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1

Fluorocarbon associative polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorocarbon associative polymers modified along the backbone or at the extremities by hydrophobic groups are reviewed with respect to their association and rheological properties in aqueous solutions. Above a threshold concentration corresponding to the formation of a reversible network structure, the solutions behave as physical gels. In this review, it is shown that the viscoelasticity of fluorocarbon associative polymer gels

Jean-Franois Berret; Damien Calvet; Andr Collet; Michel Viguier

2003-01-01

2

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fluorocarbon resins. 177.1380 Section 177.1380 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces 177.1380 Fluorocarbon resins. Fluorocarbon resins may be safely used as articles or components...

2010-04-01

3

water-soluble fluorocarbon coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

Nanelli, P.

1979-01-01

4

Molecular origins of fluorocarbon hydrophobicity  

PubMed Central

We have undertaken atomistic molecular simulations to systematically determine the structural contributions to the hydrophobicity of fluorinated solutes and surfaces compared to the corresponding hydrocarbon, yielding a unified explanation for these phenomena. We have transformed a short chain alkane, n-octane, to n-perfluorooctane in stages. The free-energy changes and the entropic components calculated for each transformation stage yield considerable insight into the relevant physics. To evaluate the effect of a surface, we have also conducted contact-angle simulations of water on self-assembled monolayers of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon thiols. Our results, which are consistent with experimental observations, indicate that the hydrophobicity of the fluorocarbon, whether the interaction with water is as solute or as surface, is due to its fatness. In solution, the extra work of cavity formation to accommodate a fluorocarbon, compared to a hydrocarbon, is not offset by enhanced energetic interactions with water. The enhanced hydrophobicity of fluorinated surfaces arises because fluorocarbons pack less densely on surfaces leading to poorer van der Waals interactions with water. We find that interaction of water with a hydrophobic solute/surface is primarily a function of van der Waals interactions and is substantially independent of electrostatic interactions. This independence is primarily due to the strong tendency of water at room temperature to maintain its hydrogen bonding network structure at an interface lacking hydrophilic sites. PMID:20643968

Dalvi, Vishwanath H.; Rossky, Peter J.

2010-01-01

5

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

DOEpatents

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01

6

Cationicanionic vesicle templating from fluorocarbon\\/fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon\\/fluorocarbon surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous catanionic vesicle formation is studied in systems comprising fluorinated surfactants, the cationic\\/anionic fluorinated surfactant system of 1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorododecylpyridinium chloride (HFDPC)\\/sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) and the analogous mixed hydrocarbon\\/fluorocarbon surfactant system of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB)\\/SPFO. Aggregate formation is explored in the anionic-rich surfactant system (weight fraction of anionic surfactant, ?=0.660.85) and a total surfactant concentration range of 0.12%wt\\/wt for the fluorinated system

Vivian A. Ojogun; Hans-Joachim Lehmler; Barbara L. Knutson

2009-01-01

7

Electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal electron attachment rate constants for a series of small fluorocarbon radicals (CF2, C2F3, 1-C3F7, 2-C3F7, C3F5, CF3O) were measured from 300 to 600 K using the variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry method. With the exception of CF2, for which no attachment was observed, all species exclusively underwent dissociative attachment to yield F-. The magnitude and temperature dependences of the rate constants varied significantly between species; however, attachment was in all cases inefficient, never exceeding 2% of the calculated collisional value. The data are interpreted and extrapolated to conditions inaccessible to the experiment using a kinetic modeling approach to the electron attachment process.

Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, A. A.

2012-12-01

8

Estimation of cost and environmental load of fluorocarbon recovery and destruction system based on fluorocarbon stock distribution.  

PubMed

We developed a simple method to estimate the cost and environmental load of a fluorocarbon recovery and destruction (R&D) system for commercial refrigerators (CRs) and building air conditioners (BACs). In order to estimate the fluorocarbon recovery process in detail, we also developed a method to obtain the regional fluorocarbon stock distribution with GIS (geographic information system). Then the distribution of fluorocarbon stock is visualized and the amount of fluorocarbon stock in the region can be calculated. Results show that the cost and CO2 emission of extraction, storage and destruction processes are a major part of the total cost of fluorocarbon R&D system. Also the cost and CO2 emission of a fluorocarbon R&D system of BACs is more than of CRs. This information is useful to devise a plan for the fluorocarbon R&D system and to fairly share the burden of the R&D cost. PMID:17615959

Tachibana, J; Goto, N; Fujie, K

2007-05-01

9

A Methodology for determining the atmospheric lifetime of fluorocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the atmosphere variability and instrumental uncertainties which limit the determinaton of the atmospheric lifetime of fluorocarbons. These factors produce substantial uncertainties in the current estimates of fluorocarbon lifetimes. However, because fluorocarbon production has remained relatively constant over the past few years, the atmospheric lifetime may now be determined with considerably improved accuracy. Analysis of the data by trend

D. Cunnold; F. Alyea; R. Prinn

1978-01-01

10

Fluorocarbons and fluorinated amphiphiles in drug delivery and biomedical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific properties of fluorocarbons, exceptional chemical and biological inertness, high gas-dissolving capacity, low surface tension, excellent spreading characteristics and high fluidity, have triggered numerous applications of these compounds in oxygen delivery. An injectable emulsion of fluorocarbon-in-water destined to deliver oxygen to tissues at risk of hypoxia has now completed Phase III clinical trials in Europe. A neat fluorocarbon is

Marie Pierre Krafft

2001-01-01

11

Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4?mmol?g-1 at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14?mmol?g-1 at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H. Todd; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2014-07-01

12

[Biophysical mechanisms of toxicity of fluorocarbon emulsions].  

PubMed

Intravenous administration of emulsions of some perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are followed by lung gas-exchange alterations, lung inflation and animal death. The emulsion toxicity can be caused by both low aggregation stability of the emulsion in the blood stream and appearance of the additional gas pressure in alveoli as a result of difference in the rates of alveolar gas and PFC vapor diffusion. Theoretical and experimental analysis shows that (1) absence of emulsion particle aggregation into blood stream, (2) low pressure of saturated vapors of PFC phase and (3) relatively low rate of PFC expiration from the organism are essential conditions for the creation of a safe fluorocarbon blood substitutes. PMID:7981282

Obratsov, V V; Tarakhovski?, Iu S; Ponomarchuk, V V; Sklifas, A N

1994-01-01

13

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOEpatents

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

1983-11-14

14

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOEpatents

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

15

Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ``smearable`` contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles.

Kaiser, R. [Entropic Systems, Inc., Winchester, MA (United States); Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vaughen, V.C.A. [Chemical Engineering and Safety Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-02-01

16

Fluorocarbon seal replaces metal piston ring in low density gas environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reinforced fluorocarbon cupseal, which provides an integral lip-type seal, replaces the metal piston rings in piston-cylinder configurations used in the compression of low density gases. The fluorocarbon seal may be used as cryogenic compressor piston seals.

Morath, W. D.; Morgan, N. E.

1967-01-01

17

Structure and Properties of Regenerated Cellulose Film with Fluorocarbon Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorocarbon coatings were deposited on the surface of regenerated cellulose films by RF magnetron sputtering, using polytetrafluoroethylene targets. Argon was used as the working gas. The coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, static contact angle and oxygen permeability measurements. It was found that the coatings were made up of the four components -CF3, -CF2-, -CF- and -C-. The [F]/[C] ratio varied with sputtering conditions. The surface of fluorocarbon coatings had an undulate island structure. The static contact angle of the coatings was greater than 90 at lower power and higher pressure, and the substrate material was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic character. The fluorocarbon coatings were porous and did not influence the oxygen permeability of the cellulose film substrates.

Zhang, Yuhui; Ji, Quan; Qi, Hongjin; Liu, Zengji

18

Effect of fluorocarbons on acetylcholinesterase activity and some counter measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isolated vagal sympathetic heart system has been successfully used for the study of the effect of fluorocarbons (FCs) on cardiac performance and in situ enzyme activity. Dichlorodifluoromethane sensitizes this preparation to sympathetic stimulation and to exogenous epinephrine challenge. Partial and complete A-V block and even cardiac arrest have been induced by epinephrine challenge in the FC sensitized heart. Potassium chloride alone restores the rhythmicity but not the normal contractility of the heart in such a situation. Addition of glucose will, however, completely restore the normal function of the heart which is sensitized by dichlorodifluoromethane. The ED 50 values of acetylcholinesterase activity which are used as a measure of relative effectiveness of fluorocarbons are compared with the maximum permissible concentration. Kinetic studies indicate that all the fluorocarbons tested so far are noncompetitive.

Young, W.; Parker, J. A.

1975-01-01

19

Cause and Effects of Fluorocarbon Degradation in Electronics and Opto-Electronic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace degradation of fluorocarbon or halocarbon materials must be addressed in their application in sensitive systems. As the dimensions and/or tolerances of components in a system decrease, the sensitivity of the system to trace fluorocarbon or halocarbon degradation products increases. Trace quantities of highly reactive degradation products from fluorocarbons have caused a number of failures of flight hardware. It is of utmost importance that the risk of system failure, resulting from trace amounts of reactive fluorocarbon degradation products be addressed in designs containing fluorocarbon or halocarbon materials. Thermal, electrical, and mechanical energy input into the system can multiply the risk of failure.

Predmore, Roamer E.; Canham, John S.

2002-01-01

20

Method and means for producing fluorocarbon finishes on fibrous structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved process and apparatus is provided for imparting chemically bonded fluorocarbon finishes to textiles. In the process, the textiles are contacted with a gaseous mixture of fluoroolefins in an inert diluent gas in the presence of ultraviolet light under predetermined conditions.

Toy, Madeline S. (Inventor); Stringham, Roger S. (Inventor); Fogg, Lawrence C. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

21

Gain and loss mechanisms in fluorocarbon plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding dominant reaction channels for important gas-phase species in fluorocarbon plasmas is crucial to the ability to control surface evolution and morphology. In order to accomplish this goal a modified GEC reference ICP reactor is used in tandem with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to measure the densities of stable species. Integrated absorption cross-sections are presented for all fundamental bands in the 650 cm-1 to 2000 cm-1 region for C3F6, C4F 8, C3F8, C2F6, C2F 4, and CF4. The results show that although the absorption profile changes significantly, the integrated absorption cross-sections, with the exception of CF4, do not change significantly as gas temperature increases from 25C to 200C. However, the internal temperature of the absorbing species can be estimated from the rotational band maximum in most cases. Species densities obtained with the aforementioned cross-sections are used with a novel analysis technique to quantify gain and loss rates as functions of residence time, pressure, and deposited power. CF4, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F 10, share related production channels, which increase in magnitude as the plasma pressure, deposited power, or surface temperature are raised. CF 2 is primarily produced through a combination of surface production (the magnitude also increases with temperature) and electron impact dissociation of C2F4, while it is predominantly lost in the large reactor to gas-phase addition to form C2F4. Time-resolved FTIR results are used to measure a cross-section of 1.8x10-14 cm3/s for the reaction between CF2 radicals creating C2F4. Finally, C2F4 originates through the electron impact dissociation of c- C4F8. The loss process for C2F4 is undetermined, but the results indicate that it could occur on reactor surfaces. Neither the density of fluorine nor the ion flux to the chuck surface changes substantially with wall temperature. We show that increases in the deposition rate in a heated chamber are due to an increase in the fluxes of depositing neutral species. Furthermore, the sticking coefficient for these species does not change significantly as a function of surface temperature. Instead, surface temperature elevates the yield of etchant species, which terminate broken bonds to increase the desorption rates of stable species.

Nelson, Caleb Timothy

22

Highly exothermic and superhydrophobic Mg/fluorocarbon core/shell nanoenergetic arrays.  

PubMed

Mg/fluorocarbon core/shell nanoenergetic arrays are prepared onto silicon substrate, with Mg nanorods as the core and fluorocarbon as the shell. Mg nanorods are deposited by the glancing angle deposition technique, and the fluorocarbon layer is then prepared as a shell to encase the Mg nanorods by the magnetron sputtering deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show the core/shell structure of the Mg/fluorocarbon arrays. X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to characterize the structural composition of the Mg/fluorocarbon. It is found that the as-prepared fluorocarbon layer consists of shorter molecular chains compared to that of bulk polytetrafluoroethylene, which is proven beneficial to the low onset reaction temperature of Mg/fluorocarbon. Water contact angle test demonstrates the superhydrophobicity of the Mg/fluorocarbon arrays, and a static contact angle as high as 162 is achieved. Thermal analysis shows that the Mg/fluorocarbon material exhibits a very low onset reaction temperature of about 270 C as well as an ultrahigh heat of reaction approaching 9 kJ/g. A preliminary combustion test reveals rapid combustion wave propagation, and a convective mechanism is adopted to explain the combustion behaviors. PMID:24918872

Zhou, Xiang; Xu, Daguo; Yang, Guangcheng; Zhang, Qiaobao; Shen, Jinpeng; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Kaili

2014-07-01

23

Fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions in interfacial and micellar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons in liquid mixtures are known to be highly nonideal. Recent research has\\u000a indicated that the unusual characteristics of such interactions have a significant influence on the behavior of many interfacial\\u000a and micellar systems in which such interactions occur. Results from several different studies are presented. These involve\\u000a (a) properties of partially fluorinated surfactants and

P. Mukerjee

1982-01-01

24

Effects of nano-fluorocarbon coating on icing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Icing is a common phenomenon in many fields, from aeronautics to power lines. Recently, researchers have paid much attention on the superhydrophobic surface as one of the favorable anti-icing techniques. In the present study, we investigated the performance of water icing on a superhydrophobic surface with a nano-fluorocarbon film in the average thickness around 10 nm. The surface topographies and wettabilities were characterized by a scanning electron microscopy system and a video-based contact angle measurement system respectively. To investigate the effects of this nano-fluorocarbon coating on water icing, the water droplet shape, the starting icing time and the whole icing process were observed on both the coated and uncoated surface. It was found that the coated surface has a good ability to retard the starting time of icing while the whole icing time on the coated surface was longer compared the uncoated one under the experimental conditions. The test results showed that the nano-fluorocarbon coating expresses a good anti-icing performance and can be used as a coating material to avoid ice-blocking in the dynamic ice-making system.

Wang, Hong; He, Guogeng; Tian, Qiqi

2012-07-01

25

A preliminary petrogenetic grid for REE fluorocarbonates and associated minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk of the world's economic LREE reserves occur as fluorocarbonate minerals, notably bastnaesite. However, despite the importance of these minerals, very little is known about the physicochemical conditions controlling their formation. In this paper we attempt to partly redress this deficiency by qualitatively determining P- T and compositional relationships for part of the system Ln(CO 3)F-CaCO 3-F 2(CO 3) -1-H 2O, including the minerals fluorite, calcite, bastnaesite, parisite, synchysite and fluocerite. This degenerate ( n + 3)-phase multisystem has 23 possible base P- T topologies, plus their mirror images and trivial conjugates, from which we have been able to select a single probable stable topology using a combination of published experimental phase equilibrium data, molar volume and entropy estimates and natural assemblage data. Compositional relationships in the system have been established by constructing log ( aca2+ aF-2) vs. log ( a F -2/a CO 32-) diagrams for each of the stable divariant regions shown on the P- T net. Important conclusions of the study with respect to P- T relationships are (1) that all of the above REE-fluorocarbonate minerals can form at comparatively low pressure and temperature; (2) that bastnaesite + fluorite is a low-temperature assemblage and, in the presence of synchysite or calcite, is also restricted to low or high pressure, respectively; (3) that parisite + fluorite is stable to higher temperatures; (4) that bastnaesite + synchysite + calcite is restricted to high P- T conditions; (5) that parisite reacts to form bastnaesite and calcite at high temperatures (<620C at 1 kb); and (6) that bastnaesite-(La) decomposes by a decarbonation reaction at temperatures <750C at 1 kb and at lower temperatures with decreasing ionic radius of the lanthanide. The principal conclusions with respect to compositional relationships are (1) that transformations among the REE fluorocarbonates cannot occur through changes in F - activity alone, but can result from variations in either Ca 2+ or CO 32- activities, and (2) that fluocerite can coexist with any of the fluorocarbonate minerals at high F - or low CO 32- activity depending on the activity of Ca 2+, pressure and temperature. Fuller understanding of the genesis of REE fluorocarbonate deposits will require extensive fluid inclusion and related studies and systematic determinations of phase relations through well-constrained, reversed experiments.

Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; Wood, Scott A.

1992-02-01

26

Fluorocarbons in the global environment: a review of the important interactions with atmospheric chemistry and physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorocarbon impact on ozone depletion is reviewed together with the efficacy of the Montreal Protocol in acting to correct the imbalance between stratospheric ozone production and destruction. The Protocol is also helping to reduce global warming: CFCs are shown to be currently the largest fluorocarbon contributors to climate change. Relative contributions to climate change from CFCs and their HFC substitutes

Archie McCulloch

2003-01-01

27

Thermal electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals: Experiment and kinetic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few experimental measurements of the kinetics of electron attachment to radicals exist due to the inherent difficulties of working with transient species. Electron attachment to small fluorocarbon radicals is particularly important, as the data are needed for predictive modeling of plasma etching of semiconductor materials. We have recently developed a novel flowing afterglow technique to measure several types of otherwise difficult to study plasma processes, including thermal electron attachment to radicals. Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry (VENDAMS) exploits dissociative electron attachment in a weakly ionized plasma as a radical source. Here, we apply VENDAMS to a series of halofluorocarbon precursors in order to measure the kinetics of thermal electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals. Results are presented for CF2, CF3, C2F5, CF3, 1-C3F7, 2-C3F7, and C3F5 from 300 to 600 K. Both the magnitude and the temperature dependences of rate coefficients as well as product branching between associative and dissociative attachment are highly system specific. The data are analyzed using a kinetic modeling approach, allowing for physical insight into the systems as well as extrapolation to non-thermal conditions inaccessible to the experiment.

Shuman, Nicholas; Miller, Thomas; Viggiano, Albert

2012-10-01

28

Roughness assessment and wetting behavior of fluorocarbon surfaces.  

PubMed

The wetting behavior of fluorocarbon materials has been studied with the aim of assessing the influence of the surface chemical composition and surface roughness on the water advancing and receding contact angles. Diamond like carbon and two fluorocarbon materials with different fluorine content have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and characterized by X-ray photoemission, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. Very rough surfaces have been obtained by deposition of thin films of these materials on polymer substrates previously subjected to plasma etching to increase their roughness. A direct correlation has been found between roughness and water contact angles while a superhydrophobic behavior (i.e., water contact angles higher than 150 and relatively low adhesion energy) was found for the films with the highest fluorine content deposited on very rough substrates. A critical evaluation of the methods currently used to assess the roughness of these surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has evidenced that calculated RMS roughness values and actual surface areas are quite dependent on both the scale of observation and image resolution. A critical discussion is carried out about the application of the Wenzel model to account for the wetting behavior of this type of surfaces. PMID:22483335

Terriza, Antonia; lvarez, Rafael; Borrs, Ana; Cotrino, Jos; Yubero, Francisco; Gonzlez-Elipe, Agustn R

2012-06-15

29

Electron Attachment to Fluorocarbon Radicals and Unstable Molecules: CF2 and C2F5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron attachment to unstable fluorocarbon molecules has been investigated; CF2 - no dissociative electron attachment was observed, C2F5 - electron attachment observed at close to zero electron energy with the observation of C2F5-.

Field, T. A.; Graupner, K.; Haughey, S.; Mayhew, C. A.; Shuman, N. S.; Miller, T. M.; Friedman, J. F.; Viggiano, A. A.

2012-11-01

30

Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.  

PubMed Central

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety. PMID:11607257

McFarland, M

1992-01-01

31

Integrated feature scale modeling of plasma processing of porous and solid SiO2 . I. Fluorocarbon etching  

E-print Network

Integrated feature scale modeling of plasma processing of porous and solid SiO2 . I. Fluorocarbon these issues, reaction mechanisms for fluorocarbon plasma etching of SiO2 in C2F6 , CHF3 , and C4F8 chemistries dimensions during plasma etching of PS are problematic due to the exposure of open pores. To investigate

Kushner, Mark

32

Integrated feature scale modeling of plasma processing of porous and solid SiO2 . II. Residual fluorocarbon polymer stripping  

E-print Network

Integrated feature scale modeling of plasma processing of porous and solid SiO2 . II. Residual of polytetrafluoroethylene using Ar­O2 chemistries. Plasma stripping of fluorocarbon polymers from solid SiO2 SS trenches fluoro- carbon plasma chemistries. The residual fluorocarbon poly- mer remaining after etching

Kushner, Mark

33

Highly stable hysteresis-free carbon nanotube thin-film transistors by fluorocarbon polymer encapsulation.  

PubMed

We report hysteresis-free carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (CNT-TFTs) employing a fluorocarbon polymer (Teflon-AF) as an encapsulation layer. Such fluorocarbon encapsulation improves device uniformity with excellent operation stability in air and even in water. The fluoropolymers possess high hydrophobicity for efficient removal of water molecules from the vicinity of nanotubes, which are known to induce charge trapping. In addition, the strong dipole associated with the carbon-fluorine bonds can provide effective screening of the charge carriers in nanotubes from various trap states in the substrate. We also report on the extended applications of encapsulation with Teflon-AF for the realization of dual-gate CNT-TFTs, where one gate is used to control the threshold voltage and the other to switch the device. The fluorocarbon encapsulation technique presents a promising approach for enhanced device reliability, which is critical for future system-level electronics based on CNTs. PMID:24796606

Ha, Tae-Jun; Kiriya, Daisuke; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali

2014-06-11

34

Detection of common alternative fluorocarbons using fluorine-specific atomic emission detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now certain that chlorine- and bromine-containing species are at least partially responsible for declining stratospheric ozone levels and the Antarctic ozone hole. The alternative fluorocarbons (AFCs), which are environmentally superior to the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were developed as a replacement. The AFCs consist of both the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This dissertation describes the development of a fluorine-specific atomic emission detector for monitoring alternative fluorocarbons (AFCs) compounds and their degradation products. This detector uses alternating current discharge plasma as the ionization and excitation source, and helium is used as the plasma gas. A monochromator with a PMT is used for detection. The detection limit obtained with the fluorine-specific atomic emission detector apparently allows this detector to be used in monitoring the alternative fluorocarbons in the lower atmosphere at current concentration levels.

Sousa, Sonia Regina

35

Negative Ions in Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Fluorocarbon Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas in fluorocarbon-based gases are widely used for etching SiO2-based dielectric films in integrated circuit manufacture. We have studied a customized 2 + 27 MHz industrial etch reactor, running in Ar/O2 with c-C4F8 or CF4 gas mixtures at pressures in the region of 50 mTorr (6.6 Pa). Negative ions could play an important role in this type of plasma. The presence of negative ions will modify the positive ion flux arriving at a surface, and may even reach the surface and participate in etching. We have measured the electron density using a microwave hairpin resonator [1] and the positive ion flux with an ion flux probe [2]: the ratio of these two quantities varies strongly with gas chemistry and gives evidence for the presence of negative ions [3]. For example, by varying the flow of c-C4F8 in an Ar/O2 mixture this ratio shows evidence of high electronegativity for high c-C4F8 flowrates. We have also measured the negative fluorine ion, F^-, density directly by high-sensitivity cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy [4] in the wavelength range 340 to 360 nm to determine the density of absorbing F^- ions from the known photo-detachment cross-section. The F^- densities were seen to reach values in the 10^11cm-3 range, giving electronegative fractions, ? = n-/ne, of up to 15 when used in conjunction with the hairpin probe measurements. We acknowledge financial assistance from Lam Research Corporation. [1] Piejak et al, J. Appl. Phys. 95 (2004), 3785-3791 [2] Braithwaite et al, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5 (1996), 677-684 [3] Chabert et al, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 8 (1999), 561-566 [4] Booth et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 88 (2006), 151502

Booth, Jean-Paul

2006-10-01

36

192 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Monitoring by MIS  

E-print Network

192 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Monitoring by MIS Sensors Using an Ni Catalytic Thermodestructor Vladimir I. Filippov, Werner Moritz, Alexander A by sensors based on Pd-SiO2-Si (MIS) and Pt-LaF3-Si3N4- SiO2-Si (MEIS) structures was achieved

Moritz, Werner

37

Aspects of the use of saturated fluorocarbon fluids in high energy physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excellent dielectric properties of saturated fluorocarbons have allowed their use in direct immersion liquid cooling of electronics, including supercomputers and as heat transfer media in vapour phase soldering and burn-in testing of electronics. Their high density, UV transparency, non-flammability, non-toxicity and radiation tolerance have led to their use as liquid and gas radiator media for RICH detectors in numerous particle physics experiments. Systems to circulate and purify saturated fluorocarbon Cherenkov radiator vapours often rely on thermodynamic evaporation-condensation cycles similar to those used in refrigeration. Their use as evaporative refrigerants was pioneered for the ATLAS silicon tracker, and they are now also used as evaporative coolants in ALICE and TOTEM and as liquid coolants in ATLAS and CMS. Ultrasonic techniques for vapour phase analysis of fluorocarbon mixturesdeveloped for the SLAC SLD barrel CRID radiator during the 1980s as an alternative to UV refractometry are again under development for the ATLAS tracker evaporative cooling system. Examples of fluorocarbon circulation systems, together with purification and analysis techniques for these versatile fluids are mentioned.

Hallewell, G.

2011-05-01

38

Hyperbranched hydrocarbon surfactants give fluorocarbon-like low surface energies.  

PubMed

Two series of Aerosol-OT-analogue surfactants (sulfosuccinate-type di-BCnSS and sulfoglutarate-type di-BCnSG) with hyperbranched alkyl double tails (so-called "hedgehog" groups, carbon number n = 6, 9, 12, and 18) have been synthesized and shown to demonstrate interfacial properties comparable to those seen for related fluorocarbon (FC) systems. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (?CMC), and minimum area per molecule (Amin) were obtained from surface tension measurements of aqueous surfactant solutions. The results were examined for relationships between the structure of the hedgehog group and packing density at the interface. To evaluate A and B values in the Klevens equation for these hedgehog surfactants, log(CMC) was plotted as a function of the total carbon number in the surfactant double tail. A linear relationship was observed, producing B values of 0.20-0.25 for di-BCnSS and di-BCnSG, compared to a value of 0.31 for standard double-straight-tail sulfosuccinate surfactants. The lower B values of these hedgehog surfactants highlight their lower hydrophobicity compared to double-straight-tail surfactants. To clarify how hydrocarbon density in the surfactant-tail layer (?(layer)) affects ?CMC, the ?(layer) of each double-tail surfactant was calculated and the relationship between ?CMC and ?(layer) examined. As expected for the design of low surface energy surfactant layers, ?(layer) was identified as an important property for controlling ?CMC with higher ?(layer), leading to a lower ?CMC. Interestingly, surfactants with BC9 and BC12 tails achieved much lower ?CMC, even at low ?(layer) values of <0.55 g cm(-3). The lowest surface energy surfactant studied here was di-BC6SS, which had a ?CMC of only 23.8 mN m(-1). Such a low ?CMC is comparable to those obtained with short FC-tail surfactants (e.g., 22.0 mN m(-1) for the sulfosuccinate-type FC-surfactant with R = F(CF2)6CH2CH2-). PMID:24815218

Sagisaka, Masanobu; Narumi, Tsuyoshi; Niwase, Misaki; Narita, Shioki; Ohata, Atsushi; James, Craig; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frdric; Alexander, Shirin; Eastoe, Julian

2014-06-01

39

Structure and chemical composition of polymer films deposited in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar\\/fluorocarbon mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of fluorocarbon polymer films deposited on Si wafers, foils, and technical textiles in a DBD at atmospheric pressure have been studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to get information on the atomic content and structure of the deposited polymer films in dependence on fluorocarbon molecules CF4, C2F6, C3HF7, C2H2F4,

I. P. Vinogradov; A. Lunk

2005-01-01

40

Fluorocarbon thin film with superhydrophobic property prepared by pyrolysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fluorocarbon thin film with superhydrophobic property was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at low temperature (200-300 C) via pyrolysis hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO). The experiment results indicated the morphology and structure of fluorocarbon films were strongly dependent on the pyrolysis temperature. As shown through atomic force microscope (AFM), the surface morphology of the films ranged from rodlike grains to sheets. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that all the films contained the vibrational frequencies of linear CF2 chains, which were also characteristic of bulk poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that CF2 structures were predominant in the films with high order. The film deposited at 300 C exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with contact angle up to 172.7.

Wang, Jun; Song, Xue; li, Rui; Shen, Jinpeng; Yang, Guangcheng; Huang, Hui

2012-10-01

41

Viscosity of saturated liquid fluorocarbon refrigerants from 273 to 353 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity measurements were carried out on saturated liquid fluorocarbon refrigerants using an improved capillary viscometer for 11 kinds of fluorocarbon refrigerants; CCl3F (R11), CCl2F2 (R12), CHClF2 (R22), CBrF3 (R13B1), CH3CHF2 (R152a), CCl2FCClF2 (R113), CHCl2CF3 (R123), CHClFCClF2 (R123a), CH3CF3 (R143a), CClF2CCl2F2 (R114), and CH2FCF3 (R134a), in the temperature range from 273 to 353 K. An equation is given to represent the viscosity as a function of temperature.

Kumagai, A.; Takahashi, S.

1991-01-01

42

Viscosity of saturated liquid fluorocarbon refrigerants from 273 to 353 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscosity measurements were carried out on saturated liquid fluorocarbon refrigerants using an improved capillary viscometer for 11 kinds of fluorocarbon refrigerants; CCl3F (R11), CCl2F2 (R12), CHClF2 (R22), CBrF3 (R13B1), CH3CHF2 (R152a), CCl2FCClF2 (R113), CHCl2CF3 (R123), CHClFCClF2 (R123a), CH3CF3 (R143a), CClF2CCl2F2 (R114), and CH2FCF3 (R134a), in the temperature range from 273 to 353 K. An equation is given to represent the

A. Kumagai; S. Takahashi

1991-01-01

43

Wettability of polymeric solids by ternary mixtures composed of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon nonionic surfactants.  

PubMed

Contact angle (?) measurements on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surface were carried out for the systems containing ternary mixtures of surfactants composed of: p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenoxypoly(ethylene glycols), Triton X-100 (TX100), Triton X-165 (TX165) and Triton X-114 (TX114), and fluorocarbon surfactants, Zonyl FSN100 (FSN100) and Zonyl FSO100 (FSO100). The aqueous solutions of ternary surfactant mixtures were prepared by adding TX114, FSN100 or FSO100 to binary mixtures of TX100+TX165, where the synergistic effect in the reduction of the surface tension of water (?(LV)) was determined. From the obtained contact angle values, the relationships between cos?, the adhesion tension and surface tension of solutions, cos? and the reciprocal of the surface tension were determined. On the basis of these relationships, the correlation between the critical surface tension of PTFE and PMMA wetting and the surface tension of these polymers as well as the work of adhesion of aqueous solutions of ternary surfactant mixtures to PTFE and PMMA surface were discussed. The critical surface tension of PTFE and PMMA wetting, ?(C), determined from the contact angle measurements of aqueous solutions of surfactants including FSN100 or FSO100 was also discussed in the light of the surface tension changes of PTFE and PMMA under the influence of film formation by fluorocarbon surfactants on the surface of these polymers. The ?(C) values of the studied polymeric solids were found to be different for the mixtures composed of hydrocarbon surfactants in comparison with those of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants. In the solutions containing fluorocarbon surfactants, the ?(C) values were different taking into account the contact angle in the range of FSN100 and FSO100 concentration corresponding to their unsaturated monolayer at water-air interface or to that saturated. PMID:21821260

Szymczyk, Katarzyna

2011-11-01

44

Assembly and Structure of alpha-helical Peptide Films on Hydrophobic Fluorocarbon Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure, orientation, and formation of amphiphilic -helix model peptide films on fluorocarbon surfaces has been monitored with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The -helix peptide is a 14-mer of hydrophilic lysine and hydrophobic leucine residues with a hydrophobic periodicity of 3.5. This periodicity yields a rigid

T. Weidner; N Samual; K McCrea; L Gamble; R Ward; D Castner

2010-01-01

45

Investigation on anti-corrosion property of nano-TiO2 fluoro-carbon coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the need of long-term anticorrosive protection of steel, a heavy-duty anticorrosive coating systems was developed with Fluorocarbon top paint which was modified by nano-TiO2. The corrosive characteristics of low carbon steel coated with the system were investigated in seawater by the exposition tests and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the protective system with fluorocarbon top coating modified by nano-TiO2 has much better endurance than the reference system with fluorocarbon top coating not modified by nano-TiO2. There isn't any rusting and blistering on the surface of former coating, the coating system remains in "GOOD" condition. But some rusting and blistering were found on the surface of reference coating. EIS results indicated that the impedance of the nano-coating system decreases much less than that of the reference one. The nano-coating system is hopeful to meet the need of new coatings standard and to provide a target useful coating life of 15 years for ship's ballast.

Qi, Yu-hong; Zhang, Zhan-ping; Wang, Li-li; Du, Xue-peng

2009-07-01

46

Increasing cellular immunogenicity to peptide-based vaccine candidates using a fluorocarbon antigen delivery system.  

PubMed

Traditionally, synthetic peptide vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. Here we describe a novel method of peptide modification using a fluorocarbon chain which can substantially increase peptide-specific cellular immune responses in the absence of adjuvant. We demonstrate that fluorocarbon-modified peptides (fluoropeptides) derived from HIV, influenza and hepatitis C virus can significantly increase interferon gamma ELISpot responses against cytotoxic and T-helper epitopes compared to unmodified peptides or lipopeptides in mice. Increases in both T-helper1 and T-helper2 cytokines are observed. Fluoropeptides show enhanced ability of the antigen to persist at the site of administration and persistence is associated with a prolonged and elevated immune response. Additionally we demonstrate that fluoropeptides have increased proteolytic resistance thereby potentially supporting their increased half-life in vivo. Fluorocarbon-modification of peptides provides a valuable tool for increasing cellular immunogenicity of vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer without requirement for traditional adjuvants. PMID:25573036

Francis, James N; Thaburet, Jean-Franois; Bonnet, Dominique; Sizer, Philip J; Brown, Carlton B; Georges, Bertrand

2015-02-18

47

Understanding the effect of fluorocarbons in aqueous supramolecular polymerization: ultrastrong noncovalent binding and cooperativity.  

PubMed

Achieving supramolecular polymerization based on strong yet reversible bonds represents a significant challenge. A solution may be offered by perfluoroalkyl groups, which have remarkable hydrophobicity. We tested the idea that a perfluorooctyl chain attached to a perylene diimide amphiphile can dramatically enhance the strength of supramolecular bonding in aqueous environments. Supramolecular structures and polymerization thermodynamics of this fluorinated compound (1-F) were studied in comparison to its non-fluorinated analogue (1-H). Depending on the amount of organic cosolvent, 1-F undergoes cooperative or isodesmic aggregation. The switching between two polymerization mechanisms results from a change in polymer structure, as observed by cryogenic electron microscopy. 1-F showed exceptionally strong noncovalent binding, with the largest directly measured association constant of 1.7 10(9) M(-1) in 75:25 water/THF mixture (v/v). In pure water, the association constant of 1-F is estimated to be at least in the order of 10(15) M(-1) (based on extrapolation), 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of 1-H. The difference in aggregation strength between 1-F and 1-H can be explained solely on the basis of the larger surface area of the fluorocarbon group, rather than a unique nature of fluorocarbon hydrophobicity. However, differences in aggregation mechanism and cooperativity exhibited by 1-F appear to result from specific fluorocarbon conformational rigidity. PMID:24915305

Krieg, Elisha; Weissman, Haim; Shimoni, Eyal; Bar On Ustinov, Alona; Rybtchinski, Boris

2014-07-01

48

Effect of two hydrocarbon and one fluorocarbon surfactant mixtures on the surface tension and wettability of polymers.  

PubMed

The advancing contact angle of water, formamide and diiodomethane on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surfaces covered with the film of ternary mixtures of surfactants including p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenoxypoly(ethyleneglycols), Triton X-100 (TX100) and Triton X-165 (TX165) and the fluorocarbon surfactants, Zonyl FSN-100 (FSN100) or Zonyl FSO-100 (FSO100) was measured. The obtained results were used for the surface tension of PTFE and PMMA covered with this film determination from the Young equation on the basis of van Oss et al. and Neumann et al. approaches to the interfacial tension. The surface tension of PTFE and PMMA was also determined using the Neumann et al. equation and the contact angle values for the aqueous solutions of the above mentioned ternary surfactants mixtures which were taken from the literature. As follows from our calculations mainly the presence of the fluorocarbon surfactant in the mixture considerably changes the surface properties of PTFE and PMMA causing that in contrast to hydrocarbon surfactants and their mixtures there is no linear dependence between adhesion and surface tension in the whole range of concentration of the ternary mixtures of surfactants including the fluorocarbon one. The behavior of fluorocarbon surfactants at the polymer-air and polymer-water interfaces is quite different from those of hydrocarbons. In the case of fluorocarbon surfactants not only adsorption but also sorption can occur on the polymer surface. PMID:24407675

Szymczyk, Katarzyna; Gonzlez-Martn, Maria Luisa; Bruque, Jose Morales; Ja?czuk, Bronis?aw

2014-03-01

49

Conversion of C2-C4 alcohols over copper-containing catalysts on carbon and fluorocarbon fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and fluorocarbon fibers were used as carriers for the preparation of copper catalysts from copper oxalate as precursor. The catalytic properties of catalyst were studied in the reaction of the dehydrogenation of C2-C4 alcohols by the pulsed microcatalytic method. The effect of the copper content in the catalyst, the reaction temperature on the degree of conversion, and the relation of the reaction channels were studied. The electron microphotographs were obtained, specific surfaces were measured, and X-ray pictures and infrared spectra of catalysts were taken. The activity of the catalysts on the carbon and fluorocarbon fibers in the dehydration-dehydrogenation reactions of C2-C4 alcohols was comparatively estimated. It was shown that the selectivity of the products from the dehydrogenation reaction is higher for the Cu-fluorocarbon fiber catalyst.

Tveritinova, E. A.; Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Roshchina, T. M.; Lunin, V. V.

2011-07-01

50

In situ analysis of aqueous structure and adsorption at fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and mineral surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altering and controlling the properties of solid surfaces in aqueous or other liquid phase environments has been a sought after objective for decades. With the discovery of chemisorbed self-assembled monolayers, this dream has become a reality. Oxide and metal surfaces can now be readily coated with an array of commercially available products to produce a desired fnctionality. The presence of these coatings on solid surfaces affects properties of the interfacial region by altering interfacial electrostatic fields, changing the structure of interfacial water molecules and altering the interactions of adsorbed species. This dissertation reports on in situ studies of adsorption at several solid/aqueous interfaces using vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy, a surface specific technique. These studies are augmented by the use of atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometry to characterize the prepared surfaces and their interactions with adsorbates. The studies investigate how changes in the surface structure and chemistry, as well as the bulk aqueous phase, affect interfacial structure. The studies within are primarily focused on the interactions of water with bare and functionalized fused silica and the relationship between the aqueous phase composition and the structure of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers. The variations in aqueous structure are then examined in detail using ionic strength controlled experiments to understand the direct interactions of water hydrophobically coated silica. This analysis is followed by an investigation of the competitive adsorption of methanol and water at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon monolayers which show spectroscopic signatures of the interaction strength between fluorocarbons and hydrocarbons. Further studies are performed using butylammonium chloride to verify these spectroscopic signatures and reveal different molecular structures of adsorbed species at chemically different hydrophobic surfaces. Lastly, specific ion effects on the CaF2/water interface are shown using equilibrium and time-resolved sum-frequency spectroscopy. The results of all these studies have implications for an array of surface chemical applications from mineral flotation to biocompatibility. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material.

Hopkins, Adam Justin

51

Real-Time Trace Gas Sensing of Fluorocarbons using a Swept-wavelength External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser  

SciTech Connect

We present results demonstrating real-time sensing of four different fluorocarbons at low-ppb concentrations using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) operating in a swept-wavelength configuration. The ECQCL was repeatedly swept over its full tuning range at a 20 Hz rate with a scan rate of 3535 cm-1/s, and a detailed characterization of the ECQCL scan stability and repeatability is presented. The sensor was deployed on a mobile automotive platform to provide spatially resolved detection of fluorocarbons in outdoor experiments. Noise-equivalent detection limits of 800-1000 parts-per-trillion (ppt) are demonstrated for 1 s integration times.

Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Stahl, Robert D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

2014-05-04

52

Synthesis and self-assembly of fluorocarbon- and hydrocarbon-modified hydrophilic polymers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 3 years, work was done in several areas: effect of spacer lengths on degree of association of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides; fluorocarbon mediated association of R{sub F}- substituted polyacrylamide-2-(acrylamido)-2-methyl-propane sodium sulfonate copolymers; hydrophobic association in R{sub F}(R{sub H})-modified poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)(PDMA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone; synthesis of R{sub F}-containing poly(N- isopropyl acrylamide)`s; synthesis of HM narrow MWD telechelics PDMA and PDMA block copolymers; and studies of telechelic R{sub F}(R{sub H}) derivatives of polyethyleneglycols. 15 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

Hogen-Esch, T.E.

1996-11-01

53

On the electron structure of some hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons and organometallic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Such materials as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyisobutylene have about the same initial density and the same elemental composition (CH2), only the structures of the initial molecules differ. As the analysis conducted shows, the behaviours of polyethylene and polypropylene under compression are similar and described with one and the same equation of state (with the same parameters). The correlation behaviour of compressibility of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon compounds of CF2 type is shown. This may be because of identical electron configuration of oxygen-like carbon ion in these compounds.

Nadykto, B. A.

2010-03-01

54

Influence on hydrophobicity of silicone rubber surface by introducing fluorocarbon functional groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobic modification on surface of silicone rubber (SIR) by CF4 radio frequency inductively coupled plasma is discussed. Static contact angle, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used in characterizing the hydrophobic property, surface appearance and chemical composition of the modified SIR. The results show that the improvement of surface hydrophobic property on modified SIR is attributed to the introduction of fluorocarbon functional groups (C-CF n , n = 1, 2, 3) and fluosilicic structures (Si-F and Si-F2) during the treatment.

Gao, Song-Hua; Gao, Li-Hua

2015-02-01

55

Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

Alston, W. B.

1973-01-01

56

Effect of fluorocarbon-for-blood exchange on regional blood flow in rats  

SciTech Connect

Cerebrocirculatory responses to total perfluorocarbon (FC-43)-for-blood replacement were studied in anesthetized, ventilated rats breathing 100% O{sub 2}. Changes in total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radiolabeled-microsphere technique. The data were compared with two control groups of hemoglobin-circulated animals; one group was exposed to arterial hypoxia and the other to isovolemic hemodilution with Krebs-Henseleit-albumin (KHA) solution. Exchange transfusion with FC-43 doubled total and regional CBF, causing preferential flow increases to the cortex and cerebellum. Estimated cerebrovascular resistance fell to 50% of the preexchange value. Both hemodilution and hypoxia control experiments produced CBF responses similar to those obtained in FC-43 animals. Although calculated arterial O{sub 2} contents in all three groups of animals were similar, blood viscosity was normal in hypoxic rats and reduced in KHA and FC-43 animals. Since arterial and cerebrovenous Po{sub 2}s were both high in fluorocarbon-circulated rats, over results suggest that decreased O{sub 2} content and perhaps lower viscosity of the circulating fluorocarbon were responsible for increases in CBF required to maintain sufficient delivery of O{sub 2} to the brain.

Lee, P.A.; Sylvia, A.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

1988-04-01

57

Adhesion and patterning of cortical neurons on polyethylenimine- and fluorocarbon-coated surfaces.  

PubMed

Adhesion and patterning of cortical neurons was investigated on isolated islands of neuron-adhesive polyethylenimine (PEI) surrounded by a neuron-repellent fluorocarbon (FC) layer. In addition, the development of fasciculated neurites between the PEI-coated areas was studied over a time period of fifteen days. The patterns consisted of PEI-coated wells (diameter 150 microns, depth 0.5 micron) which were etched in a coating of fluorocarbon (FC) on top of polyimide (PI) coated glass. The separation distance between the PEI-coated wells were varied between 10 and 90 microns. This paper shows that chemical patterns of PEI and FC result in highly compliant patterns of adhering cortical neurons after one day in vitro. Interconnecting neurite fascicles between PEI-coated wells were especially present on patterns with a separation distance of 10 microns after eight days in vitro. A significant lower number of interconnecting neurite fascicles was observed on 20 microns separated patterns. Effective isolation of neurons into PEI-coated wells was achieved on patterns with a separation distance of 80 microns as no interconnecting neurite fascicles were observed. PMID:11125594

Ruardij, T G; Goedbloed, M H; Rutten, W L

2000-12-01

58

Chemical modification of the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer surface through fluorocarbon ion beam deposition  

SciTech Connect

Classical molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the effects of continuous fluorocarbon ion beam deposition on a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-trFE)] surface, a polymer with electromechanical properties. Fluorocarbon plasma processing is widely used to chemically modify surfaces and deposit thin films. It is well accepted that polyatomic ions and neutrals within low-energy plasmas have a significant effect on the surface chemistry induced by the plasma. The deposition of mass selected fluorocarbon ions is useful to isolate the effects specific to polyatomic ions. Here, the differences in the chemical interactions of C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} and CF{sub 3}{sup +} ions with the P(VDF-trFE) surface are examined. The incident energy of the ions in both beams is 50 eV. The CF{sub 3}{sup +} ions are predicted to be more effective at fluorinating the P(VDF-trFE) surface than C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} ions. At the same time, the C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} ions are predicted to be more effective at growing fluorocarbon thin films. The simulations also reveal how the deposition process might ultimately modify the electromechanical properties of this polymer surface.

Hsu, W.-D.; Jang, Inkook; Sinnott, Susan B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States)

2007-07-15

59

The characterization of fluorocarbon films on NiTi alloy by magnetron sputtering *, F.T. Zi a  

E-print Network

The characterization of fluorocarbon films on NiTi alloy by magnetron sputtering L. Li a, *, FTi alloys substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. 2. Experiments The NiTi substrates were cut to 12 mm ? 12 mm substrate by radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE

Zheng, Yufeng

60

Fluorocarbon-23 measure of cat cerebral blood flow by nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect

We employed fluorocarbon-23 (trifluoromethane) as a nuclear magnetic resonance gaseous indicator of cerebral blood flow in seven cats. Pulsed inhalation of this indicator and switching between two coils allowed the acquisition of both an arterial input and a cerebral response function, making possible multicompartmental curve fits to cerebral uptake and clearance data. The brain:blood partition coefficient for trifluoromethane was 0.9 for both gray and white matter. Fast-compartment blood flows were normal and showed appropriate CO{sub 2} reactivity. Slow-compartment blood flows did not demonstrate CO{sub 2} reactivity, probably because cranial as well as white-matter blood flows were lumped together in the slow compartment. Although cerebral blood flow was stable during administration of 60% trifluoromethane, the compound did prove to be a mild cardiac sensitizer to epinephrine in five cats.

Ewing, J.R.; Branch, C.A.; Fagan, S.C.; Helpern, J.A.; Simkins, R.T.; Butt, S.M.; Welch, K.M. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (USA))

1990-01-01

61

Study of the adhesion of thin plasma fluorocarbon coatings resisting plastic deformation for stent applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic intravascular stents are medical devices (316L stainless steel) used to support the narrowed lumen of atherosclerotic stenosed arteries. Despite the success of bare metal stents, restenosis remains the main complication after 3-6 months of implantation. To reduce the restenosis rate of bare metal stents, stent coating is an interesting alternative. Firstly, it allows the modification of the surface properties, which is in contact with the biological environment. Secondly, the coating could eventually act as a carrier for drug immobilization and release. Moreover, the in vivo stent implantation requires in situ stent expansion. This mandatory step generates local plastic deformation of up to 25% and may cause coating failures such as cracking and delamination. Fluorocarbon films were selected in this study as a potential stent coating, mainly due to their chemical inertness, high hydrophobicity, protein retention capabilities and thromboresistance properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesion properties of fluorocarbon films of three different thicknesses deposited by plasma polymerization in C2F6/H2 on 316L stainless steel substrates. A previously developed small punch test was used to deform the coated samples. According to atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations, among the coatings with different thicknesses studied, only those with a thickness of 36 nm exhibited the required cohesion and interfacial adhesion to resist the stent expansion without cracking or delaminating. Otherwise, cracks were detected in the coatings having thicknesses equal or superior to 100 nm, indicating a lack of cohesion.

Lewis, F.; Horny, P.; Hale, P.; Turgeon, S.; Tatoulian, M.; Mantovani, D.

2008-02-01

62

Real-time trace gas sensing of fluorocarbons using a swept-wavelength external cavity quantum cascade laser.  

PubMed

We present results demonstrating real-time sensing of four different fluorocarbons at low part-per billion (ppb) concentrations using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) designed for infrared vibrational spectroscopy of molecules with broad absorption features. The ECQCL was repeatedly swept at 20Hz over its full tuning range of 1145-1265cm(-1) providing a scan rate of 3535cm(-1)s(-1), and a detailed characterization of the ECQCL scan stability and repeatability is presented. The ECQCL was combined with a 100 meter path length multi-pass cell for direct absorption spectroscopy. A portable sensor system is described, which was deployed on a mobile automotive platform to provide spatially-resolved detection of fluorocarbons in outdoor experiments. Noise-equivalent detection limits of 800-1000 parts-per-trillion (ppt) are demonstrated for 1s integration times. PMID:24384671

Phillips, Mark C; Taubman, Matthew S; Bernacki, Bruce E; Cannon, Bret D; Stahl, Robert D; Schiffern, John T; Myers, Tanya L

2014-05-01

63

Biofabrication under fluorocarbon: a novel freeform fabrication technique to generate high aspect ratio tissue-engineered constructs.  

PubMed

Bioprinting is a recent development in tissue engineering, which applies rapid prototyping techniques to generate complex living tissues. Typically, cell-containing hydrogels are dispensed layer-by-layer according to a computer-generated three-dimensional model. The lack of mechanical stability of printed hydrogels hinders the fabrication of high aspect ratio constructs. Here we present submerged bioprinting, a novel technique for freeform fabrication of hydrogels in liquid fluorocarbon. The high buoyant density of fluorocarbons supports soft hydrogels by floating. Hydrogel constructs of up to 30-mm height were generated. Using 3% (w/v) agarose as the hydrogel and disposable syringe needles as nozzles, the printer produced features down to 570-?m diameter with a lateral dispensing accuracy of 89??m. We printed thin-walled hydrogel cylinders measuring 4.8?mm in height, with an inner diameter of ?2.9?mm and a minimal wall thickness of ?650??m. The technique was successfully applied in printing a model of an arterial bifurcation. We extruded under fluorocarbon, cellularized alginate tubes with 5-mm outer diameter and 3-cm length. Cells grew vigorously and formed clonal colonies within the 7-day culture period. Submerged bioprinting thus seems particularly suited to fabricate hollow structures with a high aspect ratio like vascular grafts for cardiovascular tissue engineering as well as branching or cantilever-like structures, obviating the need for a solid support beneath the overhanging protrusions. PMID:24083093

Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela F; Weber, Michael; Neuss, Sabine; Theek, Benjamin; Fischer, Horst; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

2013-10-01

64

Biofabrication Under Fluorocarbon: A Novel Freeform Fabrication Technique to Generate High Aspect Ratio Tissue-Engineered Constructs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bioprinting is a recent development in tissue engineering, which applies rapid prototyping techniques to generate complex living tissues. Typically, cell-containing hydrogels are dispensed layer-by-layer according to a computer-generated three-dimensional model. The lack of mechanical stability of printed hydrogels hinders the fabrication of high aspect ratio constructs. Here we present submerged bioprinting, a novel technique for freeform fabrication of hydrogels in liquid fluorocarbon. The high buoyant density of fluorocarbons supports soft hydrogels by floating. Hydrogel constructs of up to 30-mm height were generated. Using 3% (w/v) agarose as the hydrogel and disposable syringe needles as nozzles, the printer produced features down to 570-?m diameter with a lateral dispensing accuracy of 89??m. We printed thin-walled hydrogel cylinders measuring 4.8?mm in height, with an inner diameter of ?2.9?mm and a minimal wall thickness of ?650??m. The technique was successfully applied in printing a model of an arterial bifurcation. We extruded under fluorocarbon, cellularized alginate tubes with 5-mm outer diameter and 3-cm length. Cells grew vigorously and formed clonal colonies within the 7-day culture period. Submerged bioprinting thus seems particularly suited to fabricate hollow structures with a high aspect ratio like vascular grafts for cardiovascular tissue engineering as well as branching or cantilever-like structures, obviating the need for a solid support beneath the overhanging protrusions. PMID:24083093

Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela F.; Weber, Michael; Neuss, Sabine; Theek, Benjamin; Fischer, Horst

2013-01-01

65

Static light scattering study of fluorocarbon-modified ampholytic acrylamide ionomers  

SciTech Connect

A series of water-soluble acrylamide ionomers containing small amounts of ampholytic and hydrophobic sites were investigated in dilute aqueous and aqueous salt solutions via static light scattering methods. Elemental analysis verified the ampholytic nature of the polymers while the ion/hydrophobe content was found to be much lower than what was supplied in the feed. Both the molecular weight and radius of gyration exhibited increases with increasing comonomer content to maximum values at 2.5-3.0 mole%. Mw and Rg increased further in 1 M aqueous NaCl and dropped to previous levels in 3 M NaCl. The radius of gyration exhibited sizable increased at 45 and 70{degrees}C in aqueous solution, less so in 1 M NaCl. Dilute aqueous salt expanded the molecules through shielding of the ionic sites, while concentrated aqueous salt increased hydrophobic aggregation decreasing the size of the polymers. At higher temperatures salt ions failed to reach the ionic sites and fluorocarbon aggregation is thought to be responsible for the low radii of gyration.

Watterson, A.C.; Haralabakopoulos, A.; Salamone, J.C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

1993-12-31

66

Evaluation of the acute cardiac and central nervous system effects of the fluorocarbon trifluoromethane in baboons  

SciTech Connect

The gaseous fluorocarbon trifluoromethane has recently been investigated for its potential as an in vivo gaseous indicator for nuclear magnetic resonance studies of brain perfusion. Trifluoromethane may also have significant value as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbon fire retardants. Because of possible species-specific cardiotoxic and anesthetic properties, the toxicological evaluation of trifluoromethane in primates (Papio anubis) is necessary prior to its evaluation in humans. We report the acute cardiac and central nervous system effects of trifluoromethane in eight anesthetized baboons. A dose-response effect was established for respiratory rate, electroencephalogram, and cardiac sinus rate, which exhibited a stepwise decrease from 10% trifluoromethane. No spontaneous arrhythmias were noted, and arterial blood pressure remained unchanged at any inspired level. Intravenous epinephrine infusions (1 {mu}g/kg) induced transient cardiac arrhythmia in 1 animal only at 70% FC-23 (v/v) trifluoromethane. Trifluoromethane appears to induce mild dose-related physiological changes at inspired levels of 30% or more, indicative of an anesthetic effect. These data suggest that trifluoromethane may be safe to use in humans, without significant adverse acute effects, at an inspired level of 30%. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Branch, C.A.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ewing, J.R.; Butt, S.S.; Gayner, J. [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Fagan, S.C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

67

Analysis of the surface reactions of ArF photoresist during fluorocarbon plasma etching by XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-aspect ratio pattern etching processes with nano-scale accuracy is desired in such as a contract hole etching for the silicon dioxide that is used as a dielectric passivation layer over MOSFETs. However, photoresist used in the advanced ArF lithography is not tolerant enough for plasma etching processes, and it often causes deformations in the etched feature with bowing, distortion, twisting and so on. It is important to investigate the reaction of photoresist with fluorocarbon to overcome these problems and realize sophisticated etch processes. In this research, the modified layer of the photoresist by bombardment of CFx^+ ions was analyzed. The ions, such as CF^+, CF2^+, CF3^+, and F^+, were produced from CF4 gas by electron impact, and selected by quadrupole mass filter. The CFx^+ ions were bombarded to ArF photoresist as ion beam with an accelerated energy from 100 to 400 eV. The equipment system is evacuated by four turbo molecular pumps. Ultimate pressure of the equipment is lower than 10-9 Torr. The beam equipment and XPS analysis chamber are connected in vacuum, so we can use XPS analysis without atmospheric influence after the ion etch process. In this study, we investigated the modified layer of the photoresist by in-situ XPS.

Takeuchi, Takuya; Sekine, Makoto; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru; Kang, Song-Yun; Sawada, Ikuo

2009-10-01

68

Electrowetting on plasma-deposited fluorocarbon hydrophobic films for biofluid transport in microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work focuses on the plasma deposition of fluorocarbon (FC) films on surfaces and the electrostatic control of their wettability (electrowetting). Such films can be employed for actuation of fluid transport in microfluidic devices, when deposited over patterned electrodes. Here, the deposition was performed using C4F8 and the plasma parameters that permit the creation of films with optimized properties desirable for electrowetting were established. The wettability of the plasma-deposited surfaces was characterized by means of contact angle measurements (in the static and dynamic mode). The thickness of the deposited films was probed in situ by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry, while the surface roughness was provided by atomic force microscopy. These plasma-deposited FC films in combination with silicon nitride, a material of high dielectric constant, were used to create a dielectric structure that requires reduced voltages for successful electrowetting. Electrowetting experiments using protein solutions were conducted on such optimized dielectric structures and were compared with similar structures bearing commercial spin-coated Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) film as the hydrophobic top layer. Our results show that plasma-deposited FC films have desirable electrowetting behavior and minimal protein adsorption, a requirement for successful transport of biological solutions in "digital" microfluidics.

Bayiati, P.; Tserepi, A.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Misiakos, K.; Gogolides, E.

2007-05-01

69

Electrowetting on plasma-deposited fluorocarbon hydrophobic films for biofluid transport in microfluidics  

SciTech Connect

The present work focuses on the plasma deposition of fluorocarbon (FC) films on surfaces and the electrostatic control of their wettability (electrowetting). Such films can be employed for actuation of fluid transport in microfluidic devices, when deposited over patterned electrodes. Here, the deposition was performed using C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and the plasma parameters that permit the creation of films with optimized properties desirable for electrowetting were established. The wettability of the plasma-deposited surfaces was characterized by means of contact angle measurements (in the static and dynamic mode). The thickness of the deposited films was probed in situ by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry, while the surface roughness was provided by atomic force microscopy. These plasma-deposited FC films in combination with silicon nitride, a material of high dielectric constant, were used to create a dielectric structure that requires reduced voltages for successful electrowetting. Electrowetting experiments using protein solutions were conducted on such optimized dielectric structures and were compared with similar structures bearing commercial spin-coated Teflon registered amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) film as the hydrophobic top layer. Our results show that plasma-deposited FC films have desirable electrowetting behavior and minimal protein adsorption, a requirement for successful transport of biological solutions in 'digital' microfluidics.

Bayiati, P.; Tserepi, A.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Misiakos, K.; Gogolides, E. [Institute of Microelectronics-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Institute of Microelectronics-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

2007-05-15

70

Novel antifoam for fermentation processes: fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid unsymmetrical bolaform surfactant.  

PubMed

As foaming appears as a problem in chemical and fermentation processes that inhibits reactor performance, the eminence of a novel fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon unsymmetrical bolaform (FHUB: OH(CH2)11N+(C2H4)2(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3 I-) surfactant as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent was investigated and compared with other surfactants and a commercial antifoaming agent. The surface elasticity of FHUB was determined as 4 mN/m, indicating its high potential on thinning of the foam film. The interactions between FHUB and the microoganism were investigated in a model fermentation process related with an enzyme production by recombinant Escherichia coli, in V = 3.0 dm3 bioreactor systems with V(R) = 1.65 dm3 working volume at air inlet rate of Q(o)/V(R) = 0.5 dm3 dm(-3) min(-1) and agitation rate of N = 500 min(-1) oxygen transfer conditions, at T = 37 degrees C, pH(o) = 7.2, and C(FHUB) = 0 and 0.1 mM, in a glucose-based defined medium. As FHUB did not influence the metabolism, specific enzyme activity values obtained with and without FHUB were close to each other; however, because of the slight decrease in oxygen transfer coefficient, slightly lower volumetric enzyme activity and cell concentrations were obtained. However, when FHUB is compared with widely used silicon oil based Antifoam A, with the use of the FHUB, higher physical oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) values are obtained. Moreover, as the amount required for the foam control is very low, minute changes in the working volume of the bioreactor were obtained indicating the high potential of the use of FHUB as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent. PMID:16142938

Calik, Pinar; Ileri, Nazar; Erdin, Burak I; Aydogan, Nihal; Argun, Muharrem

2005-09-13

71

Gain and loss mechanisms for neutral species in low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas by infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the chemical reaction pathways of stable neutral species in fluorocarbon plasmas. Octafluorocyclobutane (c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) inductively coupled plasma discharges were found to primarily produce stable and metastable products downstream from the discharge, including c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CF{sub 4}, C{sub 3}F{sub 8}, C{sub 4}F{sub 10}, C{sub 3}F{sub 6}, and CF{sub 2}. A novel analysis technique allows the estimation of gain and loss rates for neutral species in the steady state as functions of residence time, pressure, and discharge power. The gain and loss rates show that CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 3}F{sub 8}, and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} share related gain mechanisms, speculated to occur at the surface. Further analysis confirms that CF{sub 2} is predominantly produced at the chamber walls through electron impact dissociation of C{sub 2}F{sub 4} and lost through gas-phase addition reactions to form C{sub 2}F{sub 4}. Additionally, time-resolved FTIR spectra provide a second-order rate coefficient of 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} cm{sup 3}/s for the gas-phase addition of CF{sub 2} to form C{sub 2}F{sub 4}. Finally, C{sub 2}F{sub 4,} which is much more abundant than CF{sub 2} in the discharge, is shown to be dominantly produced through electron impact dissociation of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and lost through either surface or gas-phase addition reactions.

Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 830688, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

2012-09-15

72

Atmospheric degradation mechanisms of hydrogen containing chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and fluorocarbons (HFC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current knowledge of atmospheric degradation of hydrogen containing chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC 22 (CHClF2), HCFC 123 (CHCl2CF3), HCFC 124 (CHClFCF3), HCFC 141b (CFCl2CH3), HCFC 142b (CF2ClCH3)) and fluorocarbons (HFC 125 (CHF2CF3), HFC 134a (CH2FCF3), HFC 152a (CHF2CH3)) is assessed. Except for the initiation reaction by OH radicals, there are virtually no experimental data available concerning the subsequent oxidative breakdown of these molecules. However, from an analogy to the degradation mechanisms of simple alkanes, some useful guidelines as to the expected intermediates and final products can be derived. A noteable exception from this analogy, however, appears for the oxi-radicals. Here, halogen substitution induces new reaction types (C-Cl and C-C bond ruptures) which are unknown to the unsubstituted analogues and which modify the nature of the expected carbonyl products. Based on an evaluation of these processes using estimated bond strength data, the following simplified rules with regards to the chlorine content of the HCFC's may be deduced: (1) HCFC's containing one chlorine atom such as 22 and 142b seem to release their chlorine content essentially instantaneous with the initial attack on the parent by OH radicals, and for HCFC 124, such release is apparently prevented; (2) HCFC's such as 123 and 141b with two chlorine atoms are expected to release only one of these instantaneously; and the second chlorine atom may be stored in potentially long-lived carbonyl compounds such as CF3CClO or CClFO.

Zellner, Reinhard

1990-01-01

73

Composite fluorocarbon membranes by surface-initiated polymerization from nanoporous gold-coated alumina.  

PubMed

This manuscript describes the versatile fabrication and characterization of a novel composite membrane that consists of a porous alumina support, a 100 nm thick nanoporous gold coating, and a selective poly(5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene) (pNBF6) polymer that can be grown exclusively from the nanoporous gold or throughout the membrane. Integration of the three materials is achieved by means of silane and thiol chemistry, and the use of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to grow the pNBF6. The use of SI-ROMP allows tailoring of the extent of polymerization of pNBF6 throughout the structure by varying polymerization time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the thin polymer films cover the structure entirely. Cross-sectional SEM images of the membrane not only corroborate growth of the pNBF6 polymer within both the porous alumina and the nanoporous gold coating but also show the growth of a pNBF6 layer between these porous substrates that lifts the nanoporous gold coating away from the alumina. Advancing contact angle (?(A)) measurements show that the surfaces of these composite membranes exhibit both hydrophobic (?(A) = 121-129) and oleophobic (?(A) = 69-74) behavior due to the fluorocarbon side chains of the pNBF6 polymer that dominate the surface. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirm that the membranes provide effective barriers to aqueous ions, as evidenced by a resistive impedance on the order of 1 10(7) ? cm(2). Sulfonation of the polymer backbone substantially enhances ion transport through the composite membrane, as indicated by a 40-60 fold reduction in resistive impedance. Ion transport and selectivity of the membrane change by regulating the polymerization time. The fluorinated nature of the sulfonated polymer renders the membrane selective toward molecules with similar chemical characteristics. PMID:22195729

Escobar, Carlos A; Zulkifli, Ahmad R; Faulkner, Christopher J; Trzeciak, Alex; Jennings, G Kane

2012-02-01

74

157 nm Pellicles (Thin Films) for Photolithography: Mechanistic Investigation of the VUV and UV-C Photolysis of Fluorocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The use of 157 nm as the next lower wavelength for photolithography for the production of semiconductors has created a need for transparent and radiation-durable polymers for use in soft pellicles, the polymer films which protect the chip from particle deposition. The most promising materials for pellicles are fluorinated polymers, but currently available fluorinated polymers undergo photodegradation and/or photodarkening upon long term exposure to 157 nm irradiation. To understand the mechanism of the photodegradation and photodarkening of fluorinated polymers, mechanistic studies on the photolysis of liquid model fluorocarbons, including perfluorobutylethyl ether and perfluoro-2 H-3-oxa-heptane, were performed employing UV, NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC/MS analyses. All hydrogen-containing compounds showed decreased photostability compared to the fully perfluorinated compounds. Irradiation in the presence of atmospheric oxygen showed reduced photostability compared to deoxygenated samples. Photolysis of the samples was performed at 157, 172, 185, and 254 nm and showed only minor wavelength dependence. Mechanisms for photodegradation of the fluorocarbons are proposed, which involve Rydberg excited states. Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to predict the excitation spectra of model compounds.

Lee, Kwangjoo; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; French, Roger H.; Wheland, Robert C.; Lemon, M F.; Braun, Andre M.; Widerschpan, Tatjana; Dixon, David A.; Li, Jun; Ivan, Marius; Zimmerman, Paul

2005-06-15

75

Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.  

PubMed

We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmolL(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(?) two-phase region, and a single L(?) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(?) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(?) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by (19)F NMR as well as (31)P NMR measurements. Upon replacement of NFDA by DEHPA, the signal from the (19)F atoms adjacent to the hydrophilic headgroup disappears and that from the (19)F atoms on the main chain becomes sharper. This could be interpreted as an increase of microfluidity in the mixed vesicle bilayers at higher content of DEHPA, whose alkyl chains are expected to have a lower chain melting point. Our results provide basic knowledge on vesicle formation and their structural evolution in salt-free catanionic surfactant systems containing mixed ion pairs, which may contribute to a deeper understanding of the rules governing the formation and properties of surfactant self-assembly. PMID:22646993

Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

2012-06-26

76

The water-hydrophobic interface: neutral and charged solute adsorption at fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayers (SAMs).  

PubMed

Adsorption of small molecular solutes in an aqueous solution to a soft hydrophobic surface is a topic relevant to many fields. In biological and industrial systems, the interfacial environment is often complex, containing an array of salts and organic compounds in the solution phase. Additionally, the surface itself can have a complex structure that can interact in unpredictable ways with small solutes in its vicinity. In this work, we studied model adsorption processes on hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers by using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, with methanol and butylammonium chloride as adsorbates. The results indicate that differences in surface functionality have a significant impact on the organization of adsorbed organic species at hydrophobic surfaces. PMID:23452489

Hopkins, Adam J; Richmond, Geraldine L

2013-03-01

77

Comparative study of the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions of the hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants and their ternary mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speed of sound and density of aqueous solutions of hydrocarbon p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenoxypoly(ethyleneglycols) (Triton X-100 (TX100), Triton X-165 (TX165)) and fluorocarbon (Zonyl FSN-100 (FSN100), Zonyl FSO-100 (FSO100)) surfactants as well as their ternary mixtures were measured at 293 K. Taking into account these values and the literature data of the surface tension and viscosity of the studied systems, the values of the isentropic compressibility, apparent specific adiabatic compressibility, hydration number, apparent specific volume and Jones Dole's A and B-coefficients were determined. For the systems containing FSO100 also the values of dB/dT were determined on the basis of the values of viscosity measured at different temperatures. Next, the calculated thermodynamic properties have been discussed in the term of intermolecular interactions between the components of the mixtures.

Szymczyk, Katarzyna

2014-03-01

78

Production of nano- and microdiamonds with Si-V and N-V luminescent centers at high pressures in systems based on mixtures of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method has been proposed for the synthesis of nano- and microdiamonds with various contents of luminescent silicon-vacancy (Si-V) and nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers at high static pressures in growth systems based on mixtures of hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, and organic silicon compounds without catalyst metals. The high efficiency of the proposed method of the doping of diamonds at nano- and microlevels has been demonstrated by analyzing the spectra of photoluminescence and absorption of the diamonds obtained.

Davydov, V. A.; Rakhmanina, A. V.; Lyapin, S. G.; Ilichev, I. D.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Agafonov, V. N.

2014-07-01

79

Nanoscale mechanical and tribological properties of fluorocarbon films grafted onto plasma-treated low-density polyethylene surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorocarbon (FC) films were grafted onto Ar plasma-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces by plasma polymerization and deposition. The evolution of the surface morphology of the grafted FC films was investigated at different scales with an atomic force microscope. Nanoscale sliding experiments performed with a surface force microscope provided insight into the nanotribological properties of Ar plasma-treated LDPE, with and without grafted FC films, in terms of applied normal load and number of sliding cycles. The observed trends are explained in the context of microstructure models accounting for morphological and structure changes at the LDPE surface due to the effects of plasma treatment (e.g., selective etching of amorphous phase, chain crosslinking and FC film grafting) and surface sliding (e.g., crystalline lamellae alignment along the sliding direction). Nanoindentation experiments elucidated the effect of plasma treatment on surface viscoelasticity and global contact stiffness. The results of this study demonstrate that plasma-assisted grafting of FC films is an effective surface modification method for tuning the nanomechanical/tribological properties of polymers.

Cheng, Q.; Komvopoulos, K.

2012-03-01

80

First-principles study on proton dissociation properties of fluorocarbon- and hydrocarbon-based membranes in low humidity conditions.  

PubMed

We present a theoretical study on the proton dissociation properties of the membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. A density functional theory method is used to study the influence of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon backbones on proton dissociation, the interaction of water molecules with the sulfonic acid group, and the energy barriers for proton dissociation. Better proton dissociation properties of CH(3)SO(3)H compared to CF(3)SO(3)H are observed from statistical analyses of the optimized structures for both systems. However, the calculated energy barriers for proton dissociation are lower for CF(3)SO(3)H than for the CH(3)SO(3)H system. At the same time, the interaction of water molecules is stronger for CH(3)SO(3)H than for CF(3)SO(3)H. Also, the analysis of the hydrogen-bonding network in both systems shows that the number of hydrogen bonds formed around the sulfonic acid group in CH(3)SO(3)H is larger than that in CF(3)SO(3)H. Therefore, the decrease of the energy barrier with increasing number of coordinating water molecules, pronounced in the case of CH(3)SO(3)H, may lower the barrier, which enhances good proton conductivity of a hydrocarbon-based polymer in low humidity conditions. Thus the hydration ability of a sulfonic acid group is an important factor for realizing better proton dissociation in low humidity conditions. PMID:16956275

Koyama, Michihisa; Bada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Endou, Akira; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A; Broclawik, Ewa; Miyamoto, Akira

2006-09-14

81

Dissociative electron attachment to the highly reactive difluoromethylene molecule-importance of CF2 for negative ion formation in fluorocarbon plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissociative electron attachment to the highly reactive difluoromethylene molecule, CF2, produced in a C3F6/He microwave plasma and stepwise via the fast atom reaction CF3I+H?CF3+HI and CF3+H?CF2+HF, has been investigated. The upper limit for the cross section of formation of F- via dissociative electron attachment to CF2 is estimated to be 510-4 2. This value is four orders of magnitude smaller than the cross section previously predicted from scattering calculations. It is concluded that difluoromethylene plays a negligible role in negative ion formation in fluorocarbon plasmas.

Graupner, K.; Field, T. A.; Mayhew, C. A.

2010-08-01

82

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of fluorescently labeled hydrocarbon- and\\/or fluorocarbon-modified poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonates)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescently labeled amphiphilic polyelectrolytes bearing naphthalene (Np) or pyrene (Py) chromophores, hydrocarbon and\\/or fluorocarbon chains have been prepared by free-radical polymerization using azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The five different Py labeled polymers prepared are (i) a copolymer of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (NaAMPS) and N-n-dodecyl-N-[4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]acrylamide (PyDodAm) in a molar ratio of 95:5, (ii) two terpolymers of NaAMPS, PyDodAm,

Roger C. W. Liu; Franoise M. Winnik

2006-01-01

83

The effects of changing deposition conditions on the similarity of sputter-deposited fluorocarbon thin films to bulk PTFE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid lubrication of space-borne mechanical components is essential to their survival and the continued human exploration of space. Recent discoveries have shown that PTFE when blended with alumina nanofillers exhibits greatly improved physical performance properties, with wear rates being reduced by several orders of magnitude. The bulk processes used to produce the PTFE-alumina blends are limiting. Co-sputter deposition of PTFE and a filler material overcomes several of these limitations by enabling the reduction of particle size to the atomic level and also by allowing for the even coating of the solid lubricant on relatively large areas and components. The goal of this study was to establish a baseline performance of the sputtered PTFE films as compared to the bulk material, and to establish deposition conditions that would result in the most bulk-like film possible. In order to coax change in the structure of the sputtered films, sputtering power and deposition temperature were increased independently. Further, post-deposition annealing was applied to half of the deposited film in an attempt to affect change in the film structure. Complications in the characterization process due to increasing film thickness were also examined. Bulk-like metrics for characterization processes the included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation via atomic force microscopy, and contact angle of water on surface measurements were established. The results of the study revealed that increasing sputtering power and deposition temperature resulted in an increase in the similarity between the fluorocarbon films and the bulk PTFE, at a cost of affecting the potential of the film thicknesses, either by affecting the deposition process directly, or by decreasing the longevity of the sputtering targets.

Zandona, Philip

84

Redeposition of etch products on sidewalls during SiO2 etching in a fluorocarbon plasma. I. Effect of particle emission from the bottom surface in a CF4 plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of etch-product redeposition on sidewall properties during the etching of step-shaped SiO2 patterns in a CF4 plasma was examined using a Faraday cage located in a transformer coupled plasma etcher. Sidewall properties were observed for two cases: with and without particles emitted from the bottom surface in normal contact with the sidewall. Particles sputtered from the bottom surface were redeposited on the sidewall, which contributes to the formation of a passivation layer on the surface of the latter. The passivation layer consisted of silicon oxide, SixOy, and fluorocarbon, CxFy, the latter comprising the major species. Ar plasma experiments confirmed that CxFy or a fluorocarbon polymer must be present on the sidewall in order for the SixOy species to be deposited on the surface. The redeposited particles, which were largely F-deficient fluorocarbon species, as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, functioned as precursors for fluorocarbon polymerization, resulting in a rough sidewall surface. The chemical etch rates of SiO2 were retarded by the redeposition of particles, which eventually formed a thick layer, eventually covering the bulk SiO2. Auger electron spectroscopy analyses of the sidewall surface affected by the emission from the bottom suggest that the surface consists of three distinct layers: a surface-carbon layer, a redeposition-etch combined layer, and bulk SiO2. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

Min, Jae-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Moon, Sang Heup

2002-09-01

85

Investigation of the roles of gas-phase CF2 molecules and F atoms during fluorocarbon plasma processing of Si and ZrO2 substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular-level chemistry involved in the processing of silicon and zirconia substrates by inductively coupled fluorocarbon (FC) plasmas produced from CF4 and C2F6 precursors has been explored. The roles of gas-phase excited, neutral, and ionic species, especially CF2 and F, were examined as they contribute to FC film formation and substrate etching. The surface reactivity of CF2 radicals in C2F6 plasmas has a dependence on substrate material and plasma system, as measured by our imaging of radicals interacting with surfaces (IRIS) technique. Relative concentrations of excited state species are also dependent upon substrate type. Moreover, differences in the nature and concentrations of gas-phase species in CF4 and C2F6 plasmas contribute to markedly different surface compositions for FC films deposited on substrates as revealed from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. These data have led to the development of a scheme that illustrates the mechanisms of film formation and destruction in these FC/substrate systems with respect to CF2 and F gas-phase species and also Si and ZrO2 substrates.

Cuddy, Michael F.; Fisher, Ellen R.

2010-08-01

86

The performance of aminoalkyl/fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogel coatings against the marine alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum: relative roles of surface energy and charge.  

PubMed

The effect of a series of xerogel coatings modified with aminoalkyl/fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon groups on the adhesion of a new test species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus crouaniorum, has been explored, and compared with the green alga Ulva linza. The results showed that E. crouaniorum adhered weakly to the less polar, low wettability coatings in the series, but stronger adhesion was shown on polar, higher surface energy coatings containing aminoalkyl groups. The results from a separate series of coatings tuned to have similar surface energies and polarities after immersion in artificial seawater (ASW), but widely different surface charges, demonstrated that surface charge was more important than surface energy and polarity in determining the adhesion strength of both E. crouaniorum and U. linza on xerogel coatings. No correlation was found between adhesion and contact angle hysteresis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of samples after immersion in ASW confirmed the presence of charged ammonium groups on the surface of the aminoalkylated coatings. PMID:23330687

Evariste, Emmanuelle; Gatley, Caitlyn M; Detty, Michael R; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

2013-01-01

87

Impact of etching kinetics on the roughening of thermal SiO{sub 2} and low-k dielectric coral films in fluorocarbon plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The impact of etching kinetics and etching chemistries on surface roughening was investigated by etching thermal silicon dioxide and low-k dielectric coral materials in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar plasma beams in an inductive coupled plasma beam reactor. The etching kinetics, especially the angular etching yield curves, were measured by changing the plasma pressure and the feed gas composition which influence the effective neutral-to-ion flux ratio during etching. At low neutral-to-ion flux ratios, the angular etching yield curves are sputteringlike, with a peak around 60 deg. -70 deg. off-normal angles; the surface at grazing ion incidence angles becomes roughened due to ion scattering related ion-channeling effects. At high neutral-to-ion flux ratios, ion enhanced etching dominates and surface roughening at grazing angles is mainly caused by the local fluorocarbon deposition induced micromasking mechanism. Interestingly, the etched surfaces at grazing angles remain smooth for both films at intermediate neutral-to-ion flux ratio regime. Furthermore, the oxygen addition broadens the region over which the etching without roughening can be performed.

Yin Yunpeng; Sawin, Herbert H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2007-07-15

88

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

...of nominally 50 mole percent of ethylene and 50 mole percent of chlorotrifluoroethylene. The copolymer shall have a melting point of 239 to 243 C and a melt index of less than or equal to 20 as determined by ASTM Method D 3275-89...

2014-04-01

89

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of nominally 50 mole percent of ethylene and 50 mole percent of chlorotrifluoroethylene. The copolymer shall have a melting point of 239 to 243 C and a melt index of less than or equal to 20 as determined by ASTM Method D 3275-89...

2012-04-01

90

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of nominally 50 mole percent of ethylene and 50 mole percent of chlorotrifluoroethylene. The copolymer shall have a melting point of 239 to 243 C and a melt index of less than or equal to 20 as determined by ASTM Method D 3275-89...

2013-04-01

91

Flammability limits of fuel/fluorocarbon azeotropes  

SciTech Connect

Both Dehn and Thorne have intimated that flash point (FP) measurements could be used to define the gas-phase flammability limits of fire and retardant vapor mixtures above the surface of heated retardant containing flammable liquids. However, it was found that ignitable mixtures exist above the liquid surface, where the concentration of the agent in the fluid is well beyond the limiting concentrating for inerting of alcohol fires. Clearly this anomaly results from diffusion competition of air and liquid vapor mixture at the position of the ignitor, as influenced by the design of the experimental apparatus. The authors are skeptical about the need or worth of attempting to define flammability limits using FP data, especially since unknown variables control the response. More important is to define the concentration of liquid phase retardant that will affect gas phase inerting. Thus, it is necessary to continue practical testing of retardant-containing liquids for their effectiveness in mitigating possible accidents, e.g., the next phase of this work will assess the effectiveness of halocarbons to inert high-pressure alcohol/agent leaks impinging on both electrical and flame ignition sources.

Alvares, N.J.; Hammond, P.R.; Foote, K.; Ford, H.W. Jr.

1981-02-10

92

Nonclassical gasdynamic region of selected fluorocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonclassical gasdynamic region of fluorinated substances belonging to the PP, FC, and E series is investigated using different thermodynamic models of increasing complexity. Thermodynamic models range from the simple van der Waals equation of state to the more complex Martin-Hou model and include the Redlich-Kwong, Clausius-II, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, and Peng-Robinson equations, under both the polytropic (constant isochoric specific heat in the dilute gas limit) and nonpolytropic approximations. The possibility of observing nonclassical gasdynamic behavior for a given fluid is confirmed to increase with the molecular weight of the substance times the specific heat at constant volume in the dilute gas limit and at the critical temperature, but to be almost insensitive to the nonpolytropic behavior of the fluid; the dependence on the compressibility at the critical point is also weak. A strong dependence on the acentric factor of the substance is revealed, which points to fluids made of nonpolar molecules with nearly spheroidal shapes as the most favorable to exhibit nonclassical gasdynamic behavior. In this respect, the fluorinated cyclic compounds of the PP series are singled out as the most promising candidates for the experimental verification of the existence of nonclassical phenomena in the vapor phase and for nonclassical gasdynamic applications.

Guardone, A.; Argrow, B. M.

2005-11-01

93

Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions  

SciTech Connect

This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

2012-07-15

94

Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

2008-12-01

95

IR spectroscopy of gaseous fluorocarbon ions: The perfluoroethyl anion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first IR spectrum of a perfluorinated carbanion has been obtained in the gas phase by IRMPD spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level were performed yielding the optimized geometries and IR spectra for a covalently bound C2F5- species and for conceivable loosely bound F-(C2F4) complexes. Both the computational results and the IR characterization point to a covalent structure for the assayed species in agreement with the reactivity pattern displayed with selected neutrals.

Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Chiavarino, Barbara; Lemaire, Joel; Maitre, Philippe; Fornarini, Simonetta

2012-04-01

96

Atmospheric measurements of CF and other fluorocarbons containing the CF grouping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Careful measurements by GC\\/MS techniques on atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride confirm that its concentration in 1979 was constant at about 69.9 pptv (standard deviation is 7.2 pptv). It is almost certainly produced entirely by emissions from the aluminum industry. Other compounds in the atmosphere containing the CF group have been identified by GC\\/MS as CF, CFCL, CFBr,and CFCL. The concentrations of

S. A. Penkett; N. J. D. Prosser; R. A. Rasmussen; M. A. K. Khalil

1981-01-01

97

Surface characterization of plasma deposited nano-structured fluorocarbon coatings for promoting in vitro cell growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-structured "teflon-like" coatings characterized by highly-fluorinated, random, ribbon-shaped, micrometers-long structures were deposited on polyethylenetherephtalate (PET) substrates by plasma enhanced-chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) using modulated radiofrequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) glow discharges fed with C 2F 4 in modulated discharge (MD) and continuous wave (CW) regimes. Surfaces obtained in this way featured identical chemical composition and different roughness in the nanometric scale. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized to characterize the surfaces. A positive relationship was shown to exist between the WCA value and the mean nano-structure height and the area root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of coatings. The possibility of obtaining coatings of varying nano-structure height, i.e., roughness, in a nanometric scale represents a promising result for further use of these surfaces as substrates for experiments on cell adhesion, proliferation and growth.

Senesi, G. S.; D'Aloia, E.; Gristina, R.; Favia, P.; d'Agostino, R.

2007-02-01

98

Lukechangite-(Ce), a new rare-earth-fluorocarbonate mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lukechangite-(Ce), ideally Na3Ce2(CO3)4F, is a new mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. It occurs as tabular, short prismatic, and barrel-shaped crystals up to 1 mm. It is colorless to pale beige with a white streak and a vitreous, or somewhat pearly on {0001}, luster. Associated minerals include microcline, analcime, sodalite, aegirine, serandite, eu- dialyte, catapleiite, fluorite, petersenite-(Ce), siderite, astrophyllite, and albite.

JOEL D. GRICE; GEORGE Y. CHAO

99

Synthesis and biological screening by novel hybrid fluorocarbon hydrocarbon compounds for use as artificial blood substitutes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of hybrid fluorochemicals of general structure R(1)R(2)R(3)CR(4) was prepared where the R(i)'s (i=1,2,3) is a saturated fluoroalkyl group of formula C sub N F sub 2n+1, and R(4) is an alkyl group C sub n H sub 2n+1 or a related moiety containing amino, ether, or ester functions but no CF bonds. Compounds of this class containing approximately eight to twenty carbons total have physical properties suitable for use as the oxygen carrying phase of fluorochemical emulsion artificial blood. The chemical synthesis, and physical and biological testing of pure single isomers of the proposed artificial blood candidate compounds are included. Significant results are given.

Moacanin, J.; Scherer, K.; Toronto, A.; Lawson, D.; Terranova, T.; Yavrouian, A.; Astle, L.; Harvey, S.; Kaaelble, D. H.

1979-01-01

100

Restoration of the interfacial properties of lung surfactant with a newly designed hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon lipid.  

PubMed

Serum proteins, especially fibrinogen, inactivate the lung surfactant mixture by adsorbing quickly and irreversibly to the alveolar air/aqueous interface. As a consequence of the inactivation, the surfactant becomes dysfunctional, and respiration cannot be maintained properly. Preventing the adsorption of surface active serum proteins to the air/water interface is important because this phenomenon causes fatal diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although some treatments exist, improvements in synthetic surfactants that can resist this inactivation are still expected. In this context, a novel ion pair lipid (IPL, CF3(CF2)7SO3(-)(CH2CH3)3N(+)(CH2OCH2)10(CH2)15CH3) has been designed and synthesized. This surfactant reduces the inhibitory effect of fibrinogen by selectively interacting with DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) and mimicking some of the interfacial properties of the pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B). Surface pressure-area isotherms and fluorescence microscopy images demonstrate that IPL can mix and interact synergistically with DPPC due to its unique molecular structure. Hysteresis behaviors of the monolayers, which are composed of mixtures of DPPC and IPL at different molar ratios, indicate that with increasing amounts of IPL, the lipid losses from the interface induced by the presence of fibrinogen significantly decrease. It is also found that IPL is able to adsorb to monolayers formed in the presence of fibrinogen, whereas fibrinogen cannot penetrate the monolayers formed in the presence of IPL. These results indicate that by mimicking some of the interfacial properties of SP-B, this novel hybrid molecule is promising in terms of preventing fibrinogen adsorption and therefore resisting surfactant inactivation. PMID:25112907

Dilli, Gokce; Unsal, Hande; Uslu, Burcin; Aydogan, Nihal

2014-10-01

101

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01

102

An assessment of potential impact of alternative fluorocarbons on tropospheric ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs) such as CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2) are chemically inert in the troposphere, the hydrogen-containing halocarbons being considered as their replacements can, to a large extent, be removed in the troposphere by the HO radical. These alternative halocarbons include the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) 123 (CF3CHCl2), 141b (CFCl2CH3), 142b (CF2ClCH3), 22 (CHF2Cl), and 124 (CF3CHFCl) and the hydrofluorocarbons (HCFs) 134a (CF3CH2F), 152a (CHF2CH3) and 125 (CF3CHF2). Listed are the rate constants (k) for the HO radical reaction of these compounds and their estimated chemical lifetimes in the troposphere. In this table, values of the lifetimes of these selected HCFCs and HCFs are seen to vary by more than a factor of more than ten ranging from 1.6 years for HFC 152a and HCFC 125 to as long as 28 years for HFC 125. Clearly, from the standpoint of avoiding or minimizing impact on stratospheric O3, those halocarbons with short tropospheric lifetimes are the desirable alternates. However, potential environmental consequences of their degradation in the troposphere should be assessed and taken into account in the selection process.

Niki, Hiromi

1990-01-01

103

Surface kinetics and plasma equipment model for Si etching by fluorocarbon plasmas  

E-print Network

the properties of the bulk plasma. To address this coupling of bulk and surface processes the surface kinetics with the goal of combining plasma chemistry and surface chemistry in a self-consistent fashion. The SKM obtains processing is towards the use of low pressure, high plasma density etching reactors in which re- active

Kushner, Mark

104

Electron attachment to C{sub 2} fluorocarbon radicals at high temperature  

SciTech Connect

Thermal electron attachment to the radical species C{sub 2}F{sub 3} and C{sub 2}F{sub 5} has been studied over the temperature range 300890 K using the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique. Both radicals exclusively undergo dissociative attachment to yield F{sup ?}. The rate constant for C{sub 2}F{sub 5} shows little dependence over the temperature range, remaining ?4 10{sup ?9}?cm{sup 3}?s{sup ?1}. The rate constant for C{sub 2}F{sub 3} attachment rises steeply with temperature from 3 10{sup ?11} cm{sup 3} s{sup ?1} at 300?K to 1 10{sup ?9} cm{sup 3} s{sup ?1} at 890 K. The behaviors of both species at high temperature are in agreement with extrapolations previously made from data below 600?K using a recently developed kinetic modeling approach. Measurements were also made on C{sub 2}F{sub 3}Br and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}Br (used in this work as precursors to the radicals) over the same temperature range, and, for C{sub 2}F{sub 5}Br as a function of electron temperature. The attachment rate constants to both species rise with temperature following Arrhenius behavior. The attachment rate constant to C{sub 2}F{sub 5}Br falls with increasing electron temperature, in agreement with the kinetic modeling. The current data fall in line with past predictions of the kinetic modeling approach, again showing the utility of this simplified approach.

Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A., E-mail: afrl.rvborgmailbox@kirtland.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicle Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2013-11-14

105

Synthesis and comparative behaviour study of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon cationic surfactants in aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of perfluorinated cationic surfactants and their corresponding hydrocarbon ones whose general formula is CnX2n+1C(O)NH(CH2)3N+Me3, I?, with X=F, H and n=9, 11, have been synthesized via two steps. Their aggregative and surface-active properties were studied in aqueous solution using tensiometry and conductimetry. The critical micelle concentrations and the molecular areas at the air\\/water interface of fluorinated surfactants are lower

Thi Huong Viet Ngo; Christine Damas; Rgine Naejus; Robert Coudert

2010-01-01

106

Sources of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, Hydrofluorocarbons, and Fluorocarbons and Their Potential Emissions during the Next Twenty Five Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the potential for the replacement of CFCs for historic uses with substituting technologies. The potential production and emissions of the principal HCFCs and HFCs are calculated for the next 25 years. (LZ)

McCulloch, Archie

1994-01-01

107

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Specifications for Fluorocarbon and Other Refrigerants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...measuring the residue of a standard volume of refrigerant after evaporation. The refrigerant sample shall be evaporated at room temperature...determined by visual examination of the Goetz bulb prior to the evaporation of refrigerant. Presence of dirt, rust or other...

2013-07-01

108

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Specifications for Fluorocarbon and Other Refrigerants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...measuring the residue of a standard volume of refrigerant after evaporation. The refrigerant sample shall be evaporated at room temperature...determined by visual examination of the Goetz bulb prior to the evaporation of refrigerant. Presence of dirt, rust or other...

2010-07-01

109

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Specifications for Fluorocarbon and Other Refrigerants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...measuring the residue of a standard volume of refrigerant after evaporation. The refrigerant sample shall be evaporated at room temperature...determined by visual examination of the Goetz bulb prior to the evaporation of refrigerant. Presence of dirt, rust or other...

2011-07-01

110

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Specifications for Fluorocarbon and Other Refrigerants  

...measuring the residue of a standard volume of refrigerant after evaporation. The refrigerant sample shall be evaporated at room temperature...determined by visual examination of the Goetz bulb prior to the evaporation of refrigerant. Presence of dirt, rust or other...

2014-07-01

111

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Specifications for Fluorocarbon and Other Refrigerants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...measuring the residue of a standard volume of refrigerant after evaporation. The refrigerant sample shall be evaporated at room temperature...determined by visual examination of the Goetz bulb prior to the evaporation of refrigerant. Presence of dirt, rust or other...

2012-07-01

112

Effects of incorporation of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactants into perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion) membranes  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorinated ionomer membranes such as Nafion have numerous uses in both industrial chemical practice and in chemical research. Applications include the chloralkali process, H[sub 2]/O[sub 2] fuel cells, biomedical sensing, and other types of chemical sensors based on modified electrodes. Significant permeability improvements can be made to perfluorinated ionomer films by incorporating sulfonated surfactants of suitable size into the membrane microstructure. A variety of 20-[mu]m composite Nafion/surfactant membranes were prepared from DMF casting solutions containing Nafion and the sodium salts of perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid (perf-ButSO[sub 3]Na), perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid (perf-OctSO[sub 3]Na) and 1-octanesulfonic acid (OctSO[sub 3]Na). The time required for 50% extraction of the surfactants from the membranes into water was 1 min for OctSO[sub 3]Na, 5 min for perf-ButSO[sub 3]Na, and approximately 3 days for perf-OctSO[sub 3]Na. Extraction of perf-OctSO[sub 3]Na into isooctane contacting solutions was not observable over periods of days. For membranes containing surfactants and exchanged with silver(I) ion, 3-fold permeability improvements can be obtained for the separation of 1,5-hexadiene from 1-hexene and n-hexane without any decreases in separation factors. Observed flux improvements are larger than the increase in ion-exchange site density and are attributed to increased mobility of olefins between carrier sites due to the presence of specific surfactants. Results indicate that movement of olefins in Nafion occurs primarily through an interfacial region of the film structure. The ability of a surfactant to improve transport performance is dependent on its ability to partition into the interfacial region. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Rabago, R.; Noble, R.D.; Koval, C.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-07-01

113

Surface modification and metallization of fluorocarbon polymers by excimer laser processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface chemical modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene- co-hexafluoropropylene) films was carried out in hydrazine gas photolyzed with ArF excimer laser irradiation. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with water changed from 130 to 30 due to the reaction with hydrazine. Nitrogen on the surface was detected with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting that amino groups were introduced onto the surface. In addition, on the basis of hydrophilic behavior, we succeeded in selective-area electroless plating of nickel metal on the chemically modified surface.

Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

1993-12-01

114

Preparation, characterization, physical testing and performance of fluorocarbon membranes and separators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct fluorination method of converting carefully selected hydrocarbon substrates to fluorinated membranes was successfully applied to produce promising, novel membranes for electrochemical devices. A family of polymer blends was identified which permits wide latitude in the concentration of both crosslinks and carboxyl groups in hydrocarbon membranes. These membranes were successfully fluorinated and are potentially competitive with commercial membranes in performance, and potentially much cheaper in price.

Lagow, R. J.; Dumitru, E. T.

1982-01-01

115

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 16. THE FLUOROCARBON-HYDROGEN FLORIDE INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The materials of...

116

Effects of water-soluble spacers on the hydrophobic association of fluorocarbon modified polyacrylamide  

SciTech Connect

A number of acrylamide-acrylate copolymers were synthesized in which the acrylate (CH{sub 2}=CHCOO(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n}R{sub t}) is hydrophobic on account of the presence of a 1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl group (R{sub F}) connected to the acrylate via a-(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n} hydrophobic spacer (n=0-3). Copolymerization of the two comonomers was carried out in aqueous media in the presence of potassium perfluoro octanoate and acetone (10 vol%) and was initiated by sodium metabisufite and ammonium persulfate at 50{degrees}C. The Brookfield viscosities measured at 0.4 sec{sup {minus}1} as a function of comonomer molar content gave bell-shaped curves having maxima at .10-.15 mole% comonomer except for the comonomer without hydrophilic spacer (n=0) where the maximum is at .60 mole%. The viscosity maxima of the copolymers are quite dependent on the value of n giving the highest viscosities at n=3 (45,000 cp) that decreases value of n. The increased effectiveness of the longer spacers is attributed to decreased intermolecular excluded volume effects in the formation of the polymer assemblies.

Hwang, F.S.; Hogen-Esch, T.E. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

117

New fluorocarbon elastomers for seals for geothermal and other aggressive environments  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal brines at 600 F which contain metallic salts, H{sub 2}S, and hydrocarbons quickly degrade conventional hydrocarbon elastomers, and hydrolyse crosslinks. Carbon-carbon and carbon-fluorine bonds are expected to be superior, but no such elastomer is now commercially available. We have prepared crosslinked, perfluorocarbon elastomers by radiation crosslinking VDFHFP and TFEP (alternating) copolymers in film and sheet form, and then converting C-H bonds to C-F bonds with elemental Fluorine gas. EPLM elastomers became brittle on fluorination. The best products exceeded 100 days survival at 300 C in simulated geothermal brine. Tensile, elongation, solvent swelling, and TCA methods were used to study the products.

Dumitru, Earl T.; Lagow, R.J.; Kukacka L.E.

1982-10-08

118

Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry: the role of fluorocarbons in metabolite analysis and yoctomole level sensitivity.  

PubMed

Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) has become an effective technology for generating ions in the gas phase, providing high sensitivity and imaging capabilities for small molecules, metabolites, drugs, and drug metabolites. Specifically, laser desorption from the nanostructure surfaces results in efficient energy transfer, low background chemical noise, and the nondestructive release of analyte ions into the gas phase. The modification of nanostructured surfaces with fluorous compounds, either covalent or non-covalent, has played an important role in gaining high efficiency/sensitivity by facilitating analyte desorption from the nonadhesive surfaces, and minimizing the amount of laser energy required. In addition, the hydrophobic fluorinated nanostructure surfaces have aided in concentrating deposited samples into fine micrometer-sized spots, a feature that further facilitates efficient desorption/ionization. These fluorous nanostructured surfaces have opened up NIMS to very broad applications including enzyme activity assays and imaging, providing low background, efficient energy transfer, nondestructive analyte ion generation, super-hydrophobic surfaces, and ultra-high detection sensitivity. PMID:25361674

Kurczy, Michael E; Northen, Trent R; Trauger, Sunia A; Siuzdak, Gary

2015-01-01

119

Proceedings of the 1993 Non-Fluorocarbon Insulation, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

120

Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding contact  

E-print Network

gears, latches, mirrors, etc. and the integration of those components with on-board actuators. From deposited monolayers has become routine for reduction in tribological forces, and a number of surface

Krim, Jacqueline

121

Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

2007-01-01

122

Estimation of Flammability Limits of Selected Fluorocarbons with F(sub 2) and CIF(sub3)  

SciTech Connect

During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F(sub 2) and CIF(sub 3). Replacement of CFC-114 with non-ozone-depleting substitutes such as c-C(sub 4)F(sub 8) and C(sub 4)F(sub 10) is planned. Consequently, in the future, these too must be considered potential ''fuels'' in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should ignite? Experimental data on these systems are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a literature search for relevant data was conducted, and mathematical models were developed to serve as tools for predicting potential detonation pressures and estimating (based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems) the composition limits of flammability for these systems. The models described and documented in this report are enhanced versions of similar models developed in 1992.

Trowbridge, L.D.

1999-09-01

123

Direct fluorination of nitrogen-containing ladder polymers, two new [open quotes]graphitic[close quotes] fluorocarbon polymers  

SciTech Connect

Paracyanogen and pyrolyzed poly(acrylonitrile) have been perfluorinated using elemental fluorine and have retained their polymeric fused ring structures. The two new materials produced by this method were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electron impact mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, iodometric titration, and thermogravimetric analysis. Some chemical and physical properties are discussed as well as several possible applications in light of the discussed properties of these materials. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Kampa, J.J.; Lagow, R.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-04-01

124

Tropospheric reactions of the haloalkyl radicals formed from hydroxyl radical reaction with a series of alternative fluorocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present assessment, the hydrogen containing halocarbons being considered as alternatives to the the presently used chlorofluorocarbons are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) 123 (CF3CHCl2), 141b (CFCl2CH3), 142b (CF2ClCH3), 22 (CHF2Cl) and 124 (CF3CHFCl) and the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 134a (CF3CH2F), 152a (CHF2CH3) and 125 (CF3CHF2). All of these HCFCs and HFCs will react with the hydroxyl (OH) radical in the troposphere, giving rise to haloalkyl radicals which then undergo a complex series of reactions in the troposphere. These reactions of the haloalkyl radicals formed from the initial OH radical reactions with the HCFCs and HFCs under tropospheric conditions are the focus here.

Atkinson, Roger

1990-01-01

125

Effects of water-soluble spacers on the hydrophobic association of fluorocarbon-modified poly(acrylamide)  

SciTech Connect

A number of acrylamide-acrylate copolymers were synthesized in which the acrylate (CH{sub 2}{double_bond}CHCOO(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n}R) is hydrophobic on account of the presence of a 1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl group or a dodecyl group connected to the acrylate via a {minus}(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub n} hydrophilic spacer (n = 0--3). Copolymerization of these monomers was initiated by sodium metabisulfite and ammonium persulfate at 60 C in aqueous media in the presence of surfactants and acetone. The low shear viscosities of 0.5 wt % solutions of these copolymers as a function of comonomer molar content gave bell-shaped curves having maxima at 0.10--0.60 mol % comonomer, consistent with competitive inter- and intramolecular hydrophobic association. The copolymers having perfluorocarbon pendent groups gave higher viscosities at lower comonomer content. Furthermore, for both the hydrocarbon- and perfluorocarbon-containing copolymers the viscosities increased, and the comonomer content at the viscosity maximum decreased, with increasing spacer length. The increased effectiveness of the longer spacers is attributed to entropy effects in the formation of polymer assemblies.

Hwang, F.S.; Hogen-Esch, T.E. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-04-24

126

Effect of fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer films on sidewall adhesion and friction of surface micromachines with impacting and sliding contact interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A self-assembled monolayer film consisting of fluoro-octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) was vapor-phase deposited on Si(100) substrates and polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) surface micromachines. The hydrophobic behavior and structural composition of the FOTS film deposited on Si(100) were investigated by goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of contact pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and impact/sliding cycles on the adhesive and friction behavior of uncoated and FOTS-coated polysilicon micromachines (referred to as the Si and FOTS/Si micromachines, respectively) were investigated under controlled loading and environmental conditions. FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated much lower and stable adhesion than Si micromachines due to the highly hydrophobic and conformal FOTS film. Contrary to Si micromachines, sidewall adhesion of FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated a weak dependence on relative humidity, temperature, and impact cycles. In addition, FOTS/Si micromachines showed low and stable adhesion and low static friction for significantly more sliding cycles than Si micromachines. The adhesive and static friction characteristics of Si and FOTS/Si micromachines are interpreted in the context of physicochemical surface changes, resulting in the increase of the real area of contact and a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of the surface chemical characteristics caused by nanoscale surface smoothening and the removal of the organic residue (Si micromachines) or the FOTS film (FOTS/Si micromachines) during repetitive impact and oscillatory sliding of the sidewall surfaces.

Xiang, H.; Komvopoulos, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-06-14

127

Reaction relationships in the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the relative stability of rare-earth element phosphates and fluorocarbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textural relationships occurring in a range of settings from the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China, indicate\\u000a reaction between monazite [(REE)PO4], bastnsite [(REE)(CO3)F] and apatite. Within dolomite marble-hosted ores monazite grains occur surrounded by zones of intergrown bastnsite and\\u000a apatite. In fluoritised dolomite marble-hosted amphibole-calcite veins, co-existing apatite and bastnsite are separated by\\u000a zones of monazite plus calcite, whilst

M. P. Smith; P. Henderson; Zhang Peishan

1999-01-01

128

Effect of Low-frequency Power on F, CF2 Relative Density and F/CF2 Ratio in Fluorocarbon Dual-Frequency Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of low-frequency power on F, CF2 relative density and F/CF2 ratio, in C2F6, C4F8 and CHF3 dual-frequency capacitively couple discharge driven by the power of 13.56 MHz/2 MHz, was investigated by using optical emission spectroscopy. High F, CF2 relative density and high F/CF2 ratio were obtained in a CHF3 plasma. But for C2F6 and C4F8 plasmas, the F, CF2 relative density and F/CF2 ratio all decreased significantly due to the difference in both reactive paths and reactive energy. The increase of LF power caused simultaneous increase of F and CF2 radical relative densities in C4F8 and CHF3 plasmas, but led to increase of F with the decrease in CF2 relative densities in C2F6 plasma due to the increase of lower energy electrons and the decrease of higher energy electrons in electron energy distribution function (EEDF).

Huang, Hongwei; Ye, Chao; Xu, Yijun; Yuan, Yuan; Shi, Guofeng; Ning, Zhaoyuan

2010-10-01

129

The Influence of Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Acyl Groups at the Surface of Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II on the Kinetics of Denaturation by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the influence of acylation of the Lys-?-NH3+ groups of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA, E.C. 4.2.1.1) to Lys-?-NHCOR (R = -CH3, -CH2CH3, and -CH(CH3)2, -CF3) on the rate of denaturation of this protein in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Analysis of the rates suggested separate effects due to electrostatic charge and hydrophobic interactions. Rates of denaturation (kAc,n) of each series of acylated derivatives depended on the number of acylations (n). Plots of log kAc,n vs. n followed U-shaped curves. Within each series of derivatives, rates of denaturation decreased as n increased to ~7; this decrease was compatible with increasingly unfavorable electrostatic interactions between SDS and protein. In this range of n, rates of denaturation also depended on the choice of the acyl group as n increased to ~7, in a manner compatible with favorable hydrophobic interactions between SDS and the -NHCOR groups. As n increased in the range 7 < n < 14 however, rates of denaturation stayed approximately constant; analysis suggested these rates were compatible with an increasingly important contribution to denaturation that depended both on the net negative charge of the protein and on the hydrophobicity of the R group. The mechanism of denaturation thus seems to change with the extent of acylation of the protein. For derivatives with the same net electrostatic charge, rates of denaturation increased with the acyl group (by a factor of ~3 for n ~ 14) in the order CH3CONH- < CH3CH2CONH- < (CH3)2CHCONH- < CF3CONH-. These results suggested that the hydrophobicity of CF3CONH- is slightly greater (by a factor of < 2) than that of RHCONH- similar in surface area. PMID:21182314

Lee, Andrew; Mirica, Katherine A.; Whitesides, George M.

2011-01-01

130

Effect of fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer films on sidewall adhesion and friction of surface micromachines with impacting and sliding contact interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-assembled monolayer film consisting of fluoro-octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) was vapor-phase deposited on Si(100) substrates and polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) surface micromachines. The hydrophobic behavior and structural composition of the FOTS film deposited on Si(100) were investigated by goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of contact pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and impact/sliding cycles on the adhesive and friction behavior of uncoated and FOTS-coated polysilicon micromachines (referred to as the Si and FOTS/Si micromachines, respectively) were investigated under controlled loading and environmental conditions. FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated much lower and stable adhesion than Si micromachines due to the highly hydrophobic and conformal FOTS film. Contrary to Si micromachines, sidewall adhesion of FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated a weak dependence on relative humidity, temperature, and impact cycles. In addition, FOTS/Si micromachines showed low and stable adhesion and low static friction for significantly more sliding cycles than Si micromachines. The adhesive and static friction characteristics of Si and FOTS/Si micromachines are interpreted in the context of physicochemical surface changes, resulting in the increase of the real area of contact and a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of the surface chemical characteristics caused by nanoscale surface smoothening and the removal of the organic residue (Si micromachines) or the FOTS film (FOTS/Si micromachines) during repetitive impact and oscillatory sliding of the sidewall surfaces.

Xiang, H.; Komvopoulos, K.

2013-06-01

131

Gas-phase reactivity of lanthanide cations with fluorocarbons: C-F versus C-H and C-C bond activation  

SciTech Connect

The gas-phase reactivity of the fluorinated hydrocarbons CF{sub 4}, CHF{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}F, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, 1,1-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}F{sub 2}, and C{sub 6}F{sub 6} with the lanthanide cations Ce{sup +}, Pr{sup +}, Sm{sup +}, Ho{sup +}, Tm{sup +}, and Yb{sup +} and the reactivity of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}F with all lanthanide cations Ln{sup +} (Ln = La-Lu, with the exception of Pm{sup +}) have been examined by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The perfluorinated compounds tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane as well as trifluoromethane do not react with any lanthanide cation. Selective activation of the strong C-F bonds in fluoromethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, hexafluorobenzene, and fluorobenzene appears as a general reaction scheme along the 4f row. Experimental evidence is given for a `harpoon`-like mechanism for the F atom abstraction process which operates via an initial electron transfer from the lanthanide cation to the fluorinated substrate in the encounter complex Ln{sup +}RF. The most reactive lanthanides La{sup +}, Ce{sup +}, Gd{sup +}, and Tb{sup +} and also the formal closed-shell species Lu{sup +} exhibit additional C-H and C-C bond activation pathways in the reaction with fluorobenzene, namely dehydrohalogenation as well as loss of a neutral acetylene molecule. In the case of Tm{sup +} and Yb{sup +} the formation of neutral LnF{sub 3} is observed in a multistep process via C-C coupling and charge transfer. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Cornehl, H.H.; Hornung, G.; Schwarz, H. [Technischen Unibersitaet Berlin (Germany)] [Technischen Unibersitaet Berlin (Germany)

1996-10-16

132

ESCA study of several fluorocarbon polymers exposed to atomic oxygen in low earth orbit or within or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) spectra of films of Tedlar, tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (in the form of a Teflon FEP coating on Kapton H, i.e., Kapton F), and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon or Teflon TFE), exposed to atomic oxygen O(3P) either in LEO on the STS-8 Space Shuttle or within or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma, were compared. The major difference in surface chemistry of Tedlar induced by the various exposures to O(3P) was a much larger uptake of oxygen when etched either in or out of the glow of an O2 plasma than when etched in LEO. In contrast, Kapton F exhibited very little surface oxidation during any of the three different exposures to O(3P), while Teflon was scarcely oxidized.

Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

1989-01-01

133

Study of effect of H2 addition on the production of fluorocarbon radicals in H2/C4F8 inductively coupled plasma via optical emission spectroscopy actinometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C4F8 plasma with the addition of H2 is generated by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. The relative densities of CF, CF2, H and F radicals are determined by actinometric optical emission spectroscopy (AOES) as a function of the gas flow rate ratio R=H2/(H2+C4F8) at a pressure of 0.8 Pa and an input r.f. power of 400W, while that of HF is measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The results show that plasma activity increases firstly and then decreases with increasing R. As the gas flow rate ratio R changes from 0 to 0.625, relative densities of both CF and CF2 decrease and the relative [CF] has a similar tendency as the calculated [CF], indicating that CF radicals are generated mainly by the electron impact dissociation of CF2 radicals. Production of HF is also discussed.

Huang, Song; Xin, Yu; Ning, Zhao-Yuan

2005-08-01

134

The effect of added acetylene on the rf discharge chemistry of C2F6. A mechanistic model for fluorocarbon plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of added acetylene on the rf discharge chemistry of C2F6 was studied as a function of acetylene concentration. The principle products are HF, CF4, CHF3, C2F4, and CF2 as determined by mass spectrometry. Under conditions typically used for etching SiO2, residence time and power density control the amount of conversion of feed gas to products. Large amounts of polymeric material, with composition (CF)n, are formed in the discharge zone. A chemical model for flourocarbon discharges is proposed, which assumes an equilibrium between dissociation and recombination of flourocarbon fragments and flourine atoms. Polymerization and selective etching of Si and SiO2 in flourocarbon dishcarges containing oxygen or hydrogen additives is interpreted in terms of the proposed model.

Truesdale, E. A.; Smolinsky, G.; Mayer, T. M.

1980-05-01

135

Atmospheric Halocarbons, Hydrocarbons, and Sulfur Hexafluoride: Global Distributions, Sources, and Sinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of fluorocarbon-12 and fluorocarbon-11 is used to establish a relatively fast interhemispheric exchange rate of 1 to 1.2 years. Atmospheric residence times of 65 to 70 years for fluorocarbon-12 and 40 to 45 years for fluorocarbon-11 best fit the observational data. These residence times rule out the possibility of any significant missing sinks that may prevent these

H. B. Singh; L. J. Salas; H. Shigeishi; E. Scribner

1979-01-01

136

Direct Liquid Cooling of High Flux Micro and Nano Electronic Components Boiling, evaporation, jet, and spray cooling, by suitable liquids such as fluorocarbons, might serve to control chip hot-spots and overheating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inexorable rise in chip power dissipation and emergence of on-chip hot spots with heat fluxes approaching 1k W\\/cm 2 has turned renewed attention to direct cooling with dielectric liquids. Use of dielectric liquids in intimate contact with the heat dissipating surfaces eliminates the deleterious effects of solid-solid interface resistances and harnesses the highly efficient phase-change processes to the critical

Avram Bar-Cohen; Mehmet Arik; Michael Ohadi

137

Plasma-assisted deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films onto polytetrafluoroethylene for biomedical applications.  

E-print Network

??With growing demand for cardiovascular implants, improving the performance of artificial blood-contacting devices is a task that deserves close attention. Current prostheses made of fluorocarbon (more)

Foursa, Mikhail

2007-01-01

138

Teflon AF Composite Materials in Membrane Separation and Molecular Recognition in Fluorous Media.  

E-print Network

??Fluorocarbons are highly non-polar and notoriously poor solvents. The unique nature of fluoropolymers makes them valuable in partitioning based separations and sensing. Molecular diffusion and (more)

Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

139

40 CFR 414.30 - Applicability; description of the other fibers subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...organic fibers including those fibers and fiber groups listed below. Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Acrylic Fibers (85% Polyacrylonitrile) *Cellulose Acetate Fibers *Fluorocarbon (Teflon) Fibers...

2012-07-01

140

40 CFR 414.30 - Applicability; description of the other fibers subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...organic fibers including those fibers and fiber groups listed below. Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Acrylic Fibers (85% Polyacrylonitrile) *Cellulose Acetate Fibers *Fluorocarbon (Teflon) Fibers...

2013-07-01

141

Synthesis of associating poly(acrylic acid) in supercritical carbon dioxide and its solution properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophobically associating polymers have been synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide by copolymerization of acrylic acid with different amounts of acrylate with hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups. It was found that conversion of hydrocarbon comonomers was above 95% whereas that for fluorocarbon comonomers was only about 50%. In addition, large amounts of hydrophobic groups could be easily introduced to poly(acrylic acid) by

Zhang Bin; Hongqi Hu; Mingcai Chen; Weiqu Liu

2004-01-01

142

Survival of Mammals Breathing Organic Liquids Equilibrated with Oxygen at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because oxygen and carbon dioxide are very soluble in certain silicone oils and fluorocarbon liquids, these liquids will support respiration of mammals. Mice and cats respiring silicone oil die shortly after return to air breathing, while those breathing fluorocarbon survive for weeks. The respiration of mice is optimally supported by these organic liquids at about 20 degrees C. In cats,

Leland C. Clark Jr.; Frank Gollan

1966-01-01

143

High performance rolling element bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

144

Utilization of oxygen difluoride for syntheses of fluoropolymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction oxygen difluoride, OF2, with ethylenically unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds is examined. Depending upon the fluorocarbon material and reaction conditions, OF2 can chain extend fluoropolyenes, convert functional perfluorovinyl groups to acyl fluoride and/or epoxide groups, and act as a monomer for an addition type copolymerization with diolefins.

Toy, M. S. (inventor)

1976-01-01

145

Method of bonding diamonds in a matrix and articles thus produced  

DOEpatents

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, G.W.

1981-01-27

146

Safety improvement of lithium ion batteries by organo-fluorine compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stability, electrochemical oxidation stability and charge\\/discharge characteristics of natural graphite powder were investigated by mixing of five fluoro-carbonates with 1mol\\/L LiClO4EC\\/DEC\\/PC (1:1:1vol.). DSC study revealed that thermal stability of the electrolyte solution was improved by mixing of fluoro-carbonates by 10.033.3vol.%. Electrochemical oxidation stability was also improved. Oxidation currents for Pt electrode significantly decreased by mixing of fluoro-carbonates. In the

Yuki Matsuda; Tsuyoshi Nakajima; Yoshimi Ohzawa; Meiten Koh; Akiyoshi Yamauchi; Michiru Kagawa; Hirokazu Aoyama

2011-01-01

147

Long-lasting solid-polymer electrolytic hygrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device consists of hollow tube node of oxidation-resistant sulfonated fluorocarbon polymer. Tube absorbs moisture from air passing across inner and outer surfaces, causing change in polymer conductance. Change is related to change in water content in gas sample.

Lawson, D. D.

1978-01-01

148

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

E-print Network

of residual contaminants on absorbance. The pu- rification processes are monitored by gas chromatography resonance spectroscopy (for molecular structure), gel permeation chromatography (for molecular weight), Karl; transpar- ency; fluorocarbon; fluoroether. Paper 014013 received Aug. 4, 2003; revised manuscript received

Rollins, Andrew M.

149

Search for plutonium-244 tracks in mountain pass bastnaesite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

WE have found that bastnaesite, a rare earth fluorocarbonate, from the Precambrian Mountain Pass deposit has an apparent Cretaceous fission track age, and hence does not reveal any anomalous fission tracks due to 244Pu. ?? 1972 Nature Publishing Group.

Fleischer, R.L.; Naeser, C.W.

1972-01-01

150

Comprehensive bioimaging with fluorinated nanoparticles using breathable liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorocarbons are lipophobic and non-polar molecules that exhibit remarkable biocompatibility, with applications in liquid ventilation and synthetic blood. The unique properties of these compounds have also enabled mass spectrometry imaging of tissues where the fluorocarbons act as a Teflon-like coating for nanostructured surfaces to assist in desorption/ionization. Here we report fluorinated gold nanoparticles (f-AuNPs) designed to facilitate nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry. Irradiation of f-AuNPs results in the release of the fluorocarbon ligands providing a driving force for analyte desorption. The f-AuNPs allow for the mass spectrometry analysis of both lipophilic and polar (central carbon) metabolites. An important property of AuNPs is that they also act as contrast agents for X-ray microtomography and electron microscopy, a feature we have exploited by infusing f-AuNPs into tissue via fluorocarbon liquids to facilitate multimodal (molecular and anatomical) imaging.

Kurczy, Michael E.; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Schuyler, Adam M.; Lalwani, Kush; Santidrian, Antonio F.; David, John M.; Giddabasappa, Anand; Roberts, Amanda J.; Olivos, Hernando J.; OBrien, Peter J.; Franco, Lauren; Fields, Matthew W.; Paris, Liliana P.; Friedlander, Martin; Johnson, Caroline H.; Epstein, Adrian A.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Felding, Brunhilde H.; Patti, Gary J.; Spilker, Mary E.; Siuzdak, Gary

2015-01-01

151

Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers  

E-print Network

The development of fluorocarbon resin covered tubes has advanced to the point where full scale marketing in connection with condensing heat exchangers has begun. Field installations show simple paybacks of one to one and a half years with resulting...

Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

1983-01-01

152

Comprehensive bioimaging with fluorinated nanoparticles using breathable liquids.  

PubMed

Fluorocarbons are lipophobic and non-polar molecules that exhibit remarkable biocompatibility, with applications in liquid ventilation and synthetic blood. The unique properties of these compounds have also enabled mass spectrometry imaging of tissues where the fluorocarbons act as a Teflon-like coating for nanostructured surfaces to assist in desorption/ionization. Here we report fluorinated gold nanoparticles (f-AuNPs) designed to facilitate nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry. Irradiation of f-AuNPs results in the release of the fluorocarbon ligands providing a driving force for analyte desorption. The f-AuNPs allow for the mass spectrometry analysis of both lipophilic and polar (central carbon) metabolites. An important property of AuNPs is that they also act as contrast agents for X-ray microtomography and electron microscopy, a feature we have exploited by infusing f-AuNPs into tissue via fluorocarbon liquids to facilitate multimodal (molecular and anatomical) imaging. PMID:25601659

Kurczy, Michael E; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Schuyler, Adam M; Lalwani, Kush; Santidrian, Antonio F; David, John M; Giddabasappa, Anand; Roberts, Amanda J; Olivos, Hernando J; O'Brien, Peter J; Franco, Lauren; Fields, Matthew W; Paris, Liliana P; Friedlander, Martin; Johnson, Caroline H; Epstein, Adrian A; Gendelman, Howard E; Wood, Malcolm R; Felding, Brunhilde H; Patti, Gary J; Spilker, Mary E; Siuzdak, Gary

2015-01-01

153

Earth's Endangered Ozone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are (1) a discussion of ozone chemistry; (2) the effects of nitrogen fertilizers, fluorocarbons, and high level aircraft on the ozone layer; and (3) the possible results of a decreasing ozone layer. (MR)

Panofsky, Hans A.

1978-01-01

154

Flame-resistant textiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

1980-01-01

155

Thermally resistant polymers for fuel tank sealants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conversion of fluorocarbon dicarboxylic acid to intermediates whose terminal functional groups permit polymerization is discussed. Resulting polymers are used as fuel tank sealers for jet fuels at elevated temperatures. Stability and fuel resistance of the prototype polymers is explained.

Webster, J. A.

1972-01-01

156

Preliminary Notes/Comments V.B. Graves/P.T. Spampinato  

E-print Network

the target system to the tunnel floor. 2. Concern over use of Teflon and whether cables may have fluorocarbons. a. Can Teflon be replaced and are cables halogen-free? b. IS-23 is the CERN specification

McDonald, Kirk

157

Superhydrophobic lignocellulosic wood fiber/mineral networks.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic wood fibers and mineral fillers (calcium carbonate, talc, or clay) were used to prepare paper samples (handsheets), which were then subjected to a fluorocarbon plasma treatment. The plasma treatment was performed in two steps: first using oxygen plasma to create nanoscale roughness on the surface of the handsheet, and second fluorocarbon deposition plasma to add a layer of low surface energy material. The wetting behavior of the resulting fiber/mineral network (handsheet) was determined. It was found the samples that were subjected to oxygen plasma etching prior to fluorocarbon deposition exhibit superhydrophobicity with low contact angle hysteresis. On the other hand, those that were only treated by fluorocarbon plasma resulted in "sticky" hydrophobicity behavior. Moreover, as the mineral content in the handsheet increases, the hydrophobicity after plasma treatment decreases. Finally, it was found that although the plasma-treated handsheets show excellent water repellency they are not good water vapor barriers. PMID:23957774

Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

2013-09-25

158

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Swelling of Fluorinated and Hydrocarbon Surfactant Templates in Mesoporous Silica Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of compressed CO2 in hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon regions of concentrated surfactant mesophases are interpreted from differences in the CO2-processed pore expansion of mesoporous silica thin films templated by three surfactants containing varying degrees of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon functionality. Ordered silica thin films are synthesized for the first time using the 16-carbon (C16) partly fluorinated surfactant, 11,11,12,12,13,13,14,14,15,15,16,16,16-tridecafluorocetyl pyridinium bromide

Kaustav Ghosh; Hans-Joachim Lehmler; Stephen E. Rankin; Barbara L. Knutson

159

Fluorophilicity of alkyl and polyfluoroalkyl nicotinic acid ester prodrugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorophilicity of a series of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon-functionalized nicotinic acid esters (nicotinates) is measured from their partitioning behavior (logKp) in the biphasic solvent system of perfluoro(methylcyclohexane) (PFMC) and toluene. The chain length of the hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon alkyl group of the ester ranges from one to twelve carbon atoms. Knowledge of the fluorophilicity of these solutes is relevant to

Vivian Ojogun; Barbara L. Knutson; Sandhya Vyas; Hans-Joachim Lehmler

2010-01-01

160

Encapsulation and Release of Amphotericin B from an ABC Triblock Fluorous Copolymer  

PubMed Central

Purpose PEG-phospholipid-based micelles have been successfully used for the solubilization of several hydrophobic drugs but generally lack sustained stability in blood. Our novel PEG-Fluorocarbon-DSPE polymers were designed to increase stability and improve time-release properties of drug-loaded micelles. Methods Novel ABC fluorous copolymers were synthesized, characterized, and used for encapsulation release of amphotericin B. FRET studies were used to study micelle stability. Results The micelles formed by the new polymers showed lower critical micelle concentrations and higher viscosity cores compared with those formed by the polymers lacking the fluorous block. FRET studies indicated that fluorocarbon-containing micelles had increased stability in the presence of human serum. Physicochemical properties and in vitro release profile of the micelles loaded with Amphotericin B (AmB) were studied. Conclusions The effect of PEG length and fluorocarbon incorporation were investigated. The shorter hydrophilic PEG-2K induced greater stability than PEG-5K by decreasing the proportion of hydrophilic block of the polymer. The fluorocarbon placed between hydrophilic and hydrophobic block formed a fluorous shell contributing to the enhanced thermodynamic stability of micelles and to the drug sustained release. Polymer mPEG2K-F10-DSPE, bearing both a fluorocarbon block and a shorter mPEG, showed the greatest stability and the longest half-life for AmB release. PMID:21739321

Jee, Jun-Pil; McCoy, Aaron; Mecozzi, Sandro

2011-01-01

161

Synchrotron radiation studies of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) photochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with monochromatic photons in the energy range 25 eV < hv < 1,000 eV protects the surface against alkali etching used to prepare the surface for adhesion. Photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of neutral fluorocarbon fragments evolved during irradiation have been correlated with the cross-linking kinetics and subsequent etch resistance. Both an increase in the fluorocarbon desorption rate and a decrease in the radiation dose required to achieve a given etch resistance are found for photon energies just above the F(1s) binding energy. Simple kinetic models are used to explain both the initial prompt onset and subsequent linear rise in the fluorocarbon PSD profiles. Mechanistic aspects affecting the efficiency of cross-linking and the use of PSD to monitor this near-surface photochemistry are discussed.

Rye, R.R.; Shinn, N.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

162

Macromolecule formation in low density CF4 plasmas: The influence of H2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High molecular weight fluorocarbon species are regarded as important contributors to the nucleation of films and particulates in fluorocarbon plasmas. The chemical reaction mechanisms by which fluorocarbon macromolecules form within a plasma are generally unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, experiments were conducted in a rf capacitively coupled discharge in a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell. The relationships between macromolecule growth and plasma pressure, power, flow rate, and the fraction of H2 in the CF4 gas feed are identified. Macromolecule growth was found to increase with increased pressure and rf power, and decreased flow rate. A set of electron-induced dissociation and radical-recombination reactions are simulated using Chemkin-Aurora, a commercially available plasma chemistry model, and are in good agreement with the experimental results of macromolecule growth. We show that a primary mechanism by which fluorocarbon macromolecules form in a plasma occurs by electron-induced dissociation of a fluoroalkane to produce a fluoroalkyl radical and a fluorine atom, followed by a three-body radical-radical recombination reaction with CF3. Hydrogen is shown to have a profound effect on this reaction sequence by reducing the gas phase atomic fluorine concentration through the formation of HF which in turn increases the CF3 concentration available to participate in the macromolecule growth process. At moderate levels of hydrogen in the feed gas (<20%), macromolecule growth is directly correlated with the fraction of hydrogen in the feed gas. At high concentrations of hydrogen, hydrofluorocarbon and hydrocarbon growth occurs in the plasma at the expense of fluorocarbon macromolecule growth. The conditions under which the formation of these species occurs is consistent with observations in the literature of dramatic reductions in silicon dioxide etching rate. The transition between the formation of fluorocarbon macromolecules and hydrocarbon species in a CF4/H2 plasma is shown to be fundamental to understanding the growth process of each class of species within the plasma.

Schabel, M. J.; Peterson, T. W.; Muscat, A. J.

2003-02-01

163

Hydrophobic-induced Surface Reorganization: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Nanodroplet on Perfluorocarbon Self-Assembled Monolayers  

PubMed Central

We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of water droplets on self-assembled monolayers of perfluorocarbon molecules. The interactions between the water droplet and the hydrophobic fluorocarbon surface were studied by systematically changing the molecular surface coverage and the mobility of the tethered head groups of the surface chain molecules. The microscopic contact angles were determined for different fluorocarbon surface densities. The contact angle at a nanometer length scale does not show a large change with the surface density. The structure of the droplets was studied by looking at the water density profiles and water penetration near the hydrophobic surface. At surface densities near close packed coverage of fluorocarbons, the water density shows an oscillating pattern near the boundary with a robust layered structure. As the surface density decreased and more water molecules penetrated into the fluorocarbon surface, the ordering of the water molecules at the boundary became less pronounced and the layered density structure became diffuse. The water droplet is found to induce the interfacial surface molecules to rearrange and form unique topological structures that minimize the unfavorable water-surface contacts. The local density of the fluorocarbon molecules right below the water droplet is measured to be higher than the density outside the droplet. The density difference increases as the overall surface density decreases. Two different surface morphologies emerge from the water-induced surface reorganization over the range of surface coverage explored in the study. For surface densities near closed packed monolayer coverage, the height of the fluorocarbons is maximum at the center of the droplet and minimum at the water-vapor-surface triple junction, generating a convex surface morphology under the droplet. For lower surface densities, on the other hand, the height of the fluorocarbon surface becomes maximal at and right outside the water-vapor-surface contact line and decreases quickly towards the center of the droplet, forming a concave shape of the surface. The interplay between the fluorocarbon packing and the water molecules is found to have profound consequences in many aspects of surface-water interactions, including water depletion and penetration, hydrogen bonding, and surface morphologies. PMID:20514368

Park, Sung Hyun; Carignano, Marcelo A.; Nap, Rikkert J.; Szleifer, Igal

2010-01-01

164

Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, fluoroacrylate homopolymers and fluorinated telechelic ionomers were shown to increase the viscosity of carbon dioxide by a factor of 3--4 at concentrations of 2--3 at concentrations of 4--5 wt%. This report details the findings for several new types of carbon dioxide thickening candidates. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfonated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bounding compounds were evaluated.

Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

2000-02-02

165

614 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2004 Spray Cooling Using Multiple Nozzles: Visualization  

E-print Network

-temperature boiling point dielectric liquid compatible with electronics (e.g., fluorocarbons) is an attractive option transfer rates much higher than can be attained in pool boiling (typical CHF for pool boiling of FC-72 is W cooling with water [1], [2]. Up to 100 W/cm have been observed using FC-72 [3]­[5]. As a result

Kim, Jungho

166

Comparative description of PFAA developmental toxicity: An update  

EPA Science Inventory

The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of fluorocarbons consisting of a perfluorinated carbon tail (typically 4-12 carbons in length) and an acidic functional moiety, usually carboxylate or sulfonate. These compounds have excellent surface tension reducing properties and h...

167

Water-based intumescent paint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Article discusses fire-resistant water-based paints made by adding intumescing agents to fluorocarbon coatings. Since these paints are water-based, they do not pollute atmosphere as they dry and can be used in closed-loop air-recirculation system in spacecraft and submarines.

Sauers, D. G.; Nannelli, P.

1979-01-01

168

Dielectric Behavior of the Coolant for a Gas Insulated HVDC Thyristor Valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to report on studies made on a fullscale model of the coolant system for a gas insulated, fluorocarbon liquid cooled HVDC thyristor valve. Confidence in the selection of the coolant system and its associated dielectric containment structure stemmed from the parametric study of the coolant, and the more than adequate dielectric strength of the

Heinz Jaster; Roy Nakata; Nirmal Singh

1978-01-01

169

Simulation of silicon dry etching through a mask in low pressure fluorine-based plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion beam assisted etching of silicon through a mask in a low pressure fluorocarbon plasma is considered. The two-dimensional profiles of etched grooves are calculated using a proposed model involving a function of mask size, the fluxes of incident chemically active and non-active species from the plasma and bombarding ions. The model also includes the processes of adsorption, heterogeneous

R Knizikevi?ius; A Galdikas; A Grigonis; L Pranevi?ius; Rutk?nien

1996-01-01

170

Materials degradation and fatigue under extreme conditions. Final report, 1 April 1994-31 August 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This AFOSR URI addressed complex research problems of materials degradation and fatigue in aerospace structures in severe or extreme environments. A better understanding of materials degradation and flaw initiation dynamics was achieved through a multi-disciplinary research program encompassing chemistry, surface physics, materials science and mechanics, both experimental and theoretical. The Subprojects were as follows: (1) Surface Induced Degradation of Fluorocarbon

1997-01-01

171

RETENTION OF HALOCARBONS ON A HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE EPOXIDE-MODIFIED GRAPHITIZED CARBON BLACK - IV. PROPANE- BASED COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The retention characteristics of 25 propane-based bromofluorocarbon, chlorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon, and fluorocarbon fluids have been studied as a function of temperature on a stationary phase consisting of a 5% (m/m) coating of a low-molecular-mass polymer of hexafluoropropyl...

172

Demonstrating a Lack of Reactivity Using a Teflon-Coated Pan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the chemical resistance of polytetrafluoroethene to mineral acids using an ordinary Teflon-coated frying pan. The demonstration can also be used to lead to a discussion of the long lifetimes of fluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere and their roles in the breakdown of the ozone layer. (AIM)

Richmond, Thomas G.

1995-01-01

173

Z .Sensors and Actuators B 58 1999 486490 www.elsevier.nlrlocatersensorb  

E-print Network

Z .Sensors and Actuators B 58 1999 486­490 www.elsevier.nlrlocatersensorb Silicon carbide based semiconductor sensor for the detection of fluorocarbons W. Moritz a,) , V. Fillipov b , A. Vasiliev b , A the substantial role for the sensor3 detection principal. q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved

Moritz, Werner

174

improving maser frequency stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen maser frequency standard is more stable by addition of parallel pyrex capillary tube array collimator. With collimator, maser line width has been made as narrow as 0.24 hertz representing fivefold improvement over maser without collimator. Fluorocarbon coating in tubes virtually eliminates energy loss in collimator.

Crampton, S. B.

1980-01-01

175

Manifold microchannel heat sinks: isothermal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analyses of manifold microchannel (MMC) heat sinks were performed. The MMC differs from a traditional microchannel heat sink in that the how length is greatly reduced to a small fraction of the total length of the heat sink. Alternating inlet and outlet channels guide the coolant to and from the microchannels. A silicon heat sink cooled by fluorocarbon liquid

David Copeland; Masud Behnia; Wataru Nakayama

1997-01-01

176

Electronic modules easily separated from heat sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal heat sink and electronic modules bonded to a thermal bridge can be easily cleaved for removal of the modules for replacement or repair. A thin film of grease between a fluorocarbon polymer film on the metal heat sink and an adhesive film on the modules acts as the cleavage plane.

1965-01-01

177

Combustion of PTFE: The effects of gravity on ultrafine particle generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to obtain an understanding of the effect of gravity on the toxicity of ultrafine particle and gas phase materials produced when fluorocarbon polymers are thermally degraded or burned. The motivation for the project is to provide a basic technical foundation on which policies for spacecraft health and safety with regard to fire and polymers can be formulated.

McKinnon, Thomas; Todd, Paul; Oberdorster, Gunter

1996-01-01

178

Noninvasive picosecond ultrasonic detection of ultrathin interfacial layers: CFx at the AVSi interface  

E-print Network

- ticed in manufacturing, requiring removal before contact metallization. Conventional ultrasonicNoninvasive picosecond ultrasonic detection of ultrathin interfacial layers: CFx at the AVSi ultrasonics technique has been used to detect interfacial fluorocarbon (CF,) layers as thin as 0.5 nm between

Rubloff, Gary W.

179

Liquid breathing - Prevention of pulmonary arterial-venous shunting during acceleration.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dependent pulmonary atelectasis, arterial-venous shunting, and downward displacement of the heart caused by the gravitational-inertial force environment were prevented in dogs breathing oxygenated liquid fluorocarbon in a whole-body water-immersion respirator. Partial closure of the major airways during part of the expiratory phase of liquid respiration was a significant problem initially but was minimized in subsequent studies.

Sass, D. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Caskey, P. E.; Banchero, N.; Wood, E. H.

1972-01-01

180

Condensation of hydrocarbons A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbons are one of the candidates for refrigerants of next generation heat pump and refrigeration systems. Although the hydrocarbons have superior thermophysical properties as a refrigerant to fluorocarbons and are widely used in domestic refrigerators, their flammability prevents their wide application to larger systems, such as residential and packaged air conditioners, car air conditioners, heat pumps, etc. In this paper,

Akio Miyara

2008-01-01

181

Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches  

DOEpatents

Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-02-20

182

Lighter-than-Air Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews practical applications, particularly in scientific research, of hot air balloons. Recent U.S. governmental projects in near-space research are described. Lists (1) major accomplishments of scientific ballooning, including discoveries in cosmic ray particles, gamma and x-rays, and other radiation; (2) measurement of fluorocarbon

MOSAIC, 1977

1977-01-01

183

Electrolyte permeable diaphragm including a polymeric metal oxide  

SciTech Connect

A liquid permeable diaphragm is described for an electrolytic cell, the diaphragm comprises: major amount of fibrillated poly-fluorocarbon, a minor amount of a perfluorinated ion exchange material and a polymeric metal oxide selected from the group consisting of polytitanic acid, polyzirconic acid, polysilicic acid, polyaluminic acid or mixtures.

Darlington, W.B.; Du Bois, D.W.

1987-07-14

184

Predicting the biodegradation products of perfluorinated chemicals using CATABOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) form a special category of organofluorine compounds with particularly useful and unique properties. Their large use over the past decades increased the interest in the study of their environmental fate. Fluorocarbons may have direct or indirect environmental impact through the products of their decomposition in the environment. It is a common knowledge that biodegradation is restricted within

S. Dimitrov; V. Kamenska; J. D. Walker; W. Windle; R. Purdy; M. Lewis; O. Mekenyan

2004-01-01

185

Preliminary Evaluation of Greases to 600 F and Solid Lubricants to 1500 F in Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special apparatus designed for the evaluation of high temperature lubricants in 20 mm bore ball bearings is described. The results of bearing runs at temperatures up to 1500 F in air are reported. Of the greases evaluated, a fluorocarbon grease, provided bearing lubrication for longer times at 450 and 600 F than either polyphenyl ether or silicone greases thickened

H. E. Sliney; R. L. Johnson

1968-01-01

186

Buildings consume 41% of the nation's primary energy, of which equipment uses 57% to provide comfortable indoor  

E-print Network

Frigidaire, General Electric, and Whirlpool) controlled 95% of the domestic refrigerator- freezer (RF) market for refrigerator/ freezers that took effect in 1993. · In the 1990s under a CRADA with the Alternative Fluorocarbon comfortable indoor temperature and humidity levels, healthy air quality, heated water, and refrigeration

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

187

Transparent Thin Films Deposited onto Polyester Film Substrate by Radio Frequency Sputtering with a Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) Target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement technologies for antireflection property of transparent plastic substrates are required in computer displays. Inorganic coatings have been used to reduce the surface reflection. We have already reported that fluorocarbon thin films sputtered with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) target are transparent and can be used for an antireflection film, although the pristine PTFE plate used for the sputtering target is white. The fluorocarbon thin films were deposited onto a polyester (PET) film substrate by an rf sputtering, and characterized their optical properties. Elemental ratio, fluorine for carbon, of the thin films increased and degree of cross-linking of the thin films decreased with an increase of the rf power. Arithmetical surface roughness of the fluorocarbon thin films slightly increased with an increase of the rf power. Surface roughness of the fluorocarbon thin film affects the transmittance as well as the chemical structure of the thin film. To enhance the transparency, the diffuse transmittance should be suppressed, and flat surface thin films should be prepared by the sputtering at lower rf power and pressure.

Seino, Shou; Nagai, Yuki; Kobayashi, Masashi; Iwamori, Satoru; Noda, Kazuhiro

2013-05-01

188

Broadband radome design techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost lightweight broadband radome is an essential component for any antiradar missile (ARM) and ECM systems. The shape constraints in the case of ECM and ARM systems are examined along with aspects of material selection. Materials suited for aircraft include reinforced epoxy polyimide, fluorocarbons, phenolics, and occasionally polyesters. Missile radomes are restricted to a use of slip cast fused

D. L. Loyet

1977-01-01

189

Partitioning of homologous nicotinic acid ester prodrugs (nicotinates) into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane bilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning behavior of a series of perhydrocarbon nicotinic acid esters (nicotinates) between aqueous solution and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane bilayers is investigated as a function of increasing alkyl chain length. The hydrocarbon nicotinates represent putative prodrugs, derivatives of the polar drug nicotinic acid, whose functionalization provides the hydrophobic character necessary for pulmonary delivery in a hydrophobic, fluorocarbon solvent, such as

Vivian Ojogun; Sandhya M. Vyas; Hans-Joachim Lehmler; Barbara L. Knutson

2010-01-01

190

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC8, supplkmentau Journal de Physique I, Volume 3,dkcembre 1993  

E-print Network

of fluorinated gel-emulsions made of water globules dispersed into an (oil) fluorocarbon phase has been investigated by SANS .the water volume fraction being as large as 98 %. The oil continuous phasc is a water.Y. approximation. EXPERIMENTAL By mixing oil, water and relatively hydrophobic nonionic surfactants, viscoelastic

Boyer, Edmond

191

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED HALOCARBONS, HYDROCARBONS, SF6, AND N2O  

EPA Science Inventory

Northern and Southern hemispheric distributions of halogenated species, hydrocarbons, SF6, and N2O are presented. The atmospheric growth rates of selected halocarbons and N2O are characterized. The fluorocarbon 11 and 12 global burden and hemispheric distribution is consistent wi...

192

Biology and Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A state representative from Oregon uses his state as example for political action regarding critical sociobiological issues having great bearing on world ecosystems: pollution, energy-resource allocation, and population density. Discusses ozone depletion, use of fluorocarbons, and the Oregon Energy Policy. Suggests methods of involving educators.

Whiting, Pat

1977-01-01

193

Surface properties and aggregate morphology of partially fluorinated carboxylate-type anionic gemini surfactants.  

PubMed

Three anionic homologues of a novel partially fluorinated carboxylate-type anionic gemini surfactant, N,N'-di(3-perfluoroalkyl-2-hydroxypropyl)-N,N'-diacetic acid ethylenediamine (2C(n)(F) edda, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the fluorocarbon chain (4, 6, and 8)) were synthesized. In these present gemini surfactants, the relatively small carboxylic acid moieties form hydrophilic head groups. The surface properties or structures of the aggregates of these surfactants are strongly influenced by the nonflexible fluorocarbons and small head groups; this is because these surfactants have a closely packed molecular structure. The equilibrium surface tension properties of these surfactants were measured at 298.2K for various fluorocarbon chain lengths. The plot of the logarithm of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) against the fluorocarbon chain lengths for 2C(n)(F) edda (n=4, 6, and 8) showed a minimum for n=6. Furthermore, the lowest surface tension of 2C(6)(F) edda at the cmc was 16.4mNm(-1). Such unique behavior has not been observed even in the other fluorinated surfactants. Changes in the shapes and sizes of these surfactant aggregate with concentration were investigated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs showed that in an aqueous alkali solution, 2C(n)(F) edda mainly formed aggregates with stringlike (n=4), cagelike (n=6), and distorted bilayer structures (n=8). The morphological changes in the aggregates were affected by the molecular structure composed of nonflexible fluorocarbon chains and flexible hydrocarbon chains. PMID:19683716

Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Bong, Miri; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo

2009-11-01

194

Influence of counterions on micellization of tetramethylammonium perfluorononanoic carboxylate in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The influence of counterions on micellization of perfluorononanoic carboxylate ammonium salts in water and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF(4)) solutions was investigated by surface tension and (19)F NMR measurements and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) observations. Changes in the counterions of the fluorocarbon surfactants have different effects on the two solvents. With the increase of counterion volume, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of relevant fluorinated surfactant decreases in aqueous solutions. This is because the counterions with larger size, such as (+)N(CH(3))(4), can be little hydrated, which can screen the electrostatic repulsion of the headgroups of the fluorocarbon surfactant and thus facilitate micelle formation. However, the fluorocarbon surfactants can dissolve and form micelles in [bmim]BF(4) only when they provide with largest counterion such as (+)N(CH(3))(4). This is because the counterion, (+)N(CH(3))(4), disperses the charge of the cations, which could weaken the electrostatic interaction between the ion pair of the surfactant, leading to a higher degree of counterion binding. The thermodynamic parameters estimated from the temperature dependence of the cmc values tell us that the micelle formation for tetramethylammonium perfluorononanoic carboxylate (C(8)F(17)COON(CH(3))(4), PFNT) in ionic liquids (ILs) is an entropy-driven process at low temperature but an enthalpy-driven process at high temperature. The driving force of the micellization for fluorocarbon surfactants in [bmim]BF(4) is the solvophobic effect, due to the hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of fluorocarbon chains. PMID:22690854

Long, Panfeng; Chen, Jingfei; Wang, Dong; Hu, Ziqi; Gao, Xuedong; Li, Ziran; Hao, Jingcheng

2012-07-01

195

X-ray photoelectron and mass spectroscopic study of electron irradiation and thermal stability of polytetrafluoroethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was subjected to 3 keV electron bombardment and then heated in vacuum to 300 C. The behavior of the material as a function of radiation dose and temperature was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the surface and mass spectroscopy of the species evolved. A quantitative comparison of the radiation dose rate with that in other reported studies showed that, for a given total dose, the damage observed by XPS is greater for higher dose rates. Lightly damaged material heated to 300 C evolved saturated fluorocarbon species, whereas unsaturated fluorocarbon species evolved from heavily damaged material. After heating the heavily damaged material, those features in the XPS that were associated with damage diminished, giving the appearance that the radiation damage annealed. The apparent annealing of the radiation damage was found to be due to the covering of the network by saturated fragments that easily diffused through the decomposed material to the surface region upon heating.

Wheeler, Donald R.; Pepper, Stephen V.

1990-01-01

196

Thermal stability of electron-irradiated poly(tetrafluoroethylene) - X-ray photoelectron and mass spectroscopic study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was subjected to 3 keV electron bombardment and then heated in vacuum to 300 C. The behavior of the material as a function of radiation dose and temperature was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the surface and mass spectroscopy of the species evolved. Lightly damaged material heated to 300 C evolved saturated fluorocarbon species, whereas unsaturated fluorocarbon species were evolved from heavily damaged material. After heating the heavily damaged material, those features in the XPS spectrum that were associated with damage diminished, giving the appearance that the radiation damage had annealed. The observations were interpreted by incorporating mass transport of severed chain fragments and thermal decomposition of severely damaged material into the branched and cross-linked network model of irradiated PTFE. The apparent annealing of the radiation damage was due to covering of the network by saturated fragments that easily diffused through the decomposed material to the surface region upon heating.

Wheeler, Donald R.; Pepper, Stephen V.

1990-01-01

197

Investigation of test methods, material properties and processes for solar cell encapsulants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potentially useful encapsulating materials for Task 3 of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array project were studied to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Materials for study were chosen on the basis of existing knowledge of generic chemical types having high resistance to environmental weathering. The materials varied from rubbers to thermoplastics and presented a broad range of mechanical properties and processing requirements. Basic physical and optical properties were measured on the polymers and were redetermined after exposure to indoor artificial accelerated aging conditions covering four time periods. Strengths and weaknesses of the various materials were revealed and data was accumulated for the development of predictive methodologies. To date, silicone rubbers, fluorocarbons, and acrylic polymers appear to have the most promising combination of characteristics. The fluorocarbons may be used only as films, however, because of their high cost.

Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

1977-01-01

198

Aqueous Solution Properties of Pyridinium-Type Perfluorinated Surfactants and Simulation of Mixture CMC.  

PubMed

The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of 1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluoroalkylpyridinium chloride have been determined by measurements of surface tension and electrical conductivity, etc. The CMCs of perfluorinated surfactants were only about 0.02 times that of hydrocarbon one with the same carbon number. Aqueous solutions of fluorocarbon surfactants gave low surface tensions in comparison with those of hydrocarbon surfactants. The area per surfactant molecule at the air-water interface decreased with increasing length of the fluorocarbon chain. Electromotive force measurements were made with chloride-responsive electrodes on surfactants solutions. The micelle ionization degrees decreased with increasing length of the alkyl chain. The group contribution method simulated the mixture CMCs of binary surfactants with various alkyl chain lengths. The group contribution method proved to be very useful to predict not only the mixture CMCs but also the demixing regions of binary mixtures having great differences in CMC. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11446820

Asakawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Kenji; Miyagishi, Shigeyoshi

2001-08-01

199

Novel Sorption/Desorption Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture (Feasibility Study)  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute and the University of Wyoming Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute have tested a novel approach to carbon dioxide capture in power plants and industrial operations. This approach is expected to provide considerable cost savings, in terms of regeneration of the sorbent. It is proposed that low molecular weight, low volatility liquid fluorocarbons be utilized to absorb CO{sub 2} due to their unusual affinity for the gas. The energy savings would be realized by cooling the fluorocarbon liquids below their melting point where the CO{sub 2} would be released even at elevated pressure. Thus, the expense of heating currently used sorbents, saturated with CO{sub 2}, under low pressure conditions and then having to compress the released gas would not be realized. However, these fluorinated materials have been shown to be poor carbon dioxide absorbers under conditions currently required for carbon capture. The project was terminated.

William Tuminello; Maciej Radosz; Youqing Shen

2008-11-01

200

Surface modification of PDMS using atmospheric glow discharge polymerization of tetrafluoroethane for immobilization of biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an atmospheric glow discharge with a fluorocarbon gas as precursor was used to modify the surface of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS -[(CH 3) 2SiO] n-). The variation in protein immobilizing capability of PDMS was studied for different times of exposure. It was observed that the concentration of proteins adsorbed on the surface varied in an irregular manner with treatment time. The fluorination results in the formation of a thin film of fluorocarbon on the PDMS surface. The AFM and XPS data suggest that the film cracks due to stress and regains its uniformity thereafter. This Stranski-Krastanov growth model of the film was due to the high growth rate offered by atmospheric glow discharge.

Anand, V.; Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, M.; Rao, G. M.; Railkar, R.; Dighe, R. R.

2011-08-01

201

Preparation and Analysis of Type II Xerogel Films with Antifouling/Foul Release Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to combat biofouling, xerogel coatings comprised of aminopropyl, fluorocarbon, and hydrocarbon silanes were prepared and tested for their antifouling/foul release properties against Ulva, Navicula, barnacles, and tubeworms. Many of the coatings showed settlement and removal of Ulva to be as good as or better than the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMSE) standard. Barnacle removal assays showed excellent results for some coatings while others did not fair so well. The best foul release coatings for barnacles were comprised of aminopropyl/hydrocarbon- and fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified silanes. For the majority of coatings tested, water wettability and surface energy did not play a role in the antifouling/ foul release properties of the coatings.

Sokolova, Anastasiya

202

Preservation of tracheal mucus by nonaqueous fixative.  

PubMed

Two nonaqueous fixatives, composed of fluorocarbon solvents with dissolved osmium tetroxide, were used to determine the feasibility of preserving the mucous coat in bovine and rat trachea for light and electron microscopy. Aqueous fixatives, while providing excellent cytological preservation, wash away the mucous lining, precluding ultrastructural analysis. Inclusion of ruthenium red or alcian blue within aqueous fixative improved retention of mucus, but provided incomplete, patchy results. Fixation with nonaqueous fluorocarbon solvent and dissolved osmium tetroxide preserved a continuous mucous epiphase layer above a clear hypophase layer. Subcomponents of the mucus included an electron dense surface layer, interrupted patches of mucus above the surface layer and electron dense membrane-like material within the mucus. This method of fixation will preserve mucus for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, using either intratracheal or immersion methods of fixation. The latter would enable use of materials from large animal models, autopsy or an abattoir. PMID:1832970

Sims, D E; Westfall, J A; Kiorpes, A L; Horne, M M

1991-01-01

203

Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bonding compounds were evaluated. Random copolymers of styrene and heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate yielded substantial increases in viscosity. The amount of styrene varied between 22--40 mole% in the copolymer. Falling cylinder viscometry results indicated that the 29% styrene--71% fluoroacrylate copolymer induced (at 295K and 34.5 Mpa) increases of 10, 60 and 250 at copolymer concentrations of 1, 3 and 5wt%, respectively.

Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

2000-02-02

204

Polymer Composites for High-Temperature Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in composite proton-exchange membranes for fuel cell applications at elevated temperature and low relative\\u000a humidity are briefly reviewed in this chapter. Although a majority of research has focused on new sulfonated hydrocarbon and\\u000a fluorocarbon polymers and their blends to directly enhance high temperature performance, we emphasize on polymer\\/inorganic\\u000a composite membranes with the aim of improving the mechanical strength,

Xiuling Zhu; Yuxiu Liu; Lei Zhu

2009-01-01

205

Penetration of soil dust through woven and nonwoven fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of fabrics were laboratory?tested for their effectiveness in worker protection to pesticide?laden dust encountered in the agricultural environment. Of the applied <100 mesh dust, penetrations through knitted jersey and woven fabrics were greater than 87% and less than 5.8%, respectively. Treatment of woven fabrics with fluorocarbon polymers curtailed penetration by greater than 60%. Nonwoven fabrics allowed less than

Nasri S. Kawar; Francis A. Gunther; William F. Serat; Yutaka Iwata

1978-01-01

206

Electrochemical cell for facilitating hermeticity leakage testing of an electrical feedthrough  

SciTech Connect

An electrical feedthrough, including a metal ferrule, an electrical lead, a glass seal for centrally locating the electrical lead axially within ferrule, for electrically isolating the electrical lead from the ferrule and for hermetically sealing the feedthrough assembly, which further includes an injection molded insulating material extending between the ferrule and lead and a fluorocarbon washer positioned adjacent the inner surface of the glass seal. The fluorocarbon washer is capable of retaining helium and allows for the hermeticity leakage testing of the glass seal. Such a feedthrough is particularly useful in hermetically sealed electrochemical cells wherein the insulated portion of the feedthrough is placed in the cell and the uninsulated portion of the ferrule is welded to or forms the cell cover, and the electrical lead is electrically connected to cell components, such as the anode, within the cell. The hermeticity testing of the aforementioned cell is accomplished by constructing the electrical feedthrough with the teflon washer in position; attaching the feedthrough to the hermetically sealed cells; placing the completed electrochemical cell in a pressurized atmosphere of a test gas, such as helium, for a period of time to force the test gas through the glass seal into the chamber containing the fluorocarbon washer, whereby the fluorocarbon washer absorbs helium gas; and examining the electrochemical cell for leakage of any of the helium back out through the glass seal. Gross and fine leakage testing may be accomplished by respectively observing the escape of the test gas at atmospheric pressure and drawing a vacuum on the electrical feedthrough and testing for the escape of the test gas with a mass spectrometer.

Jurva, E.O.; Goodin, R.L.

1984-07-17

207

Solubility behavior of ethyl cellulose in supercritical fluid solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility data to 180C and 1200 bar are reported for ?1.0 wt.% ethyl cellulose (50% ethoxyl content, 2.5 average degree of substitution) (EC) in neat supercritical fluid (SCF) chlorodifluoromethane (F22); difluoromethane; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane; 1,1-difluoroethane; and dimethyl ether (DME). The pressures needed to dissolve EC in the polar fluorocarbons decreases with increasing solvent size. The exception in this trend is F22 which

Dan Li; Mark A. McHugh

2004-01-01

208

Chemically induced coalescence in droplet-based microfluidics.  

PubMed

We present a new microfluidic method to coalesce pairs of surfactant-stabilized water-in-fluorocarbon oil droplets. We achieve this through the local addition of a poor solvent for the surfactant, perfluorobutanol, which induces cohesion between droplet interfaces causing them to merge. The efficiency of this technique is comparable to existing techniques providing an alternative method to coalesce pairs of droplets. PMID:25537080

Akartuna, Ilke; Aubrecht, Donald M; Kodger, Thomas E; Weitz, David A

2015-02-01

209

Co-sputtered oxide thin film encapsulated organic electronic devices with prolonged lifetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective top-side thin film encapsulation for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) was achieved by deposition of a multi-layer water diffusion barrier stack to protect the device against moisture permeation. The barrier stack was formed by alternative depositions of co-oxide and fluorocarbon (CFx) films. The co-oxide layer was fabricated by magnetron co-sputtering of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). While the

F. L. Wong; M. K. Fung; C. Y. Ng; A. Ng; I. Bello; S. T. Lee; C. S. Lee

210

Ba-REE fluorcarbonate minerals froma carbonatite dyke at Bayan Obo,Inner Mongolia, North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a The new occurrence in a carbonatite dyke at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, North China, of the Ba-REE fluorocarbonate minerals\\u000a cebaite, hunghoite and cordylite is presented, together with their chemical composition, rare earth element (REE) patterns,\\u000a and syntaxial intergrowth relationships. These syntaxial textures, investigated by scanning and electron microprobe techniques,\\u000a are interpreted in terms of the cooling history during the

X.-M. Yang; X.-Y. Yang; P.-S. Zhang; M. J. Le Bas

2000-01-01

211

Synthesis and solution properties of cholesterol end-capped poly(ethylene glycol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of cholesterol end-capped poly(ethylene glycol) (Ch2PEG) were synthesized by coupling cholesterol at each end of PEG (molecularweight=4000, 10?000, 20?000 and 35?000g\\/mol) with hexamethylene diisocyanate. Unlike hydrophobically modified PEGs, which are end-capped with flexible hydrocarbons or fluorocarbons, Ch2PEGs are not soluble in water, although they do swell significantly, and the swelling ratio increases with molecular weight. Analysis of the

Ning Yao; Alex M. Jamieson

2000-01-01

212

Fuel cell ion-exchange membrane investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present deficiencies in the fluorocarbon sulfonic acid membrane used as the solid polymer electrolyte in the H2/O2 fuel cell are studied. Considered are: Adhesives selection, elastomeric formulations, scavenger exploration, and membrane characterization. The significant data are interpreted and recommendations are given for both short and long range further investigations in two of the four major areas: membrane adhesives and membrane stabilization.

Toy, M. S.

1972-01-01

213

Air-source heat pump carbon footprints: HFC impacts and comparison to other heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

European governments see that heat pumps could reduce carbon emissions in space- and hot-water heating. EUs Renewable Energy Directive designates heat pumps as renewable eligible for various subsidies if their carbon footprints are below an implied, average threshold. This threshold omits carbon generated by manufacture and emission of a heat-pumps fluorocarbon refrigerant. It also omits the footprint of

Eric P. Johnson

2011-01-01

214

Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

1989-01-01

215

Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

216

Infrared band intensities and global warming potentials of CF, CF, CF, CF, CF, and CF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report infrared band intensity measurements for a series of fluorocarbons, expected to be decay products of new substitutes for freons, and based on these data perform radiative forcing calculations to study the global warming potential of these compounds. The compounds studied include CF, CF, CF, CF, CF, and CF. Only the first two have been measured in atmospheric

C. M. Roehl; D. Boglu; C. Bruehl

1995-01-01

217

Inductively coupled plasmas in low global-warming-potential gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many high-density discharges used in microelectronics fabrication use fluorocarbon gases with coincidentally high global-warming potentials (GWPs). We have determined the identities, fluxes, and energy distributions of ions produced in high-density discharges generated in two low GWP gases, CF3I and CF3CH2F (HFC-134a), which have attracted interest for plasma processing applications. Measurements were made using a combined ion energy analyser-mass spectrometer that

A. N. Goyette; Yicheng Wang; J. K. Olthoff

2000-01-01

218

Aqueous Solution Properties of Pyridinium-Type Perfluorinated Surfactants and Simulation of Mixture CMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of 1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluoroalkylpyridinium chloride have been determined by measurements of surface tension and electrical conductivity, etc. The CMCs of perfluorinated surfactants were only about 0.02 times that of hydrocarbon one with the same carbon number. Aqueous solutions of fluorocarbon surfactants gave low surface tensions in comparison with those of hydrocarbon surfactants. The area per surfactant molecule

Tsuyoshi Asakawa; Kenji Ishikawa; Shigeyoshi Miyagishi

2001-01-01

219

Surface activity and thermodynamic of micellization and adsorption for isooctylphenol ethoxylates, phosphate esters and their mixtures with N-diethoxylated perfluorooctanamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three nonionic surfactants; p-isooctylphenol ethoxylates p-[i-OPE10], p-[i-OPE15], and p-[i-OPE20], were phosphorylated to produce three anionic phosphate ester surfactants. In addition, N-diethoxylated perfluorooctanamide (N-DEFOA) was also prepared. The surface and thermodynamic properties of the three types of surfactants and mixtures of the fluorocarbon surfactant (FC) with the hydrocarbon surfactants (HC) have been investigated. Surface tension as a function of concentration of

A. M. Al Sabagh; N. Gh. Kandil; A. M. Badawi; H. El-Sharkawy

2000-01-01

220

NMR and ESR Studies on the Microenvironmental Properties of Sodium Perfluorooctanoate and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Mixed Micellar Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microenviromental properties of sodium perfluorooctanoate(SPFO) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB) mixed micellar solutions were studied by using ESR, NMR and surface tension measurement al the air\\/water interface. The mixed anionic fluorocarbon and cationic hydrocarbon surfactants in this special case have higher surface activity since it is not universal for any type of syatem. H NMR results show that there is strong

Jingcheng Hao; Ruhua Lu; Hanqing Wang; Shuli Dong

1997-01-01

221

Electron Collisions with Hexafluorobenzene, C_6F_6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report elastic electron collision cross sections for C_6F_6, hexafluorobenzene, computed using the Schwinger multichannel method. Polarization effects are systematically treated so as to obtain accurate resonance positions. The resonance structure in the C_6F6 cross section is explored in detail and compared to that observed in benzene and in other fluorocarbons. We compare our results to available experimental data.

Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent; Bettega, Marcio H. F.

1999-10-01

222

Stick-slip transition in capillary flow of linear polyethylene: 3. Surface conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of surface topology and energy on the stick-slip transition were studied in capillary flow of highly entangled polyethylene (PE) melts. Surface roughness was shown to increase the critical stress of the stick-slip transition because of the increased resistance to interfacial disentanglement. Lowering the surface energy of a smooth die wall by treatment with a fluorocarbon completely eliminates the stick-slip

Shi-Qing Wang; Patrick A. Drda

1997-01-01

223

Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of intumescent coatings based on a fluorocarbon latex resin modified with either an acrylic resin or an epoxy resin were prepared. Several intumescent systems were used for these studies including some based on ammonium polyphosphate and others based on sulfanilamide. The best coatings developed had a high concentration (60-70% by wt.) of intumescent additives and had to be applied thick, approximately 100 mils, in order to have adequate intumescent/fire protection properties.

Gillman, H. D.; Nannelli, P.

1979-01-01

224

General Chemistry Division. Quarterly report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on analytical R and D for the nuclear explosives programs (coupling of gas chromatograph, mass spectrometer, and infrared spectrometer; analysis of fluorocarbon FC-86; far-infrared laser development; transient behavior of n-type TiO/sub 2/ semiconductor photoelectrodes; and impurities on Kevlar 49 fibers) and for the energy programs (on-line mass spectroscopy of oil shale and testing of additives for controlling the scaling of hypersaline geothermal brine). (DLC)

Not Available

1980-02-15

225

TOF-SIMS Evidence of Intercalated Molecular Gases and Diffusion-Limited Reaction Kinetics in an ? Particle-Irradiated PTFE Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical evolution of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) that is brought about by increasing levels of irradiation with R particles is accompanied by the emergence and proliferation of functionalized moieties. Families of reaction products specifically identified in the R-irradiated polymer matrix include hydride-, hydroxide-, and oxide-functionalized fluorocarbons. The data also indicate the emergence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrazine (N2H4), but no

Gregory L. Fisher; Christopher Szakal; Christopher J. Wetteland; Nicholas Winograd

2006-01-01

226

Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO1234yf) in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a non-ozone-depleting fluorocarbon replacement with a low global warming potential and is developed as refrigerant. Due to lethality observed after high concentration inhalation exposures of HFO-1234yf in a developmental toxicity study with rabbits, the biotransformation of HFO-1234yf was investigated in this species. Female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to air containing 2000; 10,000; or 50,000ppm (n=3\\/concentration)

Paul Schuster; Ruediger Bertermann; Georg M. Rusch; Wolfgang Dekant

2010-01-01

227

A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl

P. J. Nigrey; T. G. Dickens; P. T. Dickman

1997-01-01

228

Novel fluorohydrocarbons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel fluorohydrocarbons include a fluoroalkyl unit terminating in a tertiary carbon atom which is directly linked to an aliphatic moiety of the compound. The compounds contain at least 9 carbon atoms and usually no more than 13 carbon atoms. The compounds are synthesized by addition of a fluoride atom to the tertiary carbon atom of a fluorocarbon material to form a carbanion followed by alkylation of the carbanion. The fluorohydrocarbons will find use as blood substitutes or as electronic fluids.

Scherer, Kirby V. (Inventor)

1979-01-01

229

Characterization and Application of a Planar Radio - Inductively-Coupled Plasma Source for the Production of Barrier Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar radio-frequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) source is used to produce fluorocarbon discharges (CF_4\\/Ar) to fluorinate the surface of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Using this system, concurrent studies of discharge characteristics, permeation properties of treated polymers and polymer surface characteristics are conducted to advance the use of plasma-fluorinated polymer surfaces as a barrier layer for automotive applications. Langmuir probes are

Leonard Joseph Mahoney

1994-01-01

230

Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

1986-01-01

231

Comprehensive Approaches to Industrial Energy Efficiency: Examples from the Climate Wise Program  

E-print Network

of fluorocarbons, and energy efficiency improvements. DuPont operations have increased energy efficiency by switching boiler fuels, improving steam balance, decreasing waste heat, and optimizing system performance in aeration blowers. Energy efficiency actions... efficiency of air cooling systems, optimizing factory air recirculation flow rates and exhaust systems, upgrading chillers, preventative maintenance and regular repair, and water and other resource reduction projects. In addition, Motorola took a lead...

Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.; Asrael, J.

232

Understanding the structure of hydrophobic surfactants at the air/water interface from molecular level.  

PubMed

Understanding the behavior of fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface is crucial for many applications, such as lubricants, paints, cosmetics, and fire-fighting foams. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the microscopic properties of non-ionic fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface. Several properties, including the distribution of head groups, the distribution probability of the tilt angle between hydrophobic tails with respect to the xy plane, and the order parameter of surfactants, were computed to probe the structure of hydrophobic surfactants at the air/water interface. The effects of the monomer structure on interfacial phenomena of non-ionic surfactants were investigated as well. It is observed that the structure of fluorocarbon surfactants at the air/water interface is more ordered than that of hydrocarbons, which is dominated by the van der Waals interaction between surfactants and water molecules. However, replacing one or two CF2 with one or two CH2 group does not significantly influence the interfacial structure, suggesting that hydrocarbons may be promising alternatives to perfluorinated surfactants. PMID:25358083

Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhipei; Ren, Tao; Wu, Pan; Shen, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinping

2014-11-25

233

Fluorophilicity of Alkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl 1 Nicotinic Acid Ester Prodrugs  

PubMed Central

The fluorophilicity of a series of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon-functionalized nicotinic acid esters (nicotinates) is measured from their partitioning behavior (log KP) in the biphasic solvent system of perfluoro(methylcyclohexane) (PFMC) and toluene. The chain length of the hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon alkyl group of the ester ranges from one to twelve carbon atoms. Knowledge of the fluorophilicity of these solutes is relevant to the design of these prodrugs for fluorocarbon-based drug delivery. The experimental log Kp values range from ?1.72 to ?3.40 for the hydrocarbon nicotinates and ?1.64 to 0.13 for the fluorinated nicotinates, where only the prodrug with the longest fluorinated chain (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-pentadecafluorooctyl nicotinic acid ester) partitions preferentially into the fluorinated phase (log Kp = 0.13). Predictions of the partition coefficients using solubility parameters calculated from group contribution techniques or molecular dynamics simulation are in reasonable agreement for the perhydrocarbon nicotinates and short chained perfluorinated nicotinates (? 0.3%-39% deviation). Significant deviations from experimental partition coefficients (greater than 100%) are observed for the longest chain perfluoroalkyl nicotinates. PMID:20567608

Ojogun, Vivian; Knutson, Barbara L; Vyas, Sandhya; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2010-01-01

234

Detection of Chamber Conditioning Through Optical Emission and Impedance Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During oxide etch processes, buildup of fluorocarbon residues on reactor sidewalls can cause run-to-run drift and will necessitate some time for conditioning and seasoning of the reactor. Though diagnostics can be applied to study and understand these phenomena, many of them are not practical for use in an industrial reactor. For instance, measurements of ion fluxes and energy by mass spectrometry show that the buildup of insulating fluorocarbon films on the reactor surface will cause a shift in both ion energy and current in an argon plasma. However, such a device cannot be easily integrated into a processing system. The shift in ion energy and flux will be accompanied by an increase in the capacitance of the plasma sheath. The shift in sheath capacitance can be easily measured by a common commercially available impedance probe placed on the inductive coil. A buildup of film on the chamber wall is expected to affect the production of fluorocarbon radicals, and thus the presence of such species in the optical emission spectrum of the plasma can be monitored as well. These two techniques are employed on a GEC (Gaseous Electronics Conference) Reference Cell to assess the validity of optical emission and impedance monitoring as a metric of chamber conditioning. These techniques are applied to experimental runs with CHF3 and CHF3/O2/Ar plasmas, with intermediate monitoring of pure argon plasmas as a reference case for chamber conditions.

Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

235

Plasma chemical behaviour of reactants and reaction products during inductively coupled CF4 plasma etching of SiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional fluid model has been developed to study plasma chemical behaviour of etch products as well as reactants during inductively coupled CF4 plasma etching of SiO2. The plasma fluid model consisted of Maxwell's equations, continuity equations for neutral and charged species including gas-phase and surface reactions and an energy balance equation for electrons. The surface reaction model assumed Langmuir adsorption kinetics with the coverage of fluorine atoms, fluorocarbon radicals and polymers on SiO2 surfaces. Numerical results indicated that etch product species occupy a significant fraction of reactive ions as well as neutrals in the reactor chamber during etching, which in turn leads to a change in plasma and surface chemistry underlying the processing. In practice, the density of SiF4 was typically about 10% of that of the feedstock CF4, being comparable to that of the most abundant fluorocarbon radical CF2; moreover, the density of SiF_3^+ was typically about 5% of that of the most abundant fluorocarbon ion CF_3^+ . The density and the distribution of such product species in the reactor chamber were changed by varying the ion bombardment energy on the substrate surfaces, gas pressure, mass flow rate and coil configuration, which arises in part from gas-phase reactions depending on plasma electron density and temperature. Surface reactions on the chamber walls and on the substrate also affect the product density and distribution in the reactor; in particular, the surface reactions on the SiO2 dielectric window as well as substrate surfaces were found to largely affect the product density and distribution.

Fukumoto, Hiroshi; Fujikake, Isao; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

2009-11-01

236

Factors affecting the sticking of insects on modified aircraft wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adhesion of insects to aircraft wings is studied. Insects were collected in road tests in past studies and a large experimental error was introduced caused by the variability of insect flux. The presence of such errors has been detected by studying the insect distribution across an aluminum-strip covered half-cylinder mounted on the top of a car. After a nonuniform insect distribution (insect flux) was found from three road tests, a new arrangement of samples was developed. The feasibility of coating aircraft wing surfaces with polymers to reduce the number of insects sticking onto the surfaces was studied using fluorocarbon elastomers, styrene butadiene rubbers, and Teflon.

Yi, O.; Chan, R.; Eiss, N. S.; Pingali, U.; Wightman, J. P.

1988-01-01

237

Vibrational spectroscopy in the ophthalmological field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some applications of vibrational (Raman and FT/IR) spectroscopy to the study of biocompatibility in the ophthalmological field are described. The structure arid elastic properties of a new hydrophobic fluorocarbon copolymer (FCC) are presented. Bacterial adhesion on its surface is also considered. The structure arid properties of soft contact lenses based on poly2--hydroxyethylmethacrylate (PHEMA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are discussed in relation to their recent use as intrastromal implants. The preliminary results dealing with a study on protein deposits on soft contact lenses in presence of a collyrium limiting the formation of such deposits are also reported. 1.

Bertoluzza, Alessandro; Monti, P.; Simoni, R.

1991-05-01

238

The Design and Synthesis of Highly Branched and Spherically Symmetric Fluorinated Oils and Amphiles  

PubMed Central

A new emulsifier design principle, based on concepts borrowed from protein science, is proposed. Using this principle, a class of highly branched and spherically symmetric fluorinated oils and amphiles has been designed and synthesized, for potential applications in the construction of fluorocarbon nanoparticles. The Mitsunobu reaction was employed as the key step for introducing three perfluoro-tert-butoxyl groups into pentaerythritol derivatives with excellent yields and extremely simple isolation procedures. Due to the symmetric arrangement of the fluorine atoms, each fluorinated oil or amphile molecule gives one sharp singlet 19F NMR signal. PMID:18461118

Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Y. Bruce

2007-01-01

239

Thermal chemiluminescence from ?-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene and its emission mechanism: Kinetic analysis and bond dissociation energy of fluoroperoxide group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of the time evolution of chemiluminescence intensity from ?-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene was examined by heating isothermally in the range of 150 and 200 C. Kinetic analysis was carried out to estimate the rate constants, from which the dissociation energy of the Osbnd O bond in the fluoroperoxide group was determined to be 97 4 kJ mol-1, being consistent with the corresponding value for small fluorocarbon model systems obtained by quantum chemical calculations. This strongly supports the emission mechanism [sbnd CF(OOF)sbnd CF2sbnd ? sbnd COsbnd CF2sbnd + OF2 + h?] proposed in our previous paper to explain chemiluminescence from the ?-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene.

Yamada, Emi; Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Satoh, Chikahiro; Hironiwa, Takayuki; Millington, Keith R.; Nakata, Munetaka

2014-11-01

240

Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

1979-01-01

241

The 1980 stratospheric-tropospheric exchange experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented from the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Water Vapor Exchange Experiment. Measurements were made during 11 flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft which provided data from horizontal traverser and samplings in and about the tops of extensive cirrus-anvil clouds produced by overshooting cumulus turrets. Aircraft measurements were made of water vapor, ozone, ambient and cloud top temperature, fluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, aerosols, and ice crystal populations. Balloonsondes were flown about twice daily providing data on ozone, wind fields, pressure and temperature to altitudes near 30 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud and cloud top temperature information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

Margozzi, A. P. (editor)

1983-01-01

242

Selective protection of poly(tetra-fluoroethylene) from effects of chemical etching  

SciTech Connect

A photolithographic method for treating an article formed of polymeric material comprises subjecting portions of a surface of the polymeric article to ionizing radiation; and then subjecting the surface to chemical etching. The ionizing radiation treatment according to the present invention minimizes the effect of the subseuent chemical etching treatment. Thus, selective protection from the effects of chemical etching can be easily provided. The present invention has particular applicability to articles formed of fluorocarbons, such as PTFE. The ionizing radiation employed in the method may comprise Mg(k.alpha.) X-rays or lower-energy electrons.

Martinez, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01

243

Selective protection of polymeric materials from effects of chemical etching  

SciTech Connect

A photolithographic method for treating an article formed of polymeric material comprises subjecting portions of a surface of the polymeric article to ionizing radiation; and then subjecting the surface to chemical etching. The ionizing radiation treatment according to the present invention minimizes the effect of the subsequent chemical etching treatment. Thus, selective protection from the effects of chemical etching can be easily provided. The present invention has particular applicability to articles formed of fluorocarbons, such as PTFE. The ionizing radiation employed in the method may comprise Mg(k{alpha}) x-rays or low-energy electrons. 10 figs.

Martinez, R.J.; Rye, R.R.

1989-03-29

244

Selective protection of poly(tetra-fluoroethylene) from effects of chemical etching  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a photolithographic method for treating an article formed of polymeric material comprises subjecting portions of a surface of the polymeric article to ionizing radiation; and then subjecting the surface to chemical etching. The ionizing radiation treatment according to the present invention minimizes the effect of the subsequent chemical etching treatment. Thus, selective protection from the effects of chemical etching can be easily provided. The present invention has particular applicability to articles formed of fluorocarbons, such as PTFE. The ionizing radiation employed in the method may comprise Mg(k[alpha]) X-rays or lower-energy electrons.

Martinez, R.J.; Rye, R.R.

1992-11-19

245

Atmospheric lifetime and annual release estimates for CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 from 5 years of ALE data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 data for the 5-year period from July 1978-June 1983 are analyzed. The lifetime estimates are updated using the trend technique and the annual global release rates of the gases are derived. The effects of release uncertainties on lifetime estimates are examined by studying fluorocarbon data. It is observed that in 1981 the mixing ratios for CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 displayed increases of 8.8. and 15.3 pptv/year respectively, and the trend lifetime for CFCl13 is 74 + 31 or - 17 years and for CF2Cl2 111 + 222 or - 44 years.

Cunnold, D. M.; Alyea, F. N.; Prinn, R. G.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Simmonds, P. G.

1986-01-01

246

Direct spectroscopic observation of singlet oxygen emission at 1268 nm excited by sensitizing dyes of biological interest in liquid solution  

PubMed Central

The direct observation of dye-photosensitized 1268-nm emission of the 1?g ? 3?g transition of molecular oxygen in liquid solution at room temperature is reported. Singlet oxygen was photosensitized by UV excitation of perfluorobenzophenone in fluorocarbon solvent, by 3,4-benzpyrene and hematoporphyrin in carbon tetrachloride, and by methylene blue in water. Also reported is the development of an extremely sensitive near-infrared spectrophotometer that uses a thermoelectrically cooled lead sulfide detector, optimized optics, and a boxcar integrator as a data processor. PMID:16592729

Khan, A. U.; Kasha, M.

1979-01-01

247

Development of a high-tensile-strain plastic-bonded TATB explosive  

SciTech Connect

Typical plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) with greater than 90 weight-percent explosive filler in a fluorocarbon binder have tensile strains which range from 0.2 to 0.6{percent}. We have recently developed a TATB-based PBX with a tensile strain approaching 1{percent} while maintaining a high-volume loading of the crystalline explosive component. We discuss our formulation efforts to design a TATB/poly(styrene-(ethylene-butylene)-styrene)(Kraton){sup 1} PBX and the critical processing parameters which affect the ultimate mechanical properties of this PBX. 9 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Pruneda, C.; McGuire, R.; Clements, R.

1990-04-05

248

Elastohydrodynamic film thickness model for heavily loaded contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness formula for predicting the minimum film thickness occurring within heavily loaded contacts (maximum Hertz stresses above 150,000 psi) was developed. The formula was based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with synthetic paraffinic, fluorocarbon, Type II ester and polyphenyl ether fluids covering a wide range of test conditions. Comparisons were made between predictions from an isothermal EHD theory and the test data. The deduced relationship was found to adequately reflect the high-load dependence exhibited by the measured data. The effects of contact geometry, material and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

249

Glycosyl-Nucleolipids as new bioinspired amphiphiles.  

PubMed

Four new Glycosyl-NucleoLipid (GNL) analogs featuring either a single fluorocarbon or double hydrocarbon chains were synthesized in good yields from azido thymidine as starting material. Physicochemical studies (surface tension measurements, differential scanning calorimetry) indicate that hydroxybutanamide-based GNLs feature endothermic phase transition temperatures like the previously reported double chain glycerol-based GNLs. The second generation of GNFs featuring a free nucleobase reported here presents a better surface activity (lower glim) compared to the first generation of GNFs. PMID:24084025

Latxague, Laurent; Patwa, Amit; Amigues, Eric; Barthlmy, Philippe

2013-01-01

250

Nano-particulate coating on cotton fabric through DBD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma polymerization of fluorocarbon was processed through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A thin hydrophobic film packed with nano-particulate structure was obtained on cotton fabric surface. The contact angle of the water and 1-bromonaphthalene on coated cotton fabric was 133 and 124 separately. The surface morphology of the coating was observed through SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). It was found that cotton fabric surface was tightly adhered to a thin film packed by nano-particles from 10nm to 200nm. This process showed potential applications in continuous coating of textiles with functional nano-particulate polymers, but without changing their softness performance.

Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jinzhou; Zhou, Rongming; Yu, Jianyong

2008-02-01

251

Role of low-level impurities and intercalated molecular gases in the {alpha} particle radiolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene examined by static time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometery  

SciTech Connect

The structural degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) upon irradiation with MeV alpha ({alpha}) particles is accompanied by the proliferation of hydrogenated and oxygen-functionalized fluorocarbon species. In this article, we explore the origin of monoxide- and dioxide-functionalized fluorocarbon species that emerge upon {alpha} particle irradiation of PTFE. Samples of neat PTFE were irradiated to {alpha} doses in the range of 10{sup 7}-5x10{sup 10} rad using 5.5 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions produced in a tandem accelerator. Static time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), using a 20 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} source, was employed to probe chemical changes as a function of {alpha} particle irradiation. Chemical images and high-resolution mass spectra were collected in both the positive and negative polarities. Residual gas analysis, utilized to monitor the liberation of molecular gases during {alpha} particle irradiation of the PTFE in vacuum, is discussed in relationship to the TOF-SIMS data.

Fisher, Gregory L.; Szakal, Christopher; Wetteland, Christopher J.; Winograd, Nicholas [Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT-16), Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Materials Science and Technology (MST-8), Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2006-07-15

252

Evaluations of candidate encapsulation designs and materials for low-cost silicon photovoltaic arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three encapsulation designs for silicon photovoltaic arrays based on cells with silk-screened Ag metallization have been evaluated: transparent polymeric coatings over cells laminated between two films or sheets of polymeric materials; cells adhesively bonded to a glass cover with a polymer pottant and a glass or other substrate component. Silicone and acrylic coatings were assessed, together with acrylic sheet, 0.635 mm fiberglass-reinforced polyester sheet, 0.102 mm polycarbonate/acrylic dual-layer film, 0.127 mm fluorocarbon film, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, low-iron glass, and several adhesives. The encapsulation materials were characterized by light transmittance measurements, determination of moisture barrier properties and bond strengths, and by the performance of cells before and after encapsulation. Silicon and acrylic coatings provided inadequate protection. Acrylic and fluorocarbon films displayed good weatherability and acceptable optical transmittance. Borosilicate, low-iron and soda-lime-float glasses were found to be acceptable candidate encapsulants for most environments.

Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.; Sliemers, F. A.; Brockway, M. C.; Bunk, A. R.; Nance, G. P.

1978-01-01

253

Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar pumped iodine molecule lasers are explored. In an effort to prepare an iodo fluorocarbon compound absorbing strongly at 300 nm or above, the synthesis of perfluoro allylic iodides was investigated. These compounds furnish especially stable allylic radicals upon photodissociation. The desired red shift is anticipated in the absorption maximum could correlate with increasing radical stability. This expectation was based upon the analysis, previously reported, of the structures and absorption maxima of compounds studied earlier. A previously unknown substance was prepared, a prototypical target molecule, perfluoro-3-iodocyclopent-1-ene. It was obtained by reaction of perfluorocyclopentene with sulfur trioxide under the influence of antimony pentafluoride catalyst, followed by treatment of the resulting allylic fluorosulfonate with sodium iodide in sulfoland solvent. Preliminary data indicate that the absorption maximum for the iodo fluorocarbon is not shifted significantly to longer wavelength. It is not certain whether this result reflects an unexpected influence of the cyclic structure upon the position of the absorption maximum.

Shiner, C. S.

1986-01-01

254

Synthesis and characterization of self-assembling water-soluble polymers  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis is proposed of water-soluble vinyl and other polymers capable of self-assembly through hydrophobic bonding of pendent fluorocarbon and other hydrophobic groups. The self-assembly process will be studied by viscometry and dynamic viscoelasticity, and by static and dynamic light scattering. These investigations are aimed at identifying the structural features of polymers that are important in enhancing the viscosity of aqueous polymer solutions at very low polymer concentrations (< 1,000 ppm). The authors also initiate small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements aimed at the determination of the size of the fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobic aggregates. They will be interested in the degree of self assembly as a function of the type and length of the hydrophobic groups and of the type and length of the flexible spacer group linking the hydrophobic to the polymer backbone. The nature of the hydrophilic chain will also be of interest. Thus, they investigate a number of hydrophilic comonomers such as acrylamide, N-vinylpyrrolidone and anionic or cationic vinyl monomers. Surface interactions of these interesting copolymers will be studied by adsorption onto appropriate modified latex spheres. Finally, they propose to explore the synthesis of water-soluble polymers capable of self assembly through interactions of pendent polyanions and polycations.

Hogen-Esch, T.E.; Amis, E.J.

1992-05-01

255

HELIUM-3 Surface Relaxation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used pulsed NMR to study several aspects of ('3)He surface relaxation. In one experiment, a Carbolac substrate was preplated with N(,2) and the ('3)He T(,1) was measured as a function of the applied field H(,0). Sharp dips in these T(,1)s occurred when the ('3)He Larmor frequency matched the nitrogen quadrupole frequency. We interpret these features as evidence that ('3)He relaxation pathways involve discrete (gamma)hH(,0) energy exchanges rather than the continuum of energies suggested by models based on impurity scattering. Working with a fluorocarbon substrate, we monitored the ('3)He T(,1) under conditions of a varying O(,2), environment. Though the ('19)F in the substrate showed acute sensitivity to the O(,2), the ('3)He T(,1) was unaltered in all our trials. This serves as evidence against an O(,2) role in ('3)He surface relaxation. The same fluorocarbon substrate was used in a series of experiments which revealed that the ('3)He and substrate ('19)F nuclear spin reservoirs were strongly linked. One interesting feature of this link was the easy flow of magnetization between the two spin reservoirs. In addition, the ('19)F T(,1) changed by a factor of 10 when a ('3)He monolayer was absorbed on the surface. We used this nuclear communication to probe several aspects of ('3)He surface relaxation.

Friedman, Larry Jay

256

Electron attachment to radicals and other reactive molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron attachment to highly reactive fluorocarbon species C2F5 and CF2 has been studied experimentally with a TEM-TOF apparatus (TEM- Trochoidal Electron Monochrator; TOF - Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer; Field et al., J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 255). These reactive molecules have been generated in situ by fast atom reactions and by passing fluorocarbon precursors through a microwave discharge. In the case of C2F5 low energy electron attachment is observed with the formation of F^- at close to zero electron energy, however, no electron attachment to CF2 was observed, despite theoretical prediction of a significant dissociative electron attachment cross section (Rozum et al., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 35 (2006) 267). An upper limit for the dissociative electron attachment cross section of CF2 has been estimated as 5x10-4 ^2 at 1.8 eV, which is the thermodynamic threshold for F^- formation from CF2. (Graupner et al., New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 083035).[4pt] Work done in collaboration with Karola Graupner and Sean Haughey, Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University, Belfast; Christopher Mayhew, Dept. Physics, University of Birmingham, UK; and Judith Langer, Institut fur Optik und Atomare Physik, TU Berlin, Germany.

Field, Tom

2011-11-01

257

Impacts of CF+, CF2+, CF3+, and Ar Ion Beam Bombardment with Energies of 100 and 400 eV on Surface Modification of Photoresist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoresists used in advanced ArF-excimer laser lithography are not tolerant enough for plasma etching processes. Degradation of photoresists during etching processes might cause not only low selectivity, but also line edge roughness (LER) on the sidewalls of etched patterns. For a highly accurate processing, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of etching photoresists and to construct a new plasma chemistry that realizes a nano scale precise pattern definition. In this study, the modified layers formed on the surface of a photoresist by the bombardment of fluorocarbon ions of CF+, CF2+, and CF3+, and argon (Ar) ions were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The etching yield of the modified steady-state surface was almost dependent on the mass of incident ion species. The surface composition was modified with increasing dosage of each ion species, and reached a specific steady state that was dependent on the ion species. The bombardment of F-rich ion species such as CF2+ and CF3+ resulted in the formation of not only fluorocarbon layers, but also graphite like structures on the surface. On the basis of these results, the surface reaction for the ion-beam-induced modification was discussed.

Takeuchi, Takuya; Amasaki, Shinpei; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sekine, Makoto; Kang, Song-Yun; Sawada, Ikuo; Hori, Masaru

2011-08-01

258

Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that ff any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

1999-01-01

259

Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that if any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

1998-01-01

260

Creation of superhydrophobic stainless steel surfaces by acid treatments and hydrophobic film deposition.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a method to render stainless steel surfaces superhydrophobic while maintaining their corrosion resistance. Creation of surface roughness on 304 and 316 grade stainless steels was performed using a hydrofluoric acid bath. New insight into the etch process is developed through a detailed analysis of the chemical and physical changes that occur on the stainless steel surfaces. As a result of intergranular corrosion, along with metallic oxide and fluoride redeposition, surface roughness was generated on the nano- and microscales. Differences in alloy composition between 304 and 316 grades of stainless steel led to variations in etch rate and different levels of surface roughness for similar etch times. After fluorocarbon film deposition to lower the surface energy, etched samples of 304 and 316 stainless steel displayed maximum static water contact angles of 159.9 and 146.6, respectively. However, etching in HF also caused both grades of stainless steel to be susceptible to corrosion. By passivating the HF-etched samples in a nitric acid bath, the corrosion resistant properties of stainless steels were recovered. When a three step process was used, consisting of etching, passivation and fluorocarbon deposition, 304 and 316 stainless steel samples exhibited maximum contact angles of 157.3 and 134.9, respectively, while maintaining corrosion resistance. PMID:22913317

Li, Lester; Breedveld, Victor; Hess, Dennis W

2012-09-26

261

Reactive Etching Of Semiconductor Surfaces By Laser-Generated Free Radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive etching at silicon and silicon-oxide surfaces is customarily carried out in a fluorocarbon plasma. Under such conditions, a large variety of reactive species is generated, making it extremely difficult to elucidate details of the etching mechanism; in addition, the charged species present in the plasma frequently produce undesirable radiation damage in the finished devices. We have found that dissociation of the parent fluorocarbons by multiple-infrared-photon excitation produces reactive neutral fragments which are capable of etching these surfaces. Etch gases such as CF3Br, CF2HC1, CF300CF3, and SF, may be used with poly-Si, Si02, Si3 Nd' and other substrates; SEM, ESCA, and Auger diagnostics are employed to characterize the reactions occurring at the surface. From these experiments we hope to develop a quantitative model for the reactive etching process. Possible commercial advantages of the laser-etching technique include reduction or elimination of radiation damage, increased etching rates, and improved Si02/Si specificity.

Harradine, David; McFeely, F. Read; Roop, Bobbi; Steinfeld, Jeffrey I.; Denison, Dean; Hartsough, Larry; Hollahan, John R.

1981-09-01

262

Designing novel hybrid materials by one-pot co-condensation: from hydrophobic mesoporous silica nanoparticles to superamphiphobic cotton textiles.  

PubMed

This work reports the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with tridecafluorooctyltriethoxysilane (F13) and their in situ incorporation onto cotton textiles. The hybrid MSNs and the functional textiles were prepared by a one-pot co-condensation methodology between tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and F13, with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as the template and triethanolamine as the base. The influence of the F13 to TEOS molar ratio (1:10, 1:5 and 1:3) on the nanoparticle morphology, porosity, degree of functionalization, and hydro/oleophobic properties is discussed. The hybrid nanosilicas presented high colloidal stability and were spherical and monodispersed with average particle size of ?45 nm. They also showed high surface areas, large pore volumes, and a wormhole-type mesoporous structure. The increase in the organosilane proportion during the co-condensation process led to a more radially branched wormhole-like mesoporosity, a decrease in the surface area, pore volume, and amount of surface silanol groups, and an enrichment of the surface with fluorocarbon moieties. These changes imparted hydrophobic and oleophobic properties to the materials, especially to that containing the highest F13 loading. Cotton textiles were coated with the F13-MSNs through an efficient and less time-consuming route. The combination between surface roughness and mesoporosity imparted by the MSNs, and the low surface energy provided by the organosilane resulted in superhydrophobic functional textiles. Moreover, the textile with the highest loading of fluorocarbon groups was superamphiphobic. PMID:21615151

Pereira, C; Alves, C; Monteiro, A; Magn, C; Pereira, A M; Ibarra, A; Ibarra, M R; Tavares, P B; Arajo, J P; Blanco, G; Pintado, J M; Carvalho, A P; Pires, J; Pereira, M F R; Freire, C

2011-07-01

263

From superamphiphobic to amphiphilic polymeric surfaces with ordered hierarchical roughness fabricated with colloidal lithography and plasma nanotexturing.  

PubMed

Ordered, hierarchical (triple-scale), superhydrophobic, oleophobic, superoleophobic, and amphiphilic surfaces on poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA polymer substrates are fabricated using polystyrene (PS) microparticle colloidal lithography, followed by oxygen plasma etching-nanotexturing (for amphiphilic surfaces) and optional subsequent fluorocarbon plasma deposition (for amphiphobic surfaces). The PS colloidal microparticles were assembled by spin-coating. After etching/nanotexturing, the PMMA plates are amphiphilic and exhibit hierarchical (triple-scale) roughness with microscale ordered columns, and dual-scale (hundred nano/ten nano meter) nanoscale texture on the particles (top of the column) and on the etched PMMA surface. The spacing, diameter, height, and reentrant profile of the microcolumns are controlled with the etching process. Following the design requirements for superamphiphobic surfaces, we demonstrate enhancement of both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity as a result of hierarchical (triple-scale) and re-entrant topography. After fluorocarbon film deposition, we demonstrate superhydrophobic surfaces (contact angle for water 168, compared to 110 for a flat surface), as well as superoleophobic surfaces (153 for diiodomethane, compared to 80 for a flat surface). PMID:21351799

Ellinas, K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E

2011-04-01

264

Detection of Chamber Conditioning by CF4 in the GEC Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During oxide etch processes, buildup of fluorocarbon residues on reactor sidewalks can cause to drift and will necessitate time for conditioning and cleaning of the reactor. Various measurements in CF4 and Ar plasmas are made in an attempt to identify a metric able to indicate the chamber condition. Mass spectrometry and a Langmuir probe shows that the buildup of fluorocarbon films on the reactor surface causes a decrease in plasma floating potential, plasma potential, and ion energy in argon plasmas. This change in floating potential is also observed in CF4 plasma operation, and occurs primarily during the first hour and a half of plasma operation. A slight rise in electron density is also observed in the argon plasmas. Because the change is seen in an argon plasma, it is indicative of altered physical, not chemical, plasma-surface interactions. Specifically, the insulating films deposited on metal surfaces alter the electromagnetic fields seen by the plasma, affecting various parameters including the floating potential and electron density. An impedance probe placed on the inductive coil shows a slight reduction in plasma impedance due to this rising electron density. The optical emission of several species, including CF, C2, atomic Si and atomic C, is also monitored for changes in density resulting from the buildup of film on the chamber wall. Changes in the optical emission spectrum are comparable to the noise levels in their measurement.

Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, S. P.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

265

Antisoiling technology: Theories of surface soiling and performance of antisoiling surface coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical examination of surfaces undergoing natural outdoor soiling suggests that soil matter accumulates in up to three distinct layers. The first layer involves strong chemical attachment or strong chemisorption of soil matter on the primary surface. The second layer is physical, consisting of a highly organized arrangement of soil creating a gradation in surface energy from a high associated with the energetic first layer to the lowest possible state on the outer surfce of the second layer. The lowest possible energy state is dictated by the physical nature of the regional atmospheric soiling materials. These first two layers are resistant to removal by rain. The third layer constitutes a settling of loose soil matter, accumulating in dry periods and being removed during rainy periods. Theories and evidence suggest that surfaces that should be naturally resistant to the formation of the first two-resistant layers should be hard, smooth, hydrophobic, free of first-period elements, and have the lowest possible surface energy. These characteristics, evolving as requirements for low-soiling surfaces, suggest that surfaces or surface coatings should be of fluorocarbon chemistry. Evidence for the three-soil-layer concept, and data on the positive performance of candidate fluorocarbon coatings on glass and transparent plastic films after 28 months of outdoor exposure, are presented.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P. B.

1984-01-01

266

Control of atomic layer degradation on Si substrate  

SciTech Connect

To develop 32 nm node devices, the degradation of atomic layers on the surface of Si substrates must be controlled. During the etching of a SiO{sub 2} or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} hard mask or sidewall, the surface of Si is attended due to exposure to fluorocarbon plasma. The authors have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the energy of incident ions and the thickness of the fluorocarbon polymer for a CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}/CF{sub 4}/Ar/O{sub 2} plasma in a dual frequency CCP system. At a fixed ion energy the thickness of the damage layer (T{sub d}) basically depended on the thickness of the fluorocarbon polymer (T{sub C-F}). When the T{sub C-F} was changed by controlling the O/CF{sub x} gas ratio, T{sub d} had a minimum thickness under the conditions at balance point: P{sub b}, under which the T{sub C-F} was nearly equal to ion penetration depth: D{sub p}. Using molecular dynamics simulation, reaction around the transition from SiO{sub 2} to Si was clarified. The damage was done to the Si before the SiO{sub 2} was completely removed, and the largest T{sub d} was observed when the SiO{sub 2} was etched off. After that, T{sub C-F} began to increase because there was no longer an outflux of O from SiO{sub 2} and the damage decreased as the unstable SiF{sub x} species in the damaged layer desorbed. Once the T{sub C-F} became thicker than the ion penetration depth, the damaged layer got buried and T{sub d} stopped changing. When the ion penetration depth was controlled to be equal to T{sub C-F} in a steady state under low ion energy conditions, the T{sub d} was reduced to less than 1 nm.

Nakamura, Y.; Tatsumi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Kugimiya, K.; Harano, T.; Ando, A.; Kawase, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Iseda, S. [LSI Production Division 1, Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corp., 1883-43 Tsukuba-machi, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki 854-0065 (Japan); Semiconductor Technology Development Division, Sony Corp., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); LSI Production Division 1, Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corp., 1883-43 Tsukuba-machi, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki 854-0065 (Japan); Semiconductor Technology Development Division, Sony Corp., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); LSI Production Division 1, Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corp., 1883-43 Tsukuba-machi, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki 854-0065 (Japan)

2007-07-15

267

Fluorinated proteins: from design and synthesis to structure and stability.  

PubMed

Fluorine is all but absent from biology; however, it has proved to be a remarkably useful element with which to modulate the activity of biological molecules and to study their mechanism of action. Our laboratory's interest in incorporating fluorine into proteins was stimulated by the unusual physicochemical properties exhibited by perfluorinated small molecules. These include extreme chemical inertness and thermal stability, properties that have made them valuable as nonstick coatings and fire retardants. Fluorocarbons also exhibit an unusual propensity to phase segregation. This phenomenon, which has been termed the "fluorous effect", has been effectively exploited in organic synthesis to purify compounds from reaction mixtures by extracting fluorocarbon-tagged molecules into fluorocarbon solvents. As biochemists, we were curious to explore whether the unusual physicochemical properties of perfluorocarbons could be engineered into proteins. To do this, we developed a synthesis of a highly fluorinated amino acid, hexafluoroleucine, and designed a model 4-helix bundle protein, ?4H, in which the hydrophobic core was packed exclusively with leucine. We then investigated the effects of repacking the hydrophobic core of ?4H with various combinations of leucine and hexafluoroleucine. These initial studies demonstrated that fluorination is a general and effective strategy for enhancing the stability of proteins against chemical and thermal denaturation and proteolytic degradation. We had originally envisaged that the "fluorous interactions", postulated from the self-segregating properties of fluorous solvents, might be used to mediate specific protein-protein interactions orthogonal to those of natural proteins. However, various lines of evidence indicate that no special, favorable fluorine-fluorine interactions occur in the core of the fluorinated ?4 protein. This makes it unlikely that fluorinated amino acids can be used to direct protein-protein interactions. More recent detailed thermodynamic and structural studies in our laboratory have uncovered the basis for the remarkably general ability of fluorinated side chains to stabilize protein structure. Crystal structures of ?4H and its fluorinated analogues show that the fluorinated residues fit into the hydrophobic core with remarkably little perturbation to the structure. This is explained by the fact that fluorinated side chains, although larger, very closely preserve the shape of the hydrophobic amino acids they replace. Thus, an increase in buried hydrophobic surface area in the folded state is responsible for the additional thermodynamic stability of the fluorinated protein. Measurements of ?G, ?H, ?S, and ?Cp for unfolding demonstrate that the "fluorous" stabilization of these protein arises from the hydrophobic effect in the same way that hydrophobic partitioning stabilizes natural proteins. PMID:24883933

Marsh, E Neil G

2014-10-21

268

Modelling of morphology and proton transport in PFSA membranes.  

PubMed

Computational modelling studies of the structure of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer membranes consistently exhibit a nanoscopic phase-separated morphology in which the ionic side chains and aqueous counterions segregate from the fluorocarbon backbone to form clusters or channels. Although these investigations do not unambiguously predict the size or shape of the clusters, and whether or not the channels percolate the matrix or if the connections between them are more transient, the sequence of co-monomers along the main chain appears strongly to influence the domain size of the ionic regions, with more blocky sequences giving rise to larger domain sizes. The fundamental insight that substantial rearrangement of the sulfonic acid terminated side chains and fluorocarbon backbone takes place during swelling or shrinkage is borne out by both molecular and mesoscale simulations of model PFSA polymers, along with ab initio electronic structure calculations of minimally hydrated oligomeric fragments. Molecular-level modelling of proton transport in PFSA membranes attests to the complexity of the underlying mechanisms and the need to examine the chemical and physical processes at several distinct time and length scales. These investigations have revealed that the conformation of the fluorocarbon backbone, flexibility of the sidechains, and degree of aggregation and association of the sulfonic acid groups under minimally hydrated conditions collectively control the dissociation of the protons and the formation of Zundel and Eigen cations. The former appear to be the dominant charge carriers when the limiting water content allows only for the formation of a contact ion pair with the tethered sulfonate anion. As the water content increases, solvent-separated Eigen ions begin to appear, indicating that the dominant mechanism for diffusion of protons occurs over a region approximately 4 A away from the sulfonate groups. Finally, both the vehicular and Grotthuss shuttling mechanisms contribute to the mobility of the protons but, surprisingly, they are not always correlated, resulting in a lower overall diffusion coefficient. In summary, as the preceding observations indicate, the state of computational modelling of PFSA membranes has progressed sufficiently over the last decade to enable its use as a powerful predictive tool with which to guide the process of designing novel membrane materials for fuel cell applications. PMID:17627306

Elliott, James A; Paddison, Stephen J

2007-06-01

269

Characterization and Application of a Planar Radio - Inductively-Coupled Plasma Source for the Production of Barrier Coatings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A planar radio-frequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) source is used to produce fluorocarbon discharges (CF_4/Ar) to fluorinate the surface of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Using this system, concurrent studies of discharge characteristics, permeation properties of treated polymers and polymer surface characteristics are conducted to advance the use of plasma-fluorinated polymer surfaces as a barrier layer for automotive applications. Langmuir probes are used to determine spatial distribution of charged-particle and space-potential characteristics in Ar and CF_4/Ar discharges and to show the influence of the spatial distribution of the heating regions and the reactor boundaries on the discharge uniformity. Langmuir probes are also used to identify rf anisotropic drift motion of electrons in the heating regions of the source and transient high-energy electron features in pulsed discharges. These latter features allow pulsed ICP sources to be operated at low time-averaged powers that are necessary to treat thermally sensitive polymers. Fourier Transform Infrared (FITR) spectroscopy is used to measure the dissociation of fluorocarbon gases and to explore differences between pulsed- and continuous -power operation. Dissociation levels of CF_4 (50-85%) using pulsed-power operation are as high as that for continuous operation, even though the net time -averaged power is far less with pulsed operation. The result suggests that pulsed fluorocarbon discharges possess high concentrations of chemically-active species needed for rapid surface fluorination. A gravimetric permeation cup method is used to measure the permeation rate of test fuels through HDPE membranes, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) studies are performed to determine the stoichiometry and thickness of the barrier layer. From these studies we find that a 50-70 A thick, polar, fluoro-hydrocarbon over layer reduces the permeation of isooctane/toluene/methanol mixtures by a factor of 4. To increase the permeation resistance for automotive applications, this result points towards the deposition of a 1000 A thick fluoro-hydrocarbon barrier coating with stoichiometry and bond structures similar to the CF_4/Ar treated HDPE.

Mahoney, Leonard Joseph

270

The Effect of Supercritical Fluids on Solid Acid Catalyst Alkylation  

SciTech Connect

The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene was explored over six solid acid catalysts in the liquid, near-critical liquid, and supercritical regions through the addition of an inert cosolvent to the reaction feed mixture. The addition of supercritical cosolvents did not result in sustained catalytic alkylation activity. A modest improvement in product yield was obtained with the addition of methane in the modified-liquid region; however, catalyst longevity and product selectivity were decreased compared to cosolvent-free liquid conditions. This paper describes the catalyst screening and selection process, an exploration of catalyst performance with varying concentrations of methane, and an examination of the effects of seven supercritical fluids on catalyst performance. The catalysts included two zeolites, two sulfated metal oxides, and two Nafion catalysts. Three hydrocarbons, two fluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, and sulfur hexafluoride were explored as inert cosolvents added to the reaction mixture.

Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Thompson, David Neil; Burch, Kyle Coates; Zalewski, D. J.

2002-05-01

271

Novel direct vision prism and Wollaston prism assembly for diffraction limit applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose two types of novel prisms; 1) a direct vision prism with approximately linear angular dispersion as a function of wavelength (Liner dispersion prism: LDP) suitable for a wide range spectrometer, and 2) a novel Wollaston prism assembly (WPA) suitable for a polarizing imager and spectro-polarimeter with a wide wavelength coverage. LDP composes several kinds of glasses or plastics or crystals. Angular dispersion of LDP is enlarged by employment of with some kind of plastic. LDPs, which are employed polycarbonate and Cytop (Amorphous fluorocarbon resin), provide approximately linear angular dispersion in ultraviolet and visible wavelength, respectively. WPA is composed of two or three kinds of Wollaston prism with different birefringent crystals. WPA provides an achromatic angular separation or an angular separation with linear dispersion. These prisms will enable us to achieve a diffraction-limited capability on next generation telescopes of both ground-based and space-borne.

Ebizuka, Noboru; Yokota, Hideo; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Iye, Masanori; Sato, Shuji

2008-07-01

272

Study of spatial homogeneity and nitridation of an Al nanopattern template with spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a study on the spatial homogeneity and nitridation of a nanopattern template using a spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy. The template was composed of Al nanodots which were patterned into a SiO2/Si(1 1 1) surface using e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The template exhibited a global inhomogeneity in terms of the local topography, Al composition and structure of the individual nanopatterns. After nitridation, the individual nanopatterns were diminished, more corrugated and faceted. The nitridated nanopatterns were structurally ordered but differently orientated. The nitridation effectively removed the fluorine contaminants by decomposition of the fluorocarbon sidewalls, resulting in the AlN nanopatterns and partially nitridated Si substrate surface outside the nanopattern domains.

Qi, B.; lafsson, S.; Zakharov, A. A.; Gthelid, M.; Agnarsson, B.; Gislason, H. P.

2013-01-01

273

Monolithic polymer microlens arrays with high numerical aperture and high packing density.  

PubMed

This work reports a novel method for monolithic fabrication of high numerical aperture polymer microlens arrays (high-NA MLAs) with high packing density (PD) at wafer level. The close-packed high-NA MLAs were fabricated by incorporating conformal deposition of ultrathin fluorocarbon nanofilm and melting the cylindrical polymer islands. The NA and PD of hemispherical MLAs with a hexagonal arrangement increase up to 0.6 and 89%, respectively. The increase of NA enhances the lens transmission securing the beam width down to 1.1 ?m. The close-packed high-NA MLAs enable high photon collection efficiency with signal-to-noise ratio greater than 50:1. PMID:25612820

Jung, Hyukjin; Jeong, Ki-Hun

2015-02-01

274

Oil fill procesure for seismic marine streamer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for improving signal quality in urethane foam mounts utilized on hydrophones in conjunction with a seismic streamer. It comprises: purging a urethane foam mount with a fluid miscible with air and hydrocarbonaceous liquid having a selected density which liquid is used to dampen noise in a hydrophone where the fluid is a member selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, fluorocarbons, C{sub 1}{minus}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, and mixtures thereof which member alone substantially displaces air from the streamer; and thereafter filling the seismic streamer with the hydrocarbonaceous liquid which mixes with the fluid and substantially retains the density of the liquid thereby maintaining neutral buoyancy of the streamer, substantially isolating the hydrophones from noise, and improving signal quality.

Buckles, J.J.

1990-08-21

275

Deposition of superhydrophobic nanostructured Teflon-like coating using expanding plasma arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach was used to grow nanostructured Teflon-like superhydrophobic coatings on stainless steel (SS). In this method Teflon tailings were pyrolyzed to generate fluorocarbon precursor molecules, and an expanding plasma arc (EPA) was used to polymerize these precursors to deposit Teflon-like coating. The coating shows super hydrophobic behavior with water contact angle (WCA) of 165. The coating was observed to be uniform. It consists of nanostructured (80-200 nm) features, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The chemical bond state of the film was determined by XPS and FTIR, which indicate the dominance of -CF 2 groups in the deposited coating. The combination of nanofeature induced surface roughness and the low surface energy imparted by Teflon-like coating is responsible for the observed superhydrophobic nature.

Satyaprasad, A.; Jain, V.; Nema, S. K.

2007-04-01

276

Direct determination of surface tension in the lung.  

PubMed Central

We have used the spreading behavior of small drops of several fluorocarbon fluids and silicone oil on air-liquid interfaces to measure the surface tension of lungs in situ. The test fluids were calibrated in a surface balance at 37 degrees on monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. At particular surface tensions characteristic of each fluid used, an increase in the tension of 1 mN/m or less caused the droplets to spread reversibly from a sphere to a lens shape. Using micropipettes we placed such droplets on the alveolar surfaces of excised rat lungs held at functional residual capacity and 37 degrees and found that the surface tension remained below 9 mN/m for at least 30 min. The surface tension-volume relationship was linear for tensions ranging from 9 to 20 mN/m. Images PMID:1070020

Schrch, S; Goerke, J; Clements, J A

1976-01-01

277

Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces  

DOEpatents

Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

2009-03-31

278

Tetraperchlorate of methane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation of the tetraperchlorate of methane (TPM) was attempted. Displacement of halogen from carbon tetrahalides was accomplished with either CCl4 or CBr4 using the halogen perchlorates, ClOClO3, and BOClO3. Although the displacement process was successful, the generated carbon perchlorate intermediates were not isolated. Instead, these species decomposed to COCl2, CO2, and Cl2O7. The vigorous displacement reaction that often occurred required moderation. Fluorocarbon solvents and chlorine perchlorate were successfully tested for compatibility, permitting their use in these synthetic reactions. While the sought for moderating effect was obtained, the net result of the displacement of halogen from CX sub 4 substrates was the same as before. Thus only CO2, COCl2, and Cl2O7 were isolated.

Schack, C. J.

1972-01-01

279

Manufacture and quality control of interconnecting wire hardnesses, Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard is presented for manufacture, installation, and quality control of eight types of interconnecting wire harnesses. The processes, process controls, and inspection and test requirements reflected are based on acknowledgment of harness design requirements, acknowledgment of harness installation requirements, identification of the various parts, materials, etc., utilized in harness manufacture, and formulation of a typical manufacturing flow diagram for identification of each manufacturing and quality control process, operation, inspection, and test. The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 1, enclosed in fluorocarbon elastomer convolute, tubing; type 2, enclosed in TFE convolute tubing lines with fiberglass braid; type 3, enclosed in TFE convolute tubing; and type 5, combination of types 3 and 4. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated.

1972-01-01

280

Versatile Coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radome at Logan Airport and a large parabolic antenna at the Wang Building in Massachusetts are protected from weather, corrosion and ultraviolet radiation by a coating, specially designed for antennas and radomes, known as CRC Weathertite 6000. The CRC 6000 line that emerged from Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. is a solid dispersion of fluorocarbon polymer and polyurethane that yields a tough, durable film with superior ultraviolet resistance and the ability to repel water and ice over a long term. Additionally, it provides resistance to corrosion, abrasion, chemical attacks and impacts. Material can be used on a variety of substrates, such as fiberglass, wood, plastic and concrete in addition to steel and aluminum. In addition Boyd Coatings sees CRC 6000 applicability as an anti-icing system coated on the leading edge of aircraft wings.

1990-01-01

281

Wide Angle, Single Screen, Gridded Square-Loop Frequency Selective Surface for Diplexing Two Closely Separated Frequency Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a wide angle, single screen, frequency selective surface (FSS) with gridded square-loop path elements are described for diplexing closely separated signal bands, for example, X- and Ku-band signals in an Orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (OVLBI) earth station reflector antenna system, as well as other applications such as military and commercial communications via satellites. Excellent agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured results of this FSS design using the gridded square-loop patch elements sandwiched between 0.0889 cm thick tetrafluoroethylene fluorocarbon polymer (PTFE) slabs. Resonant frequency drift is reduced by 1 GHz with an incidence angle from 0 deg normal to 40 deg from normal.

Wu, Te-Kao (Inventor)

1996-01-01

282

Results of apparent atomic oxygen reactions with spacecraft materials during shuttle flight STS-41G  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of atomic oxygen interaction experienced by polymeric-based spacecraft materials is described. An experimental package (ACOMEX) flown on shuttle mission STS-41G carried out the investigation of advanced composite specimens such as carbon-epoxy and Kevlar-epoxy both with and without protective coatings added to thermal protective paints and films. Information on the exposure environment of the specimens was provided by a carbon coated atomic oxygen fluence monitor together with a photographic record. Mass loss measurements and photomicrographs made possible the analysis of the effect of interaction. After a total of about 38 hours of equivalent normal exposure at 225 km altitude the results showed that unprotected exposed surfaces exhibited severe erosion and mass loss with the possibility of seriously degrading structural and thermal performance. However, the specimens with a thin fluorocarbon overcoat showed promise of providing a protective barrier to the attack without altering the base properties of the material.

Zimcik, D. G.; Maag, C. R.

1985-01-01

283

Extraction studies. Final report, May 6, 1996--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During the first week of this effort, an Alpkem RFA-300 4-channel automated chemical analyzer was transferred to the basement of building 42 at TA-46 for the purpose of performing extraction studies. Initially, this instrumentation was applied to soil samples known to contain DNA. Using the SFA (Segmented Flow Analysis) technique, several fluidic systems were evaluated to perform on-line filtration of several varieties of soil obtained from Cheryl Kuske and Kaysie Banton (TA-43, Bldg. 1). Progress reports were issued monthly beginning May 15, 1996. Early in 1997 there was a shift from the conventional 2-phase system (aqueous + air) to a 3-phase system (oil + aqueous + air) to drastically reduce sample size and reagent consumption. Computer animation was recorded on videotape for presentations. The time remaining on the subcontract was devoted to setting up existing equipment to incorporate the 3rd phase (a special fluorocarbon oil obtained from DuPont).

NONE

1997-10-09

284

Cell separations and the demixing of aqueous two phase polymer solutions in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partition in phase separated aqueous polymer solutions is a cell separation procedure thought to be adversely influenced by gravity. In preparation for performing cell partitioning experiments in space, and to provide general information concerning the demixing of immiscible liquids in low gravity, a series of phase separated aqueous polymer solutions have been flown on two shuttle flights. Fluorocarbon oil and water emulsions were also flown on the second flight. The aqueous polymer emulsions, which in one g demix largely by sedimentation and convection due to the density differences between the phases, demixed more slowly than on the ground and the final disposition of the phases was determined by the wetting of the container wall by the phases. The demixing behavior and kinetics were influenced by the phase volume ratio, physical properties of the systems and chamber wall interaction. The average domain size increased linearly with time as the systems demixed.

Brooks, Donald E.; Bamberger, Stephan; Harris, J. M.; Van Alstine, James M.

1991-01-01

285

Enhanced condensation heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work has centered on optimizing the design variables associated with fluted surfaces on vertical tubes and comparing the tube performance with available enhanced tubes either for vertical or horizontal operation. Data with seven fluids including a hydrocarbon, fluorocarbons, and ammonia condensing on up to 30 different tubes were obtained. Data for tubes of different effective lengths (1/2 to 4 ft) and inclination were also obtained. The primary conclusion is that the best fluted tubes can provide an enhancement in condensation coefficient by a factor of approximately 6 over smooth vertical tube performance and a factor of approximately 2 over the best enhanced commercial tubes either operating vertically or horizontally. These data, together with field test data, have formed the basis for designing two prototype condensers, one for the 60 kWe Raft River, Idaho, pilot plant and one for the 500 kWe East Mesa, California, direct contact demonstration plant.

Michel, J. W.; Murphy, R. W.

1980-07-01

286

Fluorine Bonding Enhances the Energetics of Protein-Lipid Binding in the Gas Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the first experimental study of the energies of noncovalent fluorine bonding in a protein-ligand complex in the absence of solvent. Arrhenius parameters were measured for the dissociation of gaseous deprotonated ions of complexes of bovine ?-lactoglobulin (Lg), a model lipid-binding protein, and four fluorinated analogs of stearic acid (SA), which contained (X =) 13, 15, 17, or 21 fluorine atoms. In all cases, the activation energies (Ea) measured for the loss of neutral XF-SA from the (Lg + XF-SA)7- ions are larger than for SA. From the kinetic data, the average contribution of each > CF2 group to Ea was found to be ~1.1 kcal mol-1, which is larger than the ~0.8 kcal mol-1 value reported for > CH2 groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that fluorocarbon-protein interactions are inherently stronger (enthalpically) than the corresponding hydrocarbon interactions.

Liu, Lan; Jalili, Nobar; Baergen, Alyson; Ng, Simon; Bailey, Justin; Derda, Ratmir; Klassen, John S.

2014-05-01

287

Voltage Reduction and Lifetime Elongation of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Photopolymerization for Fluorizated Polyxylylene Hole Injection Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes a novel method for manufacturing a hole injection layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), comprising an ultraviolet (UV) reactive Br-fluorocarbon precursor (Br-CF2-C6F4-CF2-Br). The proposed method can be used to form a fluorizated polyxylylene film, demonstrating high repeatability on the anode as the hole injection layer of organic electroluminescent devices to enhance the hole injection, reduce the operating voltage of 1.2 V, and extend the operational lifetime by more than 150 times under a high current density of 125 mA/cm2. Using a spin-coating process, the remaining precursor can be recycled to prevent wasting materials. UV curing without the solvent-removing process shortens manufacturing time. Hence, fabricating a high performance OLED using a simple, low-cost process is the aim of this study.

Jiang, Meng-Dan; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Lee, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shun-Po; Lin, Hong-Cheu

2012-03-01

288

Pulsed Plasma Thruster Plume Study: Symmetry and Impact on Spacecraft Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four witness plates were positioned on perpendicular arrays near a breadboard Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to collect plume constituents for analysis. Over one million shots were fired during the experiment at 43 J using fluorocarbon polymer propellant. The asymmetry of the film deposition on the witness plates was investigated with mass and thickness measurements and correlated with off-axis thrust vector measurements. The composition of the films was determined. The transmittance and reflectance of the films were measured and the absorption coefficients were calculated in the wavelength range from 350 to 1200 mn. These data were applied to calculate the loss in signal intensity through the films, which will impact the visibility of spaceborne interferometer systems positioned by these thrusters.

Arrington, Lynn A.; Marrese, Colleen M.; Blandino, John J.

2000-01-01

289

Fluorine bonding enhances the energetics of protein-lipid binding in the gas phase.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the first experimental study of the energies of noncovalent fluorine bonding in a protein-ligand complex in the absence of solvent. Arrhenius parameters were measured for the dissociation of gaseous deprotonated ions of complexes of bovine ?-lactoglobulin (Lg), a model lipid-binding protein, and four fluorinated analogs of stearic acid (SA), which contained (X =) 13, 15, 17, or 21 fluorine atoms. In all cases, the activation energies (Ea) measured for the loss of neutral XF-SA from the (Lg + XF-SA)(7) ions are larger than for SA. From the kinetic data, the average contribution of each?>?CF2 group to Ea was found to be ~1.1 kcal mol(1), which is larger than the ~0.8 kcal mol(1) value reported for?>?CH2 groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that fluorocarbonprotein interactions are inherently stronger (enthalpically) than the corresponding hydrocarbon interactions. PMID:24658801

Liu, Lan; Jalili, Nobar; Baergen, Alyson; Ng, Simon; Bailey, Justin; Derda, Ratmir; Klassen, John S

2014-05-01

290

Swelling in organic-inorganic multilayer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the swelling of organic-inorganic structures based on fluorocarbon polymer (CF2) layers sandwiched by two layers of inorganic ionic (HfO2) and inorganic covalent (CdS) materials. The swelling of the CF2 layer produces cracks on the uppermost inorganic layer. The cracks form a network of hexagonal defects with random distribution. The extension of the pattern and the mean unit size have been measured for different solvents by using a purposely developed optical profilometer. We show that the swelling phenomenon strongly depends on the polar forces between the molecules of the solvent and those of the inorganic layers. The electric dipole moment of the solvents and the ionicity of the inorganic materials are thus the crucial parameters influencing the crack density and shape.

Convertino, A.; Valentini, A.; De Vittorio, M.; Cingolani, R.

1998-08-01

291

Control of internal and external short circuits in lithium batteries using a composite thermal switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite material has been developed, consisting of a blend of metal and fluorocarbon particles, which behaves as an electronic conductor at room temperature and which abruptly becomes an insulator at a predetermined temperature. This switching behavior results from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the conductive and non-conductive portions of the composite. This material was applied as a thin film between the carbon cathode in Li/SOCl2 cells, and the metallic cathode current collector. Using test articles incorporating this feature it was shown that lithium cells externally heated or internally heated during a short circuit lost rate capability and the ability to overheat well below the melting point of lithium (180 C). Thus, during an internal or external cell short circuit, the potential for thermal runaway involving reactions of molten lithium is avoided.

Mcdonald, Robert C.; Pickett, Jerome; Goebel, Franz

1991-01-01

292

Study of toxicological evaluation of fire suppressants and extinguishers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of fluorocarbons as possible candidates for fire extinguishers and/or suppressants in confined spaces (such as spacecraft, aircraft, or submarines) was investigated, with special emphasis on their safety to man since they would be inhaled on an almost continuous basis. Short-term exposure experiments, using various animal species, were devised to look at specific parameters in order to determine which of the candidate compounds were sufficiently non-toxic to warrant long-term investigations. The following physiologic criteria were examined; tissue distribution, fluoride concentration, effect on mitochondria, microsomes, liposomes, and liver cell nuclei, erythrocyte fragility, clinical chemistry values, hematology, pathology, cardiac sensitization, behavioral effects. Various rodent species were used for initial investigations, with non-human primate exposures for Freon 116 which was warranted for negative results on rodents. Various types of exposure chambers were used, including closed dynamic chambers allowing for a recirculating atmosphere.

1975-01-01

293

Electrokinetics of Polar Liquids in Contact with Non-Polar Surfaces  

E-print Network

Zeta potentials of several polar protic (water, ethylene glycol, formamide) as well as polar aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) liquids were measured in contact with three non-polar surfaces using closed-cell electro-osmosis. The test surfaces were chemisorbed monolayers of alkyl siloxanes, fluoroalkyl siloxanes and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) grafted on glass slides. All these liquids exhibited substantial electrokinetics in contact with the non-polar surfaces with these observations: the electrokinetic effect on the fluorocarbon-coated surface is the strongest; and on a PDMS grafted surface, the effect is the weakest. Even though these hygroscopic liquids contain small amounts of water, the current models of charging based on the adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface or the dissociation of preexisting functionalities (e.g., silanol groups) appear to be insufficient to account for the various facets of the experimental observations. The results illustrate how ubiquitous the phenomenon of electro-kinetics ...

Lin, Chih-Hsiu; Chaudhury, Manoj K

2014-01-01

294

Economical Analysis about Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration plant is attractive from each standpoint of electric power saving, non-fluorocarbon and energy saving. The plant can be the economic alternative of power compression refrigeration for evaporation temperature range from 0C to -60C, using suitable waste heat (co-generation system, waste incinerator), oil and natural gas. In the application of the plant, the equipment cost and the COP must be reasonable from economical standpoint. Therefore, the paper shows the following. 1) Necessary heating temparature analysis for absorption plant 2) Equipment cost analysis for heating temperature 3) Equipment cost analysis for COP 4) Number of trays in the rectifying column for COP 5) Equipment cost analysis and COP in two-stage absorption

Takei, Toshitaka

295

Fluorinated nanocarbons using fluorinating agent: Strategies of fluorination and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorination method strongly influences the physical properties of the resulting fluorinated carbon materials. Two fluorination ways, direct fluorination under pure fluorine gas and controlled fluorination by the decomposition of TbF4, have been used for the fluorination of particular nanocarbons: carbon nanofibers and a mixture of carbon nanodiscs and nanocones. Then, fluorocarbon matrix structures have been determined owing to solid state 19F NMR for MAS conditions at a spinning speed of 30 kHz. It reveals that the fluorination mechanism depends on the fluorination conditions but not on the starting nanocarbons morphology, i.e. tubular or planar. Finally, the electrochemical properties of carbon nanofibers fluorinated by the two ways are detailed. Controlled fluorination allows an increase of the power densities of fluorinated carbon nanofibers used as electrode in primary lithium batteries.

Zhang, W.; Dubois, M.; Gurin, K.; Bonnet, P.; Kharbache, H.; Masin, F.; Thomas, P.; Mansot, J.-L.; Hamwi, A.

2010-05-01

296

Plasma-assisted surface modification and radical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-assisted deposition and etching have widely been applied to microelectronics devices in industries as well as to huge vacuum devices in nuclear fusion. A more detailed understanding of plasma processing is essential for development of new techniques for small-scale ( < {1}/{4} ?m ) etching and large-scale ( >10 m) deposition. A scaling law for uniformity of large-scale deposition was found in a simulation experiment of boron coating of fusion devices, using a less hazardous boride B 10H 14 (decaborane). Moreover, boron etching by a fluorocarbon plasma was demonstrated along with a new modeling of surface-coverage effects. Appearance mass spectrometry which is a powerful tool for neutral radical detection, has successfully been applied to a CF 4 containing RF plasma for semiconductor etching. Addition of a small amount of H 2 into CF 4 drastically modified the kinetics of CF 2 and CF 3 radicals as a result of surface processes.

Sugai, H.; Yamage, M.; Hikosaka, Y.; Nakano, T.; Toyoda, H.

1993-05-01

297

Plasma Reactor Modeling and Validation Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma processing is a key processing stop in integrated circuit manufacturing. Low pressure, high density plum reactors are widely used for etching and deposition. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source has become popular recently in many processing applications. In order to accelerate equipment and process design, an understanding of the physics and chemistry, particularly, plasma power coupling, plasma and processing uniformity and mechanism is important. This understanding is facilitated by comprehensive modeling and simulation as well as plasma diagnostics to provide the necessary data for model validation which are addressed in this presentation. We have developed a complete code for simulating an ICP reactor and the model consists of transport of electrons, ions, and neutrals, Poisson's equation, and Maxwell's equation along with gas flow and energy equations. Results will be presented for chlorine and fluorocarbon plasmas and compared with data from Langmuir probe, mass spectrometry and FTIR.

Meyyappan, M.; Bose, D.; Hash, D.; Hwang, H.; Cruden, B.; Sharma, S. P.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

298

Electron ionization of open/closed chain isocarbonic molecules relevant in plasma processing: Theoretical cross sections  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report theoretical electron impact ionization cross sections from threshold to 2000 eV for isocarbonic open chain molecules C{sub 4}H{sub 6}, C{sub 4}H{sub 8}, C{sub 4}F{sub 6} including their isomers, and closed chain molecules c-C{sub 4}H{sub 8} and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}. Theoretical formalism employed presently, viz., Complex Scattering Potential-ionization contribution method has been used successfully for a variety of polyatomic molecules. The present ionization calculations are very important since results available for the studied targets are either scarce or none. Our work affords comparison of C{sub 4} containing hydrocarbon versus fluorocarbon molecules. Comparisons of the present ionization cross sections are made wherever possible, and new ionization data are also presented.

Patel, Umang R., E-mail: umangpatel193@yahoo.ca [Gandhinagar Institute of Technology, Moti Bhoyan, Gandhinagar-382721, Gujarat (India); Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Joshipura, K. N.; Pandya, Siddharth H. [Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India)] [Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Kothari, Harshit N. [Universal College of Engineering and Technology, Moti Bhoyan, Gandhinagar-382721, Gujarat (India)] [Universal College of Engineering and Technology, Moti Bhoyan, Gandhinagar-382721, Gujarat (India)

2014-01-28

299

Sensitive, high throughput detection of proteins in individual, surfactant-stabilized picoliter droplets using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Droplet-based fluidics is emerging as a powerful platform for single cell analysis, directed evolution of enzymes, and high throughput screening studies. Due to the small amounts of compound compartmentalized in each droplet, detection has been primarily by fluorescence. To extend the range of experiments that can be carried out in droplets, we have developed the use of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to measure femtomole quantities of proteins in individual pico- to nanoliter droplets. Surfactant-stabilized droplets containing analyte were produced in a flow-focusing droplet generation microfluidic device using fluorocarbon oil as the continuous phase. The droplets were collected off-chip for storage and reinjected into microfluidic devices prior to spraying the emulsion into an ESI mass spectrometer. Crucially, high quality mass spectra of individual droplets were obtained from emulsions containing a mixture of droplets at >150 per minute, opening up new routes to high throughput screening studies. PMID:23514243

Smith, Clive A; Li, Xin; Mize, Todd H; Sharpe, Timothy D; Graziani, Edmund I; Abell, Chris; Huck, Wilhelm T S

2013-04-16

300

Electrical conduction control of carbon nanowalls  

SciTech Connect

The electrical conduction behavior of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) has been evaluated by Hall measurement. CNWs, which comprise stacks of graphene sheets standing on the substrate, are fabricated by fluorocarbon/hydrogen plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We have investigated the effect of N{sub 2} addition to C{sub 2}F{sub 6}/H{sub 2} system on the electrical properties of CNWs. The CNWs grown with the C{sub 2}F{sub 6}/H{sub 2} plasma exhibit p-type conduction. As a result of the nitrogen inclusion in the CNWs, the conduction type of the CNWs changes to n type. The carrier concentration is controllable by changing the flow rate of the additional N{sub 2} during the CNW growth process.

Takeuchi, Wakana; Ura, Masato; Hori, Masaru [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 468-8603 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Mineo [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Meijo University, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Tokuda, Yutaka [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Kano, Hiroyuki [NU Eco-Engineering Co., Ltd., Kurozasa, Miyoshi, Nishikamo 470-0201 (Japan)

2008-05-26

301

Superhydrophobic micro/nano dual-scale structures.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present superhydrophobic micro/nano dual structures (MNDS). By KOH-etching of silicon, well-designed microstructures, including inverted pyramids and V-shape grooves, are first fabricated with certain geometry sizes. Nanostructures made of high-compact high-aspect-ratio nanopillars are then formed atop microstructures by an improved controllable deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process without masks, thus forming MNDS. Resulting from both the minimized liquid-solid contact area and the fluorocarbon layer atop deposited during the DRIE process, the MNDS show a reliable superhydrophobicity. The contact angle and contact angle hysteresis are -165 degrees and less than 1 degrees, respectively. This superhydrophobicity of MNDS is very stable according to squeezing and dropping test, even in high voltage conditions with the electrowetting threshold voltage of -300 V. Therefore, this micro/nano dual-scale structure has strong potential applications to the self-cleaning surface and superhydrophobic micro/nano fluidics. PMID:23646678

Zhang, Xiaosheng; Di, Qianli; Zhu, Fuyun; Sun, Guangyi; Zhang, Haixia

2013-02-01

302

Foam films as thin liquid gas separation membranes.  

PubMed

In this letter, we testify the feasibility of using freestanding foam films as a thin liquid gas separation membrane. Diminishing bubble method was used as a tool to measure the permeability of pure gases like argon, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to atmospheric air. All components of the foam film including the nature of the tail (fluorocarbon vs hydrocarbon), charge on the headgroup (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) and the thickness of the water core (Newton black film vs Common black film) were systematically varied to understand the permeation phenomena of pure gases. Overall results indicate that the permeability values for different gases are in accordance with magnitude of their molecular diameter. A smaller gaseous molecule permeates faster than the larger ones, indicating a new realm of application for foam films as size selective separation membranes. PMID:21314136

Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Mller, Hans Joachim; Mhwald, Helmuth; Krastev, Rumen

2011-03-01

303

Pulse compression and beam quality improvement of a single-frequency Nd:YAG MOPA system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugation (SBS-PC) in the fluorocarbon liquid FC-77 is investigated within the development of a single-frequency Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system operating at 1064 nm wavelength. Focusing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation into a FC-77-filled SBS cell which acts as a phase conjugate mirror in a double-pass amplifier arrangement generates high peak power output radiation in the MW range. As a result of the SBS phase conjugation process, we observed an improvement of the spatial beam quality (M2 = 1.4) as well as pulse shortening to the sub-nanosecond regime (<800 ps). The latter is significantly governed by the pump energy and the focusing conditions.

Lux, Oliver; Stankov, Hristomir; Fritsche, Haro; Eichler, Hans J.

2013-02-01

304

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried Out in the framework of Belarus National Program. The fluids include HFCs R134a. R152a, R135, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: ( I ) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation: (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state: (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity. viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state: (4) dielectric properties and surface tension: (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium: and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990 1993 is presented.

Grebenkov, A. J.; Zhelezny, V. P.; Klepatsky, P. M.; Beljajeva, O. V.; Chernjak, Yu. A.; Kotelevsky, Yu. G.; Timofejev, B. D.

1996-05-01

305

Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried out in the framework of Belarus National program. The fluids include HFCs R134a, R152a, R125, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: (1) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation; (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state; (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state; (4) dielectric properties and surface tension; (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium; and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990-1993 is presented.

Grebenkov, A.J.; Klepatsky, P.M.; Beljajeva, O.V. [Inst. of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belgium)] [and others

1996-05-01

306

Cathodic electrocatalyst layer for electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cathodic gas diffusion electrode for the electrochemical production of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cathodic gas diffusion electrode comprises an electrically conductive gas diffusion substrate and a cathodic electrocatalyst layer supported on the gas diffusion substrate. A novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer comprises a cathodic electrocatalyst, a substantially water-insoluble quaternary ammonium compound, a fluorocarbon polymer hydrophobic agent and binder, and a perfluoronated sulphonic acid polymer. An electrochemical cell using the novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer has been shown to produce an aqueous solution having between 8 and 14 weight percent hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, such electrochemical cells have shown stable production of hydrogen peroxide solutions over 1000 hours of operation including numerous system shutdowns.

Rhodes, Christopher P. (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. K. (Inventor); Singh, Waheguru Pal (Inventor); Anderson, Kelvin C. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

307

Development and evaluation of elastomeric materials for geothermal applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A material for a casing packer for service for 24 hours in a geothermal environment was developed by synthesis of new elastomers and formulation of available materials. Formulation included use of commercial elastomer gumstocks and also crosslinking of plastic (high Tg) materials. Fibrous reinforcement of fluorocarbon rubbers was emphasized. Organic fiber reinforcement did not increase hot properties significantly. Glass fiber reinforcement gave significant increase in tensile properties. Elongation was reduced, and the glass-reinforced composition examined so far did not hold up well in the geothermal environment. Colloidal asbestos fibers were also investigated. A few experiments with polyphenyl ether gave material with low tensile and high compression set. Available high styrene SBR compositions were studied. Work to date suggests that new synthetic polymers will be required for service in geothermal environments.

Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Ingham, J. D.

1978-01-01

308

Energy from ocean thermal gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) transforms the solar heating of the ocean surface into electrical energy, either transmitting it to shore or using it to manufacture energy-intensive products such as aluminum, ammonia, hydrogen or magnesium at sea. Open-cycle systems, requiring extremely large turbines and degasifiers, are not thought to be as advanced as closed-cycle systems which use heat exchangers (either shell-and-tube or plate) that are made of titanium, stainless steel or aluminum alloys, which must minimize corrosion and biofouling, and that use ammonia, propane or fluorocarbons as working fluids. OTEC platform configurations include ship shapes and submersibles, such as spar buoys, and require cold-water pipes 1,000 m long, made of such materials as elastomers, lightweight concrete and fiberglass-reinforced plastic.

Cohen, R.

1980-02-01

309

The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

Poppoff, I. G. (editor); Page, W. A. (editor); Margozzi, A. P. (editor)

1979-01-01

310

Nano-coatings on carbon structures for interfacial modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of materials is a rapidly growing field as structures become smaller, more integrated and complex. It opens up the possibility of combining the optimum bulk properties of a material with optimized surface properties such as enhanced bonding, corrosion resistance, reactivity, stress transfer, and thermal, optical or electrical behavior. Therefore, surface functionalization or modification can be an enabling step in a wide variety of modern applications. In this dissertation several surface modification approaches on carbon foam and carbon nano-fibers will be discussed. These are recently developed sp2 graphitic carbon based structures that have significant potential in aerospace, automotive and thermal applications. Influence of surface modification on composite formation and properties have also been investigated. Two types of property changes have been investigated: one for enhancing the surface reactivity and another for surface inertness. Characterization techniques such as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Contact Angle Measurement, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and mechanical testing are used in this study to find out the influence of these coatings on surface composition, chemistry and morphology. Mechanical testing has been performed on composites and stand alone foam to study the influence of surface modification on physical and mechanical properties of the composite materials. The effectiveness of these coatings on metallic/graphite interface has also been investigated for metal-matrix composite related applications. Additionally, the influence of plasma coatings on nucleation and growth of nanotubes on larger carbon structures (to produce multiscale, multifunctional materials) have also been studied. It is seen that the liquid phase activation treatment introduces oxygen functional groups on the surface, but may cause severe enough degradation that damages the ligaments and cell walls of carbon foam. This results in higher elastic modulus but lower strength. So, to get any benefit from such approaches the optimization window may be very narrow and marginal in controllability. An alternative solution would be to synthesize ultra thin film coatings without etching the surfaces. It is observed that plasma assisted coatings having thickness in the range of few nanometers (4-5nm) are completely covering the graphite substrates. The coating surface chemistry and morphology information is based upon XPS and AFM studies on pyrolytic graphite substrate. Two types of plasma surface modification techniques have been attempted: one is to make the surface more reactive for structural components and the other is to make the surface more inert for stand-alone structures. In order to achieve these goals plasma assisted oxide and fluorocarbon coatings are studied in detail. The synthesized oxide and fluorocarbon coating chemistries are comparable to conventional silica (SiO2) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, -CF2-). It is seen that the fluorocarbon coatings provide moisture resistance to graphitic foam by making the surface inert at the nanometer scale. On the other hand, plasma assisted oxide coating is a feasible and effective means of improving the wettability and dispersion of foam and nanofibers in organic polymer matrix material. Surface analysis as well as microstructural studies and mechanical tests have shown encouraging results. The interface reactions between graphite (coated and uncoated) and epoxy have also been studied in detail. Nano-scale plasma coatings have also been applied for metal matrix composites and semiconductor related applications. The fluorocarbon coating promote delamination/exfoliation of the metal on graphite, hence may be used for patterning or lithography. Oxide coatings seem to enhance the adhesion and metallic diffusion between graphite and metal, hence can be used for the development of metal matrix composites. Additionally, oxide coating seems to enhance the length and density of nanotub

Pulikollu, Rajasekhar V.

311

Mass analysis of neutral particles and ions released during electrical breakdowns on spacecraft surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specialized spectrometer was designed and developed to measure the mass and velocity distributions of neutral particles (molecules and molecular clusters) released from metal-backed Teflon and Kapton films. Promising results were obtained with an insulation breakdown initiation system based on a moveable contact touching the insulated surfaces. A variable energy, high voltage pulse is applied to the contact. The resulting surface damage sites can be made similar in size and shape to those produced by a high voltage electron beam system operating at similar discharge energies. The point discharge apparatus was used for final development of several high speed recording systems and for measurements of the composition of the materials given off by the discharge. Results with this apparatus show evolution of large amounts of fluorocarbon fragments from discharge through Teflon FEP, while discharges through Kapton produce mainly very light hydrocarbon fragments at masses below about 80 a.m.u.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1983-01-01

312

Channel electron multiplier compatibility with Viton and Apiezon-L vacuum grease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clean Viton and Viton coated with Apiezon-L vacuum grease were tested for their noncontaminating compatibility with channel electron multipliers (CEMs). The test setup and procedure were the same as those used previously in conjunction with CEM compatibility tests of certain epoxies, solder, and fluorocarbon polymer materials useful for construction of spaceflight sensors. While some CEM gain degradation was noted during exposure to Viton and Apiezon-L, the present tests indicate that, at least over instrument lifetimes of about 2 x 10 to the 12th counts, these materials should be suitable for (1) preflight space sensor testing systems, (2) hermetic seals for CEM-based space sensors, and (3) terrestrial CEM-based instrumentation.

Mccomas, D. J.; Baldonado, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Barraclough, B. L.

1987-01-01

313

Nanocarpet effect induced superhydrophobicity.  

PubMed

By coating a fluorocarbon monolayer on a bundled Si nanorod array substrate, a superhydrophobic surface with contact angle approximately 167 degrees and sliding angle approximately 2 degrees is created due to the nanocarpet effect. Without forming the nanocarpet, we can only obtain a moderately hydrophobic surface with contact angle <151 degrees and sliding angle >17 degrees. Comparison between nanocarpets formed from nanorods with low and high densities confirms that the main reason for the superhydrophobicity is the formation of sharp pyramidal bundles, which effectively reduces the area of solid-liquid contact. Video recording and analysis of millimeter-sized water droplets bouncing on the solid surface are used to ascertain the superhydrophobicity, and the energy dissipation during a low speed impact is estimated to be several nanojoules. PMID:20218548

Fan, Jianguo; Zhao, Yiping

2010-06-01

314

Nondestructive decontamination of radioactive electronic equipment by fluorinated surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

The application of ESI`s enhanced particle removal process, initially developed for the cleaning of inertial guidance instrument parts, to the nondestructive decontamination of nuclear equipment is discussed. The cleaning medium used in this process is a solution of a high molecular weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid which results in enhanced particle removal. The perfluorinated liquids of interest, which are recycled in the process, are non-toxic, nonflammable, generally safe to use, and do not present a hazard to the atmospheric ozone layer. An experimental cleaning system has been developed by ESI to demonstrate the application of this cleaning process to nuclear decontamination of electronic circuit boards. A high degree of decontamination is obtained and with no resulting physical damage to the circuits.

Yam, C.S.; Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Kaiser, R. [Entropic Systems, Inc., Winchester, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

315

Dimerlike smectic-{ital A} and -{ital C} phases in highly fluorinated thermotropic liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

X-ray scattering studies on a homologous series of thermotropic liquid crystals with one tail perfluorinated reveal that the smectic layer thickness depends only on the length of the fluorocarbon tail. Density measurements in combination with the x-ray results show that the average cross-sectional area per molecule, parallel to the smectic layers, depends only on the length of the hydrocarbon tail. These experimental results lead to a model in which steric interactions drive antiparallel alignment of nearest neighbors in the smectic-{ital A} and -{ital C} phases. These unique dimerlike phases have a layer spacing comparable to the length of the molecules, demonstrate registration of nearest neighbors along their lengths, and exhibit ferroelectric switching in the chiral smectic-{ital C} phase.

Rieker, T.P.; Janulis, E.P. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1349 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1349 (United States); [3M Corporate Research Laboratories, St. Paul, Minnesota 55144-1000 (United States)

1995-09-01

316

Ultrasonic decontamination in perfluorinated liquids of radioactive circuit boards  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory-scale ultrasonic decontamination system has been developed to demonstrate the application of Entropic System`s enhanced particle removal process to the radioactive decontamination of electronic circuit boards. The process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as the working media; the liquids have zero ozone depletion potential, are nontoxic, non-flammable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. The parts to be cleaned are first sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid. The combination of ultrasonic agitation and liquid flow promotes the detachment of the particles from the surface of the part being cleaned, their transfer from the boundary layer into the bulk liquid, and their removal from the cleaning environment, thereby reducing the probability of particle redeposition. After the cleaning process, the parts are rinsed with the pure perfluorinated liquid to remove residual surfactant. The parts are recovered after the perfluorinated liquid is evaporated into air.

Yam, C.S.; Harling, O.K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaiser, R.

1994-12-31

317

Organized Structure of Lithium Perfluorooctanesulfonate at the Graphite-Solution Interface  

PubMed

The structure of aggregates of lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate (LiFOS) adsorbed to the interface between graphite and aqueous solution have been measured. This fluorocarbon surfactant produces aggregates which are long ( approximately 100 nm) and thin ( approximately 5 nm), and about one molecule ( approximately 1.3 nm) deep. The aggregates lie in straight, parallel arrays on the surface with a characteristic repeat distance, or period, perpendicular to the long axis. As the bulk concentration of LiCl is increased, the period decreases, but as the bulk concentration of LiFOS is increased, the period increases. The decrease in period on addition of salt is similar to that observed for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and is explicable in terms of electrostatic forces. The increase in period on addition of surfactant is in sharp contrast to the behavior of SDS and may be due to a higher surfactant packing-parameter for LiFOS. PMID:9268512

Lamont; Ducker

1997-07-15

318

Comparison of Hyperthermal Ground Laboratory Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields With Those in Low Earth Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atomic oxygen erosion yields of 26 materials (all polymers except for pyrolytic graphite) were measured in two directed hyperthermal radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers operating at 30 or 35 kHz with air. The hyperthermal asher results were compared with thermal energy asher results and low Earth orbital (LEO) results from the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 and 7 (MISSE 2 and 7) flight experiments. The hyperthermal testing was conducted to a significant portion of the atomic oxygen fluence similar polymers were exposed to during the MISSE 2 and 7 missions. Comparison of the hyperthermal asher prediction of LEO erosion yields with thermal energy asher erosion yields indicates that except for the fluorocarbon polymers of PTFE and FEP, the hyperthermal energy ashers are a much more reliable predictor of LEO erosion yield than thermal energy asher testing, by a factor of four.

Banks, Bruce A.; Dill, Grace C.; Loftus, Ryan J.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

2013-01-01

319

Surface modification of segmented polyurethanes via oligomeric end groups incorporated during synthesis  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a method of modifying polymer surfaces in which surface-active oligomeric chains are appended to a base polymer or copolymer during synthesis. The method does not use additives or post-fabrication treatments of formed articles to affect a significant change in surface chemistry. Since each polymer molecule contains the surface-modifying moieties they are readily available to assemble as overlayers at the polymer interface. A series of polyurethaneureas were synthesized with hydrocarbon, silicone, fluorocarbon and polyether surface-modifying end groups (SME). Cast films were characterized by water contact angle, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and tensile properties. Product polyurethaneureas were all tough elastomers with {>=} 4000 psi tensile strength and high ultimate elongation. Contact angle and ESCA indicate that the surface of the films were altered as expected from the chemical structure of the SME, when compared to a control with diethyl end groups.

White, K.A.; Ward, R.S.; Wolcott, C.A. [Polymer Technology Group Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

320

The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.  

PubMed

Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects. PMID:707387

Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

1978-10-01

321

The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate  

PubMed Central

The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials. PMID:17360370

Velders, Guus J. M.; Andersen, Stephen O.; Daniel, John S.; Fahey, David W.; McFarland, Mack

2007-01-01

322

A proximity focusing RICH detector for kaon physics at Jefferson lab hall A  

SciTech Connect

Important information on the LN interaction can be obtained from High Resolution Hypernuclear Spectroscopy experiments with electromagnetic probes. A challenging experiment on electroproduction of hypernuclei is scheduled for 2003 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. One of the challenges is the high performance particle identification system needed. The signal is expected to be rare compared to the very high pion and proton backgrounds due to the small electron and kaon detection angles. The ''standard'' Hall A PID apparatus (TOF and two aerogel threshold Cherenkov detectors) does not provide sufficient suppression of the background. Simulations and calculations have shown that a RICH detector would solve the problem. A proximity focusing fluorocarbon/CsI detector similar to the ALICE RICH detector has been designed, built, tested and commissioned. The results show that the detector performs as expected.

F. Garibaldi; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; F. Cusanno; S. Frullani; R. Fratoni; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; M. Iodice; M. Lucentini; L. Pierangeli; F. Santavenere; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; G. De Cataldo; R. De Leo; L. Lagamba; E. Nappi; V. Paticchio; J. LeRose; B. Kross; B. Reitz; J. Segal; C. Zorn; H. Breuer

2003-04-01

323

Krypton retention on solid adsorbents. [Activated alumina; hydrogen mordenite, silver mordenite, sodium mordenite, cerium mordenite-H, cerium mordenite-Na, potassium mordenite-H, potassium mordenite-Na  

SciTech Connect

An experimental laboratory program was conducted to develop economical solid adsorbents for the retention of krypton from a dissolver off-gas stream. The study indicates that a solid adsorbent system is feasible and competitive with other developing systems which utilize fluorocarbon absorption nd cryogenic distillation. This technology may have potential applications not only in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, but also in nuclear reactors and in environmental monitoring. Of the 13 prospective adsorbents evaluated with respect to adsorption capacity and cost, the commercially available hydrogen mordenite was the most cost-effective material at subambient temperatures (-40/sup 0/ to -80/sup 0/C). Silver mordenite has a higher capacity for krypton retention, but is 50 times more expensive than hydrogen mordenite.

Monson, P.R. Jr.

1982-01-01

324

Transparent superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic coatings.  

PubMed

We report a facile process for fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic surfaces through assembly of silica nanoparticles and sacrificial polystyrene nanoparticles. The silica and polystyrene nanoparticles are first deposited by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The polystyrene nanoparticles are then removed by calcination, which leaves a porous network of silica nanoparticles. The cavities created by the sacrificial polystyrene particles form overhang structures on the surfaces. Modified with a fluorocarbon molecule, such surfaces are superhydrophobic and transparent. They also repel liquids with low surface tensions, such as hexadecane, due to the overhang structures that prevent liquids from getting into the air pockets even though the intrinsic contact angles of these liquids are less than 90 degrees. PMID:21043414

Cao, Liangliang; Gao, Di

2010-01-01

325

Drop size measurement of liquid aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The factor B = D/ D' relating the diameter D of a spherical liquid drop to the diameter, D, of the same drop collected on a microscope slide has been measured for DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and oleic acid aerosols. The microscope slide was coated with a fluorocarbon, oleophobic surfactant (L-1428, 3M Co., St. Paul, MN). The ratio was found to be independent of drop diameter in the 2-50 ?m range and the mean value of B was found to be 0.700 for oleic acid and 0.690 for DOP. Similar measurements for oleic acid and DOP drops collected on a clean, uncoated slide resulted in the values of 0.419 and 0.303, respectively. The experimental values of B were compared with the theoretical values based on contact angle measurements. Good agreement was obtained.

Liu, B. Y. H.; Pui, D. Y. H.; Xian-Qing, Wang

326

Laboratory Studies of Chemical and Photochemical Processes Relevant to Stratospheric Ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to reduce the uncertainty in several key gas-phase kinetic processes which impact our understanding of stratospheric ozone. The main emphasis of this work is on measuring rate coefficients and product channels for reactions of HOx and NOx species in the temperature range 200 K to 240 K relevant to the lower stratosphere. Other areas of study have included infrared spectroscopic studies of the HO radical, measurements of OH radical reactions with alternative fluorocarbons, and determination of the vapor pressures of nitric acid hydrates under stratospheric conditions. The results of these studies will improve models of stratospheric ozone chemistry and predictions of perturbations due to human influences.

Zahniser, Mark S.; Nelson, David D.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kolb, Charles E.

1996-01-01

327

Partitioning Solvophobic and Dispersion Forces in Alkyl and Perfluoroalkyl Cohesion.  

PubMed

Fluorocarbons often have distinct miscibility properties compared to their nonfluorinated analogues. These differences may be attributed to van der Waals dispersion forces or solvophobic effects, but their contributions are notoriously difficult to separate in molecular recognition processes. Here, molecular torsion balances were used to compare cohesive alkyl and perfluoroalkyl interactions in a range of solvents. A simple linear regression enabled the energetic partitioning of solvophobic and van der Waals forces in the self-association of apolar chains. The contributions of dispersion interactions in apolar cohesion were found to be strongly attenuated in solution compared to the gas phase, but still play a major role in fluorous and organic solvents. In contrast, solvophobic effects were found to be dominant in driving the association of apolar chains in aqueous solution. The results are expected to assist the computational modelling of van der Waals forces in solution. PMID:25413159

Adam, Catherine; Yang, Lixu; Cockroft, Scott L

2014-11-20

328

Electrical Conductance of Hydrophobic Membranes or What Happens Below the Surface  

PubMed Central

Nanoporous alumina membranes rendered hydrophobic by surface modification via covalent attachment of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon chains conduct electricity via surface even when the pores are not filled with electrolyte. The resistance is many orders of magnitude higher than for electrolyte filled membranes and does not depend on the electrolyte concentration or pH but it does depend on the type of hydrophobic monolayer and its density. The corresponding surface resistance varies from greater than 1018 ?/? to less than 3109 ?/?. When the hydrophobic monolayer contains a small proportion of photoactive spiropyran that is insufficient to switch the surface to hydrophilic after spiropyran photoisomerization to the merocyanine form, the membrane resistance also becomes light-dependent with a reversible increase of surface resistance by as much as 15%. Surface conduction is ascribed to hydration and ionization of the alumina surface hydroxyls and the ionizable groups of the hydrophobic surface modifiers. PMID:17542624

Vlassiouk, Ivan; Rios, Fabian; Vail, Sean A.; Gust, Devens; Smirnov, Sergei

2008-01-01

329

Patterns of trace gases near sources of global pollution  

SciTech Connect

Many trace gases are increasing in the earth's armosphere and may couase global environmental changes in the future. Consequently there has been growing interest in the cycles of the long-lived gases that are likely to contribute the most to global change. At present there are four such gases: methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}0), trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F,F-11), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2},F-12). Methane and N{sub 2}O are involved mostly in adding to the greenhouse effect with some role in the stratospheric ozone cycle, and the two main fluorocarbons (F-11 and F-12) are involved in the depletion of the ozone layer with some role in global warming. This paper is about the patterns of these trace gases near regions of global scale pollution. Our purpose is to provide a synthesis of observations from diverse environments and ecosystems of the world and to provide readers with intuitive connections between sources and concentrations. We will consider four types of regions: rice fields in CHina that are a major source of methane, urban areas of the United States and China that are sources of fluorocarbons and other gases, rivers and surrounding wetlands, specifically the Yangtze in China and the Amazon in Brazil, and finally the environment of Boola Boola National Forest in Australia populated by many speices of termites that are a source of methane to the atmosphere. Eventually these patterns can be translated into estimeates of fluxes from the various sources of global pollution.

Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A. (Oregon Graduate Inst., Beaverton (USA))

1990-08-01

330

Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), a consortium of fluorocarbon manufacturers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating on a project to evaluate the energy use and global warming impacts of CFC alternatives. The goal of this project is to identify technologies that could replace the use of CFC's in refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning equipment; to evaluate the direct impacts of chemical emissions on global warming; and to compile accurate estimates of energy use and indirect CO2 emissions of substitute technologies. The first phase of this work focused on alternatives that could be commercialized before the year 2000. The second phase of the project is examining not-in-kind and next-generation technologies that could be developed to replace CFC's, HCFC's, and HFC's over a longer period. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory held a workshop on June 23-25, 1993. The preliminary agenda covered a broad range of alternative technologies and at least one speaker was invited to make a brief presentation at the workshop on each technology. Some of the invited speakers were unable to participate, and in a few cases other experts could not be identified. As a result, those technologies were not represented at the workshop. Each speaker was asked to prepare a five to seven page paper addressing six key issues concerning the technology he/she is developing. These points are listed in the sidebar. Each expert also spoke for 20 to 25 minutes at the workshop and answered questions from the other participants concerning the presentation and area of expertise. The primary goal of the presentations and discussions was to identify the developmental state of the technology and to obtain comparable data on system efficiencies.

Lewis, P. J.; Counce, D. M.

1993-12-01

331

TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results  

SciTech Connect

The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if the refrigerant leaks out of the system during operation, is lost during maintenance or is not recovered when the system is scraped, it contributes to global warming. But, it is also true that the energy consumed by refrigeration and air conditioning systems, in the form of electricity or the direct combustion of fossil fuel, results in the release of CO*, the primary cause of atmospheric global warming.

Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

1999-09-13

332

Lyotropic liquid crystal phases of phytantriol in a protic ionic liquid with fluorous anion.  

PubMed

The phase behaviour of phytantriol in the protic ionic liquid (PIL) 1-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate (MImOF) and four different MImOF-water compositions was investigated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), cross polarised optical microscopy (CPOM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). MImOF is a distinct protic ionic liquid in that it contains a fluorocarbon anion and a hydrocarbon cation. This leads to MImOF having an unusual liquid nanostructure, such that it contains fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and polar domains. No lyotropic liquid crystal phases were observed for phytantriol in neat MImOF. However, on addition of water, lamellar, cubic Ia3d and micellar phases were observed for specific MImOF-phytantriol-water compositions at room temperature, and up to 60 C. The phase behaviour for phytantriol in the solvent mixture of 25 wt%-MImOF-75 wt%-water was the most similar to the phytantriol-water phase diagram. Only this MImOF-water composition supported the Ia3d cubic phase, which had a lattice parameter between 100-140 compared to 86-100 in deionised water, indicating significant swelling due to the MImOF. IR spectroscopy showed that a percentage of the water molecules were hydrogen bonded to the N-H of the MIm cation, and this water decreased the hydrogen bonding present between the cation and anion of the ionic liquid. This investigation furthers our understanding of the interaction of ionic liquids with solutes, and the important role that the different IL nanostructures can have on influencing these interactions. PMID:25177837

Shen, Yan; Greaves, Tamar L; Kennedy, Danielle F; Weerawardena, Asoka; Kirby, Nigel; Song, Gonghua; Drummond, Calum J

2014-10-21

333

Polarized infrared study on the structure of two-dimensional nanoclusters of partially fluorinated long-chain fatty acid salts at ambient and elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the single monolayer of five partially fluorinated fatty acid salts [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO-]2Cd2+ [(m,n)=(7,10), (7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22)] transferred from aqueous Cd2+ subphase to solid substrate revealed that the molecules had assembled into monodispersed two-dimensional clusters of tens of nanometers, whose morphology developed systematically with (m,n). Polarized infrared measurements detected a corresponding change with (m,n) in the -(CF2)-m and -(CH2)-n orientation angles. It is found that the van der Waals interaction between the C-C-C trans zig-zag planes of adjacent hydrocarbon segments is the driving force for the cluster formation, while the overlapping interaction between the fluorocarbon tails of neighbor salt molecules is responsible for cluster compactness. Grazing incidence reflection absorption spectra of the (m,n)=(7,10) single monolayer recorded during temperature elevation from 25 to 150 C show that heating has caused the hydrocarbon chain and the terminal C-CF3 axis to be gradually randomly oriented, while the carboxylate C2 symmetry axis and the fluorocarbon long axis to realign toward the substrate normal. It is discovered that the single monolayer has thermal memory and cyclic heating-cooling treatment can render an excellent thermal stability of 120 C to the -(CH2)-10 and CF3(CF2)-7 orientations. The different thermal behavior of the corresponding five-layer Y-type LB films, reported by Naselli, Swalen, and Rabolt [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3855 (1989)] was explained as due to the longitudinal interaction between the headgroups of adjacent layers.

Ren, Yanzhi; Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji

2000-07-01

334

Composite propellant aluminum agglomeration reduction using tailored Al/PTFE particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micron aluminum is widely used in propellants; however, performance could be significantly improved if ignition barriers could be disrupted and combustion tailored. In solid propellants for example, aluminum increases theoretical specific impulse performance, yet theoretical levels cannot be achieved largely because of two-phase flow losses. These losses could be reduced if particles quickly ignited, more gaseous products were produced, and if particle breakup occurred during combustion. To achieve altered aluminum ignition and particle combustion, this work explores the use of low level (10-30 wt.%) fluorocarbon (polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or poly(carbon monofluoride) (PMF)) inclusion inside of aluminum via low or high energy mechanical activation. Aluminum/PTFE particles are found to be amenable to use in binder based energetics, having average particle sizes ranging from 15 to 78 ?m, ~2-7 m2/g, specific surface area, and combustion enthalpies as high as 20.2 kJ/g. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments indicate high energy MA reduces both reaction and oxidation onset to ~440 C that is far below aluminum alone. Safety testing shows these particles have high electrostatic discharge (ESD) (89.9-108 mJ), impact (> 213 cm), and friction (> 360 N) ignition thresholds. The idea of further increasing reactivity and increasing particle combustion enthalpy is explored by reducing fluorocarbon inclusion content to 10 wt.% and through the use of the strained fluorocarbon PMF. Combustion enthalpy and average particle size range from 18.9 to 28.5 kJ/g and 23.0 to 67.5 ?m, respectively and depend on MA intensity, duration, and inclusion level. Specific surface areas are high (5.3 to 34.8 m2/g) and as such, Al/PMF particles are appropriate for energetic applications not requiring a curable liquid binder. Mechanical activation reduces oxidation onset (DSC) from 555 to 480 C (70/30 wt.%). Aluminum/PMF particles are sensitive to ESD (11.5-47.5 mJ) and some can be ignited via optical flash. Propellant aluminum agglomeration is assessed through replacement of reference aluminum powders (spherical, flake, or nanoscale) with Al/PTFE (90/10 or 70/30 wt.%) particles. The effects on burning rate, pressure dependence, and aluminum ignition, combustion, and agglomeration are quantified. Microscopic imaging shows tailored particles promptly ignite at the burning surface and appear to breakup into smaller particles. Replacement of spherical aluminum with Al/PTFE 70/30 wt.% also increases the pressure exponent from 0.36 to 0.58, which results in a 50% increase in propellant burning rate at 13.8 MPa. Combustion products were quench collected using a liquid-free technique at 2.1 and 6.9 MPa. Sizing of products indicates that composite particles result in nominally 25 ?m coarse products, which are smaller than the original, average particle size and are also 66% smaller in diameter (96% by volume) than the 76 ?m products collected from reference spherical aluminized propellant. Smaller diameter condensed phase products and more gaseous products will likely decrease two-phase flow loss and reduce slag accumulation in solid rocket motors.

Sippel, Travis R.

335

Synthesis of hybrid inorganic/organic nitric oxide-releasing silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenously produced free radical involved in a number of physiological processes. Thus, much research has focused on developing scaffolds that store and deliver exogenous NO. Herein, the synthesis of N-diazeniumdiolate-modified silica nanoparticles of various physical and chemical properties for biomedical applications is presented. To further develop NO-releasing silica particles for antimicrobial applications, a reverse microemulsion synthesis was designed to achieve nanoparticles of distinct sizes and similar NO release characteristics. Decreasing scaffold size resulted in improved bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy revealed that the improved efficacy resulted from faster particle-bacterium association kinetics. To broaden the therapeutic potential of NO-releasing silica particles, strategies to tune NO release characteristics were evaluated. Initially, surface hydrophobicity and NO release kinetics were tuned by grafting hydrocarbon- and fluorocarbon-based silanes onto the surface of N-diazeniumdiolate-modified particles. The addition of fluorocarbons resulted in a 10x increase in the NO release half-life. The addition of short-chained hydrocarbons to the particle surface increased their stability in hydrophobic electrospun polyurethanes. Although NO release kinetics were longer than that of unmodified particles, durations were still limited to <7 days. An alternative strategy for increasing NO release duration involved directly stabilizing the N-diazeniumdiolate using O2-protecting groups. O2-Methoxymethyl 1-(4-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl))piperazin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (MOM-Pip/NO) was grafted onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles to yield scaffolds with an NO payload of 2.5 ?mol NO/mg and an NO release half-life of 23 d. Doping the MOM-Pip/NO-modified particles into resin composites yielded antibacterial NO-releasing dental restorative materials. A 3-log reduction in viable adhered Streptococcus mutans was observed with the MOM-Pip/NO-doped composites compared to undoped controls. The greater chemical flexibility of macromolecular scaffolds is a major advantage over LMW NO donors as it allows for the incorporation of multiple functionalities onto a single scaffold. To demonstrate this advantage, dual functional particles were synthesized by covalently binding quaternary ammonium (QA) functionalities to the surface of NO-releasing silica particles. The QA functionality proved more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than P. aeruginosa, and increasing alkyl chain length correlated with increased efficacy. Nitric oxide-releasing QA-functionalized particles were found to be more effective against S. aureus compared to monofunctional particles.

Carpenter, Alexis Wells

336

Efficient, environmentally acceptable method for waterproofing insulation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process of waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation material, the process including the steps of: (a) providing an alumina-rich or a silica-rich fibrous material; (b) providing a waterproofing solution including: (1) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (2) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (3) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K; (c) contacting the fibrous material with the waterproofing solution for a sufficient amount of time to waterproof the fibrous material; and (d) curing the coated fibrous material to render it sufficiently waterproof. A chemical solution for waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation materials, the solution including: (a) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (b) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (c) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K.

Blohowiak, Kay Y. (Inventor); Krienke, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Olli, Larry K. (Inventor); Newquist, Charles W. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

337

Multi-functional Textiles for Military Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to develop the standard rip-stop weave military uniform fabric made of 50/50 nylon/cotton (NyCo) to achieve a repellent front surface and an antibacterial bulk for protection from chemical-biological warfare agents. Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC), a quaternary ammonium salt monomer was graft polymerized on NyCo fabric to impart antimicrobial capability using atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma. Plasma was used to induce free radical chain polymerization of the DADMAC monomer to introduce a graft polymerized network on the fabric with durable antimicrobial properties. Pentaerythritol tertraacrylate was used as a cross-linking agent to obtain a highly cross-linked, durable polymer network. The presence of polyDADMAC on the fabric surface was confirmed using acid dye staining, SEM, and TOF-SIMS. Antibacterial performance was evaluated using standard AATCC test method 100 for both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Results showed 99.9% reduction in the bacterial activities of K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. To achieve repellency on NyCo front surface, an environmentally benign C6 fluorocarbon monomer, 2-(perfluorohexyl) ethyl acrylate was graft polymerized using plasma on the front surface of the NyCo fabric which was already grafted with polyDADMAC for anti-microbial properties. The surface was characterized by IR spectroscopy and XPS. The presence of fluorine on the surface was mapped and confirmed by TOF-SIMS. SEM images showed a uniform layer of fluorocarbon polymer on the fiber surface. High water contact angle of 144 was obtained on the surface. The surface also achieved a high AATCC Test Method 193 rating of 9 and AATCC Test Method 118 rating of 5, indicating that the surface could repel a fluid with surface tension as low as 24 dynes/cm. Appropriate experimental designs and statistical modeling of data helped identify the experimental space and optimal factor combinations for best response. The study helped create a multi-functional fabric with an anti-bacterial bulk, hydrophilic back surface and repellent front surface for enhanced protective and aesthetic values.

Malshe, Priyadarshini

338

Optical manipulation of nanocontainers for biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing optically based techniques for the manipulation of nano-containers (containers with sub-picoliter volumes) for handling chemicals in order to perform ultra-small volume chemistry. We are currently investigating three systems, liposomes, polymersomes and hydrosomes, for use as nano-containers. Liposomes and polymersomes are closed structures composed of a lipid and polymer membrane, respectively, that acts as a barrier to separate an aqueous interior environment from an aqueous exterior environment. We are typically working with liposomes or polymersomes that are approximately 10 ?m in diameter. Hydrosomes are micron-sized, surfactant-stabilized water droplets that reside in a fluorocarbon environment. The optical techniques we are using include optical tweezers, for trapping and remotely moving the nano-containers, and an "optical scalpel" for localized disruption of lipid and polymer membranes in order to induce fusion of liposomes and polymersomes. In all three systems, we are able to bring together two similar nano-container using optical trapping and subsequently fuse them together, which allows their contents to mix. With the liposomes and hydrosomes we have been able to demonstrate their use for performing a controlled, elementary chemical reaction.

Helmerson, Kristian; Reiner, Joseph E.; Edgu-Fry, Erge; Wells, Jeffrey; Kishore, Rani; Locascio, Laurie; Gilson, Michael

2004-10-01

339

Midwestern efforts to address climate change  

SciTech Connect

Six Midwestern governors and a Canadian premier signed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord in November 2007. The governors agreed to begin the process of developing a market-based cap-and-trade program that would reduce GHG emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride) to meet reduction targets. Member jurisdictions include Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Manitoba, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Observer jurisdictions - those who are participating in the program design, but will decide later whether to be full members-include Indiana, Ohio, Ontario, and South Dakota. To date, the advisory group has proposed target ranges for GHG emissions reductions of 15-25% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 60-80% by 2050. The following sectors are currently being considered for the cap-and-trade program: electricity generation and imports (power plants); industrial combustion sources (factories and other industrial facilities); and industrial process sources (to the extent credible measurement and monitoring protocols exist or can be developed prior to inclusion).

Daniel Stenberg [Midwestern Governors Association (United States)

2008-12-15

340

Two episodes of acute illness in a machine shop  

SciTech Connect

Following an explosion in a machine shop and temporary plant closure, on the day the plant returned to full operations a degreaser malfunctioned. Workers in the assembly room were exposed to trichloroethylene levels later estimated to have exceeded 220 ppm (OSHA PEL 100 ppm). The plant was evacuated and the degreaser taken out of operation. Blood testing for carbon monoxide (CO) on five employees found carboxyhemoglobin levels in excess of normal. The plant reopened the following morning. Over the next two weeks, 15 employees were seen by the plant nurses for similar complaints; although all returned to work, their carboxyhemoglobin levels, later found to be inaccurate, were reported by a local medical clinic to range from 13.7 to 20.0 percent. At the end of the second week, another outbreak of illness occurred, but carboxyhemoglobin, trichloroethylene, fluorocarbons, and methylene chloride were not elevated in all 17 persons tested; plant-wide monitoring for CO found no elevated levels. During the first outbreak of illness, cases were 2.26 times as likely to have entered the assembly room as noncases. During the second outbreak, cases were no more likely than noncases to have entered the assembly room. We believe the explosion, earlier toxic exposures and illness, and the misleading blood test results led to plant-wide anxiety which culminated in a collective stress reaction and the second outbreak. An open meeting with all employees, informing them of our findings, provided reassurance and no further episodes of illness occurred in this workforce.

Sinks, T.; Kerndt, P.R.; Wallingford, K.M.

1989-08-01

341

Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

Hassan, Razi A.

1991-10-01

342

Quantitative determination of fluorotelomer sulfonates in groundwater by LC MS/MS.  

PubMed

Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) are complex mixtures containing fluorocarbon- and hydrocarbon-based surfactants that are used to fight hydrocarbon-fueled fires. The military is the largest consumer of AFFF in the United States, and fire-training activities conducted at military bases have led to groundwater contamination by unspent fuels and AFFF chemicals. A direct-injection, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) method was developed to quantify a suite of fluorotelomer sulfonate surfactants in groundwater collected from military bases where fire-training activities were conducted. The 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonates were detected and quantified in groundwater from two of the three military bases. The total fluorotelomer sulfonate concentrations observed at Wurtsmith AFB, MI, and Tyndall AFB, FL, ranged respectively from below quantitation (< or = 0.60) to 182 microg/L and from 1100 to 14,600 microg/L. Analyses of a fluorotelomer-based AFFF concentrate by negative ion fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry and LC MS/MS analyses indicate that the AFFF concentrate contains only a small amount of fluorotelomer sulfonates and that fluoroalkylthioamido sulfonates are the main anionic fluorosurfactant in the mixtures. More research is needed to determine the fate of fluoroalkylthioamido sulfonates in the environment. PMID:15074696

Schultz, Melissa M; Barofsky, Douglas F; Field, Jennifer A

2004-03-15

343

Neurologic illness associated with occupational exposure to the solvent 1-bromopropane--New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 2007-2008.  

PubMed

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) (n-propyl bromide) is a solvent increasingly used as a substitute for ozone-depleting chloro-fluorocarbons and similar regulated compounds. 1-BP is used in vapor and immersion degreasing operations and other manufacturing processes, and as a solvent in industries using aerosol-applied adhesives. In some states, 1-BP is used as a solvent in dry cleaning because of restrictions on use of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene), a possible human carcinogen. Published studies of workers exposed to 1-BP have raised concerns about occupational health risks associated with exposure. This report describes two cases involving workers exposed to 1-BP and diagnosed with clinical manifestations of neurotoxicity. The cases, when coupled with previously reported studies of workers exposed to 1-BP, illustrate potential health risks of 1-BP exposure. Clinicians and public health professionals should be alert to potential health effects among workers exposed to 1-BP, particularly in dry cleaning and other workplaces where 1-BP use might be increasing, and effective control methods to limit exposure to 1-BP should be implemented at worksites. PMID:19052528

2008-12-01

344

Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

2014-11-01

345

Fluorescence-Based Bacterial Overlay Method for Simultaneous In Situ Quantification of Surface-Attached Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

For quantification of bacterial adherence to biomaterial surfaces or to other surfaces prone to biofouling, there is a need for methods that allow a comparative analysis of small material specimens. A new method for quantification of surface-attached biotinylated bacteria was established by in situ detection with fluorescence-labeled avidin-D. This method was evaluated utilizing a silicon wafer model system to monitor the influences of surface wettability and roughness on bacterial adhesion. Furthermore, the effects of protein preadsorption from serum, saliva, human serum albumin, and fibronectin were investigated. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis, and Staphylococcus aureus were chosen as model organisms because of their differing adhesion properties and their clinical relevance. To verify the results obtained by this new technique, scanning electron microscopy and agar replica plating were employed. Oxidized and poly(ethylene glycol)-modified silicon wafers were found to be more resistant to bacterial adhesion than wafers coated with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon moieties. Roughening of the chemically modified surfaces resulted in an overall increase in bacterial attachment. Preadsorption of proteins affected bacterial adherence but did not fully abolish the influence of the original surface chemistry. However, in certain instances, mostly with saliva or serum, masking of the underlying surface chemistry became evident. The new bacterial overlay method allowed a reliable quantification of surface-attached bacteria and could hence be employed for measuring bacterial adherence on material specimens in a variety of applications. PMID:17308176

Mller, Rainer; Grger, Gerhard; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

2007-01-01

346

Stationary nanoliter droplet array with a substrate of choice for single adherent/nonadherent cell incubation and analysis.  

PubMed

Microfluidic water-in-oil droplets that serve as separate, chemically isolated compartments can be applied for single-cell analysis; however, to investigate encapsulated cells effectively over prolonged time periods, an array of droplets must remain stationary on a versatile substrate for optimal cell compatibility. We present here a platform of unique geometry and substrate versatility that generates a stationary nanodroplet array by using wells branching off a main microfluidic channel. These droplets are confined by multiple sides of a nanowell and are in direct contact with a biocompatible substrate of choice. The device is operated by a unique and reversed loading procedure that eliminates the need for fine pressure control or external tubing. Fluorocarbon oil isolates the droplets and provides soluble oxygen for the cells. By using this approach, the metabolic activity of single adherent cells was monitored continuously over time, and the concentration of viable pathogens in blood-derived samples was determined directly by measuring the number of colony-formed droplets. The method is simple to operate, requires a few microliters of reagent volume, is portable, is reusable, and allows for cell retrieval. This technology may be particularly useful for multiplexed assays for which prolonged and simultaneous visual inspection of many isolated single adherent or nonadherent cells is required. PMID:25053808

Shemesh, Jonathan; Ben Arye, Tom; Avesar, Jonathan; Kang, Joo H; Fine, Amir; Super, Michael; Meller, Amit; Ingber, Donald E; Levenberg, Shulamit

2014-08-01

347

Power from the hot-dry-rock geothermal resource  

SciTech Connect

The history of the development of the first HDR reservoir at the Fenton Hill site is presented. Particulars on the surface piping and data collection system are described, as well as a brief historical account of the individual experiments. Field research results at Fenton Hill are described. From the research, it has been learned that the geothermal reservoir growth is due in large part to pressurization and thermophysical effects. The impedance to flow along the fractures within the reservoir decreases as thermal contraction and pressurization of the reservoir continue to open natural joints. Minimal environmental effects have been noted as a result of closed-system circulation; and the chemical quality of the geothermal fluid has been good, in contrast to the corrosive geothermal fluids in many hydrothermal systems. Some of the general as well as site-specific problems at the Fenton Hill site are discussed. In-spite of these problems, an HDR system is operational, and is being used to answer questions raised by the theoretical research. The types and options of power generation available are addressed. A binary-fluid cycle that can use nonaqueous working fluids is an alternative to single- or multiple-flash systems. These nonaqueous fluids may fall within a large range of hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, and organic fluids. R-114 was tested in binary cycle at Fenton Hill and was chosen largely for its heat-transfer characteristics and previous industrial experience.

Becker, N.M.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.

1981-01-01

348

Nonfunctionalized polydimethyl siloxane superhydrophobic surfaces based on hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces based on polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using a 50:50 PDMS-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blend. PDMS was mixed with PEG, and incomplete phase separation yielded a hierarchic structure. The phase-separated mixture was annealed at a temperature close to the crystallization temperature of the PEG. The PEG crystals were formed isothermally at the PDMS/PEG interface, leading to an engineered surface with PDMS spherulites. The resulting roughness of the surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PDMS spherulites, a few micrometers in diameter observed from SEM images, were found to have an undulated (rippled) surface with nanometer-sized features. The combination of micrometer- and nanometer-sized surface features created a fractal surface and increased the water contact angle (WCA) of PDMS more than 60, resulting in a superhydrophobic PDMS surface with WCA of >160. The active surface layer for the superhydrophobicity was approximately 100 ?m thick, illustrating that the material had bulk superhydrophobicity compared to conventional fluorocarbon or fluorinated coated rough surfaces. Theoretical analysis of the fractal surface indicates that the constructed surface has a fractal dimension of 2.5, which corresponds to the Apollonian sphere packing. PMID:21294505

Polizos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Aytu?, Tolga; Kidder, Michelle K; Messman, Jamie M; Sauers, Isidor

2011-03-15

349

Environmental Fate of the Next Generation Refrigerant 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf).  

PubMed

The hydrofluoroolefin 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) has been introduced to replace 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) as refrigerant in mobile, including vehicle, air conditioning systems because of its lower global warming potential. HFO-1234yf is volatile at ambient temperatures; however, high production volumes and widespread handling are expected to release this fluorocarbon into terrestrial and aquatic environments, including groundwater. Laboratory experiments explored HFO-1234yf degradation by (i) microbial processes under oxic and anoxic conditions, (ii) abiotic processes mediated by reactive mineral phases and zerovalent iron (Fe(0), ZVI), and (iii) cobalamin-catalyzed biomimetic transformation. These investigations demonstrated that HFO-1234yf was recalcitrant to microbial (co)metabolism and no transformation was observed in incubations with ZVI, makinawite (FeS), sulfate green rust (GRSO4), magnetite (Fe3O4), and manganese oxide (MnO2). Sequential reductive defluorination of HFO-1234yf to 3,3,3-trifluoropropene and 3,3-dichloropropene with concomitant stoichiometric release of fluoride occurred in incubations with reduced cobalamins (e.g., vitamin B12) indicating that biomolecules can transform HFO-1234yf at circumneutral pH and at ambient temperature. Taken together, these findings suggest that HFO-1234yf recalcitrance in aquifers should be expected; however, HFO-1234yf is not inert and a biomolecule may mediate reductive transformation in low redox environments, albeit at low rates. PMID:25329364

Im, Jeongdae; Walshe-Langford, Gillian E; Moon, Ji-Won; Lffler, Frank E

2014-11-18

350

Influence of open area ratio on microstructure shape in Cu-Ni alloy electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research experimentally analyzed the influence of the open area ratio (OAR) on the formation and growth of the microstructure in Cu-Ni alloy electrodeposition. The OAR was controlled by changing the pitch of circular patterns with a diameter of 20 m. For an OAR higher than 20 %, the electrodeposited structures grew vertically in pillar-like formations. As the OAR was decreased from 100 to 20 %, the density, height, and width of the structures increased. In addition, in this OAR range, the structures formed along the edge area of the circular patterns. In contrast, for an OAR lower than 10 %, dendrite structures were generated. The electrodeposited structures were coated with a hydrophobic plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) layer. In the electrodeposited sample without circular patterns (OAR = 100 %) with an OAR smaller than 1.25 %, the measured contact angles were almost the same as the contact angle (107) measured from the flat surface without electrodeposition. In contrast, the samples with an OAR range of 2.5-50 % were modified to be superhydrophobic, and they demonstrated an excellent self-cleaning ability.

Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Sung Ho; Ko, Jong Soo

2014-09-01

351

Degradation and crosslinking of perfluoroalkyl polyethers under X-ray irradiation in ultrahigh vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Degradation of three types of commercially available perfluoroalkyl polyethers (PFPE)-Demnum S200, Fomblin Z25, and Krytox 16256-by X-ray irradiation was studied by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and a mass spectrometer under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. The carbons in the polymers were characterized by chemical shifts of Cls binding energies. Gaseous products containing COF2 and low-molecular-weight fluorocarbons were formed. From Fomblin Z25, which has acetal linkages (-OCF2O-), a large quantity of COF2 gas was evolved. Liquid products became tacky after a long irradiation time, and some did not dissolve in Freon. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that molecular weight distribution became broader and that higher molecular weight polymers were formed from Demnum and Krytox. We concluded from these results that degradation and cross-linking took place simultaneously. Demnum crosslinked more easily than the other fluids. The time dependence of both XPS spectra of Cls and mass spectra showed that C-O-bonded carbons in PFPE'S were removed faster than other carbons. There was no substrate effect on the degradation reaction because the first-order rate constants calculated from the change of gaseous products were similar when stainless steel (440C) and gold-coated surfaces were used. Metal fluorides were formed on stainless steel during the reaction. A mechanism for the degradation of PFPE'S is discussed on the basis of their molecular structures.

Mori, Shigeyuki; Morales, Wilfredo

1989-01-01

352

Mixtures of hydrogenated and fluorinated lactobionamide surfactants with cationic surfactants: study of hydrogenated and fluorinated chains miscibility through potentiometric techniques.  

PubMed

The work reported herein deals with the aqueous behavior of hydrocarbon and/or fluorocarbon ionic and nonionic surfactants mixtures. These mixtures were studied using potentiometric techniques in NaBr (0.1 mol L-1) aqueous solution as well as in pure water. Mixed micelles were formed from a cationic surfactant (dodecyl or tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide respectively called DTABr or TTABr) and neutral lactobionamide surfactants bearing a hydrogenated dodecyl chain (H12Lac) or a fluorinated chain (CF3-(CF2)5-(CH2)2- or CF3-(CF2)7-(CH2)2-). We showed that concentrations of ionic and nonionic surfactants in the monomeric form as well as the composition of the mixed micelles can be specified thanks to a potentiometric technique. The complete characterization does not request any model of micellization a priori. The activities of the micellar phase constituents, as well as the free enthalpies of mixing, were calculated. The subsequent interpretation only relies on the experimental characterization. Comparison of the behaviors of the various systems with a model derived from the regular solution theory reveals the predominant part of electrostatic interactions in the micellization phenomenon. It also appears that the energy of interaction between hydrogenated and fluorinated chains is unfavorable to mixing and is of much lower magnitude than the electric charges interactions. PMID:17935362

Peyre, Vronique; Patil, Sandeep; Durand, Grgory; Pucci, Bernard

2007-11-01

353

Solubility of trichlorofluoromethane (F-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (F-12) in seawater and its relationship to surface concentrations in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubilities of trichlorofluoromethane (F-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (F-12) were determined in seawater (35 10 -3) and in distilled water from 0 to 30C. Aqueous concentrations were determined by GC-EC subsequent to equilibration with clean, ambient air containing approximately 200 ppt(v) F-11 and 340 ppt(v) F-12. Our compressed air standard was independently calibrated and we estimate the accuracy and precision of the measurement to be approximately 2%. The temperature dependence of the solubility was determined by fitting the observations to the first three terms of the integrated van't Hoff equation at a constant 35 10 -3 salinity. A comparison of the extant solubility data in seawater our determinations indicates considerable variability for both F-11 and F-12. Our solubility measurements also are compared to observed concentrations in the surface waters of the eastern, central, and western North Pacific in December 1980, July 1981, June 1982, and March and April 1983, and suggest a supersaturation of 1 to 2% for both fluorocarbons with little or no temperature bias in the surface North Pacific.

Wisegarver, David P.; Cline, Joel D.

1985-01-01

354

Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching  

DOEpatents

A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

2013-10-01

355

Substrate and chain length dependencies of the thermal behavior of [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO]2Cd single monolayers investigated by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-variable grazing incidence reflection absorption (GIR) spectra were recorded for the single monolayer of [CF3(CF2)m(CH2)nCOO)]2Cd [(m,n)=(7,10), (7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22)], transferred from aqueous Cd2+ subphase to gold- and aluminum-evaporated glass substrates. The spectra reveal that these monolayers have better thermal stability on Al substrates than on Au. An "interaction band" is identified at 14841480 cm-1, due to the ?s(COO-) mode of carboxylate headgroups in ionic bonding with the Al surface. It is found that both the van der Waals interaction between the trans zig-zag hydrocarbon chains and the overlapping interaction between the fluorocarbon helixes are responsible for the systematic variation of the monolayer thermal behavior with (m,n). The thermal behavior of a single monolayer of cadmium stearate, serving as a model system, has been investigated to further confirm the spectral interpretation about the partially fluorinated monolayer. In addition, temperature-dependent friction measurements show that the single monolayers of (m,n)=(7,16), (7,22), (5,22), and (3,22) are potential molecular lubricants that can be used in the range of 25140 C.

Ren, Yanzhi; Asanuma, Morito; Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji

2001-01-01

356

The HERMES dual-radiator RICH detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HERMES experiment emphasizes measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. Most of the hadrons produced lie between 2 and 10 GeV, a region in which it had not previously been feasible to separate pions, kaons, and protons with standard particle identification (PID) techniques. The recent development of new clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic silica aerogel material with a low index of refraction offered the means to apply RICH PID techniques to this difficult momentum region. The HERMES instrument uses two radiators, C 4F 10, a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. A lightweight spherical mirror constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality provides optical focusing on a photon detector consisting of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half. The PMT array is held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet. Ring reconstruction is accomplished with pattern recognition techniques based on a combination of inverse and direct ray tracing.

Jackson, H. E.

2003-04-01

357

Atomic layer etching removal of damaged layers in a contact hole for low sheet resistance  

SciTech Connect

A damaged layer remains on silicon substrates after high-aspect-ratio contact (HARC) etching when using a fluorocarbon gas. Atomic layer etching (ALET) is a technique that can be applied to remove the damaged layer of silicon, removing about 1.36 per etch cycle. The characteristics of contact damage removal by ALET are investigated and compared with the conventional damage removal technique of low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching. The low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching technique not only has inadequate etch depth control, but also introduces secondary damage by implanting impurities about 25 into the contact bottom of the silicon surface. However, ALET allows contact damage to be removed effectively without introducing secondary damage to the substrate, and with precision etch depth control at the angstrom scale. When ALET is applied subsequent to low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching, the fluorine- and carbon-damaged silicon is effectively removed in about 10 cycles. The sheet resistance of HARC etched silicon decreases from 142 to 137 ?/? after using low-power CF{sub 4} plasma etching, and subsequent ALET treatment further decreases the sheet resistance to 129 ?/?, which is close to the reference value of 124 ?/?.

Kim, Jong Kyu; Cho, Sung Il; Lee, Sung Ho [Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri,Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do, 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)] [Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri,Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do, 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyu; Min, Kyung Suk; Yeom, Geun Young [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15

358

Polyimide-Damage-Free, CMOS-Compatible Removal of Polymer Residues from Deep Reactive Ion Etching Passivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for removal of passivation polymer residues from deep reactive ion-etching (DRIE) has been systematically investigated in this study. The method combines dry oxygen plasma ashing and conventional photoresist wet stripping. Samples were carefully examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and study of surface morphology. XPS and EDX analysis showed that the polymer residues consisted mainly of C-O, CF x (x = 1, 2, 3), and C-CF bonds. Optimized oxygen plasma ashing effectively removes most of the fluorocarbon content, except some nano-residues. Subsequent conventional wet stripping in organic solvents could eliminate these stubborn nanoparticles while dissolving the underlying photoresist. Excellent removal is apparent from scanning electron microscopy images. The fluorine content determined by EDX analysis showed that the residues were completely removed. The metal layers, oxide insulator layers, and the polyimide insulators function well after this critical surface treatment. The excellent results show this is an outstanding method for removal of DRIE passivation polymer residues for MEMS fabrication.

Wu, W. J.; Zhu, T.; Liu, J. Q.; Fan, J.; Tu, L. C.

2015-01-01

359

Tribological Behavior and Surface Characteristics of Metal Microtube in Flaring Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of tool asperity and the lubrication condition on tribological behavior, inner surface characteristics and deformation limit of metallic microtube in flaring test were investigated experimentally. The microtube used in this experiment is stainless steel (SUS 316L) and has a 500 ?m outer diameter and 50 ?m thickness. The flaring tests of the microtube using a conical tool were conducted under dry and two kinds of lubricated-contact conditions as well as different tool surface roughnesses. As a result, it is found that the flaring load and deformation limit of the microtube increase when using a rougher tool. In addition, a spray-type fluorocarbon resin, as a solid lubricant, decreases the above characteristics, but lubrication oil, as a liquid lubricant, exhibits different behavior. Meanwhile, the surface roughnesses of the inner surface of the microtube along axial and circumferential directions reduce when using a rougher tool. From these results, the surface smoothing mechanism of the microtube in the flaring test and the influencing parameters on tribological behavior are discussed.

Mirzai, Mohammad Ali; Manabe, Ken-Ichi

360

Nonfunctionalized Polydimethyl Siloxane Superhydrophobic Surfaces Based on Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Superhydrophobic surfaces based on polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) were fabricated using a 50:50 PDM-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blend. PDMS was mixed with PEG, and incomplete phase separation yielded a hierarchic structure. The phase-separated mixture was annealed at a temperature close to the crystallization temperature of the PEG. The PEG crystals were formed isothermally at the PDMS/PEG interface, leading to an engineered surface with PDMS spherulites. The resulting roughness of the surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PDMS spherulites, a few micrometers in diameter observed from SEM images, were found to have an undulated (rippled) surface with nanometer-sized features. The combination of micrometer- and nanometer-sized surface features created a fractal surface and increased the water contact angle (WCA) of PDMS more than 60, resulting in a superhydrophobic PDMS surface with WCA of >160 degrees. The active surface layer for the superhydrophobicity was approximately 100 mu m thick, illustrating that the material had bulk superhydrophobicity compared to conventional fluorocarbon or fluorinated coated rough surfaces. Theoretical analysis of the fractal surface indicates that the constructed surface has a fractal dimension of 2.5, which corresponds to the Apollonian sphere packing.

Polizos, Georgios [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL

2011-01-01

361

Conformal encapsulation of three-dimensional, bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.  

PubMed

Bioresorbable polymers such as poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) have a multitude of potential biomaterial applications such as controlled-release drug delivery and regenerative tissue engineering. For such biological applications, the fabrication of porous three-dimensional bioresorbable materials with tunable surface chemistry is critical to maximize their surface-to-volume ratio, mimic the extracellular matrix, and increase drug-loading capacity. Here, two different fluorocarbon (FC) precursors (octofluoropropane (C3F8) and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO)) were used to deposit FC films on PCL scaffolds using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). These two coating systems were chosen with the intent of modifying the scaffold surfaces to be bio-nonreactive while maintaining desirable bulk properties of the scaffold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed high-CF2 content films were deposited on both the exterior and interior of PCL scaffolds and that deposition behavior is PECVD system specific. Scanning electron microscopy data confirmed that FC film deposition yielded conformal rather than blanket coatings as the porous scaffold structure was maintained after plasma treatment. Treated scaffolds seeded with human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) demonstrate that the cells do not attach after 72 h and that the scaffolds are noncytotoxic to HDF. This work demonstrates conformal FC coatings can be deposited on 3D polymeric scaffolds using PECVD to fabricate 3D bio-nonreactive materials. PMID:25247481

Hawker, Morgan J; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Fisher, Ellen R

2014-10-21

362

Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasmas inside hollow-core optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric glow microplasma is generated in the hollow core of microns-thick optical fibers (>1 m long) when the sinusoidal voltage with a peak voltage of 5 kV and a frequency of 5.0 kHz is applied to these microelectrodes along the outside of optical fibers. Measurements show that the atmospheric glow microdischarge consists of current pulses with amplitudes of tens of amperes and pulse widths of several microseconds. Atmospheric surface barrier discharges are formed along the inner surface of hollow optical fibers between adjacent microelectrodes, which results in the pulsed glow microdischarges. By flowing octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8)/helium (He) mixtures through the hollow-core optical fiber, fluorocarbon polymer (FCP) coatings are deposited on the inner surface of the > 1 m long optical fiber. Analysis indicates that the glow microdischarge contributes to the uniform deposition of FCP coatings on the inner surface of hollow fibers. The in situ optical emission measurements show that various carbon-containing species, such as CF2, CN, and C2 are generated in the visually uniform microplasmas. The discharge mechanism is discussed based on the I-V and optical emission measurements and FCP coating characterizations.

Ji, Longfei; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Niu, Jinhai

2012-04-01

363

Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ?3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

Hbner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Rpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

2015-01-01

364

C2F6/O2/Ar Plasma Chemistry of 60 MHz/2 MHz Dual-Frequency Discharge and Its Effect on Etching of SiCOH Low-k Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigated C2F6/O2/Ar plasma chemistry and its effect on the etching characteristics of SiCOH low-k dielectrics in 60 MHz/2 MHz dual-frequency capacitively coupled discharge. For the C2F6/Ar plasma, the increase in the low-frequency (LF) power led to an increased ion impact, prompting the dissociation of C2F6 with higher reaction energy. As a result, fluorocarbon radicals with a high F/C ratio decreased. The increase in the discharge pressure led to a decrease in the electron temperature, resulting in the decrease of C2F6 dissociation. For the C2F6/O2/Ar plasma, the increase in the LF power prompted the reaction between O2 and C2F6, resulting in the elimination of CF3 and CF2 radicals, and the production of an F-rich plasma environment. The F-rich plasma improved the etching characteristics of SiCOH low-k films, leading to a high etching rate and a smooth etched surface.

Yuan, Ying; Ye, Chao; Chen, Tian; Ge, Shuibing; Liu, Huimin; Cui, Jin; Xu, Yijun; Deng, Yanhong; Ning, Zhaoyuan

2012-01-01

365

Absorption spectroscopy diagnostics of a dual-frequency capacitive dielectric etch tool using Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-frequency capacitively-coupled etch reactors using Ar/fluorocarbon/O2 mixtures are widely employed for etching of dielectric films for integrated circuit manufacture. CF2 radicals play an important role in the gas-phase and surface chemistry controlling etching and polymer deposition, and their density can be measured by UV absorption via the A-X band (230-270 nm). Previously Xe arc lamps have been used as the light source, but they are rather unstable, limiting the sensitivity of the technique, as well as being cumbersome and relatively expensive. We have successfully replaced the Xe arc with UV light-emitting diodes. The CF2 density was determined as a function of gas composition and power in a modified 2 + 27MHz commercial etch reactor operating in Ar/C4F8/O2. The CF2 density decreases rapidly as the O2/C4F8 ratio is increased, and increases with RF power at both frequencies, but is most affected by 27 MHz power. There is speculation that CF2 may play an important role in the creation and destruction of F- negative ions. However, we did not find any simple correlation between CF2 density and electro-negativity.

Booth, Jean-Paul; Bredin, Jerome

2009-10-01

366

A comparative study of micellization with fluorinated and hydrogenated diquaternary ammonium bolaamphiphiles.  

PubMed

Two new N(a),N(b)-Bis[3-(trimethylamino)propyl]-perfluoroalkanes diamide-Iodide with (a=1; b=10) and (a=1; b=12), differing by the fluorocarbon tail spacer (8 or 10 CF2), and the N(1),N(12)-Bis[3-(trimethylamino)propyl]-dodecanediamide-Iodide have been synthesized in two steps involving the appropriate dimethyl perfluoro or hydrogeno alkane dicarboxylate, N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propane diamine, and methyl iodide. Their surface properties were studied at 45C in aqueous solutions using conductivity, surface tension, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. A comparison of the micellar parameters usually obtained by these techniques has been carried out. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), the geometric packing parameters, the surface excess concentration, the area/surfactant molecule at the interface, the micellar ionization degree ? and the free energies of micellization, the diffusion coefficient, and the hydrodynamic diameter were discussed. The effect of added KI on these parameters and on the size and on the kind of aggregates has been also investigated. The addition of 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) to the surfactant solutions, where the size of the complex DOPE-surfactant was determined by DLS over a wide range of concentrations, reveals a very different behavior comparing fluorinated and hydrogenated compounds. PMID:23570869

Ngo, Thi Huong Viet; Damas, Christine; Naejus, Rgine; Coudert, Robert

2013-06-15

367

Structure and Thermotropic phase Behavior of Fluorinated Phospholipid Bilayers: A combined Attenuated Total Reflection FTIR Spectroscopy and Imaging Ellipsometry Study  

PubMed Central

Lipid bilayers consisting of lipids with terminally perfluoroalkylated chains have remarkable properties. They exhibit increased stability and phase-separated nanoscale patterns in mixtures with nonfluorinated lipids. In order to understand the bilayer properties that are responsible for this behavior, we have analyzed the structure of solid-supported bilayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and of a DPPC analogue with 6 terminal perfluorinated methylene units (F6-DPPC). Polarized attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that for F6-DPPC, the tilt of the lipid acyl chains to the bilayer normal is increased to 39 as compared to 21 for native DPPC, for both lipids in the gel phase. This substantial increase of the tilt angle is responsible for a decrease of the bilayer thickness from 5.4 nm for DPPC to 4.5 nm for F6-DPPC, as revealed by temperature-controlled imaging ellipsometry on microstructured lipid bilayers and solution atomic force microscopy. During the main phase transition from the gel to the fluid phase, both the relative bilayer thickness change and the relative area change are substantially smaller for F6-DPPC than for DPPC. In light of these structural and thermotropic data, we propose a model in which the higher acyl-chain tilt angle in F6-DPPC is the result of a conformational rearrangement to minimize unfavorable fluorocarbonhydrocarbon interactions in the center of the bilayer due to chain staggering. PMID:18563929

Schuy, Steffen; Faiss, Simon; Yoder, Nicholas C.; Kalsani, Venkateshwarlu; Kumar, Krishna; Janshoff, Andreas; Vogel, Reiner

2008-01-01

368

Design and analysis of a 5-MW vertical-fluted-tube condenser for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The design and analysis of an industtial-sized vertical-fluted-tube condenser. The condenser is used to condense superheated isobutane vapor discharged from a power turbine in a geothermal test facility operated for the US Department of Energy. The 5-MW condenser has 1150 coolant tubes in a four-pass configuration with a total heat transfer area of 725 m/sup 2/ (7800 ft/sup 2/). The unit is being tested at the Geothermal Components Test Facility in the Imperial Valley of East Mesa, California. The condenser design is based on previous experimental research work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on condensing refrigerants on a wide variety of single vertical tubes. Condensing film coefficients obtained on the high-performance vertical fluted tubes in condensing refrigerants are as much as seven times greater than those obtained with vertical smooth tubes that have the same diameter and length. The overall heat transfer performance expected from the fluted tube condenser is four to five times the heat transfer obtained from the identical units employing smooth tubes. Fluted tube condensers also have other direct applications in the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program in condensing ammonia, in the petroleum industry in condensing light hydrocarbons, and in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry in condensing fluorocarbon vapors.

Llewellyn, G.H.

1982-03-01

369

Tribological properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers.  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of adhesive contact and friction between alkylsilane Si(OH){sub 3}(CX{sub 2}){sub 10}CX{sub 3} and alkoxylsilane Si(OH){sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub 10}CX{sub 3} (where X = H or F) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on an amorphous silica substrate. The alkylsilane SAMs are primarily hydrogen-bonded or physisorbed to the surface. The alkoxylsilane SAMs are covalently bonded or chemisorbed to the surface. Previously, we studied the chemisorbed systems. In this work, we study the physisorbed systems and compare the tribological properties with the chemisorbed systems. Furthermore, we examine how water at the interface of the SAMs and substrate affects the tribological properties of the physisorbed systems. When less than a third of a monolayer is present, very little difference in the microscopic friction coefficient {mu} or shear stresses is observed. For increasing amounts of water, the values of {mu} and the shear stresses decrease; this effect is somewhat more pronounced for fluorocarbon alkylsilane SAMs than for the hydrocarbon SAMs. The observed decrease in friction is a consequence of a slip plane that occurs in the water as the amount of water is increased. We studied the frictional behavior using relative shear velocities ranging from v = 2 cm/s to 2 m/s. Similar to previously reported results for alkoxylsilane SAMs, the values of the measured stress and {mu} for the alkylsilane SAM systems decrease monotonically with v.

Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Chandross, Michael Evan; Grest, Gary Stephen; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Stevens, Mark Jackson

2005-05-01

370

Stationary nanoliter droplet array with a substrate of choice for single adherent/nonadherent cell incubation and analysis  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic water-in-oil droplets that serve as separate, chemically isolated compartments can be applied for single-cell analysis; however, to investigate encapsulated cells effectively over prolonged time periods, an array of droplets must remain stationary on a versatile substrate for optimal cell compatibility. We present here a platform of unique geometry and substrate versatility that generates a stationary nanodroplet array by using wells branching off a main microfluidic channel. These droplets are confined by multiple sides of a nanowell and are in direct contact with a biocompatible substrate of choice. The device is operated by a unique and reversed loading procedure that eliminates the need for fine pressure control or external tubing. Fluorocarbon oil isolates the droplets and provides soluble oxygen for the cells. By using this approach, the metabolic activity of single adherent cells was monitored continuously over time, and the concentration of viable pathogens in blood-derived samples was determined directly by measuring the number of colony-formed droplets. The method is simple to operate, requires a few microliters of reagent volume, is portable, is reusable, and allows for cell retrieval. This technology may be particularly useful for multiplexed assays for which prolonged and simultaneous visual inspection of many isolated single adherent or nonadherent cells is required. PMID:25053808

Shemesh, Jonathan; Ben Arye, Tom; Avesar, Jonathan; Kang, Joo H.; Fine, Amir; Super, Michael; Meller, Amit; Ingber, Donald E.; Levenberg, Shulamit

2014-01-01

371

Fluorine-Rich Planetary Environments as Possible Habitats for Life  

PubMed Central

In polar aprotic organic solvents, fluorine might be an element of choice for life that uses selected fluorinated building blocks as monomers of choice for self-assembling of its catalytic polymers. Organofluorine compounds are extremely rare in the chemistry of life as we know it. Biomolecules, when fluorinated such as peptides or proteins, exhibit a fluorous effect, i.e., they are fluorophilic (neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic). Such polymers, capable of creating self-sorting assemblies, resist denaturation by organic solvents by exclusion of fluorocarbon side chains from the organic phase. Fluorous cores consist of a compact interior, which is shielded from the surrounding solvent. Thus, we can anticipate that fluorine-containing teflon-like or non-sticking building blocks might be monomers of choice for the synthesis of organized polymeric structures in fluorine-rich planetary environments. Although no fluorine-rich planetary environment is known, theoretical considerations might help us to define chemistries that might support life in such environments. For example, one scenario is that all molecular oxygen may be used up by oxidation reactions on a planetary surface and fluorine gas could be released from F-rich magma later in the history of a planetary body to result in a fluorine-rich planetary environment. PMID:25370378

Budisa, Nediljko; Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

2014-01-01

372

Laboratory studies of chemical and photochemical processes relevant to stratospheric ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to reduce the uncertainty in several key gas-phase kinetic processes which impact our understanding of stratospheric ozone. The main emphasis of this work is on measuring rate coefficients and product channels for reactions of HO(sub x) and NO(sub x) species in the temperature range 200 K to 240 K relevant to the lower stratosphere. Other areas of study have included infrared spectroscopic studies of the HO2 radical, measurements of OH radical reactions with alternative fluorocarbons, and determination of the vapor pressures of nitric acid hydrates under stratospheric conditions. The results of these studies will improve models of stratospheric ozone chemistry and predictions of perturbations due to human influences. In this annual report, we focus on our recent accomplishments in the quantitative spectroscopy of the HO2 radical. This report details the measurements of the broadening coefficients for the v(sub 2) vibrational band. Further measurements of the vapor pressures of nitric acid hydrates relevant to the polar stratospheric cloud formation indicate the importance of metastable crystalline phases of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O. Large particles produced from these metastable phases may provide a removal mechanism for HNO3 in the polar stratosphere.

Zahniser, Mark S.; Nelson, David D.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kolb, Charles E.

1994-01-01

373

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

2013-12-01

374

Chemistry of carbon polymer composite electrode - An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface chemistry of the electrodes in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is of great importance for the cell performance. Many groups have reported that electrode preparation condition has a direct influence on the resulting electrode properties. In this work, the oxidation state of electrode components and the composites (catalyst ionomer mixtures) in various electrode structures were systematically studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the spectra, when catalyst is physically mixed with Nafion ionomer, the resulting electrode surface chemistry is a combination of the two components. When the electrode is prepared with a lamination procedure, the ratio between fluorocarbon and graphitic carbon is decreased. Moreover, ether type oxide content is decreased although carbon oxide is slightly increased. This indicates structure change of the catalyst layer due to an interaction between the ionomer and the catalyst and possible polymer structural change during electrode fabrication. The surface of micro porous layer was found to be much more influenced by the lamination, especially when it is in contact with catalysts in the interphase. Higher amount of platinum oxide was observed in the electrode structures (catalyst ionomer mixture) compared to the catalyst powder. This also indicates a certain interaction between the functional groups in the polymer and platinum surface.

Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Skou, Eivind

2015-01-01

375

Viscosities of HFC-32 and HFC-32/lubricant mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A modified capillary tube method has been used to measure viscosities for HFC-32 over a temperature range from {minus}20 to 90{degrees}C and a pressure range from 0.1 to 5.3 MPa, and for the liquid mixtures of HFC-32 with a synthetic polyolester oil at temperatures from 20 to 75{degrees}C and oil mass fractions from 0.44 to 1. Estimated uncertainties in the measured viscosities do not exceed {plus_minus}1.2 and {plus_minus}1.8% for the pure fluorocarbon and the mixtures, respectively. It is found that viscosity isotherms for HFC-32 at subcritical temperatures exhibit a minimum with increasing pressure, with the viscosity decreasing as much as 10% relative to its value at one atmosphere. Correlations are presented for dilute gas viscosities, excess viscosities, and saturated liquid and vapor viscosities. These correlations are shown to fit this data within experimental uncertainties. For HFC-32/lubricant mixtures, a free-volume viscosity model has been applied to correlate the experimental data.

Geller, V.Z. [Thermophysics Research Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Paulaitis, M.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Bivens, D.B. [E.I. du Pont Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1996-01-01

376

Analysis and interpretation of the performance degradation of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term stability of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with glass electrodes was studied for one year with a dedicated test station hosting about 10 m2 of detectors. RPCs were operated in streamer mode with a ternary gas mixture containing argon (27%), isobutane (9%) and tetrafluoroethane (64%). Environmental conditions were kept under control and, in particular, the water pollution in the gas, deemed responsible for the degradation of glass RPC performance, was monitored never to exceed 30 ppm in the exhaust line. Evidence for a substantial aging of the detectors was observed, resulting in a loss of efficiency correlated to an increased rate of spurious streamers. This can be ascribed to the chemical attack of the glass surface by hydrofluoric acid formed in the streamer process, as confirmed by detailed morphological and chemical analyses of the electrode surface. Our results strengthen the indication that the instability of glass RPCs in the long term is related to the use of fluorocarbons as quenching medium and is not due to external pollutants.

Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Della Mea, G.; Restello, S.; Ferri, F.; Musella, P.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tinti, G.; Mannocchi, G.; Trinchero, G.

2007-10-01

377

Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants  

SciTech Connect

The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

1993-12-01

378

Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device with external quantum efficiency of nearly 10%  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green fluorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED) exhibiting a high external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% has been developed. The OLED consists of simple three organic layers, using NPB, 0.8% C545T doped TPBA, and DBzA as a hole-transporting layer, an emitting layer, and an electron-transporting layer, respectively, [fluorocarbon coated indium tin oxide/NPB (60 nm)/08% C545T doped TPBA (40 nm)/DBzA (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm/Al], where NPB is 4,4'-bis (N-phenyl-1-naphthylamino)biphenyl, C545T is 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H,11H-benzo[l]pyrano[6 7 8-ij]quinolizin-11-one, TPBA is 9,9',10,10'-tetraphenyl-2,2'-bianthracene, and DBzA is 9,10-bis[4-(6-methylbenzothiazol-2-yl)phenyl]anthracene. The high external quantum efficiency is maintained in the wide range of current density of 2-100 cm2. The OLED is promising for practical use with high color purity with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.24, 0.62) and long half-lifetime of 71h at a current density of 80mA/cm2 (initial luminance of 23900cd/m2).

Okumoto, Kenji; Kanno, Hiroshi; Hamaa, Yuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Shibata, Kenichi

2006-08-01

379

The influence of repellent coatings on surface free energy of glass plate and cotton fabric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research was to determine the influence of chemical finishes on the surface properties of glass plate, considered as a model homogeneous smooth surface and cotton fabric as a non-ideal heterogeneous rough surface. Microscopic slides and 100% cotton fabric in plain weave were coated with fluorocarbon polymers (FCP), paraffin waxes with zirconium salts (PWZ), methylolmelamine derivatives (MMD), polysiloxanes with side alkyldimethylammonium groups (PSAAC) and aminofunctional polysiloxanes (AFPS). From the goniometer contact angle measurements of different liquids, the surface free energy of the coated glass plates was calculated according to approaches by Owens-Wendt-Kaelble, Wu, van Oss-Chaudhury-Good, and Li-Neumann-Kwok. The results showed that all the coatings decreased the surface free energy of the substrate, which was also influenced by the liquid combination and the theoretical approach used. In spite of the fact that the liquid contact angles were much higher on the coated fabric samples than on glass plates and resulted in the lower values of work of adhesion, a very good correlation between the coatings deposited on both substrates was obtained. The presence of repellent coatings FCP, PWZ and MMD converted the solid surface from polar to highly apolar by masking the functional groups of glass and cellulose. PSAAC and AFPS coatings did not decrease the solid surface free energy to such an extent as the former three coatings due to their monopolar character.

?erne, Lidija; Simon?i?, Barbara; eljko, Matja

2008-08-01

380

Surface tension measurement techniques of magnetic fluids at an interface between different fluids using perpendicular field instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two measurement techniques to determine the surface tension of ferrofluids using the perpendicular field instability are described. Four ferrofluid layers were examined with magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the surface of (1) oil-based ferrofluid in air; (2) water-based ferrofluid in air, (3) oil-based ferrofluid, and (4) fluorocarbon-based ferrofluid, both below a blend of 50% n-Propyl alcohol and 50% deionized water (propanol). Surface tension was accurately calculated by utilizing the measured Taylor wavelength from measurements of incipient fluid instability peaks and the measured densities of fluids. For cases (1) and (2), the calculated surface tension values were in good agreement with a tensiometer measurement. No accurate tensiometer measurements were conducted for the superposed liquids (3) and (4) since accurate tensiometer measurements are difficult for a two fluid layer system. The second less accurate method used the ferrofluid's nonlinear Langevin magnetization characteristics to compute the surface tension from incipience of interfacial instability conditions. Discrepancies between the surface tensions measured by the two methods were probably due to the ferrofluid particle size distributions and the strong dependence of the ferrofluid magnetization on particle size.

Amin, M. Shahrooz; Elborai, Shihab; Lee, Se-Hee; He, Xiaowei; Zahn, Markus

2005-05-01

381

Application of pulsed plasma thruster to materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrothermal pulsed plasma thruster with a discharge room in an insulator rod is used as the pulsed plasma for ablation of insulator (PPA), and the material of the insulator rod is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The PPA has an anode at the end of the room and a cathode of divergent nozzle at the exit of the room. Both the anode and the cathode are made of aluminum. The distance of 13 mm between the anode and the cathode is equal to the plasma length. The diameter of the insulator rod is 4 mm. The pulsed plasma is generated by the stored energy in the capacitor connected to the electrodes. Electrical and optical measurements of PPA are carried out. From the measured waveforms of the voltage applied between the electrodes and the current, the maximum of the instantaneous power is on the order of MW and the maximum of current is on the order of kA during a short time of 5-10?s. On the other hand, the optical emission intensities emitted from the excited carbon and fluorine atoms are predominant. This fact should indicate the possibilities of diamond-like-carbon coating or Si etching without a parent gas such as hydrocarbon gas and fluorocarbon gas.

Kimura, Takashi; Iida, Masayasu; Oda, Akinori

2009-10-01

382

The development of large diameter, high pressure, cryogenic radial static seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two configurations of radial static seals are developed for high-pressure 773 kg per sq cm cryogenic applications: a U-shaped fluorocarbon seal and a delta-shaped PTFE seal. The U-seal is a common commercial design consisting of a spring-loaded cup-shaped jacket; the basic principle is that the soft plastic jacket provides the interface between the piston and the bore, the jacket being held in place by a metal spring. The delta seal is based on the principle that the soft plastic delta cross section furnishes the interface at the metal face and circumferential face of the gland and cylinder. Test results indicate that both the plastic U-seal and the delta seal designs are sufficiently flexible to accommodate assembly in bore or piston grooves. Of these two configurations, the delta seal is found to be superior as it meets all the design requirements for proof pressure testing the turbopump components of the main engine in the Space Shuttle.

Burr, M. E.

1976-01-01

383

Morphology-controlled synthesis of poly(oxyethylene)silicone or alkylsilicone surfactants with explicit, atomically defined, branched, hydrophobic tails.  

PubMed

Silicone surfactants are widely used in commerce because of the unusual surface activity when compared with fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon surfactants. However, most silicone surfactants are comprised of ill-defined mixtures, which preclude the development of an understanding of structure-surface activity relationships. Herein, we report a synthetic strategy that permits exquisite control over silicone structure by using the B(C(6)F(5))(3)-catalyzed condensation of hydro- and alkoxysilanes. Six different, precise hydrophobes were then mated to hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)s of three different molecular weights by a metal-free click cyclization to generate a library of explicit silicone surfactants. These compounds were calculated to have a relatively linear value range of the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, ranging from about 8 to about 15. The solubility of some of the compounds was too low to measure a critical micelle concentration (CMC). The others exhibited a broad range of surface tension values at the CMC that depend both on the length of the hydrophilic tail and, more importantly, the nature of the hydrophobic head group. Subtle distinctions in surfactant-related properties, which can be attributed to the three-dimensional structures, can be seen for compounds with comparable numbers of hydrocarbons and silicon groups. PMID:22213091

Gonzaga, Ferdinand; Grande, John B; Brook, Michael A

2012-01-27

384

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31

385

A solvent-based fixative for electron microscopy to improve retention and visualization of the intestinal mucus blanket for probiotics studies.  

PubMed

Samples of pig small intestine, cecum, and large intestine were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), concentrating on mucus blanket retention and visualization. Samples were fixed using three aqueous-based fixatives which included a standard glutaraldehyde fixative alone as the control and the standard fixative formulation with either ruthenium red or alcian blue added and using one solvent-based fixative, osmium tetroxide dissolved in FC-72 (a degreasing fluorocarbon solvent produced by 3M Canada, Inc.), which had been successfully used by Sims et al. [(1991) Biotech. Histochem., 66:173-180] to preserve tracheal mucus of nonhuman mammals. Pig intestine samples prepared using the solvent-based fixative retained a contiguous mucus blanket, while the aqueous-based treatments retained only patchy or fibrous remnants to a degree depending on fixative composition and intestinal site. We conclude that preparation of the pig intestinal mucus layer using the solvent-based fixative suggested by Sims et al. (1991) preserves the mucus blanket in its entirety and gives superior results to aqueous-based fixatives containing the standard additives ruthenium red and alcian blue. We recommend that this anhydrous fixation, which requires only a slight modification from standard conditions, be adopted when mucus layer retention and visualization is important, as in the field of probiotics. Overcoming this major technical obstacle will now allow electron microscopy (EM) to once again provide new in situ information in this reemerging field. PMID:9140941

Allan-Wojtas, P; Farnworth, E R; Modler, H W; Carbyn, S

1997-03-01

386

Toxicology of the fluoroalkenes: Review and research needs  

PubMed Central

In this review of the published literature on the toxicology of fluoroalkenes several features emerge and research needs are evident. The fluoroalkenes vary widely in acute inhalation toxicity. Those, such as perfluoroisobutylene, PFIB, the most highly toxic member, attacks the pulmonary epithelium of rats eventuating in edema and death after a delay of about one day. Other fluoroalkenes, such as hexafluoropropylene (HFP) or chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), also cause pulmonary injury but at lower concentrations produce concentration dependent changes in the renal concentrating mechanism of the rat. Changes in the CNS of rats and rabbits have also been reported for CTFE. CTFE, in repeated exposures, has produced blood pressure changes in dogs, CNS effects and changes in the erythropoietic system. This variety of responses indicates the need for investigation. Chronic effects have not been sufficiently studied for PFIB and HFP. Thus pointing up the desirability for study. Mechanisms of action research for fluoroalkenes is an important area of need. While several ideas have been suggested, there are no data to support them. The nucleophilic sensitivity of the fluoroalkenes and the potential carcinogenic effects stemming therefrom suggests a need field for investigation. We also can readily perceive the needs for the evaluation of effects on reproduction (including mutagenesis and teratogenesis), metabolism pulmonary functions, cellular function and structure. Epidemiologic studies on occupationally exposed populations are desirable in order to adequately define human health hazard from these fluorocarbons. PMID:612451

Clayton, J. Wesley

1977-01-01

387

Mass spectra of neutral particles released during electrical breakdown of thin polymer films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer triggered from the breakdown event was developed to study the composition of the neutral particle flux released during the electrical breakdown of polymer films problem. Charge is fed onto a metal-backed polymer surface by a movable smooth platinum contact. A slowly increasing potential from a high-impedance source is applied to the contact until breakdown occurs. The breakdown characteristics is made similar to those produced by an electron beam charging system operating at similar potentials. The apparatus showed that intense instantaneous fluxes of neutral particles are released from the sites of breakdown events. For Teflon FEP films of 50 and 75 microns thickness the material released consists almost entirely of fluorocarbon fragments, some of them having masses greater than 350 atomic mass units amu, while the material released from a 50 micron Kapton film consists mainly of light hydrocarbons with masses at or below 44 amu, with additional carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The apparatus is modified to allow electron beam charging of the samples.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1985-01-01

388

Evaluation of HFC 245ca and HFC 236ea as foam blowing agents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 141b has been selected as the interim blowing agent for use in urethane insulations on NASA's Space Shuttle External Tank. Due to the expected limited commercial lifetime of this material, research efforts at the NASA Thermal Protection Systems Materials Research Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center are now being devoted to the identification and development of alternatives with zero ozone depletion potential. Physical blowing agents identified to date have included hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, hydrofluoroethers, and more predominantly, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The majority of the HFC evaluations in industry have focused on the more readily available, low boiling candidates such as HFC 134a. Higher boiling HFC candidates that could be handled at ambient conditions and use current processing equipment would be more desirable. This paper will describe results from a research program of two such candidate HFC's performed as a cooperative effort between Martin Marietta Manned Space Systems, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The purpose of this effort was to perform a cursory evaluation of the developmental HFC's 245ca and 236ea as blowing agents in urethane based insulations. These two materials were selected from screening tests of 37 C2, C3, and C4 isomers based on physical properties, atmospheric lifetime, flammability, estimated toxicity, difficulty of synthesis, suitability for dual use as a refrigerant, and other factors. Solubility of the two materials in typical foam components was tested, pour foaming trials were performed, and preliminary data were gathered regarding foam insulation performance.

Sharpe, Jon; Macarthur, Doug; Kollie, Tom; Graves, Ron; Liu, Matthew; Hendriks, Robert V.

1995-01-01

389

O-ring sealing verification for the space shuttle redesign solid rocket motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor, the field and nozzle-to-case joints were redesigned to minimize the dynamic flexure caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for the joints were designed to accommodate both structural deflections and to promote pressure assistance. A test program was conducted to determine if a fluorocarbon elastomeric O-ring could meet this criteria in the redesigned gland. Resiliency tests were used to investigate the O-ring response to gap motion while static seal tests were used to verify design criteria of pressure assistance for sealing. All tests were conducted in face seal fixtures mounted in servo-hydraulic test machines. The resiliency of the O-ring was found to be extremely sensitive to the effects of temperature. The External Tank/Solid Rocket Booster attach strut loads had a negligible affect on the ability of the O-ring to track the simulated SRB field joint deflection. In the static pressure-assisted seal tests, as long as physical contact was maintained between the O-ring and the gland sealing surface, pressure assistance induced instantaneous sealing.

Lach, Cynthia L.

1989-01-01

390

NMR at the Picomole Level of a DNA Adduct  

PubMed Central

We investigate the limit of detection for obtaining NMR data of a DNA adduct using modern microscale NMR instrumentation, once the adduct has been isolated at the pmol level. Eighty nanograms (130 pmol) of a DNA adduct standard, N-(2?-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene 5?-monophosphate (AAF-dGMP), in 1.5 ?L of D2O with 10% methanol-d4, in a vial, was completely picked up as a droplet suspended in a fluorocarbon liquid, and loaded efficiently into a microcoil probe. This work demonstrates a practical manual method of droplet microfluidic sample loading, previously demonstrated using automated equipment, which provides a several-fold advantage over conventional flow injection. Eliminating dilution during injection and confining the sample into the observed volume realizes the full theoretical mass sensitivity of a microcoil, comparable to a micro-cryo probe. With 80 ng, an NMR spectrum acquired over 40 hr showed all of the resonances seen in a standard spectrum of AAF-dGMP, with a S/N of at least 10, despite broadening due to previously-noted effects of conformational exchange. Also a 2D TOCSY spectrum (total correlation spectroscopy) was acquired on 1.6 ?g in 18 hr. This work helps to define the utility of NMR in combination with other analytical methods for the structural characterization of a small amount of a DNA adduct. PMID:24028148

Kautz, Roger; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.

2014-01-01

391

Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

Hassan, Razi A.

1991-01-01

392

Direct measurement of surface carbon concentrations. [in lunar soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of surface concentrations of carbon in lunar soils and soil breccias provide information on the origin of carbon in the regolith. The reaction C-12 (d, p sub zero) is used to measure 'surface' and 'volume' concentrations in lunar samples. This method has a depth resolution of 1 micron, which permits only a 'surface' and a 'volume' component to be measured. Three of four Apollo 16 double drive tube samples show a surface carbon concentration of about 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm, whereas the fourth sample gave 4 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. It can be convincingly shown that the measured concentration does not originate from fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon contaminants. Surface adsorbed layers of CO or CO2 are removed by a sputter cleaning procedure using a 2-MeV F beam. It is shown that the residual C concentration of 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm cannot be further reduced by increased F fluence, and it is therefore concluded that it is truly lunar. If one assumes that the measured surface C concentration is a steady-state concentration determined only by a balance between solar-wind implantation and sputtering, a sputter erosion rate of 0.1 A/yr is obtained. However, it would be more profitable to use an independently derived sputter erosion rate to test the hypothesis of a solar-wind origin of the surface carbon.

Filleux, C.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

1977-01-01

393

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices  

SciTech Connect

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

394

Cask systems development program seal technology  

SciTech Connect

General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (10 CFR 71). Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize the performance of several seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fuorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Results show that the seal materials tested, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. This paper documents the initial series of experiments developed to characterize the performance of several static seals under conditions representative of RAM transport container environments. Helium leak rates of face seals were measured at low and ambient temperatures to compare seal materials. As scaling laws have not been developed for seals, the leakage rates measured in this program are intended to be used in a qualitative rather than quantitative manner. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Madsen, M.M.; Edwards, K.R.; Humphreys, D.L.

1991-01-01

395

Hydrogen effects in hydrofluorocarbon plasma etching of silicon nitride: Beam study with CF{sup +}, CF{sub 2}{sup +}, CHF{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 2}F{sup +} ions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen in hydrofluorocarbon plasmas plays an important role in silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) reactive ion etching. This study focuses on the elementary reactions of energetic CHF{sub 2}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}F{sup +} ions with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces. In the experiments, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces were irradiated by monoenergetic (500-1500 eV) beams of CHF{sub 2}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}F{sup +} ions as well as hydrogen-free CF{sub 2}{sup +} and CF{sup +} ions generated by a mass-selected ion beam system and their etching yields and surface properties were examined. It has been found that, when etching takes place, the etching rates of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by hydrofluorocarbon ions, i.e., CHF{sub 2}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}F{sup +}, are higher than those by the corresponding fluorocarbon ions, i.e., CF{sub 2}{sup +} and CF{sup +}, respectively. When carbon film deposition takes place, it has been found that hydrogen of incident hydrofluorocarbon ions tends to scavenge fluorine of the deposited film, reducing its fluorine content.

Ito, Tomoko; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Semiconductor Technology Development Division, SBG, CPDG, Sony Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-09-15

396

Three-dimensional printing of stem cell-laden hydrogels submerged in a hydrophobic high-density fluid.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, bioprinting technologies have begun providing important tissue engineering strategies for regenerative medicine and organ transplantation. The major drawback of past approaches has been poor or inadequate material-printing device and substrate combinations, as well as the relatively small size of the printed construct. Here, we hypothesise that cell-laden hydrogels can be printed when submerged in perfluorotributylamine (C(12)F(27)N), a hydrophobic high-density fluid, and that these cells placed within three-dimensional constructs remain viable allowing for cell proliferation and production of extracellular matrix. Human mesenchymal stem cells and MG-63 cells were encapsulated into agarose hydrogels, and subsequently printed in high aspect ratio in three dimensional structures that were supported in high density fluorocarbon. Three-dimensional structures with various shapes and sizes were manufactured and remained stable for more than six months. Live/dead and DAPI stainings showed viable cells 24h after the printing process, as well as after 21days in culture. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses after 14 and 21days revealed viable cells with marked matrix production and signs of proliferation. The compressive strength values of the printed gels consequently increased during the two weeks in culture, revealing encouraging results for future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:23172592

Duarte Campos, Daniela F; Blaeser, Andreas; Weber, Michael; Jkel, Jrg; Neuss, Sabine; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Fischer, Horst

2013-03-01

397

Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) 1.1 and 1.1A, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final test report presents the results obtained during the static hot firing and cold-gas high Q tests of the first Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) 1.1. The TPTA consisted of field test joints A and B, which were the original RSRM J-insulation configuration, with a metal capture feature. It also consisted of a flight configuration nozzle-to-case test joint (Joint D) with shorter vent slots. Fluorocarbon O-rings were used in all the test joints. The purpose of the TPTA tests is to evaluate and characterize the RSMR field and nozzle-to-case joints under the influence of ignition and strut loads during liftoff anf high Q. All objectives of the cold-gas high Q (TPTA 1.1A) test were met and all measurements were close to predicted values. During the static hot-firing test (TPTA 1.1), the motor was inadvertently plugged by the quench injector plug, making it a more severe test, although no strut loads were applied. The motor was depressurized after approximately 11 min using an auxiliary system, and no anomalies were noted. In the static hot-firing test, pressure was incident on the insulation and the test joint gaps were within the predicted range. During the static hot-firing test, no strut loads were applied because the loading system malfunctioned. For this test, all measurements were within range of similar tests performed without strut loads.

Rebells, Clarence A.

1988-01-01

398

Facile catalyst separation without water: Fluorous biphase hydroformylation of olefins  

SciTech Connect

A novel concept for performing stoichiometric and catalytic chemical transformations has been developed that is based on the limited miscibility of partially or fully fluorinated compounds with nonfluorinated compounds. A fluorous biphase system (FBS) consists of a fluorous phase containing a dissolved reagent or catalyst and another phase, which could be any common organic or nonorganic solvent with limited or no solubility in the fluorous phase. The fluorous phase is defined as the fluorocarbon (mostly perfluorinated alkanes, ethers, and tertiary amines)-rich phase of a biphase system. An FBS compatible reagent or catalyst contains enough fluorous moieties that it will be soluble only or preferentially in the fluorous phase. The most effective fluorous moieties are linear or branched perfuoralkyl chains with high carbon number; they may also contain heteroatoms. The chemical transformation may occur either in the fluorous phase or at the interface of the two phases. The application of FBS has been demonstrated for the extraction of rhodium from toluene and for the hydroformylation of olefins. The ability to separate a catalyst or a reagent from the products completely at mild conditions could lead to industrial application of homogeneous catalysts or reagents and to the development of more environmentally benign processes.

Horvath, I.T.; Rabai, J. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

1994-10-07

399

Electrochemical characteristics of acid electrolytes for fuel cells. Annual report, July 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical characterization of a number of perfluorinated acids was carried out with the emphasis on identification of alternate acids that could replace the presently used H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ fuel cells. The activity for O/sub 2/ reduction in the perfluorinated acids on smooth Pt and on high-surface-area Pt catalyzed electrodes (10% Pt on Vulcan XC-72) was examined. The cathode potential for O/sub 2/ reduction in CF/sub 3/PO(OH)/sub 2/ and (CF/sub 3/SO/sub 2/NHSO/sub 2/CF/sub 2/CF/sub 2/)/sub 2/ is significantly higher than H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. The perfluorinated acids with two terminal functional groups do not wet Teflon and could be very useful in the fuel cells. The solubilities and the diffusion coefficient of O/sub 2/ in the perfluorinated acids are higher than H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/; over an order of magnitude and a factor of 5 to 6, respectively. The specific conductivities of the dilute perfluorinated acids are higher than phosphoric acid, whereas the specific conductivities of the concentrated perfluorinated acids, particularly the imides, are lower than 85% phosphoric acid. A number of the perfluorinated acids with longer fluorocarbon tail(s) tested as additives in 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/.

Razaq, M.; Razaq, A.; Yeager, E.

1987-07-01

400

Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0C.

Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

401

A conformal oxidation-resistant, plasma-polymerized coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study was made of the surface recession (etching) of thin films of plasma polymerized tetrafluoro ethylene (PPTFE), polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE), and ion-beam sputter deposited polytetrafluoro ethylene (SPTFE) exposed to ground-state atomic oxygen downstream from a nonequilibrium radio-frequency O2 plasma. At 22 C, the etch rates for PTFE, SPTFE, and PPTFE were in the ratio of 8.7:1.8:1.0. A thin, conformal coating of PPTFE (etch rate of 0.3 nm/h at 22 C) was found to protect an underlying cast film of a reactive polymer, cis-1,4 polybutadiene, against ground-state atomic oxygen attack for the time required to fully etch away the PPTFE coating. From ESCA analysis, PTFE exhibited only minor surface oxidation (uptake of 0.5 atom percent O) upon etching, its F/C ratio decreasing slightly from 2.00 to 1.97; PPTFE exhibited considerable surface oxidation (uptake of 5.9 atom percent O) intermediate between those of PTFE and PPTFE, with a decrease in F/C ratio from 1.73 to 1.67. A plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon coating such as PPTFE might be useful for space applications to protect polymers that are vulnerable to oxidation or degradation by oxygen atoms.

Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Lerner, Narcinda R.

1991-01-01

402

A Roof for the Lions' House  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fans of the National Football League s Detroit Lions don't worry about game day weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat Silverdome is the world s largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome--and many other types of buildings--is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency.The team of DuPont, Chemical Fabrics and Birdair have collaborated on a number of fabric structures. Some are supported by air pressure, others by cables alone. Most of the structures are in the recreational category. With conventional construction costs still on the upswing, you're likely to see a great many more permanent facilities enclosed by the aerospace spinoff fabric.

1978-01-01

403

X-ray evaluation of the boundary between polymer electrolyte and platinum and carbon functionalization to conduct protons in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is important to secure proximate diffusion paths of reactants and electrons. One approach is to optimize the boundary between polymer electrolyte and Pt nanoparticle surface. Based on synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure to monitor directly the status of catalysts in PEFCs, it was found that Pt sites were reduced to Pt0 by alcohols contained in polymer electrolyte dispersion solution during the preparation of cathode of PEFC. As in membrane electrolyte assembly, only the Pt sites not covered by polymer electrolyte re-oxidized to Pt2+/4+. Thus, the interface between Pt and polymer electrolyte was evaluated. The other approach is to functionalize carbon surface with sulfonate/sulfate group to conduct protons. Similar level of proton conductivity was observed in current-voltage dependence compared to using polymer electrolyte, but polymer electrolyte was advantageous to lose less voltage for activation. Based on this comparison, optimum catalyst on cathode is proposed comprising surface sulfonate/sulfate group on carbon mixed with polymer electrolyte. Further optimization of cathode catalyst is proposed to functionalize carbon with sulfonate group linked to fluorocarbon branch.

Oka, Kazuki; Ogura, Yuta; Izumi, Yasuo

2014-07-01

404

Wetting of topological nano-patterned surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the evolution of simple hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon liquid films on nano-patterned surfaces of near-hexagonally packed 20 nm wide nano-cavities [1]. Our x-ray measurements show that the behavior of wetting films on patterned surfaces differs from the expected ??-1/3 dependence found for the van der Waals interacting flat films [2]. Two different regimes (filling and growing) for the wetting film evolution were observed as a function of the chemical potential offset ??. The filling regime exhibits a ??-3/4 dependence for the adsorption of the liquid film into nanocavity; a significant enhancement compared to the flat surface. These results qualitatively confirm the theoretically predicted increase of the wetting exponent for the curved surface. However, quantitatively, the measured exponent for the paraboloid-like cavity is considerably lower than the predicted value [3]. *C. T. Black et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 409, (2001). *O. Gang et al, M. Fukuto, P.Huber, P.Pershan, Coll. and Surf. A 206, 293, 2002 *Rascon, C. and A.O. Parry, Nature, 407: p. 986 (2000); Robbins, M.O et al Phys. Rev. A, 43(8), 4344 (1991).

Gang, O.; Alvine, K.; Black, C. T.

2005-03-01

405

Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Compounds (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me{sub 3}Si). Reactions of (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 4}U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U with (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 2}Hg results in formation of (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 4}U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

Weydert, M.

1993-04-01

406

Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Compounds (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me[sub 3]Si). Reactions of (MeC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U with (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 2]Hg results in formation of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

Weydert, M.

1993-04-01

407

In situ CF3 Detection in Low Pressure Inductive Discharges by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of CF(x) (x=1-3) radicals in low pressure discharges using source gases such as CF4 and CHF3 is of importance to the understanding of their chemical structure and relevance in plasma based etching processes. These radicals are known to contribute to the formation of fluorocarbon polymer films, which affect the selectivity and anisotropy of etching. In this study, we present preliminary results of the quantitative measurement of trifluoromethyl radicals, CF3, in low pressure discharges. The discharge studied here is an inductively (transformer) coupled plasma (ICP) source in the GEC reference cell, operating on pure CF4 at pressures ranging from 10 - 100 mTorr, This plasma source generates higher electron number densities at lower operating pressures than obtainable with the parallel-plate capacitively coupled version of the GEC reference cell. Also, this expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma reactors being used by the microelectronics industry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to observe the absorption band of CF3 radicals in the electronic ground state X2Al in the region of 1233-1270/cm. The spectrometer is equipped with a high sensitivity HgCdTe (MCT) detector and has a fixed resolution of 0.125/cm. The CF3 concentrations are measured for a range of operating pressures and discharge power levels.

Kim, J. S.; Cappelli, M. A.; Sharma, S. P.; Arnold, J. O. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

408

Influence of open area ratio on microstructure shape in Cu-Ni alloy electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research experimentally analyzed the influence of the open area ratio (OAR) on the formation and growth of the microstructure in Cu-Ni alloy electrodeposition. The OAR was controlled by changing the pitch of circular patterns with a diameter of 20 m. For an OAR higher than 20 %, the electrodeposited structures grew vertically in pillar-like formations. As the OAR was decreased from 100 to 20 %, the density, height, and width of the structures increased. In addition, in this OAR range, the structures formed along the edge area of the circular patterns. In contrast, for an OAR lower than 10 %, dendrite structures were generated. The electrodeposited structures were coated with a hydrophobic plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) layer. In the electrodeposited sample without circular patterns (OAR = 100 %) with an OAR smaller than 1.25 %, the measured contact angles were almost the same as the contact angle (107) measured from the flat surface without electrodeposition. In contrast, the samples with an OAR range of 2.5-50 % were modified to be superhydrophobic, and they demonstrated an excellent self-cleaning ability.

Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Sung Ho; Ko, Jong Soo

2015-02-01

409

A Roof for the Lion's House  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fans of the National Football League's Detroit Lions don't worry about gameday weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat "Silverdome" is the world's largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome-and many other types of buildings-is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency. Fabric structures-tents, for example have been around since the earliest years of human civilization. But their coverings-hides, canvas and more recently plastics-were considered temporary; though tough, these fabrics were subject to weather deterioration. Teflon TFE-coated Beta Fiberglas is virtually impervious to the effects of weather and sunlight and it won't stretch, shrink, mildew or rot, thus has exceptional longevity; it is also very strong, lightweight, flame resistant and requires no periodic cleaning, because dirt will not stick to the surface of Teflon TFE. And to top all that, it costs only 30 to 40 percent as much as conventional roofing.

1978-01-01

410

Surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazines: Environmental chamber studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of fuel hydrazines were studied in a 6500-liter fluorocarbon-film chamber at 80 to 100 ppm concentrations. First-order rate constants for the reactions catalyzed by aluminum, water-damaged aluminum (Al/Al2O3), stainless steel 304L, galvanized steel and titanium plates with surface areas of 2 to 24 sq m were determined. With 23.8 sq m of Al/Al2O3 the surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazine had a half-life of 2 hours, diimide (N2H2) was observed as an intermediate and traces of ammonia were present in the final product mixture. The Al/Al2O3 catalyzed oxidation of monomethylhydrazine yielded methyldiazine (HN = NCH3) as an intermediate and traces of methanol. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine gave no detectable products. The relative reactivities of hydrazine, MMH and UDMH were 130 : 7.3 : 1.0, respectively. The rate constants for Al/Al2O3-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and MMH were proportional to the square of the surface area of the plates. Mechanisms for the surface-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and diimide and the formation of ammonia are proposed.

Kilduff, Jan E.; Davis, Dennis D.; Koontz, Steven L.

1988-01-01

411

In situ measurement of the bonded film thickness of Z-Tetraol lubricant on magnetic recording media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the bonded film thickness of perfluoropolyether lubricant on top of magnetic recording media is measured by a two-step process. First, the media disk has to be rinsed thoroughly using a fluorocarbon solvent (for instance, Vetrel) to remove the mobile lubricant. Second, the thickness of the remaining lubricant on the media surface which is regarded as the bonded lubricant thickness is then measured either by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. As the total lubricant thickness approaches single molecular dimension (10 ), current methods face tremendous challenge on the accuracy and sensitivity of the measurement. We studied the spectral characteristics responding to the lubricant bonding with the carbon overcoat by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra and proposed to use the peak area ratio (C3H2F/C3H5O and C4H10O/C3H6O2) to characterize the bonded Z-Tetraol lubricant that produces a direct bonded lubricant thickness measurement without the need to remove the mobile lubricant with a solvent. After taking the background signal of disks prior to bonding by UV irradiation into account, this method becomes independent of the total lubricant thickness as well as shows good correlation linearity (R287%) with the current FTIR method for the ratio of C4H10O/C3H6O2.

Zhu, Lei; Li, Feng

2010-10-01

412

Discrete elements for 3D microfluidics.  

PubMed

Microfluidic systems are rapidly becoming commonplace tools for high-precision materials synthesis, biochemical sample preparation, and biophysical analysis. Typically, microfluidic systems are constructed in monolithic form by means of microfabrication and, increasingly, by additive techniques. These methods restrict the design and assembly of truly complex systems by placing unnecessary emphasis on complete functional integration of operational elements in a planar environment. Here, we present a solution based on discrete elements that liberates designers to build large-scale microfluidic systems in three dimensions that are modular, diverse, and predictable by simple network analysis techniques. We develop a sample library of standardized components and connectors manufactured using stereolithography. We predict and validate the flow characteristics of these individual components to design and construct a tunable concentration gradient generator with a scalable number of parallel outputs. We show that these systems are rapidly reconfigurable by constructing three variations of a device for generating monodisperse microdroplets in two distinct size regimes and in a high-throughput mode by simple replacement of emulsifier subcircuits. Finally, we demonstrate the capability for active process monitoring by constructing an optical sensing element for detecting water droplets in a fluorocarbon stream and quantifying their size and frequency. By moving away from large-scale integration toward standardized discrete elements, we demonstrate the potential to reduce the practice of designing and assembling complex 3D microfluidic circuits to a methodology comparable to that found in the electronics industry. PMID:25246553

Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Malmstadt, Noah

2014-10-21

413

Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization of 5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene on carbon paper electrodes.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic coatings on carbon paper electrodes are known to provide effective water management, superior gas transfer, and improved mechanical stability of the paper in fuel cell applications. Here, we describe the surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene (NBF6) to prepare fluorocarbon-rich films on carbon paper substrates that were pre-treated with O(2) plasma. For our reaction scheme, the growth of the pNBF6 films is dependent on the concentration of hydroxyl groups on the carbon paper substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine the required time for O(2) plasma exposure to saturate the surface with hydroxyl-termini. Complete, conformal pNBF6 films were grown on carbon paper electrodes exposed to O(2) plasma for at least 45 s. These films exhibit hydrophobic and oleophobic surface properties and serve as insulative barriers to the diffusion of aqueous ions to the conductive carbon fibers. PMID:20709328

Faulkner, Christopher J; Payne, P Andrew; Jennings, G Kane

2010-11-01

414

A global model for C4F8 plasmas coupling gas phase and wall surface reaction kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global or zero-dimensional model for C4F8 plasmas is formulated by coupling gas phase and wall surface reaction kinetics. A set of surface reactions implements experimental findings and quantifies the effect of the fluorocarbon film formed on the reactor walls on the densities of species in the gas phase. The model allows the calculation of the pressure change after the ignition of the discharge and the effective sticking (surface loss) coefficients of the neutral species on the wall surface. The model is validated by comparison with experimental measurements, i.e. pressure rise and densities of F atoms, CF2 and CF radicals, in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. It is predicted that C4F8 is vastly dissociated and CF4 becomes the dominant species even at low power conditions. A net production of CF3 radical and a net consumption of CF2 radical at the reactor walls are predicted. A study on the contribution of each reaction to the production and consumption of the species shows that at least one surface reaction is among the major sinks or sources of CF4, CFx radicals and F.

Kokkoris, George; Goodyear, Andy; Cooke, Mike; Gogolides, Evangelos

2008-10-01

415

Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to concentration and micellization of the surfactant. At the same time, the silica solidifies around the surfactant structures, forming equally sized mesoporous particles. The procedure can be tuned to produce well-separated particles or alternatively particles that are linked together. The latter allows us to create 2D or 3D structures with hierarchical porosity. Oil, water, and surfactant liquid mixtures exhibit very complex phase behavior. Depending on the conditions, such mixtures give rise to highly organized structures. A proper selection of the type and concentration of surfactants determines the structuring at the nanoscale level. In this work, we show that hierarchically bimodal nanoporous structures can be obtained by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/microemulsion mixture. Tuning the phase state by adjusting the surfactant composition and concentration allows for the controlled design of a system where microemulsion droplets coexist with smaller surfactant micellar structures. The microemulsion droplet and micellar dimensions determine the two types of pore sizes (single nanometers and tens of nanometers). We also demonstrate the fabrication of carbon and carbon/platinum replicas of the silica microspheres using a "lost-wax" approach. Such particles have great potential for the design of electrocatalysts for fuel cells, chromatography separations, and other applications. It was determined that slight variations in microemulsion mixture components (electrolyte concentration, wt% of surfactants, oil to sol ratio, etc.) produces strikingly different pore morphologies and particle surface areas. Control over the size and structure of the smaller micelle-templated pores was made possible by varying the length of the hydrocarbon block within the trimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant and characterized using X-ray diffraction. The effect of emulsion aging was studied by synthesizing particles at progressive time levels from a sample emulsion. It was discovered surface pore size increases after just a few hours, with

Carroll, Nick J.

416

Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce anomalies reflecting a redox condition during weathering. The upper part of the profile is a leached zone characterized by positive Ce anomaly and lower REE contents compared with the parent granite. This indicates that acidic soil water in an oxidizing condition immobilized Ce4+ as CeO2 and transported REE3+ downward. In contrast, the lower part of the profile is an accumulation zone characterized by negative Ce anomaly and higher REE contents. This indicates that the transported REE3+ (depleted in Ce) were adsorbed onto weathering products and/or distributed into secondary minerals such as rhabdophane. This immobilization of REE results from the increase of pH and subsequent decrease of REE solubility due to the contact with higher pH groundwater. Percentages of adsorbed REE to whole-rock REE are also higher in the accumulation zone than in the leached zone. As the majority of REE in the weathered granites are present in the ion-adsorption phase with negative Ce anomaly, the percentages of adsorbed REE are positively correlated with the whole-rock negative Ce anomaly. Although fractionation of LREE/HREE is controlled by the occurrences of REE-bearing minerals and adsorption by weathering products, the ion-adsorption phase tends to be enriched in LREE relative to whole-rock compositions of weathered granites.

Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

2012-04-01

417

In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.

Lind, C.J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

1999-01-01

418

Reaction and Protection of Electrical Wire Insulators in Atomic-oxygen Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic-oxygen erosion on spacecraft in low Earth orbit is an issue which is becoming increasingly important because of the growing number of spacecraft that will fly in the orbits which have high concentrations of atomic oxygen. In this investigation, the atomic-oxygen durability of three types of electrical wire insulation (carbon-based, fluoropolymer, and polysiloxane elastomer) were evaluated. These insulation materials were exposed to thermal-energy atomic oxygen, which was obtained by RF excitation of air at a pressure of 11-20 Pa. The effects of atomic-oxygen exposure on insulation materials indicate that all carbon-based materials erode at about the same rate as polyamide Kapton and, therefore, are not atomic-oxygen durable. However, the durability of fluoropolymers needs to be evaluated on a case by case basis because the erosion rates of fluoropolymers vary widely. For example, experimental data suggest the formation of atomic fluorine during atomic-oxygen amorphous-fluorocarbon reactions. Dimethyl polysiloxanes (silicone) do not lose mass during atomic-oxygen exposure, but develop silica surfaces which are under tension and frequently crack as a result of loss of methyl groups. However, if the silicone sample surfaces were properly pretreated to provide a certain roughness, atomic oxygen exposure resulted in a sturdy, non-cracked atomic-oxygen durable SiO2 layer. Since the surface does not crack during such silicone-atomic oxygen reaction, the crack-induced contamination by silicone can be reduced or completely stopped. Therefore, with proper pretreatment, silicone can be either a wire insulation material or a coating on wire insulation materials to provide atomic-oxygen durability.

Hung, Ching-Cheh; Cantrell, Gidget

1994-01-01

419

Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in the selection of other appropriate analytical procedures for further material characterization.

Huff, Timothy L.

2002-01-01

420

Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR, The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected real-time, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in the selection of other appropriate analytical procedures for further material characterization.

Huff, Timothy L.; Griffin, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

421

Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic airstreams and applications to ram C-3 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented for the oblique injection of water and three electrophilic liquids (fluorocarbon compounds) through multiple-orifice nozzles from a flat plate and the sides of a hemisphere-cone (0.375 scale of RAM C spacecraft) into hypersonic airstreams. The nozzle patterns included single and multiple orifices, single rows of nozzles, and duplicates of the RAM C-III nozzles. The flat-plate tests were made at Mach 8. Total pressure was varied from 3.45 MN/m2 to 10.34 MN/m2, Reynolds number was varied form 9,840,000 per meter to 19,700,000 per meter, and liquid injection pressure was varied from 0.69 MN/m2 to 3.5 MN/m2. The hemisphere-cone tests were made at Mach 7.3. Total pressure was varied from 1.38 MN/m2, to 6.89 MN/m2, Reynolds number was varied from 3,540,000 per meter to 17,700,000 per meter, and liquid-injection pressure was varied from 0.34 MN/m2 to 4.14 MN/m2. Photographs of the tests and plots of liquid-penetration and spray cross-section area are presented. Maximum penetration was found to vary as the square root of the dynamic-pressure ratio and the square root of the total injection nozzle area. Spray cross-section area was linear with maximum penetration. The test results are used to compute injection parameters for the RAM C-3 flight injection experiment.

Weaver, W. L.

1972-01-01

422

Quantitative and high mass ToF-SIMS studies of siloxane segregation in hydrogel polymers using cryogenic sample handling techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the capabilities of cryogenic sample handling to examine composition and structure of hydrogel materials where siloxane components are central to the analysis. XPS analysis of multicomponent polymers with cryogenic sample handling following exposure to aqueous environments has revealed the composition and kinetics of near surface reorganization for siloxane and fluorocarbon containing polymers. In this study we report results from a ToF-SIMS protocol for cryogenic sample handling applied to the analysis of surface changes upon hydration/dehydration of hydrogel polymers. Comparison of results from angle dependent XPS and ToF-SIMS are discussed for a range of commercial soft contact lens materials. Both methods detected changes in surface chemistry between the hydrated (frozen) and dehydrated surfaces. Analysis of the hydrated surfaces detected polymer components indicative of the commercial formulation as well as ice clusters. Analysis of the dehydrated materials detected changes in surface chemistry relative to the hydrated surface in addition to loss of water due to sample dehydration. A quantitative standard additions method for ToF-SIMS data was used to determine submonolayer amounts of PDMS impurities at the surface of the hydrogels. ToF-SIMS analysis of a series of seven poly (allyl methacrylate- g-dimethylsiloxane), AMA- g-DMS, graft copolymers in the hydrated state revealed high mass oligomeric ion distributions for systems with bulk PDMS content greater than 25 wt.%. This marks the first time that detection of high mass oligomeric ion distributions from hydrated (frozen) surfaces has been reported. Analysis of the dehydrated surface detected formation of high mass oligomeric ion distributions for systems with PDMS bulk content greater than 15 wt.%, but only detected these ion distributions in wet (frozen) samples when the bulk concentration was greater than 25 wt.%.

Hook, Daniel J.; Valint, Paul L.; Chen, Lu; Gardella, Joseph A.

2006-07-01

423

Surface contamination analysis technology team overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface contamination analysis technology (SCAT) team was originated as a working roup of NASA civil service, Space Shuttle contractor, and university groups. Participating members of the SCAT Team have included personnel from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory and Langley Research Center's Instrument Development Group; contractors-Thiokol Corporation's Inspection Technology Group, AC Engineering support contractor, Aerojet, SAIC, and Lockheed MArtin/Oak Ridge Y-12 support contractor and Shuttle External Tank prime contractor; and the University of Alabama in Huntsville's Center for Robotics and Automation. The goal of the SCAT team as originally defined was to develop and integrate a multi-purpose inspection head for robotic application to in-process inspection of contamination sensitive surfaces. One area of interest was replacement of ozone depleting solvents currently used for surface cleanliness verification. The team approach brought together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multi-program surface cleanliness inspection. Major substrates of interest were chosen to simulate space shuttle critical bonding surface or surfaces sensitive to contamination such as fuel system component surfaces. Inspection techniques evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission or photoelectron emission; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; near infrared fiber optic spectroscopy; and, ultraviolet fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992. Instrumentation specifications and designs developed under this effort include a portable diffuse reflectance FTIR system built by Surface Optics Corporation and a third generation optically stimulated electron emission system built by LaRC. This paper will discuss the evaluation of the various techniques on a number of substrate materials contaminated with hydrocarbons, silicones, and fluorocarbons. Discussion will also include standards development for instrument calibration and testing.

Burns, H. Dewitt, Jr.

1996-11-01

424

Temperature dependence of reactive ion etching of GaAs with CCl2F2:O2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The etch rate of GaAs during reactive ion etching (RIE) in a CCl2F2:O2 discharge (4 mTorr, 0.56 W cm-2) shows a strong temperature dependence, increasing from 500 min-1 at 50 C to 2800 min-1 at 400 C. Arrhenius plots of the etch rate show two activation energies (0.17 eV from 50 to 150 C and 0.11 eV from 150 to 400 C). There is no significant plasma power density dependence of the etch rate at elevated temperatures (?100 C) in contrast to the strong dependence at 50 C. The surface morphology undergoes smooth-to-rough-to-smooth-to-rough transitions at 150, 250, and 400 C, respectively, although TiPtAu Schottky diodes exhibit near-ideal behavior on GaAs etched at 150 C. The As-to-Ga ratio in the first 100 from the surface increases with increasing RIE temperature, with chloride residues absent above 150 C. Fluorocarbon residues were present on all samples, but were limited to the first 10-15 . As determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorine was present almost exclusively as metallic gallium fluorides, while oxygen was present as both Ga and As oxides. Ion channeling detected lattice disorder to depths of 200 for etch temperatures from 50 to 250 C, while there was less damage for etching at 400 C. No new RIE-induced deep levels were observed by capacitance transient spectroscopy in any of our samples, although the concentration of the midgap donor EL2 increased with increasing temperature during the RIE process.

Pearton, S. J.; Emerson, A. B.; Chakrabarti, U. K.; Lane, E.; Jones, K. S.; Short, K. T.; White, Alice E.; Fullowan, T. R.

1989-10-01

425

Novel low-permittivity dielectrics for Si-based microelectronics  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project was to develop and assess novel low-permittivity dielectric materials for applications as interlevel dielectrics (ILDs) in Si-based microelectronics. There were three classes of materials investigated: (1) novel covalently-bonded ceramics containing carbon, boron, and/or nitrogen, (2) fluorinated SiO{sub 2} (SiOF), and (3) plasma polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC). The specific advantages and disadvantages for each potential low k ILD material were evaluated. It was discovered that highly energetic deposition processes are required for the formation of thermally and environmentally stable carbon or boron nitride ceramics, and the resulting films may have many potentially valuable applications, such as diffusion barriers, tribological coatings, micro-sensor materials, etc. The films are not suitable as low k ILDs, however, because the highly energetic deposition process leads to films with high atomic density, and this leads to high dielectric constants. SiOF shows a promise as low k ILD material for near-term applications, but special passivation or encapsulation strategies may be required in order to reduce two instability problems that the authors have discovered: moisture absorption and thermal instability of the SiOF/Al interface. PPFC films offer promise for even lower dielectric constant ILDs than SiOF, but it will be necessary to develop new strategies to passivate the free radicals in the films generated during deposition. These free radicals lead to increase in dielectric loss over time when the films are exposed to room ambient conditions.

Sullivan, J.P.

1997-09-01

426

NASA Tech Briefs, January 2006  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: Semiautonomous Avionics-and-Sensors System for a UAV; Biomimetic/Optical Sensors for Detecting Bacterial Species; System Would Detect Foreign-Object Damage in Turbofan Engine; Detection of Water Hazards for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles; Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures; Hybrid Ion-Detector/Data-Acquisition System for a TOF-MS; Spontaneous-Desorption Ionizer for a TOF-MS; Equipment for On-Wafer Testing From 220 to 325 GHz; Computing Isentropic Flow Properties of Air/R-134a Mixtures; Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System; Using a Quadtree Algorithm To Assess Line of Sight; Software for Automated Generation of Cartesian Meshes; Optics Program Modified for Multithreaded Parallel Computing; Programs for Testing Processor-in-Memory Computing Systems; PVM Enhancement for Beowulf Multiple-Processor Nodes; Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Analyzing Organics in Water; Selective Plasma Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films on SAMs; Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints; System Finds Horizontal Location of Center of Gravity; Predicting Tail Buffet Loads of a Fighter Airplane; Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels; Vapor-Compression Heat Pumps for Operation Aboard Spacecraft; Multistage Electrophoretic Separators; Recovering Residual Xenon Propellant for an Ion Propulsion System; Automated Solvent Seaming of Large Polyimide Membranes; Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors; Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms; Noninvasive Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease Using 12-Lead High-Frequency Electrocardiograms; Dual-Laser-Pulse Ignition; Enhanced-Contrast Viewing of White-Hot Objects in Furnaces; Electrically Tunable Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers; Few-Mode Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators; Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm; and Real-Time Diagnosis of Faults Using a Bank of Kalman Filters.

2006-01-01

427

Fluoropolymer Films Deposited by Argon Ion-Beam Sputtering of Polytetrafluoroethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FT-IR, XPS and UV spectra of fluoropolymer films (SPTFE-I) deposited by argon ion-beam sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were obtained and compared with prior corresponding spectra of fluoropolymer films (SPTFE-P) deposited by argon rf plasma sputtering of PTFE. Although the F/C ratios for SPTFE-I and -P (1.63 and 1.51) were similar, their structures were quite different in that there was a much higher concentration of CF2 groups in SPTFE-I than in SPTFE-P, ca. 61 and 33% of the total carbon contents, respectively. The FT-IR spectra reflect that difference, that for SPTFE-I showing a distinct doublet at 1210 and 1150 per centimeter while that for SPTFE-P presents a broad, featureless band at ca. 1250 per centimeter. The absorbance of the 1210-per centimeter band in SPTFE-I was proportional to the thickness of the film, in the range of 50-400 nanometers. The SPTFE-I was more transparent in the UV than SPTFE-P at comparable thickness. The mechanism for SPTFE-I formation likely involves "chopping off" of oligomeric segments of PTFE as an accompaniment to "plasma" polymerization of TFE monomer or other fluorocarbon fragments generated in situ from PTFE on impact with energetic Ar ions. Data are presented for SPTFE-I deposits and the associated Ar(+) bombarded PTFE targets where a fresh target was used for each run or a single target was used for a sequence of runs.

Golub, Morton A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

428

Comparison of Plasma Parameters Measured in Inductively Coupled Ar/C4F8/O2 and Ar/CF4/O2 Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of inductively coupled Ar/C4F8/O2 and Ar/CF4/O2 plasmas are investigated at two total pressures of 15 and 30 mTorr. Measurements using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy are carried out, while varying the ratio of the oxygen fraction to the sum of fluorocarbon and oxygen fractions (ROC) at an Ar fraction higher than 70%. The measured electron energy probability functions slightly deviate from the Maxwellian distribution owing to the depletion of electrons with an energy higher than 10 eV. The electron density measured in the Ar/C4F8/O2 plasmas gradually decreases with increasing ROC and reaches a minimum at ROC?0.3, whereas that in the Ar/CF4/O2 plasmas does not strongly depend on ROC. The density of CF2 radicals in the Ar/C4F8/O2 plasmas markedly decreases in the range of 0.2?ROC?0.4, whereas that of oxygen atoms in the Ar/C4F8/O2 plasmas more sharply increases with increasing ROC compared with that of oxygen atoms in the Ar/CF4/O2 plasmas. The density of fluorine atoms measured in the Ar/C4F8/O2 plasmas reaches a minimum at ROC?0.3-0.4 and then starts to increase again, whereas that in the Ar/CF4/O2 plasmas has a maximum at ROC?0.2-0.3.

Kimura, Takashi; Hanaki, Katsuyuki

2009-09-01

429

The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

1994-01-01

430

Interactive stereo electron microscopy enhanced with virtual reality  

SciTech Connect

An analytical system is presented that is used to take measurements of objects perceived in stereo image pairs obtained from a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our system operates by presenting a single stereo view that contains stereo image data obtained from the SEM, along with geometric representations of two types of virtual measurement instruments, a ''protractor'' and a ''caliper''. The measurements obtained from this system are an integral part of a medical study evaluating surfactant, a liquid coating the inner surface of the lung which makes possible the process of breathing. Measurements of the curvature and contact angle of submicron diameter droplets of a fluorocarbon deposited on the surface of airways are performed in order to determine surface tension of the air/liquid interface. This approach has been extended to a microscopic level from the techniques of traditional surface science by measuring submicrometer rather than millimeter diameter droplets, as well as the lengths and curvature of cilia responsible for movement of the surfactant, the airway's protective liquid blanket. An earlier implementation of this approach for taking angle measurements from objects perceived in stereo image pairs using a virtual protractor is extended in this paper to include distance measurements and to use a unified view model. The system is built around a unified view model that is derived from microscope-specific parameters, such as focal length, visible area and magnification. The unified view model ensures that the underlying view models and resultant binocular parallax cues are consistent between synthetic and acquired imagery. When the view models are consistent, it is possible to take measurements of features that are not constrained to lie within the projection plane. The system is first calibrated using non-clinical data of known size and resolution. Using the SEM, stereo image pairs of grids and spheres of known resolution are created to calibrate the measurement system. After calibration, the system is used to take distance and angle measurements of clinical specimens.

Bethel, E.Wes; Bastacky, S.Jacob; Schwartz, Kenneth S.

2001-12-17

431

Surface Modification of Droplet Polymeric Microfluidic Devices for the Stable and Continuous Generation of Aqueous Droplets  

PubMed Central

Droplet microfluidics performed in poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA, microfluidic devices resulted in significant wall wetting by water droplets formed in a liquid-liquid segmented flow when using a hydrophobic carrier fluid, such as perfluorotripropylamine (FC-3283). This wall wetting led to water droplets with non-uniform sizes that were often trapped on the wall surfaces leading to unstable and poorly controlled liquid-liquid segmented flow. To circumvent this problem, we developed a two-step procedure to hydrophobically modify the surfaces of PMMA and other thermoplastic materials commonly used for making microfluidic devices. The surface modification route involved the introduction of hydroxyl groups by oxygen plasma treatment of the polymer surface followed by a solution phase reaction with heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2tetrahydrodecyl trichlorosilane dissolved in the fluorocarbon solvent FC-3283. This procedure was found to be useful for the modification of PMMA and other thermoplastic surfaces, including polycyclic olefin copolymer (COC) and polycarbonate (PC). Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the fluorination of these polymers took place with high surface selectivity. This procedure was used to modify the surface of a PMMA droplet microfluidic device (DMFD) and was shown to be useful to reduce the wetting problem during the generation of aqueous droplets in a perfluorotripropylamine (FC-3283) carrier fluid and could generate stable segmented flows for hours of operation. In the case of the PMMA DMFD, oxygen plasma treatment was carried out after the PMMA cover plate was thermally fusion bonded to the PMMA microfluidic chip. Because the appended chemistry to the channel wall created a hydrophobic surface, it will accommodate the use of other carrier fluids that are hydrophobic as well, such as hexadecane or mineral oils. PMID:21608975

Subramanian, Balamurugan; Kim, Namwon; Lee, Wonbae; Spivak, David A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; McCarley, Robin L.; Soper, Steven A.

2012-01-01

432

Sheathless hydrodynamic positioning of buoyant drops and bubbles inside microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles, bubbles, and drops carried by a fluid in a confined environment such as a pipe can be subjected to hydrodynamic lift forces, i.e., forces that are perpendicular to the direction of the flow. We investigated the positioning effect of lift forces acting on buoyant drops and bubbles suspended in a carrier fluid and flowing in a horizontal microchannel. We report experiments on drops of water in fluorocarbon liquid, and on bubbles of nitrogen in hydrocarbon liquid and silicone oil, inside microchannels with widths on the order of 0.1-1 mm. Despite their buoyancy, drops and bubbles could travel without contacting with the walls of channels; the most important parameters for reaching this flow regime in our experiments were the viscosity and the velocity of the carrier fluid, and the sizes of drops and bubbles. The dependencies of the transverse position of drops and bubbles on these parameters were investigated. At steady state, the trajectories of drops and bubbles approached the center of the channel for drops and bubbles almost as large as the channel, carried by rapidly flowing viscous liquids; among our experiments, these flow conditions were characterized by larger capillary numbers and smaller Reynolds numbers. Analytical models of lift forces developed for the flow of drops much smaller than the width of the channel failed to predict their transverse position, while computational fluid dynamic simulations of the experiments agreed better with the experimental measurements. The degrees of success of these predictions indicate the importance of confinement on generating strong hydrodynamic lift forces. We conclude that, inside microfluidic channels, it is possible to support and position buoyant drops and bubbles simply by flowing a single-stream (i.e., sheathless) carrier liquid that has appropriate velocity and hydrodynamic properties.

Stan, Claudiu A.; Guglielmini, Laura; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Caviezel, Daniel; Stone, Howard A.; Whitesides, George M.

2011-09-01

433

X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters ( a o ; c o ) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite ( a o 7.1301-7.1413 , c o 9.7643-9.7902 and V 429.8940-432.3875 3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard ( c o 7.1290 , c o 9.7744 and V 430.19 3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE) N / (HREE) N , (La/Lu) N , (La/Yb) N and (Ce/Yb) N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A. K.; Parihar, P. S.

2014-12-01

434

X-ray crystallography and mineral chemistry of bastnaesite from Kanigiri granite, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and geochemical studies on bastnaesites (lanthanum cerium fluoro-carbonate) hosted in alkali Kanigiri Granite of the Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The XRD pattern of the investigated bastnaesite displays sharply-defined reflections. The observed d-spacings of the bastnaesite are in very close agreement with those published for bastnaesite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) Card No. 11-340. The calculated unit cell parameters (a o; c o) and unit cell volume (V) of the studied bastnaesite (a o 7.1301-7.1413 , c o 9.7643-9.7902 and V 429.8940-432.3875 3) are almost equal to values published for bastnaesite standard (c o 7.1290 , c o 9.7744 and V 430.19 3) in the relevant data card. Geochemical data of bastnaesite reveals high content of Ce (mean 27.22%) followed by La (mean 16.82%), Nd (mean 6.12%) and Pr (mean 1.91%). Compared to light REE (LREE) content (mean 437165 ppm), heavy REE (HREE) content (mean 5867 ppm) is drastically low, with unusually high LREE/HREE ratio (mean 80). The chondrite-normalised plot also exhibits drastic enrichment of LREE relative to HREE with pronounced negative Euanomaly (mean Eu/Eu* = 0.15). High (LREE)N / (HREE)N, (La/Lu)N, (La/Yb)N and (Ce/Yb)N ratios reveal higher fractionation of LREE relative to HREE. The rare earth element (REE) contents of the studied bastnaesite are very close to REE contents of bastnaesite hosted in alkali syenite from Madagascar. The presence of bastnaesite in Kanigiri Granite and soils derived from it enhances the scope of further exploration for bastnaesite in several bodies of alkaline rocks and alkali granitoids present along the eastern margins of the Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh.

Singh, Yamuna; Nagendra Babu, G.; Viswanathan, R.; Sai Baba, M.; Rai, A.; Parihar, P.

2014-12-01

435

A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components  

SciTech Connect

Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of liner materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation Systems Dept.; Dickman, P.T. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States)

1997-08-01

436

Physical encapsulation and controlled assembly of lipid bilayers within flexible substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomolecular networks formed from droplet interface bilayers (DIB) use principles of phase separation and molecular self-assembly to create a new type of functional material. The original DIB embodiment consists of lipid-encased aqueous droplets surrounding by a large volume of oil contained in a shallow well. However, recent results have shown that, by reducing the amount of oil that separates the droplets from the supporting substrate, physically-encapsulated DIBs display increased durability and portability. In this paper we extend the concept of encapsulated biomolecular networks to one in which phase separation and molecular self-assembly occur entirely within internally-structured reservoirs of a solid material. Flexible substrates with 200?m wideby- 200?m deep internal microchannels for holding the aqueous and oil phases are fabricated from Sylgard 184 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft-lithography microfabrication techniques. Narrowed apertures along the microchannels enable the use of the regulated attachment method (RAM) to subdivide and reattach lipid-encased aqueous volumes contained within the material with an applied external force. The use of perfluorodecalin, a fluorocarbon oil, instead of hexadecane eliminates absorption of the oil phase into the PDMS bulk while a silanization surface treatment of the internal channel walls maximizes wetting by the oil phase to retain a thin layer of oil within the channels to provide a fluid oil/water interface around the aqueous volumes. High-quality 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPHPC) lipid bilayers formed within the prototype substrates have electrical resistance between 1-100G?, enabling the measurement of single and few-channel recordings of alpha-hemolysin (?HL) and alamethicin proteins incorporated into the bilayers.

Sarles, Stephen A.; Leo, Donald J.

2010-04-01

437

Polymer Composites for High-Temperature Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in composite proton-exchange membranes for fuel cell applications at elevated temperature and low relative humidity are briefly reviewed in this chapter. Although a majority of research has focused on new sulfonated hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon polymers and their blends to directly enhance high temperature performance, we emphasize on polymer/inorganic composite membranes with the aim of improving the mechanical strength, thermal stability, and proton conductivity, which depend on water retention at elevated temperature and low relative humidity conditions. The polymer systems include perfluoronated polymers such as Nafion, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s, polybenzimidazoles (PBI)s, and many others. The inorganic proton conductors are silica, heteropolyacids (HPA)s, layered zirconium phosphates, and liquid phosphoric acid. Direct use of sol-gel silica requires pressurization of fuel cells to maintain 100% relative humidity for high proton conductivity above 100C. Direct incorporation of HPAs such as phosphotungstic acid (PTA) into polyelectrolyte membranes is capable of improving both proton conductivity and fuel cell performance above 100C; however, they tend to leach out of the membrane whenever fuel cell flooding happens. To prevent HPA leaching, amine-functionalized mesoporous silica is used to immobilize PTA in Nafion membranes, whose proton conductivity and fuel cell performance are discussed. Compared with Nafion, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s such as sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s are cost-effective materials with excellent thermal and electrochemical stability. Their composites with HPAs show increased proton conductivity at elevated temperatures when fully hydrated. Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes from acid-doped PBIs and other polymers are also discussed.

Zhu, Xiuling; Liu, Yuxiu; Zhu, Lei

438

Selected physicochemical aspects of poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances relevant to performance, environment and sustainability-Part one.  

PubMed

The elemental characteristics of the fluorine atom tell us that replacing an alkyl chain by a perfluoroalkyl or polyfluorinated chain in a molecule or polymer is consequential. A brief reminder about perfluoroalkyl chains, fluorocarbons and fluorosurfactants is provided. The outstanding, otherwise unattainable physicochemical properties and combinations thereof of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are outlined, including extreme hydrophobic and lipophobic character; thermal and chemical stability in extreme conditions; remarkable aptitude to self-assemble into sturdy thin repellent protecting films; unique spreading, dispersing, emulsifying, anti-adhesive and levelling, dielectric, piezoelectric and optical properties, leading to numerous industrial and technical uses and consumer products. It was eventually discovered, however, that PFASs with seven or more carbon-long perfluoroalkyl chains had disseminated in air, water, soil and biota worldwide, are persistent in the environment and bioaccumulative in animals and humans, raising serious health and environmental concerns. Further use of long-chain PFASs is environmentally not sustainable. Most leading manufacturers have turned to shorter four to six carbon perfluoroalkyl chain products that are not considered bioaccumulative. However, many of the key performances of PFASs decrease sharply when fluorinated chains become shorter. Fluorosurfactants become less effective and less efficient, provide lesser barrier film stability, etc. On the other hand, they remain as persistent in the environment as their longer chain homologues. Surprisingly little data (with considerable discrepancies) is accessible on the physicochemical properties of the PFASs under examination, a situation that requires consideration and rectification. Such data are needed for understanding the environmental and in vivo behaviour of PFASs. They should help determine which, for which uses, and to what extent, PFASs are environmentally sustainable. PMID:25245564

Krafft, Marie Pierre; Riess, Jean G

2014-09-19

439

Gas phase preparation and analysis of semiconductor surfaces in a clustered reactor apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An integrated reactor system was built for studying gas phase surface preparation chemistries. The system integrates HF/vapor and UV photochemistry modules with an ultrahigh vacuum deposition reactor and a surface analysis chamber (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger) for in situ surface preparation, deposition, and analysis. Each vacuum chamber is mounted on a separate, isolated branch from a main sample transfer tube. The system was designed for samples with variable shapes and thickness, but less than 64 mm (2(1/2) in.) in diameter. This design allows for rapid transfer times between chambers (<5 min) and for the simultaneous processing and storage of up to four samples. Use of standard sample transfer and vacuum hardware components minimized initial equipment costs and system maintenance. The capabilities of the clustered reactor apparatus and the importance of surface termination were demonstrated by (1) the removal of a mixed oxide and fluorocarbon residue on silicon, leaving the surface completely terminated with Cl atoms, (2) the removal of copper oxide and copper metal from silicon, (3) the deposition of Ti preferentially on a nonannealed, aqueous-cleaned SiO{sub 2} surface relative to an annealed surface, and (4) the use of complementary surface analysis techniques to chemically identify hydrogen-bonded silanol groups on a silicon surface after HF/vapor etching. Gas phase cleaning and surface termination utilized a combination of HF/vapor (100 Torr, 27 deg. C for 200 s) and UV/Cl{sub 2} (10 SCCM Cl{sub 2}, 90 deg. C for 15 min) steps. The results demonstrate that integrated processing provides a means to clean thin layers of organic, oxide, and metal contaminants from semiconductor surfaces and to control the terminating atom or chemical group.

Finstad, Casey C.; Montano-Miranda, Gerardo; Thorsness, Adam G.; Muscat, Anthony J. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2006-09-15

440

Mechanism of cytotoxic action of perfluorinated acids  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorinated (aliphatic) acids (PFAs) and congeners have many applications in various industrial fields and household for decades. Years later they have been detected in wildlife and this has spurred interest in environmental occurrence as well as influencing living organisms. PFAs were established as peroxisome proliferators and hepatocarcinogens. Amphipatic structure suggests that they may alter cell membrane potential (mb{delta}{psi}) and/or induce changes in cytosolic pH (pHi). The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between changes of above parameters and PFAs structure (CF{sub 6}-CF{sub 12}) in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. mb{delta}{psi} and pHi were measured by flow cytometry using fluorescence polarization of the plasma membrane probe 3,3'-dipentyloxacarbocyanine (DiOC{sub 5}(3)) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA), respectively. Dose- and time-dependent manner analysis revealed relatively fast depolarization of plasma membrane and acidification of cytosol both positively correlated with fluorocarbon chain length. mb{delta}{psi} depletion after 4 h of incubation reached 8.01% and 30.08% for 50 {mu}M PFOA and 50 {mu}M PFDoDA, respectively. Prolonged treatment (72 h) led to dramatic dissipation of membrane potential up to 21.65% and 51.29% and strong acidification to pHi level at 6.92 and 6.03 at the presence of above compounds, respectively. The data demonstrate that PFAs can alter plasma membrane protonotrophy with the mode dependent on the compound hydrophobicity.

Kleszczynski, Konrad [Department of Molecular Enzymology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, Medical University of Gdansk, ul. Debinki 1, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail: kleszczynski@amg.gda.pl; Skladanowski, Andrzej C. [Department of Molecular Enzymology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, Medical University of Gdansk, ul. Debinki 1, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-02-01

441

On-chip titration of an anticoagulant argatroban and determination of the clotting time within whole blood or plasma using a plug-based microfluidic system.  

PubMed

This paper describes extending plug-based microfluidics to handling complex biological fluids such as blood, solving the problem of injecting additional reagents into plugs, and applying this system to measuring of clotting time in small volumes of whole blood and plasma. Plugs are droplets transported through microchannels by fluorocarbon fluids. A plug-based microfluidic system was developed to titrate an anticoagulant (argatroban) into blood samples and to measure the clotting time using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test. To carry out these experiments, the following techniques were developed for a plug-based system: (i) using Teflon AF coating on the microchannel wall to enable formation of plugs containing blood and transport of the solid fibrin clots within plugs, (ii) using a hydrophilic glass capillary to enable reliable merging of a reagent from an aqueous stream into plugs, (iii) using bright-field microscopy to detect the formation of a fibrin clot within plugs and using fluorescent microscopy to detect the production of thrombin using a fluorogenic substrate, and (iv) titration of argatroban (0-1.5 microg/mL) into plugs and measurement of the resulting APTTs at room temperature (23 degrees C) and physiological temperature (37 degrees C). APTT measurements were conducted with normal pooled plasma (platelet-poor plasma) and with donor's blood samples (both whole blood and platelet-rich plasma). APTT values and APTT ratios measured by the plug-based microfluidic device were compared to the results from a clinical laboratory at 37 degrees C. APTT obtained from the on-chip assay were about double those from the clinical laboratory but the APTT ratios from these two methods agreed well with each other. PMID:16841902

Song, Helen; Li, Hung-Wing; Munson, Matthew S; Van Ha, Thuong G; Ismagilov, Rustem F

2006-07-15

442