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1

Passive flux sampler for measurement of formaldehyde emission rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new passive flux sampler (PFS) was developed to measure emission rates of formaldehyde and to determine emission sources in indoor environments. The sampler consisted of a glass Petri dish containing a 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated sheet. At the start of sampling, the PFS was placed with the open face of the dish on each of the indoor materials under investigation, such as flooring, walls, doors, closets, desks, beds, etc. Formaldehyde emitted from a source material diffused through the inside of the PFS and was adsorbed onto the DNPH sheet. The formaldehyde emission rates could be determined from the quantities adsorbed. The lower determination limits were 9.2 and 2.3 ?g m -2 h -1 for 2- and 8-h sampling periods. The recovery rate and the precision of the PFS were 82.9% and 8.26%, respectively. The emission rates measured by PFS were in good agreement with the emission rates measured by the chamber method ( R2=0.963). This shows that it is possible to take measurements of the formaldehyde emission rates from sources in a room and to compare them. In addition, the sampler can be used to elucidate the emission characteristics of a source by carrying out emission measurements with different air-layer thicknesses inside the PFS and at different temperatures. The dependency of the emission rate on the thickness of the air layer inside the PFS indicated whether the internal mass transfer inside the source material or the diffusion in the gas-phase boundary layer controlled the formaldehyde emission rate from a material. In addition, as a pilot study, the formaldehyde emission rates were measured, and the largest emission source of formaldehyde could be identified from among several suspected materials in a model house by using the PFS.

Shinohara, Naohide; Fujii, Minoru; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

2

RATES OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION MEASURED WITH HINODE  

SciTech Connect

Photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun is generally believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection occurring in the low solar atmosphere. Individual canceling magnetic features are observationally characterized by the rate of flux cancellation. The specific cancellation rate, defined as the rate of flux cancellation divided by the interface length, gives an accurate estimate of the electric field in the reconnecting current sheet. We have determined the specific cancellation rate using the magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. The specific rates determined with SOT turned out to be systematically higher than those based on the data taken by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The median value of the specific cancellation rate was found to be 8 x 10{sup 6} G cm s{sup -1}-a value four times that obtained from the MDI data. This big difference is mainly due to a higher angular resolution and better sensitivity of the SOT, resulting in magnetic fluxes up to five times larger than those obtained from the MDI. The higher rates of flux cancellation correspond to either faster inflows or stronger magnetic fields of the reconnection inflow region, which may have important consequences for the physics of photospheric magnetic reconnection.

Park, Soyoung; Chae, Jongchul [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P.O. Box 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

2009-10-10

3

Heat flux measurements in the OSU rate of heat release apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal capacitance (slug) calorimeters were used to measure radiant and flame heat fluxes and the overall heat transfer coefficient at the sample surface in the Ohio State University (OSU) Rate of Heat Release Apparatus specified in FAR 25.853(a-1). The copper plate calorimeters gave radiant heat flux readings which were within 2% of a NIST calibrated, water-cooled, Gardon Heat Flux Sensor.

Robert Filipczak; Richard E. Lyon

2002-01-01

4

GNSS measurement of EUV photons flux rate during strong and mid solar flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new GNSS Solar Flare Activity Indicator (GSFLAI) is presented, given by the gradient of the ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) rate, in terms of the solar-zenithal angle, measured from a global network of dual-frequency GPS receivers. It is highly correlated with the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) photons flux rate at the 26-34 nm spectral band, which is geo-effective in the ionization of the mono-atomic oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The results are supported by the comparison of GSFLAI with direct EUV observations provided by SEM instrument of SOHO spacecraft, for all the X-class solar flares occurring between 2001 and 2011 (more than 1000 direct comparisons at the 15 s SEM EUV sampling rate). The GSFLAI sensitivity enables detection of not only extreme X-class flares, but also of variations of one order of magnitude or even smaller (such as for M-class flares). Moreover, an optimal detection algorithm (SISTED), sharing the same physical fundamentals as GSFLAI, is also presented, providing 100% successful detection for all the X-class solar flares during 2000-2006 with registered location outside of the solar limb (i.e., detection of 94% of all of X-class solar-flares) and about 65% for M-class ones. As a final conclusion, GSFLAI is proposed as a new potential proxy of solar EUV photons flux rate for strong and mid solar flares, presenting high sensitivity with high temporal resolution (1 Hz, greater than previous solar EUV irradiance instruments), using existing ground GNSS facilities, and with the potential use as a solar flare detection parameter.

HernáNdez-Pajares, M.; GarcíA-Rigo, A.; Juan, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Monte, E.; Aragón-ÀNgel, A.

2012-12-01

5

Isoprene emission rates and fluxes measured above a Mediterranean oak ( Quercus pubescens) forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work, carried out as part of the European fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions project (ESCOMPTE), brings a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources that are liable to participate in the production of ozone. The measurement campaign was conducted in Montmeyan, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim of quantifying the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Quercus pubescens, an important Mediterranean tree species. Biogenic emissions by Q. pubescens were determined by the enclosure of an intact branch of this tree in a Teflon cuvette. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values ranged between 40 and 350 ?g g Dry Weight-1 h -1. Emissions were correlated strongly with leaf temperature and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR). The fluxes were also determined by extrapolating the results of the enclosure method and by using aerodynamic gradient method. They reach around 73 mg m -2 h -1 with the first method and 55 mg m -2 h -1 with the second one. The obtained values fit with a maximal ratio of 2.

Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Bouchou, P.; Torres, L.; Lopez, A.

2005-03-01

6

Eddy covariance N2O flux measurements at low flux rates: results from the InGOS campaign in a Danish willow field.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils are characterised by their high spatial and temporal variability. The fluxes depend on the availability of the substrates for nitrification and denitrification and soil physical and chemical conditions that control the metabolic microbial activity. The sporadic nature of the fluxes and their high sensitivity to alterations of the soil climate put very high demands on measurement approaches. Laser spectroscopy enables accurate and fast response detection of atmospheric N2O concentrations and is used for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Alternatively N2O fluxes can be measured with chambers together with high precision analysers. Differences in the measurement approaches and system designs are expected to have a considerable influence on the accuracy of the flux estimation. This study investigates how three different eddy covariance systems perform in a situation of low N2O fluxes from a flat surface. Chamber flux measurements with differing chamber and analyser designs are used for comparison. In April 2013, the EU research infrastructure project InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/) organised a campaign of N2O flux measurements in a willow plantation close to the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark. The willow field was harvested in February 2013 and received mineral fertiliser equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 before the campaign started. Three different eddy covariance systems took part in the campaign: two Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) based systems and one Los Gatos Research off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS) system for N2O and CO. The sonic anemometers were all installed at 2 m height above the bare ground. Gill R3 type sonic anemometers were used with QCL systems and a Gil HS-50 with the ICOS system. The 10 Hz raw data were analysed with group specific softwares and procedures. The local conditions in the exceptionally cold and dry spring 2013 did not lead to large N2O flux rates. All three EC systems showed 30 min. flux values varying around zero nmol m-2 s-1. This noise was considerably lower in the EC systems that used QCL analysers. The maximum daily averages of the uncorrected fluxes from two of the EC systems reached 0.26 (ICOS/HS50) and 0.28 (QCL/R3) nmol m-2 s-1.Spectral correction increased the flux estimates up to, e.g., 180% equivalent to 0.54 nmol m-2 s-1. The flux estimates from the soil chambers were with one exception higher than the flux estimates obtained from the EC systems with highest daily averages ranging from 0.1 up to 2 nmol m-2 s-1. These large differences were unexpected, because at least two of the EC systems were shown to accurately measure fluxes at such higher levels at another InGOS campaign in a fertilised Scottish grazed meadow. We use spectral analysis to examine the raw data for the effects of sensor noise on the flux estimates and discuss strategies on how to correct or account for it. Furthermore possible causes for the observed differences between the observed EC and chamber flux estimates will be discussed.

Ibrom, Andreas; Brümmer, Christian; Hensen, Arjan; van Asperen, Hella; Carter, Mette S.; Gasche, Rainer; Famulari, Daniela; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

2014-05-01

7

Pulse flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

Riggan, William C. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1985-01-01

8

Seasonal measurements of total OH reactivity fluxes, total ozone loss rates and missing emissions from Norway spruce in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Most biogenic VOCs are highly reactive towards the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical. One way to investigate the chemical interplay between biosphere and atmosphere is through the measurement of total OH reactivity, the total loss rate of OH radicals. This study presents the first determination of total OH reactivity emission rates (measurements via the Comparative Reactivity Method) based on a branch cuvette enclosure system mounted on a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. In parallel separate VOC emission rates were monitored by a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and total ozone (O3) loss rates were obtained inside the cuvette. Total OH reactivity emission rates were in general temperature and light dependent, showing strong diel cycles with highest values during daytime. Monoterpene emissions contributed most, accounting for 56-69% of the measured total OH reactivity flux in spring and early summer. However, during late summer and autumn the monoterpene contribution decreased to 11-16%. At this time, a large missing fraction of the total OH reactivity emission rate (70-84%) was found when compared to the VOC budget measured by PTR-MS. Total OH reactivity and missing total OH reactivity emission rates reached maximum values in late summer corresponding to the period of highest temperature. Total O3 loss rates within the closed cuvette showed similar diel profiles and comparable seasonality to the total OH reactivity fluxes. Total OH reactivity fluxes were also compared to emissions from needle storage pools predicted by a temperature-only dependent algorithm. Deviations of total OH reactivity fluxes from the temperature-only dependent emission algorithm were observed for occasions of mechanical and heat stress. While for mechanical stress, induced by strong wind, measured VOCs could explain total OH reactivity emissions, during heat stress they could not. The temperature driven algorithm matched the diel course much better in spring than in summer, indicating a different production and emission scheme for summer and early autumn. During these times, unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions contributed significantly to the observed total OH reactivity flux.

Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Bonn, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Williams, J.

2012-10-01

9

Heat flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

1989-01-01

10

MEASUREMENT OF GASEOUS EMISSION RATES FROM LAND SURFACES USING AN EMISSION ISOLATION FLUX CHAMBER. USER'S GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A promising method for monitoring ground emissions involves the use of an emission isolation flux chamber. The method is simple, easily available, and inexpensive. Applications would include RCRA and CERCLA facilities. To date, a uniform method operations does not exist. For this...

11

Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,?)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.  

PubMed

The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,?)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. PMID:24316530

Radulovi?, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

2014-02-01

12

Measuring ammonia emission rates from livestock buildings and manure stores—part 1: development and validation of external tracer ratio, internal tracer ratio and passive flux sampling methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for robust methods for measuring ammonia emission rates from livestock buildings and manure stores, to guide efforts to abate emissions from livestock farming. This paper reports research to develop and validate three candidate measurement techniques: An external tracer ratio method, where concentrations of ammonia and sulphur hexafluoride are measured downwind of an animal house or manure store. An internal tracer ratio (ITR) method, suited to animal housings, where concentrations of ammonia and sulphur hexafluoride are measured just before air leaves the building. A flux sampler method, which uses sets of passive flux sampling devices positioned so as to intersect all significant flows of air out of an animal house or manure store source. All three of the measurement techniques were validated at a building section simulating a naturally ventilated (space-boarded) cattle house, with the external tracer ratio method also being validated at a simulated slurry store. In the validation tests on the external tracer ratio method the derived ammonia emission rates from the slurry store and cattle house validation studies were 25% below and 43% above the measured release rate, respectively. These biases were shown by t-tests to be statistically highly significant, but no clear explanation could be found for the different signs and magnitudes in the two cases. For the ITR method, recovery rates of 78% and 101% of released NH 3 were achieved, with low and high release rates, respectively. Validation tests conducted on the flux samplers gave an average of 66% (standard deviation 2.9%) ammonia recovery. The cause of this non-ideal level of recovery has not yet been identified. However, given the low standard deviation, it was concluded that these samplers could be used to measure ammonia emission rates from real farm buildings, provided that a correction factor for the non-ideal recovery was applied.

Scholtens, R.; Dore, C. J.; Jones, B. M. R.; Lee, D. S.; Phillips, V. R.

13

Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

1992-01-01

14

Assessing Photosynthetic Energy Fluxes Within Microbial Communities Using Continuous Ship-Based Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) Fluorescence Measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial life in the ocean is sustained by photosynthetically-derived energy at a power level of about 5*1014 W. Assuming photosynthetic efficiency of about 20%, this mechanism consumes less than 10% of photosynthetically-available radiation (PAR) incident on the ocean surface. Life in the ocean operates under condition of excess energy, where factors such as nutrients/trace metals availability or prevalence of nitrogen fixation limit photosynthetic light utilization. To investigate these factors we have performed fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorescence measurements, continuously, over a period of one year, along the cruise track of R/V Kilo Moana. We have identified photosynthetic signatures of Trichodesmium blooms during two cruises in 2007 and 2008, and we have used these signatures to infer the presence of Trichodesmium along the cruise track. Most surface enhancements in photosynthetic rates and the chlorophyll biomass were observed in peripheral areas between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. It appears that local shear zones in these areas induce small-scale vertical mixing capable of supporting near-surface blooms. Our data indicate that the gradients in the sea surface height, rather than local minima/maxima, determine the occurrence of small-scale surface blooms in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

Kolber, Z. S.; Tozzi, S.; Klimov, D.

2008-12-01

15

Neutron Flux and Energy Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of neutron energy measurement is considered in the energy ranges, thermal ( 15 MeV), together with the general problem of neutron flux measurement. Sensitivities and resolutions obtainable are given for a variety of methods. It is concluded that for thermal and intermediate energy measurements in radiological applications it is best to use BF3 counters, fission chambers, moderated detectors,

J A Dennis

1966-01-01

16

A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5?g g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207?g g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30?g g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

2009-02-01

17

Beta ray flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA) [Murrysville, PA

1990-01-01

18

Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

Dayananda, Mathes

2009-11-01

19

Measuring and modeling C flux rates through the central metabolic pathways in microbial communities using position-specific 13C-labeled tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of energy and metabolic precursors occurs in well-known processes such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle. We use position-specific 13C-labeled metabolic tracers, combined with models of microbial metabolic organization, to analyze the response of microbial community energy production, biosynthesis, and C use efficiency (CUE) in soils, decomposing litter, and aquatic communities. The method consists of adding position-specific 13C -labeled metabolic tracers to parallel soil incubations, in this case 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose. The measurement of CO2 released from the labeled tracers is used to calculate the C flux rates through the various metabolic pathways. A simplified metabolic model consisting of 23 reactions is solved using results of the metabolic tracer experiments and assumptions of microbial precursor demand. This new method enables direct estimation of fundamental aspects of microbial energy production, CUE, and soil organic matter formation in relatively undisturbed microbial communities. We will present results showing the range of metabolic patterns observed in these communities and discuss results from testing metabolic models.

Dijkstra, P.; van Groenigen, K.; Hagerty, S.; Salpas, E.; Fairbanks, D. E.; Hungate, B. A.; KOCH, G. W.; Schwartz, E.

2012-12-01

20

Measuring Surface Fluxes in Cape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux an...

E. T. Kanemasu T. D-shah D. Nie

1992-01-01

21

Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

Fischer, M

2005-01-01

22

Metabolic rate measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Metabolic Rate Measurement System (MRMS) is an uncomplicated and accurate apparatus for measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of a test subject. From this one can determine the subject's metabolic rate for a variety of conditions, such as resting or light exercise. MRMS utilizes an LSI/11-03 microcomputer to monitor and control the experimental apparatus.

Koester, K.; Crosier, W.

1980-01-01

23

Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

2014-05-01

24

Measurement of unsteady heat flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors examine the influence of the volume nature of absorption of radiative flux on the operation of a heat converter with a thin-film resistive sensor. It is shown that allowing for volume absorption leads to a change in the form of the transfer function: it becomes rational (in contrast with the case of surface absorption, where the transfer function is irrational), because the converter heat-sensitive element 'integrates' the incident flux. The influence of the inertial properties of thin layers of black coating on the response time of the converter is examined.

Bautin, A. V.; Poliakov, Iu. A.

1980-07-01

25

Neutron Flux Measurements in PUSPATI Triga Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neutron flux measurement in the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR) was initiated after its commissioning on 28 June 1982. Initial measured thermal neutron flux at the bottom of the rotary specimen rack (rotating) and in-core pneumatic terminus were 3.81E+11 n/cm...

Gui Ah Auu Mohamad Amin Sharifuldin Salleh Mohamad Ali Sufi

1983-01-01

26

Eddy covariance measurement of isoprene fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed to directly measure isoprene flux above a forest canopy by eddy covariance using the combination of a fast response, real-time isoprene sensor and sonic anemometer. This system is suitable for making nearly unattended, long-term, and continuous measurements of isoprene fluxes. Isoprene detection is based on chemiluminescence between isoprene and reactant ozone, which produces green light

Alex B. Guenther; Alan J. Hills

1998-01-01

27

Measurement of neutron flux in the AVR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment to measure neutron flux distribution in the steam generator built above the reactor core of the AVR was carried out by using new type High Temperature In-core Fission Counter-chambers (HTICs) and Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Electronic...

H. Brixy H. Itoh H. Yamagishi K. Sakasai N. Wakayama

1991-01-01

28

Heat Flux-Based Emissivity Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a heat flux-based method for measuring emissivity of a surface. In this method the emissivity of a surface is calculated using direct measurement of the heat flux passing through the surface. Unlike storage-based calorimetric methods, this method does not require application of known amounts of heat to the surface or the temperature history of a known amount

Saeed Moghaddam; John Lawler; Collin McCaffery; Jungho Kim

2005-01-01

29

Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

30

Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2010-12-15

31

Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak.  

PubMed

Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation. PMID:21198021

Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M V; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

2010-12-01

32

Calving fluxes and melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant mass loss term for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 Gt yr-1. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. To date, however, no study has reliably quantified the volume of bottom (sub-shelf) melt (BM) and the calving flux (CF) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of freshwater in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between liquid and solid phase is, therefore, poorly constrained. Here, we estimate the mass budget of Antarctic ice shelves using satellite measurements of calving flux, grounding line flux and modelled ice shelf accumulation rates. We obtain a total calving flux of 938 ± 109 Gt yr-1 and a total net bottom melt of 1,130 ± 241 Gt yr-1. Thus, about half of the ice sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front and the calving flux is less than half the estimate derived from iceberg tracking. Calving is therefore not the most important term in the mass loss of the continent. In addition, the fraction of mass loss from bottom melt varies dramatically from ~10 to 90% between ice shelves. We find that ice shelves with high melt ratios correlate well with those experiencing thinning and enhanced discharge, suggesting that a high melt ratio may be a good indicator of ice shelf vulnerability to changes in ocean temperature.

Depoorter, Mathieu A.; Griggs, Jennifer A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Bamber, Jonathan L.

2013-04-01

33

Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.  

PubMed

Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000?gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321?±?144?gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454?±?174?gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

2013-10-01

34

Heat Flux-Based Emissivity Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a heat flux-based method for measuring emissivity of a surface. In this method the emissivity of a surface is calculated using direct measurement of the heat flux passing through the surface. Unlike storage-based calorimetric methods, this method does not require application of known amounts of heat to the surface or the temperature history of a known amount of thermal mass to calculate the surface emissivity. Application and operation of this method is much simpler than calorimetric methods as it does not require careful thermal insulation of the heat radiating body from the surroundings. The low thermal capacitance and scalability of the heat flux sensors can provide good temporal and spatial resolution of the heat flux and, therefore, the emissivity. This technique allows emissivity measurements of the newly developed variable emissivity surfaces with significantly lighter and energy efficient measurement equipment that can operator for long term space missions. In this study, a commercially available thermopile heat flux sensor was used to measure the emissivity of a black paint for a temperature range of -100 to 100 °C. This paper details the concept, experimental setup, and the experiment results.

Moghaddam, Saeed; Lawler, John; McCaffery, Collin; Kim, Jungho

2005-02-01

35

Experimental flux measurements on a network scale  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic flux is a fundamental property of living organisms. In recent years, methods for measuring metabolic flux in plants on a network scale have evolved further. One major challenge in studying flux in plants is the complexity of the plant's metabolism. In particular, in the presence of parallel pathways in multiple cellular compartments, the core of plant central metabolism constitutes a complex network. Hence, a common problem with the reliability of the contemporary results of {sup 13}C-Metabolic Flux Analysis in plants is the substantial reduction in complexity that must be included in the simulated networks; this omission partly is due to limitations in computational simulations. Here, I discuss recent emerging strategies that will better address these shortcomings.

Schwender, J.

2011-10-11

36

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

37

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

38

Denoising surface renewal flux density measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When combined with net radiation and ground heat flux density measurements, surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements can be used to obtain latent heat flux density, and therefore evapotranspiration, via the energy balance residual. Surface renewal is based on analyzing the energy and mass budget of air parcels that interact with plant canopies. The air parcels are manifested as ramp-like shapes in turbulent scalar time series data, and the amplitude and period of the ramps are used to calculate the flux densities. The root mean square error between calibrated surface renewal and eddy covariance is generally twice the root mean square error between two eddy covariance systems. In this presentation, we evaluate the efficacy of various methods for reducing the random error in surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements. These methods include signal de-spiking, conventional low-pass filtering, wavelet-based filtering, ramp signal to noise thresholds, ramp period scaling, novel rearrangements of the Van Atta procedure (Arch Mech 29:161-171, 1977) for resolving the ramp amplitude and ramp period, sensor replication, and optimization of sensor placement.

Shapland, T.; Paw U, K.; Snyder, R. L.; McElrone, A.; Calderon Orellana, A.; Williams, L.

2012-12-01

39

Measuring Response Of Propellant To Oscillatory Heat Flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for research in combustion of solid propellants measures oscillatory response of rate of burning to oscillating thermal radiation from modulated CO2 laser. Determines response to rate of burning to equivalent oscillation in pressure. Rod of propellant mounted in burner assembly including waveguide at one end and infrared window at other end. Microwave Doppler velocimeter measures motion of combustion front. Microwave, laser-current, and heat-flux signals processed into and recorded in forms useful in determining desired response of propellent.

Strand, Leon D.; Schwartz, Ken; Burns, Shawn P.

1990-01-01

40

Fluid flow rate, temperature and heat flux at Mohns Ridge vent fields: evidence from isosampler measurements for phase separated hydrothermal circulation along the arctic ridge system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expedition to the Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland sea was carried out in July-August 2005 as part of BIODEEP, lead by University of Bergen (UoB). UoB had previously detected water column methane along this very slow spreading ridge. Previous ROV observations along the ridge (71 deg 18'N, 5 deg 47'W, 605 mbsl) near Jan Mayen had uncovered a broad area of ferric hydroxide-rich bacterial/mineral assemblages, comprising large populations of gallionella bacteria. This area was revisted in 2005. Characteristic of sections of this area ("Gallionella Garden") are chimney-like structures standing ~15 cm tall, often topped by a sea lily (heliometra glacialis). The interior of the structures comprised quasi-concentric bands with vertically-oriented channels. The Oregon State University/Cardiff University Isosampler sensor determined that some of these assemblages support fluid flow through their interior. The outflow from the chimney structures was typically +0.5 deg C, against background temperatures of -0.3 deg C. Flow anomalies were also identified atop extensive bacterial mats. Gallionella Gardens is several km in extent with active, albeit extremely low temperature hydrothermal flow. A field of active high temperature smoker chimney structures was located near Gallionella Garden at 540 mbsl. This field extends ~500 m along a scarp wall, with hydrothermal mounds extending along faults running perpendicular to the scarp, each of which has multiple smoker vents and areas of diffuse flow. There was evidence for phase separation, with a negatively buoyant fluid phase exiting some vent orifices and descending along the vent wall; and evidence for gas phase condensing after leaving some vent orifices. Gas bubble emissions were not uncommon. Isosampler sensors were available that were configured for lower temperature measurements at Gallionella Garden. While capable of detecting variations in effluent at the 4 millidegree level, the temperature ceiling for the sensor tips available aboard ship was 260 deg C (800 deg C-capable isosampler sensors will be available for the 2006 field season). At this depth the phase separation point of seawater is 263 deg C. An isosampler sensor was deployed directly atop an apparently phase-separated white smoker chimney. The sensor indicated 260 deg C before terminating measurement. This was repeated at another vent site, indicating that the fluids were venting at the point of phase separation. Indicated smoker plume flow rates were approximately 1/2 meter per second. A second field "Soria Moria" of high temperature vents was discovered. This field is ~100 m on a side, and is densely populated by active white smoker chimneys, also with evidence for phase-separated flow. These vent fields comprise the first ever arctic vent plume sources ever visited by ROV and measured directly at the source of emission. A return to this area, and exploration and measurement further north is anticipated for 2006. The planned work includes comprehensive Isosampler and bioreactor fluid flow, sampling, geochemical and biogeochemical sampling and incubation.

Schultz, A.; Pedersen, R. B.; Thorseth, I. H.; Taylor, P.; Flynn, M.

2005-12-01

41

Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements  

DOEpatents

Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1993-01-01

42

Effect of Wind Tunnel Air Velocity on VOC Flux Rates from CAFO Manure and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to measure volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and estimate emission factors from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission rates. VOC emissions were measured on standard solutions of VOCs

David B. Parker; Edward Caraway; Marty Rhoades; Chanci Donnell; Jan Spears; N. Andy Cole; Richard W. Todd; Kenneth D. Casey

2008-01-01

43

Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

Russell, L. D.

1979-01-01

44

Source Calibration for Neutron Flux Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NPDGamma experiment is currently running at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FNPB) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of the experiment is to measure the parity-violating asymmetry between the incident neutron spin and emitted photon direction for the capture of neutrons on protons. The gamma-rays are detected in a CsI array. We need to know the neutron flux accurately to verify that we are running at counting statistics. We measure the neutron flux from the gamma signal produced by capturing all neutrons on a black boron target. The detectors were calibrated with a known gamma-ray source (Cesium-137) to high precision using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. I will present the methodology and results of this calibration, and how it affects our measurement of the statistical precision of NPDGamma.

Craycraft, Kayla

2012-10-01

45

Factors that influence methylmercury flux rates from wetland sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments are thought to be an important source of methylmercury (MeHg) to the water column of wetlands. We measured sediment MeHg pore water concentrations as a function of depth in four wetlands to determine the concentration gradient and used it determine sediment–water flux of MeHg. Fluxes of MeHg ranged from ?1.60 to 10.02 ng m?2 day?1 and were shown to

Jonathan Holmes; David Lean

2006-01-01

46

Micrometeorological flux measurements at a coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eddy covariance (EC) technique is the only direct measurement of the momentum, heat, and trace gas (e.g. water vapor, CO2 and ozone) fluxes. The measurements are expected to be most accurate over flat terrain where there is an extended homogenous surface upwind from the tower, and when the environmental conditions are steady. Additionally, the one dimensional approach assumes that vertical turbulent exchange is the dominant flux, whereas advective influences should be negligible. The application of EC method under non-ideal conditions, for example in complex terrain, has yet to be fully explored. To explore the possibilities and limitations of EC technique under non-ideal conditions, an EC system was set up at Selles beach, Crete, Greece (35.33°N, 25.71°E) in the beginning of July 2012. The dominant wind direction was west, parallel to the coast. The EC system consisted of a sonic anemometer (CSAT3 Campbell Scientific), an infrared open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-7500, Li-COR Biosciences) and a fast chemiluminescence ozone analyzer (enviscope GmbH). All the signals of these fast response instruments were sampled at 10 Hz and the measurement height was 3 m. Besides, another gradient system was setup. Air temperature, relative humidity (HYGROMER MP 103 A), and wind speed (WMT700 Vaisala) were measured every 10 seconds at 3 heights (0.7, 1.45, 3 m). Air intakes were set up at 0.7m and 3m. A pump drew the air through a flow system and a telflon valve alternately switched between the two heights every 30 seconds. H2O, CO2 (LI-840A, Li-COR Biosciences) and ozone mixing ratio s (model 205, 2BTechnologies) were measured every 10 seconds. Momentum, heat, CO2 and ozone fluxes were evaluated by both EC and gradient technique. For the calculation of turbulent fluxes, TK3 algorithm (Department of Micrometeorology, University Bayreuth, Germany) was applied. We will present the measured fluxes of the two systems and assess the data quality under such non-ideal condition.

Song, Guozheng; Meixner, Franz X.; Bruse, Michael; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

2014-05-01

47

Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX  

SciTech Connect

An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 {micro}m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported.

D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

2003-03-25

48

PROBLEMS OF MEASURING SPEECH RATE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A DISCUSSION WAS PRESENTED ON THE PROBLEMS OF MEASURING SPEECH RATE, A CRITICAL VARIABLE IN SPEECH COMPRESSION, BOTH IN DESCRIBING THE INPUT TO ANY SPEECH COMPRESSION SYSTEM AND IN CHARACTERIZING THE OUTPUT. THE DISCUSSION WAS LIMITED TO SPEECH RATE MEASUREMENT OF "ORAL READING RATE," ONLY, AND DID NOT DEAL WITH THE MEASUREMENT OF "SPONTANEOUS…

CARROLL, JOHN B.

49

A storage-extended rating curve for sediment flux estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) estimation method was tested, which incorporates sediment storage, erosion, and sedimentation history of the upstream river system. It is based on the common rating curve method of which inaccurate SSC estimation is prevailingly caused by the assumption of an over-proportional relationship between SSC and discharge. However, this ignores the fact that SSC depends on the availability of sediments in the river basin as well. Hence, the tested method includes non-linear processes such as the clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis during flood discharges. The main characteristic of this new approach is that sediment flux is described as a composition of (i) the base transport of sediments from the catchment area into the river system, (ii) erosion, and (iii) in-situ sedimentation. The first two components are approximated with classical rating curves. The second component depends on (i) a threshold discharge for erosion and (ii) on the sediment availability. Sedimentation is factored as a constant value and it is zero if the discharge exceeds the threshold value. This new model formulation was tested with daily SSC and discharge measurements from the Alpine Rhine River for the period 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2013 at gauging station Diepoldsau, which is located a few kilometres upstream of Lake Constance. The seven empirical parameters of the model were estimated by using an evolutionary algorithm. This optimization algorithm found a threshold for erosion at a discharge of about 500 m3 s-1, a mean concentration of 124 mg l-1 that is lost due to sedimentation, and the mean content of sediment storage in the river bed of about 1.82×1011 kg, which is available for erosion. The results show an clear improvement of SSC estimation: R2 increased to 0.93 while it was 0.73 for the rating curve. Moreover, the new method calculated flood loads, which fitted perfect to measured sediments: e.g. the measured flood load of 7392 mg l-1 (4 June 2013) was approximated with 7357 mg l-1 by the model. To conclude, the additional consideration of erosion and sedimentation processes significantly improves SSC estimations especially during flood events and it offers a reliable way to estimate SSC time series with runoff data.

Fink, Gabriel; Wüest, Alfred

2014-05-01

50

Mass Flux Measurements at Field Scale: Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater risk assessment is generally performed on the basis of contaminant concentration point measurements either from soil (elution tests) or form groundwater samples. Recent protocols however (LfU, 1996; EPA OSWER Directive, 1999) propose to use the total contaminant mass flux rather than the contaminant concentration for evaluating the impact downstream of a source zone. Mass flux measurements can be used for source strength characterisation, quantification of natural attenuation rates and to a limited extent also for the delineation of source zones. The paper presents and discusses various concepts on how to determine contaminant mass fluxes at field scale, starting from the so called groundwater fence approach (multi-level measurement points densely spaced downstream of a source) to the so called integral approach (groundwater is pumped to obtain spatially averaged concentration data). Examples on how to interpret contaminant mass flux measurements will be presented for some first full-scale field applications, including a comparative study recently conducted at the Borden site.

Teutsch, G.

2001-12-01

51

Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

2010-02-01

52

Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

2006-01-01

53

An evaluation of sediment rating curves for estimating suspended sediment concentrations for subsequent flux calculations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the absence of actual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements, hydrologists have used sediment rating (sediment transport) curves to estimate (predict) SSCs for subsequent flux calculations. Various evaluations of the sediment rating-curve method were made using data from long-term, daily sediment-measuring sites within large (>1 000 000 km2), medium ( 1000 km2), and small (<1000 km2) river basins in the USA and Europe relative to the estimation of suspended sediment fluxes. The evaluations address such issues as the accuracy of flux estimations for various levels of temporal resolution as well as the impact of sampling frequency on the magnitude of flux estimation errors. The sediment rating-curve method tends to underpredict high, and overpredict low SSCs. As such, the range of errors associated with concomitant flux estimates for relatively short time-frames (e.g. daily, weekly) are likely to be substantially larger than those associated with longer time-frames (e.g. quarterly, annually) because the over- and underpredictions do not have sufficient time to balance each other. Hence, when error limits must be kept under ??20%, temporal resolution probably should be limited to quarterly or greater. The evaluations indicate that over periods of 20 or more years, errors of <1% can be achieved using a single sediment rating curve based on data spanning the entire period. However, somewhat better estimates for the entire period, and markedly better annual estimates within the period, can be obtained if individual annual sediment rating curves are used instead. Relatively accurate (errors fluxes can be obtained from hydrologically based monthly measurements/samples. For 5-year periods or longer, similar results can be obtained from measurements/samples collected once every 2 months. In either case, hydrologically based sampling, as opposed to calendar-based sampling is likely to limit the magnitude of flux estimation errors. Published in 2003 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Horowitz, A. J.

2003-01-01

54

Interbasin Flux Measurements Using Simple Methods  

SciTech Connect

The Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) campaign, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, took place in the Salt Lake Valley during October, 2000. The purpose of VTMX was to further understanding of meteorological processes that govern vertical transport and mixing in complex terrain, particularly during nocturnal stable periods and their morning and evening transition periods. These meteorological processes were the subject of numerous sponsored studies during VTMX. The Salt Lake (Salt Lake City) Basin and the Utah Basin to its south are separated by the Traverse Range. Near-surface airflow between the basins is channeled through the Jordan Narrows, also the channel for the Jordan River that flows from the Utah Basin into Salt Lake via the Salt Lake Basin. Jordan Narrows is thus a potentially significant corridor for pollutant transport between the two basins. This paper describes simple and direct pollutant (PM{sub 10}) measurements, with concurrent continuous meteorological monitoring, to characterize pollutant transport between the two basins via low-level stable nocturnal drainage flow, with an emphasis on its vertical variability when mixing is limited. The Jordan Narrows has similarities to other transport corridors where direct in-corridor monitoring of pollutant flux might enhance pollution forecasts during transport conditions. Thus their more general objective is to assess the usefulness of direct methods to characterize pollutant flux in similar environments.

John Watson; Daniel Freeman

2005-01-13

55

A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

2011-12-01

56

An evaluation of sediment rating curves for estimating suspended sediment concentrations for subsequent flux calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of actual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements, hydrologists have used sediment rating (sediment transport) curves to estimate (predict) SSCs for subsequent flux calculations. Various evaluations of the sediment rating-curve method were made using data from long-term, daily sediment-measuring sites within large (>1 000 000 km2), medium (<1 000 000 to >1000 km2), and small (<1000 km2) river

Arthur J. Horowitz

2003-01-01

57

Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

1993-08-24

58

Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

2009-01-01

59

Measurement of the Sky Photon Background Flux at Auger Observatory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sky photon background flux has been measured at the southern Auger site in Malargue, Argentina, using the observatory's fluorescence detectors (FD). The analysis is based on ADC variances of pixels not triggered by the First Level Trigger. Photon flux...

A. Insolia F. Salamida P. Privitera R. Caruso S. Peterera V. Verzi

2006-01-01

60

The effects of accurate central disc measurements on solar fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar fluxes for a range of wavelengths at fixed geometrical depths have been calculated from empirical models derived from limb darkening measurements. The use of an accurate energy distribution is shown to make significant changes in fluxes.

John, T. L.

1991-02-01

61

Measurement of local high-level, transient surface heat flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is part of a continuing investigation to develop methods for measuring local transient surface heat flux. A method is presented for simultaneous measurements of dual heat fluxes at a surface location by considering the heat flux as a separate function of heat stored and heat conducted within a heat flux gage. Surface heat flux information is obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gage. Heat flux was determined over a range of 4 to 22 MW/sq m. It was concluded that the method is feasible. Possible applications are for heat flux measurements on the turbine blade surfaces of space shuttle main engine turbopumps and on the component surfaces of rocket and advanced gas turbine engines and for testing sensors in heat flux gage calibrators.

Liebert, Curt H.

1988-01-01

62

In situ measurement of mesopelagic particle sinking rates and the control of carbon transfer to the ocean interior during the Vertical Flux in the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) voyages in the North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the parameters affecting carbon transfer to the ocean interior, particle sinking rates vary three orders of magnitude and thus more than primary production, f-ratios, or particle carbon contents [e.g., Boyd, P.W., Trull, T.W., 2006. Understanding the export of marine biogenic particles: is there consensus? Progress in Oceanography 4, 276-312, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2006.10.007]. Very few data have been obtained from the mesopelagic zone where the majority of carbon remineralization occurs and the attenuation of the sinking flux is determined. Here, we report sinking rates from ˜300 m depth for the subtropical (station ALOHA, June 2004) and subarctic (station K2, July 2005) North Pacific Ocean, obtained from short (6.5 day) deployments of an indented rotating sphere (IRS) sediment trap operating as an in situ settling column [Peterson, M.L., Wakeham, S.G., Lee, C., Askea, M.A., Miquel, J.C., 2005. Novel techniques for collection of sinking particles in the ocean and determining their settling rates. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 3, 520-532] to separate the flux into 11 sinking-rate fractions ranging from >820 to >2 m d -1 that are collected by a carousel for further analysis. Functioning of the IRS trap was tested using a novel programming sequence to check that all particles have cleared the settling column prior to the next delivery of particles by the 6-hourly rotation cycle of the IRS. There was some evidence (from the flux distribution among the cups and photomicroscopy of the collected particles) that very slow-sinking particles may have been under-collected because they were unable to penetrate the brine-filled collection cups, but good evidence for appropriate collection of fast-settling fractions. Approximately 50% of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux was sinking at greater than 100 m d -1 at both stations. At ALOHA, more than 15% of the POC flux sank at >820 m d -1, but low fluxes make this uncertain, and precluded resolution of particles sinking slower than 137 m d -1. At K2, less than 1% of the POC flux sank at >820 m d -1, but a large fraction (˜15-45%) of the flux was contributed by other fast-sinking classes (410 and 205 m d -1). PIC and BSi minerals were not present in higher proportions in the faster sinking fractions, but the observations were too limited to rule out a ballasting contribution to the control of sinking rates. Photographic evidence for a wide range of particle types within individual sinking-rate fractions suggests that biological processes that set the porosity and shape of particles are also important and may mask the role of minerals. Comparing the spectrum of sinking rates observed at K2 with the power-law profile of flux attenuation with depth obtained from other VERTIGO sediment traps deployed at multiple depths [Buesseler, K.O., Lamborg, C.H., Boyd, P.W., Lam, P.J., Trull, T.W., Bidigare, R.R., Bishop, J.K.B., Casciotti, K.L., Dehairs, F., Elskens, M., Honda, M., Karl, D.M., Siegel, D., Silver, M., Steinberg, D., Valdes, J., Van Mooy, B., Wilson, S.E., 2007b. Revisiting carbon flux through the Ocean's twilight zone. Science 316(5824), 567-570, doi: 10.1126/science.1137959] emphasizes the importance of particle transformations within the mesopelagic zone in the control of carbon transport to the ocean interior.

Trull, T. W.; Bray, S. G.; Buesseler, K. O.; Lamborg, C. H.; Manganini, S.; Moy, C.; Valdes, J.

2008-07-01

63

Eddy Correlation Measurements of Sea Spray Aerosol Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of primary marine aerosol in the sub-micron fraction were measured using a flux package consisting of a sonic anemometer,\\u000a a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC) equipped with a heated inlet. Whereas the CPC\\u000a provides the total particle number flux of particles larger than 10 nm, the OPC measures size segregated fluxes for particles\\u000a between

Gerrit de Leeuw; Marcel Moerman; Christopher J. Zappa; Wade R. McGillis; Sarah Norris; Mike Smith

64

Predicting terrestrial 222Rn flux using gamma dose rate as a proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

222Rn is commonly used as a natural tracer for validating climate models. To improve such models a better source term for 222Rn than currently used is necessary. The aim of this work is to establish a method for mapping this source term by using a commonly measured proxy, the gamma dose rate (GDR). Automatic monitoring of GDR has been networked in 25 European countries by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability at the Joint Research Centre (JRC IES) in Ispra, Italy, using a common data format. We carried out simultaneous measurements of 222Rn flux and GDR at 63 locations in Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Hungary in order to cover a wide range of GDR. Spatial variations in GDR resulted from different radionuclide concentrations in soil forming minerals. A relatively stable fraction (20%) of the total terrestrial GDR originates from the 238U decay series, of which 222Rn is a member. Accordingly, spatial variation in terrestrial GDR was found to describe almost 60% of the spatial variation in 222Rn flux. Furthermore, temporal variation in GDR and 222Rn was found to be correlated. Increasing soil moisture reduces gas diffusivity and the rate of 222Rn flux but it also decreases GDR through increased shielding of photons. Prediction of 222Rn flux through GDR for individual measurement points is imprecise but un-biased. Verification of larger scale prediction showed that estimates of mean 222Rn fluxes were not significantly different from the measured mean values.

Szegvary, T.; Leuenberger, M. C.; Conen, F.

2007-02-01

65

Predicting terrestrial 222Rn flux using gamma dose rate as a proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

222Rn is commonly used as a natural tracer for validating climate models. To improve such models a better source term for 222Rn than currently used is necessary. The aim of this work is to establish a method for mapping this source term by using a commonly measured proxy, the gamma dose rate (GDR). Automatic monitoring of GDR has been networked in 25 European countries by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability at the Joint Research Centre (JRC IES) in Ispra, Italy, using a common data format. We carried out simultaneous measurements of 222Rn flux and GDR at 63 locations in Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Hungary in order to cover a wide range of GDR. Spatial variations in GDR resulted from different radionuclide concentrations in soil forming minerals. A relatively stable fraction (20%) of the total terrestrial GDR originates from the 238U decay series, of which 222Rn is a member. Accordingly, spatial variation in terrestrial GDR was found to describe almost 60% of the spatial variation in 222Rn flux. Furthermore, temporal variation in GDR and 222Rn was found to be correlated. Increasing soil moisture reduces gas diffusivity and the rate of 222Rn flux but it also decreases GDR through increased shielding of photons. Prediction of 222Rn flux through GDR for individual measurement points is imprecise but un-biased. Verification of larger scale prediction showed that estimates of mean 222Rn fluxes were not significantly different from the measured mean values.

Szegvary, T.; Leuenberger, M. C.; Conen, F.

2007-06-01

66

Estimation of Particle Flux and Remineralization Rate from Radioactive Disequilibrium  

SciTech Connect

Reactive radionuclides, such as the thorium isotopes, show measurable deficiencies in the oceanic water column because of their removal by chemical scavenging due to the particle flux. Measurement of the deficiency, coupled with measurement of the radionuclide concentration in particles, allows a determination of the effective particle sinking velocity. Results to date suggest that the effective particle sinking velocity is remarkably invariant with depth. This leads to the tentative suggestion that POC concentration profiles may, to a good approximation, be used directly to determine length scales for the remineralization of sinking organic matter. Further measurements are in progress to test this idea and to evaluate its limitations. Knowledge of the remineralization length scale is essential to an evaluation of the efficiency of the biological pump as a means for deep sequestering of carbon in the ocean.

Michael P. Bacon; Roger Francois

2004-05-24

67

Eddy Current Measurement of Magnetic Flux Density.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an effort to improve the reliability of magnetic particle inspection of large or irregular-shaped parts by assuring optimum magnetic flux densities in the areas of interest during inspection. An assessment of flux densit...

I. R. Kraska R. G. Prusinski

1972-01-01

68

Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements  

PubMed Central

A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

Marcic, Milan

2006-01-01

69

A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC). Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) coupled with the eddy covariance (EC) technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA). Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger mixing ratio discrepancies between the two techniques at night than during the day. Two unidentified peaks that correlated with ?-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime mixing ratio difference to 20±2.9%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional terpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night.

Lee, A.; Schade, G. W.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2005-02-01

70

A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC). Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) coupled with the eddy covariance (EC) technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA). Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger differences at night than during the day. Four unidentified peaks that correlated with ?-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime difference to 19±3.4%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional monoterpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night, and that must have been oxidized during the day before they escaped the forest canopy.

Lee, A.; Schade, G. W.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2004-12-01

71

Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

1992-01-01

72

Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

2009-09-01

73

Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Superconducting Flux Qubit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements allow us to measure an observable of a quantum system without introducing a back-action on this observable due to the measurement itself. Here we propose a method for the QND measurement of a superconducting flux qubit by extending the spin QND measurement. Under an adequate condition, qubit and interaction Hamiltonian satisfy QND conditions and then QND measurement of a superconducting flux qubit is possible.

Takashima, Kohji; Nishida, Munehiro; Matsuo, Shigemasa; Hatakenaka, Noriyuki

2006-09-01

74

AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research  

SciTech Connect

Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

Law, B E

2012-12-12

75

Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

1993-01-01

76

Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester  

SciTech Connect

Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

Liebert, C.H.

1990-11-01

77

Thrombin flux and wall shear rate regulate fibrin fiber deposition state during polymerization under flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thrombin is released as a soluble enzyme from the platelet surface to trigger fibrin polymerization during thrombosis under flow conditions. While isotropic fibrin polymerization under static conditions involves protofibril extension and lateral aggregation leading to a gel, factors regulating fiber diameter and orientation are poorly quantified under hemodynamic flow due to the difficulty of setting thrombin fluxes. A membrane microfluidic device allowed combined control of both thrombin wall flux (10-13 to 10-11 nmol/? m^2 s) and the wall shear rate (10 to 100 s-1) of a flowing fibrinogen solution. At the thrombin flux of 10-12 nmol/? m^2 s, both fibrin deposition and fiber thickness decreased as the wall shear rate increased from 10 to 100 s-1. Direct measurement and transport-reaction simulations at 12 different thrombin flux-wall shear rate conditions demonstrated that two dimensionless numbers, the Peclet number (Pe) and the Damkohler number (Da),defined a phase diagram to predict fibrin morphology. For Da<10,we only observed thin films at all Pe. For 10900 and Pe<100, we observed three-dimensional gels. These results indicate that increase wall shear rate first quenches lateral aggregation and then protofibril extension.

Illing, Damian; Neeves, Keith

2009-10-01

78

Direct measurement of turbulent fluxes on a cruising ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The result of an attempt at the direct measurement of turbulent fluxes on the top of the mast of a cruising ship is presented. The three-dimensional components of wind relative to the ship measured by a sonic anemometer are corrected for ship motion; from these the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and water vapor are computed using the outputs of

Y. Mitsuta; T. Fujitani

1974-01-01

79

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

80

Axial flux data for fuel measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the PITA-18 nonpoisonous spline program was conducted in conjunction with a study to determine the best method of eliminating the variability of axial flux on the fuel performance parameter, q. The results of this survey and the conclusions re...

R. P. Popovich

1964-01-01

81

Eddy covariance measurements in screenhouses: turbulence characteristics and flux gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is popular in arid and semi-arid regions for decreasing water use and increasing fruit quality. However, crop water use within this unique environment is much less studied than for canopies in the open. Previous studies of our research group have established the use of the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique for reliable evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux measurements within screenhouses. These studies focused on operating conditions of the system. The present paper is a comprehensive study which examined the performance of the EC system in different types of screenhouses (shading and insect-proof), different crops (banana and pepper) at different development stages (small and large plants) and different climatic regions in Israel. The main goal was to establish guidelines for optimal application of the EC technique in screenhouses. The research consisted of 6 field campaigns: in 3 campaigns two EC systems were simultaneously deployed either vertically or horizontally, and in 3 other campaigns a single EC system was deployed at one measurement height. EC systems were deployed at different normalized system heights, Zs, which define the relative measurement heights within the air gap between the canopy top and the horizontal screened roof. System performance was examined using quality tests like energy balance closure, flux variance similarity, friction velocity, footprint modeling, energy spectrum, turbulence intensity and vertical and horizontal flux gradient analyses. Resulting energy balance closure slopes averaged 0.81±0.08 and 0.91±0.08 for the smaller and larger plants, respectively. Turbulent flows were found to be marginally developed within the air gap between the top of the plants and the horizontal screened roof. Turbulence intensity, flux variance similarity test, energy spectrum decay rate and friction velocity were essentially independent of the measurement height and were within the common range for flows in the open. Insect proof screenhouses were found to inhibit turbulence development. Considering common dimensions of commercial screenhouses, a footprint model, originally derived for canopies in the open, suggested that the normalized EC system height for which 90% of the measurements are within the available fetch is within the range 0.04 < Zs < 0.29. Vertical gradients of water vapor, sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were within the range of expected deviations (up to 26% difference between two vertically deployed EC systems) and were not correlated with advection effects. Hence, it is suggested that these gradients originated either due to non perfect energy balance closure or limitations of raw data corrections. We conclude that there is a constant flux layer in the screenhouse environment. The horizontal gradient of the vertical latent heat flux, measured in one campaign, was very small, suggesting that measurements were done in a position where the surface layer was already in equilibrium with the vegetation below.

Dicken, U.; Cohen, S.; Tanny, J.

2012-04-01

82

Measurement of Flux Density of Cas A at Low Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cas A is used as a flux calibrator throughout the radio spectrum. Therefore it is important to know the spectral and secular variations in its flux density. Earlier observations by Scott et. al. (1969) and Baars et. al. (1972) suggested a secular decrease in flux density of Cas A at a rate of about 1% per year at all frequencies. However later observations by Erickson & Perley (1975) and Read (1977) indicated anomalously high flux from Cas A at 38 MHz. Also, these observations suggested that the original idea of faster decay of the flux density rate at low frequencies may be in error or that something more complex than simple decay is affecting the flux density at low frequencies. The source changes at 38 MHz still remains a mystery. We intend to present the results of follow up observations made from 1995 to 1998 with a three element interferometer in Green Bank operating in frequency range 30 to 120 MHz. We will discuss the problems at such low frequencies due to large beamwidth and unstable ionosphere. We will also discuss the strategies we have used so far to to find the flux density of Cas A by calculating the ratio of flux density of Cas A to that of Cyg A, assuming flux density of Cyg A to be constant. Above mentioned work was performed in summer student program sponsored by National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

Patil, Ajinkya; Fisher, R.

2012-01-01

83

An analytical quantification of mass fluxes and natural attenuation rate constants at a former gasworks site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new integral groundwater investigation approach was used for the first time to quantify natural attenuation rates at field scale. In this approach, pumping wells positioned along two control planes were operated at distances of 140 and 280 m downstream of a contaminant source zone at a former gasworks site polluted with BTEX- (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-, p-xylene) and PAH- (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) compounds. Based on the quantified changes in total contaminant mass fluxes between the control planes, first-order natural attenuation rate constants could be estimated. For BTEX-compounds, these ranged from 1.4e-02 to 1.3e-01 day -1, whereas for PAH-compounds natural attenuation rate constants of 3.7e-04 to 3.1e-02 day -1 were observed. Microbial degradation activity at the site was indicated by an increase in dissolved iron mass flux and a reduction in sulphate mass flux between the two investigated control planes. In addition to information about total contaminant mass fluxes and average concentrations, an analysis of the concentration-time series measured at the control planes also allowed to semi-quantitatively delineate the aquifer regions most likely contaminated by the BTEX- and PAH-compounds.

Bockelmann, Alexander; Ptak, Thomas; Teutsch, Georg

2001-12-01

84

An analytical quantification of mass fluxes and natural attenuation rate constants at a former gasworks site.  

PubMed

A new integral groundwater investigation approach was used for the first time to quantify natural attenuation rates at field scale. In this approach, pumping wells positioned along two control planes were operated at distances of 140 and 280 m downstream of a contaminant source zone at a former gasworks site polluted with BTEX- (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-, p-xylene) and PAH- (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) compounds. Based on the quantified changes in total contaminant mass fluxes between the control planes, first-order natural attenuation rate constants could be estimated. For BTEX-compounds, these ranged from 1.4e-02 to 1.3e-01 day(-1) whereas for PAH-compounds natural attenuation rate constants of 3.7e-04 to 3.1e-02 day(-1) were observed. Microbial degradation activity at the site was indicated by an increase in dissolved iron mass flux and a reduction in sulphate mass flux between the two investigated control planes. In addition to information about total contaminant mass fluxes and average concentrations, an analysis of the concentration-time series measured at the control planes also allowed to semi-quantitatively delineate the aquifer regions most likely contaminated by the BTEX- and PAH-compounds. PMID:11820481

Bockelmann, A; Ptak, T; Teutsch, G

2001-12-15

85

Effect of imposed flux on fouling behavior in high rate membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

The influence of imposed flux and aeration rates on membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor was studied. The experiments were conducted at four imposed fluxes and three aeration rates. The effect of flux on the reduction of membrane fouling was much higher than that caused by aeration rate. A lower flux of 20 L/m(2) h produced 75 times more water than a higher flux of 40 L/m(2) h with an aeration rate of 2 L/min. Low flux showed slightly higher removal of NH(4)-N and 93-96% removal of dissolved organic matter and chemical oxygen demand. Imposed flux also had a significant effect on the composition of organics present in the soluble microbial product (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). At a higher flux, both SMP and EPS had organics of high molecular weight (MW) of around 48 kDa as well as lower MW organics below 200 Da. PMID:22424923

Johir, M A H; George, J; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, J; Sathasivan, A; Grasmick, A

2012-10-01

86

Quantitative Comparison of Measured Plasma Sheet Electron Energy Flux and Remotely Sensed Auroral Electron Energy Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ plasma sheet observations and auroral images give us two views of magnetospheric dynamics. With in situ observations, we get a detailed point measurement; auroral images give us a global view. Previous studies have shown an excellent correlation between dynamic plasma behavior in the plasma sheet and auroral activity. Here we extend the previous work with quantitative comparisons between the two regions. We directly compare the electron energy flux measured in the plasma sheet with the electron energy flux into the ionosphere inferred from auroral images. We find that during quiet times, the plasma sheet is able to supply the aurora with nearly all of the observed energy flux. During intervals of intense auroral emission, the electron spectrum in the conjugate region of the plasma sheet changes, increasing the amount of energy flux incident on the ionosphere. However, the increases in the plasma sheet energy flux is not enough to account for the inferred energy flux into the ionosphere from the images by nearly an order of magnitude. This implies that additional energy flux must be entering the loss cone through pitch angle diffusion or through the presence of parallel electric fields between the plasma sheet and the ionosphere during intervals of intense auroral emission. A likely source of this additional energy flux is the low altitude auroral acceleration region. >http://www.ess.washington.edu/People/Students/matt/AGU2001/

Fillingim, M. O.; Parks, G. K.; Chua, D.; Germany, G. A.; Lin, R. P.; McCarthy, M.

2001-12-01

87

The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

1990-01-01

88

Upper bound SEU rate for devices in an isotropic or nonisotropic flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for constructing upper bound estimates for device single event upset (SEU) rates is presented. A directional Heinrich flux, as a function of direction, must be known. A computer code, included, converts the directional Heinrich flux into an 'effective flux'. The effective flux provides a simple way to estimate upper bound SEU rates for devices with a known normal incident cross section versus LET curve.

Edmonds, Larry D.

1991-01-01

89

First eddy covariance flux measurements by PTR-TOF  

PubMed Central

The recently developed PTR-TOF instrument was evaluated to measure methanol fluxes emitted from grass land using the eddy covariance method. The high time resolution of the PTR-TOF allowed storing full mass spectra up to m/z 315 with a frequency of 10 Hz. Three isobaric ions were found at a nominal mass of m/z 33 due to the high mass resolving power of the PTR-TOF. Only one of the three peaks contributed to eddy covariance fluxes. The exact mass of this peak agrees well with the exact mass of protonated methanol (m/z 33.0335). The eddy covariance methanol fluxes measured with PTR-TOF were compared to virtual disjunct eddy covariance methanol fluxes simultaneously measured with a conventional PTR-MS. The methanol fluxes from both instruments show excellent agreement.

Muller, M.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Bamberger, I.; Kaser, L.; Titzmann, T.; Hortnagl, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.

2014-01-01

90

Heat Flux Measurements on Ceramics with Thin Film Thermocouples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic usi...

R. Holanda R. C. Anderson C. H. Liebert

1993-01-01

91

Measurements of the total ion flux from vacuum arc cathodespots  

SciTech Connect

The ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured in two vacuum arc systems. The first was a vacuum arc ion source which was modified allowing us to collect ions from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The second discharge system essentially consisted of a cathode placed near the center of a spherically shaped mesh anode. In both systems, the ion current streaming through the mesh was measured by a biased collector. The mesh anodes had geometric transmittances of 60 percent and 72 percent, respectively, which were taken into account as correction factors. The ion current from different cathode materials was measured for 50-500 A of arc current. The ion current normalized by the arc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent. The normalized ion current is generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The ion erosion rates were determined from values of ion current and ion charge states, which were previously measured in the same ion source. The absolute ion erosion rates range from 16-173 mu g/C.

Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu; Savkin,Konstantin P.; Brown, Ian G.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.

2005-05-25

92

Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment  

SciTech Connect

Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kunkel, K. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

93

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31

94

Precise, Facile Initial Rate Measurements  

PubMed Central

Progress curve analysis has been used sparingly in studies of enzyme-catalyzed reactions due largely to the complexity of the integrated rate expressions used in data analysis. Using an experimental design that simplifies the analysis, the advantages and limitations of progress curve experiments are explored in a study of four different enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The approach involves relatively simple protocols, requires 20–25% of the materials, and provides 10- to 20-fold signal enhancements compared to analogous initial rate studies. Product inhibition, which complicates integrated rate analysis, was circumvented using cloned, purified enzymes that remove the products and draw the reaction forward. The resulting progress curves can be transformed into the equivalent of thousands of initial rate and [S] measurements and, due to the absence of product inhibition, are plotted in the familiar, linear double-reciprocal format. Allowing product to accumulate during a reaction produces a continuously changing substrate/product ratio that can be used as the basis for obtaining product inhibition constants and to distinguish among the three classical inhibition mechanisms. Algebraic models describing the double-reciprocal patterns obtained from such inhibition studies are presented. The virtual continuum of substrate concentrations that occurs during a progress curve experiment provides a nearly errorless set of relative concentrations that results in remarkably precise data; kinetic constant standard deviations are on the order of 0.5%.

Tang, Qingxiu; Leyh, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

95

A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

2008-01-01

96

Measurements of Urban Area-Wide CO2 and CH4 Fluxes as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was created in order to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement of greenhouse gas emission fluxes from urban environments. Such methods are important for a variety of reasons, including that more than half the global population now resides in cities, and because it is likely that many CO2 emissions reductions strategies will be implemented on local, largely urban, scales. INFLUX is using Indianapolis as a test case for measurements of urban scale greenhouse gas fluxes, because it is a fairly isolated urban environment with tractable meteorology, and a well-developed emission inventory (Vulcan/Hestia). INFLUX aims to quantify and reduce the uncertainty limits for such flux determinations, and to define the uncertainties for individual and combined approaches. The project currently combines a network of towers (currently 10 with 12 possible by the end of 2012) at which CO, CO2 and CH4 are measured, along with periodic flask sampling for 14CO2 and ~50 other trace gases and isotopes. Aircraft-based measurements of CO2, CH4 and H2O, along with flask samples for a variety of gases including 14CO2 are conducted from a light twin aircraft that enables flux measurements using the on-board turbulence/wind measurements via mass balance or eddy covariance methods. As of August of 2012 INFLUX has a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Fourier Transform Spectrometer at a downwind site, measuring column total CO2, CH4, H2O (and other greenhouse gases). The data from these tower, TCCON and aircraft measurements are then used in an inverse-modeling approach, using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LDPM) to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. When aggregated these fluxes can be compared to estimates derived from aircraft mass-balance estimates, and the 14CO2 and CO data are used to extract the fossil fuel component of the CO2 flux. Measurement data using the range of approaches are then compared to the Hestia emissions model estimates, as well as to improve the Vulcan approaches. In the near future, we will add eddy covariance fluxes from several towers, and some limited eddy covariance flux measurements from the aircraft. Doppler lidar will be added at one site, to better constrain the boundary layer height, critically important to all flux measurement approaches. Here we discuss how the suite of measurement approaches are used to minimize and define the emissions uncertainties. We also will discuss our work on apportionment of fluxes of both CO2 and CH4 to individual point sources, and, where possible, compare to reported emission rates. Finally, we will discuss lessons learned, and how the INFLUX approaches might be best applied to megacities.

Shepson, P.; Callahan, B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Davis, K. J.; Hardesty, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Moser, B.; Newberger, T.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Samarov, D. V.; Sarmiento, D.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

2012-12-01

97

Measuring turbulent heat fluxes over leads using kites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the MaudNESS project in the austral winter of 2005, radiosondes attached to a kite indirectly measured surface turbulent heat fluxes from leads in the Eastern Weddell Sea near Maud Rise. Kite flights over two different leads with similar widths and upwind ice conditions are discussed. Lead mean surface fluxes were estimated by measuring the excess temperature and humidity downwind of the leads, estimating the wind speed profiles and performing a heat and moisture budget quantification. The measured sensible (latent) heat fluxes were 318 Wm-2 (158 Wm-2) and 258 Wm-2 (85 Wm-2) for the two flights; the values were lower in the second flight due to lower wind speeds. The average neutral sensible heat transfer coefficients for the two flights was (1.48 ± 0.13) × 10-3, and the average neutral latent heat flux coefficient was (1.47 ± 0.09) × 10-3. As expected, these values are enhanced from what would be expected in a typical open ocean situation with the same air-sea temperature and humidity differences. Kite radiosonde profile measurements are an economically viable method for measuring lead heat fluxes that avoid many of the logistical problems associated with other methods for measuring fluxes over leads.

Guest, Peter S.

2007-05-01

98

Incompatibility of solar EUV fluxes and incoherent scatter measurements at Arecibo.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoionization rates have been calculated from recent solar EUV flux measurements and are compared with the electron-ion recombination rates estimated from electron density profiles and current reaction rates. These photoionization rates also provided the first step in calculating the photoelectron heating rates of the ambient electrons, which are compared with the cooling rates deduced from ion and electron temperature measurements at Arecibo. The effects of changes in the assumed neutral models, the rate coefficients, and the temperature measurements are discussed. Comparisons of the profiles of energy input and loss with similar profiles of ion production and recombination suggest that the solar EUV fluxes have been underestimated. These comparisons also imply lower molecular neutral densities in winter than in summer.

Swartz, W. E.; Nisbet, J. S.

1973-01-01

99

Isotopomer measurement techniques in metabolic flux analysis II: mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry (MS) offers a sensitive, reliable, and highly accurate method for measurement of isotopic labeling, which is required for generating comprehensive flux maps using metabolic flux analysis (MFA). We present protocols for assessing isotope labeling in a wide range of biochemical species, including proteinogenic amino acids, free organic and amino acids, sugar phosphates, lipids, starch-glucose, and RNA-ribose. We describe the steps of sample preparation, MS analysis, and data handling required to obtain high-quality isotope labeling measurements that are applicable to MFA. By selecting target analytes that maximize identifiability of the key fluxes of interest, MS measurements of isotope labeling can provide a powerful platform for assessing metabolic fluxes in complex biochemical networks. PMID:24218212

Young, Jamey D; Allen, Douglas K; Morgan, John A

2014-01-01

100

Unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of volcanic carbon dioxide fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurements of volcanic gases with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The data were collected at La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, during April 2007, with a helicopter UAV of 3 kg payload, carrying an ultraviolet spectrometer for remotely sensing the SO2 flux (8.5 Mg d-1), and an infrared spectrometer, and electrochemical sensor assembly for measuring the plume CO2/SO2 ratio; by multiplying these data we compute a CO2 flux of 170 Mg d-1. Given the deeper exsolution of carbon dioxide from magma, and its lower solubility in hydrothermal systems, relative to SO2, the ability to remotely measure CO2 fluxes is significant, with promise to provide more profound geochemical insights, and earlier eruption forecasts, than possible with SO2 fluxes alone: the most ubiquitous current source of remotely sensed volcanic gas data.

McGonigle, A. J. S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Tamburello, G.; Hodson, A. J.; Gurrieri, S.

2008-03-01

101

Error Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Aerodynamic Flux Measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl bromide volatilization fluxes were calculated for a tarped and a nontarped field using 2 and 4 hour sampling periods. These field measurements were averaged in 8, 12, and 24 hour increments to simulate longer sampling periods. The daily flux profiles were progressively smoothed and the cumulative volatility losses increased by 20 to 30% with each longer sampling period. Error associated with the original flux measurements was determined from linear regressions of measured wind speed and air concentration as a function of height, and averaged approximately 50%. The high errors resulted from long application times, which resulted in a nonuniform source strength; and variable tarp permeability, which is influenced by temperature, moisture, and thickness. The increase in cumulative volatilization losses that resulted from longer sampling periods were within the experimental error of the flux determination method.

Majewski, M. S.

1997-01-01

102

Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of portable wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by air velocity or sweep air flow rates that are either too low or too high to simulate field conditions. There is a need for correction factors to standardize flux chamber and wind tunnel measurements. In this manuscript, we present results of water evaporative flux and VOC flux measurements with the EPA flux chamber and a small wind tunnel. In the EPA flux chamber, water evaporative flux was positively correlated with sweep air flow rate (SAFR) between 1 and 20 L min-1 (r2 = 0.981-0.999) and negatively correlated with sweep air relative humidity between 0 and 80% (r2 = 0.982-0.992). Emissions of gas-film controlled compounds like NH3 and VOC at AFOs were positively correlated with evaporation rates between 0.6 and 2.8 mm d-1. We demonstrate a simple methodology for standardizing and comparing different chamber types by measuring water evaporation within the chamber using a gravimetric mass balance approach under controlled laboratory conditions. A water evaporative flux ratio correction factor (EFRCF) was used to improve the accuracy of field-measured VOC and NH3 chamber flux measurements. In a field study, both the EPA flux chamber (SAFR = 5 L min-1) and small wind tunnel (SAFR = 1 L min-1) underestimated the true field emissions of VOC, with EFRCFs of 2.42 and 3.84, respectively. EFRCFs are recommended for all but the driest of soil and manure conditions.

Parker, David; Ham, Jay; Woodbury, Bryan; Cai, Lingshuang; Spiehs, Mindy; Rhoades, Marty; Trabue, Steve; Casey, Ken; Todd, Rick; Cole, Andy

2013-02-01

103

Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

1994-11-01

104

Eddy flux measurements over Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind, temperature and humidity fluctuations have been recorded using a sonic anemometer-thermometer, a thrust anemometer, and a La humidiometer. The two anemometers agree in wind speed and stress. Exchange coefficients for momentum, heat and moisture are found to agree with values measured over other bodies of water.

S. D. Smith

1974-01-01

105

High rates of soil respiration suggest large fluxes of labile C in a turfgrass system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured high rates of soil respiration (up to 19 ?mol C m-2 sec-1) in a study of management effects on turfgrass lawns. Estimates based on these measurements indicate that annual soil respiration is on the order of 15-30 Mg C ha-1, which seems high, given measured NPP of 3-6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0-10 cm soil C pools of 15-20 Mg C ha-1 which showed no net change over the study period. We contend that this flux is plausible, given irrigation and fertilizer applications, and hypothesize that in this context, soil respiration is driven largely by assimilate availability. We provide several lines of evidence supporting the idea that large fluxes of readily labile C move through this system: Biomass growth rates were highly correlated with soil respiration rates; we observed statistically significant variation in soil C stocks, dramatic changes in microbial biomass stoichiometry, and major shifts in N mineralization and nitrification over the course of a single growing season; and long-term soil incubations appear to show the accumulation and depletion of a substantial pool of labile C.

Lilly, P.; Jenkins, J. C.; Carroll, M.

2013-12-01

106

Plume velocity determination for volcanic SO2 flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground based volcanic SO2 fluxes provide important insights into the behaviour of volcanoes, and their impacts upon the atmosphere. In order to compute a flux, the plume transport speed, and direction, must be known. In practice these are typically assumed to equal, respectively: (A) a ground based anemometer reading, and (B) the bearing of the vector between the volcanic gas source and the position on the downwind plume cross-section where the gas concentration is highest. However, use of these proxies is open to question, and they can introduce large errors (possibly > 100%), thereby significantly reducing the utility of the derived fluxes. Here we present direct spectroscopic measurements of volcanic plume velocity; the data were obtained using three ultraviolet spectrometers, at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, during January 2004. We estimate that flux measurements with overall error budgets < 10% are readily achievable with this approach.

McGonigle, A. J. S.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Oppenheimer, C.

2005-06-01

107

The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. Lastly, the resulting ERFs are used to extrapolate the methane release over spatio-temporally explicit grids of the Alaskan North Slope. Metzger et al. (2013) have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique for regionalizing airborne EC heat flux observations to within an accuracy of ?18% and a precision of ?5%. Here, we show for the first time results from applying the ERF procedure to airborne methane EC measurements, and report its potential for spatio-temporally explicit inventories of the regional-scale methane exchange. References: Metzger, S., Junkermann, W., Mauder, M., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Trancón y Widemann, B., Neidl, F., Schäfer, K., Wieneke, S., Zheng, X. H., Schmid, H. P., and Foken, T.: Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions, Biogeosciences, 10, 2193-2217, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2193-2013, 2013.

Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

2013-12-01

108

Measurement of vapor superheat in post-critical-heat-flux boiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differentially-aspirated superheat probe was developed to measure vapor temperatures in post-critical-heat-flux, dispersed-flow boiling. Measurements obtained for water, at low-to-moderate pressures and mass flow rates in a tube, indicated very significant nonequilibrium, with vapor superheats of several hundred degrees (°C). Predictions of published correlations showed unsatisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

S. Nijhawan; J. C. Chen; R. K. Sundaram; E. J. London

1980-01-01

109

Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

2014-05-01

110

Flux measurements from a SWATH ship in SWADE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) took place east of the U.S. Coast in the winter of 1990-1991. A major objective of the research program is to refine our understanding of the relationship between fluxes to the sea surface and the sea state as determined from directional wave spectra. Simultaneous measurements of turbulent fluxes of mass, momentum and energy between sea and air, with the directional wave spectra, were required to meet this objective. In this short article we describe the process of obtaining turbulent flux measurements from a small water-plane-area twin hull (SWATH) ship. We measured turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor from a tall mast at the bow of the SWATH ship Frederick G. Creed by the eddy correlation method, while the ship was moving into the wind. Directional wave spectra were obtained from a wave staff array ahead of the bow of the ship. The motion of the ship was recorded and a coordinate rotation was performed for each data sample. After all instrument response and motion corrections have been accounted for, we compare our calculated turbulent fluxes with values computed from another standard method, viz. the inertial dissipation method. This approach is not susceptible to platform motion but relies on assumptions that are not always valid. However, the two methods agree on average within 12%, 20% and 31% for momentum, water vapor and heat fluxes, respectively.

Katsaros, Kristina B.; Donelan, Mark A.; Drennan, William M.

1993-08-01

111

Measurement and Modeling of Surface Energy Fluxes of Rangeland Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermingling of vegetation communities in mountainous rangeland and forest ecosystems creates a challenge for measuring or modeling the energy and mass fluxes in these complex environments, as adequate fetch requirements and complex topography make interpretation of eddy covariance results difficult. This study assesses surface energy balance measurements taken over sagebrush, aspen and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the

G. N. Flerchinger; D. G. Marks; M. L. Reba

2010-01-01

112

Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

2013-01-01

113

Intercomparison of gas analyzers for methane flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four gas analyzers, capable of measuring methane concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements, were operated in parallel for about six months between March and August 2010. Their reliability, need of maintenance, user friendliness, data coverage, and data quality were evaluated. The primary aim of this campaign was to provide an instrumentation suggestion for the European Research Infrastructure ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System). The instruments used were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research Inc.) , G1301-f (Picarro Inc.), and LI-7700 (Li-Cor Inc.). The last one, LI-7700, was a prototype of a later commercialized open path analyzer. The other instruments were closed path analyzers. The measurement site is an oligotrophic open fen Siikaneva, located in southern Finland. The site provides spatially quite uniform methane flux within the footprint. The methane flux rises in the spring, peaks in early August and falls down during the autumn. This provides excellent opportunity to study the performance of the analyzers at different CH4 flux levels from near zero up to about 5 mg m-2 h-1. The preliminary results show great similarity among the instruments in both concentrations and fluxes. Detailed numbers of the measurement characteristics will be provided later. The reliability and need of maintenance are difficult to evaluate quantitatively during that short period.

Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Vesala, T.

2010-12-01

114

Measurements of the atmospheric neutron leakage rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmospheric neutron leakage rate in the energy range from 0.01 to 10,000,000 eV has been measured as a function of latitude, altitude, and time with a neutron detector on board the Ogo 6 satellite. The latitude dependence of the neutron leakage is in reasonable agreement with that predicted by Lingenfelter (1963) and Light et al. (1973) if the neutron energy spectrum has the shape calculated by Newkirk (1963). The change in the neutron latitude dependence with the cosmic ray modulation agrees with the predictions of Lingenfelter and Light et al. For several solar proton events enhancements were observed in the neutron counting rates at lambda greater than or equal to 70 deg. Such events, however, provide an insignificant injection of protons at E less than or equal to 20 MeV into the radiation belts. An isotropic angular distribution of the neutron leakage in the energy range from 0.1 keV to 10 MeV best fits the observed altitude dependence of the neutron leakage flux.

Lockwood, J. A.; Ifedili, S. O.; Jenkins, R. W.

1973-01-01

115

Measurement of neutron flux from a tokamak plasma device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system has been developed for neutron flux measurements at the ORMAK tohamak device. This system allows measurement of the time-dependence of the neutron flux during a single shot of the device as well as the energy spectrum of the neutrons. Pulse shape discrimination techniques are used with a liquid scintillation counter (NE 213) to eliminate events in the detector due to gamma rays and X-rays generated in the plasma. Results are presented for the mode in which neutral deuterium is injected into a deuterium plasma.

Morgan, G. L.; England, A. C.

1975-11-01

116

Comparison of calculated and measured foliar O3 flux in crop and forest species.  

PubMed

We designed a new gas exchange system that concurrently measures foliar H2O, O3, and CO2 flux (HOC flux system) while delivering known O3 concentrations. Stomatal responses of three species were tested: snapbean, and seedlings of California black oak (deciduous broadleaf) and blue oak (evergreen broadleaf). Acute O3 exposure (120-250 ppb over an hour) was applied under moderate light and low vapor pressure deficits during near steady state conditions. The rate of stomatal closure was measured when the whole plant was placed in the dark. An adjacent leaf on each plant was also concurrently measured in an O3-free cuvette. Under some conditions, direct measurements and calculated foliar O3 flux were within the same order of magnitude; however, endogenously low gs or O3 exposure-induced depression of gs resulted in an overestimation of calculated O3 fluxes compared with measured O3 fluxes. Sluggish stomata in response to light extinction with concurrent O3 exposure, and incomplete stomatal closure likewise underestimated measured O3 flux. PMID:16777298

Grulke, N E; Paoletti, E; Heath, R L

2007-04-01

117

Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

2013-12-01

118

Absolute flux measurement at HIGS using Compton backscattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Intensity ?-ray Source (HI?S) at FELL/TUNL is developing a program to study many aspects of nuclear physics presently using 2-to-50 MeV ?-rays. In many cases these experiments require absolute ?-flux monitoring and determination. This project presents a technique to indirectly measure the absolute ?-ray flux by placing a thin scattering foil in the ?-beam and then detecting the Compton-scattered ?-rays at a particular scattering angle using a HPGe detector. The fluxes of these Compton-scattered ?-rays are low (i.e., 10^3 ?/s) in comparison to the direct flux of the beam ( ˜10^6 ?/s). In addition the Compton-scattered energies are in the energy range of 2 to 5 MeV for ?-ray beam energies below 10 MeV, which are relatively easy to measure with a HPGe detector with very high energy resolution. Recent experimental results from the flux measurements at HI?S will be presented.

Fallin, B.; Ahmed, M. W.; Perdue, B.; Sabourov, A.; Sheard, T.; Tornow, W.; Tonchev, A. P.; Weller, H. R.; Li, J.; Pinaev, I. V.; Wu, Y.; Prior, R. M.; Spraker, M.; Chen, J.; Feldman, G.

2003-10-01

119

Calculated neutron dose rates and flux densities from implantable californium-252 point and line sources.  

PubMed

The results of neutron-transport flux-density and dose rate calculations for implantable Californium-252 point and line sources in essentially infinite tissue-equivalent material are presented. The point-source flux densities were obtained from a discrete ordinates calculation, and the point dose rates were established by multiplying the flux densities by their appropriate kerma factors. Line-source dose rates were evaluated by integrating the point dose rates over the length of the line source. Dose-rate data are given within a 20 X 20-cm region from the source center for source lengths of 1.5, 2, and 3 cm. The dose rates established by these calculations showed good agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation. Detailed point-source flux-density data as a function of energy and position are also given. PMID:958169

Shapiro, A; Schwartz, B; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

1976-01-01

120

Bit-Error-Rate Measurements of RSFQ Shift Register Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error rates of rapid-single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) shift register memories were investigated using a high-speed error-rate measurement system in order to demonstrate their reliability and stability. We designed and implemented an 8 times 8-bit shift register memory using the CONNECT cell library and the SRL 2.5 kA\\/cm2 Nb process. The total number of Josephson junctions including the test system is 4184, and

Tomohiro Hikida; Kan Fujiwara; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa; Akira Fujimaki; Hirotaka Terai; Shinichi Yorozu

2007-01-01

121

Thermal neutron flux measurements in the STAR experimental hall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of thermal neutron fluxes at different locations in the STAR experimental hall during RHIC Run 13 with proton-proton collisions at ?{s}=510 GeV. We compare these measurements to calculations based on PYTHIA as a minimum bias event generator, detailed GEANT3 simulation of the STAR detector and experimental hall, and with GCALOR as the neutron transport code. A fairly good agreement was found between simulation and measurements.

Fisyak, Yuri; Tsai, Oleg; Videbæk, Flemming; Xu, Zhangbu

2014-08-01

122

Measurement and Modeling of Surface Energy Fluxes of Rangeland Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermingling of vegetation communities in mountainous rangeland and forest ecosystems creates a challenge for measuring or modeling the energy and mass fluxes in these complex environments, as adequate fetch requirements and complex topography make interpretation of eddy covariance results difficult. This study assesses surface energy balance measurements taken over sagebrush, aspen and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the aspen canopy, and measurements were compared with simulations from a multi-layer canopy model. Energy balance closure for the sagebrush community was quite good and surface energy fluxes were simulated quite well by the model. Closure of the understory measurements was highly dependent on whether direct solar radiation was impinging on the net radiation sensor through gaps in the aspen canopy. Upward sensible heat flux within the aspen canopy was unexpectedly observed during snowmelt; model simulations suggested that this was due to the influence of tree trunks absorbing solar radiation and releasing sensible heat upward to the atmosphere and downward to the snowpack. Simulated turbulent fluxes above the aspen canopy were reasonable, but model modifications were necessary to capture the very stable conditions at the bottom of the aspen canopy, particularly during snowmelt. Results indicate that reliable surface energy balance measurements can be taken in these complex environments, but care must be used in the interpretation of the results.

Flerchinger, G. N.; Marks, D. G.; Reba, M. L.

2010-12-01

123

Measurements of Seasonal Rates and Annual Budgets of Organic Carbon Fluxes in an Antarctic Coastal Environment at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Suggest a Broad Balance between Production and Decomposition  

PubMed Central

We report here the first comprehensive seasonal study of benthic microbial activity in an Antarctic coastal environment. Measurements were made from December 1990 to February 1992 of oxygen uptake and sulfate reduction by inshore coastal sediments at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. From these measurements the rate of benthic mineralization of organic matter was calculated. In addition, both the deposition rate of organic matter to the bottom sediment and the organic carbon content of the bottom sediment were measured during the same period. Organic matter input to the sediment was small under winter ice cover, and the benthic respiratory activity and the organic content of the surface sediment declined during this period as available organic matter was depleted. On an annual basis, about 32% of benthic organic matter mineralization was anoxic, but the proportion of anoxic compared with oxic mineralization increased during the winter as organic matter was increasingly buried by the amphipod infauna. Fresh organic input occurred as the sea ice melted and ice algae biomass sedimented onto the bottom, and input was sustained during the spring after ice breakup by continued primary production in the water column. The benthic respiratory rate and benthic organic matter content correspondingly increased towards the end of winter with the input of this fresh organic matter. The rates of oxygen uptake during the southern summer (80 to 90 mmol of O2 m-2 day-1) were as high as those reported for other sediments at much higher environmental temperatures, and the annual mineralization of organic matter was equally high (12 mol of C m-2 year-1). Seasonal variations of benthic activity in this antarctic coastal sediment were regulated by the input and availability of organic matter and not by seasonal water temperature, which was relatively constant at between -1.8 and 0.5°C. We conclude that despite the low environmental temperature, organic matter degradation broadly balanced organic matter production, although there may be significant interrannual variations in the sources of the organic matter inputs.

Nedwell, D. B.; Walker, T. R.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.; Clarke, A.

1993-01-01

124

Measuring sand flux on Mars using HiRISE Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As wind is the major agent of sediment transport on Mars, a quantitative estimate of aeolian processes is therefore essential to assess recent geological evolution and current climate. We adapted the Co-registration of Optically Sensed Image and Correlation (COSI-Corr) toolbox to the MRO HiRISE imager specifications to produce a dense map of the ripples migration on the surface of the Martian dunes on the Nili Patera area. The ripple migration rate, along with an estimate of the ripple height, were used to derive the sand flux, a key quantity that controls the style and rate of landscape evolution. Using the dunes shape, size, and height, which were extracted from a DEM of the dune field, we show that the dunes are near steady state, and we observe that dune migration rate varies inversely with size and position within the dune field. The time scale associated with the formation and evolution of the Nili Patera dune field, estimated from comparing the sand volume with the sand flux and the dunes migration rates with the length scale of the dune field, is on the order of 10s to 100s of thousands Earth years. However, sand fluxes at the dune crests are 0.7 - 4.8 m3 m-1 per Earth year, which is comparable to that of dunes in Victoria Valley, Antarctica. This implies that rates of landscape modification from aeolian abrasion on Mars may be comparable to that on Earth.

Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.; Avouac, J.; Leprince, S.; Lucas, A.; Mattson, S.

2011-12-01

125

A direct measurement of the energy flux density in plasma surface interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy flux transferred from a plasma to a surface is a key issue for materials processing (sputtering, etching). We present direct measurements made with a Heat Flux Microsensor (HFM) in an Ar plasma interacting with the surface of the sensor. The HFM is a thermopile of about one thousand metal couples mounted in parallel. An Inductively Coupled Plasma in Argon was used to make the experiments. Langmuir probe and tuneable laser diode absorption measurements were carried out to estimate the contribution of ions, neutrals (conduction) and metastables. In order to evaluate the ability of the HFM to measure the part due to chemical reactions, a Si surface in contact with the HFM was submitted to an SF6 plasma. The direct measurements are in good agreement with the estimation we made knowing the etch rate and the enthalpy of the reaction. Finally, tests were performed on a sputtering reactor. Additional energy flux provided by condensing atoms (Pt) was also measured.

Dussart, Remi; Thomann, Anne-Lise; Semmar, Nadjib; Pichon, Laurianne; Bedra, Larbi; Mathias, Jacky; Tessier, Yves; Lefaucheux, Philippe

2008-10-01

126

Continuous Measurement of Solid Propellant Burning Rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic operating principles of an experimental system for the direct and continuous measurement of solid propellant burning rates are presented. The system was designed and fabricated. A continuous burning rate measurement technique, termed the Servo-m...

J. R. Osborn P. Y. Ho R. J. Burick

1965-01-01

127

Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling.  

PubMed

Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux. PMID:12564506

Karapetian, Emil; Aguilar, Guillermo; Kimel, Sol; Lavernia, Enrique J; Nelson, J Stuart

2003-01-01

128

Investigation of direct flux measurements in switched reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use embedded magnetic field sensors in estimating the torque produced by a switched reluctance motor. Recent advances in nanomaterials have enabled the development of very compact magnetic field sensors based on the giant magneto resistive (GMR) effect. This provides a direct measurement of internal magnetic flux levels of an electric machine during operation. With this capability,

Roy McCann; W. Traore

2008-01-01

129

Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navier-Stokes equations, after application of the Reynolds' averaging procedures, are the basis of direct surface-based measurements of turbulent fluxes via the eddy correlation method. Under restrictive conditions in the atmospheric surface layer, these equations are valid in a simplified form. These conditions are the stationarity of the data, the homogeneity of the underlying surface, a fully developed turbulence, and

Th. Foken; B. Wichura

1996-01-01

130

A PROBLEM WITH FLUX CHAMBER MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC SULFUR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems associated with identifying and quantifying factors that influence liquid-phase controlled evolution of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides through the air-water interface are briefly reviewed. It was found that at present flux chamber measurements of the release of th...

131

Control of flux in magnetic circuits for Barkhausen noise measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistency of magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurements under applied sinusoidal magnetic field control and sinusoidal magnetic circuit flux control was investigated under variable circuit permeability conditions. A U-core electromagnet was used to provide the alternating magnetic excitation. The magnetic circuit permeability was changed by varying excitation magnet lift-off and by using samples with known magnetic anisotropy. By controlling the

Steven White; Thomas Krause; Lynann Clapham

2007-01-01

132

MEASUREMENT OF THE RADON SURFACE FLUX FROM UNDISTURBED SOIL USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for measuring the radon surface flux without disturbing either the soil or the flux are of interest in geologic studies and in monitoring the radon flux from uranium mine tailings piles. Such flux measurements may also be of use in assessing the radon risk at potential building sites. The flow-through surface flux method does not perturb either the radon

Lorin R. Stieff; Paul Kotrappa; J. E. Rechcigl; Curtis Nobel

133

A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Papka, P. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nuclear Physics group, iThemba labs, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dobson, R. T. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

2010-01-05

134

Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

2004-12-01

135

Balloon-borne measurement of energetic electron fluxes inside thunderclouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy radiation is routinely produced by thunderclouds and lightning. This radiation is in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays with timescales ranging from sub-microsecond (x-rays associated with lightning leaders), to sub-millisecond (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes), to minute long glows (Gamma-ray Glows from thunderclouds seen on the ground and in or near the cloud by aircrafts and balloons). It is generally accepted that these emissions originate from bremsstrahlung interactions of relativistic runaway electrons with air, which can be accelerated in the thundercloud/lightning electric fields and gain up to multi-MeV energies. However, the exact physical details of the mechanism that produces these runaway electrons are still unknown. In order to better understand the source of energetic radiation inside thunderclouds, we have begun a campaign of balloon-borne instruments to directly measure the flux of energetic electrons inside thunderclouds. In the current configuration, each balloon carries Geiger counters to record the energetic particles. Geiger counters are well suited for directly measuring energetic electrons and positrons and have the advantage of being lightweight and dependable. We transmit data at 900MHz, ISM band, with 115.2 kb/s transmission rate. This would provide us a high resolution radiation profile over a relatively large distance. Due to the nature of the thunderstorm environment, the campaign has many design, communication, and safety challenges. In this presentation we will report on the status of the campaign and some of the physical insights gained from the data collected by our instruments. This work was supported in part by the NASA grant NNX12A002H and by DARPA grant HR0011-1-10-1-0061.

Arabshahi, Shahab; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

2014-05-01

136

A disjunct eddy accumulation system for the measurement of BVOC fluxes: instrument characterizations and field deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), such as isoprene and monoterpenes, are emitted in large amounts from forests. Quantification of the flux of BVOCs is critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) sampler system was constructed for the measurement of speciated BVOC fluxes. Unlike traditional eddy covariance (EC), the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, discrete samples that allows for slower sampling frequencies. Disjunct sample airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbent materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges are then quantified by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Herein, we describe our initial tests to evaluate the disjunct sampler including the application of using vertical wind measurements to create optimized sampling thresholds. Measurements of BVOC fluxes obtained from DEA during its deployment above a mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI) during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign are reported. Daytime (09:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m.) isoprene fluxes, when averaged over the footprint of the tower were 1.31 mg m-2 h-1 which is comparable to previous flux measurements at this location. Speciated monoterpene fluxes are some of the first to be reported from this site. Daytime averages were 26.7 ?g m-2 h-1 for ?-pinene and 10.6 ?g m-2 h-1 for ?-pinene. These measured concentrations and fluxes were compared to the output of an atmospheric chemistry model, and were found to be consistent with our knowledge of the variables that control BVOCs fluxes at this site.

Edwards, G. D.; Martins, D. K.; Starn, T.; Pratt, K.; Shepson, P. B.

2012-04-01

137

A disjunct eddy accumulation system for the measurement of BVOC fluxes: instrument characterizations and field deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), such as isoprene and monoterpenes, are emitted in large amounts from forests. Quantification of the flux of BVOCs is critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) sampler system was constructed for the measurement of speciated BVOC fluxes. Unlike traditional eddy covariance (EC), the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, discrete samples that allow for slower sampling frequencies. Disjunct sample airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbent materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges are then quantified by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Herein, we describe our initial tests to evaluate the disjunct sampler including the application of vertical wind measurements to create optimized sampling thresholds. Measurements of BVOC fluxes obtained from DEA during its deployment above a mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI) during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign are reported. Daytime (09:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. LT) isoprene fluxes, when averaged over the footprint of the tower, were 1.31 mg m-2 h-1 which are comparable to previous flux measurements at this location. Speciated monoterpene fluxes are some of the first to be reported from this site. Daytime averages were 26.7 ?g m-2 h-1 for ?-pinene and 10.6 ?g m-2 h-1 for ?-pinene. These measured concentrations and fluxes were compared to the output of an atmospheric chemistry model, and were found to be consistent with our knowledge of the variables that control BVOCs fluxes at this site.

Edwards, G. D.; Martins, D. K.; Starn, T.; Pratt, K.; Shepson, P. B.

2012-09-01

138

ACTIVE: a program to calculate and plot reaction rates from ANISN calculated fluxes  

SciTech Connect

The ACTIVE code calculates spatial heating rates, tritium production rates, neutron reaction rates, and energy spectra from particle fluxes calculated by ANISN. ACTIVE has a variety of input options including the capability to plot all calculated spatial distributions. The code was primarily designed for use with fusion first wall/blanket systems, but could be applied to any one-dimensional problem.

Judd, J.L.

1981-12-01

139

A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the underground atmospheric muon flux are important in order to determine accurately the overburden in mwe (meter water equivalent) of an underground laboratory for appreciating which kind of experiments are feasible for that location. Slanic- Prohava is one of the 7 possible locations for the European large underground experiment LAGUNA (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics). A mobile device consisting of 2 scintillator plates (?0.9 m2, each) one above the other and measuring in coincidence, was set-up for determining the muon flux. The detector it is installed on a van which facilitates measurements on different positions at the surface or in the underground and it is in operation since autumn 2009. The measurements of muon fluxes presented in this contribution have been performed in the underground salt mine Slanic-Prahova, Romania, where IFIN-HH has built a low radiation level laboratory, and at the surface on different sites of Romania, at different elevations from 0 m a.s.l up to 655 m a.s.l. Based on our measurements we can say that Slanic site is a feasible location for LAGUNA in Unirea salt mine at a water equivalent depth of 600 mwe. The results have been compared with Monte-Carlo simulations performed with the simulation codes CORSIKA and MUSIC.

Mitrica, B.; Brancus, I. M.; Margineanu, R.; Petcu, M.; Dima, M.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.

2011-04-01

140

EISCAT observations of pump-enhanced plasma temperature and optical emission excitation rate as a function of power flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze optical emissions and enhanced electron temperatures induced by high power HF radio waves as a function of power flux using the EISCAT heater with a range of effective radiated powers. The UHF radar was used to measure the electron temperatures and densities. The Digital All Sky Imager was used to record the 630.0 nm optical emission intensities. We quantify the HF flux loss due to self-absorption in the D-region (typically 3-11 dB) and refraction in the F-region to determine the flux which reaches the upper-hybrid resonance height. We find a quasi-linear relationship between the HF flux and both the temperature enhancement and the optical emission excitation rate with a threshold at ˜37.5 ?Wm-2. On average ˜70% of the HF flux at the upper-hybrid resonance height goes in to heating the electrons for fluxes above the threshold compared to ˜40% for fluxes below the threshold.

Bryers, C. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.

2012-09-01

141

Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

2005-01-01

142

How are Rainfall Rates Measured?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, students learn about weather forecasting and the role of the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite in data collection. Assuming the role of climatologists, students assist a reporter in determining the accuracy of weather predictions published in The Old Farmer's Almanac. The lesson requires a street map of the local community, acetate sheets to cover the map, materials needed to build a homemade rain gauge, and sample pages of the almanac. Teacher notes, student worksheet, glossary and an appendix introducing problem-based learning are included. This resource is the first of the 3-part learning module, Investigating the Climate System: Precipitation.

143

Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The superimposed thin-film pattern of all six layers is presented. The large pads are for connection with pins used to bring the signal out the back of the ceramic. In addition to the heat flux measurement, the surface temperature is measured with a platinum resistance layer (RTS). The resistance of this layer increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, these gages simultaneously measure the surface temperature and heat flux. The demonstrated applications include rocket nozzles, SCRAM jet engines, gas turbine engines, boiling heat transfer, flame experiments, basic fluid heat transfer, hypersonic flight, and shock tube testing. The laboratory involves using one of these sensors in a small combustion flame. The sensor is made on a 2.5 cm diameter piece of aluminum nitride ceramic.

Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

1994-01-01

144

A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in underground sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muons comprise an important contribution of the natural radiation dose in air (approx. 30 nSv/h of a total dose rate of 65-130 nSv/h), as well as in underground sites even when the flux and relative contribution are significantly reduced. The flux of muons observed underground can be used as an estimator for the depth in mwe (meter water equivalent) of the underground site. The water equivalent depth is important information to devise physics experiments feasible for a specific site. A mobile detector for performing measurements of the muon flux was developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of two scintillator plates (approx. 0.9 m2) which measure in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements at different locations at the surface or underground. The detector was used to determine muon fluxes at different sites in Romania. In particular, data were taken and the values of meter water equivalents were assessed for several locations at the salt mine in Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The measurements have been performed in two different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at the surface at different elevations were performed. The results were compared with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations using the CORSIKA and MUSIC codes.

Mitrica, Bogdan; Margineanu, Romul; Stoica, Sabin; Petcu, Mirel; Brancus, Iliana; Jipa, Alexandru; Lazanu, Ionel; Sima, Octavian; Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd; Petre, Marian; Toma, Gabriel; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Stanca, Denis; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

2011-10-01

145

Measurement of Heat Flux at Metal-Mold Interface during Casting Solidification  

SciTech Connect

All previous studies on interfacial heat transfer coefficient have been based on indirect methods for estimating the heat flux that employed either inverse heat transfer analysis procedures or instrumentation arrangements to measure temperatures and displacements near the metal-mold interface. In this paper, the heat transfer at the metal-mold interfaces is investigated using a sensor for the direct measurement of heat flux. The heat flux sensor (HFS) was rated for 700oC and had a time response of less than 10 ms. Casting experiments were conducted using graphite molds for aluminum alloy A356. Several casting experiments were performed using a graphite coating and a boron nitride coating. The measurement errors were estimated. The temperature of the mold surface was provided by the HFS while the temperature of the casting surface was measured using a thermocouple. Results for the heat transfer coefficients were obtained based on measured heat flux and temperatures. Four stages were clearly identified for the variation in time of the heat flux. Values of the heat transfer coefficient were in good agreement with data from previous studies.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2006-01-01

146

Measurements of the thermal neutrons flux near the EAS core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the thermal neutrons flux have been measured near the EAS core at the "Carpet-2" EAS array. The thermal neutron detectors were placed on the floor of the tunnel of the Muon Detector (MD) and showers with a core near the MD were selected. Thermal neutrons multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for these showers. Measurements of the lateral distribution function of thermal neutrons at distances of 1-16 m from the shower axis have been performed. The mean number of the recorded thermal neutrons as a function of the number of hadrons crossing the MD has been measured.

Dzhappuev, D. D.; Volchenko, V. I.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Mikhailova, O. I.; Petkov, V. B.; Stenkin, Yu V.; Tsyabuk, A. L.

2013-02-01

147

Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance at a temperate upland forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate upland forest in Central Ontario, Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve (45.28° N, 78.55° W) using the eddy covariance (EC) method. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS) Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA from Los Gatos Research, Inc.) operated at a sampling rate of 10 Hz allowed for simultaneous measurement of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O) over five months from June to October in 2011. Air was pulled from the top of a 32 m tower, 8 m above the forest canopy, to the bottom of the tower through 40 m of tubing to the instrument. A sonic anemometer and a LI-7500 open-path sensor were also used at the top of the tower to provide high frequency wind data and comparative open-path measurements of CO2 and H2O. A nearby soil station measured soil water content and soil temperature at 0, 3, and 10 cm below the surface. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux value (± standard deviation of the mean) of -2.7±0.13 nmol m-2 s-1. In early June when measurements commenced, the soil moisture was relatively high and CH4 flux values showed net emission. As the season advanced the soil became progressively drier, and there was an increasing trend in CH4 uptake, peaking in mid-September. There was also a diurnal trend in the CH4 flux, with increased uptake during the day, and decreased uptake between 0:00 and 08:00. The CH4 flux values correlated well with the horizontal wind speed measured within the forest canopy. We hypothesize that this may be due to a ventilation effect in which higher wind speed facilitates the introduction of CH4-rich air and removes CH4-depleted air near the methanotrophs in the soil. The measurements were made in an uneven-aged managed forest stand last harvested 15 years ago containing sandy and acidic soils (pH 4.0 - 5.0). Chamber flux measurements of CH4 were also performed at seven toposequences around the tower, every two weeks from June to October. These chamber flux values are qualitatively consistent with those measured by eddy covariance in terms of magnitude and seasonality. While the flux measurements indicate net uptake by soils, the diurnal cycle of mixing ratios often showed nighttime accumulation of methane, indicating that over the broader landscape around the tower, emissions may dominate.

Wang, J.; Murphy, J. G.; Winsborough, C. L.; Basiliko, N.; Geddes, J. A.; Thomas, S.

2012-12-01

148

Benthic oxygen fluxes on the Washington shelf and slope: A comparison of in situ microelectrode and chamber flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic oxygen fluxes calculated from in situ microelectrode profiles arc compared with benthic flux chamber O2 uptake measurements on a transect of eight stations across the continental shelf and three stations on the slope of Washington State. Station depths ranged from 40 to 630 m and bottom-water oxygen concentrations were 127-38 FM. The fluxes measured by the two methods were

DAVID ARCHER; ALLAN DEVOL

1992-01-01

149

Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements.  

PubMed

Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle by using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a midcontinental and a midoceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth. PMID:18172211

Dye, Stephen T; Guillian, Eugene H

2008-01-01

150

A method to measure cardiac autophagic flux in vivo.  

PubMed

Autophagy, a highly conserved cellular mechanism wherein various cellular components are broken down and recycled through lysosomes, has been implicated in the development of heart failure. However, tools to measure autophagic flux in vivo have been limited. Here, we tested whether monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine could be used to measure autophagic flux in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Using HL-1 cardiac-derived myocytes transfected with GFP-tagged LC3 to track changes in autophagosome formation, autophagy was stimulated by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Administration of chloroquine to inhibit lysosomal activity enhanced the rapamycin-induced increase in the number of cells with numerous GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. The chloroquine-induced increase of autophagosomes occurred in a dose-dependent manner between 1 microM and 8 microM, and reached a maximum 2 hour after treatment. Chloroquine also enhanced the accumulation of autophagosomes in cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide, while it attenuated that induced by Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase that interferes with fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. The accumulation of autophagosomes was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, which is known to inhibit the early phase of the autophagic process. Using transgenic mice expressing 3 mCherry-LC3 exposed to rapamycin for 4 hr, we observed an increase in mCherry-LC3-labeled autophagosomes in myocardium, which was further increased by concurrent administration of chloroquine, thus allowing determination of flux as a more precise measure of autophagic activity in vivo. MDC injected 1 hr before sacrifice colocalized with mCherry-LC3 puncta, validating its use as a marker of autophagosomes. This study describes a method to measure autophagic flux in vivo even in non-transgenic animals, using MDC and chloroquine. PMID:18216495

Iwai-Kanai, Eri; Yuan, Hua; Huang, Chengqun; Sayen, M Richard; Perry-Garza, Cynthia N; Kim, Lucy; Gottlieb, Roberta A

2008-04-01

151

Corrections of Heat Flux Measurements on Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of aerothermally induced convective heat transfer is important in the design of thermal protection systems for launch vehicles. Aerothermal models are typically calibrated via the data from circular, in-flight, flush-mounted surface heat flux gauges exposed to the thermal and velocity boundary layers of the external flow. Typically, copper or aluminum Schmidt- Boelter gauges, which take advantage of the one-dimensional Fourier's law of heat conduction, are used to measure the incident heat flux. This instrumentation, when surrounded by low-conductivity insulation, has a wall temperature significantly lower than the insulation. As a result of this substantial disturbance to the thermal boundary layer, the heat flux incident on the gauge tends to be considerably higher than it would have been on the insulation had the calorimeter not been there. In addition, radial conductive heat transfer from the hotter insulation can cause the calorimeter to indicate heat fluxes higher than actual. An overview of an effort to develop and calibrate gauge correction techniques for both of these effects will be presented.

Reinarts, Thomas R.; Matson, Monique L.; Walls, Laurie K.

2002-01-01

152

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-12-19

153

Multiyear measurements of ebullitive methane flux from three subarctic lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ebullition (bubbling) from small lakes and ponds at high latitudes is an important yet unconstrained source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Small water bodies are most abundant in permanently frozen peatlands, and it is speculated that their emissions will increase as the permafrost thaws. We made 6806 measurements of CH4 ebullition during four consecutive summers using a total of 40 bubble traps that were systematically distributed across the depth zones of three lakes in a sporadic permafrost landscape in northernmost Sweden. We identified significant spatial and temporal variations in ebullition and observed a large spread in the bubbles' CH4 concentration, ranging from 0.04% to 98.6%. Ebullition followed lake temperatures, and releases were significantly larger during periods with decreasing atmospheric pressure. Although shallow zone ebullition dominated the seasonal bubble CH4 flux, we found a shift in the depth dependency towards higher fluxes from intermediate and deep zones in early fall. The average daily flux of 13.4 mg CH4 m-2 was lower than those measured in most other high-latitude lakes. Locally, however, our study lakes are a substantial CH4 source; we estimate that 350 kg of CH4 is released via ebullition during summer (June-September), which is approximately 40% of total whole year emissions from the nearby peatland. In order to capture the large variability and to accurately scale lake CH4 ebullition temporally and spatially, frequent measurements over long time periods are critical.

Wik, Martin; Crill, Patrick M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bastviken, David

2013-07-01

154

Initial assessment of multi-scale measures of C02 and H20flux in the Siberian taiga  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured C02 and HzO fluxes between undis- turbed Larix gmelinii forest and the atmosphere at a remote Eastern Siberian site in July 1993. Scaled-up leaf-level porom- eter measurements agreed with those derived from the eddy correlation technique for the canopy fluxes of COz and HzO. Patch-scale measurements of ecosystem C02 exchange agreed in turn with regional CO2 exchange rates

D. Y. HOLLINGER; F. M. KELLIHER; E.-D. SCHULZE; N. N. VYGODSKAYA; A. VARLAGIN

155

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

156

HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and conver...

H. I. Kim H. T. Chae D. S. Im S. D. Kim

1996-01-01

157

Imposing strong constraints on tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes using passenger aircraft based measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Better understanding of the global and regional carbon budget is needed to perform a reliable prediction of future climate with an earth system model. However, the reliability of CO2 source/sink estimation by inverse modeling, which is one of the promising methods to estimate regional carbon budget, is limited because of sparse observational data coverage. Very few observational data are available in tropics. Therefore, especially the reconstruction of tropical terrestrial fluxes has considerable uncertainties. In this study, regional CO2 fluxes for 2006-2008 are estimated by inverse modeling using the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) in addition to the surface measurement dataset of GLOBALVIEW-CO2. CONTRAIL is a recently established CO2 measurement network using in-situ measurement instruments on board commercial aircraft. Five CONTRAIL aircraft travel back and forth between Japan and many areas: Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Australia. The Bayesian synthesis approach is used to estimate monthly fluxes for 42 regions using NICAM-TM simulations with existing CO2 flux datasets and monthly mean observational data. It is demonstrated that the aircraft data have great impact on estimated tropical terrestrial fluxes. By adding the aircraft data to the surface data, the analyzed uncertainty of tropical fluxes has been reduced by 15 % and more than 30 % uncertainty reduction rate is found in Southeast and South Asia. Specifically, for annual net CO2 fluxes, nearly neutral fluxes of Indonesia, which is estimated using the surface dataset alone, turn to positive fluxes, i.e. carbon sources. In Indonesia, a remarkable carbon release during the severe drought period of October-December in 2006 is estimated, which suggests that biosphere respiration or biomass burning was larger than the prior fluxes. Comparison of the optimized atmospheric CO2 with independent aircraft measurements of CARIBIC tends to validate results of the inversion system. It is expected that the use of instantaneous observational data with more sophisticated inversion methods will provide more accurate estimation of surface CO2 fluxes.

Niwa, Y.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.; Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Imasu, R.; Satoh, M.

2011-12-01

158

Human taurine metabolism: fluxes and fractional extraction rates of the gut, liver, and kidneys.  

PubMed

Taurine is involved in numerous biological processes. However, taurine plasma level decreases in response to pathological conditions, suggesting an increased need. Knowledge on human taurine metabolism is scarce and only described by arterial-venous differences across a single organ. Here we present taurine organ fluxes using arterial-venous concentration differences combined with blood flow measurements across the 3 major organ systems involved in human taurine metabolism in patients undergoing hepatic surgery. In these patients, we collected blood from an arterial line, portal vein, hepatic vein, and renal vein, and determined blood flow of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and renal vein using Doppler ultrasound. Plasma taurine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and net organ fluxes and fractional extraction rates were calculated. Seventeen patients were studied. No differences were found between taurine concentrations in arterial, portal venous, hepatic venous, and renal venous plasma. The only significant finding was a release of taurine by the portally drained viscera (P = .04). Our data show a net release of taurine by the gut. This probably is explained by the enterohepatic cycle of taurine. Future studies on human taurine metabolism are required to determine whether taurine is an essential aminosulfonic acid during pathological conditions and whether it should therefore be supplemented. PMID:22304837

van Stijn, Mireille F M; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Siroen, Michiel P C; Wong, Leanne N; van den Tol, M Petrousjka; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

2012-07-01

159

Relating aggregated surface water flux with Aquarius salinity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the original objectives of Aquarius is to use surface salinity measurement as a rain gauge to characterize the hydrologic balance. Rain affects Aquarius salinity measurements by changing the roughness and the brightness temperature, and the accumulated rain forms a fresh-water lens that dilutes the surface salinity. We have examined high frequency rainfall provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH), co-incident with about one year of Aquarius salinity measurements. The relation of rainfall accumulated over various periods and the Aquarius salinity measurement has been examined over various regions of the tropical oceans. Using surface ocean currents provided by the Ocean Surface Currents Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) and fresh water flux from TRMM, combined with Aquarius salinity, oceanic salinity budget was examined and the role of precipitation and ocean dynamics were evaluated over various regions.

Xie, X.; Liu, W.

2012-12-01

160

Spatial and temporal variations of methane flux measured by autochambers in a temperate ombrotrophic peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

measured CH4 flux at high temporal resolution with triplicate autochambers from three different plant communities at the ombrotrophic Mer Bleue bog in Canada to investigate the spatial and temporal variations, and factors that related to the CH4 flux. Our results show that seasonal mean CH4 fluxes from the Eriophorum-dominated community were 1.4-2.2 and 3.7-5.5 times higher than those from Maianthemum/Ledum and Chamaedaphne communities, respectively. Significant interannual variations in CH4 flux were observed in Maianthemum/Ledum and Chamaedaphne communities, attributable to a 55-60% reduction of mean summer (July-September) CH4 flux in 2010 as a consequence of a 5.5-9.0 cm lower mean summer water table compared to 2009. The Eriophorum community showed a much larger rate of increase in CH4 flux with peat temperature in the early growing season than in midsummer, which might be caused by a concomitant increase in root exudation of labile carbon for methanogenesis. Temporal variability of log-transformed CH4 flux was correlated (r ? 0.4) with peat temperature only when water table was less than 20, 30, and 40 cm below the peat surface for Maianthemum/Ledum, Chamaedaphne, and Eriophorum communities, respectively. This difference in water table threshold among communities might partly be related to differences in rooting depth and hence the ability of plants to sustain CH4 flux in dry conditions. These results suggest that modeling of CH4 flux from ombrotrophic peatlands over time should take into account the role of different vegetation types, since the relationships between CH4 emissions and environmental factors vary among vascular plant communities.

Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.

2014-05-01

161

Method to Determine the Global Thermogenic Methane Seepage Rate from the Helium Flux of the Continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom-up assessments of the contribution of natural hydrocarbon seepage from the earth to the global methane budget have quantified the emissions from small areas and attempted to extrapolate those measurements to a cumulative global emission rate, resulting in estimates of 18-48 Tg/yr (3-9% of the global methane budget). An alternative top-down method using helium is proposed to estimate the total emission rate of methane from natural hydrocarbon seepage worldwide from the equation: Qseeps = 4J 4 f g-1 f b c m c T c a where Qseeps is the quantity of methane emitted to the atmosphere annually (in Tg yr-1). 4J is the average flux of 4He atoms from the surface of the continents (4.18 x 1010atoms m-2 s-1), 4 f g-1 is the inverse of the global average fraction of natural hydrocarbon gases comprised of 4He in the subsurface, expressed as CH 4 (vol) / 4He (vol). The other variable is the fraction of the continents that are covered by sedimentary basins (f b ~0.4), which reduces the helium flux to the fraction that migrates through hydrocarbon reservoirs on the way to the surface. The constants convert 4He atoms m-2 s-1into 4He mass flux per m2 per year (c m = 2.11 x 10-16), 4He grams into CH 4 Teragrams (c T = 4.0 x 10-12) and c a is the area of the continents (1.53 x 1014 m2). This approach assumes the 4He flux from the continents is the same from basement shield areas as from sedimentary basins, and that the average 4He content of natural hydrocarbon seeps is the same as the 4He content of natural gases in subsurface reservoirs exploited for hydrocarbons worldwide. An internally consistent estimate of the 4He content of these gases can be determined from the increase in the 4He content of the atmosphere in the past 30 years, because this would be attributable to the worldwide hydrocarbon production during that period. A most likely increase of 4 x 1010 4He mol yr-1 and a maximum increase of 1.3 x 1011 4He mol y-1 has been measured at the experimental limit from the change in 3He/4He in the atmosphere, which implies a 4He content of 300 ppm and an upper limit of <1000 ppm for produced natural gases, consistent with the observed 4He content of produced hydrocarbon gases along the continental margins. Using this estimate gives a value for 4 f g-1 of 1000 and 3333, which results in a calculated minimum natural thermogenic methane seepage rate for the earth of >2 Tg yr-1 and a most likely rate of ~6-8 Tg yr-1 (~1% of the global methane budget). The validity of this method could be tested by measuring the helium content of natural gas seeps in comparison with the helium content of the underlying natural gas reservoirs.

Hornafius, J. S.

2012-12-01

162

A measurement of the antiproton flux in the cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A balloon-borne instrument has been used to detect cosmic-ray antiprotons. These are identified topologically by the appearance of annihilation prongs in a thick lead-plate spark chamber. The initial recording of the data is enriched in potential antimatter events by a selective trigger. After a small subtraction for background, 14 identified antiprotons yield a flux of 1.7 plus or minus 0.00005 antiproton/(sq m ster sec MeV) between 130 and 320 MeV at the top of the atmosphere. When combined with higher energy antiproton flux measurements, this result indicates that the antiprotons have a spectrum whose shape is the same as that of the protons, but with a magnitude reduced by a factor of 1/3000.

Buffington, A.; Schindler, S. M.

1981-01-01

163

Measurement of Correlation-Enhanced Collision Rates  

SciTech Connect

We measure the perpendicular-to-parallel collision rate {nu}{sub perpendicular||} in laser-cooled magnetized ion plasmas, spanning the uncorrelated to correlated regimes. In correlated regimes, we measure collision rates consistent with the 'Salpeter correlation enhancement' of roughly exp({gamma}), for correlation parameters {gamma} < or approx. 4. This enhancement also applies to fusion in dense plasmas such as stars.

Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.; Driscoll, C. F. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2009-05-08

164

Ultrasonic measurement of solid propellant burning rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the inadequacy of current methods for measuring the burning rate of solid propellants, an ultrasonic device has been developed that measures the grain thickness at a rate up to 5000 Hz. Satisfactory results have been obtained on specimens up to 40 mm thick in steady or slowly varying conditions, such as erosive combustion. Composite, double base and autopyrolyzing propellants

P. Kuentzmann; J.-C. Demarais; F. Cauty

1979-01-01

165

Development of a Passive Sensor for Measuring Water and Solute Mass Flux in the Hyporheic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring water, pollutant and nutrient exchange at the groundwater-surface water interface is challenging due to the dynamic nature of the hyporheic zone. Quantifying the exchange is critical to understanding mass balance across this interface. Technologies currently exist to identify groundwater discharge zones and infer estimates of contaminant mass flux based on total contaminant concentration in bulk sediment, though it is generally accepted that freely dissolved concentration in pore water is a better measure of potential exposure. Laboratory and preliminary field testing has been completed to demonstrate a new tool with potential to provide more accurate characterization of water, pollutant and nutrient flux at the groundwater-surface water interface through direct in-situ measurement. The sediment bed passive flux meter (SBPFM) was designed for passively and directly providing in-situ measurements of volumetric water flux and solute mass flux vertically through the upper surface sediment layer and into the overlying water column. The SBPFM consists of an internal permeable sorbent which is impregnated with one or more water soluble tracers (typically alcohols) and is contained in a dedicated drive-point with upper and lower screened openings for fluid intake and exhaust. This configuration generates water flow through the device proportional to the vertical gradient between the sediment bed and the water column. Once the SBPFM has been deployed, the tracers are displaced from the sorbent at rates proportional to the average vertical specific discharge. The mass loss of tracers during deployment can be used to calculate the cumulative water flux. Similarly, the cumulative mass of sorbed pollutants or nutrients provide a direct measurement of the vertical mass flux during deployment. The SBPFM prototype has been tested in controlled laboratory sediment interface models. The results show good agreement between the SBPFM calculated and the applied water and contaminant fluxes through the laboratory aquifer model. Flow reversals are anticipated for tidal sites and sorbent layers within the PFM are segmented and used to determine next flux magnitude and direction averaged over the deployment period. Preliminary field testing is underway focusing on an areas with chlorinated solvent contamination discharging to surface water. The SBPFM is deployed to quantify the net mass discharge of contaminants to a small stream over a short reach. The integrated mass discharge can be compared to concentrations and mass discharge observed in surface water. The SBPFM provides a new tool to assess water and solute flux at point locations and can provide spatial variability that can be integrated to support mass balance studies on segments of surface water reaches.

Annable, Michael D.; Layton, Leif; Hatfield, Kirk; Newman, Mark C.; Cho, Jaehyun; Klammler, Harald

2014-05-01

166

Measurement of trapped flux distribution in a high-Tc superconductor using a flux-gate magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the trapped flux was measured using a miniaturized flux-gate magnetometer with resolution as high as 0.46 mG at 77 K for a BiSrCaCuO high-Tc superconductor cooled down to 77 K in the presence of ac magnetic field (0.5–50 Hz) of 0.6 G in peak-to-peak and in-plane thermal gradient. The amplitude of the trapped flux decreased with increasing

I. Sasada; Y. Oonaka; K. Harada

1993-01-01

167

How to derive flux control coefficients from the rate equations of classical enzyme kinetics.  

PubMed

A recent report by Brown and Cooper demonstrated the usefulness of calculating "flux control coefficients" for each of the rate constants involved in the assumed kinetic mechanism of a single enzyme. The calculations of Brown and Cooper involved numerical differentiation. The present article substantiates this report by showing that the numerical results of Brown and Cooper can also be obtained in an explicit form. The analytical equations given establish the relationship between rigorously specified overall rate processes and "elementary rate constants," both being defined by the rate equations of classical enzyme kinetics. It is shown that analytical flux control coefficients can be obtained for all types of rate processes considered in classical enzyme kinetics, including, "initial rates," equilibrium exchange reactions, and reactions at limiting levels of substrate (and/or product) saturation. By restricting the discussion to strictly consecutive (ordered, unbranched, linear) mechanisms, the line of reasoning can be presented in a relatively simple form. The main conclusions are the following: (a) It is advantageous to carry out the analysis in terms of paired (conjugated) control coefficients. (b) Flux control analysis of "elementary rate constants" does not require any extra kinetic argument. (c) Neither the immediate aim nor the results of the presented type of analysis are directly relevant to theories of metabolic control. On the contrary, the type of control analysis considered completes classical enzyme kinetics with a new facet. (d) For illustrating its usefulness, the concept of flux control coefficients is applied to the problem of optimization of enzyme activity. PMID:8942176

Südi, J

1996-11-01

168

SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

2011-01-01

169

Progress on a Rayleigh Scattering Mass Flux Measurement Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic has been developed to provide mass flux measurements in wind tunnel flows. Spectroscopic molecular Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic tool that has the ability to provide simultaneous density and velocity measurements in gaseous flows. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 10 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to a solid Fabry-Perot etalon for spectral analysis. The circular interference pattern that contains the spectral information that is needed to determine the flow properties is imaged onto a CCD detector. Baseline measurements of density and velocity in the test section of the 15 cm x 15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented as well as velocity measurements within a supersonic combustion ramjet engine isolator model installed in the tunnel test section.

Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.

2010-01-01

170

A Fast, Accurate Method of Computing Near-Surface Longwave Fluxes and Cooling Rates in the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

As radiation plays a key role in the determination of the near-surface thermal environment, great accuracy is required in the computation of radiative fluxes, especially because a small error in the fluxes can lead to large errors in estimated cooling rates. A new code that employs a novel numerical scheme for making precise estimates of longwave fluxes and cooling rates

Saji Varghese; A. S. Vasudeva Murthy; Roddam Narasimha

2003-01-01

171

Imposing strong constraints on tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes using passenger aircraft based measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because very few measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are available in the tropics, estimates of surface CO2 fluxes in tropical regions are beset with considerable uncertainties. To improve estimates of tropical terrestrial fluxes, atmospheric CO2 inversion was performed using passenger aircraft based measurements of the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project in addition to the surface measurement data set of GLOBALVIEW-CO2. Regional monthly fluxes at the earth's surface were estimated using the Bayesian synthesis approach focusing on the period 2006-2008 using the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model-based Transport Model (NICAM-TM). By adding the aircraft to the surface data, the posterior flux errors were greatly reduced; specifically, error reductions of up to 64% were found for tropical Asia regions. This strong impact is closely related to efficient vertical transport in the tropics. The optimized surface fluxes using the CONTRAIL data were evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 distributions with independent aircraft measurements of the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) project. The inversion with the CONTRAIL data yields the global carbon sequestration rates of 2.22 ± 0.28 Pg C yr-1 for the terrestrial biosphere and 2.24 ± 0.27 Pg C yr-1 for the oceans (the both are adjusted by riverine input of CO2). For the first time the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements were used in an inversion system to identify the areas of greatest impact in terms of reducing flux uncertainties.

Niwa, Yosuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Schuck, Tanja J.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Imasu, Ryoichi; Satoh, Masaki

2012-06-01

172

The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability  

SciTech Connect

A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

2003-05-20

173

High-resolution hot-film measurement of surface heat flux to an impinging jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the complex coupling between surface heat transfer and local fluid velocity in convective heat transfer, advanced techniques are required to measure the surface heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several established flow velocity techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry, particle image velocimetry and hot wire anemometry can measure fluid velocities at high spatial resolution (µm) and have a high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) characteristic. Equivalent advanced surface heat transfer measurement techniques, however, are not available; even the latest advances in high speed thermal imaging do not offer equivalent data capture rates. The current research presents a method of measuring point surface heat flux with a hot film that is flush mounted on a heated flat surface. The film works in conjunction with a constant temperature anemometer which has a bandwidth of 100 kHz. The bandwidth of this technique therefore is likely to be in excess of more established surface heat flux measurement techniques. Although the frequency response of the sensor is not reported here, it is expected to be significantly less than 100 kHz due to its physical size and capacitance. To demonstrate the efficacy of the technique, a cooling impinging air jet is directed at the heated surface, and the power required to maintain the hot-film temperature is related to the local heat flux to the fluid air flow. The technique is validated experimentally using a more established surface heat flux measurement technique. The thermal performance of the sensor is also investigated numerically. It has been shown that, with some limitations, the measurement technique accurately measures the surface heat transfer to an impinging air jet with improved spatial resolution for a wide range of experimental parameters.

O'Donovan, T. S.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

2011-10-01

174

System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

2006-08-15

175

On the Measurement of Neutron Flux: A Fission Track Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of the use of dosimeter glasses for fission track dating experiments. SRM612, SRM912 and Fleischer's dosimeter glasses Were used for thermal neutron flux measurement and calibrated against activation foils. Mean values of the calibration constants for each dosimeter glass are SRM612 ~ 6.60 X 109, SRM912 ~ 6.51 X 109 and Fleischer's glass ~ 2.28 X 1011. Dosimeter glasses described in this paper have been tested extensively on some mineral standards in conjunction with different reactor facilities, namely CIRUS (India), RISØ (Denmark) and HIFAR (Australia). The advantages of the above mentioned dosimeters are discussed

Koul, Sohan L.

1985-11-01

176

Development of a Heat Flux Meter and Measurement of the Heat Flux to the Divertor in DIVA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In evaluating the quantity of heat flowing to the divertor, the heat flux has so far been measured with a thermocouple probe of resolving time 5 ms. To examine time variation of the heat flux to the divertor, a Ni-evapolated thin film sensor of resolving ...

N. Ueda M. Seki K. Anno H. Kawamura H. Maeda

1976-01-01

177

Measurement of autophagy flux in the nervous system in vivo  

PubMed Central

Accurate methods to measure autophagic activity in vivo in neurons are not available, and most of the studies are based on correlative and static measurements of autophagy markers, leading to conflicting interpretations. Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process involved in the degradation of diverse cellular components including organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy impairment is emerging as a relevant factor driving neurodegeneration in many diseases. Moreover, strategies to modulate autophagy have been shown to provide protection against neurodegeneration. Here we describe a novel and simple strategy to express an autophagy flux reporter in the nervous system of adult animals by the intraventricular delivery of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) into newborn mice. Using this approach we efficiently expressed a monomeric tandem mCherry-GFP-LC3 construct in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system, allowing the measurement of autophagy activity in pharmacological and disease settings.

Castillo, K; Valenzuela, V; Matus, S; Nassif, M; Onate, M; Fuentealba, Y; Encina, G; Irrazabal, T; Parsons, G; Court, F A; Schneider, B L; Armentano, D; Hetz, C

2013-01-01

178

Surface flux estimation using radiometric temperature: A dual-temperature-difference method to minimize measurement errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature serves as a key boundary condition that defines the partitioning of surface radiation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Surface brightness temperature measurements from satellites offer the unique possibility of mapping surface heat fluxes at regional scales. Because uncertainties in satellite measurements of surface radiometric temperature arise from atmospheric corrections, surface emissivity, and instrument calibrations, a number of studies have found significant discrepancies between modeled and measured heat fluxes when using radiometric temperature. Recent research efforts have overcome these uncertainties and in addition have accounted for the difference between radiometric and aerodynamic temperature by considering soil and vegetative-canopy aerodynamic resistances. The major remaining obstacle to using satellite data for regional heat flux estimation is inadequate density of near-surface air temperature observations. In this paper we describe a simple, operational, double-difference approach for relating surface sensible heat flux to remote observations of surface brightness temperature, vegetative cover and type, and measurements of near-surface wind speed and air temperature from the synoptic weather network. A double difference of the time rate of change in radiometric and air temperature observations is related to heat flux. This double-difference approach reduces both the errors associated with deriving a radiometric temperature and with defining meteorological quantities at large scales. The scheme is simpler than other recent approaches because it requires minimal ground-based data and does not require modeling boundary layer development. The utility of this scheme is tested with ground-based radiometric temperature observations from several arid and subhumid climates with a wide range of vegetative cover and meteorological conditions.

Norman, J. M.; Kustas, W. P.; Prueger, J. H.; Diak, G. R.

2000-08-01

179

Investigation of the measurement dynamics of a flux qubit inductively coupled to a readout dc-SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the measurement dynamics of a flux qubit inductively coupled to a capacitively shunted, readout dc-SQUID. We study how the measurement induced dephasing and relaxation rates scale as a function of the qubit operation point and measurement strength. We find analytical solutions when the measurement is quantum-non-demolition (QND) and provide a numerical investigation for non-QND operation. This is of importance as the measurement of the flux qubit when operated at its sweet spot is inherently non-QND. We conclude this with a discussion of the measurement efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio.

Groszkowski, Peter; Gambetta, Jay; Wilhelm, Frank

2011-03-01

180

Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.  

PubMed

Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies. PMID:23824222

Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

2014-08-01

181

Footprint estimation for scalar flux measurements in the atmospheric surface layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux footprint is the contribution, per unit emission, of each element of a surface area source to the vertical scalar flux measured at height zm; it is equal to the vertical flux from a unit surface point source. The dependence of the flux footprint on crosswind location is shown to be identical to the crosswind concentration distribution for a

T. W. Horst; J. C. Weil

1992-01-01

182

Effects of measurement resolution and random measurement error on temperature based estimates of vertical stream-aquifer flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of temperature measurements to describe or quantify stream-aquifer interaction has received much attention within the hydrologic community. One common method to infer infiltration rates makes use of diurnal temperature fluctuations of the stream and streambed sediments. In this study a synthetic stream-aquifer interaction experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of temperature measurement resolution and measurement error on inferred vertical water fluxes using Stallman’s solution. Hydrus-1D was used to generate synthetic thermographs at multiple depths in a simulated streambed in response to a sinusoidally varying surface temperature across a range of vertical water fluxes. To simulate real instruments, these thermographs were filtered at different levels or corrupted with different levels of random error to represent ranges of reduced measurement resolution or random measurement error, respectively. As expected, the sensitivity of the temperature tracer method decreases with decreased downward or increased upward flux as well as increased depth. The study also showed that the effects of temperature measurement error and measurement resolution on estimates of vertical water fluxes have disproportionately large impacts under upward flow conditions (Fig. 1). The effects of decreased sensitivity under these flow conditions are magnified by low sensor resolution and by large sensor depths and offer very little flexibility on sensor selection and placement. Therefore, under upward flow we recommend that sensors with high measurement resolution (<0.05 °C) and medium to low uncertainty (<0.5 °C) should be used and placed within the uppermost 0.3 m of the streambed where possible. Finally, we describe how these results can be tailored to site specific parameters to improve on the experimental application of temperature as a tracer. Figure 1: [A,B] Inferred vertical flux bias with discrete thermographs and [C,D] average inferred vertical flux bias with error corrupted thermographs as a function of measurement depth and applied flux. Each panel represents a different temperature discretization interval (TDI) level or temperature error (TE) level. The white/hashed represent the region where the absolute measurement bias is greater than 10%.

Soto, C. D.; Meixner, T.; Ferre, T. A.

2010-12-01

183

Continuous Measurement of Solid Propellant Burning Rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental apparatus was developed for the direct and continuous measurement of the burning rates of solid rocket propellants under conditions closely approximating those occurring in a solid rocket motor. The apparatus utilizes a positioning type se...

J. R. Osborn R. J. Burick R. F. Panella

1964-01-01

184

Wintertime Air-Sea Gas Transfer Rates and Air Injection Fluxes at Station Papa in the NE Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent studies of air-sea fluxes of N2 and O2 in hurricanes, McNeil and D'Asaro (2007) used a simplified model formulation of air-sea gas flux to estimate simultaneous values of gas transfer rate, KT, and air injection flux, VT. The model assumes air-sea gas fluxes at high to extreme wind speeds can be explained by a combination of two processes: 1) air injection, by complete dissolution of small bubbles drawn down into the ocean boundary layer by turbulent currents, and 2) near-surface equilibration processes, such as occurs within whitecaps. This analysis technique relies on air-sea gas flux estimates for two gases, N2 and O2, to solve for the two model parameters, KT and VT. We present preliminary results of similar analysis of time series data collected during winter storms at Station Papa in the NE Pacific during 2003/2004. The data show a clear increase in KT and VT with increasing NCEP derived wind speeds and acoustically measured bubble penetration depth.

McNeil, C.; Steiner, N.; Vagle, S.

2008-12-01

185

Flux measurements and sampling strategies: Applications to methane emissions from rice fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of methane from rice fields and other sources are often measured by placing chambers on the surface and taking sequential samples. Although static chambers pose several problems that affect the accuracy of the data, there are a few parameters that, if carefully chosen, can improve the reliability of the data and reduce the uncertainties. These parameters are the length of time the chamber is kept on the rice plants, the number of samples that are drawn to estimate the flux, the basal area and height of the chamber, the frequency of measurements during the growing season, and the number of plots sampled. In this paper we analyze a large data set to determine how these parameters can be chosen to improve data quality. The results show that, for individual flux measurements, extending the time the chambers are left on the plots improves precision more effectively than taking more sequential samples for each flux measurement. The exposure time cannot be extended too far, however, as it leads to a saturation effect so that the rate of accumulation in the chamber slows down. This can compromise the accuracy of the measurement. There is an optimum exposure time that balances these two effects. Many individual measurements are needed to characterize the emissions from the larger area of the fields and the seasonal patterns. For methane emissions from rice fields, the amplitude of the systematic seasonal cycle is usually large compared to the variability on shorter timescales. Consequently, reducing the sampling frequency increases the uncertainty of the seasonal flux very slowly. The spatial variability is large and random on the small scales of the basal area of the chambers. Reducing the number of plots sampled, therefore, has a major effect on the uncertainty of the seasonal average flux.

Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Shearer, M. J.

1998-10-01

186

Precision Measurement of the ^7Be Solar Neutrino Flux with the Borexino Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borexino is a low-background liquid scintillator detector, designed to measure the flux of sub-MeV solar neutrinos. Recent results from the Borexino collaboration include a low-energy-threshold measurement of the ^8B solar neutrinos and the first observation of geo-neutrinos at more than 4? confidence level. Work is currently underway to try to obtain a measurement of the ^7Be solar neutrino rate with an uncertainty of <=5%. In order to achieve this level of precision, an extensive calibration campaign was undertaken along with a careful estimation of all the systematics associated with the analysis. A result with this precision would be the best determination of the ^7Be neutrino flux to date and would test the LMA-MSW oscillation model in the vacuum regime as well as improve our understanding of the Standard Solar Model.

Saldanha, Richard

2011-04-01

187

A capacitive probe with shaped probe bias for ion flux measurements in depositing plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The application of a pulse shaped biasing method implemented to a capacitive probe is described. This approach delivers an accurate and simple way to determine ion fluxes in diverse plasma mixtures. To prove the reliability of the method, the ion probe was used in a different configuration, namely, a planar Langmuir probe. In this configuration, the ion current was directly determined from the I-V characteristic and compared with the ion current measured with the pulse shaped ion probe. The results from both measurements are in excellent agreement. It is demonstrated that the capacitive probe is able to perform spatially resolved ion flux measurements under high deposition rate conditions (2-20 nm/s) in a remote expanding thermal plasma in Ar/NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} mixture.

Petcu, M. C.; Bronneberg, A. C.; Sarkar, A.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Blauw, M. A. [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2008-11-15

188

Thermal fluxes and cooling rates in the Venus atmosphere from Venera-15 infrared spectrometer data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of infrared spectrometer experiment on board Venera-15 spacecraft provided the chance to retrieve the thermal and aerosol structures of the atmosphere in a self-consistent way for the altitudes 55-100 km. On the basis of these data, the outgoing thermal flux and cooling rates were computed. The value of the outgoing flux is 170-180 W/sq m for the latitudes 0-50 deg N. In the 'cold collar' region (50-70 deg N), an abrupt decrease of the flux to the values of 130-140 W/sq m is observed. The outgoing flux reaches its maximal value of about 210 W/sq m in the region of polar 'hot spots'. The cooling rate above 80 km is mainly affected by the radiative transport in the 15-micron CO2 band. Its value increases with altitude and reaches the value of 30-40 K/day at 100 km. In the altitude range 75-55 km, the cooling rate profile depends on the cloud structure. At the altitudes of 60-65 km, the cooling rate maximum of 5-10 K/day connected with the cloud top is observed.

Titov, D. V.; Haus, R.; Schafer, K.

1992-09-01

189

Use of the modified bowen-ratio technique to measure fluxes of trace gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modified Bowen-ratio (MBR) technique is a micrometeorological method that can be used to estimate air-surface exchange rates, providing differences in concentrations between two heights can be resolved. Application of the MBR method requires that fluxes and gradients for at least one scalar entity be measured in order to directly compute the exchange coefficient k, which is assumed to be applicable for all scalars. Direct measurements of fluxes (eddy correlation) and gradients for CO 2 and H 2O were made during three experiments. Measurements were made at the forest floor of a boreal forest, over a lake surface, and at the forest floor of a leafless deciduous forest. Data from these experiments were used to examine the equality of H 2O and CO 2 exchange coefficients. The mean difference between the exchange coefficients for CO 2 and H 2O was not found to be statistically different from zero. Uncertainties in the determination of k associated with gradient measurements and sampling strategies are evaluated. The MBR technique is then used to assess the air-surface exchange rates of gas-phase mercury. Although the acceptably good agreement between the exchange coefficients for CO 2 and H 2O does not prove they are equal to k for Hg, greater confidence is assumed in the determination of Hg fluxes than just using k for heat.

Meyers, Tilden P.; Hall, Mark E.; Lindberg, Steven E.; Kim, Ki

190

Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

2006-01-01

191

Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in electric-arc jet facilities for planetary entry heating simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes are constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies; the temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its rate of change gives the steady-state, absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. It is concluded that the simple construction of these probes allows them to be expendable and heated to destruction to obtain a measurable temperature slope at high heating rates.

Russell, L. D.

1979-01-01

192

Rates of nitrification, distribution of nitrifying bacteria and inorganic N fluxes in northern Bering-Chukchi shelf sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial distribution of sediment nitrification rates and fluxes of ammonium and nitrate were measured in shelf sediments of the northern Bering and Chukchi seas. The sediments could be divided into three main areas depending on macrofaunal activity and input of organic nitrogen. Sediments underlying the highly productive Bering Shelf-Anadyr water (BSAS) were characterized by a high macrofaunal biomass and a high input of nitrogen-rich organic material. Tube-dwelling amphipods dominated in the sandy sediments of the northern Bering Sea, while bivalves dominated in the fine textured sediments of the Chukchi Sea. Sediments underlying the low productive Alaska Coastal Water (ACS) were characterized by low macrofaunal biomass and an input of lower quality organic material. Generally nitrification rates and nutrification potentials (NP) were highest in BSAS and lower in ACS. Nitrification rates of surface sediment, calculated from NP, accounted for 90% of the measured rates in ACS, but only 35-75% in BSAS. These data together with the distribution patterns of NP and pore water nitrate profiles implied, that most sediment nitrification was confined to the sediment surface in ACS and in BSAS bivalve sediments, while most sediment nitrification took place in the ventilated burrow walls of BSAS amphipod sediments. The NH 4+ efflux was five-fold greater from BSAS compared to ACS, whereas the estimated sediment net NH 4+ production was three-fold greater. The increase in NH 4+ efflux relative to net NH 4+ production could mostly be attributed to macrofaunal excretion. The NO 3- flux between sediment and water column was correlated with NO 3- concentrations in the bottom water. At concentrations higher than 10 ?M NO 3-, the flux was directed into the sediment and at lower concentrations out of the sediment. Spatial distribution of high bottom water NO 3- concentrations correlated with high NH 4+ fluxes out of the sediment. This resulted in a lower net efflux of inorganic nitrogen from these sediments.

Henriksen, K.; Blackburn, T. H.; Lomstein, B. Aa.; McRoy, C. P.

1993-05-01

193

Measurement of the Atmospheric ?e Flux in IceCube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube’s DeepCore low-energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496±66(stat)±88(syst) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.

Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

2013-04-01

194

Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shono, A. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

1993-02-01

195

Flux-Flow Norse Measurements on Type II Superconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flux-flow noise in Type 2 superconductors is investigated experimentally. The observed noise turns out to be shot noise as expected from the assumption that the flux-flow voltage is generated by independently drifting flux bundles. Bundle sizes as large a...

S. W. Shen A. van der Ziel

1972-01-01

196

Initiation of methane turbulent flux measurements over a grazed grassland in Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane fluxes emitted by a grazed meadow were measured continuously during the 2012 grazing season at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (50° 18' 44" N; 4° 58' 07" E; 248 m asl.) in Belgium. Measurements were made with the eddy covariance technique, using a fast CH4 analyzer (Picarro G2311-f). Carbon dioxide fluxes (LI-7000) and various micro-meteorological and soil variables, biomass growth and stocking rate evolution were also measured at the site. The site is an intensively pastured meadow of 4.2 ha managed according to the regional usual practices where up to 30 cows are grazing simultaneously. N2O emissions are currently measured through dynamic closed chambers (Beekkerk van Ruth et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 15, EGU2013-3211, 2013) and the carbon budget of the site has already been investigated (Jerome et al. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-6989, 2013). As no CH4 measurements were available, CH4 fluxes were estimated on the basis of dry matter intake by the cows and a conversion factor obtained from a literature review. We want to improve this estimation by measuring CH4 fluxes, identifying their main environmental drivers and understanding diurnal and annual exchange patterns. Methane emissions were found strongly related with cattle stocking rate with a slope of 7.34±0.78 mol CH4 day-1 LSU-1. Up to now, no methane absorption has been observed, the meadow behaving as a methane emitter, even in the absence of cows. In the absence of cows, no significant relation can be established up to now between methane emissions and environmental parameters. No clear diurnal evolution is observed, neither during grazing periods nor during cow free periods. During cow presence periods, fluxes are highly variable, probably due to cow movements in and out the measurement footprint and cow digestion rhythm. Further developments are ongoing in order to improve cattle geo-localization through individual home-made GPS devices and infra-red cameras. The two systems will be compared in terms of cost, efficiency and ease of use. Key words: grassland, methane fluxes, eddy covariance, cattle emissions

Dumortier, Pierre; Aubinet, Marc; Chopin, Henri; Debacq, Alain; Jérome, Elisabeth; Beckers, Yves; Heinesch, Bernard

2013-04-01

197

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to themâseeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

198

Soil, Leaf, and Canopy Chamber and Micrometeorological Measurements of CO2 Fluxes in Croplands and Grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net ecosystem CO2 fluxes are measured using methods that encompass a variety of time scales (seconds to hours) and spatial scales (square centimeters to hectares). Comparison of fluxes measured using different methods involves uncertainties associated with measurement accuracy and spatial and temporal extrapolation. This paper will present a synthesis of nearly a decade of ecosystem CO2 flux measurements made simultaneously using a variety of methods. Daytime, half-hour Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) and soil chamber CO2 flux measurements over a bare soil averaged 0.042 and 0.039 mg m-2 s-1 over four days, while the root mean square difference of fluxes was 0.017 mg m-2 s-1. The spatial variability of soil chamber measurements was 20 times that of the BREB measurements. Daytime leaf chamber measurements, after scaling up using leaf area and accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, were similar to, but slightly less than, half-hour net ecosystem BREB CO2 flux measurements for bermudagrass, tallgrass prairie, and sorghum. Canopy chamber measurements in the same ecosystems were similar to scaled leaf chamber fluxes. The scatter of leaf chamber fluxes, versus BREB fluxes, was greater than canopy chamber fluxes. Finally, daylight scaled CO2 fluxes from leaf and soil chamber measurements were within 17% of net ecosystem BREB fluxes in burn and control pastures in a mesquite grassland over two years, except for the burn treatment in one year when both sets of fluxes and leaf areas were near zero due to drought. In all of these studies, leaf, soil, and canopy chamber fluxes were scaled up to a temporal scale and a spatial scale comparable to that of the BREB measurements. The uncertainties associated with this scaling will be addressed.

Dugas, W. A.; Mielnick, P. C.

2001-05-01

199

Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux (FCO2) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured (FCO2) using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured (FCO2 ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m-2 day-1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from ??5 to 167%. However, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO2 emission rate estimates varied between groups by only ??22%. All three groups that made PM measurements reported an 8-19% increase in total emissions over the AM results. Based on a comparison of measurements made during AM and PM times, we argue that this change is due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. In order to estimate the mean and associated CO2 emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial FCO2 distribution, we compared six geostatistical methods: Arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods. While the total CO2 emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by ??4.4%, the FCO2 maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of FCO2, but a variety of geostatistical methods are appropriate to estimate the total CO2 emission rate from a study area, which is a primary goal in volcano monitoring research. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

Lewicki, J. L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

2005-01-01

200

Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparative study of soil CO2 flux (F_{CO_2 }) measured by five groups (Groups 1 5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1 5 measured F_{CO_2 } using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1 3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured F_{CO_2 } ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m-2 day-1. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from ±5 to 167%. However, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO2 emission rate estimates varied between groups by only ±22%. All three groups that made PM measurements reported an 8 19% increase in total emissions over the AM results. Based on a comparison of measurements made during AM and PM times, we argue that this change is due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. In order to estimate the mean and associated CO2 emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F_{CO_2 } distribution, we compared six geostatistical methods: arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods. While the total CO2 emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by ±4.4%, the F_{CO_2 } maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F_{CO_2 }, but a variety of geostatistical methods are appropriate to estimate the total CO2 emission rate from a study area, which is a primary goal in volcano monitoring research.

Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Granieri, Domenico; Varley, Nick; Werner, Cynthia

2005-11-01

201

Measurement of bit-error rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Error rate of RF digital communication link is measured at low signal-to-noise ratios using this technique. In this method, identical pseudo-random sequences of pulses are generated at transmitter and receiver of link. However, comparison of two sequences at receiver involves integration that makes bit-tracking threshold depend on length of pseudo-random sequence, rather than on actual rate of transmission of individual bits.

Fowler, J.; Kobayashi, H. S.; Kurple, W.

1977-01-01

202

Ways of measuring rates of recurrent events.  

PubMed Central

Recurrent events are common in medical research, yet the best ways to measure their occurrence remain controversial. Moreover, the correct statistical techniques to compare the occurrence of such events across populations or treatment groups are not widely known. In both observational studies and randomised clinical trials one natural and intuitive measure of occurrence is the event rate, defined as the number of events (possibly including multiple events per person) divided by the total person-years of experience. This is often a more relevant and clinically interpretable measure of disease burden in a population than considering only the first event that occurs. Appropriate statistical tests to compare such event rates among treatment groups or populations require the recognition that some individuals may be especially likely to experience recurrent events. Straightforward approaches are available to account for this tendency in crude and stratified analyses. Recently developed regression models can appropriately examine the association of several variables with rates of recurrent events.

Glynn, R. J.; Buring, J. E.

1996-01-01

203

Wintertime Air-Sea Gas Transfer Rates and Air Injection Fluxes at Station Papa in the NE Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent studies of air-sea fluxes of N2 and O2 in hurricanes, McNeil and D'Asaro (2007) used a simplified model formulation of air-sea gas flux to estimate simultaneous values of gas transfer rate, KT, and air injection flux, VT. The model assumes air-sea gas fluxes at high to extreme wind speeds can be explained by a combination of two processes:

C. McNeil; N. Steiner; S. Vagle

2008-01-01

204

Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

1987-01-01

205

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

SciTech Connect

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01

206

The Design of a Calorimeter to Measure Concentrated Solar Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled, cavity calorimeter was designed to accurately measure concentrated solar thermal power produced by the University of Minnesota's solar simulator. The cavity is comprised of copper tubing bent into spiral and helical coils for the base and cylindrical walls, respectively. Insulation surrounds the cavity to reduce heat transfer to the ambient, and a water- cooled aperture cover is positioned at the open end of the cavity. The calorimeter measures the heat gain of water flowing through the system as radiant energy is passed through the aperture. Chilled water flows through the tubing, and the energy incident on the cavity surface is conducted through the wall and convected to the flowing water. The energy increase in the water can be observed by an increase in fluid temperature. A Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to predict the incident flux distribution and corresponding power on the surfaces of the cavity. These values are used to estimate the thermal losses of the system, and it is found that they account for less that 1% of the total power passed through the aperture. The overall uncertainty of the calorimeter is found by summing the measured uncertainty and the estimated heat loss and is found to be +/-2.5% for 9.2 kW of power output and +/-3.4% for 3 kW.

Sefkow, Elizabeth Anne Bennett

207

The Measurement of Sound Power Flux in Flow Ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of robust procedures yielding reliable estimates of the nett sound power flux associated with one-dimensional wave motion under strongly reactive conditions in flow ducts. In such reverberant situations, the measurements must be sufficiently precise to clearly identify the small fraction of the total fluctuating wave energy that is being propagated through the system [1-4]. An expansion chamber, together with its inlet and outlet pipes radiating into a semi-anechoic space, was chosen as a simple but sufficiently representative example of such systems. Various practical problems, such as those arising from low signal-to-noise ratios, or any inadequacies of microphone calibration were investigated in detail, along with various strategies for minimizing their influence on the realism and reliability of the associated measurements. The most effective procedures were identified by performing a sequence of comparisons between the resulting measurements and checking them against data generated with an existing and well-verified prediction code.

HOLLAND, K. R.; DAVIES, P. O. A. L.

2000-03-01

208

The measurement of thermal neutron flux depression for determining the concentration of boron in blood.  

PubMed

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of targeted radiotherapy that relies on the uptake of the capture element boron by the volume to be treated. The treatment procedure requires the measurement of boron in the patient's blood. The investigation of a simple and inexpensive method for determining the concentration of the capture element 10B in blood is described here. This method, neutron flux depression measurement, involves the determination of the flux depression of thermal neutrons as they pass through a boron-containing sample. It is shown via Monte Carlo calculations and experimental verification that, for a maximum count rate of 1 x 10(4) counts/s measured by the detector, a 10 ppm 10B sample of volume 20 ml can be measured with a statistical precision of 10% in 32 +/- 2 min. For a source activity of less than 1.11 x 10(11) Bq and a maximum count rate of less than 1 x 10(4) counts/s, a 10 ppm 10B sample of volume 20 ml can be measured with a statistical precision of 10% in 58 +/- 3 min. It has also been shown that this technique can be applied to the measurement of the concentration of any element with a high thermal neutron cross section such as 157Gd. PMID:11277219

Brooke, S L; Green, S; Charles, M W; Beddoe, A H

2001-03-01

209

Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection  

SciTech Connect

Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs.

Heidbrink, W.W.

1986-01-01

210

Seawater methane flux, methane oxidation rates, and methane sources on the Central US Beaufort Sea Continental Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that some shallow-water circum-Arctic Ocean continental shelves (e.g., the Laptev Sea) are releasing substantial methane to the atmosphere. A number of processes -- including microbial degradation of organic matter in shallow sediments or in deeper sediments that were only recently thawed from permafrost, the dissociation of gas hydrates that formed in association with permafrost, and leakage from deeper thermogenic reservoirs -- may contribute to these methane fluxes. In August 2012, the USGS Gas Hydrates Project, with sponsorship from the DOE Methane Hydrates R&D Program, conducted a cross-shelf survey of greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon isotopic signatures of methane and CO2, and methane oxidation rates on the Central US Beaufort Sea continental shelf. IODP drilling has been proposed for a shelf-to-upper continental slope transect on this part of the Alaskan Beaufort passive margin to unravel the history of late Pleistocene to contemporary climate warming and sea level rise. The work presented here complements a 2012 USGS multichannel seismic program intended as IODP site survey. The flux, isotopic, and oxidation rate surveys sampled nearshore areas still underlain by subsea permafrost, a location where relict gas hydrate previously associated with permafrost may still exist and extend across the shelf to where present-day methane release is likely dominated by microbial methane generated in situ. The new geochemical data were acquired using dedicated cavity ringdown spectrometers (CRDS) for the atmospheric and sea surface measurements. The seawater CRDS also characterized the carbon isotopic signature of the CO2 and CH4 in real-time. Oxidation rate measurements were carried out using the low level 14C-CH4 (LL 14C) tracer method. Continuous measurements of surface air and surface seawater methane and carbon dioxide concentration, in conjunction with relevant meteorological and water chemistry data, permit us to calculate sea-to-air methane fluxes from nearshore shallow water to the shelf break. By surveying across the geophysically-defined permafrost-no-permafrost transition in both 2011 (Harrison Bay) and 2012, we have been able to evaluate the extent to which the thawing of subsea permafrost corresponds to changes in methane emission patterns. Vertical profiles of LL 14C tracer methane oxidation rates at distinct locations along the transect provide the modern constraints on the role of water column aerobic methanotrophs in mitigating methane emitted at the seafloor before it reaches the atmosphere. The combination of techniques employed here provide novel first order constraints on the sources of methane escaping sediments of the Central US Beaufort Shelf, the magnitude of greenhouse gases transmitted to the atmosphere and the role that methane oxidation plays in regulating these fluxes.

Pohlman, J.; Pack-Woo, M.; Xu, X.; Ruppel, C. D.; Casso, M.; Worley, C.

2012-12-01

211

Controls on Flux Rates of Dissolved Gaseous Mercury Emitted from an Estuarine Water Column to the Atmosphere in Eastern New Jersey.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission rate of mercury from a water surface is influenced by a matrix of water quality parameters, including dissolved organic material (DOM), incident radiation, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. As part of a larger project examining the total flux of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) from water, land, and plant surfaces, this work attempts to characterize the variables that control the emission of mercury from a estuarine water surface. The project's principal field site is a long recognized site of historic mercury contamination, the Ventron/Velsicol Superfund site located near the headwaters of Berry's Creek in eastern New Jersey. A number of field sites were selected longitudinally along a gradient of aqueous mercury concentration, DOM concentration, and salinity. Mercury fluxes at one site were measured over a continuous 55-hour period using flux chambers and field portable mercury analyzers, including those that measure absorbance (Mercury Instruments UT-3000) and those that measure fluorescence (Tekran). Here we report on fluxes of mercury from the water column as a function of water quality parameters. Measured mercury flux rates from the water surface ranged from near zero to almost 70 ng/m2/h. During the daytime, flux rates covaried positively with incoming solar radiation, with best fits approximated by a logarithmic relationship. Surprisingly, the highest mercury flux rates were observed at night. Nighttime fluxes appear to occur after a transition from daytime dissolved oxygen oversaturated conditions due to algal photosynthesis, to lower dissolved oxygen at nighttime. Clear relations between mercury flux rate and turbidity, pH, temperature, and salinity were not observed. Regionally elevated mercury concentrations may be sourced from this site, as the atmospheric mercury concentration measured 2m above the water surface varied inversely with windspeed. Maximum flux rates decreased with distance downstream, from near 70 ng/m2/h adjacent to the Superfund site to ~30-40 ng/m2/h approximately 3 km downstream. The comparison of fluorescence and absorbance analytical techniques was favorable, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.90 on parallel simultaneous measurements.

Peters, S.; Wollenberg, J.

2006-12-01

212

Direct Measurement of CO2 Fluxes in Marine Whitings  

SciTech Connect

Clean, affordable energy is a requisite for the United States in the 21st Century Scientists continue to debate over whether increases in CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources, including electricity generation, transportation and building systems may be altering the Earth's climate. While global climate change continues to be debated, it is likely that significant cuts in net CO{sub 2} emissions will be mandated over the next 50-100 years. To this end, a number of viable means of CO{sub 2} sequestration need to be identified and implemented. One potential mechanism for CO{sub 2} sequestration is the use of naturally-occurring biological processes. Biosequestration of CO{sub 2} remains one of the most poorly understood processes, yet environmentally safe means for trapping and storing CO{sub 2}. Our investigation focused on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in microbial precipitations of CaCO{sub 3}. Specifically, we investigated modern whitings (microbially-induced precipitates of the stable mineral calcium carbonate) as a potential, natural mechanism for CO{sub 2} abatement. This process is driven by photosynthetic metabolism of cyanobacteria and microalgae. We analyzed net air: sea CO{sub 2} fluxes, net calcification and photosynthetic rates in whitings. Both field and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that atmospheric CO{sub 2}decreases during the process of microbial calcification.

Lisa L. Robbins; Kimberly K. Yates

2001-07-05

213

Effect of magnetic field strength on deposition rate and energy flux in a dc magnetron sputtering system  

SciTech Connect

Variations in the magnetic field strongly affect the plasma parameters in a magnetron sputtering system. This in turn affects the throughput as well as the energy flux to the substrate. The variation in the magnetic field in this study, for a dc magnetron process, is achieved by shifting the magnet assembly slightly away from the target. Measurements of the plasma parameters show that while the electron density at the substrate increases with decrease in magnetic field, the electron temperature decreases. The cooling of the electron temperature is consistent with results reported elsewhere. The deposition rate per input magnetron power is found to increase slightly with the decrease in magnetic field for the process conditions considered in this study. Results suggest that the energy flux to the substrate tends to show a general decrease with the shift in the magnet assembly.

Ekpe, Samuel D.; Jimenez, Francisco J.; Field, David J.; Davis, Martin J.; Dew, Steven K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); NUCRYST Pharmaceuticals, 10102-114 st., Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta T8L 3W4 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2009-11-15

214

A highly portable, rapidly deployable system for eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed, built, and field-tested a highly portable, rapidly deployable, eddy covariance CO{sub 2} flux measurement system. The system is built from off-the-shelf parts and was assembled at a minimal cost. The unique combination of features of this system allow for a very rapid deployment with a minimal number of field personnel. The system is capable of making high precision, unattended measurements of turbulent CO{sub 2} fluxes, latent heat (LE) fluxes, sensible heat fluxes (H), and momentum transfer fluxes. In addition, many of the meteorological and ecosystem variables necessary for quality control of the fluxes and for running ecosystem models are measured. A side-by-side field comparison of the system at a pair of established AmeriFlux sites has verified that, for single measurements, the system is capable of CO{sub 2} flux accuracy of about {+-} 1.2 {micro}mole/m{sup 2}/sec, LE flux accuracy of about {+-} 15 Watts/m{sup 2}, H flux accuracy of about {+-} 7 Watts/m{sup 2}, and momentum transfer flux accuracy of about {+-} 11 gm-m/sec/sec. System deployment time is between 2 and 4 hours by a single person. The system was measured to draw between 30 and 35 Watts of power and may be run from available line power, storage batteries, or solar panels.

Billesbach, David P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Torn, Margaret S.; Berry, Joe A.

2001-09-19

215

Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

1983-03-01

216

Flow rate measurement in aggressive conductive fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two non-contact experimental methods of flow rate measurements for aggressive conductive liquids are described. The techniques are based on electromagnetic forces and Faraday's law: Lorentz force is induced inside moving conductive liquid under influence of variable magnetic field of permanent magnets. They are mounted along a liquid metal channel or (in case of the second method) inserted into rotated metal wheels. The force acts in the opposite of fluids' velocity direction and hence it is possible to measure reaction force of it that takes place according to Newton's law on magnetic field source - permanent magnets. And by knowing the force, which linearly depends on velocity, one can calculate mean flow rate of liquid. In addition experimental "dry" calibration and its results are described for one of the measurements' techniques.

Dubovikova, Nataliia; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Karcher, Christian

2014-03-01

217

Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected, the OS's monitor the tracer concentrations through time, which are modeled for fluid flow rates. Simultaneously the Mosquito provides a continuous record of fluid, at high-resolution, for chemical analysis. The fluid chemistry time series, in combination with the fluid flow rate record, provide a serial record of biogeochemical fluxes. The robust nature and adaptable layout of the Mosquito allows for a wide variety of deployment settings from mid ocean ridges to the continental shelf as well as lacustrine environments. Preliminary results are being presented for three major deployments of the new flow meters; a 5-day campaign style deployment at Hydrate Ridge offshore of Oregon, a recently recovered 2-year deployment at Hydrate Ridge, and two transects of Mosquito deployments spanning from the deformation front to the upper slope at the Cascadia subduction zone off the coast of Washington.

Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

2013-12-01

218

MEASURED AND PREDICTED FLUXES OF BIOGENIC SILICA IN LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatom production in the offshore waters of Lake Michigan is limited by silica supplies in late summer and can be predicted from the seasonal disappearance of silica from the trophogenic zone. Biogenic silica fluxes obtained from sediment trap collections were compared with fluxe...

219

Heat flux measured acoustically at Grotto Vent, a hydrothermal vent cluster on the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several decades, quantifying the heat output has been a unanimous focus of studies at hydrothermal vent fields discovered around the global ocean. Despite their importance, direct measurements of hydrothermal heat flux are very limited due to the remoteness of most vent sites and the complexity of hydrothermal venting. Moreover, almost all the heat flux measurements made to date are snapshots and provide little information on the temporal variation that is expected from the dynamic nature of a hydrothermal system. The Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS, https://sites.google.com/a/uw.edu/covis/) is currently connected to the Endeavour node of the NEPTUNE Canada observatory network (http://www.neptunecanada.ca) to monitor the hydrothermal plumes issuing from a vent cluster (Grotto) on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. COVIS is acquiring a long-term (20-months to date) time series of the vertical flow rate and volume flux of the hydrothermal plume above Grotto through the Doppler analysis of the acoustic backscatter data (Xu et al., 2013). We then estimate the plume heat flux from vertical flow rate and volume flux using our newly developed inverse method. In this presentation, we will briefly summarize the derivation of the inverse method and present the heat-flux time series obtained consequently with uncertainty quantification. In addition, we compare our heat-flux estimates with the one estimated from the plume in-situ temperatures measured using a Remotely Operative Vehicle (ROV) in 2012. Such comparison sheds light on the uncertainty of our heat flux estimation. Xu, G., Jackson, D., Bemis, K., and Rona, P., 2013, Observations of the volume flux of a seafloor hydrothermal plume using an acoustic imaging sonar, Geochemistry, Geophysics Geosystems, 2013 (in press).

Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.

2013-12-01

220

Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application  

SciTech Connect

The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M. [INVAP S.E., Moreno 1089, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Tropea, S. E. [INTI, Av. Gral. Paz 5445, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-01-21

221

Fast Flux Test Facility reactor initial criticality predictions and measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was designed to test fast-reactor fuels and other nonfuel materials. In its 37 reactor cycles of operations, the FFTF reactor has performed very well and successfully completed all the irradiation testings with an operating efficiency factor as high as 98%. Since FFTF is an experimental reactor, its core loading changed from cycle to cycle. Depending on the number of test assemblies in the core and their location, the core loading can change significantly from an essentially homogeneous core loading to a relatively nonhomogeneous or even highly localized heterogeneous loading. Consequently, the core reload design and initial criticality analyses were required for each operating cycle. The zero power initial critical control rod bank height was predicted before each reactor startup. The initial critical prediction depends on the reactivity conditions at the end of the previous cycle, the temperature feedback reactivities, the individual and total control rod bank worths for the current cycle, the differential rod worth profile, and the refueling reactivity for the current cycle core loading. The predicted and the measured initial critical control rod bank heights for the recent cycles are summarized.

Tang, E.L.; Knutson, B.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-01-01

222

[Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood furniture--estimation of emission rate by passive flux sampler].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate aldehydes and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from furniture, which may cause hazardous influence on human being such as sick building/sick house syndrome. In this study, VOCs emitted from six kinds of wood furniture, including three set of dining tables and three beds, were analyzed by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOCs (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the simulation model with volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table and one bed. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in two sets of dining tables and two beds. These results revealed that VOC emissions from wood furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative five areas of furniture unit were evaluated by passive sampling method using flux sampler and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates predicted by flux passive sampler were 10-106% (formaldehyde) and 8-141% (TVOC) of the data measured using large chamber test, respectively. PMID:22259847

Jinno, Hideto; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

2011-01-01

223

Wireless Measurement of Rotation and Displacement Rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic field response sensor is designed to measure displacement or rotation rate without a physical connection to a power source, microprocessor, data acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. The sensor works with the magnetic field response recorder, which was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. These sensors are wirelessly powered and interrogated, and the measurement acquisition system and sensors are extremely lightweight.The response recorder uses oscillating magnetic fields to power the sensors. Once powered, the sensors respond with their own magnetic field. For displacement/ rotation measurements, the response recorder uses the sensor s response amplitude, which is dependent on the distance from the antenna. The recorder s antenna orientation and position are kept fixed, and the sampling period is constant.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

2007-01-01

224

Comparative investigation of soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatistical estimation methods on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of soil CO2 flux (FCO2) and its natural spatial and temporal variability in volcanic and hydrothermal environments are important for volcano monitoring, geothermal exploration, delineation of fault and fracture zones, and estimation of the contribution of CO2 from volcanic and hydrothermal sources to the global carbon cycle. However, the choice of measurement and geostatistical methodologies may affect individual FCO2 measurements and characterization of their natural spatial and temporal variability, the total CO2 emission rate estimated, and the ability to assess the uncertainty associated with this estimate. We present a comparative study of FCO2 measured by five research groups (Groups 1-5) at the 2003 IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured FCO2 using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900~m2 grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. Measured FCO2 ranged from 218 to 14,719~g~m-2d^{-1}. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from \\pm5 to 167%; however, the arithmetic means of fluxes measured over the entire grid and associated total CO_{2} emission rate estimates varied between groups by only \\pm22%. All three groups that made PM measurements reported an 8-19% increase in total emissions over the AM results. Based on a comparison of measurements made during AM and PM times, this change is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. To estimate the mean and associated CO_{2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F_{CO2} distribution, we compared six geostatistical methods: arithmetic and mini?m variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods. While the total CO_{2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by \\pm1.1%, the F_{CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F_{CO2}, but a variety of geostatistical methods are appropriate to estimate the total CO_{2}$ emission rate from a study area, which is a primary goal in volcano monitoring research. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC03765F00098.

Lewicki, J. L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

2004-12-01

225

Carbon fluxes of surfaces vs. ecosystems: advantages of measuring eddy covariance and soil respiration simultaneously in dry grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated open system for measurement of soil CO2 efflux (Rsc) was developed and calibrated against known fluxes. The system was tested in the field, while estimating soil respiration simultaneously by the gradient method (Rsg) at a dry, sandy grassland site (Bugac, Hungary). Ecosystem respiration (Rego) was measured using the eddy covariance technique. The small chamber size (5 cm in diameter) made it possible to use the chambers in vegetation gaps, thereby avoiding the necessity of removing shoots and disturbing the spatial structure of vegetation and the upper soil layer. Low air flow rates associated with small chamber volume and chamber design allowed the overpressure range to stabilize between 0.05-0.12 Pa. The correlation between ecosystem and soil CO2 efflux rates as measured by the independent methods was significant, Reco rates were similar or even lower than Rsc in the low flux (up to 2 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) range but the differences were within the uncertainty limits for the two fluxes. Rsc from trenched and non-trenched plots amounted to 16 % and 44 % of Reco, respectively. The gradient method showed both up and downward CO2 fluxes originating from the main rooting zone after rains. Diffusive retardation played a smaller role than CO2 production considering the soil air CO2 concentration increase after rains in a given layer. Downward fluxes within the soil profile amounted to 15 % of the simultaneous upward fluxes and to ~7.6 % of the total (upward) effluxes during the 3-month study. The upper 5 cm soil layer contributed to ~50 % of the total soil CO2 efflux. Downward fluxes are expected to seriously affect (1) the Reco vs. temperature response functions and (2) the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) vs. photon flux density response functions, therefore potentially affecting the gap filling procedures and to lead to a situation (3) when the measured surface and the real time ecosystem fluxes will necessarily differ in the short term. Simultaneous measurements of Reco and soil CO2 effluxes may reveal the timing and magnitude of the decoupling, thereby contributing to decreasing uncertainty associated with eddy flux measurements over flat terrains. While the correlations between CO2 effluxes measured by independent systems are strong, Rsg was generally larger than Rsc or Reco, mainly due to overestimation of effective diffusivity in the soil.

Nagy, Z.; Pintér, K.; Pavelka, M.; Darenová, E.; Balogh, J.

2011-09-01

226

Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

Cartier, J. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)] [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France); Chappert, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2013-07-01

227

Airborne Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds and NOx over a European megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are priority pollutants whose concentrations are closely regulated by European Union Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC. O3 is a secondary pollutant, produced from a complex chemical interplay between oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Whilst the basic atmospheric chemistry leading to O3 formation is generally well understood, there are substantial uncertainties associated with the magnitude of emissions of both VOCs and NOx. At present our knowledge of O3 precursor emissions in the UK is primarily derived from National Atmospheric Emission inventories (NAEI) that provide spatially disaggregated estimates at 1x1km resolution, and these are not routinely tested at city or regional scales. Uncertainties in emissions propagate through into uncertainties in predictions of air quality in the future, and hence the likely effectiveness of control policies on both background and peak O3 and NO2 concentrations in the UK. The Ozone Precursor Fluxes in the Urban Environment (OPFUE) project aims to quantify emission rates for NOx and selected VOCs in and around the megacity of London using airborne eddy covariance (AEC). The mathematical foundation for AEC has been extensively reviewed and AEC measurements of ozone, dimethyl sulphide, CO2 and VOCs have been previously reported. During the summer of 2013, approximately 30 hours of airborne flux measurements of toluene, benzene, NO and NO2 were obtained from the NERC Airborne Research and Survey Facility's (ARSF) Dornier-228 aircraft. Over SE England, flights involved repeated south west to north east transects of ~50 km each over Greater London and it's surrounding suburbs and rural areas, flying at the aircraft's minimum operating flight altitude and airspeed (~300m, 80m/s). Mixing ratios of benzene and toluene were acquired at 2Hz using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and compared to twice hourly whole air canister samples (WAS) which were quantitatively determined post-flight via TD-GCMS. Mixing ratios between the PTR-MS and WAS-TD-GCMS were in good agreement with R2 values of 0.8 and 1.0 for Toluene and Benzene respectively. Mixing ratios of NO and NO2 were acquired at 10Hz using a 2 channel NOx chemiluminescence detector with photolytic converter. These measurements were used with 20 Hz 3-D wind vector data from an AIMMS-20 turbulence probe on the aircraft to calculate highly spatially resolved (1 km) surface-to-atmosphere emission flux rates of these compounds using the eddy covariance method of Karl et al. (2013). Measured surface to atmosphere emission fluxes of NOx, benzene and toluene from London were between 40 - 91 mg m2 h-1, 0.1 - 0.4 mg m2 h-1 and 0.2 - 2 mg m2 h-1 respectively, showing the spatial flux heterogeneity over the city. This demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of airborne eddy covariance flux measurements of reactive NOx species. We also show the applicability of wavelet analysis using virtually disjunct eddy covariance measurements of anthropogenic compounds in estimating regional fluxes over a European megacity. We compare our measured emission rates with those estimated from 'bottom-up' emissions inventories and highlight the agreement between the two.

Shaw, Marvin; Lee, James; Davison, Brian; Misztal, Pawel; Karl, Thomas; Hewitt, Nick; Lewis, Alistair

2014-05-01

228

Laboratory Measurements of HOx Radical Rate Constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of chemically active species in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere - O3, OH, HO2 - are poorly predicted by model calculations and some rate constant changes for OH + O (1), OH + HO2 (2), and O + HO2 (3) have been proposed as remedies. We have performed a series of laser photolysis experiments on mixtures of O3, N2, O2, and H2O or H2, using laser induced fluorescence measurements of OH or O atom decay rates to provide new determinations of these rate constants. Our method relies upon complete photodissociation of ozone at 248 nm to produce known amounts of O atoms at temperatures of 230 K to 385 K. For (1), we measure k = 1.36 x 10(-11) e (261/T) cm3/molec/s in agreement with recommended values. A second experiment which requires computer modeling of results was designed to be sensitive to k(2)*k(3)/k(1). Initial analysis of decays suggests a 15% increase in k(3) and 15% decrease in k(2) from NASA panel values. These differences are within uncertainties and are insufficient to modify model predictions significantly. Research supported by the NASA Geosciences ITM Program and NSF Aeronomy Program.

Smith, G. P.; Robertson, R.

2004-12-01

229

Chemical weathering rates of a soil chronosequence on granitic alluvium: III. Hydrochemical evolution and contemporary solute fluxes and rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although long-term changes in solid-state compositions of soil chronosequences have been extensively investigated, this study presents the first detailed description of the concurrent hydrochemical evolution and contemporary weathering rates in such sequences. The most direct linkage between weathering and hydrology over 3 million years of soil development in the Merced chronosequence in Central California relates decreasing permeability and increasing hydrologic heterogeneity to the development of secondary argillic horizons and silica duripans. In a highly permeable, younger soil (40 kyr old), pore water solutes reflect seasonal to decadal-scale variations in rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). This climate signal is strongly damped in less permeable older soils (250 to 600 kyr old) where solutes increasingly reflect weathering inputs modified by heterogeneous flow. Elemental balances in the soils are described in terms of solid state, exchange and pore water reservoirs and input/output fluxes from precipitation, ET, biomass, solute discharge and weathering. Solute mineral nutrients are strongly dependent on biomass variations as evidenced by an apparent negative K weathering flux reflecting aggradation by grassland plants. The ratios of solute Na to other base cations progressively increase with soil age. Discharge fluxes of Na and Si, when integrated over geologic time, are comparable to solid-state mass losses in the soils, implying similar past weathering conditions. Similarities in solute and sorbed Ca/Mg ratios reflect short-term equilibrium with the exchange reservoir. Long-term consistency in solute ratios, when contrasted against progressive decreases in solid-state Ca/Mg, requires an additional Ca source, probably from dry deposition. Amorphous silica precipitates from thermodynamically-saturated pore waters during periods of high evapotranspiration and result in the formation of duripans in the oldest soils. The degree of feldspar and secondary gibbsite and kaolinite saturation varies both spatially and temporally due to the seasonality of plant-respired CO2 and a decrease in organically complexed Al. In deeper pore waters, K-feldspar is in equilibrium and plagioclase is about an order of magnitude undersaturated. Hydrologic heterogeneity produces a range of weathering gradients that are constrained by solute distributions and matrix and macropore flow regimes. Plagioclase weathering rates, based on precipitation-corrected Na gradients, vary between 3 and 7 ?? 10-16 mol m-2 s-1. These rates are similar to previously determined solid-state rates but are several orders of magnitude slower than for experimental plagioclase dissolution indicating strong inhibitions to natural weathering, partly due to near-equilibrium weathering reactions. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

White, A. F.; Schulz, M. S.; Vivit, D. V.; Blum, A. E.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Harden, J. W.

2005-01-01

230

High Flux-Fluence Measurements in Fast Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Characterization of irradiation environments for fuels and materials tests in fast reactors requires determination of the neutron flux integrated over times as long as several years. An accurate integration requires, therefore, passive dosimetry monitors ...

E. P. Lippincott J. A. Ulseth

1977-01-01

231

A Problem with Flux Chamber Measurements of Biogenic Sulfur Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems associated with identifying and quantifying factors that influence liquid-phase controlled evolution of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides through the air-water interface are briefly reviewed. It was found that at present flux chamber measurem...

D. R. Hitchcock

1979-01-01

232

Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...

233

Measurement of total ion flux in vacuum Arc discharges  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum arc ion source was modified allowing us to collections from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The mesh had ageometric transmittance of 60 percent, which was taken into account as acorrection factor. The ion current from twenty-two cathode materials wasmeasured at an arc current of 100 A. The ion current normalized by thearc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with valuesinthe range from 5 percent to 11 percent. The normalized ion current isgenerally greater for light elements than for heavy elements. The ionerosion rates were determined fromvalues of ion currentand ion chargestates, which were previously measured in the same experimental system.The ion erosion rates range from 12-94 mu g/C.

Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Brown, Ian G.

2004-04-12

234

Quantum nondemolition measurements of a flux qubit coupled to a noisy detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically study the quantum nondemolition measurements of a flux qubit coupled to a noisy superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The obtained analytical results indicate that the measurement probability is frequency-dependent in a short time scale and has a close relationship with the measurement-induced dephasing. Furthermore, when the detuning between the driven and bare resonator equals the coupling strength, we can obtain the maximum measurement rate that is determined by the character of the noise in the SQUID. Finally, we analysed the mixed effect caused by coupling between the non-diagonal term and the external variable. It is found that the initial information of the qubit is destroyed due to quantum tunneling between the qubit states.

Jiang, Wei; Yu, Yang; Wei, Lian-Fu

2011-08-01

235

Measurements of BVOC fluxes Above Mixed Hardwood Forest Canopy During the 2009 CABINEX Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted in large amounts from North American forests. Quantification of the flux of (BVOCs) is therefore critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentration of oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) sampler system has been constructed for the measurement of BVOC fluxes. Unlike the traditional relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and eddy covariance (EC) systems which measure continuously, the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, separate samples. Ambient airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbant materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. The cartridges are changed after a suitable accumulation period. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges can then be quantified by thermal desorption of the BVOCs into a gas chromatograph. Data presented will describe laboratory tests to validate the disjunct sampling procedure as well as the magnitude of fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes from mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI) during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign.

Edwards, G. D.; Martins, D. K.; Starn, T.; Shepson, P. B.

2010-12-01

236

Simultaneous measurements of oxygen and carbon dioxide fluxes to assess productivity in phytoplankton cultures.  

PubMed

We validate a method that simultaneously measures O(2) and CO(2) fluxes by sampling headspace air in phytoplankton cultures. Fluxes were strongly correlated to traditional productivity measures, except for a taxon with unique C metabolism. The method provides accurate, real-time, non-destructive measurements and is recommended for laboratory studies of phytoplankton physiology. PMID:23022444

Corcoran, Alina A; Van Voorhies, Wayne A

2012-12-01

237

Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

2003-01-01

238

Spatially explicit surface energy budget and partitioning with remote sensing and flux measurements in a boreal region of Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolating energy fluxes between the ground surface and the atmospheric boundary layer from point-based measurements to spatially explicit landscape estimation is critical to understand and quantify the energy balance components and exchanges in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. This information is difficult to quantify and are often lacking. Using a Landsat image (acquired on 5 August 2004), the flux measurements from three eddy covariance flux towers (a 1987 burn, a 1999 burn, and an unburned control site) and a customized satellite-based surface energy balance model of Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), we estimated net radiation, sensible heat flux ( H), latent heat flux (LE), and soil heat flux ( G) for the boreal Yukon River Basin of Interior Alaska. The model requires user selection of two extreme conditions present within the image area to calibrate and anchor the sensible flux output. One is the "hot" condition which refers to a bare soil condition with specified residual evaporation rates. Another one is the "cold" condition which refers to a fully transpiring vegetation such as full-cover agricultural crops. We selected one bare field as the "hot" condition while we explored three different scenarios for the "cold" pixel because of the absence of larger expanses of agricultural fields within the image area. For this application over boreal forest, selecting agricultural fields whose evapotranspiration was assumed to be 1.05 times the alfalfa-based reference evapotranspiration as the "cold" pixel could result in large errors. Selecting an unburned flux tower site as the "cold" pixel could achieve acceptable results, but uncertainties remain about the energy balance closure of the flux towers. We found that METRIC performs reasonably well in partitioning energy fluxes in a boreal landscape.

Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Singh, Ramesh; Liu, Heping; Young, Claudia; Liu, Shuguang

2013-08-01

239

Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

2013-10-01

240

Sources of uncertainty in eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made by dry chemiluminescence fast response analysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a systematic intercomparison study of eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made using two fast response dry chemiluminescence analysers. Ozone deposition was measured over a well characterised managed grassland near Edinburgh, Scotland, during August 2007. A data quality control procedure specific to these analysers is introduced. Absolute ozone fluxes were calculated based on the relative signals of the dry chemiluminescence analysers using three different methods and the results are compared for both analysers. It is shown that the error in the fitted analyser calibration parameters required for the flux calculations provides a substantial source of uncertainty in the fluxes. The choice of the calculation method itself can also constitute an uncertainty in the flux as the calculated fluxes by the three methods do not agree within error at all times. This finding highlights the need for a consistent and rigorous approach for comparable datasets, such as e.g. in flux networks. Ozone fluxes calculated by one of the methods were then used to compare the two analysers in more detail. This systematic analyser comparison reveals half-hourly flux values differing by up to a factor of two at times with the difference in mean hourly flux ranging from 0 to 23% with an error in the mean daily flux of ± 12%. The comparison of analysers shows that the agreement in fluxes is excellent for some days but that there is an underlying uncertainty as a result of variable analyser performance and/or non-linear sensitivity.

Muller, J. B. A.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Fowler, D.; Coyle, M.; Nemitz, E.

2010-02-01

241

Nitrogen and phosphorus flux rates from sediment in the lower St. Johns River estuary.  

PubMed

Internal cycling of nutrients from the sediment and water column can be an important contribution to the total nutrient load of an aquatic ecosystem. Our objective was to estimate the internal nutrient loading of the Lower St. Johns River (LSJR). Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and ammonium (NH(4)-N) flux from sediments were measured under aerobic and anaerobic water column conditions using intact cores, to estimate the overall contribution of the sediments to P and N loading to the LSJR. The DRP flux under aerobic water column conditions averaged 0.13 mg m(-2) d(-1), approximately 37 times lower than that under anaerobic conditions (4.77 mg m(-2) d(-1)). The average NH(4)-N released from the anaerobic cores (18.03 mg m(-2) d(-1)) was also significantly greater than in the aerobic cores for all sites and seasons, indicating the strong relationship between nutrient fluxes and oxygen availability in the water column. The mean annual internal DRP load was estimated to be 330 metric tons (Mg) yr(-1), 21% of the total P load to the river, while the mean annual internal load of NH(4)-N was determined to be 2066 Mg yr(-1), 28% of the total N load to the LSJR estuary. As water resource managers reduce external loading to the LSJR the frequency of anaerobic events should decline, thereby reducing nutrient fluxes from the sediment to the water column, reducing the internal loading of DRP and NH(4)-N. Results from this study demonstrate that the internal flux of nutrients from sediments may be a significant portion of the total load and should be accounted for in the total nutrient budget of the river for successful restoration. PMID:15254137

Malecki, Lynette M; White, John R; Reddy, K R

2004-01-01

242

Maximal sum of metabolic exchange fluxes outperforms biomass yield as a predictor of growth rate of microorganisms.  

PubMed

Growth rate has long been considered one of the most valuable phenotypes that can be measured in cells. Aside from being highly accessible and informative in laboratory cultures, maximal growth rate is often a prime determinant of cellular fitness, and predicting phenotypes that underlie fitness is key to both understanding and manipulating life. Despite this, current methods for predicting microbial fitness typically focus on yields [e.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical kinetic constants or substrate uptake rates, which render these methods ineffective in cases where fitness derives most directly from growth rate. Here we present a new method for predicting cellular growth rate, termed SUMEX, which does not require any empirical variables apart from a metabolic network (i.e., a GEM) and the growth medium. SUMEX is calculated by maximizing the SUM of molar EXchange fluxes (hence SUMEX) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species, environments, and genetic conditions, outperforming traditional cellular objectives (most notably, the convention assuming biomass maximization). The success of SUMEX suggests that the ability of a cell to catabolize substrates and produce a strong proton gradient enables fast cell growth. Easily applicable heuristics for predicting growth rate, such as what we demonstrate with SUMEX, may contribute to numerous medical and biotechnological goals, ranging from the engineering of faster-growing industrial strains, modeling of mixed ecological communities, and the inhibition of cancer growth. PMID:24866123

Zarecki, Raphy; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Yizhak, Keren; Wagner, Allon; Shtifman Segal, Ella; Freilich, Shiri; Henry, Christopher S; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

2014-01-01

243

Maximal Sum of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes Outperforms Biomass Yield as a Predictor of Growth Rate of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Growth rate has long been considered one of the most valuable phenotypes that can be measured in cells. Aside from being highly accessible and informative in laboratory cultures, maximal growth rate is often a prime determinant of cellular fitness, and predicting phenotypes that underlie fitness is key to both understanding and manipulating life. Despite this, current methods for predicting microbial fitness typically focus on yields [e.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome-scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical kinetic constants or substrate uptake rates, which render these methods ineffective in cases where fitness derives most directly from growth rate. Here we present a new method for predicting cellular growth rate, termed SUMEX, which does not require any empirical variables apart from a metabolic network (i.e., a GEM) and the growth medium. SUMEX is calculated by maximizing the SUM of molar EXchange fluxes (hence SUMEX) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species, environments, and genetic conditions, outperforming traditional cellular objectives (most notably, the convention assuming biomass maximization). The success of SUMEX suggests that the ability of a cell to catabolize substrates and produce a strong proton gradient enables fast cell growth. Easily applicable heuristics for predicting growth rate, such as what we demonstrate with SUMEX, may contribute to numerous medical and biotechnological goals, ranging from the engineering of faster-growing industrial strains, modeling of mixed ecological communities, and the inhibition of cancer growth.

Yizhak, Keren; Wagner, Allon; Shtifman Segal, Ella; Freilich, Shiri; Henry, Christopher S.; Gophna, Uri; Ruppin, Eytan

2014-01-01

244

Estimating Total Heliospheric Magnetic Flux from Single-Point in Situ Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fraction of the total photospheric magnetic flux opens to the heliosphere to form the interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind. While this open flux is critical to our understanding of the generation and evolution of the solar magnetic field, direct measurements are generally limited to single-point measurements taken in situ by heliospheric spacecraft. An observed latitude invariance in the radial component of the magnetic field suggests that extrapolation from such single-point measurements to total heliospheric magnetic flux is possible. In this study we test this assumption using estimates of total heliospheric flux from well-separated heliospheric spacecraft and conclude that single-point measurements are indeed adequate proxies for the total heliospheric magnetic flux, though care must be taken when comparing flux estimates from data collected at different heliocentric distances.

Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Crooker, N. U.; Schwardron, N. A.; Horbury, T. S.

2008-01-01

245

Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

1987-01-01

246

New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

2011-12-01

247

Airborne eddy correlation gas flux measurements - Design criteria for optical techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although several methods exist for the determination of the flux of an atmospheric species, the airborne eddy correlation method has the advantage of providing direct flux measurements that are representative of regional spatial domains. The design criteria pertinent to the construction of chemical instrumentation suitable for use in airborne eddy correlation flux measurements are discussed. A brief overview of the advantages and limitations of the current instrumentation used to obtain flux measurements for CO, CH4, O3, CO2, and water vapor are given. The intended height of the measurement within the convective boundary layer is also shown to be an important design criteria. The sensitivity, or resolution, which is required in the measurement of a scalar species to obtain an adequate species flux measurement is discussed. The relationship between the species flux resolution and the more commonly stated instrumental resolution is developed and it is shown that the standard error of the flux estimate is a complicated function of the atmospheric variability and the averaging time that is used. The use of the recently proposed intermittent sampling method to determine the species flux is examined. The application of this technique may provide an opportunity to expand the suite of trace gases for which direct flux measurements are possible.

Ritter, John A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Anderson, Bruce E.

1993-01-01

248

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01

249

Element transformation rates and fluxes across the sediment-water interface of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter is mineralized in brackish-marine sediments by microbial activity using predominantly oxygen, sulfate, and metal oxides as electron acceptors. This leads to a reflux of carbon dioxide into the bottom waters. Under anoxic bottom water conditions, sulfate reduction dominates. Under specific conditions, shallow methane may be oxidized. Pore water profiles reflect biogeochemical processes, transformation rates and fluxes of dissolved species across the sediment-water interface. They are controlled by different factors like microbial activity, bottom water redox conditions, and availability of electron acceptors/donors. Microbial activity in the sediment leads to changes in redox conditions, formation of metabolites and may lead to the formation of authigenic minerals. As an example, organic matter mineralization and reduction of iron oxyhydroxides both may lead to the liberation of dissolved phosphate thereby leading to a reflux into the bottom waters. Hypoxic conditions will enhance this process. We present the results of a detailed biogeochemical investigation of interstitial waters from shallow sediments to study the biogeochemical processes in recent sediments and associated element fluxes at the sediment-water-interface in different areas of the Baltic Sea. Pore water and sediment samples were retrieved from short sediment cores that were collected with multicoring devices in key regions of the Baltic Sea. Pore waters were taken in sufficient depth resolution and analyzed for main and trace element concentrations (e.g., Mn, SO4, HS, PO4, DIC) to allow a modelling of steady-state transformation volumetric rates and element fluxes. A quantitative interpretation of vertical concentration profiles in the pore waters was performed using a diffusion-based modelling approach. Element fluxes across the sediment-water interface show for the Baltic Sea a dependence from bottom water redox conditions, sedimentology, organic contents, and formation conditions (e.g., accumulation rates). In selected anoxic basins, gross anaerobic mineralization rates were additionally obtained from core incubations using a S-35 radiotracer. Highest SRR were found here in the top 5-10 cm. Recent support comes from BMBF during FONA-SECOS project.

Lipka, Marko; Wegwerth, Antje; Dellwig, Olaf; Al-Raei, Abdul M.; Schoster, Frank; Böttcher, Michael E.

2014-05-01

250

Turbulent heat flux to the ice shelf base: Microstructure measurements in the oceanic boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves plays an important role in ice sheet dynamics, as ice shelf loss allows the flow of inland glaciers to accelerate. Observed ice shelf thinning leads to suggestions of an increasing basal melt rate, yet given the inaccessibility of the ice shelf-ocean interface, the melt rate, vertical heat flux and processes that drive them are rarely quantified directly. Microstructure shear and conductivity observations from a tethered profiler were made beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf in December 2011 and repeated along with microstructure temperature beneath George VI Ice Shelf in January 2012. Such measurements at the ice-ocean interface within the cavity of an ice shelf are unprecedented. CTD and 3D current velocity measurements were also made at both sites, and radar measurements showed that the ice base was melting. Mean potential temperature in the upper ocean beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf was 77m° C above the in situ freezing point. Eddy diffusivities immediately beneath the ice base of up to 10-4 m2s-1 were calculated from shear derived dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy between 10-9 and 10-7 Wkg-1. Associated mean heat flux of 0.7 Wm-2 leads to an underestimation of the observed melt rate by at least an order of magnitude. Sharp interfaces dividing mixed layers of O(4m) thickness were detected in both CTD and microstructure measurements within a thermohaline staircase beneath George VI Ice Shelf. Temperature differences of ~0.05° C occurred across the steps and temperature at the ice base was 2° C warmer than in situ freezing point. Stability calculations confirmed that this was a primarily double diffusive environment. Turbulent mixing was strong in some layers and weak in others, with shear and thermal variance-derived dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy varying between 10-10 (close to the shear probe noise limit) and 10-7 Wkg-1. Vertical diffusion of heat is thought to provide the primary contribution to vertical heat flux where turbulent mixing is weak. We use the first direct microstructure profiles taken through hot water-drilled access boreholes in these two different environments to gain insight into the processes involved in the transport of heat from the upper ocean to the ice shelf base.

Venables, Emily; Nicholls, Keith; Makinson, Keith

2013-04-01

251

Isotopomer measurement techniques in metabolic flux analysis I: nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional [(1)H, (13)C] heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a comprehensive tool in metabolic flux analysis using (13)C-labeling experiments. NMR is particularly relevant when extensive isotopomer measurements are required, such as for plant cells and tissues, which contain multiple cellular compartments. Several isotope isomers (isotopomers) can be detected and their distribution extracted quantitatively from a single 2-D HSQC NMR spectrum. For example, 2-D HSQC detects the labeling patterns of adjacent carbon atoms and provides the enrichment of individual carbon atoms of the amino acids and glucosyl and mannosyl units present in hydrolysates of glycosylated protein. The HSQC analysis can quantitatively distinguish differences between the glucosyl units in the starch hydrolysate and a protein hydrolysate of plant biomass: this specifies crucial information about compartmentalization in the plant system. The peak structures obtained from the HSQC experiment show multiplet patterns that are directly related to the isotopomer abundances. These abundances have a nonlinear relationship to the fluxes via isotopomer balancing. Fluxes are obtained from the numerical solution of these balances and a stoichiometric model that includes biomass composition data as well as consumption rates of carbohydrate and nitrogen sources. Herein, we describe the methods for the experimental measurements for flux analysis, i.e., determination of the biomass composition (lipid, protein, soluble sugar, and starch) as well as detailed procedures of acid hydrolysis of protein and starch samples and NMR sample preparation, using soybean embryo culture as the model plant system. Techniques to obtain the relative intensity of 16 amino acids and glucosyl units for protein hydrolysate and the glucosyl units of starch hydrolysate of soybean embryos in 2-D HSQC NMR spectra also are provided. PMID:24218211

Truong, Quyen X; Yoon, Jong Moon; Shanks, Jacqueline V

2014-01-01

252

Estimation of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates in gasoline-contaminated sediment from measured respiration rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An open microcosm method for quantifying microbial respiration and estimating biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in gasoline-contaminated sediment samples has been developed and validated. Stainless-steel bioreactors are filled with soil or sediment samples, and the vapor-phase composition (concentrations of oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and selected hydrocarbons) is monitored over time. Replacement gas is added as the vapor sample is taken, and selection of the replacement gas composition facilitates real-time decision-making regarding environmental conditions within the bioreactor. This capability allows for maintenance of field conditions over time, which is not possible in closed microcosms. Reaction rates of CO2 and O2 are calculated from the vapor-phase composition time series. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation are either measured directly from the hydrocarbon mass balance, or estimated from CO2 and O2 reaction rates and assumed reaction stoichiometries. Open microcosm experiments using sediments spiked with toluene and p-xylene were conducted to validate the stoichiometric assumptions. Respiration rates calculated from O2 consumption and from CO2 production provide estimates of toluene and p- xylene degradation rates within about ??50% of measured values when complete mineralization stoichiometry is assumed. Measured values ranged from 851.1 to 965.1 g m-3 year-1 for toluene, and 407.2-942.3 g m-3 year-1 for p- xylene. Contaminated sediment samples from a gasoline-spill site were used in a second set of microcosm experiments. Here, reaction rates of O2 and CO2 were measured and used to estimate hydrocarbon respiration rates. Total hydrocarbon reaction rates ranged from 49.0 g m-3 year-1 in uncontaminated (background) to 1040.4 g m-3 year-1 for highly contaminated sediment, based on CO2 production data. These rate estimates were similar to those obtained independently from in situ CO2 vertical gradient and flux determinations at the field site. In these experiments, aerobic conditions were maintained in the microcosms by using air as the replacement gas, thus preserving the ambient aerobic environment of the subsurface near the capillary zone. This would not be possible with closed microcosms.

Baker, R. J.; Baehr, A. L.; Lahvis, M. A.

2000-01-01

253

Estimation of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates in gasoline-contaminated sediment from measured respiration rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open microcosm method for quantifying microbial respiration and estimating biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in gasoline-contaminated sediment samples has been developed and validated. Stainless-steel bioreactors are filled with soil or sediment samples, and the vapor-phase composition (concentrations of oxygen (O 2), nitrogen (N 2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), and selected hydrocarbons) is monitored over time. Replacement gas is added as the vapor sample is taken, and selection of the replacement gas composition facilitates real-time decision-making regarding environmental conditions within the bioreactor. This capability allows for maintenance of field conditions over time, which is not possible in closed microcosms. Reaction rates of CO 2 and O 2 are calculated from the vapor-phase composition time series. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation are either measured directly from the hydrocarbon mass balance, or estimated from CO 2 and O 2 reaction rates and assumed reaction stoichiometries. Open microcosm experiments using sediments spiked with toluene and p-xylene were conducted to validate the stoichiometric assumptions. Respiration rates calculated from O 2 consumption and from CO 2 production provide estimates of toluene and p-xylene degradation rates within about ±50% of measured values when complete mineralization stoichiometry is assumed. Measured values ranged from 851.1 to 965.1 g m -3 year -1 for toluene, and 407.2-942.3 g m -3 year -1 for p-xylene. Contaminated sediment samples from a gasoline-spill site were used in a second set of microcosm experiments. Here, reaction rates of O 2 and CO 2 were measured and used to estimate hydrocarbon respiration rates. Total hydrocarbon reaction rates ranged from 49.0 g m -3 year -1 in uncontaminated (background) to 1040.4 g m -3 year -1 for highly contaminated sediment, based on CO 2 production data. These rate estimates were similar to those obtained independently from in situ CO 2 vertical gradient and flux determinations at the field site. In these experiments, aerobic conditions were maintained in the microcosms by using air as the replacement gas, thus preserving the ambient aerobic environment of the subsurface near the capillary zone. This would not be possible with closed microcosms.

Baker, Ronald J.; Baehr, Arthur L.; Lahvis, Matthew A.

2000-01-01

254

Heat flux measurement from vertical temperature profile and thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal systems are associated to most of the dormant volcanoes. Heat is transported by steam from the hot magma body in the connected porosity and the fissures of the rock to the surface. If the flux is low enough (<500 W/m²), the steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface, and a significant proportion of the heat is transported to the surface by conduction, producing a gradient of temperature and a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. Detecting and monitoring these fluxes is crucial for hazard management, since it reflects the state of the magma body in depth. In order to quantify this flux two methods are considered. First, a vertical profile of temperature is measured by a series of thermocouples, and the conducted flux is estimated thanks to the Fourier law. Secondly, a more recent method uses the thermal infrared imagery to monitor the surface temperature anomaly (STA) between the studied zone and an equivalent zone not affected by the geothermal flux. The heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere is computed as the sum of (1) the radiative flux, (2) the sensible flux and (3) the residual steam flux. These two methods are complementary and have an equivalent uncertainty of approximately 20%, which would allow to track the major changes in the hydrothermal system. However, the surface and sub-surface temperatures are strongly influenced by the climate. For instance, it has been widely demonstrated that the surface temperature dramatically decreases after a rainfall. In order to estimate the reliability of the measurements, a numerical model simulating the evolution of the subsurface temperature in low flux fumarolic zone has been built. In depth, the heat can be transported either by conduction, or by the rising steam, or by condensed water. In surface, both the radiative flux and the sensible flux (convection of the atmosphere) are taken into account. This model allows to estimate the changes of temperature due to a variation of solar illumination, wind, or rainfalls. It has been successfully tested during 5 months with a permanent station built on the Ty fault on La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). Results show that the diurnal cycle has a significant influence on the temperature up to ca. 30 cm depth, hindering the use of the thermal gradient in this zone, while the STA has a negligible variation. Rain has a more dramatic influence: the surface temperature and the STA are significantly affected, even for small rains. The model shows that the drop of temperature and the affected thickness are mainly controlled by the amount of rain, while the relaxation time is primarily a function of the heat flux. These results have strong implications in the interpretation and the reliability of the temperature surveys, and could be used to correct them from the climate fluctuations.

Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Beauducel, François; Brothelande, Elodie; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Delcher, Eric; Peltier, Aline

2014-05-01

255

Evaluation of thermal rates for reactions with intermediate wells: Removal of bound state contributions to quantum flux correlation functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the calculation of rates of chemical reactions that have bound intermediate states (i.e., wells along the reaction path) using flux correlation function methods. When time-dependent wave packets are used to evaluate the propagator matrix elements, and the dividing surface is located at a point where bound states have nonzero probability density, the standard expression for the flux correlation

Mark Thachuk; Howard R. Mayne; George C. Schatz

1993-01-01

256

Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5-microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 gm, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

1998-01-01

257

Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous-cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5 microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 microns, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

1998-01-01

258

Theory of scan plane flux anisotropies. [in spacecraft detector measurements of planetary magnetospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a spacecraft detector measures particle flux as a function of look direction in a plane (the scan plane), anisotropy is often seen. This anisotropy is caused by spatial gradients, by E x B particle drift, and by various spectral and geometric effects. This paper treats all of these effects systematically, starting from the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. The general analysis is applied to a simple model of an anisotropic distribution to give a relation between the E x B drift, the gradient and the experimentally observed first, second, and third harmonics of the flux as a function of angle in the scan plane. Even with an assumed model, anisotropy observations in one plane alone do not suffice to determine the E x B drift velocity and the spatial gradient independently. If the E x B velocity is assumed (e.g., the corotational velocity in a rotating planetary magnetosphere), the spatial gradient may be deduced, and from it the time rate of change of flux in a nonrotating frame of reference.

Northrop, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.

1980-01-01

259

Neutron Flux Measurements in the Full Power Leu Core of PARR-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of thermal and epithermal flux distributions were made in and around the first low enriched uranium (LEU) full power core of Pakistan Research Reactor-1(PARR-1). Neutron Flux measurements were made with the help of activation foils and the se...

L. Ali S. A. Ansari Q. D. Shami M. Iqbal

1994-01-01

260

Measurement of Local Soil Water Flux during Field Solute Transport Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

port properties of the soil can be inversely determined by fitting a model to the measured breakthrough curves. calculated directly from the local solute mass flux. The methods as- Outflow concentration from a soil column is flux con- sume that water flow and solute transport are one-dimensional and centration and solute concentration measured by soil that TDR estimates of bulk

Bing Cheng Si; R. Gary Kachanoski

2003-01-01

261

Planning optimal measurements of isotopomer distributions for estimation of metabolic fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Flux estimation using isotopomer information of meta- bolites is currently the most reliable method to obtain quantitative estimates of the activity of metabolic pathways. However, the develop- ment of isotopomer measurement techniques for intermediate meta- bolites is a demanding task. Careful planning of isotopomer measure- ments is thus needed to maximize the available flux information while minimizing the experimental

Ari Rantanen; Taneli Mielikäinen; Juho Rousu; Hannu Maaheimo; Esko Ukkonen

2006-01-01

262

REMANENT FLUX MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMAL ENERGIZATION INSTANT DERTERMINATION OF POWER TRANSFORMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inrush currents generated during a energization of power transformer can reach very high values and may cause many problems in power system. In this paper method for controlled energization of power transformer based on measuring of remanet flux of magnetic core is presented. The remanet flux is measured and memorized at the last de-energization of transformer and then applied

Stanko Milun

2003-01-01

263

Using LabVIEW to measure transformer residual flux for inrush current reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power transformers can experience large inrush currents upon energization, the severity of which depends on the source strength, the angle of the applied voltage at energization, and the residual flux of the transformer. A novel inrush current reduction strategy has been investigated which involves setting the transformer's residual flux. Testing of this strategy required a measurement system capable of measuring

Douglas I. Taylor; Normann Fischer; Joseph D. Law; Brian K. Johnson

2009-01-01

264

Measurements of Neutron Flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device located at Brigham Young University. A BF sub 3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of...

G. A. Westenskow

1975-01-01

265

A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on

Sy Stange; Ernst I Esch; Eric A Burgett; Iain May; Ross E Muenchausen; Felicia Taw; Fredrik K Tovesson

2010-01-01

266

Measurements with the high flux lead slowing-down spectrometer at LANL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) was recently installed at LANL [D. Rochman, R.C. Haight, J.M. O'Donnell, A. Michaudon, S.A. Wender, D.J. Vieira, E.M. Bond, T.A. Bredeweg, A. Kronenberg, J.B. Wilhelmy, T. Ethvignot, T. Granier, M. Petit, Y. Danon, Characteristics of a lead slowing-down spectrometer coupled to the LANSCE accelerator, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 550 (2005) 397]. The LSDS is comprised of a cube of pure lead 1.2 m on the side, with a spallation pulsed neutron source in its center. The LSDS is driven by 800 MeV protons with a time-averaged current of up to 1 ?A, pulse widths of 0.05-0.25 ?s and a repetition rate of 20-40 Hz. Spallation neutrons are created by directing the proton beam into an air-cooled tungsten target in the center of the lead cube. The neutrons slow down by scattering interactions with the lead and thus enable measurements of neutron-induced reaction rates as a function of the slowing-down time, which correlates to neutron energy. The advantage of an LSDS as a neutron spectrometer is that the neutron flux is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than a standard time-of-flight experiment at the equivalent flight path, 5.6 m. The effective energy range is 0.1 eV to 100 keV with a typical energy resolution of 30% from 1 eV to 10 keV. The average neutron flux between 1 and 10 keV is about 1.7 × 10 9 n/cm 2/s/?A. This high flux makes the LSDS an important tool for neutron-induced cross section measurements of ultra-small samples (nanograms) or of samples with very low cross sections. The LSDS at LANL was initially built in order to measure the fission cross section of the short-lived metastable isotope of U-235, however it can also be used to measure (n, ?) and (n, p) reactions. Fission cross section measurements were made with samples of 235U, 236U, 238U and 239Pu. The smallest sample measured was 10 ng of 239Pu. Measurement of (n, ?) cross section with 760 ng of Li-6 was also demonstrated. Possible future cross section measurements include fission and (n, p) and (n, ?) reaction in radioactive samples.

Danon, Y.; Romano, C.; Thompson, J.; Watson, T.; Haight, R. C.; Wender, S. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Michaudon, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Schurman, T.; Rochman, D.; Granier, T.; Ethvignot, T.; Taieb, J.; Becker, J. A.

2007-08-01

267

Flux Measurements of Trace Gases, Aerosols and Energy from the Urban Core of Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 we deployed a flux system in a busy district of Mexico City surrounded by congested avenues. The flux system consisted of a tall tower instrumented with fast-response sensors coupled with eddy covariance (EC) techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, aerosols and energy. The measured fluxes represent direct measurements of emissions that include all major and minor emission sources from a typical residential and commercial district. In a previous study we demonstrated that the EC techniques are valuable tools to evaluate emissions inventories in urban areas, and understand better the atmospheric chemistry and the role that megacities play in global change. We measured fluxes of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS) and the EC technique, fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique, fluxes of CO2 and H2O with an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) and the EC technique, fluxes of CO using a modified gradient method and a commercial CO instrument, and fluxes of aerosols (organics, nitrates and sulfates) using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the EC technique. In addition we used a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system to extend the number of VOCs. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site using gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). We also measured fluxes of sensible and latent heat by EC and the radiation components with a net radiometer. Overall, these flux measurements confirm the results of our previous flux measurements in Mexico City in terms of the magnitude, composition, and distribution. We found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns show clear anthropogenic signatures, with important contributions from vehicular traffic. The DEA results for individual hydrocarbons show that the alkane fluxes are considerably higher than alkene fluxes, which is consistent with ambient concentration measurements and with the emission inventory for Mexico City. CO fluxes, estimated from a modified gradient technique, were more than 10% of the measured CO2 fluxes (on a molar basis) which is much higher than is generally expected for combustion efficiencies in mobile and other sources. Investigation of this result is underway. The energy balance distribution and radiative parameters observed are similar to distributions and parameters reported for other urban sites.

Velasco, E.; Molina, L.; Lamb, B.; Pressley, S.; Grivicke, R.; Westberg, H.; Jobson, T.; Allwine, E.; Coons, T.; Jimenez, J.; Nemitz, E.; Alexander, L. M.; Worsnop, D.; Ramos, R.

2007-05-01

268

A comparison of methods for deriving solute flux rates using long-term data from streams in the mirror lake watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculation of chemical flux rates for streams requires integration of continuous measurements of discharge with discrete measurements of solute concentrations. We compared two commonly used methods for interpolating chemistry data (time-averaging and flow-weighting) to determine whether discrepancies between the two methods were large relative to other sources of error in estimating flux rates. Flux rates of dissolved Si and SO42- were calculated from 10 years of data (1981-1990) for the NW inlet and Outlet of Mirror Lake and for a 40-day period (March 22 to April 30, 1993) during which we augmented our routine (weekly) chemical monitoring with collection of daily samples. The time-averaging method yielded higher estimates of solute flux during high-flow periods if no chemistry samples were collected corresponding to peak discharge. Concentration-discharge relationships should be used to interpolate stream chemistry during changing flow conditions if chemical changes are large. Caution should be used in choosing the appropriate time-scale over which data are pooled to derive the concentration-discharge regressions because the model parameters (slope and intercept) were found to be sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual variation. Both methods approximated solute flux to within 2-10% for a range of solutes that were monitored during the intensive sampling period. Our results suggest that errors arising from interpolation of stream chemistry data are small compared with other sources of error in developing watershed mass balances.

Bukaveckas, P. A.; Likens, G. E.; Winter, T. C.; Buso, D. C.

1998-01-01

269

A bottom-up perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of global eddy covariance flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol (CH3OH) is, after methane, the second most abundant VOC in the troposphere and globally represents nearly 20% of the total biospheric VOC emissions. With typical concentrations of 1-10 ppb in the continental boundary layer, methanol plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, which needs to be evaluated in the light of ongoing changes in land use and climate. Previous global methanol budgets have approached the net land flux by summing up the various emission terms (namely primary biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, plant decay and biomass burning) and by subtracting dry and wet deposition, resulting in a net land flux in the range of 75-245 Tg y-1. The data underlying these budget calculations largely stem from small-scale leaf gas exchange measurements and while recently column-integrated remotely sensed methanol concentrations have become available for constraining budget calculations, there have been few attempts to contrast model calculations with direct net ecosystem-scale methanol flux measurements. Here we use eddy covariance methanol flux measurements from 8 sites in Europe and North America to study the magnitude of and controls on the diurnal and seasonal variability in the net ecosystem methanol flux. In correspondence with leaf-level literature, our data show that methanol emission and its strong environmental and biotic control (by temperature and stomatal conductance) prevailed at the more productive (agricultural) sites and at a perturbed forest site. In contrast, at more natural, less productive sites substantial deposition of methanol occurred, in particular during periods of surface wetness. These deposition processes are poorly represented by currently available temperature/light and/or production-driven modelling algorithms. A new framework for modelling the bi-directional land-atmosphere methanol exchange is proposed which accounts for the production of methanol in leaves, the regulation of leaf methanol emission by stomatal conductance and the bi-directional methanol exchange within plant canopies as governed by surface wetness and ambient methanol concentrations.

Wohlfahrt, Georg; Amelynck, Crist; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, Almut; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen; Hansel, Armin; Heinesch, Bernhard; Holst, Thomas; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Karl, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Schade, Gunnar; Schoon, Niels

2014-05-01

270

Radiative forcing of the Venus mesosphere. I - Solar fluxes and heating rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiative-transfer model has been used to derive the structure and amplitude of the solar fluxes and heating rates in the Venus mesosphere, accounting for absorption and scattering extinction sources that encompass CO2, H2O, SO2, and H2SO4 aerosols as well as an unidentified UV absorber. The unknown substance that causes the observed cloud-top UV contrasts is responsible for most of the absorption of sunlight within the upper cloud deck; this contributes to solar heating rates of the order of 6 K/day at levels near 65 km. These results are judged sufficiently reliable for use in numerical dynamical models of the Venus atmosphere.

Crisp, D.

1986-01-01

271

SkyLine and SkyGas: Novel automated technologies for automatic GHG flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Concerns for the future of the Earth's climate centre around the anthropogenically-driven continuing increases in atmospheric concentrations of the major 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs) which include CO2, CH4 and N2O. A major component of the global budgets for all three of these gases is the flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Currently, these fluxes are poorly quantified, largely due to technical limitations associated with making these flux measurements. Whilst eddy covariance systems have greatly improved such measurements at the ecosystem scale, flux measurements at the plot scale are commonly made using labour intensive traditional 'cover box' approaches; technical limitations have frequently been a bottle-neck in producing adequate and appropriate GHG flux data necessary for making land management decisions. For example, there are almost no night time flux data for N2O fluxes, and frequently such data are only measured over bare soil patches. 3. We have been addressing the design of novel field equipment for the automation of GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scale and will present here some of the technical solutions we have developed. These solutions include the development of the SkyLine and SkyGas approaches which resolve many of the common problems associated with making high frequency, sufficiently replicated GHG flux measurements under field conditions. 4. Unlike most other automated systems, these technologies 'fly' a single chamber to the measurement site, rather than have multiple replicated chambers and analysers. We will present data showing how such systems can deliver high time and spatial resolution flux data, with a minimum of operator intervention and, potentially, at relatively low per plot cost. We will also show how such measurements can be extended to monitoring fluxes from freshwater features in the landscape.

Ineson, Philip; Stockdale, James

2014-05-01

272

Daytime chamber measurements of methane flux from a boreal wetland miss substantial emission events during evening transition that are captured by a flux tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane emissions from natural wetlands are estimated to range from 105 to 278 Tg per year, making wetlands the Earth's largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. It is well established that methane released from a wetland varies spatially and temporally with parameters such as topography, soil temperature, and soil moisture content. Numerous studies on methane emission from wetlands have been performed using static chamber measurements. While chambers measure methane emission directly from a known location, they are unlikely to capture spatial heterogeneity for the landscape of interest. Furthermore, these emission estimates are limited in their temporal resolution due to the time required to install and sample chambers for each discrete measurement. Few studies in wetlands have compared both static chamber methane flux measurements and continuous measurements from a flux tower. In this work we analyzed methane emissions based on both techniques using data from the 1996 BOREAS project. The mean daytime methane emission rate from chamber measurements was greater than the mean from the tower, which suggests that a small number of chambers (7-11) may be inadequate to describe spatial heterogeneity. Surprisingly, the evening methane emission events, measured by the flux tower, were often an order of magnitude greater than emissions recorded during the day by either method. Thus, the use of only daytime measurements would lead to a substantial underestimation of total methane emissions from the wetland. We will evaluate several potential explanations for heightened evening emissions and evaluate how this affects our efforts to reconcile static chamber measurements with ecosystem-wide estimates based on tower methods.

Godwin, C. M.; Markfort, C. D.; McNamara, P. J.

2012-04-01

273

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

2006-10-01

274

Daytime Chamber Measurements Miss Substantial Nighttime Methane Spikes Captured by Flux Tower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane emissions from natural wetlands are estimated to range from 105 to 278 Tg per year, making wetlands the Earth's largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. It is well established that methane production from a wetland varies spatially and temporally with parameters such as topography, soil temperature, and soil moisture content. Numerous studies on methane emission from wetlands have been performed using static chamber measurements. While this method measures methane emission directly from a known location, it may not capture spatial heterogeneity for the landscape of interest and the choice of chamber locations may lead to non-representative estimates of methane emissions. Furthermore, these emission estimates are limited in their temporal resolution due to the amount of time required to install and sample the chambers. Few studies have compared, from a wetland, both static chamber methane measurements and continuous measurements from a flux tower. In this work we analyzed methane emissions based on both techniques using data from the 1996 BOREAS project. The mean daytime methane emission rate from chamber measurements was greater than the mean from the tower, which suggests that a small number of chambers may be inadequate to describe spatial heterogeneity. Surprisingly, the nighttime methane emissions, measured with the flux tower, were often an order of magnitude greater than emissions recorded during the day by either method. Thus, the use of only daytime measurements would lead to a substantial underestimation of total methane emissions from the wetland. We will evaluate several potential explanations for heightened nighttime emissions and evaluate how this affects our efforts to reconcile static chamber measurements with ecosystem-wide estimates based on tower methods.

Godwin, C. M.; Markfort, C. D.; McNamara, P.

2011-12-01

275

Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

1981-01-01

276

Inverse Estimation of Vcmax, LAI, and the Ball-Berry Parameter From Carbon and Energy Flux Measures.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level fluxes of CO2 and energy are modelled with high fidelity using a small number of environmental signals and a small number of seasonally-variant ecosystem parameters. Although these ecosystem parameters are invaluable for modeling canopy fluxes, they are not measured with nearly the same intensity as ecosystem fluxes themselves. An algorithm was developed to estimate leaf area (LAI), maximum carboxylation velocity (Vcmax), the Ball-Berry parameter m, and substrate-dependent ecosystem respiration rate (\\betaA) by inverting a commonly-used modeling paradigm of canopy-level CO2 and energy flux. Because these ecosystem parameters have collinear effects on CO2 fluxes, energy flux measures are used to isolate different ecosystem attributes. LAI was solved by fitting the model to measured outgoing turbulent energy (H+LE); Vcmax and \\betaA were solved simultaneously by fitting to the flux of CO2; m was solved by varying the partitioning of available energy between H and LE. The results of the experiment showed that LAI, Vcmax, ecosystem respiration, and m can be solved so that the carbon and energy fluxes can be modeled with R2 from 80 to 95% and non-significant bias at 20-minute and daily timescales. LAI ranged from 2.0 to 2.4 over the season; Vcmax declined from 20 to 5 \\mu mol C m-2 s-1; respiration partitioning ranged from 0.5 to 0.75 (as a percentage of assimilation); m varied between 17 and 24. These ecosystem parameters were consistent with independent measurements of the seasonal dynamics of the shortgrass steppe where they were evaluated, as well as literature values. In particular, m must vary to accommodate changing energy partitioning over the course of the season. The ecosystem parameters are closely linked to mean daily fluxes of CO2, but are not dependent on the environmental drivers during the periods when they are measured. Therefore, process-model inversion has potential for facilitating intercomparison of CO2 and energy flux data among different sites and seasons by extending analyses from phenomenological to phenological considerations of ecosystem dynamics. This can add to the utility of flux data to provide essential land parameters for studies of climate dynamics.

Wolf, A.; Laca, E. A.

2004-12-01

277

Influence of Heating Rate on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in a Short Vertical Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3m\\/s), the inlet subcoolings (DeltaTsub, in=130 to 161K), the inlet pressure (Pin=812 to 1315kPa), the dissolved oxygen concentration (O2=5.88 and 7.34ppm) and the increasing heat input (Q0exp(t\\/tau), tau=38.1ms to 8.3s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop installed the pressurizer. The SUS304 tube of test

Koichi Hata; Masahiro Shiotsu; Nobuaki Noda

2006-01-01

278

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

Duncan, R.V.

1993-03-16

279

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

1993-01-01

280

Satellite Angular Rate Estimation From Vector Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the angular rate vector of a satellite which is based on the time derivatives of vector measurements expressed in a reference and body coordinate. The computed derivatives are fed into a spacial Kalman filter which yields an estimate of the spacecraft angular velocity. The filter, named Extended Interlaced Kalman Filter (EIKF), is an extension of the Kalman filter which, although being linear, estimates the state of a nonlinear dynamic system. It consists of two or three parallel Kalman filters whose individual estimates are fed to one another and are considered as known inputs by the other parallel filter(s). The nonlinear dynamics stem from the nonlinear differential equation that describes the rotation of a three dimensional body. Initial results, using simulated data, and real Rossi X ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data indicate that the algorithm is efficient and robust.

Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

1996-01-01

281

Aerosol Fluxes over Amazon Rain Forest Measured with the Eddy Covariance Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of vertical aerosol fluxes over the Amazon carried out on top of K34, a 50 meter high tower in the Cuieiras Reserve about 50 km north of Manaus in northern Brazil. The turbulent fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance method. The covariance of vertical wind speed from a sonic anemometer Gill Windmaster and total aerosol number concentration from a condensation particle counter (CPC) TSI 3010 provided the total number flux (diameter >0.01 ?m). The covariance of vertical wind speed and size resolved number concentrations from an optical particle counter (OPC) Grimm 1.109 provided size resolved number fluxes in 15 bins from 0.25 ?m to 2.5 ?m diameter. Additionally fluxes of CO2 and H2O were derived from Li-7500 observations. The observational period, from early March to early August, includes both wet and dry season. OPC fluxes generally show net aerosol deposition both during wet and dry season with the largest downward fluxes during midday. CPC fluxes show different patterns in wet and dry season. During dry season, when number concentrations are higher, downward fluxes clearly dominate. In the wet season however, when number concentrations are lower, our data indicates that upward and downward fluxes are quite evenly distributed during course of a day. On average there is a peak in upward flux during late morning and another peak during the afternoon. Since the OPC fluxes in the same time show net deposition, there is an indication of net source of primary aerosol particles with diameters between 10 and 250 nm emitted from the rain forest. Future data analysis will hopefully shed light on origin and formation mechanism of these particles and thus provide a deeper insight in the rain forest - atmosphere interactions. The aerosol flux measurements were carried out as a part of the AMAZE project in collaboration with University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and financial support was provided by Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).

Ahlm, L.; Nilsson, E. D.; Krejci, R.; Mårtensson, E. M.; Vogt, M.; Artaxo, P.

2008-12-01

282

Laser-Ablation Rates Measured Using X-Ray Laser Transmission  

SciTech Connect

The rate of laser ablation at irradiances of {approx}2x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} of solid iron has been measured using the transmission of a neonlike zinc x-ray laser at 21.2 nm through thin iron targets. Ablated iron becomes transparent to the x-ray laser flux, enabling the thickness of unablated material and hence the rate of ablation to be measured from time resolved x-ray laser transmission.

Edwards, M. H.; Whittaker, D. S.; Tallents, G. J.; Mistry, P.; Pert, G. J.; Rus, B.; Mocek, T.; Kozlova, M.; Polan, J.; Praeg, A.; Stupka, M.; Homer, P. [Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Department of X-ray Lasers, PALS Research Centre, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

2007-11-09

283

A fast gauge for energy flux density measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, the design and characterization of a fast energy flux density gauge are described. The gauge is based on a thermoelectrical pair with the junction made of a thin layer of silver. High absorptivity is attained by an electrolytic deposit of platinum black on the silver coat. Dynamic calibration gives a response time below 100 microsec. Computer methods to obtain the energy flux density from temperature-time history were evaluated. The results of the tests performed with igniters of pelleted boron/potassium nitrate and black powder, used in solid propellant ignition, are shown. The gauge developed can be applied to fast processes which require small response time. The gauge does not need previous calibration, it is resistant to vibrations and accelerations, and, at the same time, it is small in size, economical, and easy to build.

Garcia, Jorge; Bana de Schor, Beatriz

1990-01-01

284

A measurement of the absolute flux of cosmic-ray electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A balloon-borne superconducting magnet spectrometer was used to measure the absolute flux of cosmic-ray electrons. The instrument consisted of a gas Cerenkov detector, a momentum spectrometer, and a lead-scintillator shower counter. In order to determine electron flux in the interstellar medium, observed fluxes for energy loss in the atmosphere and the payload were corrected, taking into account solar modulation effects and bremsstrahlung energy losses. Fluxes were measured at an average atmospheric depth of 5.8 g/sq cm, and the solar modulation was 300 MeV. A cosmic-ray electron flux of 367 E to the exp(3.15 + or -0.2) per sq m/sr s GeV was obtained in the energy range 4.5-63.5 GeV. The uncertainty of the absolute (electron-positron) flux was 10 percent. A summary of the electron data is given in a table.

Golden, R. L.; Mauger, B. G.; Badhwar, G. D.; Daniel, R. R.; Lacy, J. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Zipse, J. E.

1984-01-01

285

Soil CO 2 flux measurements in volcanic and geothermal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation chamber methodology allows one to obtain reliable values of the soil CO2 flux, ?soil CO2, in the range 0.2 to over 10?000 g m?2 d?1, as proven by both laboratory tests and field surveys in geothermal and volcanic areas. A strong negative correlation is observed between ??soil CO2\\/?t and ?Patm\\/?t. Maps of classes of log ?soil CO2 for

G. Chiodini; R. Cioni; M. Guidi; B. Raco; L. Marini

1998-01-01

286

Measuring the energy flux at the substrate position during magnetron sputter deposition processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the energetic conditions at the substrate were investigated in dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (pDCMS), and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges by means of an energy flux diagnostic based on a thermopile sensor, the probe being set at the substrate position. Measurements were performed in front of a titanium target for a highly unbalanced magnetic field configuration. The average power was always kept to 400 W and the probe was at the floating potential. Variation of the energy flux against the pulse peak power in HiPIMS was first investigated. It was demonstrated that the energy per deposited titanium atom is the highest for short pulses (5 ?s) high pulse peak power (39 kW), as in this case, the ion production is efficient and the deposition rate is reduced by self-sputtering. As the argon pressure is increased, the energy deposition is reduced as the probability of scattering in the gas phase is increased. In the case of the HiPIMS discharge run at moderate peak power density (10 kW), the energy per deposited atom was found to be lower than the one measured for DCMS and pDCMS discharges. In these conditions, the HiPIMS discharge could be characterized as soft and close to a pulsed DCMS discharge run at very low duty cycle. For the sake of comparison, measurements were also carried out in DCMS mode with a balanced magnetron cathode, in the same working conditions of pressure and power. The energy flux at the substrate is significantly increased as the discharge is generated in an unbalanced field.

Cormier, P.-A.; Balhamri, A.; Thomann, A.-L.; Dussart, R.; Semmar, N.; Mathias, J.; Snyders, R.; Konstantinidis, S.

2013-01-01

287

Measuring the energy flux at the substrate position during magnetron sputter deposition processes  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the energetic conditions at the substrate were investigated in dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (pDCMS), and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges by means of an energy flux diagnostic based on a thermopile sensor, the probe being set at the substrate position. Measurements were performed in front of a titanium target for a highly unbalanced magnetic field configuration. The average power was always kept to 400 W and the probe was at the floating potential. Variation of the energy flux against the pulse peak power in HiPIMS was first investigated. It was demonstrated that the energy per deposited titanium atom is the highest for short pulses (5 {mu}s) high pulse peak power (39 kW), as in this case, the ion production is efficient and the deposition rate is reduced by self-sputtering. As the argon pressure is increased, the energy deposition is reduced as the probability of scattering in the gas phase is increased. In the case of the HiPIMS discharge run at moderate peak power density (10 kW), the energy per deposited atom was found to be lower than the one measured for DCMS and pDCMS discharges. In these conditions, the HiPIMS discharge could be characterized as soft and close to a pulsed DCMS discharge run at very low duty cycle. For the sake of comparison, measurements were also carried out in DCMS mode with a balanced magnetron cathode, in the same working conditions of pressure and power. The energy flux at the substrate is significantly increased as the discharge is generated in an unbalanced field.

Cormier, P.-A.; Thomann, A.-L.; Dussart, R.; Semmar, N.; Mathias, J. [GREMI, Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Balhamri, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Laboratoire Rayonnement and Matiere: Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee et Transfert d'Energie (LOPATE), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Settat, Universite Hassan 1, B.P. 461 Settat (Morocco); Snyders, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova R and D Center, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons (Belgium); Konstantinidis, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

2013-01-07

288

Relationships among canopy scale energy fluxes and isoprene flux derived from long-term, seasonal eddy covariance measurements over a hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux of isoprene, one of the more reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds, was measured using eddy covariance techniques on a continuous basis during the 2000–2002 growing seasons at a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower MI. Daytime fluxes of isoprene and both sensible (H) and latent heat flux (LE) were linearly correlated with a positive slope on a daily

Shelley Pressley; Brian Lamb; Hal Westberg; Christoph Vogel

2006-01-01

289

Rn-222 tracing and stable isotope measurements of biogenic gas fluxes from methane saturated sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transport of reduced biogenic gases from anoxic sediments and soils to the atmosphere can be quantitatively studied through measurement of radon-222/radium-226 disequilibrium. In previous work, seasonal variations in biogenic gas transport mechanisms, net fluxes and overall composition were documented. Now presented are direct field measurements of radon-222 activity in gases exiting organic rich sediments which show their usefulness for tracing of the stripping of dissolved biogenic gases from within the sediment column and transport via bubble ebullition. Methane is depleted in deuterium during the summer as compared with winter months and is in general lighter than in most marine sediments signaling the probable importance of acetate as an important precursor molecule. The significant seasonal isotopic variations observed illustrate the importance of understanding mechanisms and rates of biogenic gas production in order to interpret observed tropospheric isotopic data.

Martens, Christopher S.; Green, C. D.; Blair, Neal; Chanton, J. P.

1985-01-01

290

Doppler lidar measurements of boundary layer winds and sensible heat flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study the Salford Universities' Facility for Atmospheric Measurement 1.5 micron scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Bavaria, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles through the boundary layer were measured every 3 minutes with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans approximately every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case of convective development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The assumptions made in this analysis are tested as far as possible.

Davis, J. C.; Davies, F.; Collier, C. G.; Pearson, G. N.

2008-05-01

291

The effect of hygroscopicity on sea-spray aerosol fluxes: a comparison of high-rate and bulk correction methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eddy covariance technique is the most direct of the methods that have been used to measure the flux of sea-spray aerosol between the ocean and atmosphere, but has been applied in only a handful of studies. However, unless the aerosol is dried before the eddy covariance measurements are made, the hygroscopic nature of sea-spray may combine with a relative humidity flux to result in a bias in the calculated aerosol flux. "Bulk" methods have been presented to account for this bias, however they rely on assumptions of the shape of the aerosol spectra which may not be valid for near-surface measurements of sea-spray. Here we describe a method of correcting aerosol spectra for relative humidity induced size variations at the high frequency (10 Hz) measurement timescale, where counting statistics are poor and the spectral shape cannot be well represented by a simple power law. Such a correction allows the effects of hygroscopicity and relative humidity flux on the aerosol flux to be explicitly evaluated and compared to the bulk corrections, both in their original form and once reformulated to better represent the measured mean aerosol spectra. In general, the bulk corrections - particularly when reformulated for the measured mean aerosol spectra - perform relatively well, producing flux corrections of the right sign and approximate magnitude. However, there are times when the bulk methods either significantly over- or underestimate the required flux correction. We thus conclude that, where possible, relative humidity corrections should be made at the measurement frequency.

Sproson, D. A. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Norris, S. J.

2012-09-01

292

Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis  

PubMed Central

Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) combined with 31P-NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by 13C-NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-13C]glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media.

Cline, Gary W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K.

2011-01-01

293

Air-Sea Fluxes in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica from In Situ Aircraft Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2009, the first unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were flown over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica to collect information regarding air-sea interactions over a wintertime coastal polynya. The UAVs measured wind, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity in flights parallel to the downslope wind flow over the polynya, and in a series of vertical profiles at varying distances from the coast. During three flights on three different days, sufficient measurements were collected to calculate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes over varying oceanic surface states, including frazil, pancake, and rafted ice, with background winds greater than 15 ms-1. During the three flights, sensible heat fluxes upwards of 600 Wm-2 were estimated near the coast, with maximum latent heat fluxes near 160 Wm-2 just downwind of the coast. The calculated accelerations due to the momentum flux divergence were on the order of 10-3 ms-2. In addition to the fluxes, changes in the overall momentum budget, including the horizontal pressure gradient force, were also calculated during the three flights. This presentation will summarize the methodology for calculating the fluxes from the UAV data, present the first ever in situ estimates of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes and overall momentum budget estimates over Terra Nova Bay, and compare the UAV flux calculations to flux measurements taken during other field campaigns in other regions of the Antarctic, as well as to model estimates over Terra Nova Bay.

Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

2011-12-01

294

Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q? from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation ? of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q? can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing ?. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q? and ? when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between ? and q? of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q? computed from a function of ? and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q? (0.84 and 0.89). This research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Bollinger, J.

2013-01-01

295

Surface turbulent flux measurements over the Loess Plateau for a semi-arid climate change study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide high quality data for climate change studies, the data quality of turbulent flux measurements at the station of SACOL (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University), which is located on a semi-arid grassland over the Loess Plateau in China, has been analyzed in detail. The effects of different procedures of the flux corrections on CO2, momentum, and latent and sensible heat fluxes were assessed. The result showed that coordinate rotation has a great influence on the momentum flux but little on scalar fluxes. For coordinate rotation using the planar fit method, different regression planes should be determined for different wind direction sectors due to the heterogeneous nature of the ground surface. Sonic temperature correction decreased the sensible heat flux by about 9%, while WPL correction (correction for density fluctuations) increased the latent heat flux by about 10%. WPL correction is also particularly important for CO2 fluxes. Other procedures of flux corrections, such as the time delay correction and frequency response correction, do not significantly influence the turbulent fluxes. Furthermore, quality tests on stationarity and turbulence development conditions were discussed. Parameterizations of integral turbulent characteristics (ITC) were tested and a specific parameterization scheme was provided for SACOL. The ITC test on turbulence development conditions was suggested to be applied only for the vertical velocity. The combined results of the quality tests showed that about 62%-65% of the total data were of high quality for the latent heat flux and CO2 flux, and as much as about 76% for the sensible heat flux. For the momentum flux, however, only about 35% of the data were of high quality.

Zuo, Jinqing; Huang, Jianping; Wang, Jiemin; Zhang, Wu; Bi, Jianrong; Wang, Guoyin; Li, Weijing; Fu, Peijian

2009-07-01

296

First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 ?g m-2 h-1 (~24 pptv m s-1) was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131?g m-2 h-1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5?g m-2 h-1) and soil (7.3 ?g m-2 h-1) direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicts the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improve model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.

Digangi, J. P.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Kim, S.; Cantrell, C.; Maudlin, R. L., III; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Paul, J. B.; Wolfe, G. M.; Desai, A. R.; Kajii, Y.; Guenther, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

2011-06-01

297

First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 ?g m-2 h-1 (~24 pptv m s-1) was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131 ?g m-2 h-1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5 ?g m-2 h-1) and soil (7.3 ?g m-2 h-1) direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicted the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improved model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.

Digangi, J. P.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Kim, S.; Cantrell, C.; Maudlin, R. L., III; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Paul, J. B.; Wolfe, G. M.; Desai, A. R.; Kajii, Y.; Guenther, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

2011-10-01

298

Time and Space Resolved Wall Temperature Measurements during Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work is to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleate bubbles on a constant heat flux surface. This was performed using a microheater array with 100 micron resolution that allowed effectively simultaneous measurements of surface temperature while supplying a constant dissipative heat flux. This data is then correlated with high speed (> 1000Hz) visual recordings of the bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that a significant source of energy during bubble nucleation and initial growth is the superheated layer around the bubble. Bubble coalescence was not observed to decrease surface temperature as significantly as bubble departure from the surface. Since bubble departure is typically followed by a sharp increase in the heater surface temperature, it is surmised that the departing bubble effectively removes the superheated layer, allowing a high local heat transfer rate with the bulk fluid through transient conduction/micro-convection during rewetting.

Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Kim, Jungho

2005-01-01

299

A comparison of six methods for measuring soil-surface carbon dioxide fluxes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of soil-surface CO2 fluxes are important for characterizing the carbon budget of boreal forests because these fluxes can be the second largest component of the budget. Several methods for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes are available: (1) closed-dynamic-chamber systems, (2) closed-static-chamber systems, (3) open-chamber systems, and (4) eddy covariance systems. This paper presents a field comparison of six individual systems for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes with each of the four basic system types represented. A single system is used as a reference and compared to each of the other systems individually in black spruce (Picea mariana), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), or aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests. Fluxes vary from 1 to 10 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Adjustment factors to bring all of the systems into agreement vary from 0.93 to 1.45 with an uncertainty of about 10-15%.

Norman, J. M.; Kucharik, C. J.; Gower, S. T.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Crill, P. M.; Rayment, M.; Savage, K.; Striegl, R. G.

1997-01-01

300

Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.

Law, Bev

2013-11-25

301

Comparison of surface fluxes and boundary-layer measurements at Arctic terrestrial sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational evidence suggests that atmospheric energy fluxes are a major contributor to the decrease of the Arctic pack ice, seasonal land snow cover and the warming of the surrounding land areas and permafrost layers. To better understand the atmosphere-surface exchange mechanisms, improve models, and to diagnose climate variability in the Arctic, accurate measurements are required of all components of the net surface energy budget and the carbon dioxide cycle over representative areas and over multiple years. This study analyzes and discusses variability of surface fluxes and basic meteorological parameters based on measurements made at several long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in USA (Barrow), Canada (Eureka), and Russia (Tiksi). Tower-based eddy covariance and solar radiation measurements provide a long-term near continuous temporal record of hourly average mass and energy fluxes respectively. The turbulent fluxes of the momentum, sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are supported by additional atmospheric and surface/snow/permafrost measurements (mean wind speed, air temperature and humidity, upwelling and downwelling short-wave and long-wave atmospheric and surface radiation, snow depth, surface albedo, soil heat flux, active layer temperature profiles etc.) In this study we compare annual cycles of surface fluxes including solar radiation and other ancillary data to describe four seasons in the Arctic including spring onset of melt and fall onset of snow accumulation. Particular interest is a transition through freezing point, i.e. during transition from winter to spring and from summer to fall, when the carbon dioxide and/or water vapor turbulent fluxes change their direction. According to our data, in a summer period observed temporal variability of the carbon dioxide flux was generally in anti-phase with water vapor flux (downward CO2 flux and upward H2O flux). On average the turbulent flux of carbon dioxide was mostly negative (uptake by the surface) in summer indicating that the Arctic terrestrial sites are generally net sinks for atmospheric CO2 during the growing season when surface is extensively covered with vegetation. This study also shows that the sensible heat flux, water vapor, and carbon dioxide fluxes as well as air temperature exhibit clear diurnal cycles during the Arctic summer. During the Polar winter and cold seasons, the sensible heat flux, water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes were small and mostly irregular when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures are sufficiently below freezing. The work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) with award ARC 11-07428 and by the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) with award RUG1-2976-ST-10.

Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Albee, Robert; Makshtas, Alexander; Kustov, Vasily; Repina, Irina; Artamonov, Arseniy

2014-05-01

302

Absolute beam flux measurement at NDCX-I using gold-melting calorimetry technique  

SciTech Connect

We report on an alternative way to measure the absolute beam flux at the NDCX-I, LBNL linear accelerator. Up to date, the beam flux is determined from the analysis of the beam-induced optical emission from a ceramic scintilator (Al-Si). The new approach is based on calorimetric technique, where energy flux is deduced from the melting dynamics of a gold foil. We estimate an average 260 kW/cm2 beam flux over 5 {micro}s, which is consistent with values provided by the other methods. Described technique can be applied to various ion species and energies.

Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lidia, S.M.; Welch, J.

2011-04-01

303

Correction of eddy covariance water vapor flux using additional measurements of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporation measurements using the eddy covariance technique tend to underestimate latent heat flux, partly due to the separation between the water vapor sensor and the sonic anemometer. Although correction equations have been proposed, they rely on empirical turbulence spectra and might not be easy to apply to some situations. In this paper we test the hypothesis that relative flux losses

F. J. Villalobos

1997-01-01

304

Increasing fluxes of S5 1044+71 measured with RATAN-600 radio telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report about the growing fluxes of the quasar S5 1044+71, identified with the FERMI source 2FGL J1048.3+714, since detection of the high state in the rest of January 2014 (ATEL #5792). We continue measurements and again detect the increase of the flux densities at frequencies 8.2-21.7 GHz in February.

Trushkin, S. T.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Sotnikova, Yu. V.; Erkenov, A.; Udovitskij, R. Yu.; Mufakharov, T. V.

2014-02-01

305

Balloon-borne measurements of the ultraviolet flux in the Arctic stratosphere during winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Filter radiometers sensitive from 280 to 320 nm and from 280 to 400 nm, respectively, were used for measurements of the actinic flux in the stratosphere. Since the instruments are calibrated for absolute spectral sensitivity the data can be compared with model calculations of the actinic flux. Data were obtained during seven balloon flights during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE).

Schiller, Cornelius; Mueller, Martin; Klein, Erich; Schmidt, Ulrich; Roeth, Ernst-Peter

1994-01-01

306

DETERMINATION OF ACCEPTABLE CLOSING TIME SCATTER AND RESIDUAL FLUX MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY FOR CONTROLLED SWITCHING OF TRANSFORMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, controlled switching taking into account the residual flux is able to fully eliminate inrush currents. Due to non-idealities in the field (closing time scatter, residual flux measurement uncertainty) that significantly affect the performance of controlled switching, inrush currents of 1.0 pu must be tolerated. To calculate the maximum acceptable tolerances of both non- idealities in this case, systematic energisation

A. Ebner

307

A direct passive method for measuring water and contaminant fluxes in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new direct method for measuring water and contaminant fluxes in porous media. The method uses a passive flux meter (PFM), which is essentially a self-contained permeable unit properly sized to fit tightly in a screened well or boring. The meter is designed to accommodate a mixed medium of hydrophobic and\\/or hydrophilic permeable sorbents, which retain dissolved

Kirk Hatfield; Michael Annable; Jaehyun Cho; P. S. C. Rao; Harald Klammler

2004-01-01

308

A Relaxed Eddy Accumulation System for Measuring Surface Fluxes of Total Gaseous Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system was designed to continuously measure total gaseous mercury (TGM) fluxes over a forest canopy. TGM concentration measurements were measured at 5-min intervals with a Tekran model 2537A mercury analyzer located above the forest canopy on a walk-up meteorological tower. Ten-minute averages for up- and downdraft mercury concentrations were used to calculate the flux. The

Jesse O. Bash; David R. Miller

2008-01-01

309

Measuring the Ion Flux to the Deposition Substrate in the Hollow Cathode Plasma Jet  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of positive ion flux to a negatively biased substrate for deposition of TiO{sub x} thin films by the hollow cathode plasma jet system are presented. Different methods of obtaining the bias of substrate and measuring the resulting ion flux were used for different bias frequencies. Pulsed DC bias, middle frequency 500 kHz bias, and 13.56 MHz RF bias were compared. For 13.56 MHz two different methods of ion flux determination were used. These measurements were performed for different bias voltage and discharge conditions.

Virostko, P. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Low-Temperature Plasma, Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Hubicka, Z.; Cada, M.; Adamek, P.; Kment, S.; Jastrabik, L. [Department of Low-Temperature Plasma, Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Tichy, M. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic)

2008-03-19

310

Measurements of neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device. A BF3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of scintillation detectors was used to compare neutron output under different operating conditions. The detectors were designed to be compatible with the operating conditions of the device and to be able to measure small changes in neutron output. The detectors were calibrated using a Pu-Be source with corrections made for laboratory conditions. Performance of the counting system was checked and data were collected on the neutron flux from the device.

Westenskow, G. A.

1975-08-01

311

Measuring eddy covariance fluxes of ozone with a slow-response analyser  

PubMed Central

Ozone (O3) fluxes above a temperate mountain grassland were measured by means of the eddy covariance (EC) method using a slow-response O3 analyser. The resultant flux loss was corrected for by a series of transfer functions which model the various sources of high- and, in particular, low-pass filtering. The resulting correction factors varied on average between 1.7 and 3.5 during night and day time, respectively. A cospectral analysis confirmed the accuracy of this approach. O3 fluxes were characterised by a comparatively large random uncertainty, which during daytime typically amounted to 60 %. EC O3 fluxes were compared against O3 flux measurements made concurrently with the flux-gradient (FG) method. The two methods generally agreed well, except for a period between sun rise and early afternoon, when the FG method was suspected of being affected by the presence of photochemical sources/sinks. O3 flux magnitudes and deposition velocities determined with the EC method compared nicely with the available literature from grassland studies. We conclude that our understanding of the causes and consequences of various sources of flux loss (associated with any EC system) has sufficiently matured so that also less-than-ideal instrumentation may be used in EC flux applications, albeit at the cost of relatively large empirical corrections.

Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hortnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Graus, Martin; Hansel, Armin

2013-01-01

312

Laboratory Measurement of Enthalpy Flux in High Winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensity of tropical cyclones is sensitive to the rates at which enthalpy and momentum are transferred between sea and air in the high-wind core of the storm. Present models of the wind dependence of these transfer rates, does not allow for storms of greater than marginal hurricane intensity. Recent studies have shown that there is a saturation of the

D. Jeong; B. K. Haus; M. A. Donelan; J. Zhang

2006-01-01

313

An inter-comparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE, 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program Field Experiment (FIFE-87), surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to nearly all the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover and the host for the stations visited. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between rover measurements and host measurements. These inter-comparisons are needed to examine the influence of instrumentation on measurement uncertainty. Highly significant effects of instrument type were detected from these comparisons. Instruments of the same type showed average differences of less than 5 percent for net radiation, 10 percent for Bowen ratio, and 6 percent for latent heat flux. The corresponding average differences for different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected REBS model. The 4-way components methed and the Thornswaite type give similar values to the REBS. The SERBS type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the AZET systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems.

Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Weaver, H.; Smith, E. A.; Verma, S. B.; Field, R. T.; Kustas, W.; Stewart, J. B.

1990-01-01

314

Progress in the measurement of SSME turbine heat flux with plug-type sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data reduction was completed for tests of plug-type heat flux sensors (gauges) in a turbine blade thermal cycling tester (TBT) that is located at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and a typical gauge is illustrated. This is the first time that heat flux has been measured in a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turbopump Turbine environment. The development of the concept for the gauge was performed in a heat flux measurement facility at Lewis. In this facility, transient and steady state absorbed surface heat flux information was obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gauge. A schematic of the TBT is presented, and plots of the absorbed surface heat flux measured on the three blades tested in the TBT are presented. High quality heat flux values were measured on all three blades. The experiments demonstrated that reliable and durable gauges can be repeatedly fabricated into the airfoils. The experiment heat flux data are being used for verification of SSME analytical stress, boundary layer, and heat transfer design models. Other experimental results and future plans are also presented.

Liebert, Curt H.

1991-05-01

315

Mapping methane sources and emissions over California from direct airborne flux and VOC source tracer measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the contributions of methane (CH4) emissions from anthropogenic sources in the Central Valley of California is important for validation of the statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and subsequent AB32 law implementation. The state GHG inventory is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The 'bottom-up' emission factors for CH4 have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate 'top-down' measurements to characterize emission rates. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agricultural and industry intensive region with large concentration of dairies and livestock operations, active oil and gas fields and refining operations, as well as rice cultivation all of which are known CH4 sources. In order to gain a better perspective of the spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, airborne measurements were conducted aboard a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of low-altitude and mixed layer airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements alongside coincident VOC measurements. Transects during eight unique flights covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. We report direct quantification of CH4 fluxes using real-time airborne Eddy Covariance measurements. CH4 and CO2 were measured at 1-Hz data rate using an instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) along with specific VOCs (like isoprene, methanol, acetone etc.) measured at 10-Hz using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - Eddy Covariance (PTRMS-EC) flux system. Spatially resolved eddy covariance fluxes were obtained using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and from Wavelet Analysis along flight tracks flown in the mixed layer. Preliminary analysis of mixing ratio measurements indicate that high concentrations of CH4 occur consistently while flying above the Central Valley that are correlated to large enhancements of methanol which is an important dairy and livestock emissions tracer. The elevated CH4 mixing ratios along the eastern edge of the San Joaquin Valley highlight the contribution of topography and emissions transport to local ambient levels of CH4. Large enhancements of CH4, benzene and toluene are also observed while flying over the oil production facilities in western part of Kern county (state's top oil producing county, 10% of US production) suggesting the likelihood of fugitive emissions in the region. VOC tracer analysis is used to evaluate the source of high CH4 emissions encountered along the eastern edge of the central Sacramento valley where fugitive emissions from natural gas fields and cultivation of rice are likely sources. Plumes from biomass burning, landfills and refineries encountered during different flights are also investigated. Eddy covariance based CH4 flux estimates are derived for various sources and compared with ';bottom-up' inventory estimates to verify/validate the CA methane inventory for major sources.

Guha, A.; Misztal, P. K.; Peischl, J.; Karl, T.; Jonsson, H. H.; Woods, R. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

2013-12-01

316

Measurement of NOx fluxes by eddy covariance from the BT tower, London during the ClearfLo project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of air pollutants are emitted directly into the atmosphere from activities occurring at the Earth's surface. One of the key anthropogenic pollutants is NOx (defined as the sum of NO and NO2), which is emitted as a result of most anthropogenic combustion processes. Whilst the chemical reactions and atmospheric processing of NOx are reasonably well understood, and can be modelled with some skill, large uncertainties arise in models due to uncertainty associated with the rate of emissions. In recent years it has become clear that measured trends in certain pollutants, for example NO2, have not followed trends predicted by inventories. Continued exceedances of certain air pollution targets are of significant concern to governments, who have identified reducing this uncertainty associated with emissions as key evidence need. As part of the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project, concentrations and fluxes of NOx were measured from the top of the BT tower, which is a 188m high telecommunications tower, situated in central London (51o31'17.4'N; 0o8'20.04W). The tower is surrounded by a mixture of commercial and residential buildings with an average height of 15 m. The typical daytime flux footprint of the tower is dominated by commercial/residential buildings and roads (82%) but also includes urban parkland (13%) and impervious ground (5%). High time resolution (10 Hz) chemiluminescence measurements of NO and NO2 (photolytic conversion to NO followed by chemiluminescence) were combined with fast turbulence measurements from a sonic anemometer to calculate fluxes using the eddy covariance technique. In brief, NOx fluxes per notional half-hourly averaging period were obtained by maximising the covariance between instantaneous (i.e. mean for the averaging period subtracted from each 10 Hz data point) fluctuations of NOx mixing ratio and vertical wind velocity. 24 hour NOx flux measurements were made on 36 days during June, July and August 2012 and 28 days in March and April 2013. The data showed a clear diurnal cycle, with NOx flux broadly following measured traffic flow in the surrounding streets, with a typical maximum daytime flux of 4?g m-2 s-1. Mixing ratios of NOx can be seen to be a function of the NOx flux and the boundary layer height evolution during the day. A clear weekday / weekend dependence is seen on the NOx flux measurements, again following the traffic flow data. The measured fluxes were averaged over 24 hours and scaled up to give a 'top down' estimate of the annual emission rate of 79.6 T km-2 yr-1. This compares well to estimates from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, however some differences are seen when the data is separated into different wind sectors. Conversely, a 'bottom up' dispersion model (ADMS-Urban) was run using measured meteorological data and the detailed London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory as input. ADMS-Urban has previously been validated using near-surface measurements, but the current work demonstrates that the model gives good agreement with the flux measurements, both in terms of magnitude and diurnal cycle.

Lee, James; Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Tremper, Anja; Stocker, Jenny; Carruthers, David

2014-05-01

317

The Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Solid Samples by Heat Flux Differantial Scanning Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of polyvinylchloride (PVC), polysytrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) were measured by heat flux DSC. Our results are in good agreement with the results observed by different methods.

Kök, M.; Aydo?du, Y.

2007-04-01

318

The Role of Water Movement and Spatial Scaling for Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen Fluxes in Intertidal Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) across the sediment-water interface were determined at intertidal locations in Königshafen, northern Wadden Sea, North Sea. Three different incubation techniques were compared: closed sediment cores (small scale), closed bell jars (medium scale) and an open flow system (Sylt flume, large scale). Water movement in the two closed systems was maintained below the resuspension limit by spinning magnets (cores, incubated in the laboratory) or by transfer of wave action through flexible plastic foil (bell jars, in situ), whereas in the flume system ( in situ) water movement was unidirectional, driven by currents and waves. Data sets from several years of core measurements (1992-94), bell jar measurements (1980) and flume campaigns (1990-93) served as the basis for a comparison of dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes. Fluxes of ammonium and nitrate were within the same order of magnitude in closed cores and bell jars, while flume rates of ammonium were considerably higher. The high flume rates were caused by advective flushing due to tidal water movement and wave action. The release of ammonium increased significantly with current velocity between 1 and 13 cm s -1. Fluxes of ammonium were higher in sediments with Arenicola marinacompared to those without this bioturbating species. The influence of benthic microalgae was evident only in the small and medium scale core and bell jar systems as reduced ammonium release during light exposure. Nitrate was consumed by sediments in both closed systems at a rate proportional to the nitrate concentration in the overlying water. Nitrate fluxes in the large scale Sylt flume were low with an average of only 7% of the ammonium fluxes, probably due to low concentrations in tidal waters during measurements (summer). Both closed, small scale or open, large scale techniques can be applied successfully for benthic flux studies, but the actual choice depends on the purpose of the investigation. Small enclosures, either in the field (bell jars) or in the laboratory (cores) are well suited to examine controlling factors for benthic microbial metabolism and nutrient exchange across the sediment-water interface. Fluxes in benthic-pelagic subsystems need larger, open tools where the effect of entire benthic communities and especially the influence of waves and currents can be evaluated.

Asmus, R. M.; Jensen, M. H.; Jensen, K. M.; Kristensen, E.; Asmus, H.; Wille, A.

1998-02-01

319

Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4) fluxes for the period June 2009-December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4) from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory) and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory) CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510-516 Tg yr-1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr-1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes (75 Tg yr-1) occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45%) than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes > 60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2) and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 5% of true values, with the exception of South Africa and Tropical South America where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 17% and 19% of true fluxes, respectively. We evaluate our posterior methane fluxes by incorporating them into GEOS-Chem and sampling the model at the location and time of independent surface CH4 measurements from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network and column XCH4 measurements from TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network). The posterior fluxes modestly improve the model agreement with AGAGE and TCCON data relative to prior fluxes, with the correlation coefficients (r2) increasing by a mean of 0.04 (range: -0.17, 0.23) and the biases decreasing by a mean of 0.4 ppb (range: -8.9, 8.4 ppb).

Fraser, A.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.; Boesch, H.; Cogan, A.; Parker, R.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Steele, L. P.; van der Schoot, M.; Weiss, R. F.

2012-12-01

320

Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4) fluxes for the period June 2009-December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4) from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory) and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory) CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510-516 Tg yr-1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr-1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr-1) occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45%) than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2) and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our posterior methane fluxes by incorporating them into GEOS-Chem and sampling the model at the location and time of surface CH4 measurements from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network and column XCH4 measurements from TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network). The posterior fluxes modestly improve the model agreement with AGAGE and TCCON data relative to prior fluxes, with the correlation coefficients (r2) increasing by a mean of 0.04 (range: -0.17 to 0.23) and the biases decreasing by a mean of 0.4 ppb (range: -8.9 to 8.4 ppb).

Fraser, A.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.; Boesch, H.; Cogan, A.; Parker, R.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Steele, L. P.; van der Schoot, M.; Weiss, R. F.

2013-06-01

321

A stochastic model for estimating groundwater and contaminant discharges from fractured rock passive flux meter measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of water and contaminant discharges is an important hydrological problem. Fractured rock aquifers are recognized as highly complex flow and transport systems, and the fractured rock passive flux meter (FRPFM) is a recently tested device to simultaneously measure cumulative water and contaminant mass fluxes in fractures intersecting an observation well (boring). Furthermore, the FRPFM is capable of indicating orientations and directions of flow in hydraulically active ("flowing") fractures. The present work develops a discharge estimator for when FRPFM measurements of fracture fluxes in the direction perpendicular to a transect (control plane) along one or more observation wells are available. In addition, estimation uncertainty in terms of a coefficient of variation is assessed based on a Monte Carlo approach under normalized conditions. Sources of uncertainty considered are spatially random fracture trace locations, random trace lengths, and orientations as well as variability of trace average fluxes (including smooth spatial trends), variability of local fluxes within traces, and flux measurement errors. Knowledge about the trace length distribution, which is commonly not available from borehole surveys, is not required for discharge estimation. However, it does affect the uncertainty assessment, and equations for upper uncertainty bounds are given as an alternative. In agreement with general statistical inference, it is found that discharge uncertainty decreases proportionally with the number of fluxes measured. Results are validated, and an example problem illustrates practical application and performance.

Acar, Özlem; Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Newman, Mark A.; Annable, Michael D.; Cho, Jaehyun; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Pehme, Pete; Quinn, Patryk; Kroeker, Ryan

2013-03-01

322

Disjunct Eddy Accumulation Measurements of Organic Nitrate Fluxes Over a Forest Site in Northern Michigan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of organic nitrates have been measured at the PROPHET tower site in northern Michigan by the technique of disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA). This relatively new method involves conditional sampling into up and down cartridge-based reservoirs, from a disjunct sample container. In this experiment, air parcels containing target species were sampled at rates proportional to the magnitude and direction of the vertical wind vector. One disjunct sample was taken every 30 seconds by drawing ambient air into analysis tubes containing a sorbent material (Tenax-TA) for a period of one hour. These sorbet tubes were then analyzed by thermal desorption/GC-ECD. The performance of the DEA instrument and GC during their first field deployment is evaluated and the overall flux for several organic nitrate molecules will be reported. Using these data and the gas phase concentrations, dry deposition velocities of these organic nitrates can be calculated and will be discussed here. The potential role and relative importance (compared to other sources of nitrogen) of these molecules in biosphere-atmosphere exchange within a nitrogen limited forest will also be discussed.

Martins, D. K.; Edwards, G. D.; Starn, T.; Shepson, P. B.

2004-12-01

323

Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ganju, N. K.; Schoellhamer, D. H.

2006-01-01

324

Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux From Super-Kamiokande's First 300 Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the solar neutrino flux measurements from data taken by Super-Kamiokande between the 31st of May, 1996 and the 23rd of June, 1997 are presented. Using our measurement of recoil electrons with energies above 6.5 MeV\\/c^2, we infer the flux of all ^8 B solar neutrinos to be 2.42±0.06(stat.)^+0.10_-0.07(syst.)×10^6\\/cm^2\\/s, which is 36% of the flux predicted by the

Robert Sanford; T. Hayakawa; E. Ichihara; K. Inoue; K. Ishihara; H. Ishino; Y. Itow; T. Kajita; J. Kameda; S. Kasuga; K. Kobayashi; Y. Kobayashi; Y. Koshio; K. Martens; M. Miura; M. Nakahata; S. Nakayama; A. Okada; M. Oketa; K. Okumura; M. Ota; N. Sakurai; M. Shiozawa; Y. Suzuki; Y. Takeuchi; Y. Totsuka; S. Yamada; M. Earl; A. Habig; J. T. Hong; E. Kearns; S. B. Kim; M. Masuzawa; M. D. Messier; K. Scholberg; J. L. Stone; L. R. Sulak; C. W. Walter; M. Goldhaber; T. Barszczak; W. Gajewski; P. G. Halverson; J. Hsu; W. R. Kropp; L. R. Price; F. Reines; H. W. Sobel; M. R. Vagins; K. S. Ganezer; W. E. Keig; R. W. Ellsworth; S. Tasaka; J. W. Flanagan; A. Kibayashi; J. G. Learned; S. Matsuno; V. Stenger; D. Takemori; T. Ishii; J. Kanzaki; T. Kobayashi; K. Nakamura; K. Nishikawa; Y. Oyama; A. Sakai; M. Sakuda; O. Sasaki; S. Echigo; M. Kohama; A. T. Suzuki; T. J. Haines; E. Blaufuss; R. Svoboda; M. L. Chen; Z. Conner; J. A. Goodman; G. W. Sullivan; M. Mori; J. Hill; C. K. Jung; C. Mauger; C. McGrew; E. Sharkey; B. Viren; C. Yanagisawa; W. Doki; T. Ishizuka; Y. Kitaguchi; H. Koga; K. Miyano; H. Okazawa; C. Saji; M. Takahata; A. Kusano; Y. Nagashima; M. Takita; T. Yamaguchi; M. Yoshida; M. Etoh; K. Fujita; A. Hasegawa; T. Hasegawa; S. Hatakeyama; T. Iwamoto; T. Kinebuchi; M. Koga; T. Maruyama; H. Ogawa; F. Tsushima; M. Koshiba; M. Nemoto; K. Nishijima; T. Futagami; Y. Hayato; Y. Kanaya; K. Kaneyuki; Y. Watanabe; D. Kielczewska; R. Doyle; J. George; A. Stachyra; L. Wai; J. Wilkes; K. Young

1998-01-01

325

Comparison between calculated and measured photoelectron fluxes from Atmosphere Explorer C and E  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-stream method has been used to calculate photoelectron fluxes. These results have been compared to those obtained by the photoelectron spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorers C and E. At both low altitudes, and higher altitudes (where transport effects are significant) the calculated and measured photoelectron fluxes yield good agreement. It is suggested that (1) better photoionization and scattering cross-section data will yield improved flux calculations, and (2) measurements of the pitch angle distribution are necessary for better high-altitude comparisons.

Nagy, A. F.; Doering, J. P.; Peterson, W. K.; Torr, M. R.; Banks, P. M.

1977-01-01

326

Measurement and Real-Time Modeling of Inductance and Flux Linkage in Switched Reluctance Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a real-time model to identify the inductance and the flux linkage of switched reluctance motors (SRMs). A dynamic measurement method is used for the real-time modeling. An artificial neural network (ANN), designed in accordance with the inductance and the flux linkage data obtained from the dynamic measurement method, is used to make the real-time model. Experimental studies

O. Ustun

2009-01-01

327

Satellite-borne measurement of the total flux of solar ultraviolet radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar ultraviolet radiometer based on the CaSO4 thermoluminescent phosphor has been developed to perform measurements of the total ultraviolet flux at wavelengths not greater than 1300 A. Performance tests carried out from November 1978 to February 1979 on a Prognoz satellite show that this radiometer is able to measure the total flux with an accuracy that makes it possible to record variations produced by changes of solar activity.

Avdiushin, S. I.; Bukusova, L. L.; Gutkevich, S. M.; Goniukh, D. A.; Davydov, V. E.; Dlikman, F. L.; Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Kazachevskaia, T. V.; Kulagin, Iu. M.; Seredin, B. P.

1981-10-01

328

Measurements of neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an inertial-electrostatic confinement device. A BF3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of scintillation detectors was used to compare neutron output under different operating conditions. The detectors were designed to be compatible with the operating conditions of the device and to

G. A. Westenskow

1975-01-01

329

Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Fluxes over Arable Land in Southern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic soils are the only biological sink for atmospheric methane. Although the sinks are relatively small (~ -1 to -5 ng/m2s), this can translate to a significant quantity of methane consumption over large areas. The degree of sink strength can vary over time and space with changing soil moisture and texture, as well as variations in agricultural practices. Chamber measurements currently provide the majority of information on methane flux values for arable land. Improvements in high-frequency trace gas instrumentation allows for easier eddy covariance flux measurements for methane, thus providing the opportunity for flux measurements over a larger integrated area than chambers. A Picarro G2311-f gas analyzer was recently acquired to measure CH4 and CO2 fluxes for a corn field in Southern Ontario treated with manure. The analyzer employs cavity ring-down spectroscopy to measure gas concentrations and integrates sonic anemometry for eddy covariance measurements. Since methane flux values are small for agricultural soils, noise tests assessed the detection limits of the Picarro system in order to differentiate between instrument noise and fluxes close to zero. A spectral response test characterized the analyzer's capacity to resolve flux values by using a random noise generator to simulate different sized eddies passing by an eddy covariance system. Measurements of CH4 and CO2 commenced in spring of 2013 and continued throughout the growing season and post-harvest. Models will be developed to gap-fill the time series to calculate the net CO2 and CH4 budgets for the corn field. Results from the instrument characterization tests and preliminary results from the flux measurements will be presented.

Brown, S. E.; Wagner-Riddle, C.

2013-12-01

330

Measuring Radiation Heat Fluxes from a Jet Fire Using a Lumped Capacitance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental methodology for measuring the incident radiation heat flux distribution surrounding a\\u000a jet fire. The methodology uses a line of surface thermocouples attached to a steel bar. The thermocouples measure the temperature\\u000a time history of the steel bar in response to an imposed incident radiation heat flux. The theoretical basis of the methodology\\u000a is an energy

Peter S. Cumber

2011-01-01

331

Contactless TwoAxis Inclination Measurement System Using Planar FluxGate Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tilt-sensitive measuring system exploiting a low-cost planar printed-circuit-board (PCB) flux-gate sensor is described. We propose a system topology that exploits two magnets and a flux-gate sensor to realize a two-axis tilt-sensitive measuring system. The sensing configuration has been investigated using electromagnetic modeling software first. Then, the prototype characterization has shown system sensitivity up to 4 V\\/?? and integral nonlinearity

Luigi Rovati; Stefano Cattini

2010-01-01

332

Application of an energy balance correction method for turbulent flux measurements based on buoyancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy imbalance in flux measurements between the atmosphere and the surface is a well-known problem, but unsolved due to the complexity of possible reasons and potential error sources. In order to provide unbiased budgets, however, eddy-covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat flux should be corrected according to the closure gap. Recent studies utilising turbulent flux data and LES models suggest that the transport of the missing turbulent flux is triggered by meso-scale circulations, not detected by eddy-covariance measurements within typical averaging intervals of 30 minutes. These motions on longer timescales are driven by buoyancy, suggesting that the missing turbulent flux is a missing buoyancy flux. Based on this assumption we present an energy balance closure correction method according to the buoyancy flux. The effects are compared with the results obtained by the commonly used correction according to the Bowen ratio (Twine et al., Agr. Forest Meteorol., 2000). We show that in general both correction methods could be applied to daytime fluxes and conditions with positive Bowen ratios. Finally the corrected turbulent fluxes are compared with different simulations of SVAT-type models for Tibetan grassland sites and a central European spruce forest site. The model performance with respect to the used data correction method is linked to the different mechanism of closing the energy balance within the model. Model validation requires energy balance closure correction in case the model relies on the energy balance equation. We conclude that mechanistic model development of turbulent flux parameterisations should recognize the recent hypotheses concerning the energy balance closure rather than fitting just to the uncorrected eddy-covariance data.

Babel, Wolfgang; Charuchittipan, Doojdao; Zhao, Peng; Biermann, Tobias; Gatzsche, Kathrin; Foken, Thomas

2014-05-01

333

Elemental weathering fluxes and saprolite production rate in a Central African lateritic terrain (Nsimi, South Cameroon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparison between contemporary and long-term weathering has been carried out in the Small Experimental Watershed (SEW) of Nsimi, South Cameroon in order to quantify the export fluxes of major and trace elements and the residence time of the lateritic weathering cover. We focus on the hillside system composed of a thick lateritic weathering cover topped by a soil layer. This study is built on the recent improvements of the hillside hydrological functioning and on the analyses of major and trace elements. The mass balance calculation at the weathering horizon scale performed with the parent rock as reference indicates (i) strong depletion profiles for alkalis (Na, K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), (ii) moderate depletion profiles for Si, P, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co, (iii) depletion/enrichment profiles for Al, Ga, Ge, Sn, Pb, LREE, HREE, Y, U, Fe, V, Cr, Mn. It is noteworthy that (i) Mn and Ce are not significantly redistributed according to oxidative processes as it is the case for Fe, V and Cr, and (ii) Ge is fractionated compared to silica with enrichment in Fe-rich horizons. The calculations performed for the topsoil with iron crust as parent material reference reveal that the degradation of the iron crust is accompanied by the loss of most of the constituting elements, among which are those specifically accumulated as the redox sensitive elements (Fe, V, Cr) and iron oxide related elements like Th. The overall current elemental fluxes from the hillside system at the springs and the seepage zones are extremely low due to the inert lateritic mineralogy. Ninety-four percent of the whole Na flux generated from the hillside corrected from atmospheric deposits (77 mol/ha/yr) represents the current weathering rates of plagioclase (oligoclase) in the system, the other remaining 6% may be attributed to the dissolution of hornblende. The silica hillside flux is 300 mol/ha/yr and can be mostly attributed to the plagioclase and kaolinite dissolution. Al and Ga are exported from the lateritic regolith and maybe due to the dissolution of kaolinite crystals. Compared to the other immobile elements (Zr, Hf, Nb and Th), Ti is significantly exported. Among redox-sensitive elements (Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Ce), only Ce and Mn are exported out of the hillside system. The other elements (Fe, V, Cr) are likely able to be mobilized but over a short distance only. Rb, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, Zn are affected by export processes. LREE and Y are exported but in very low amounts (in the range from ?mol/ha/yr to mmol/ha/yr) while HREE and U are exported in negligible quantities. A first attempt is carried out to compare the mature ridge top profile from Nsimi SEW with the immature ridge top weathering profile from the Mule Hole SEW (South India), developed on similar granodioritic basement, in order to get deeper insight into (i) the contemporary saprolite production rates and (ii) the combined effect of precipitation (in terms of Mean Annual Rainfall, MAR) and evapotranspiration on the aggressiveness of the draining solutions. Considering (i) the contemporary Na flux as representative of the dissolution of plagioclase crystals and conservative during saprolitization processes and (ii) steady state of the inter-annual recharge (R) over a 10 years period, the current saprolite production rates (?r) are of 22 mm/kyr for Mule Hole SEW and 2 mm/kyr for Nsimi SEW, respectively. Even with a very low R/MAR ratio (0.04) compared to Nsimi, the chemical weathering at Mule Hole is active and related to the groundwater exports. At Mule Hole, plagioclase crystals are still present in the saprolite and the soil cover leading to a diffuse weathering front. The high Nsimi R/MAR ratio (0.2) allows the solution to be still aggressive with respect to the plagioclase and other weatherable minerals at the bedrock interface resulting in their complete breakdown in a few centimetres (sharp weathering front) leading to a mature saprolite. For the Nsimi SEW, if we consider (i) the low contemporary saprolite production rate (2 mm/kyr), (ii) the Miocene age (average 15 Myr) o

Braun, Jean-Jacques; Marechal, Jean-Christophe; Riotte, Jean; Boeglin, Jean-Loup; Bedimo Bedimo, Jean-Pierre; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Nyeck, Brunot; Robain, Henri; Sekhar, M.; Audry, Stéphane; Viers, Jérôme

2012-12-01

334

Flow rate measuring devices for gas flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flowrate measuring devices are described: volume meter with fixed or mobile walls; turbine meter; throttling procedure; ultrasonic and Doppler methods; vortex method; rotary flowmeter; and swinging body flow measuring procedure. Flowrate can also be measured from the force exerted on bodies immersed in a fluid or based on thermodynamical principles. The characteristics and operating envelope of each device/method are given.

Bonfig, K. W.

1985-07-01

335

Local energy dissipation rate balances local heat flux in the center of turbulent thermal convection.  

PubMed

The local kinetic energy dissipation rate ?(u,c) in Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell was measured experimentally using the particle tracking velocimetry method, with varying Rayleigh number Ra, Prandtl number Pr, and cell height H. It is found that ?(u,c)/(?(3)H(-4))=1.05×10(-4)Ra(1.55±0.02)Pr(1.15±0.38). The Ra and H dependencies of the measured results are found to be consistent with the assumption made for the bulk energy dissipation rate ?(u,bulk) in the Grossmann-Lohse model. A remarkable finding of the study is that ?(u,c) balances the directly measured local Nusselt number Nu(c) in the cell center, not only scalingwise but also in magnitude. PMID:22107524

Ni, Rui; Huang, Shi-Di; Xia, Ke-Qing

2011-10-21

336

Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

1988-01-01

337

Estimating Scalar Fluxes in Tropical Forests from Concentration/Temperature Profile Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy Covariance (EC) flux measurements are now widely used for estimating long-term biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange. However, gap-filling and constraining these EC estimates using other techniques that are sensitive to different assumptions remains a high priority. Improved ability to recover fluxes from concentration and temperature profile data could serve as one such constraining and gap-filling method. Furthermore, if successful, concentration profiles permit estimating fluxes of chemical fluxes for which high frequency gas analyzers are not currently available. We investigate the ability of higher order closure models to estimate CO2 fluxes from a 40 m tall tropical forest on the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Para, Brazil. Eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat, CO2 and momentum fluxes were collected along with profile measurements of CO2 and water vapor concentrations and temperature as part of the LBA program. To this end, we extended a 2nd order Eulerian approach for CO2 along with the appropriate stability correction regimes. Also, we included in the model transient term in an attempt to improve estimates over periods in which storage and turbulent fluxes may be of comparable magnitude. For comparison, we performed calculations using a 1st order closure model and a "dummy" model where perfect similarity between heat and CO2 transfer is assumed.

Silva, R.; Siqueira, M.; Katul, G.; Rocha, H.; Goulden, M.; Miller, S.

2004-12-01

338

Diamagnetic flux measurement using the PDX TF coils  

SciTech Connect

The diamagnetism of plasmas in PDX has been measured using the toroidal field coils as the equivalent of the conventional diamagnetic loop. The extremely low inductive coupling between the toroidal and poloidal coil systems makes the measurement feasible. The main difficulty arises from the change in the TF coil resistance due to Joule heating, compounded by the nonlinearity and sharp temperature dependence of the resistance of the joints in the TF coils. The measurement method, details of the experimental system, and illustrative results are presented.

Thomas, P.

1983-02-01

339

Estimation of the high-latitude topside electron heat flux using DMSP plasma density measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-latitude ionosphere interfaces with the hot, tenuous, magnetospheric plasma, and a heat flow into the ionosphere is expected, which has a large impact on the plasma densities and temperatures in the high-latitude ionosphere. The value of this magnetospheric heat flux is unknown. In an effort to estimate the value of the magnetospheric heat flux into the high-latitude ionosphere, and show its effect on the high-latitude ionospheric plasma densities, we ran an ensemble of model runs using the Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM) with different values of the heat flux through the upper boundary. These model runs included heating from both auroral and solar sources. Then, for each heat flux value, the plasma densities obtained from the model runs, at 840 km, were compared to the corresponding values measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. The heat flux value that gave the best comparison between the measured and calculated plasma densities was considered to be the best estimate for the topside heat flux. The comparison was conducted for a 1-year data set of the DMSP F13 measured plasma densities (4300 consecutive orbits). Our systematic IFM/DMSP plasma density comparisons indicate that when a zero magnetospheric downward heat flux is assumed at the upper boundary of the IFM model, on the average, the IFM underestimates the measured plasma densities by a factor of 2. A good IFM/DMSP plasma density comparison was achieved for each month in 1998 when for each month a constant heat flux was assumed at the upper boundary of the model. For the 12-month period, the heat flux values that gave the best IFM/DMSP plasma density comparisons varied on the average from -0.5×1010 to -1.5×1010 eV cm-2 s-1.

Bekerat, Hamed A.; Schunk, Robert W.; Scherliess, Ludger

2007-07-01

340

Measurement of the sky photon background flux at the Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The sky photon background flux has been measured at the southern Auger site in Malargue, Argentina, using the observatory's fluorescence detectors (FD). The analysis is based on ADC variances of pixels not triggered by the First Level Trigger. Photon fluxes are calculated for each individual pixel at each telescope. The statistics from each night of data taking allows a study of local variations in the photon flux. Results show a clear dependence of the flux on elevation angle. Time variations, possibly related to different atmospheric conditions, do not mask this dependence. In particular the flux excess above the horizon shows a rather stable and reproducible behavior with elevation. Correlation of this dependence with atmospheric parameters can be of interest as it offers the promise of extracting those parameters directly from FD data, thus allowing cross checks with independent methods based on different monitoring devices.

Caruso, R.; Insolia, A.; Petrera, Sergio; /INFN, Aquila; Privitera, P.; Salamida, F.; Verzi, V.

2005-07-01

341

Strain Rate Measurements in Vertical and Oblique Impact Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strain rate trends measured from projectile impact stress profiles differ from those in plate impact experiments. For oblique impacts, strain rates downrange are a factor of 2 higher than strain rates uprange at the same peak stress.

Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

2000-01-01

342

On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

2007-12-01

343

Annual measurement of size resolved particle fluxes over an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas exhibit a multitude of well-known particle sources. Therefore, most flux studies over bigger cities detected almost exclusively upward fluxes or aerosol particles. In most of these studies, the total particle number concentration was measured for a broad size range, e.g. PM2.5or PM10. However, source apportionment and analytical studies suggest that particles within such wide size ranges may vary in their origin, longevity, and chemical composition. The scope of this study is to directly quantify turbulent exchange of atmospheric aerosol particles (AAP) of 16 different size classes. Aerosol dynamics are analyzed in combination with the exchange fluxes of sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, annual time series are analyzed for seasonal trends. We employed the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-X2), both manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, Colorado (USA). This setup covers the aerosol particle size range between 0.6 ?m and 10 ?m diameters in up to 140 size bins. In order to reach acceptable counting statistics and to minimize random flux errors, we combine the initial 140 bins into 16 wider size bins. Nevertheless, the measurement yields a considerable improvement in terms of sizing information in comparison to that in previous studies. The measurements are conducted at a 65 m high telecommunication tower in the city of Münster (population ~ 275.000), NW Germany, throughout the year of 2012 and beyond. The results confirm the hypothesis that urban areas can act both as sources and sinks for AAP at the same time. We regularly observe bi-directional fluxes as a function of particle size. While smaller particles typically exhibit (upward) emission fluxes, the larger particles show deposition (downward fluxes). The tipping point (TP) between mostly up- and downward transported particles lies in the accumulation mode at about 180 nm diameter. Large numbers of particles smaller than the TP are emitted out of the city, leading to positive daily number fluxes of 2 - 4.8 ? 108# m-2 d-1. Comparatively few particles bigger than the TP deposit into the city, often causing a negative daily mass flux of -0.1 - -0.7 ?g m-2 d-1. Number fluxes show typical daily patterns, which are correlated to traffic activity and turbulence characteristics. Spring- and summer fluxes are up to two times as high as the winter fluxes, which can be attributed to the considerably less developed turbulence within the boundary layer during the cold season. Accordingly, particle concentrations are nearly doubled during winter. The presentation will further deepen the size differentiated analysis of particle fluxes and concentrations.

Deventer, Malte Julian; Griessbaum, Frank; Klemm, Otto

2013-04-01

344

Determination of longwave heat flux at the air-sea interface using measurements from buoy platforms  

SciTech Connect

A theory for pyrgeometer operation is utilized for determining downwelling longwave radiation. Errors in downwelling longwave radiation measurements are due to differences in pyrgeometer body and dome temperatures compared to that of the atmosphere. Additionally, incident shortwave radiation fluxes may be important. Using the present theory along with laboratory and field observations, it appears that downwelling longwave heat fluxes can be measured with errors less than 6 W/sq m. Longwave heat flux observations from surface buoys deployed in four different oceanic regions suggest that (1) incoming longwave measurements from buoys are repeatable, (2) uncertainties in radiometer calibration are significant and systematic, and (3) pyrgeometers are affected by direct and indirect solar heating. A hybrid measurement method for the determination of net longwave heat flux at the air-sea interface is described. The authors recommend improvement in calibration procedures as well as development of a radiometer to be used as a transfer standard to compare with in situ measurements. Uncertainties in sea surface skin temperature and emissivity are contributors to the error in the net longwave heat flux. However, a targeted error limit goal of +/- 10 W/sq m for the monthly mean net longwave heat flux appears to be achievable.

Dickey, T.D.; Manov, D.V.; Weller, R.A.; Siegel, D.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

345

Improved measurement of magnetic properties with 3D magnetic fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper, as a pioneering work, presents measurement techniques to characterize soft magnetic materials in three-dimensional (3D) space. A novel 3D magnetic property tester using cubic sample has been constructed and calibrated. Some phenomena and problems of measurement caused by the imperfect winding and misalignment of coils are analyzed. The correction methods are proposed and employed. The new soft magnetic composite SOMALOY™ 500 is investigated.

Zhong, J. J.; Zhu, J. G.; Lin, Z. W.; Guo, Y. G.; Sievert, J. D.

2005-04-01

346

Preliminary Evaluation of Sensible Heat Flux Measurements From a Large Aperture Scintillometer Using Lysimetric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path integrating capabilities of scintillometers over several kilometers make it a potential tool that can bridge the gap between primary point based observations (lysimeters, Bowen ratio, or eddy covariance) and the demand for large-scale spatially averaged surface fluxes. Further, the spatial scale of sensible heat flux data collected from a scintillometer is comparable to the spatial resolution of satellite images. Therefore, scintillometer data may be useful for validating evapotranspiration maps based on satellite data. Numerous studies have evaluated the measurement accuracy of scintillometers using eddy covariance systems; however, the latter has energy balance closure problems up to 30%. The main objective of this study is to test the Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) using lysimetric data. The LAS monitors the sensible heat flux (H) and water vapor flux (LE) is calculated as a residual of the surface energy balance equation by monitoring net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) (LE=Rn+G-H). A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) was deployed across two lysimeter fields planted with grain sorghum under dryland management conditions. The orientation of LAS was selected to have the path of the LAS perpendicular to the predominant wind direction and to avoid direct sun light on the lenses. The refractive index of air was monitored during the 2007 cropping season at 15-min. intervals, synchronized with weather station and lysimeter measurements. In addition, a net radiometer and three soil heat flux plates were installed near both the receiver and transmitter of the scintillometer as well as on two large monolithic lysimeters. Predicted water vapor fluxes from the scintillometer-net radiometer-heat flux plate setup were compared with lysimeter data. Preliminary results (three months of data) indicate that the LAS is a promising tool for deriving water vapor fluxes. However, further evaluation is needed under a variety of crop/weather conditions to fully assess its capability to accurately estimate spatially distributed water vapor fluxes.

Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Copeland, K. S.; Bush, K.

2007-12-01

347

Measurement of the circulating muon flux in the Fermilab Debuncher ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a novel experimental technique, we have measured the flux of pions, electrons, muons, and antiprotons which are injected into and circulate in the Fermilab Debuncher ring. The experimental technique relied upon the use of a nondestructive, rf pickup to measure the bunch structure of the beam on a turn-by-turn basis. The measured muon to antiproton ratio is mu-\\/p =

A. Bross; M. Gormley; Y. Ho; C. Kim; W. Lee; E. Mannel; M. Murtagh; S. O'Day

1993-01-01

348

Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models.

Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

2014-01-01

349

Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in an urban area of Beijing city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in an urban area of Beijing city Huizhi Liu and Jianwu Feng LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 Abstract Direct measurements of CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance (EC) system were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in an urban environment of Beijing city. The EC measurements were made at the height of 47 m above the canopy on a 325 m tower. Stationarity test and cospectral analyses of the turbulence measurements met the requirement of EC assumptions. Analyses of the data revealed a clear annual cycle of CO2 fluxes with the maximum in the winter and the minimum in the summer. The positive fluxes of CO2 demonstrated that the urban surface was consistently a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The mean daily CO2 fluxes were 0.48 ± 0.17 mg m-2 s-1 and 0.78 ± 0.28 mg m-2 s-1 (mean ± std) in the summer and the winter respectively, indicating that vehicle emissions and residential heating both contributed to the higher magnitude of CO2 fluxes in winter time. Diurnal pattern of CO2 fluxes were largely associated with traffic volumn. Two distinct peaks were observed in the morning and evening traffic peak hours, with the winter morning peak averaging up to 1.3 mg m-2 s-1. Minimum CO2 fluxes usually occurred before sunrise. The two peaks of CO2 fluxes in the weekend were a little lower than in the weekday all the year around. In summer time, the two peaks occurred about 2 hour later in the weekend compared to the weekday, but this phenomenon was not obvious in the winter. Restricted driving and other related measures to reduce CO2 emission during the time of Olympic Games (July 20 to September 20, 2008) had significant impact on the magnitude of CO2 fluxes, resulting in a mean daily value of 0.39 ± 0.13 mg m-2 s-1 (mean ± std). This research in Beijing city aims at furthering the understanding of the level and dynamics of CO2 fluxes in mega cities in China. Keywords: Carbon dioxide fluxes, eddy covariance, urban area, Beijing

Liu, H.; Feng, J.

2009-12-01

350

Field intercomparison of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analyzers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and season-long performance were not assessed. The open-path gas analyzer is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, whereas for G1301-f methane measurements interference from water vapor is straightforward to correct since the instrument measures both gases simultaneously. In any case, if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyzer is needed.

Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

2013-06-01

351

Measurement of Failure Rate in Widely Distributed Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of empirical failure rate measurement, one problem that continues to plague researchers and practitioners is that of measuring the customer perceived failure rate of commercial software. Unfortunately, even order of magnitude measures of failure rate are not truly available for commercial software which is widely distributed. Given repeated reports on the criticality of software, and its significance,

Ram Chillarege; Shriram Biyani; Jeanette Rosenthal

1995-01-01

352

Randon flux from the earth: Methods of measurement by the nuclear track technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear track technique, which can be used to measure concentrations of radon directly, can also be employed to determine radon flux by means of gradients in concentration in the ground, at its surface, or above the surface. Diffusional properties or emanation properties need to be assessed, but often can also be measured by track counting. Measurements at Thoreau, New Mexico, give a flux of 1.4 atoms/cm2-s over an area of 60,000 m2. At Scotia, New York, 1.1-1.2 atoms/cm2-s are measured over an area of 100 m2.

Fleischer, R. L.

1980-12-01

353

Continuous Impedance measurement of a Superconducting Flux Qubit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implement the radio-frequency technique for characterization of superconducting qubits and for measuring their states. In the framework of this method, the qubit is inductively coupled to a high-quality tank circuit. We show that this technique is a powerful tool to study a response of externally controlled superconducting qubit to different types of excitations. Conclusive information about qubits is obtained

Evgeni Il'Ichev

2005-01-01

354

Performance of micro-balances for dust flux measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-balances have been used in the past for volatile deposition monitoring in laboratory and in space environment. In order to determine their suitability to measure mass deposition in the form of solid particles, some topical aspects must be characterised, such as the sensitivity versus temperature and grain mass and the sticking efficiency versus grain speed. These parameters have been retrieved

E. Palomba; E. L. Colangeli; P. Palumbo; A. Rotundi; J. M. Perrin; E. Bussoletti

2002-01-01

355

Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media.

Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2011-11-11

356

Improved Eddy Flux Measurements by Open-Path Gas Analyzer and Sonic Anemometer Co-Location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel instrument design combines the sensing paths of an open-path gas analyzer and a 3-D sonic anemometer and integrates the sensors in a single aerodynamic body. Common electronics provide fast-response, synchronized measurements of wind vector, sonic temperature, CO2 and H2O densities, and atmospheric pressure. An instantaneous CO2 mixing ratio, relative to dry air, is computed in real time. The synergy of combined sensors offers an alternative to the traditional density-based flux calculation method historically used for standalone open-path analyzers. A simple method is described for a direct, in-situ, mixing-ratio-based flux calculation. The method consists of: (i) correcting sonically derived air temperature for humidity effects using instantaneous water vapor density and atmospheric pressure measurements, (ii) computing water vapor pressure based on water-vapor density and humidity-corrected sonic temperature, (iii) computing fast-response CO2 mixing ratio based on CO2 density, sonic temperature, water vapor, and atmospheric pressures, and (iv) computing CO2 flux from the covariance of the vertical wind speed and the CO2 mixing ratio. Since CO2 mixing ratio is a conserved quantity, the proposed method simplifies the calculations and eliminates the need for corrections in post-processing by accounting for temperature, water-vapor, and pressure-fluctuation effects on the CO2 density. A field experiment was conducted using the integrated sensor to verify performance of the mixing-ratio method and to quantify the differences with density-derived CO2 flux corrected for sensible and latent-heat fluxes. The pressure term of the density corrections was also included in the comparison. Results suggest that the integrated sensor with co-located sonic and gas sensing paths and the mixing-ratio-based method minimize or eliminate the following uncertainties in the measured CO2 flux: (i) correcting for frequency-response losses due to spatial separation of measured quantities, (ii) correcting sonically-derived, sensible-heat flux for humidity, (iii) correcting latent-heat flux for sensible-heat flux and water-vapor self-dilution, (iv) correcting CO2 flux for sensible- and latent-heat fluxes, (v) correcting CO2 flux for pressure-induced density fluctuations.

Bogoev, Ivan

2014-05-01

357

Continuous measurement of methane flux over a larch forest using a relaxed eddy accumulation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the methane flux of a forest canopy throughout a year using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method. This sampling system was carefully validated against heat and CO2 fluxes measured by the eddy covariance method. Although the sampling system was robust, there were large uncertainties in the measured methane fluxes because of the limited precision of the methane gas analyzer. Based on the spectral characteristics of signals from the methane analyzer and the diurnal variations in the standard deviation of the vertical wind velocity, we found the daytime and nighttime precision of half-hourly methane flux measurements to be approximately 1.2 and 0.7 ?g CH4 m-2 s-1, respectively. Additional uncertainties caused by the dilution effect were estimated to affect the accuracy by as much as 0.21 ?g CH4 m-2 s-1 on a half-hourly basis. Diurnal and seasonal variations were observed in the measured fluxes. The biological emission from plant leaves was not observed in our studies, and thus could be negligible at the canopy-scale exchange. The annual methane sink was 835 ± 175 mg CH4 m-2 year-1 (8.35 kg CH4 ha-1 year-1), which was comparable to the flux range of 379-2,478 mg CH4 m-2 year-1 previously measured in other Japanese forest soils. This study indicated that the REA method could be a promising technique to measure canopy scale methane fluxes over forests, but further improvement of precision of the analyzer will be required.

Ueyama, Masahito; Hamotani, Ken; Nishimura, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Saigusa, Nobuko; Ide, Reiko

2012-08-01

358

Forest Canopy-Atmosphere Gas Exchange Rates in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil, Determined by Radon222 Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous canopy air and soil-air flux measurements of radon-222 have been combined to quantify canopy-atmosphere gas exchange rates and canopy air residence times in Amazonian old growth and selectively logged forests in the Tapajos National Forest near Santarém, Pará, Brazil, as part of the LBA project led by Brazil. Radon canopy air and soil flux measurements, when fully integrated with

C. S. Martens; T. J. Shay; H. P. Mendlovitz; J. S. Moura; R. L. Lima; I. G. Sampaio; O. L. Moraes; W. S. Woodward; P. M. Crill

2004-01-01

359

Can CO2 Turbulent Flux Be Measured by Lidar? A Preliminary Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vertical profiling ofCO2 turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated using a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) operated nearby a tall tower in Wisconsin during June 2007. A CDIAL can perform simultaneous range-resolved CO2 DIAL and velocity measurements. The lidar eddy covariance technique is presented. The aims of the study are (i) an assessment of performance and current limitation of available CDIAL for CO2 turbulent fluxes and (ii) the derivation of instrument specifications to build a future CDIAL to perform accurate range-resolved CO2 fluxes. Experimental lidar CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity profiles are successfully compared with in situ sensors measurements. Time and space integral scales of turbulence in the ABL are addressed that result in limitation for time averaging and range accumulation. A first attempt to infer CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance technique with currently available 2-mm CDIAL dataset is reported.

Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Flamant, Pierre H.; Singh, Upendra N.

2011-01-01

360

Reconciling main belt asteroid spectral flux density measurements with a self-consistent thermophysical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermophysical models consistent with Earth's Moon and infrared and submillimeter measurements obtained during the Rosetta fly-by of Asteroid (21) Lutetia have been applied to computations of thermal fluxes from Asteroids (4) Vesta, (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, and (10) Hygiea. Comparisons are made with Earth- and space-based flux measurements that cover the infrared-to-centimeter wavelength spectrum. The models account for diurnal and seasonal effects as well as viewing geometry at the epochs of the observational data. Model fluxes at submillimeter and longer wavelengths are computed from a radiative transfer integral that takes into account temperature gradients in the subsurface and a plausible range of lunar-like electrical properties. A surface roughness model in the form of hemispherical mini-craters is included in the evaluation of the infrared flux comparisons.

Keihm, Stephen; Kamp, Lucas; Gulkis, Samuel; Hofstadter, Mark; Lee, Seungwon; Janssen, Michael; Choukroun, Mathieu

2013-09-01

361

Permeation measurements for investigating atomic hydrogen flux and wall pumping/fuelling dynamics in QUEST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the overall atomic hydrogen background and the dynamic characteristics of wall pumping/fuelling phenomenon, a permeation probe system has been developed and applied in the spherical tokamak QUEST. Reliability of measurements, within ±3% accuracy and a positive correlation with the hydrogen line emission over three orders of magnitude have been demonstrated for more than 3000 various plasma discharges. By comparison of the experimental permeation (flux) curves with the numerically simulated curves, the net incident atomic hydrogen flux is evaluated in the range of 1 × 10 19 H m -2 s -1 to 4 × 10 20 H m -2 s -1. The atomic flux has been investigated as a function of various plasma operation parameters like RF power, gas pressure and magnetic configuration. Using the static particle balance and permeation measurements, the progress in wall conditioning has been investigated. An inverse correlation between the atomic hydrogen flux and improvement in wall pumping has been observed over the two campaigns.

Sharma, S. K.; Zushi, H.; Takagi, I.; Hisano, Y.; Shikama, T.; Morita, S.; Tanabe, T.; Yoshida, N.; Sakamoto, M.; Higashizono, Y.; Hanada, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Sato, K. N.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nakashima, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Sagara, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Maekawa, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Takase, Y.

2012-01-01

362

Direct measurement of the oceanic carbon monoxide flux by eddy correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents results from a field trial of ship-based air-sea flux measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) by direct eddy correlation with an infrared-laser trace gas analyzer. The analyzer utilizes Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to achieve high selectivity for CO, rapid response (~2 Hz) and low noise. Over a two-day sea trial, peak daytime seawater CO concentrations were ~1.5 nM and wind speeds were consistently 10-12 m s-1. A clear diel cycle in CO flux with an early afternoon maximum was observed. An analysis of flux error suggests the effects of non-stationarity are important, and air-sea CO flux measurements are best performed in regions remote from continental pollution sources.

Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Wilson, S. T.

2012-12-01

363

Direct measurement of the oceanic carbon monoxide flux by eddy correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents results from a field trial of ship-based air-sea flux measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) by direct eddy correlation using an infrared-laser trace gas analyzer. The analyzer utilizes Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to achieve high selectivity for CO, rapid response (10 Hz) and low noise. Over a two-day sea trial, peak daytime seawater CO concentrations were ~ 1.5 nM and wind speeds were consistently 10-12 m s-1. A clear diel cycle in CO flux with an early afternoon maximum was observed. An analysis of flux error sources suggests air-sea CO flux measurements are best performed in regions remote from continental pollution sources.

Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Wilson, S. T.

2012-07-01

364

Glomerular Filtration Rate Measurements in Clinical Trials\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the utility and precision of GFR measure- ments in multicenter trials, the test performance and variability of GFR were analyzed in 2,250 patients enrolled in 44 clinical centers participating in either the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study or the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCI). GFR was measured as the renal clear- ance of (125l)iothalamate

Andrew S. Levey; Tom Greene; Mark D. Schluchter; Patricia A. Cleary; Paul E. Teschan; Rodney A. Lorenz; Mark E. Molitch; William E. Mitch; Carolyn Siebert; Phillip M. Hall; Michael W. Steffes

365

Estimating Scalar Fluxes in Tropical Forests from Concentration\\/Temperature Profile Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy Covariance (EC) flux measurements are now widely used for estimating long-term biosphere-atmosphere gas exchange. However, gap-filling and constraining these EC estimates using other techniques that are sensitive to different assumptions remains a high priority. Improved ability to recover fluxes from concentration and temperature profile data could serve as one such constraining and gap-filling method. Furthermore, if successful, concentration profiles

R. Silva; M. Siqueira; G. Katul; H. Rocha; M. Goulden; S. Miller

2004-01-01

366

An assessment of corrections for eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes over snow in mountain environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow-covered complex terrain is an extremely important runoff-generating landscape in high-altitude and high-latitude environments, yet it is often considered nonviable for eddy covariance measurements of turbulent fluxes. Turbulent flux data are useful for evaluating the coupled snow cover mass and energy balance that control snow ablation and melt. In particular, detailed, multiseason analyses of eddy covariance data postprocessing requirements and

Michele L. Reba; Timothy E. Link; Danny Marks; John Pomeroy

2009-01-01

367

Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study is to characterize the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat exchange for different land covers in the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River catchment, Inner Mongolia, China. Eddy-covariance flux measurements at 50-100 m above ground were conducted in July 2009 using a weight-shift microlight aircraft. Wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data enables a spatial discretization of 90 m of the flux measurements. For a total of 8446 flux observations during 12 flights, MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) in each flux footprint are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer an environmental response function (ERF) between all flux observations (H, LE) and biophysical (LST, EVI) and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF predictions covering the entire Xilin River catchment (?3670 km2) are accurate to ?18% (1 ?). The predictions are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (36 W m-2 < H < 364 W m-2, 46 W m-2 < LE < 425 W m-2) and spatial variability (11 W m-2 < ?H < 169 W m-2, 14 W m-2 < ?LE < 152 W m-2) to a precision of ?5%. Lastly, ERF predictions of land cover specific Bowen ratios are compared between subsequent flights at different locations in the Xilin River catchment. Agreement of the land cover specific Bowen ratios to within 12 ± 9% emphasizes the robustness of the presented approach. This study indicates the potential of ERFs for (i) extending airborne flux measurements to the catchment scale, (ii) assessing the spatial representativeness of long-term tower flux measurements, and (iii) designing, constraining and evaluating flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modelling applications.

Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Mauder, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Trancón y Widemann, B.; Neidl, F.; Schäfer, K.; Wieneke, S.; Zheng, X. H.; Schmid, H. P.; Foken, T.

2013-04-01

368

Partitioning modes and rates of sediment flux derived from terrace-channel coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment supply to channels from failed banks/terraces is a geomorphic problem that has received scant treatment in the literature, especially with respect to the partitioning of such laterally eroded sediment into bedload v. suspended load and the resultant channel grain size distribution. Such coupling between terraces/banks and channels is an important component for understanding the exhaustion of the legacy sediments in disturbed watersheds, especially where terraces are contaminated by past mining activities. More than 4x106 kg of mercury (Hg) was lost during the 19th Century hydraulic mining process in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California and documented levels of total Hg concentration in legacy terraces all along the Yuba River are up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than background values. Thus, the ongoing erosion of legacy terraces from the mining period poses important risks to sensitive and ecologically productive lowlands downstream. The problem of bank/terrace erosion in river corridors is generally treated either using a channel centerline (toe cutting) approach or by infinite slope stability at a cross section, but the interaction of failed sediment with the channel is an important and missing component for fully assessing downstream risks of failing contaminated terraces. We have developed a new physically based model that can be used to quantify the extent and caliber of episodic erosion of legacy terrace sediments. The model combines analysis of bank/terrace failure in response to variable fluvial hydrology with a representation of local cross section evolution of grain size distribution and sediment routing. Terrace stability is calculated through an infinite slope stability model, driven by a Dupuit-Forchheimer groundwater model to assess soil moisture contributing to failure. The grain size distribution (GSD) in the channel bed is evolved based on calculation of sediment transport, which also yields net flux of fine material that is known to harbor the Hg. We present results from an analysis of this model at one cross section with very high Hg contamination in the bounding terrace, where suitable hydrology, geometry, and grain size data were available. We modeled three separate years of observed hydrology on the Yuba, (1986, 1997 and 2006), each of which contains one of the largest floods of the last several decades. We assess under what conditions the terraces fail and identify their contribution to fine sediment/contaminant loads. We also provide a sensitivity analysis to initial terrace/channel GSD, porosity, permeability and antecedent moisture in the bank/terrace. We find that the largest first-order variable is antecedent moisture, particularly visible in the 1986 hydrograph containing two flood events. This double peak creates a lag in the response of ground water levels to the fluctuation of the river stage. Our coupled model allows for analysis of: the relative contribution of riverine sediment flux sourced from failed terraces; the existence of thresholds of failure; the importance of hydrograph shape; and the influence of bank/terrace failure on sediment flux rates and grain size distributions.

Higson, J. L.; Singer, M. B.

2012-12-01

369

Measurement of the pep and CNO solar neutrino interaction rates in Borexino-I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Borexino detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso is a low-background liquid scintillator calorimeter designed to measure the flux of low-energy solar neutrinos. Thanks to the low background rate, Borexino-I, using data taken between January 2008 and May 2010, performed the first direct detection of the pep solar neutrinos together with the strongest limit to date on the CNO solar neutrino flux. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the theoretical motivations and of the analysis procedures that led to these results.

Davini, Stefano

2013-08-01

370

Measurements of energy and water vapor fluxes over different surfaces in the Heihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the seasonal variations of energy and water vapor fluxes over three different surfaces: irrigated cropland (Yingke, YK), alpine meadow (A'rou, AR), and spruce forest (Guantan, GT). The energy and water vapor fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems (EC) and a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) in the Heihe River Basin, China, in 2008 and 2009. We also determined the source areas of the EC and LAS measurements with a footprint model for each site, and discussed the differences between the sensible heat fluxes measured by EC and LAS. The results show that the main EC source areas were within a radius of 250 m at all sites. The main source area for the LAS (with a path length of 2390 m) stretched along a path line approximately 2000 m long and 700 m wide. The surface characteristics in the source areas changed according to season and site, and there were characteristic seasonal variations in the energy and water vapor fluxes at all sites. The sensible heat flux was the main term of the energy budget during the dormant season. During the growing season, however, the latent heat flux dominated the energy budget, and an obvious "oasis effect" was observed at YK. The evapotranspiration (ET) at YK was larger than those at the other two sites. The monthly ET reached its peak in July at YK and in June at GT in both 2008 and 2009, while it reached its peak in August at AR in 2008 and in June in 2009. The sensible heat fluxes measured by LAS at AR were larger than those measured by EC at the same site. This difference seems to be caused by the energy imbalance of EC, the heterogeneity of the underlying surfaces, and the difference between the source areas of the LAS and EC measurements.

Liu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wang, W.; Bai, J.; Jia, Z.; Zhu, M.; Wang, J.

2010-11-01

371

Urban greenhouse gas mole fraction in-situ measurements: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and CH4, flask sampling of 14CO2 and other trace gases, and periodic aircraft sampling of greenhouse gases and meteorological conditions. Eddy covariance and radiative flux are measured at four of the tower sites, and a scanning Doppler lidar was installed in April 2013; both are used to quantify key boundary layer meteorological properties and evaluate model performance. Additionally, a total carbon column observing network (TCCON) column remote sensing station was deployed August - December 2012. The data from the towers, TCCON, and aircraft measurements are being used in an inverse-modeling approach to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. Very high space/time resolution estimates of fossil fuel carbon emissions (Hestia project) offer state-of-the-art "bottom up" emissions estimates for the city and its surroundings. Here we present an overview of the progress from INFLUX, with a focus on tower-based results. With this high density of urban tower-based greenhouse gas measurements, we will quantify horizontal and vertical spatial patterns in atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CO, and CH4 in Indianapolis. The consistency of the observed horizontal gradients with that expected based on differences in land-cover contributions according to footprint analysis will be evaluated. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, responsible for carrying greenhouse gases from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. Thus we investigate differences between the modeled and observed sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, air temperature, and wind speed.

Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth; Richardson, Scott; Sarmiento, Daniel; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Hardesty, Robert Michael; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Iraci, Laura; Gurney, Kevin; Razlivanov, Igor; Obiminda Cambaliza, Maria; Shepson, Paul; Whetstone, James

2014-05-01

372