into film. Film is then pulled through blades. Cutter has potential uses in advertising, commercial art, and publishing fields.

Johnson, W. H.

1978-01-01

469

Estimating Plastic Film Permeability Under Field Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumigant emission is an important air quality and human health concern. Plastic films are used to reduce emissions. Laboratory tests have shown large differences in permeability between various films, including the typical polyethylene films (PEs), virtually impermeable films (VIFs), and semi-impe...

470

Using Popular Children's Films in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

2012-01-01

471

Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1994-01-01

472

Science Consultants, Fictional Films, and Scientific Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT When scientists act as consultants during the production of a fictional film, it becomes an act of communication that plays a role in the process of science. Fictional film provides a space for scientists to visually model their conceptions of nature. Film impacts scientific practice as science consultants utilize film as a virtual witnessing technology to gather allies among,specialists

David A. Kirby

2007-01-01

473

3D Film Making Cary Kornfeld  

E-print Network

the talk a free screening of ETHZ student 3D films will take place at the School of Film and Animation3D Film Making Cary Kornfeld Sr. Research Assoc., Stereoscopic Imaging Research Group Swiss Federal Stereoscopic Films are special. They tickle parts of our brain that are "rarely" stimulated in this way. Making

Zanibbi, Richard

474

On the hydrodynamics of soap films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments aiming at the exploration of the hydrodynamical properties of soap films are presented. Their interpretation takes into account the very specific equation of state of these films. It is shown that on short time scales each element of the film moves as a whole so that the film can be considered as a two-dimensional fluid with a local

Y. Couder; J. M. Chomaz; M. Rabaud

1989-01-01

475

Are Wildlife Films Really "Nature Documentaries"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines origins of wildlife films. Outlines their tension between education and entertainment. Looks at how Disney codified wildlife films as a coherent genre by imposing conventionalized narrative frameworks upon them. Discusses factors influencing wildlife television in the 1990s. Concludes that wildlife films are a valid and distinct film and…

Bouse, Derek

1998-01-01

476

Lifelong Learning Films; 1972-1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 450 newly acquired films are described in this brochure. They are, for the most part, short black-and-white 16 mm films produced by the University of California Extension Media Center and selected films from other producers. The main entry section arranges the films alphabetically by title; it gives an annotation, the running time,…

California Univ., Berkeley. Media Extension Center.

477

America on Film: A Humanities Composition Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that film courses are useful because they sensitize students both to the artistic qualities of film expression and to equivalent qualities in other forms of expression. The objectives of a film course at Michigan State University are: to develop the students' knowledge of the film medium and through that knowledge develop a…

Recchia, Edward

478

A 3M high temperature dielectric film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance characteristics of a dielectric film are summarized. Additionally, the film's environmental and chemical properties are listed: low shrinkage to 300 C; moisture insensitive; low outgassing under vacuum; excellent surface qualities--easy metallization of film; flame retardant; and low smoke generation. A series of graphs that display the performance characteristics of the film are also presented.

Hampl, Edward, Jr.

1994-01-01

479

35-Flicks: Review of 35 Short Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments about these short films, written by participants of the EPDA Institute in Media and the Teaching of English, include an abstract of the film's main points, a plot synopsis, appropriate age level of the audience, strengths and weakenesses of the film, possible unit themes or topics to be developed around the film, a list of books and…

Arizona State Univ., Tempe. EPDA Inst. in Media and the Teaching of English.

480

Water transport and condensation in fluoropolymer films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report explores phenomena related to the undesired condensation of water in or under fluoropolymer films. Condensation of water in or under polymer films will occur when the local vapor pressure is higher than that corresponding to the local dew point vapor pressure. This can happen for any type of polymer film, including fluoropolymer films, even though solubility of water

Charles M Hansen

2001-01-01

481

FILM STUDIES www.theaterarts.pdx.edu  

E-print Network

FILM STUDIES www.theaterarts.pdx.edu Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Minor in Film Studies Portland State University offers an interdisciplinary Minor in Film Studies through the Departments of English internships and adviser-approved courses at the Northwest Film Center. Students may select from a number

482

Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees)  

E-print Network

94 Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art universities. Times Higher Education World Rankings 2012-2013. Features * Film Studies is open to those who have had no previous experience of learning about cinema as well as those who may have studied film

Brierley, Andrew

483

Precursor films in wetting phenomena.  

PubMed

The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are fairly well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e. molecularly thin, films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed. PMID:22627067

Popescu, M N; Oshanin, G; Dietrich, S; Cazabat, A-M

2012-06-20

484

Precursor films in wetting phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are fairly well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e. molecularly thin, films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed.

Popescu, M. N.; Oshanin, G.; Dietrich, S.; Cazabat, A.-M.

2012-06-01

485

Improving analysis of radiochromic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An appropriate radiochromic film should respond uniformly throughout its surface after exposure to a uniform radiation field. The evaluation of radiochromic films may be carried out, for example, by measuring color intensities in film-based digitized images. Fluctuations in color intensity may be caused by many different factors such as optical structure of the film's active layer, defects in structure of the film, scratches and external agents, such as dust. The use of high spatial resolution during film scanning should also increase microscopic uniformity. Since the average is strongly influenced by extreme values, the use of other statistical tools, for which this problem becomes inconspicuous, optimizes the application of higher spatial resolution as well as reduces standard deviations. This paper compares the calibration curves of the XR-QA2 Gafchromic® radiochromic film based on three different methods: the average of all color intensity readings, the median of these same readings and the average of readings that fall between the first and third quartiles. Results indicate that a higher spatial resolution may be adopted whenever the calibration curve is based on tools less influenced by extreme values such as those generated by the factors mentioned above.

Baptista Neto, A. T.; Meira-Belo, L. C.; Faria, L. O.

2014-02-01

486

Using the Voids. Evidence for an Antenna Effect in Dye-Sensitized Mesoporous TiO2 Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Composite structures of Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy){sup 2+} surface bound to nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with an overlayer of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} ion exchanged into Nafion, FTO|nanoTiO{sub 2}-[Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy)]{sup 2+}/Nafion,Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} (FTO = fluorine-doped tin oxide), have been prepared and characterized. Steady-state emission and time-resolved lifetime measurements demonstrate that energy transfer occurs from Nafion,Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+*} to adsorbed Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy){sup 2+} with an efficiency of ?0.49. Energy transfer sensitizes photoinjection by the adsorbed metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state by an “antenna effect.”

Hoertz, Paul G; Goldstein, Anna; Donley, Carrie; Meyer, Thomas J

2010-01-01

487

Adhesive for solar control film  

SciTech Connect

A water-activatable adhesive useful for adhering a solar film, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) film, to glass or to metal substrates. The adhesive comprises the reacted product of (A) gamma-isocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane, containing a free isocyanate (NCO) group, and (B) a thermoplastic polyester formed by reacting (i) a dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid, and mixtures thereof, with (ii) a polymethylene glycol of the formula HO(CH/sub 2/) /SUB x/ OH where x is an integer from 2 to 10, neopentyl glycol and glycerin, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) an aliphatic dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of those having the formula HOOC(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ COOH where n is an integer from 1 to 8, and mixtures of such acids, whereby substantially no free NCO remains in the adhesive. Solar film is used for absorbing and/or reflecting solar radiation. Solar film can be a single sheet of polyester dyed sufficiently to absorb the glare of bright sunlight, or it can be a single sheet of polyester, on one side of which a reflective metal (most often aluminum) is deposited in an amount which can be totally reflective or in an amount which still allows visible light transmission and over which a protective coating is deposited, or it can be a laminated structure of the reflective film adhered to a clear or dyed polyester film by which means the reflective metal is sandwiched between two layers of polyester film, or it can be a laminated structure of a reflective film to a polyolefin film.

Penn, H.J.

1984-01-31

488

Ferromagnetic thin films  

DOEpatents

A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

Krishnan, K.M.

1994-12-20

489

Ferromagnetic thin films  

DOEpatents

A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

Krishnan, Kannan M. (Berkeley, CA)

1994-01-01

490

Film Canister Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because supplies are limited in many classrooms, opaque film canisters can be used in a number of scientific inquiry activities, including a "black box" activity and several activities on sinking and floating properties related to density and to Archimedes' principle. Although the activities described here were written for pre-service teachers, the intent of this article is to explain how they could be used at elementary, middle, and high school levels. By implementing these activities, students will become adept at solving the "mysteries of science" using science process skills--and learn another important lesson: Scientific explorations do not always have yes/no answers. Careful and unbiased data analysis is essential because the unexpected is always possible.

Andrew Ferstl

2007-01-01

491

Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

2012-01-01

492

Dynamics of Block copolymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the dynamics of thin block copolymer films of ploy(styrene)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane) using X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS). The films were supported on Si substrates and measured at melt. The results are compared with the theory of overdamped thermal capillary waves on thin films. The lateral length scales examined were between 600 and 6000 nm. We selectively measured the dynamics from the surface and from the micelles by changing incident angles and found the different behaviors between them.

Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Heeju; Lee, Young Joo; Jiang, Zhang; Sinha, Sunil; Jiao, Xuesong; Ruehm, Adrian; Mochrie, S. G. J.

2006-03-01

493

Surface Nanostructures in Manganite Films  

PubMed Central

Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications. PMID:24941969

Gambardella, A.; Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Prezioso, M.; Pullini, D.; Milita, S.; Biscarini, F.; Dediu, V. A.

2014-01-01

494

Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties  

DOEpatents

A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

2003-07-15

495

Vapor deposition of thin films  

DOEpatents

A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

496

Film boiling of mercury droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

1975-01-01

497

Electrostatic Fluctuations in Soap Films  

E-print Network

A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multi-layers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field which correspond to the zero frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir like attraction which can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the Common Black Film to a Newton Black Film.

D. S. Dean; R. R. Horgan

2002-02-07

498

Slippage of nonsuperfluid helium films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the slippage of nonsuperfluid 4He films adsorbed on two kinds of substrates, grafoil and hectorite, and found that a large part of these films undergo slipping at low temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that the 4He areal density dependence of the slippage is rather different between these substrates. In hectorite, the slippage is inhibited as the fluid state appears at absolute zero. On the other hand, in grafoil, this state does not suppress the slippage, at least, as the 4He areal density is low. This may be attributed to the difference in the structure of these films.

Suzuki, Masaru; Hieda, Mitsunori

2003-05-01

499

The Art of Teaching Social Studies with Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching with film is a powerful and meaningful instructional strategy. This article discusses five classroom-tested methods for teaching with film: (1) film as a visual textbook, (2) film as a depicter of atmosphere, (3) film as an analogy, (4) film as a historiography, and (5) film as a springboard. Each of the methods discussed includes…

Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

500

Particle aggregation on dewetting solid water films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid water films are used to create a wide range of nanostructures through buffer-layer-assisted growth. Metal atoms vapor-deposited onto solid water films form clusters that aggregate as the film is heated. The aggregation process is driven by the dewetting, islanding, and sublimation of the ice films. The sizes, shapes, and densities of the resulting nanostructures are determined by the formation of ice islands whose sizes and densities are controlled by the thickness of the ice film.

Palmer, J. S.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Waggoner, P. S.; Weaver, J. H.

2008-07-01