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Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length  


One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

Crandall, David Lynn (Idaho Falls, ID)



Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting  


Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

Crandall, David Lynn



Design of a variable-focal-length optical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements to place an entire optical system with a variable focal length ranging from 20 to 200 cm within a overall length somewhat less than 100 cm placed severe restrictions on the design of a zoom lens suitable for use on a comet explorer. The requirements of a wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns produced even greater limitations on the possibilities for a design that included a catadioptric (using mirrors and glass) front and followed by a zooming refractive portion. Capabilities available commercial zoom lenses as well as patents of optical systems are reviewed. Preliminary designs of the refractive optics zoom lens and the catadioptric system are presented and evaluated. Of the two, the latter probably has the best chance of success, so long as the shortest focal lengths are not really needed.

Ricks, D.; Shannon, R. R.



Measurement of MODIS optics effective focal length, distortion, and modulation transfer function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination MODIS optics characteristics, short back focal length, and relatively distorting optics, has required major revisions in techniques used earlier to characterize effective focal length (EFL) and modulation transfer function (MTF) in the thematic mapper (TM) project. This paper compares measurement approaches used to characterize TM optics and revised methodology intended to characterize MODIS optics at an integration and assembly level.

Thurlow, Paul E.; Cline, Richard W.



Nano-optical microlens with ultrashort focal length using negative refraction  

E-print Network

Nano-optical microlens with ultrashort focal length using negative refraction B. D. F. Casse,a W. TD finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such ultrarefractive negative-index nano for miniaturization in the microelec- tronics industry and the advent of fiber optics for communi- cations purposes

Sridhar, Srinivas


Continuously variable focal length lens  


A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C



Optical system design of solar-blind UV target simulator with long focal length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 200nm-300nm waveband from the sun is absorbed by atmosphere, which is often referred to the solar-blind region of the solar spectrum. Solar-blind characteristics of this waveband have important application value, especially in military fields. The application of solar-blind waveband has developed very rapidly, which is receiving more and more attention. Sometimes, to test the performance of a UV optical system, a standard solar-blind UV target simulator is needed as the UV light source. In this paper, an optical system of a solar-blind UV target simulator is designed with waveband 240nm-280nm. To simulate a far UV target, the focal length of this UV optical system needs to be long. Besides, different field of view (FOV) of the system should meet aplanatic condition. The optional materials are very few for UV optical systems, in which only CaF2 and JGS1 are commonly used. Various aberrations are difficult to be corrected. To save production cost and enhance the precision of fabrication and test, aspheric surfaces and binary elements are not adopted in the system. Moreover, doublet or triplet cannot be used in UV optical system considering possible cracking for different thermal expansion coefficients of different materials. After optimization, the system is composed of 4 lenses with focal length 500mm. MTF curves of different FOV coincide together. The maximum RMS radius of the optimized system has almost the same size as Airy disk, which proves the good image quality after system optimization. The aplanatic condition is met very well in this system. In the spot diagram, root mean square (RMS) radius changes from 3 microns to 3.6 microns, which has similar size with Airy disk and meets aplanatic condition very well. This optical system of solar-blind UV target simulator also has relatively loose tolerance data, which can prove the system is designed in an optimal state.

Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin



Variable focal length deformable mirror  


A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)



More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of more precise determination of the focal length of equivalent thermal lens (TL) is presented in this paper. The method is based on the diffraction theory of aberrations. By numerically calculating the optical path difference (OPD) distribution and the Strehl ratio, the focal lengths for “top-hat” pumping and Gaussian pumping are obtained and the equations for the focal

Shuzhen Fan; Xingyu Zhang; Qingpu Wang; Shutao Li; Shuanghong Ding; Fufang Su



Focal length assessment by self-imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several classical and modern approaches were developed in the literature for measuring the focal length of a lens. We focus our attention on those that employ self-imaging methods. In our proposal, a collimated laser beam illuminates a test lens. After the lens, the wavefront becomes convergent or divergent according to the lens power. Attached to the lens, we place a Ronchi grating. This procedure gives rise to several classical Talbot images, although magnified due to the non-parallel illumination. Key to our presentation is the use of the property that the pitch of each self-image is directly related to the focal length of the collimating lens. To obtain the pitches, a lensless CCD camera is positioned in any two consecutive self-images planes. The respective images are captured and processed. We designed software that allows first to precisely focus each self-image plane by a best-contrast algorithm, and then takes an intensity histogram along a direction perpendicular to the grating lines. By measuring the distance between consecutive self-image planes and their pitches, the focal length is determined. This method provides a reference testing with higher setting sensitivity and an increase in the accuracy compared to previous methods. Note that the proposed method represents a practical improvement over other existing methods.

Tebaldi, Myrian C.; Bolognini, Nestor A.; Tagliaferri, Alberto A.; Torroba, Roberto D.



Optofluidic lens with tunable focal length and asphericity  

PubMed Central

Adaptive micro-lenses enable the design of very compact optical systems with tunable imaging properties. Conventional adaptive micro-lenses suffer from substantial spherical aberration that compromises the optical performance of the system. Here, we introduce a novel concept of liquid micro-lenses with superior imaging performance that allows for simultaneous and independent tuning of both focal length and asphericity. This is achieved by varying both hydrostatic pressures and electric fields to control the shape of the refracting interface between an electrically conductive lens fluid and a non-conductive ambient fluid. Continuous variation from spherical interfaces at zero electric field to hyperbolic ones with variable ellipticity for finite fields gives access to lenses with positive, zero, and negative spherical aberration (while the focal length can be tuned via the hydrostatic pressure). PMID:25224851

Mishra, Kartikeya; Murade, Chandrashekhar; Carreel, Bruno; Roghair, Ivo; Oh, Jung Min; Manukyan, Gor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder



Optofluidic lens with tunable focal length and asphericity.  


Adaptive micro-lenses enable the design of very compact optical systems with tunable imaging properties. Conventional adaptive micro-lenses suffer from substantial spherical aberration that compromises the optical performance of the system. Here, we introduce a novel concept of liquid micro-lenses with superior imaging performance that allows for simultaneous and independent tuning of both focal length and asphericity. This is achieved by varying both hydrostatic pressures and electric fields to control the shape of the refracting interface between an electrically conductive lens fluid and a non-conductive ambient fluid. Continuous variation from spherical interfaces at zero electric field to hyperbolic ones with variable ellipticity for finite fields gives access to lenses with positive, zero, and negative spherical aberration (while the focal length can be tuned via the hydrostatic pressure). PMID:25224851

Mishra, Kartikeya; Murade, Chandrashekhar; Carreel, Bruno; Roghair, Ivo; Oh, Jung Min; Manukyan, Gor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder




E-print Network

been found for the value of the induced thermal lens focus in a cell containing liquids with low absorp a gradient of the refractive index (thermal lens effect). They used an approximate model in order to calculate the focal length F of the thermal lens, assuming low absorbent liquids placed in a "thin

Wesfreid, José Eduardo


Design of thin-film Luneburg lenses for maximum focal length control.  


The application of thin-film Luneburg lenses to integrated optical circuits will require accurate control of their focal length to permit the necessary alignment between the various circuit elements. Of particular interest is the design of lenses for application to a silicon-based integrated optical rf spectrum analyzer. This study analyzes the sensitivity of the focal length of Luneburg lenses to thickness variation at the lens center resulting from fabrication process tolerances. It is shown that this sensitivity can be minimized by properly selecting the refractive index of the waveguide material, using a larger focal length and employing a longer optical wavelength. PMID:20372223

Colombini, E



Laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement.  


A new laser differential confocal focal-length measurement method is proposed for the measurement of an ultra-long focal-length. The approach proposed uses the property of an axial intensity curve that the absolute zero precisely corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal focusing system (DCFS) to measure the variation in position of DCFS focus with and without a measured ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL), uses the distance between the two focuses to obtain the UFL focal-length, and thereby achieving the precise measurement of ultra-long focal-length. The method has a high focusing precision, a strong anti-interference capability and a short measurement light-path. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that the relative measurement error is about 0.01% when the method is used for the measurement of back-focus-distance (BFD). PMID:19997229

Zhao, Weiqian; Sun, Ruoduan; Qiu, Lirong; Sha, Dingguo



Acoustic lens with variable focal length for photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid acoustic lens with variable focal length is described for photoacoustic microscopy. This liquid lens takes advantage of the elastic and deformable lens interface to tune its focal length in a pneumatical manner. The curvature of the lens interface as well as the dependant focal length was characterized as a function of the infusion volume of the liquid. Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the zooming ability of this liquid acoustic lens. Targets embedded at different depths were photoacoustically imaged without performing mechanically axial scanning.

Song, Chaolong; Xi, Lei; Jiang, Huabei



Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for an infrared wavelength, possibly that used for the AO system of the Keck telescope, instead of 0.63 microns. We have polished a 55 cm diameter mandrel to better than 1/20th wave optical figure in the visible using centrifugal elutriation. CMA has just told us that it needs to retool to get optimum mirror faceplate quality in this size, so implementing the 55 cm AO mirror may be delayed somewhat. We expect to complete our 1/3 rd meter AO mirror on time using novel piezoelectric actuators with a throw of one micrometer per volt, as compared to 0.005 micrometers per volt for conventional piezoelectric actuators. We will then demonstrate its AO performance interferometrically.

Bennett, H. E.



Adaptive liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability  

E-print Network

. V. Galstian, "Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal for tunable microlens applications," Opt. ExpressAdaptive liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability Hongwen Ren and Shin-Tson Wu.3710) Liquid crystals; (220.3620) lens design References and links 1. V. V. Presnyakov, K. E. Asatryan, and T

Wu, Shin-Tson


Improvement in the measurement of focal length using spot patterns and spherical aberration.  


Using an optical setup that includes a square array of 3×3 holes, we used nine meridional rays to measure the effective focal length of a lens. We observed the selected meridional rays as a spot pattern on a diffuse screen. First, we generated a regular square spot pattern (reference pattern) without a lens to test, and then we generated two spot patterns in two different axial positions when the lens being tested refracts the rays. By selecting two sets of four rays of each spot pattern, we were able to measure the difference of the longitudinal (primary) spherical aberration in two positions. With this difference we were able to improve the calculation of the effective focal length. To determine the method's precision, we first simulated the relative error in the effective focal length considering the error in the measurement of the ray heights. Then we determined the experimental relative error by means of the standard deviation of the focal lengths obtained for each spot (in the image of reference and for the images at the two different locations) for both sets of four spots. The experimental results agree very well with the simulation. The error analysis allows us to establish under what conditions it is possible to obtain relative errors of less than 1% in the effective focal length. PMID:23938404

Mejía, Yobani



Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

Wise, T. D.



Exhaustive linearization for robust camera pose and focal length estimation.  


We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera. PMID:23969384

Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc



Exhaustive Linearization for Robust Camera Pose and Focal Length Estimation.  


We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet, we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera. PMID:23382296

Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc



Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays  

SciTech Connect

The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.



Effects of environment factors on imaging performance of long focal length space camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In course of developing, testing, launching and working in orbit, Space camera has to undergo the shock of external loads and changing environment. The optical performance of a long focal length space camera is largely determined by external mechanical loads and ambient temperature. The performance of the camera is a result of the interaction between environment factors. The performance of the optical system should be making an accurate forecast when a modern optical instrument is designed. In this paper, the research methods are reviewed firstly. Then the related technologies are described. The analysis methods of environment temperature and structural characteristics effecting space camera imaging performance are also discussed.

Guo, Quanfeng; Jin, Guang; Dong, Jihong; Li, Wei; Li, Yanchun; Wang, Haiping; Wang, Kejun; Zhao, Weiguo



Semianalytical thermal analysis of thermal focal length on Nd:YAG rods  

SciTech Connect

Based on the theory of semianalytical thermal analysis, the temperature field and thermal lens effects within a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG rods were investigated. A general expression of the temperature field within Nd:YAG rods was obtained through the analysis of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG rod, using what we believe to be a new method to solve a heat conduction equation of isotropic material. Calculating the thermal focal length within the diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG rods was done by an analysis of the additional optical path differences caused by heat, which was in good agreement with experimental results. These results show that the maximum temperature on the pump face of Nd:YAG rods is51.9 degree sign C and the thermal focal length is22.4 cmwhen the output power of the diode laser is 10 W. Under the same conditions, the experimental value of the thermal focal length is21.0 cm. The difference between the theoretical analysis and the experimental result is only 6.7%. Results from this work can provide the theoretical basis for the optimized design of diode-end-pumped all-solid-state lasers.

Shi Peng; Chen Wen; Li Long; Gan Ansheng



Array of lenses with individually tunable focal-length based on transparent ion-implanted EAPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication and characterization of 2x2 arrays of mm-diameter PDMS lenses whose focal length can be electrically tuned. Dielectric elastomer actuators generally rely on carbon powder or carbon grease electrodes, which are not transparent, precluding the polymer actuator from also being a lens. However compliant electrodes fabricated by low-energy ion implantation are over 50% transparent in the visible, enabling the polymer lens to simultaneously be an actuator. We have developed a chip-scale process to microfabricate lens arrays, consisting of a molded socket bonded to a Pyrex chip supporting 4 membrane actuators. The actuators are interconnected via an incompressible fluid. The Pyrex chip has four through-holes, 1 to 3 mm in diameter, on which a 30 ?m thick Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) layer is bonded. The PDMS layer is implanted on both sides with 5 keV gold ions to define the transparent electrodes for EAP actuation. Applying a voltage to one of the lens/actuators leads to an area expansion and hence to a change in radius of curvature, varying the focal length. We report tuning the focal length from 4 mm to 8 mm at 1.7 kV, and present changes in optical transmission and membrane stiffness following gamma and proton irradiation.

Niklaus, Muhamed; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert



The Modernization of a Long-Focal Length Fringe-Type Laser Velocimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long-focal length laser velocimeter constructed in the early 1980's was upgraded using current technology to improve usability, reliability and future serviceability. The original, free-space optics were replaced with a state-of-the-art fiber-optic subsystem which allowed most of the optics, including the laser, to be remote from the harsh tunnel environment. General purpose high-speed digitizers were incorporated in a standard modular data acquisition system, along with custom signal processing software executed on a desktop computer, served as the replacement for the signal processors. The resulting system increased optical sensitivity with real-time signal/data processing that produced measurement precisions exceeding those of the original system. Monte Carlo simulations, along with laboratory and wind tunnel investigations were used to determine system characteristics and measurement precision.

Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Fletcher, Mark T.



Focal macular photopic negative response in patients with optic neuritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo investigate, by focal macular electroretinography (ERG), the change of photopic negative response (PhNR) in the recovery of visual function in patients with optic neuritis.MethodsFocal macular ERG was recorded from nine patients with acute optic neuritis (38.6±10.2 years). The photostimulator device projected 15° visual angle spotlight onto the macula. Focal macular ERG recording was performed at the onset and at

H Nakamura; K Miyamoto; S Yokota; K Ogino; N Yoshimura



Aberrations in saw-tooth refractive lenses in short focal length x-ray focusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saw-tooth refractive lenses (SRL) provide a comparatively attractive option for X-ray focusing for various reasons, including their simple, continuous tunability in energy and focal length. Optimal focusing of a conventional SRL at short focal lengths is limited by the SRL's length in relation to the focal length. Three approaches to overcome this limitation are described. Analytical solutions verified with ray-tracing are presented. These are bending, variation of the saw-tooth tip angles, and variation of the period.

Antimonov, Mikhail A.; Khounsary, Ali M.; Shastri, Sarvjit D.



Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer.  


A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with a subnanometer resolution. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16% under normal experimental environment. PMID:25321352

Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Dou, Jiantai; Wang, Xinxing



Controllable focal spot for direct-drive laser fusion based on electro-optic effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In direct-drive laser fusion, the sufficient uniformity of focal spot for realizing high efficient compression and central ignition is required. However, the laser beams are difficult to achieve sufficient uniform for compressing the shell symmetrically inward. We proposed a novel scheme to achieve controllable focal length based on electro-optic effect. The electro-optic crystal was placed in the front of the laser fusion system and applied the electro field with approximate spherical distribution. Since the wavefront of laser beam is transformed through the electro-optic crystal, the focal spot of the transformed laser beam would be changed on the target. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation have been made, and the results show that the proposed scheme could achieve enough controllable focal spot on the target.

Zhong, Zheqiang; Hu, Xiaochun; Li, Zelong; Ye, Rong; Zhang, Bin



Embedding perspective cue in holographic projection display by virtual variable-focal-length lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make a view perspective cue emerging in reconstructed images, a new approach is proposed by incorporating virtual variable-focal-length lenses into computer generated Fourier hologram (CGFH). This approach is based on a combination of monocular vision principle and digital hologram display, thus it owns properties coming from the two display models simultaneously. Therefore, it can overcome the drawback of the unsatisfied visual depth perception of the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images in holographic projection display (HPD). Firstly, an analysis on characteristics of conventional CGFH reconstruction is made, which indicates that a finite depthof- focus and a non-adjustable lateral magnification are reasons of the depth information lack on a fixed image plane. Secondly, the principle of controlling lateral magnification in wave-front reconstructions by virtual lenses is demonstrated. And the relation model is deduced, involving the depth of object, the parameters of virtual lenses, and the lateral magnification. Next, the focal-lengths of virtual lenses are determined by considering perspective distortion of human vision. After employing virtual lenses in the CGFH, the reconstructed image on focal-plane can deliver the same depth cues as that of the monocular stereoscopic image. Finally, the depthof- focus enhancement produced by a virtual lens and the effect on the reconstruction quality from the virtual lens are described. Numerical simulation and electro-optical reconstruction experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm can improve the depth perception of the reconstructed 3D image in HPD. The proposed method provides a possibility of uniting multiple display models to enhance 3D display performance and viewer experience.

Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Zhao, Fuliang



Microlenses focal length measurement using Z-scan and parallel moiré deflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a simple and accurate method based on Z-scan and parallel moiré deflectometry for measuring the focal length of microlenses is reported. A laser beam is focused by one lens and is re-collimated by another lens, and then strikes a parallel moiré deflectometer. In the presence of a microlens near the focal point of the first lens, the radius of curvature of the beam is changed; the parallel moiré fringes are formed only due to the beam divergence or convergence. The focal length of the microlens is obtained from the moiré fringe period graph without the need to know the position of the principal planes. This method is simple, more reliable, and completely automated. The implementation of the method is straightforward. Since a focused laser beam and Z-scan in free space are used, it can be employed for determining small focal lengths of small size microlenses without serious limitation on their size.

Rasouli, Saifollah; Rajabi, Y.; Sarabi, H.



Calibration for the errors resulted from aberration in long focal length measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a high-accuracy calibration method for errors resulted from aberration in long focal length measurement, is presented. Generally, Gaussian Equation is used for calculation without consideration of the errors caused by aberration. However, the errors are the key factor affecting the accuracy in the measurement system of a large aperture and long focal length lens. We creatively introduce an effective way to calibrate the errors, with detailed analysis of the long focal length measurement based on divergent light and Talbot interferometry. Aberration errors are simulated by Zemax. Then, we achieve auto-correction with the help of Visual C++ software and the experimental results reveal that the relative accuracy is better than 0.01%.By comparing modified values with experimental results obtained in knife-edge testing measurement, the proposed method is proved to be highly effective and reliable.

Yao, Jiang; Luo, Jia; He, Fan; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Hou, Xiyun; Hou, Changlun



Microlenses with tuned focal characteristics for optical wireless imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlenses are fabricated and investigated for integrated imaging applications. The microlenses are fabricated by an in situ polymer electro-dispensing technique that enables user-controlled microlens sizes and shapes, by direct-dispensing and voltage-tuning with a metal micro-needle tip in a filler solution. Theoretical and experimental analyses are carried out for three limiting-cases of electro-dispensed microlenses: an acute-angle microlens with a 30° contact angle, a right-angle microlens with a 90° contact angle, and an obtuse-angle microlens with a 120° contact angle. It is found that the right-angle microlens, with a 500 ?m diameter, yields an especially short focal length (700 ?m) and exceedingly large numerical aperture (0.533). These characteristics can meet the needs of emerging applications, such as optical wireless devices, which demand compact device integration and broad field-of-view imaging. The microlenses are tested in optical wireless imaging receivers, for signal-to-noise ratio performance, and it is found that the right-angle microlens can offer significant (10 dB) performance enhancements.

Jin, Xian; Guerrero, Daniel; Klukas, Richard; Holzman, Jonathan F.



Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation is sketched in Figure 2(b) (the figure also shows the tapping tool and where to tap). At this point the fasteners for the PCB are torqued slightly so the PCB can still move. The PCB location is adjusted again with the tapping tool. This process is repeated 3 to 4 times until the final torque is achieved. The oversized mounting holes are then filled with a liquid bonding agent to secure the board in position (not shown in the sketch). A 10- to 30-micron mounting accuracy has been achieved utilizing this method..

Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.



Angular spectrum calculations for arbitrary focal length with a scaled convolution.  


Nyquist sampling theorem in an image calculation with angular spectrum method restricts a propagation distance and a focal length of a lens. In order to avoid these restrictions, we studied suitable expressions for the image computations depending on their conditions. Additionally, a lateral scale in an observation plane can be magnified freely by using a scaled convolution in each expression. PMID:21934791

Odate, Satoru; Koike, Chiaki; Toba, Hidemitsu; Koike, Tetsuya; Sugaya, Ayako; Sugisaki, Katsumi; Otaki, Katsura; Uchikawa, Kiyoshi



Self-imaging pitch variation applied to focal length digital measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several approaches were developed in the literature for focal length measurements. In our experimental arrangement, a collimated laser beam illuminates a test lens with a Ronchi grating placed against this lens. This procedure gives rise to a series of classical Talbot images, although magnified due to the non-parallel illumination. In this configuration, we propose to relate the self-images positions and pitches to obtain the focal length. We designed a software that helps first to precisely focus each self-image plane by a best-contrast algorithm and then to take an intensity histogram along a direction perpendicular to the grating lines. A theoretical explanation, experimental results and error analysis are presented.

Tebaldi, Myrian; Forte, Gustavo; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Néstor; Tagliaferri, Alberto



Improving surface measurement by adaptive focal length adjustment and approximation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional model to perform measurements of variable range is presented. This model is performed by a Bezier network via projection of a laser line and an adaptive focal length. The variation of the measurement range is provided by the adjustment of the camera placement and the focal length. The modifications of these parameters are determined by image processing of the laser line during the vision task. The initial calibration of the vision parameters is deduced by means of the variation of focal length. The technique is applied to retrieve the contour of complex shapes by means of the adjustment of the measurement range. This technique avoids external re-calibration to compute the surface depth when the measurement range is adjusted. Therefore, the accuracy of the surface measurement is improved. It is because the errors of re-calibration are not added to the system during the measurement process. The change of the measurement range is achieved in fractions of a second. The contribution of this technique is stated by an evaluation based on the lighting methods that perform measurements of variable range. Also, the time to obtain measurements of variable range is described in the evaluation.

Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.



The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was

J. D. Mullett; R. Dodd; C. J. Williams; G. Triantos; G. Dearden; A. T. Shenton; K. G. Watkins; S. D. Carroll; A. D. Scarisbrick; S. Keen



Optimization-free optical focal field engineering through reversing the radiation pattern from a uniform line source.  


A simple and flexible method is presented for the generation of optical focal field with prescribed characteristics. By reversing the field pattern radiated from a uniform line source, for which the electric current is constant along its extent, situated at the focus of a 4Pi focusing system formed by two confocal high-NA objective lenses, the required illumination distribution at the pupil plane for creating optical focal field with desired properties can be obtained. Numerical example shows that an arbitrary length optical needle with extremely high longitudinal polarization purity and consistent transverse size of ~0.36? over the entire depth of focus (DOF) can be created with this method. Coaxially double-focus with spot size of ~0.36? in the transversal direction and ~? in the axial direction separated by a prescribed spacing is illustrated as another example. The length of optical needle field and the interval between double-focus are determined by the length of uniform line source. These engineered focal fields may found potential applications in particle acceleration, optical microscopy, optical trapping and manipulations. PMID:25837091

Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen



Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics  

E-print Network

Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics Marc CohenÝ, Gert Cauwenberghs Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 Abstract Control of adaptive optical elements for real-time wavefront phase to the requirements of high resolution, real-time adaptive optical systems. In this paper we introduce two VLSI focal

Cauwenberghs, Gert


Investigation of focal ratio degradation in optical fibres for astronomical instrumentation  

E-print Network

Investigation of focal ratio degradation in optical fibres for astronomical instrumentation Lisa) exhibited by, and throughput of, a selection of current-generation optical fibres. These fibres were tested-mode fibres, focal ratio degradation 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Goals Fibre optics for astronomy offer a relatively

Bershady, Matthew A.


Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24–2 visual fields.

Liselotte Pieroth; Joel S Schuman; Ellen Hertzmark; Michael R Hee; Jason R Wilkins; Jeffrey Coker; Cynthia Mattox; Tamar Pedut-Kloizman; Carmen A Puliafito; James G Fujimoto; Eric Swanson



Modeling of a Variable Focal Length Flat Lens Using Left Handed Metamaterials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Left Handed Metamaterials (LHM) were originally purposed by Victor Veselago in1968. These substances would allow a flat structure to focus electromagnetic (EM) waves because they have a negative index of refraction. A similar structure made from conventional materials, those with a positive index of refraction, would disperse the waves. But until recently, these structures have been purely theoretical because substances with both a negative permittivity and negative permeability, material properties necessary for a negative index of refraction, do not naturally exist, Recent developments have produced a structure composed of an array of thin wires and split ring resonators that shows a negative index of refraction. area smaller than a square wavelength. How small the area is can be determined by how perfectly the lens is polished and how pure the substance is that composes the lens. These lenses must also be curved for focusing to occur. The focal length is determined by the curvature of the lens and the material. On the other hand, a flat structure made from LHM would focus light because of the effect of a negative index of refraction in Snell s law. The focal length could also be varied by simply adjusting the distance of the lens from the source of radiation. This could create many devices that are adjustable to different situations in fields such as biomedical imaging and communication. the software package XFDTD which solves Maxwell s equations in the frequency domain as well as the time domain. The program used Drude models of materials to simulate the effect of negative permittivity and negative permeability. Because of this, a LHM can be simulated as a solid block of material instead of an array of wires and split ring resonators. After a flat lens is formed, I am to examine the focusing effect of the lens and determine if a higher resolution flat lens can be developed. Traditional lenses made from conventional materials cannot focus an EM wave onto an My goal was to model LHMs and create a flat lens from them. This was to be done using

Reinert, Jason



Optimizing the Elemental Sensitivity and Focal Spot Size of a Monolithic Polycapillary Optic Using Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A commercial micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) instrument with an aperture X-ray guide was used to compare elemental sensitivities and focal spot sizes with those obtained by focusing the source with a monolithic polycapillary optic retrofitted into the system. The capillary provided an intensity gain of 125 at 4 keV vs. using a pinhole beam collimator; however, this gain advantage declined with increasing analyte line energy as a result of the capillary being designed shorter than its optimal length to fit into the commercial instrument. A minimum capillary focal spot FWHM of 36 {micro}m was achieved, whereas the smallest pinhole aperture available of 50 {micro}m in diameter produced a focal spot width of 69 {micro}m FWHM. Hence, better MXRF lateral resolution could be obtained with the capillary with a simultaneous improvement in elemental sensitivity.

Worley, C.; Havrilla, G.; Gao, N.; Xia, Q.-F.




SciTech Connect

Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphs and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.

Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew, E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)



Donut: measuring optical aberrations from a single extra-focal A. Tokovinin and S. Heathcote  

E-print Network

Donut: measuring optical aberrations from a single extra-focal image A. Tokovinin and S. Heathcote coefficients and seeing blur directly to a realistic image binned into detector pixels. This "donut" method

Tokovinin, Andrei A.


Beam focusing with a wide range of focal length from a single slit surrounded by Ag-SiO2-Ag multilayer gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silver (Ag)-SiO2-Ag multilayer grating structure with a single slit for beam focusing has been proposed. Compared with the other grating-based focusing structure, the focusing properties of our designed structure can be enhanced on the range of focal length and the transmission at the focal point. Numerical simulations using the finite different time domain (FDTD) method verify that the focal length can be easily varied from ˜1 to above 15 ?m by changing the period number of the grating, and the transmission is over 65%.

Su, Wei; Zheng, Gaige; Li, Xiangyin



Measurement of the depletion beam focal spot using near-field scanning optical microscopy probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The submicron size doughnut shape focal spot, which is traditionally measured by scattering off a nanoparticle or a fluorescent bead, is measured for the first time by a near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) fiber probe. Measurement results agree very well with calculations. This method offers superior repeatability, better control and is less time-consuming than the traditional method as the probes are mechanically protected by their insertion into fiber optic ferrules, which also greatly facilitates the alignment of the tip to the focal spot.

McBride, Daniel; Su, Chin B.



Optical design of common aperture, common focal plane, multispectral optics for military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent developments in multispectral detector technology, the interest in common aperture, common focal plane multispectral imaging systems is increasing. Such systems are particularly desirable for military applications, where increased levels of target discrimination and identification are required in cost-effective, rugged, lightweight systems. During the optical design of dual waveband or multispectral systems, the options for material selection are limited. This selection becomes even more restrictive for military applications, where material resilience, thermal properties, and color correction must be considered. We discuss the design challenges that lightweight multispectral common aperture systems present, along with some potential design solutions. Consideration is given to material selection for optimum color correction, as well as material resilience and thermal correction. This discussion is supported using design examples currently in development at Qioptiq.

Thompson, Nicholas Allan



A focal spot with variable intensity distribution for optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical setup that can generate a focused light spot, with its shape tunable from a very sharp peak-centered beam to a donut-shaped dark-centered beam, is always desired in optical tweezing. This setup is now realized by incorporating an image inverting interferometer (III) and a helical phase element into a radially polarized beam generator, which enables the trapping and control of a large variety of particles with a single optical tweezing system. The performance of this system is investigated theoretically.

Hao, X.; Kuang, C. F.; Li, Y. H.; Liu, X.



Polarization-dependent optical tuning of focal intensity of liquid crystal polymer microlens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work demonstrates the feasibility of a microlens array (MLA) with a focal intensity that can be optically tuned by controlling the polarization of incident light. The proposed MLA has a focusing unit based on birefringent liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) and a tuning unit with a photo-alignment layer for controlling the polarization state of incident laser light. The optically variable refractive indices of LCP allow a positive or negative MLA to be realized by controlling the polarization of the incident light.

Huang, S.-Y.; Tung, T.-C.; Ting, C.-L.; Jau, H.-C.; Li, M.-S.; Hsu, H.-K.; Fuh, A. Y.-G.



An inversion formula for the exponential Radon transform in spatial domain with variable focal-length fan-beam collimation geometry  

E-print Network

-length fan-beam collimation geometry Junhai Wen Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing Institute. Progress has been made to extend the inversion formula for fan-beam and varying focal-length fan-beam VFF collimator geometries. These previous fan-beam and VFF inversion formulas require a spatially variant


Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

Hildebrand, R. H.



Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

Hildebrand, R. H.



Light ray field capture using focal plane sweeping and its optical reconstruction using 3D displays.  


We propose a method to capture light ray field of three-dimensional scene using focal plane sweeping. Multiple images are captured using a usual camera at different focal distances, spanning the three-dimensional scene. The captured images are then back-projected to four-dimensional spatio-angular space to obtain the light ray field. The obtained light ray field can be visualized either using digital processing or optical reconstruction using various three-dimensional display techniques including integral imaging, layered display, and holography. PMID:25401577

Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi



Short Length Menger's Theorem and Reliable Optical Amitabha Bagchi  

E-print Network

Short Length Menger's Theorem and Reliable Optical Routing Amitabha Bagchi Dept. of Computer and Information Science Polytechnic University 6 Metrotech Center Brooklyn, 11201, USA Amitabh

Bagchi, Amitabha


Wringing deformation effects in basic length measurements by optical interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of wringing deformations on the result of the main types of measurements by optical interferometry is studied in some detail. The wringing bending deformations can be used to improve by 10-20 times the accuracy of length measurements of gauge blocks with nominal lengths of a few millimeters. The data on the surface deformations of steel and quartz reference

Alexander Titov; Igor Malinovsky; Carlos A. Massone



Measurement of Trap Length for an Optical Trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trap length along the beam axis for an optical trap formed with an upright, oil-immersion microscope was measured. The goals for this effort were twofold. It was deemed useful to understand the depth to which an optical trap can reach for purposes of developing a tool to assist in the fabrication of miniature devices. Additionally, it was desired to know whether the measured trap length favored one or the other of two competing theories to model an optical trap. The approach was to trap a microsphere of known size and mass and raise it from its initial trap position. The microsphere was then dropped by blocking the laser beam for a pre-determined amount of time. Dropping the microsphere in a free-fall mode from various heights relative to the coverslip provides an estimate of how the trapping length changes with depth in water in a sample chamber on a microscope slide. While it was not possible to measure the trap length with sufficient precision to support any particular theory of optical trap formation, it was possible to find regions where the presence of physical boundaries influenced optical traps, and determine that the trap length, for the apparatus studied, is between 6 and 7 m. These results allow more precise control using optical micromanipulation to assemble miniature devices by providing information about the distance over which an optical trap is effective.

Wrbanek, Susan Y.



All-optical controlling of the focal intensity of a liquid crystal polymer microlens array.  


The current work demonstrates a liquid crystalline polymer microlens array (LCP MLA) with an all-optically tunable and multistable focal intensity through photochemical phase transition. The operational mechanism of the optical tuning is associated with the photoisomerization effect. The proposed LCP MLA device has a focusing unit based on a birefringence LCP and a tuning unit with a light responsive material to control the polarization state of the incident probe beam. The optically variable refractive indices of LCP enable a positive or negative MLA that can control the polarization of incident light to be realized. PMID:22015416

Huang, San-Yi; Tung, Tung-Chen; Jau, Hung-Chang; Liu, Jui-Hsiang; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey



Dynamic optical properties in graphene: Length versus velocity gauge  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic optical properties of graphene are theoretically investigated in both length gauge and velocity gauge in the presence of ultrafast optical radiation field. The two gauges present different results of dynamic photo-induced carriers and optical conductance due to distinct dependencies on electric field and non-resonant optical absorption, while the two gauges give identical results in the steady state time. It shows that the choice of gauge affects evidently the dynamic optical properties of graphene. The velocity gauge represents an outcome of a real physical experiment.

Dong, H. M.; Han, K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Xu, W. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)



Focal-Plane Imaging of Crossed Beams in Nonlinear Optics Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An application of focal-plane imaging that can be used as a real time diagnostic of beam crossing in various optical techniques is reported. We discuss two specific versions and demonstrate the capability of maximizing system performance with an example in a combined dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering interferometric Rayleigh scattering experiment (CARS-IRS). We find that this imaging diagnostic significantly reduces beam alignment time and loss of CARS-IRS signals due to inadvertent misalignments.

Bivolaru, Daniel; Herring, G. C.



Submillisecond measurements of system optical modulation functions in mosaic focal plane arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of system optical modulation functions (MTF, SWR) may be distorted by time-dependent environmental effects (thermal, vibration, flexure) and by electronics drift. Fast data collection may therefore be advantageous by minimizing drift time. The problem of fast data collection is accentuated when modulation data must be taken on a large number of detectors in a focal plane array. A method has been developed for the generation and storage of knife edge data from focal plane arrays, where data collection time per detector is in the submillisecond range. Once knife edge collects are completed, MTF response is found using conventional convolution techniques. SWR is obtained directly from knife edge response using a computerized simulation algorithm which bypasses use of MTF harmonics. Requirements for detector electronics speed, damping, and dynamic range are considered.

Thurlow, P. E.



Measurement of the Length of an Optical Trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn has been involved in developing optical trapping and optical micromanipulation techniques in order to develop a tool that can be used to probe, characterize, and assemble nano and microscale materials to create microscale sensors for harsh flight environments. In order to be able to assemble a sensor or probe candidate sensor material, it is useful to know how far an optical trap can reach; that is, the distance beyond/below the stable trapping point through which an object will be drawn into the optical trap. Typically, to measure the distance over which an optical trap would influence matter in a horizontal (perpendicular to beam propagation) direction, it was common to hold an object in one optical trap, place a second optical trap a known distance away, turn off the first optical trap, and note if the object was moved into the second trap when it was turned on. The disadvantage of this technique is that it only gives information of trap influence distance in horizontal (x y) directions. No information about the distance of the influence of the trap is gained in the direction of propagation of the beam (the z direction). A method was developed to use a time-of-flight technique to determine the length along the propagation direction of an optical trap beam over which an object may be drawn into the optical trap. Test objects (polystyrene microspheres) were held in an optical trap in a water-filled sample chamber and raised to a pre-determined position near the top of the sample chamber. Next, the test objects were released by blocking the optical trap beam. The test objects were allowed to fall through the water for predetermined periods of time, at the end of which the trapping beam was unblocked. It was noted whether or not the test object returned to the optical trap or continued to fall. This determination of the length of an optical trap's influence by this manner assumes that the test object falls through the water in the sample chamber at terminal velocity for the duration of its fall, so that the distance of trap influence can be computed simply by: d = VTt, where d is the trap length (or distance of trap reach), VT is the terminal velocity of the test object, and t is the time interval over which the object is allowed to fall.

Wrbanek, Susan Y.



Ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers with minimal lengths.  


We design and fabricate ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers (TOFs) with minimal lengths. We first optimize variations of the torch scan length using the flame-brush method for fabricating TOFs with taper angles that satisfy the adiabaticity criteria. We accordingly fabricate TOFs with optimal shapes and compare their transmission to TOFs with a constant taper angle and TOFs with an exponential shape. The highest transmission measured for TOFs with an optimal shape is in excess of 99.7% with a total TOF length of only 23 mm, whereas TOFs with a constant taper angle of 2 mrad reach 99.6% transmission for a 63 mm TOF length. PMID:25402084

Nagai, Ryutaro; Aoki, Takao



Measurement and compensation of laser-induced wavefront deformations and focal shifts in near IR optics.  


We demonstrate the feasibility of passive compensation of the thermal lens effect in fused silica optics, placing suitable optical materials with negative dn/dT in the beam path of a high power near IR fiber laser. Following a brief overview of the involved mechanisms, photo-thermal absorption measurements with a Hartmann-Shack sensor are described, from which coefficients for surface/coating and bulk absorption in various materials are determined. Based on comprehensive knowledge of the 2D wavefront deformations resulting from absorption, passive compensation of thermally induced aberrations in complex optical systems is possible, as illustrated for an F-Theta objective. By means of caustic measurements during high-power operation we are able to demonstrate a 60% reduction of the focal shift in F-Theta lenses through passive compensation. PMID:25401572

Stubenvoll, Martin; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus



Clinical and optic coherence tomography findings of focal choroidal excavation in Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of focal choroidal excavation in Chinese patients. Methods Retrospectively, thirty-seven eyes (in 31 patients) that demonstrated focal choroidal excavation on spectral-domain OCT were collected. Their clinical characteristics and other features were also collected and analyzed. Results In total, 42 focal choroidal excavations were identified in 31 patients, including 25 unilateral and 6 bilateral (37 eyes). The abnormal changes in these eyes with choroidal excavation were more prominent at the outer part of the neuro-retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid. The average transverse diameter and depth of the excavations were 670.8 ?m and 106.9 ?m, respectively. In addition to the conforming and nonconforming types, the excavations could also be classified into 2 types according to their shape: type 1 – small with a sharp, cut-down contour; and type 2 – slightly larger with a gradual edge. The transverse diameter/depth ratio of the two types were significantly different (type1: 4.57?±?1.65, type 2: 10.0?±?5.2; p?=?0.000). Four central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) cases were confirmed by fluorescein angiography; in these cases, the retinal detachment was larger than the area of excavation, and the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) and external limiting membrane (ELM) were above those of the normal part. Concomitant CNV was also found in another 2 cases. Conclusions Focal choroidal excavation was not uncommon in Chinese patients. The choroid and the RPE at the excavation were impaired or vulnerable to other damage. Additionally, OCT might be useful in the differentiation between nonconforming excavations and ones with CSCR. PMID:24886645



A substrate-free optical readout focal plane array with a heat sink structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A substrate-free optical readout focal plane array (FPA) operating in 8-12 ?m with a heat sink structure (HSS) was fabricated and its performance was tested. The temperature distribution of the FPA with an HSS investigated by using a commercial FLIR IR camera shows excellent uniformity. The thermal cross-talk effect existing in traditional substrate-free FPAs was eliminated effectively. The heat sink is fabricated successfully by electroplating copper, which provides high thermal capacity and high thermal conductivity, on the frame of substrate-free FPA. The FPA was tested in the optical-readout system, the results show that the response and NETD are 13.6 grey/K (F / # = 0.8) and 588 mK, respectively.

Rmwen, Liu; Yanmei, Kong; Binbin, Jiao; Zhigang, Li; Haiping, Shang; Dike, Lu; Chaoqun, Gao; Dapeng, Chen; Qingchuan, Zhang



Measurement of optical modulation functions in sparsely sampled mosaic focal plane arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the measurement of optical modulation functions for detectors in focal plane arrays may be somewhat more difficult under 'full-up' systems conditions as compared to ideal laboratory conditions. An idealized optical modulation test arrangement is considered along with a full-up scanned system involving an earth mapper in polar orbit. In testing the system in full-up condition, a problem arises with respect to the acquisition of knife edge response data. In order to overcome this problem, a preferred method is developed for obtaining KER data on a single scan. A special 'phased edge' reticle is developed for use in the test set-up. Attention is given to aspects of knife edge reconstruction.

Young, J. B.; Thurlow, P. E.



Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results

Michael Wurm; F. von Feilitzsch; M. Göger-Neff; Martin Hofmann; Tobias Lachenmaier; Timo Lewke; T. Marrodán Undagoitia; Quirin Meindl; R. Möllenberg; Lothar Oberauer; Walter Potzel; Marc Tippmann; Sebastian Todor; Christoph Traunsteiner; Juergen Winter



3D modeling of architectural objects from video data obtained with the fixed focal length lens geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes the process of creating 3D models of architectural objects on the basis of video images, which had been acquired by a Sony NEX-VG10E fixed focal length video camera. It was assumed, that based on video and Terrestrial Laser Scanning data it is possible to develop 3D models of architectural objects. The acquisition of video data was preceded by the calibration of video camera. The process of creating 3D models from video data involves the following steps: video frames selection for the orientation process, orientation of video frames using points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), generating a TIN model using automatic matching methods. The above objects have been measured with an impulse laser scanner, Leica ScanStation 2. Created 3D models of architectural objects were compared with 3D models of the same objects for which the self-calibration bundle adjustment process was performed. In this order a PhotoModeler Software was used. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed 3D models of architectural objects, points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning were used. To assess the accuracy a shortest distance method was used. Analysis of the accuracy showed that 3D models generated from video images differ by about 0.06 ÷ 0.13 m compared to TLS data. Artyku? zawiera opis procesu opracowania modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych na podstawie obrazów wideo pozyskanych kamer? wideo Sony NEX-VG10E ze sta?oogniskowym obiektywem. Przyj?to za?o?enie, ?e na podstawie danych wideo i danych z naziemnego skaningu laserowego (NSL) mo?liwe jest opracowanie modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych. Pozyskanie danych wideo zosta?o poprzedzone kalibracj? kamery wideo. Model matematyczny kamery by? oparty na rzucie perspektywicznym. Proces opracowania modeli 3D na podstawie danych wideo sk?ada? si? z nast?puj?cych etapów: wybór klatek wideo do procesu orientacji, orientacja klatek wideo na podstawie wspó?rz?dnych odczytanych z chmury punktów NSL, wygenerowanie modelu 3D w strukturze TIN z wykorzystaniem metod automatycznej korelacji obrazów. Opracowane modele 3D zosta?y porównane z modelami 3D tych samych obiektów, dla których zosta?a przeprowadzona samokalibracja metod? wi?zek. W celu oceny dok?adno?ci opracowanych modeli 3D obiektów architektonicznych wykorzystano punkty naziemnego skaningu laserowego. Do oceny dok?adno?ci wykorzystano metod? najkrótszej odleg?o?ci. Analiza dok?adno?ci wykaza?a, ?e dok?adno?? modeli 3D generowanych na podstawie danych wideo wynosi oko?o 0.06 ÷ 0.13m wzgl?dem danych NSL.

Deli?, Paulina; K?dzierski, Micha?; Fry?kowska, Anna; Wili?ska, Michalina




NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page allows users to simulate standard optic elements (lens, mirror, dielectrics, sources, apertures) and observe how light rays propagate through these elements. Element properties, such as position and focal length, can be adjusted using and a click and drag metaphor.

Wolfgang Christian


Exploiting Satellite Focal Plane Geometry for Automatic Extraction of Traffic Flow from Single Optical Satellite Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focal plane assembly of most pushbroom scanner satellites is built up in a way that different multispectral or multispectral and panchromatic bands are not all acquired exactly at the same time. This effect is due to offsets of some millimeters of the CCD-lines in the focal plane. Exploiting this special configuration allows the detection of objects moving during this small time span. In this paper we present a method for automatic detection and extraction of moving objects - mainly traffic - from single very high resolution optical satellite imagery of different sensors. The sensors investigated are WorldView-2, RapidEye, Pléiades and also the new SkyBox satellites. Different sensors require different approaches for detecting moving objects. Since the objects are mapped on different positions only in different spectral bands also the change of spectral properties have to be taken into account. In case the main distance in the focal plane is between the multispectral and the panchromatic CCD-line like for Pléiades an approach for weighted integration to receive mostly identical images is investigated. Other approaches for RapidEye and WorldView-2 are also shown. From these intermediate bands difference images are calculated and a method for detecting the moving objects from these difference images is proposed. Based on these presented methods images from different sensors are processed and the results are assessed for detection quality - how many moving objects can be detected, how many are missed - and accuracy - how accurate is the derived speed and size of the objects. Finally the results are discussed and an outlook for possible improvements towards operational processing is presented.

Krauß, T.



THz imaging using Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) focal plane arrays and large aperture quasi optic mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of terahertz (THz) radiation are well known. They penetrate well most nonconducting media; there are no known biological hazards, and atmospheric attenuation and scattering is lower than for visual and IR radiation. Recently we have found that common miniature commercial neon glow discharge detector (GDD) lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation, with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. Based on this technology we designed, built and tested 4X4 and 8X8 GDD focal plane arrays. A line vector of 32 GDD pixels is being designed in order to increase the number of pixels in such arrays and thus the image resolution. Unique large aperture quasi optic mirrors were design and tested experimentally in this work. A new technology of light weight large aperture mirrors is proposed in this work. In this case a metal coating on plastic substrate is demonstrated. According to first experiments this technology proves to reliable with minimal deformation in LAB conditions. THz Images at 100 GHz were taken using this new inexpensive technology with good quality and resolution.

Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Joseph, H.; Rozban, D.; Akram, A.; Levanon, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Belenky, A.; Lineykin, S.



Two Cases of Focal Choroidal Excavation Detected by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical findings of 2 patients with focal choroidal excavation in the macula detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods Three eyes of 2 patients with a focal macular choroidal excavation detected by SD-OCT were studied. The eyes were examined by fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography, fundus-related microperimetry, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Results In spite of a complaint of metamorphopsia, the visual acuity was normal in 2 eyes. SD-OCT demonstrated a choroidal excavation in the macula but the foveal contour was normal in 3 eyes. The excavation involved the outer retinal layers up to the external limiting membrane in all eyes, and a type 2 secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV) developed in 1 of the 3 eyes. There were areas of hypoautofluorescence in the FAF images, and areas of decreased retinal sensitivity determined by microperimetry. These areas corresponded to the choroidal excavation in all eyes. The P1 amplitudes of the mfERGs were decreased in the fovea of 1 eye without a CNV. Conclusions The choroidal excavation remained stable for 3 years in 2 eyes, a secondary CNV developed in 1 eye during the course of the disease. More cases and longer follow-up periods will be necessary to determine the etiology, clinical course, and visual prognosis of eyes with a choroidal excavation. PMID:23008695

Katome, Takashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Hotta, Fumika; Niki, Masanori; Naito, Takeshi



The focal plane adaptive optics test box of the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the upcoming construction of Extremely Large Telescopes, several existing technologies are being pushed beyond their performance limit and it becomes essential to develop and evaluate new alternatives. The "Observatoire du Mont Mégantic" (OMM) hosts a telescope having a 1.6-meter diameter primary. The OMM telescope is known to be an excellent location to develop and test precursor instruments which are then upscaled to larger telescopes (ex. SPIOMM which led to SITELLE at the CFHT). We present a specifically designed focal plane box for the OMM which will allow to evaluate, directly on-sky, the performance of a number of next generation adaptive optics related technologies The system will able us to compare the performance of several new wavefront sensors in contrast with the current standard, the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor.

Deschênes, William; Brousseau, Denis; Lavigne, Jean-Francois; Thibault, Simon; Véran, Jean-Pierre



Coherent Optical Focal Plane Array Receiver for PPM Signals: Investigation and Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a coherent optical focal plane array receiver for PPM signals under atmospheric turbulence is investigated and applications of this system are addressed. The experimental demonstration of this project has already been explained in previous publications [1]. This article shows a more exhaustive analysis of the expressions needed to obtain the Bit Error Rate (BER) for the real system under study in the laboratory. Selected experimental results of this system are described and compared with theoretical BER expressions, and array combining gains are presented. Receiver sensitivity in terms of photons per bit (PPB) is examined; BER results are shown as a function of signal to noise ratios, (SNR), as well as a function of photons per symbol, and photons per bit.

Fernandez, Michela Munoz



Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane  

SciTech Connect

We explain and demonstrate a new method of force and position calibrations for optical tweezers with back-focal-plane photodetection. The method combines power spectral measurements of thermal motion and the response to a sinusoidal motion of a translation stage. It consequently does not use the drag coefficient of the trapped object as an input. Thus, neither the viscosity, nor the size of the trapped object, nor its distance to nearby surfaces needs to be known. The method requires only a low level of instrumentation and can be applied in situ in all spatial dimensions. It is both accurate and precise: true values are returned, with small error bars. We tested this experimentally, near and far from surfaces in the lateral directions. Both position and force calibrations were accurate to within 3%. To calibrate, we moved the sample with a piezoelectric translation stage, but the laser beam could be moved instead, e.g., by acousto-optic deflectors. Near surfaces, this precision requires an improved formula for the hydrodynamical interaction between an infinite plane and a microsphere in nonconstant motion parallel to it. We give such a formula.

Tolic-Noerrelykke, Simon F.; Schaeffer, Erik; Howard, Jonathon; Pavone, Francesco S.; Juelicher, Frank; Flyvbjerg, Henrik [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany) and European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy) and Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Danish Polymer Centre, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)



Laser Metrology for an Optical-Path-Length Modulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser gauges have been developed to satisfy requirements specific to monitoring the amplitude of the motion of an optical-path-length modulator that is part of an astronomical interferometer. The modulator includes a corner-cube retroreflector driven by an electromagnetic actuator. During operation of the astronomical interferometer, the electromagnet is excited to produce linear reciprocating motion of the corner-cube retroreflector at an amplitude of 2 to 4 mm at a frequency of 250, 750, or 1,250 Hz. Attached to the corner-cube retroreflector is a small pick-off mirror. To suppress vibrations, a counterweight having a mass equal to that of the corner-cube retroreflector and pick-off mirror is mounted on another electromagnetic actuator that is excited in opposite phase. Each gauge is required to measure the amplitude of the motion of the pick-off mirror, assuming that the motions of the pick-off mirror and the corner-cube retroreflector are identical, so as to measure the amplitude of motion of the corner- cube retroreflector to within an error of the order of picometers at each excitation frequency. Each gauge is a polarization-insensitive heterodyne interferometer that includes matched collimators, beam separators, and photodiodes (see figure). The light needed for operation of the gauge comprises two pairs of laser beams, the beams in each pair being separated by a beat frequency of 80 kHz. The laser beams are generated by an apparatus, denoted the heterodyne plate, that includes stabilized helium-neon lasers, acousto-optical modulators, and associated optical and electronic subsystems. The laser beams are coupled from the heterodyne plate to the collimators via optical fibers.

Gursel, Yekta



Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors  

SciTech Connect

In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph}???0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} ? 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A., E-mail:; Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Division, 13, Acad. Lavrent'ev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)



Prospective trial with optical molecular imaging for percutaneous interventions in focal hepatic lesions.  


Purpose To demonstrate the clinical translation of optical molecular imaging (OMI) for the localization of focal hepatic lesions during percutaneous hepatic interventions. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective, single-center, HIPAA-compliant trial. Patients who were suspected of having hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases from colorectal cancer and were scheduled for percutaneous liver biopsy or thermal ablation were eligible for this study. Patients (n = 5) received 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight of indocyanine green (ICG) intravenously 24 hours prior to their scheduled procedure in this study. Intraprocedurally, a handheld device composed of an endoscope that fits coaxially through a standard 17-gauge introducer needle was advanced into the liver, and real-time measurements of ICG fluorescence were obtained. A point-of-care fluorescence imaging system was used to image ICG fluorescence in biopsy samples. Target-to-background ratios (TBRs) were calculated by dividing the mean fluorescence intensity in the lesion by the mean fluorescence intensity in the adjacent liver parenchyma. The reference standard for determination of proper needle positioning in patients undergoing biopsy was final pathologic analysis of biopsy specimens or follow-up imaging. Results Intraprocedural OMI was successfully performed in six lesions (two lesions in patient 3) in five patients. The median size of the targeted lesions was 16 mm (range, 10-21 mm). Four of five biopsies (80%) yielded an accurate pathologic diagnosis, and one biopsy specimen showed benign liver parenchyma; both ablated lesions showed no residual disease 1 month after the procedure. The median overall added procedure time to perform OMI was 2 minutes. ICG was found to localize with TBRs greater than 2.0 (median, 7.9; range, 2.4-13.4) in all target lesions. No trial-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion The clinical translation of OMI to percutaneous hepatic interventions was demonstrated. (©) RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25302707

Sheth, Rahul A; Arellano, Ronald S; Uppot, Raul N; Samir, Anthony E; Goyal, Lipika; Zhu, Andrew X; Gervais, Debra A; Mahmood, Umar



Correlation of Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measurements with Axial Length and Age Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods. A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12?mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). Results. The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F = 23.146, P < 0.001) followed by axial length (F = 4.902, P = 0.03). Refractive error was not statistically significant (F = 1.16, P = 0.28). Conclusions. SS-OCT is the first commercially available system that can automatically create choroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time. PMID:25013793

Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy



Automated optical testing of LWIR objective lenses using focal plane array sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image quality of today's state-of-the-art IR objective lenses is constantly improving while at the same time the market for thermography and vision grows strongly. Because of increasing demands on the quality of IR optics and increasing production volumes, the standards for image quality testing increase and tests need to be performed in shorter time. Most high-precision MTF testing equipment for the IR spectral bands in use today relies on the scanning slit method that scans a 1D detector over a pattern in the image generated by the lens under test, followed by image analysis to extract performance parameters. The disadvantages of this approach are that it is relatively slow, it requires highly trained operators for aligning the sample and the number of parameters that can be extracted is limited. In this paper we present lessons learned from the R and D process on using focal plane array (FPA) sensors for testing of long-wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 m) optics. Factors that need to be taken into account when switching from scanning slit to FPAs are e.g.: the thermal background from the environment, the low scene contrast in the LWIR, the need for advanced image processing algorithms to pre-process camera images for analysis and camera artifacts. Finally, we discuss 2 measurement systems for LWIR lens characterization that we recently developed with different target applications: 1) A fully automated system suitable for production testing and metrology that uses uncooled microbolometer cameras to automatically measure MTF (on-axis and at several o-axis positions) and parameters like EFL, FFL, autofocus curves, image plane tilt, etc. for LWIR objectives with an EFL between 1 and 12mm. The measurement cycle time for one sample is typically between 6 and 8s. 2) A high-precision research-grade system using again an uncooled LWIR camera as detector, that is very simple to align and operate. A wide range of lens parameters (MTF, EFL, astigmatism, distortion, etc.) can be easily and accurately measured with this system.

Winters, Daniel; Erichsen, Patrik; Domagalski, Christian; Peter, Frank; Heinisch, Josef; Dumitrescu, Eugen



Active optical zoom system  


An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

Wick, David V.



Adaptive optical zoom sensor.  

SciTech Connect

In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor



Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.  


A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt. PMID:25402902

Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei



Focal lengths and gravity waves  

E-print Network

Film is composed of tiny photographs which, when projected, sometimes look very much like people and things in the real world. Film, too, cannot be separated from its tools. Aesthetic criticism was, and still is, weighted ...

Doherty, Mary Jane



Three-dimensional cortex model including vascular structure for estimation of path length for optical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging of hemoglobin concentration changes in the exposed cortex has been used to investigate the functional brain activation. The concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin can be independently obtained from the dual- or multi-wavelength measurements of the change in reflectance of the exposed cortex and wavelengthdependent optical path length in the cortical tissues. In the previous studies, the partial optical path length were generally estimated by homogeneous and layered models. In reality, the concentration changes in the hemoglobin only occurs in the blood vessels. In this study, the partial optical path lengths in the blood vessels were estimated by the heterogeneous model including the blood vessel structure based upon the image acquired by two-photon microscopy. Light propagation in the exposed-cortex model is simulated to estimate the wavelength dependence of the partial optical path length in the blood vessels. The wavelength dependence of the partial optical path length for the heterogeneous model was different from that for the homogeneous model. In the wavelength range from 500 to 580 nm, the partial optical path length in the blood vessels was mainly affected by the structure of the blood vessels in the region shallower than 50 ?m.

Kikuchi, Takahiro; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Masamoto, Kazuto; Ito, Hiroshi; Okada, Eiji



Comparison of optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurements of the axial length of the eye  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the relationship between optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurement of the axial length of the eye. Materials and methods This prospective study enrolled 55 (68 eyes) consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital (DESH). Every eye underwent two measurements each with an optical biometer and with applanation ultrasound. Only patients with cataract and no other ophthalmic pathology or disease were enrolled. Comparison, correlation and repeatability of axial length with both devices were analyzed. Agreement between devices was evaluated. A regression formula to convert measurements between devices was investigated. A p value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Results There was strong repeatability (99.4%) and agreement (r = 0.987) between both devices (p < 0.001); the difference between devices was mainly in short eyes (p = 0.031). Conclusion Optical biometry and applanation ultrasound measurements of axial length correlate well. However, optical biometry is preferable in short eyes. PMID:25473345

Nakhli, Fouad R.



Quantification of optical Doppler broadening and optical path lengths of multiply scattered light by phase modulated low coherence interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show experimental validation of a novel technique to measure optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler broadening in turbid media for different reduced scattering coefficients and anisotropies. The technique involves a phase modulated low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with separate fibers for illumination and detection. Water suspensions of Polystyrene microspheres with high scattering and low absorption levels are used as calibrated scattering phantoms. The path length dependent diffusion broadening or Doppler broadening of scattered light is shown to agree with Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy within 5%. The optical path lengths are determined experimentally from the zero order moment of the phase modulation peak around the modulation frequency in the power spectrum and the results are validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

Varghese, B.; Rajan, V.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.



Temporal characterization of FEL micropulses as function of cavity length detuning using frequency-resolved optical gating  

SciTech Connect

Results of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements on the Stanford mid-IR FEL system show the effect of FEL cavity length detuning on the micropulse temporal structure. The FROG technique enables the acquisition of complete and uniquely invertible amplitude and phase temporal dependence of optical pulses. Unambiguous phase and amplitude profiles are recovered from the data. The optical pulses are nearly transform limited, and the pulse length increases with cavity length detuning.

Richman, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)



Length-dependent optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contradictory findings have been reported on the length dependence of optical absorption cross sections and fluorescence quantum yields in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). To clarify these points, studies have been made on bulk SWCNT dispersions subjected to length fractionation by electrophoretic separation or by ultrasonication-induced scission. Fractions ranged from ca. 120 to 760 nm in mean length. Samples prepared by shear-assisted dispersion were subsequently shortened by ultrasonic processing. After accounting for processing-induced changes in the surfactant absorption background, SWCNT absorption was found constant within ±11% as average nanotube length changed by a factor of 3.8. This indicates that the absorption cross-section per carbon atom is not length dependent. By contrast, in length fractions prepared by both methods, the bulk fluorescence efficiency or average quantum yield increased with SWCNT average length and approached an apparent asymptotic limit near 1 ?m. This result is interpreted as reflecting the combined contributions of exciton quenching by sidewall defects and by the ends of shorter nanotubes.

Naumov, Anton V.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce



Axial and peripheral eye length measured with optical low coherence reflectometry.  


An optical low-coherence reflectometer (OLCR device) is described that allows the precise and noncontact measurement of eye length. The device measures eye length both on-axis and off-axis, thus enabling the determination of eye shape, an ocular parameter thought to be important in the development of refractive error. It is essential for several applications in ophthalmology and vision science. This improved OLCR device operates using a single-beam interferometer with a beam deflection mechanism that allows the precise measurement of eye length along the visual axis and within 15 deg horizontally and vertically from the fovea. The validity of this instrument and its revised software is evaluated by measuring the reproducibility of axial length results in an adult eye and an artificial eye, and by correlating axial eye length measured in a group of ten adult eyes with axial eye length obtained with A-scan ultrasound in the same eyes. The precision obtained with adult subjects is compared with that obtained with children. PMID:14563204

Schmid, Gregor F



Optimal design of optical length in low turbidity measurement system with wavelength 1310 nm and 1550 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the need of long distance transmission in low turbidity measurement system for low-loss, a new optical structure with wavelength 1310nm and 1550nm as the incident light is employed. In this research, experiments have been done for different optical length of the two wavelength light sources. The results show that: first, the transmitted light intensity has big difference under the circumstance of same concentration and optical length, though the loss has no remarkable difference transmitted in optical fiber between 1310nm and 1550nm. Second, the optimized optical length for better absorbance has been determined for 1310nm and 1550nm and it is irrelevant to the incident intensity. Third, the intensity of the two transmitted light decreases exponentially with the increase of optical length. For example, when the range of the optical length of 1310nm is 0.5mm-2mm, the transmitted intensity is about 60%-79% and the absorbance is 0.12-0.42. The transmitted intensity is about 5%-44%. When the range of the optical length of 1550nm is 0.5mm-2mm and the absorbance is still 0.12-0.42. Our experimental data provides the basis both for the optical length selection of these two light sources in water and the near-infrared spectral wavelength selection.

Cao, Hui-bin; Liu, Jian-guo; Gui, Hua-qiao; Wang, Jie; Wang, Huan-qin



Repository corticotropin injection in a patient presenting with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and optic neuritis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) causes scarring or sclerosis of glomeruli that act as tiny filters in the kidneys, damage to which results in diminished ability to properly filter blood, resulting in the urinary loss of plasma proteins and subsequent proteinuria. Case presentation A 60-year-old, white female with a history of intermittent proteinuria was referred by her primary care physician for renal dysfunction. Biopsy confirmed FSGS and she was treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. She also had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but no active synovitis and was maintained on prednisone 5 mg/d. She also complained of worsening vision in her right eye and was diagnosed with optic neuritis (ON). She remained stable for about 8 months when examination indicated FSGS relapse, and she reported painful RA flares. She was treated with Acthar® Gel (40 mg biweekly) for 6 months, after which proteinuria and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio decreased to about half. Her ON improved, and she reported that she had fewer RA flares and pain improved by 50%. This case of confirmed FSGS showed an improved response to treatment with Acthar Gel for FSGS with concomitant RA and ON. Conclusion This referral case is relevant to primary care practitioners who treat disorders that may be responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The antiproteinuric effects and ancillary improvement in RA and ON symptoms during treatment with Acthar Gel are not entirely explained by its steroidogenic actions. ACTH is a bioactive peptide that, together with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, exhibits biologic efficacy by modulating proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent leukocyte extravasation and may have autocrine/paracrine effects in joints. While Acthar Gel was primarily administered in this case to treat proteinuria, it also showed ancillary benefits in patients with concomitant inflammatory disease states. PMID:25848316

Madan, Arvind



Optical CDMA system using 2-D run-length limited code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, time-spreading wavelength-hopping optical CDMA system using 2-D run-length limited code is investigated. The run-length limited code we use here is predicated upon spatial coding scheme, which can improve system performance significantly. In our proposed system, we employ carrier-hopping prime code and its shifted version as signature sequences. Based on the zero auto-correlation sidelobes property of signature sequence, we propose a two-state trellis coding architecture, which utilizes 2-D parallel detection scheme. The proposed scheme is compact and simple that can be applied to more complicated trellis to further enhance system performance. Multiple access interference is the main deterioration factor in optical CDMA system that affects system performance adversely. Aside from the multiple access interference, some of the adverse impacts of system performance are also taken into consideration, which include thermal noise, shot noise, relative intensity noise, and beat noise.

Liu, Maw-Yang; Jiang, Joe-Air



Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.

Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric



Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography.  


Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures. PMID:22612125

Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric



Exciton coherence length fluctuations in chromophore aggregates probed by multidimensional optical spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The coherent third order optical response of molecular aggregates with fluctuating frequencies, couplings, and transition dipole moments is studied. We derived stochastic nonlinear exciton equations (SNEEs) by combining the quasiparticle picture of excitons with the path integral over stochastic bath paths described by the stochastic Liouville equations. Coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectra are calculated for a tetramer model system whose transition dipole orientations undergo two-state stochastic jumps on an arbitrary timescale. Correspondence between domains of ordered dipoles, which determine the exciton coherence length and the absorption peaks, is established. Signatures of domain coherence length fluctuations are observed in the cross peak dynamics of the 2D spectra in specific pulse polarization configurations. PMID:20614954

Šanda, František; Perlík, Václav; Mukamel, Shaul



Integrating sphere effective optical path length calibration by gas absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of integrating sphere effective optical path length (EOPL) evaluation using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for gas detection was demonstrated. Oxygen was used as a sample gas for an 8.38 cm diameter integrating sphere calibration; 393.7 ± 1.3 cm EOPL was obtained from the wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic calibration by measuring oxygen P11 line at 764 nm, which is in agreement with that of 393 cm by using direct absorption spectroscopy calibration. The EOPL calibration accuracy of this method can reach 0.33 %. It has been justified that the EOPL of an integrating sphere is independent of the incident light intensity.

Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Yungang; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wu, Shaohua; Guo, Wei



Long gage-length fiber optic sensors for monitoring pipeline integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of FOX-TEK's long gage-length FT fiber optic sensors (FOS) for monitoring the integrity of pipelines and refinery components. Site assessment protocols and installation methods are described, in addition to the different FOS configurations required to monitor component integrity. It is shown how sensor information can also be used for process control, involving the monitoring of line temperature, pressure, and pipe wall thinning. Models are described that allow the operator to interpret field data to detect corrosion rates, pipe bending, movement and buckling.

Tennyson, R. C.; Morison, W. D.



Effects of varying surfactant chain lengths on the magnetic, optical and hyperthermia properties of ferrofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report studies of the structural, magnetic, magneto-thermal and magneto-optic properties of dextran, oleic acid, lauric acid and myristic acid surfacted Fe3O4 nanoparticles of hydrodynamic sizes ranging from 32 nm to 92 nm. All the samples showed saturation magnetization of ˜50 emu/g, significantly smaller than the bulk value for Fe3O4, together with superparamagnetic behavior. The ac magnetization measurements on the dextran coated nanoparticles showed frequency dependent blocking temperature, consistent with superparamgnetic blocking. The ferrofluid heating rates in a 250 Gauss, 100 kHz ac magnetic field varied with the chain lengths of the surfactants, with higher heating rates for longer chains. DC-magnetic-field-induced light scattering patterns produced by two orthogonal He-Ne laser beams passing through the ferrofluid sample revealed different optical signatures for different surfactants.

Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem; Regmi, Rajesh; Sudakar, Chandran; Black, Correy; Lawes, Gavin; Naik, Ratna; Lavoie, Melissa; Kahn, David



Effect of focal size on the laser ignition of compressed natural gas-air mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ignition of compressed natural gas-air mixtures was investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) as well as in a single cylinder engine. Laser ignition has several potential advantages over conventional spark ignition system. Laser ignition relies on the fact that optical breakdown (plasma generation) in gases occurs at high intensities of ?1011 W/cm2. Such high intensities can be achieved by focusing a pulsed laser beam to small focal sizes. The focal spot size depends on several parameters such as laser wavelength, beam diameter at the converging lens, beam quality and focal length. In this investigation, the focal length of the converging lens and the beam quality were varied and the corresponding effects on minimum ignition energy as well as pressure rise were recorded. The flame kernel was visualized and correlated with the rate of pressure rise inside the combustion chamber. This investigation will be helpful in the optimization of laser and optics parameters in laser ignition. It was found that beam quality factor and focal length of focusing lens have a strong impact on the minimum ignition energy required for combustion. Combustion duration depends on the energy density at the focal spot and size of the flame kernel.

Srivastava, Dhananjay Kumar; Wintner, Ernst; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar



Transit time of optical pulses propagating through a finite length medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental and theoretical results on the transit time of optical pulses propagating through bulk media of finite length, specifically GaAs and silica. The transit time of the peak of the pulse varies with the central wavelength due to the étalon effects caused by the reflectivity at the air/medium boundaries. For transform limited optical pulses, the transit time as a function of wavelength follows the transmittance spectrum, that is, the longest transit time occurs at the transmittance maxima where the cavity dwell time is the longest and the shortest transit time occurs at the transmittance minima. The results are dramatically different for chirped pulses obtained by modulating the injection current of a diode laser. The range in the transit times for chirped pulses is a factor of four times larger compared with transform limited pulses. In addition, the transit time for chirped pulses propagating through the GaAs sample is negative at certain wavelengths. Also, the transmitted pulse is not distorted. Although modulating the injection current of a diode laser is the most common method for generating optical pulses, to our knowledge this is the first reported observation of the transit time of these chirped optical pulses propagating through a simple étalon structure.

Bloemer, Mark; Myneni, Krishna; Centini, Marco; Scalora, Michael; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe



OPTICAL SYSTEMS: Calculation of the illuminance distribution in the focal spot of a focusing system taking into account aberrations in this system and divergence of a focused laser beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of the focal-spot size of a 'deep' parabolic mirror reflector on the laser-beam divergence is analysed by the method of elementary reflections. The dependence of the focal-beam diameter of an ideal focusing optical system on the laser-beam parameters is described. The expression is obtained for calculating the illumination distribution in the focal spot of a 'deep' mirror reflector which takes into account both aberrations and light-gathering power of the reflector and the divergence of a focused laser beam.

Gitin, Andrey V.



Beam splitter and method for generating equal optical path length beams  


The present invention is a beam splitter for splitting an incident beam into first and second beams so that the first and second beams have a fixed separation and are parallel upon exiting. The beam splitter includes a first prism, a second prism, and a film located between the prisms. The first prism is defined by a first thickness and a first perimeter which has a first major base. The second prism is defined by a second thickness and a second perimeter which has a second major base. The film is located between the first major base and the second major base for splitting the incident beam into the first and second beams. The first and second perimeters are right angle trapezoidal shaped. The beam splitter is configured for generating equal optical path length beams.

Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter



A Method for Determining the Nominal Occular Hazard Zone for Gaussian Beam Laser Rangers with a Firmware Controlled Variable Focal Length  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LIDAR systems that maintain a constant beam spot size on a retroreflector in order to increase the accuracy of bearing and ranging data must use a software controlled variable position lens. These systems periodically update the estimated range and set the position of the focusing lens accordingly. In order to precisely calculate the r NOHD for such a system, the software method for setting the variable position lens and gaussian laser propagation can be used to calculate the irradiance at any point given the range estimation. NASA s Space Shuttle LIDAR, called the Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS), uses this configuration. Analytical tools were developed using Excel and VBA to determine the radiant energy to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers eyes while viewing the shuttle on approach and departure. Various viewing scenarios are considered including the use of through-the-lens imaging optics and the window transmissivity at the TCS wavelength. The methodology incorporates the TCS system control logic, gaussian laser propagation, potential failure mode end states, and guidance from American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2007). This approach can be adapted for laser safety analyses of similar LIDAR systems.

Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Victor, J. M.; Duron, J. L.; Bowers, W. h.; Gillis, D. B.; VanBaalen, M.



Optimum cavity length and absolute cavity detuning in acousto-optically mode-locked argon-ion lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acousto-optic mode-locking in an argon-ion laser was investigated in detail. Measurement of the discharge current is shown to be an accurate means of locating the optimum cavity length which depends strongly on level of excitation. The absolute cavity mismatch between the optimum length and that corresponding to c/4 vRF was determined by direct measurement and by using a cw dye laser as an active interferometer.

Ruddock, I. S.; Illingworth, R.



The Biological Effect of Contralateral Forepaw Stimulation in Rat Focal Cerebral Ischemia: A Multispectral Optical Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Our group has already published the possible neuroprotective effect of contralateral forepaw stimulation in temporary focal ischemia in a study. However, the background is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism by monitoring focal ischemia with multispectral [laser speckle, imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS)] imaging. Sprague–Dawley rats were prepared using 1.2% isoflurane anesthesia. The middle cerebral artery was occluded by photothrombosis (4?mW) and the common carotid artery was ligated permanently. Physiological variables were constantly monitored during the experiment. A 6 × 6?mm area centered 3?mm posterior and 4?mm lateral to Bregma was thinned for laser speckle and OIS imaging. Nine circular regions of interests (0.3?mm in diameter) were evenly spaced on the speckle contrast image for the analysis of peri-infarct flow transients, blood flow, and metabolic changes. Both the sham (n?=?7) and forepaw-stimulated animals (n?=?7) underwent neurological examinations 24?h after ischemia at which point all animals were sacrificed and the infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The physiological variables were in normal range and the experimental protocol did not cause significant differences between groups. Both the neurological scores (sham: 3.6 ± 1.7, stimulated: 4.3 ± 1.4) and the infarct volume (sham: 124 ± 39?mm3, stimulated: 147 ± 47?mm3) did not show significant differences between groups. The forepaw stimulation did not increase the intra-ischemic flow neither over the penumbral or the peri-ischemic area. However, the hemoglobin transients related metabolic load (CMRO2) was significantly lower (p?

Luckl, Janos; Baker, Wesley; Sun, Zheng-Hui; Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.; Greenberg, Joel H.



Phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry with measurement range beyond laser coherence length realized using concatenative reference method.  


A novel type of optical frequency domain reflectometry with a measurement range much longer than the laser coherence length is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To reduce the influence of laser phase noise, the measurement signal is compensated by using reference signals generated from a single auxiliary interferometer supported by a newly proposed compensation process. The compensation is accomplished numerically with a computer for each section of the delay fiber length in an auxiliary interferometer after only one data acquisition. By using the proposed technique, it is confirmed experimentally that the laser phase noise is well compensated even beyond the coherence length. PMID:18026262

Fan, Xinyu; Koshikiya, Yusuke; Ito, Fumihiko



Development of transrectal diffuse optical tomography combined with 3D-transrectal ultrasound imaging to monitor the photocoagulation front during interstitial photothermal therapy of primary focal prostate cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial near-infrared laser thermal therapy (LITT) is currently undergoing clinical trials as an alternative to watchful waiting or radical surgery in patients with low-risk focal prostate cancer. Currently, we use magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based thermography to monitor treatment delivery and determine indirectly the completeness of the target tissue destruction while avoiding damage to adjacent normal tissues, particularly the rectal wall. However, incomplete tumor destruction has occurred in a significant fraction of patients due to premature termination of treatment, since the photocoagulation zone is not directly observed. Hence, we are developing transrectal diffuse optical tomography (TRDOT), in combination with transrectal 3D ultrasound (3D-TRUS), to address his limitation. This is based on the large changes in optical scattering expected upon tissue coagulation. Here, we present forward simulations of a growing coagulated lesion with optical scattering contrast, using an established finite element analysis software platform (NIRFAST). The simulations were validated in tissue-simulating phantoms, with measurements acquired by a state-of-the-art continuous wave (CW) TRDOT system and a recently assembled bench-top CW-DOT system, with specific source-detector configurations. Two image reconstruction schemes were investigated and evaluated, specifically for the accurate delineation of the posterior boundary of the coagulation zone as the critical parameter for treatment guidance in this clinical application.

He, Jie; Weersink, Robert; Veilleux, Israel; Mayo, Kenwrick; Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Alam, Adeel; Trachtenberg, John; Wilson, Brian C.



Endoscopic focal modulation microscopy.  


We present endoscopic focal modulation microscopy (FMM) for minimally invasive imaging of deep tissue with high contrast, and then compare the results using endoscopic confocal microscopy (CM). Deep tissue imaging is achieved using a needle-like endoscopic probe based on gradient-index (GRIN) lenses. A tissue-like phantom with fluorescent micro-beads and rat kidney tubules were imaged through the endoscopic probe with FMM. FMM effectively rejected the background signals from the out-of-focus plane, thereby enhancing the image contrast and the optical sectioning ability. The combination of the GRIN endoscopic probe and FMM provides deep tissue imaging with better contrast than endoscopic CM. PMID:23488978

Ahn, J; Yoo, H; Gweon, D-G



Compact color schlieren optical system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact optical system for use with rainbow schlieren deflectometry is described. Both halves of the optical system consist of well-corrected telescopes whose refractive elements are all from manufacturer's stock catalogs, with the reflective primary being a spherical surface. As a result, the system is relatively easy to construct and meets the requirement of long focal length for quantitative rainbow schlieren measurements.

Buchele, Donald R.; Griffin, Devon W.



Measuring optical fiber length by use of a short-pulse optical fiber ring laser in a self-injection seeding scheme.  


A method for measuring the length of an optical fiber by use of an optical fiber ring laser pulse source is proposed and demonstrated. The key element of the optical fiber ring laser is a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode operated in a self-injection seeding scheme. This method is especially suitable for measuring a medium or long fiber, and a resolution of 0.1 m is experimentally achieved. The measurement is implemented by accurately determining the pulse frequency that can maximize the output power of the fiber ring laser. The measurement results depend only on the refractive index of the fiber corresponding to this single wavelength, instead of the group index of the fiber, which represents a great advantage over both optical time-domain reflectometry and optical low-coherence reflectometry methods. PMID:16912784

Wang, Yi-Ping; Wang, Dong Ning; Jin, Wei



Design of vari-focal panoramic annular lenses based on Alvarez surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel design of panoramic annular lenses (PAL) for the imaging of 360° surroundings with a large field of view (FOV) ranging from 30°~105°, which can partly realize the zooming function. Its wavelength band is between 486 and 656 nanometers. The conventional vari-focal PAL is based on the axial shift of some optical components, which will make the blind zone larger and out of the sensing area, while our design is based on the lateral shift, which can make some imaging area zoom in, keep the area of blind zone stay the same, and minimize the whole scale of this system. In order to change the focal length of conventional PAL system, we introduce several pairs of free-form surfaces (Alvarez surfaces) which can be regarded as several plano-spherical lenses and change the focal power of the whole optical system. As we set two different configurations (long focal length and wide angle), all of the optical parameters are designed and optimized with the help of the software (Zemax).

Luo, Yujie; Bai, Jian; Yao, Yuan



Focal Fish Species Focal Fish Species Characterization  

E-print Network

included a) designation as a federal threatened or endangered species, b) cultural significance, c) localFocal Fish Species Focal Fish Species Characterization APPENDIX I This chapter describes the fish species selected to evaluate the health of the Deschutes Basin ecosystem and the effectiveness


Optical lattices with large scattering length: Using few-body physics to simulate an electron-phonon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to go beyond the usual Hubbard model description of atoms in optical lattices and show how few-body physics can be used to simulate many-body phenomena, e.g., an electron-phonon system. We take one atomic species to be trapped in a deep optical lattice at full-filling and another to be untrapped spin-polarized fermions (which do not see the optical lattice) but to have an s-wave contact interaction with the first species. For large positive scattering length on the order of lattice spacing, the usual two-body bound (dimer) states overlap forming giant orbitals extending over the entire lattice, which can be viewed as an "electronic" band for the untrapped species while the trapped atoms become the "ions" with their own on-site dynamics, thereby simulating an electron-phonon system with renormalization of the phonon frequencies and Peierls transitions. This setup requires large scattering lengths but minimizes losses, does not need higher bands, and adds degrees of freedom which cannot easily be described in terms of lattice variables, thus opening up intriguing possibilities to explore interesting physics at the interface between few-body and many-body systems.

Lan, Zhihao; Lobo, Carlos



Space telescope optical telescope assembly/scientific instruments. Phase B: Preliminary design and program definition study. Volume 2A. focal plane camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trade studies were conducted to ensure the overall feasibility of the focal plane camera in a radial module. The primary variable in the trade studies was the location of the pickoff mirror, on axis versus off-axis. Two alternatives were: (1) the standard (electromagnetic focus) SECO submodule, and (2) the MOD 15 permanent magnet focus SECO submodule. The technical areas of concern were the packaging affected parameters of thermal dissipation, focal plane obscuration, and image quality.



Path-length-resolved forced-diffusive particle dynamics in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

—We present simulations of the decorrelation rate for a high and a low coherence light source in heterodyne light scattering geometry. Light scatters on an ensemble of particles of which the particle trajectories are calculated using a forced-diffusion model. The low coherence signal is constructed in the Fourier domain (as in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography). I. INTRODUCTION The dynamics of

J. Kalkman; T. G. van Leeuwen; R. Sprik



Matched Spectral-Null Code with Run-Length Limitation for Optical Recording Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High track-density recording and multi-layer recording have been investigated for large capacity optical recording discs. In this case, the recorded data will be reproduced under the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition due to crosstalk from the adjacent tracks or the other layers, and robust data detection will be required. In this paper, a novel matched spectral-null (MSN) code providing the

Satoru Higashino; Shoei Kobayashi; Tamotsu Yamagami



X-ray Pulse Length Characterization using the Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect  

SciTech Connect

It will be challenging to measure the temporal profile of the hard X-ray SASE beam independently from the electron beam in the LCLS and other 4th generation light sources. A fast interaction mechanism is needed that can be probed by an ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe experiment. It is proposed to exploit the rotation in polarization of light reflected from a thin magnetized film, known as the surface magneto optic Kerr effect (SMOKE), to witness the absorption of the x-ray pulse in the thin film. The change in spin orbit coupling induced by the x-ray pulse occurs on the subfemtosecond time scale and changes the polarization of the probe beam. The limitation to the technique lies with the bandwidth of the probe laser pulse and how short the optical pulse can be made. The SMOKE mechanism will be described and the choices of materials for use with 1.5 {angstrom} x-rays. A schematic description of the pump-probe geometry for x-ray diagnosis is also described.

Krejcik, P.; /SLAC



Hemodynamics of focal choroidal excavations.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamics of focal choroidal excavations (FCEs). Four eyes of four patients with a FCE were studied. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and multi-focal electroretinography (mfERG) were performed to investigate the choroidal hemodynamics and the morphological and functional changes. The mean depth of the FCE determined by OCT was 222.5 ± 49.5 ?m with a range of 164-272 ?m. In one case, subretinal fluid was observed in the excavation, and in three cases, subretinal fluid was not observed. ICGA showed hypofluorescence, and laser flowgraphy (LSFG) showed decreased choroidal blood flow at the excavation in all cases. Three cases were symptomatic, and the amplitudes of the mfERGs were reduced. FCEs cause a decrease of choroidal blood flow. In three of four cases, the mfERGs were depressed over the FCEs leading to symptoms. PMID:25626897

Soma, Ryoko; Moriyama, Muka; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko



Longitudinally polarized electric and magnetic optical nano-needles of ultra high lengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a method to generate longitudinally polarized electric and magnetic light spots over ultra-long distances. The method proposed here relies on the generation of radially and azimuthally polarized Bessel beams at the limit between propagating and evanescent regimes, by projecting radially and azimuthally polarized doughnut beams onto an axicon-based system of numerical aperture (NA) equal to 1. Tight electric and magnetic light spots (0.36?) can be produced over distances reaching 50? and with longitudinal intensities about 3.5×104 times above the transverse intensities. Same confinement abilities over distances larger than 335 ? is also predicted with longitudinal intensities 883 fold above the transverse ones. Experimental characterization of these tiny optical needles with polarization-resolved heterodyne SNOM reveals electric and magnetic light spots smaller than 0.4 ? whose longitudinal intensities are about 200-fold larger than the transverse ones.

Grosjean, T.; Gauthier, I.



Bunch Length Monitoring at the A0 Photoinjector Using a Quasi-Optical Schottky Detector  

SciTech Connect

Noninvasive bunch duration monitoring has a crucial importance for modern accelerators intended for short wavelength FEL's, colliders and in some beam dynamics experiments. Monitoring of the bunch compression in the Emittance Exchange Experiment at the A0 Photoinjector was done using a parametric presentation of the bunch duration via Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) emitted in a dipole magnet and measured with a wideband quasi-optical Schottky Barrier Detector (SBD). The monitoring resulted in a mapping of the quadrupole parameters allowing a determination of the region of highest compression of the bunch in the sub-picosecond range. The obtained data were compared with those measured using the streak camera. A description of the technique and the results of simulations and measurements are presented and discussed in this report.

Kazakevich, G.; Davidsaver, M.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Koeth, T.; Lumpkin, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab; Jeong, Y.U.; /KAERI, Taejon; Kubarev, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF



Single molecule microscopy using focal plane illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single molecule fluorescence microscopy performed in spatially extended samples such as living cells usually suffers from a high fluorescence background. To overcome this problem we used a selective focal plane illumination instead of the conventional epi-illumination. By means of a custom made cylindrical lens system (NA 0.33) we created a light sheet with a Rayleigh length of 37 µm, a

Jörg Ritter; Werner Wendler; Ulrich Kubitscheck


Compact Color Schlieren Optical System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, rugged optical system developed for use in rainbow schlieren deflectometry. Features unobscured telescope with focal-length/aperture-width ratio of 30. Made of carefully selected but relatively inexpensive parts. All of lenses stock items. By-product of design is optical system with loose tolerances on interlens spacing. One of resulting advantages, insensitivity to errors in fabrication of optomechanical mounts. Another advantage is ability to compensate for some of unit-to-unit variations inherent in stock lenses.

Buchele, Donald R.; Griffin, Devon W.



Optical Design of a Broadband Infrared Spectrometer for Bunch Length Measurement at the Linac Coherent Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The electron pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory occur on the order of tens of femtoseconds and cannot be directly measured by conventional means. The length of the pulses can instead be reconstructed by measuring the spectrum of optical transition radiation emitted by the electrons as they move toward a conducting foil. Because the emitted radiation occurs in the mid-infrared from 0.6 to 30 microns a novel optical layout is required. Using a helium-neon laser with wavelength 633 nm, a series of gold-coated off-axis parabolic mirrors were positioned to direct a beam through a zinc selenide prism and to a focus at a CCD camera for imaging. Constructing this layout revealed a number of novel techniques for reducing the aberrations introduced into the system by the off-axis parabolic mirrors. The beam had a recorded radius of less than a millimeter at its final focus on the CCD imager. This preliminary setup serves as a model for the spectrometer that will ultimately measure the LCLS electron pulse duration.

Williams, Kiel; /SLAC



112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission systems with reach lengths enabled by optical fibers with ultra-low loss and very large effective area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steadily increasing data traffic gives rise to increasing capacity requirements in optical communication networks. It is well understood that systems with higher symbol rates and/or multi-level modulation formats generally demand higher optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) at the receiver to achieve acceptable system performance. In terms of the optical fiber medium, higher OSNR can be attained by lowering fiber loss and reducing fiber nonlinearity. We review several recent experimental investigations of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission with reach-length results enabled by the use of optical fibers with ultra-low loss and very large effective area.

Downie, John D.



Focal shift in tightly focused Laguerre-Gaussian beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nonparaxial propagation behavior of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams under the tight focusing condition by using the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integrals. We obtain an analytical formula and show the focal shift with respect to the geometric focus of a high numerical-aperture objective. An analytical expression for the focal shift of a tightly focused LG beam increases with the focal length while decreases with the beam waist. This approach can be extended to deal with the tight focusing field and the focal shift of LG vector fields with space-variant polarization distributions or other focusing behaviors such as the 4? focusing and the Fresnel zone plates.

Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Qian, Sheng-Xia; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian



Profile reconstruction of grazing-incidence x-ray mirrors from intra-focal x-ray full imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optics of a number of future X-ray telescopes will have very long focal lengths (10 - 20 m), and will consist of a number of nested/stacked thin, grazing-incidence mirrors. The optical quality characterization of a real mirror can be obtained via profile metrology, and the Point Spread Function of the mirror can be derived via one of the standard computation methods. However, in practical cases it can be difficult to access the optical surfaces of densely stacked mirror shells, after they have been assembled, using the widespread metrological tools. For this reason, the assessment of the imaging resolution of a system of mirrors is better obtained via a direct, full-illumination test in X-rays. If the focus cannot be reached, an intra-focus test can be performed, and the image can be compared with the simulation results based on the metrology, if available. However, until today no quantitative information was extracted from a full-illumination, intra-focal exposure. In this work we show that, if the detector is located at an optimal distance from the mirror, the intensity variations of the intra-focal, full-illumination image in single reflection can be used to reconstruct the profile of the mirror surface, without the need of a wavefront sensor. The Point Spread Function can be subsequently computed from the reconstructed mirror shape. We show the application of this method to an intra-focal (8 m distance from mirror) test performed at PANTER on an optical module prototype made of hot-slumped glass foils with a 20 m focal length, from which we could derive an expected imaging quality near 16 arcsec HEW.

Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Burwitz, V.; Civitani, M.; Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Hartner, G.; Menz, B.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, Laura; Salmaso, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wille, E.



Focal vibration in neurorehabilitation.  


During the last decade, many studies have been carried out to understand the effects of focal vibratory stimuli at various levels of the central nervous system and to study pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders as well as the therapeutic effects of focal vibration in neurorehabilitation. This review aimed to describe the effects of focal vibratory stimuli in neurorehabilitation including the neurological diseases or disorders like stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's' disease and dystonia. In conclusion, focal vibration stimulation is well tolerated, effective and easy to use, and it could be used to reduce spasticity, to promote motor activity and motor learning within a functional activity, even in gait training, independent from etiology of neurological pathology. Further studies are needed in the future well-designed trials with bigger sample size to determine the most effective frequency, amplitude and duration of vibration application in the neurorehabilitation. PMID:24842220

Murillo, N; Valls-Sole, J; Vidal, J; Opisso, E; Medina, J; Kumru, H



Active optical zoom system.  


In this work, we propose an active optical zoom system. The zoom module of the system is formed by a liquid lens and a spatial light modulator (SLM). By controlling the focal lengths of the liquid lens and the encoded digital lens on the SLM panel, we can change the magnification of an image without mechanical moving parts and keep the output plane stationary. The magnification can change from 1/3 to 3/2 as the focal length of the encoded lens on the SLM changes from infinity to 24 cm. The proposed active zoom system is simple and flexible, and has widespread application in optical communications, imaging systems, and displays. PMID:25402905

Wang, Di; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Shen, Chuan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Chun-Mei



SNAP Focal Plane  

E-print Network

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation -- visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders -- share one common focal plane.

M. Lampton; C. J. Bebek; for the SNAP Collaboration



The design of a stepper motor control-based high-precision varifocal imaging optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study, while introducing the theories and makeup of conventional cam varifocal system, indicates the two faults stemming from their inherent mechanism and potentiometer-based focal-length measurement: 1) inability to stop optic axis vibration and 2) considerable error in real-time output of focal-length value. As a result, a stepper motor, instead of cam mechanism, was employed to control mirrors of variofocus and mirrors of compensation in moving accurately along straight-ling rails so that continuous focal-length variation and surface image positioning were accomplished; a linear encoder was substituted for potentiometer in realizing real-time output of focal-length value and also in closed-loop control of stepper motor. Compared with the cam mechanism, this system provides 90% less vibration and 80% more positioning precision, thereby basically solving the problems of the cam system and enabling the high-precision angular measurement.

Xiang, Bai



National Ignition Facility Focal Spot Size Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve ignition on NIF, our point design requires 430 TW and 1.3 MJ of 0.35 m laser light. The nominal focal spot is a 500x1000 micron ellipse, produced with a kinoform phase plate. The specific shape of the achievable spot depends on the quality of the optics in the laser and on nonlinear optical effects. If the spots are

Stephen Pollaine; S. Haan; J. Rothenberg; S. Dixit; B. MacGowan; L. Suter; W. Williams



The design and application of large area intensive lens array focal spots measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) modules are getting thinner and using smaller cells now days. Correspondingly, large area intensive lens arrays with smaller unit dimension and shorter focal length are wanted. However, the size and power center of lens array focal spots usually differ from the design value and are hard to measure, especially under large area situation. It is because the machining error and deformation of material of the lens array are hard to simulate in the optical design process. Thus the alignment error between solar cells and focal spots in the module assembly process will be hard to control. Under this kind of situation, the efficiency of CPV module with thinner body and smaller cells is much lower than expected. In this paper, a design of large area lens array focal spots automatic measurement system is presented, as well as its prototype application results. In this system, a four-channel parallel light path and its corresponding image capture and process modules are designed. These modules can simulate focal spots under sunlight and have the spots image captured and processed using charge coupled devices and certain gray level algorithm. Thus the important information of focal spots such as spot size and location will be exported. Motion control module based on grating scale signal and interval measurement method are also employed in this system in order to get test results with high speed and high precision on large area lens array no less than 1m×0.8m. The repeatability of the system prototype measurement is +/-10?m with a velocity of 90 spot/min. Compared to the original module assembled using coordinates from optical design, modules assembled using data exported from the prototype is 18% higher in output power, reaching a conversion efficiency of over 31%. This system and its design can be used in the focal spot measurement of planoconvex lens array and Fresnel lens array, as well as other kinds of large area lens array application with small focal spots.

Chen, Bingzhen; Yao, Shun; Yang, Guanghui; Dai, Mingchong; Wang, Zhiyong



CLAES focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer for the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite uses solid-state focal plane arrays to detect emission from the earth's atmosphere over the IR wavelength range 3.5 to 13 microns. This paper discusses the design of the focal plane detector assembly and compares calculated performance with measurements. Measurements were made of focal plane noise and responsivity as functions of frequency (2 to 500 Hz) and temperature (12 to 19 K), pixel-to-pixel and across-array crosstalk, and linearity over a dynamic range of 100,000. The measurements demonstrate that the arrays satisfy the science requirements, and that, in general, there is reasonable agreement between the measurements and the analytical model.

Roche, A. E.; Sterritt, L. W.; Kumer, J. B.; Callary, P. C.; Nielsen, R. L.


Atom optical shop testing of electrostatic lenses using an atom interferometer Ivan Hromada1  

E-print Network

Atom optical shop testing of electrostatic lenses using an atom interferometer Ivan Hromada1 of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA (Dated: December 5, 2013) We used an atom interferometer for atom optical shop testing of lenses for atomic de Broglie waves. We measured focal lengths and spherical

Cronin, Alex D.


MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.



Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.



SNAP focal plane  

SciTech Connect

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.



Effect of conjugation length on nonlinear optical parameters of anthraquinone dyes investigated using He-Ne laser operating in CW mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the studies on third-order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting of anthraquinone dyes. Z-scan technique was employed to evaluate the nonlinear parameters such as nonlinear absorption coefficient ?eff and nonlinear index of refraction n2. Continuous wave He-Ne laser was used as the source of excitation. The estimated values of ?eff, n2 and ?(3) are of the order of 10-3 cm/W, 10-5 esu and 10-7 esu respectively. The presence of donor and acceptor groups in the structure results in increase in conjugation length. This resulted in the enhancement of nonlinear optical parameters values of the dye. Multiple diffraction rings were observed when the samples were exposed to laser beam due to thermal lensing. Dyes exhibited good optical limiting behavior under the experimental conditions. The results indicate that the dyes investigated here are materialise as candidates for photonics device applications such as optical power limiters.

Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.



A unique, accurate LWIR optics measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact low-cost LWIR test station has been developed that provides real time MTF testing of IR optical systems and EO imaging systems. The test station is intended to be operated by a technician and can be used to measure the focal length, blur spot size, distortion, and other metrics of system performance. The challenges and tradeoffs incorporated into this instrumentation will be presented. The test station performs the measurement of an IR lens or optical system's first order quantities (focal length, back focal length) including on and off-axis imaging performance (e.g., MTF, resolution, spot size) under actual test conditions to enable the simulation of their actual use. Also described is the method of attaining the needed accuracies so that derived calculations like focal length (EFL = image shift/tan(theta)) can be performed to the requisite accuracy. The station incorporates a patented video capture technology and measures MTF and blur characteristics using newly available lowcost LWIR cameras. This allows real time determination of the optical system performance enabling faster measurements, higher throughput and lower cost results than scanning systems. Multiple spectral filters are also accommodated within the test stations which facilitate performance evaluation under various spectral conditions.

Fantone, Stephen D.; Orband, Daniel G.



Solid-state curved focal plane arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)



Incidental focal acantholytic dyskeratosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Focal acantholytic dyskeratosis is a distinctive histologic pattern characterized by (1) suprabasilar clefts around preserved papillae, (2) acantholytic and dyskeratotic cells at all levels of the epidermis, and (3) hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. These histologic changes have been observed as an incidental finding in a variety of skin lesions. Objective: Our purpose was to identify the lesions associated with incidental

Dominick J. M. DiMaio; Philip R. Cohen



Beam control for LINC-NIRVANA: from the binocular entrance pupil to the combined focal plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. To meet the tight requirements that result from long exposure interferometric imaging over a large field of view, active control beyond fringe tracking and adaptive optics has to be in place in the telescope and in the instrument domain. The incoming beams of the binocular telescope have to be controlled along the entire optical path, from the entrance pupil to the combined focal plane. The beams have to coincide in the focal plane of the science detector, their pointing origins, offsets, orientations, plate scales, and distortions have to match each other and must not change during the observation. Non-common path effects between AO and science channel, flexure and thermal effects have to be compensated and offioading requests from the adaptive optics and fringe tracking systems have to be arbitrated without introducing unwanted optical path length differences or changes in the geometry of the binocular entrance pupil. Beam Control aspects include pointing, co-pointing and field derotation, active optics and collimation control. In this presentation, the constraints for coherent imaging over a 1.5 arcminute field of view are discussed together with a concept for a distributed control scheme.

Bertram, T.; Trowitzsch, J.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.



Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera  

SciTech Connect

Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC



Passive Thermal Compensation of the Optical Bench of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer is an orbiting space telescope that will collect information on star formation by observing galaxies and stars in ultraviolet wavelengths. The optical bench supporting detectors and related optical components used an interesting and unusual passive thermal compensation technique to accommodate thermally-induced focal length changes in the optical system. The proposed paper will describe the optical bench thermal compensation design including concept, analysis, assembly and testing results.

Ford, Virginia; Parks, Rick; Coleman, Michelle



MWIR and LWIR Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array has been demonstrated with excellent imagery. MWIR focal plane has given noise equivalent differential temperature (NETD) of 19 mK at 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and LWIR focal plane has given NEDT of 13 mK at 70K operating temperature with same optical and background conditions as MWIR array. Both of these focal plane arrays have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures with the same optics and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss their performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability.

Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Thang, J.; Mumolo, Jason; Tidrow, M.; LeVan, P. D.; Hill, C.



Formation of multiple focal spots using a high NA lens with a complex spiral phase mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of a transversally polarized beam by transmitting a tightly focused double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a complex spiral phase mask and high numerical aperture lens is presented based on vector diffraction theory. The generation of transversally polarized focal spot segment splitting and multiple focal spots is illustrated numerically. Moreover, we found that a properly designed complex spiral phase mask can move the focal spots along the optical axis in the z direction. Therefore, one can achieve a focal segment of two, three or multiple completely transversely polarized focal spots, which finds applications in optical trapping and in material processing technologies.

Lalithambigai, K.; Anbarasan, P. M.; Rajesh, K. B.



[National IHR Focal Point].  


Changing world and occurrence of new emerging disease and pathogens produce a great need of not only of a good laboratory and surveillance capacity but also good ways and channels of international communication. International Health Regulations (2005) oblige both WHO and state-parties to create a new elements in their surveillance and respond structures. To maintain a good communication in urgent situations WHO was oblige to designate a 6 WHO IHR Contacts Points in their Regional Offices and each country--IHR state-party had to designate or nominate National IHR Focal Point. This article describe functions and obligations of National IHR Focal Point with especially functionality of IHR NFP in Poland. PMID:19522243

Kicman-Gaw?owska, Agnieszka



SNAP focal plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation -- visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph,

Michael L. Lampton; Christopher Bebek; Carl W. Akerlof; Greg Aldering; R. Amanullah; Pierre Astier; E. Barrelet; Lars Bergstrom; John Bercovitz; Gary M. Bernstein; Manfred Bester; Alain Bonissent; C. R. Bower; William C. Carithers Jr.; Eugene D. Commins; C. Day; Susana E. Deustua; Richard S. DiGennaro; Anne Ealet; Richard S. Ellis; Mikael Eriksson; Andrew Fruchter; Jean-Francois Genat; Gerson Goldhaber; Ariel Goobar; Donald E. Groom; Stewart E. Harris; Peter R. Harvey; Henry D. Heetderks; Steven E. Holland; Dragan Huterer; Armin Karcher; Alex G. Kim; William F. Kolbe; B. Krieger; R. Lafever; J. Lamoureux; Michael E. Levi; Daniel S. Levin; Eric V. Linder; Stewart C. Loken; Roger Malina; R. Massey; Timothy McKay; Steven M. McKee; Ramon Miquel; E. Moertsell; N. Mostek; Stuart Mufson; J. A. Musser; Peter E. Nugent; Hakeem M. Oluseyi; Reynald Pain; Nicholas P. Palaio; David H. Pankow; Saul Perlmutter; R. Pratt; Eric Prieto; Alexandre Refregier; J. Rhodes; Kem E. Robinson; N. Roe; Michael Sholl; Michael S. Schubnell; G. Smadja; George F. Smoot; Anthony Spadafora; Gregory Tarle; Andrew D. Tomasch; H. von der Lippe; D. Vincent; J.-P. Walder; Guobin Wang



SNAP focal plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star

Michael L. Lampton; A. Kim; C. W. Akerlof; G. Aldering; R. Amanullah; P. Astier; E. Barrelet; C. Bebek; L. Bergstrom; J. Berkovitz; G. Bernstein; M. Bester; A. Bonissent; C. Bower; W. C. Carithers Jr; E. D. Commins; C. Day; S. E. Deustua; R. DiGennaro; A. Ealet; R. S. Ellis; M. Eriksson; A. Fruchter; J.-F. Genat; G. Goldhaber; A. Goobar; D. Groom; S. E. Harris; P. R. Harvey; H. D. Heetderks; S. E. Holland; D. Huterer; A. Karcher; W. Kolbe; B. Krieger; R. Lafever; J. Lamoureux; M. E. Levi; D. S. Levin; E. V. Linder; S. C. Loken; R. Malina; R. Massey; T. McKay; S. P. McKee; R. Miquel; E. Mortsell; N. Mostek; S. Mufson; J. Musser; P. Nugent; H. Oluseyi; R. Pain; N. Palaio; D. Pankow; S. Perlmutter; R. Pratt; E. Prieto; A. Refregier; J. Rhodes; K. Robinson; N. Roe; M. Sholl; M. Schubnell; G. Smadja; G. Smoot; A. Spadafora; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch; H. von der Lippe; R. Vincent; J.-P. Walder; G. Wang



Dense pattern optical multipass cell  


A multiple pass optical cell and method comprising providing a pair of opposed cylindrical mirrors having curved axes with substantially equal focal lengths, positioning an entrance hole for introducing light into the cell and an exit hole for extracting light from the cell, wherein the entrance hole and exit hole are coextensive or non-coextensive, introducing light into the cell through the entrance hole, and extracting light from the cell through the exit hole.

Silver, Joel A [Santa Fe, NM



Dense Pattern Optical Multipass Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple pass optical cell and method comprising providing a pair of opposed cylindrical mirrors having curved axes with substantially equal focal lengths, positioning an entrance hole for introducing light into the cell and an exit hole for extracting light from the cell, wherein the entrance hole and exit hole are coextensive or non-coextensive, introducing light into the cell through the entrance hole, and extracting light from the cell through the exit hole.

Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)



January 1, 2005 / Vol. 30, No. 1 / OPTICS LETTERS 23 Optimal span length in high-speed transmission systems with  

E-print Network

of a high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and few nonlinear impairments. Yariv demonstrated1 that the highest OSNR of an ideal optically amplified system is obtained for a transmission system that produces significantly im- proves the link's OSNR. The margins released can then be used for extending the transmission

Turitsyn, Sergei K.


Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis  

PubMed Central

As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J



Repetition rate increase and diffraction-limited focal spots for a nonthermal-equilibrium 100-TW Nd:glass laser chain by use of adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic wave-front correction is applied before each shot on a 100-TW, 30-J/300-fs high-power laser facility by use of an adaptive-optics system. This system allows us to increase the repetition rate of high-energy lasers while maintaining excellent and constant beam focusability with a Strehl ratio of >0.75 despite the amplifiers' not being in thermal equilibrium. The best results in terms of the highest Strehl ratio and intensities are obtained when locking the system on wave-front sensing after pulse recompression.

Wattellier, B.; Fuchs, J.; Zou, J. P.; Abdeli, K.; Pépin, H.; Haefner, C.



Repetition rate increase and diffraction-limited focal spots for a nonthermal-equilibrium 100-TW Nd:glass laser chain by use of adaptive optics.  


Dynamic wave-front correction is applied before each shot on a 100-TW, 30-J/300-fs high-power laser facility by use of an adaptive-optics system. This system allows us to increase the repetition rate of high-energy lasers while maintaining excellent and constant beam focusability with a Strehl ratio of >0.75 despite the amplifiers' not being in thermal equilibrium. The best results in terms of the highest Strehl ratio and intensities are obtained when locking the system on wave-front sensing after pulse recompression. PMID:15584272

Wattellier, B; Fuchs, J; Zou, J P; Abdeli, K; Pépin, H; Haefner, C



Test chamber for low-background IR focal plane testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique and versatile vacuum chamber has been designed for JPL's IR Focal Plane Technology Group. This chamber is equipped with multiple ports for cryogen and electrical vacuum feedthroughs, pumping units, vacuum gages, sources, and detector camera heads. The design incorporates a liquid-nitrogen-cooled optical table and radiation shield for low-background IR detector testing. Focal planes can be tested at temperatures ranging from 300 K to that of liquid helium. This paper describes the design and construction of this low-background IR focal plane test chamber and discusses some of its distinctive features. An analysis of the test chamber's performance is also presented.

Staller, Craig; Capps, Richard W.; Butler, Douglas; Moss, Nancy; Norwood, Wynn



Theoretical and experimental analysis of basic parameters of two-element optical systems.  


Our work presents detailed theoretical analysis of two-element optical systems of telephoto lenses and objectives of anallactic telescopes with internal focusing. The first element of such systems has positive optical power and the second element has negative optical power. This type of optical system is widespread in practice mainly in the field of photographic lenses and in surveying instruments (theodolites, leveling instruments, etc.) where the anallactic telescope with internal focusing is being used. In our work we propose methods to determine the basic parameters of such objectives, i.e., the focal lengths of both the elements of the objective lens and their mutual axial separation. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of aberration properties of such optical systems is performed and methods for measuring the focal lengths of individual elements and their mutual distance without the need for disassembling the investigated optical system are presented. PMID:23089783

Mikš, Antonín; Novák, Pavel



2X optical digital zoom lens with short total length and extremely small front aperture for two-million-pixel CMOS on mobile phones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2X Optical Zoom lenses on compact mobile phone are nowadays increasingly demanded but few samples with 2X optical zoom function have succeeded in being compactable with very thin mobile phones, especially when more than two million pixels CCD or CMOS are involved. Most mobile phone designers are reluctant to increase the thickness of mobile phones to accommodate the 2X optical zoom lens or to redesign the whole mobile phone to fit a lens with a large front diameter into the right place. In this paper, a newly designed 2X Zoom lens with an extremely small front diameter is proposed for mobile phones offering two million pixels because the aperture stop is at the first element of this 2X optical zoom lens. Additionally, its total overall length is reduced to something reasonably small compared with that of current mobile phone systems with two million CMOS pixels. The result is that its MTF (modulation transfer function) and other aspects of performance meet the requirements of an optical zoom lens with two million pixels CMOS.

Fang, Yi-Chin; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chien, Yu-Han; Wu, Wen-Yi; Hu, Chao-Chang; Su, Han-Wei



Oral focal mucinosis: case report  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an uncommon disease of unknown aetiology. It is considered to be the oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis and cutaneous myxoid cyst and it is characterized by a focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue. A preoperative diagnosis is almost impossible, and the clinical suspicion, usually made by exclusion, must be confirmed by a bioptic examination followed by histological observations. The Authors report a case of focal oral mucinosis diagnosed and treated in a male adult patient. PMID:23285343




Transformation optics designed general optical Luneburg lens with flattened shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the conventional lens design suffers from the aberration, which will lead to imperfect imaging. One way to solve this problem is to use gradient index (GRIN) lenses such as Luneburg lens. However, the spherical geometry of Luneburg lens imposes difficulty for manufacturing. Also, it is desired to design the Luneburg lens with arbitrary focal length. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose to apply the transformation optics techniques to the general Luneburg lens design. In this way, the spherical lens surface will be transformed to flattened shapes, which can be practically fabricated on a flat substrate. Specifically, three-dimensional (3D) Luneburg lenses with different focal lengths will be studied. Moreover, discussion on the fabrications of proposed lens has been included. It is desired to ensure that the modified design lies within the available material properties of various polymer photoresists.

Arigong, Bayaner; Ohlinger, Kris; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Lin, Yuankun; Zhang, Hualiang



A combined electron beam/optical lithography process step for the fabrication of sub-half-micron-gate-length MMIC chips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced radar and communication systems rely heavily on state-of-the-art microelectronics. Systems such as the phased-array radar require many transmit/receive (T/R) modules which are made up of many millimeter wave - microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's). The heart of a MMIC chip is the Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) field-effect transistor (FET). The transistor gate length is the critical feature that determines the operating frequency of the radar system. A smaller gate length will typically result in a higher frequency. In order to make a phased array radar system economically feasible, manufacturers must be capable of producing very large quantities of small-gate-length MMIC chips at a relatively low cost per chip. This requires the processing of a large number of wafers with a large number of chips per wafer, minimum processing time, and a very high chip yield. One of the bottlenecks in the fabrication of MIMIC chips is the transistor gate definition. The definition of sub-half-micron gates for GaAs-based field-effect transistors is generally performed by direct-write electron beam lithography (EBL). Because of the throughput limitations of EBL, the gate-layer fabrication is conventionally divided into two lithographic processes where EBL is used to generate the gate fingers and optical lithography is used to generate the large-area gate pads and interconnects. As a result, two complete sequences of resist application, exposure, development, metallization and lift-off are required for the entire gate structure. We have baselined a hybrid process, referred to as EBOL (electron beam/optical lithography), in which a single application of a multi-level resist is used for both exposures. The entire gate structure, (gate fingers, interconnects and pads), is then formed with a single metallization and lift-off process. The EBOL process thus retains the advantages of the high-resolution E-beam lithography and the high throughput of optical lithography while essentially eliminating an entire lithography/metallization/lift-off process sequence. This technique has been proven to be reliable for both trapezoidal and mushroom gates and has been successfully applied to metal-semiconductor and high-electron-mobility field-effect transistor (MESFET and HEMT) wafers containing devices with gate lengths down to 0.10 micron and 75 x 75 micron gate pads. The yields and throughput of these wafers have been very high with no loss in device performance. We will discuss the entire EBOL process technology including the multilayer resist structure, exposure conditions, process sensitivities, metal edge definition, device results, comparison to the standard gate-layer process, and its suitability for manufacturing.

Sewell, James S.; Bozada, Christopher A.



Precision evaluation of lens systems using a nodal slide/MTF optical bench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, self-contained production instrument designed to permit the rapid and precise performance characterization of a wide variety of lenses and optical systems has been developed by Eidolon Corporation. The Eidolon Production Nodal Slide/MTF Measurement System can be used to measure effective focal length (EFL), distortion, field curvature, chromatic aberration, spot size, and modulation transfer function (MTF).

Doherty, Victor J.; Chapnik, Philip D.



Derivation of regional aerodynamic roughness length by combining optical remote sensing and ground measurements over agricultural land in Heihe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information of temporal and spatial variation of aerodynamic roughness length is required in most land surface models. The current research presents a practical approach for determining spatially distributed vegetation aerodynamic roughness length with fine temporal and spatial resolution by combining remote sensing and ground measurements. The basic framework of Raupach (1992), with the bulk surface parameters revised by Jasinski et al. (2005) has been applied to optical remote sensing data of HJ-1A/1B missions. In addition, a method for estimating regional scale vegetation height was introduced, so the aerodynamic roughness length, which is more preferred by users than the height normalized form has been developed. Direct validation on different vegetation classes have finally been performed taking advantage of the data-dense field experiments of Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER). The roughness model had an overall good performance on most of Eddy Covariance sites of HiWATER. However, deviations still existed on different sites, and these have been further analyzed.

Chen, Qiting; Jia, Li; Hutjes, Ronald



Megapixel Multi-band QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mid-wavelength 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QW) focal plane array has been demonstrated with excellent imagery. Noise equivalent differential temperature (NETD) of 19 mK was achieved at 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background. This focal plane array has shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K operating temperature with the same optics and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss its performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Rafo, S. B.; Hill, C.; Mumolo, J.; Thang, J.; Tidrow, M.; LeVan, P. D.



OPO performance with a long pulse length, single frequency Nd:YAG laser pump. [Optical Parametric Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of new nonlinear materials and single-frequency pump sources, there is renewed interest in optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). A single-mode diode-laser-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG nonplanar ring laser that is both amplified and frequency doubled is used to pump a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 pulsed singly resonant OPO. The OPO signal output was temperature tuned from 834 to 958 nm, producing an idler tuning from 1.47 to 1.2 microns. Efforts toward a CW all-solid-state doubly resonant OPO are also described.

Kozlovsky, W. J.; Gustafson, E. K.; Eckardt, R. C.; Byer, R. L.



Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

Clark, Natalie



Ultra-low-loss optical fiber enabling purely passive 10 Gb/s PON systems with 100 km length.  


We demonstrate time division multiplexing (TDM) and wavelength division multiplexing/TDM (WDM/TDM) long reach 10 Gb/s passive optical network (PON) architectures of 100 km reach with no infield amplification or dispersion compensation. The purely passive nature of the 100 km systems is enabled by the use of ultra-low-loss optical fiber with average attenuation of 0.17 dB/km and downstream transmission with a 10 Gb/s signal modulated with the duobinary format. The high tolerance of duobinary to dispersion, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), and self-phase modulation (SPM) are all key factors to achieving good system performance at this distance, as is the significantly reduced loss from the ultra-low-loss fiber. We show that this combination of fiber and downstream signal format allow split ratios up to 1:128 for both system architectures. The achievable split ratio is reduced for standard single-mode fiber and/or use of an NRZ modulated downstream signal. Standard strength forward error correction (FEC) is used for the WDM/TDM system but is not required for the TDM system. PMID:19219143

Downie, John D; Ruffin, A Boh; Hurley, Jason



Length-dependent change of optical, magnetic, and vibrational properties of vanadate (V(IV)O3(2-)) quantum wire embedded in AM-6 vanadosilicate.  


AM-6 and VSH-1 are vanadosilicates containing VO(3)(2-) quantum wires and oxovanadate [O?VO(4)](2-) quantum dots, respectively. We developed methods to synthesize pure, highly crystalline, monodisperse, and all-V(IV) AM-6 and VSH-1 crystals with sizes between 0.2-0.3 and 10 ?m. On the basis of their optical, magnetic susceptibility, vibrational, and electron spin resonance (ESR) properties, we have elucidated the following interesting phenomena. The length of the VO(3)(2-) quantum wire (l) linearly increases as the length along the [110] direction {L([110])} increases. The band gap energy (E(g)) of the VO(3)(2-) quantum wire progressively decreases with increasing l even when it reaches ~210 nm, indicating that the Bohr length (the length at which the quantum confinement effect no longer appears) is longer than 200 nm. The deduced ?(z) and ?(xy) are 0.0005m(e) and 15.7m(e), respectively. Per-V(IV)-ion oscillator strength of the d-d transition increases by 7-9 times and that of CT transition increases by 1.5-1.9 times with increasing l from ~50 to 210 nm (by ~4 times). The longitudinal vibration frequency ? of the VO(3)(2-) quantum wire decreases and the intensity of the vibrational band increases as l increases. The ESR intensity increases while the peak-to-peak width decreases as l increases, indicating that the spin-spin relaxation rate (R(ssr)) decreases as l increases. The magnetic susceptibility ? decreases as l increases, especially at T > 125 K, indicating that the tendency of the d(1) electron spins to orient to the external magnetic field decreases with increasing l. PMID:23009119

Datta, Shuvo Jit; Yoon, Kyung Byung



Standard Length versus Total Length  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to determine the length measurement most representative of the bulk of the fish, the standard length and the total length were each compared with the weight of the fish. This comparison was made for four species of game fish, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), wall-eyed pike (Stizostedion v. vitreum), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and lake trout (Cristivomer n.

William F. Royce



Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)



Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings  

SciTech Connect

A method for optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by surface gratings is proposed. In our proposed method, the period of each surface grating is chirped so that the radiation fields of surface plasmon polaritons can be controlled to make a beam spot at the desired focal length. Through our proposed method, it is numerically shown that we can make a beam spot which is located at the several times of wavelength distance from the slit, and its focal length can be controlled.

Kim, Seyoon; Lim, Yongjun; Kim, Hwi; Park, Junghyun; Lee, Byoungho [National Creative Research Center for Active Plasmonics Application Systems, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center and School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Gu Sillim-Dong, Seoul 151-774 (Korea, Republic of)



Analysis of the shape of a subwavelength focal spot for the linearly polarized light.  


By decomposing a linearly polarized light field in terms of plane waves, the elliptic intensity distribution across the focal spot is shown to be determined by the E-vector's longitudinal component. Considering that the Poynting vector's projection onto the optical axis (power flux) is independent of the E-vector's longitudinal component, the power flux cross section has a circular form. Using a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) with a small-aperture metal tip, we show that a glass zone plate (ZP) having a focal length of one wavelength focuses a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into a weak ellipse with the Cartesian axis diameters FWHM(x)=(0.44±0.02)? and FWHM(y)=(0.52±0.02)? and the (depth of focus) DOF=(0.75±0.02)?, where ? is the incident wavelength. The comparison of the experimental and simulation results suggests that NSOM with a hollow pyramidal aluminum-coated tip (with 70° apex and 100 nm diameter aperture) measures the transverse intensity, rather than the power flux or the total intensity. The conclusion that the small-aperture metal tip measures the transverse intensity can be inferred from the Bethe-Bouwkamp theory. PMID:23338178

Kotlyar, Victor V; Stafeev, Sergey S; Liu, Yikun; O'Faolain, Liam; Kovalev, Alexey A



Length scales and structural dynamics in nematogen pseudonematic domains measured with 2D IR vibrational echoes and optical Kerr effect experiments.  


Nematogen liquids in the isotropic phase are macroscopically homogeneous but on multinanometer length scales have pseudonematic domains with correlation lengths that grow as the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature (TNI) is approached from above. Orientational relaxation of nematogens in the isotropic phase manifests as two fast power laws and a slow exponential decay when measured by optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments. The long time exponential relaxation is associated with complete randomization of pseudonematic domains. We examine the effect of local orientational correlation on spectral diffusion (structural evolution) experienced by a vibrational probe molecule within the pseudonematic domains of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. The addition of low concentration 4-pentyl-4'-thiocyanobiphenyl (5SCB) as a long-lived vibrational probe to 5CB is shown to lower TNI of the sample slightly, but the fast power law dynamics and exponential decays observed by OHD-OKE spectroscopy are unchanged. We compare the complete orientational relaxation and spectral diffusion for samples of 5SCB in 5CB to 5SCB in 4-pentylbiphenyl (5B) at four temperatures above TNI. 5B has a molecular structure similar to 5CB but is not a nematogen. At all but the lowest temperature, the spectral diffusion in 5CB and 5B is described well as a triexponential decay with very similar time constants. The results demonstrate that the presence of local orientational order at temperatures well above TNI does not affect the spectral diffusion (structural evolution) within pseudonematic domains when the correlation lengths are short. However, when the temperature of the sample is held very close to TNI, the spectral diffusion in 5CB slows dramatically while that in 5B does not. It is only as the correlation length becomes very long that its presence impacts the spectral diffusion (structural fluctuations) sensed by the vibrational probes located in pseudonematic domains. The orientational relaxation is modeled with schematic mode coupling theory (MCT). Fitting with MCT provides density and orientational correlation functions. The density correlation decays are similar for 5B and 5CB, but the orientational correlation decays are much slower for 5CB. Additionally, the time dependence of the spectral diffusion in 5CB is strikingly similar to that of the density correlation function decay, while the orientational correlation function decay is far too slow to contribute to the spectral diffusion. Therefore, density fluctuations are likely the source of spectral diffusion at temperatures at least 5 K above TNI. PMID:24521155

Sokolowsky, Kathleen P; Bailey, Heather E; Fayer, Michael D



Focal Myositis in paediatric age  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Focal Myositis is a rare pseudotumor of unknown aetiology that is often difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically afflicting people in adulthood, it has occasionally been reported also among children. Purpose: the aim of this study is to review the literature of Focal Myositis in paediatric age in order to compare the clinical manifestation and the various treatment suggested by different authors. Methods: this article describes a 6-year-old boy with focal myositis in gracilis muscle successfully treated by conservative methods, including nocturnal leg traction, intensive physiokinesi therapy and articulated knee orthosis guided to progressive extension. Furthermore a systematic review of literature concerning focal myositis in paediatric age is reported. Conclusion: our case and the review of literature suggests that conservative methods should be the first-choice treatment for FM in paediatric age and that surgery should be strictly reserved for selected cases where non-invasive methods have previously failed.

Gigante, Cosimo; Corradin, Marco; Alaggio, Rita



Analytic method to optimize aperture design in focal modulation microscopy.  


Focal modulation microscopy (FMM) has been demonstrated more effective than confocal microscopy for imaging of thick biological tissues. To improve its penetration depth further, we propose a simple analytical method to enlarge the modulation depth, the unique property of FMM directly linked to its signal-to-noise ratio. The modulation depth increases as the excitation intensity of the binary phase aperture status is pushed further away from the focal region of the detection optics, thereby creating a dark region in the focal volume, which we call maximally flat crater (MFC). By direct algebraic manipulation, MFCs are achieved for both scalar and vector diffraction optics. Numerical results show that the modulation depth from MFC is very close to the maximum values, with a small difference less than 3% for the same number of subapertures. Applications of bifocus produced by MFC apertures are also discussed. PMID:24690867

Duan, Yubo; Sheppard, Colin J R; Rehman, Shakil; Chen, Nanguang



Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.



Ladybug Lengths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the measurable attribute of length and provides practice in measuring length using non-standard units. The lesson is launched using the story Ladybug on the Move by Richard Fowler. Lesson objectives, teaching ideas, and handouts are included.



The infrared focal plane instrumentation at TIRGO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two IR detectors that are being built to be used at the focal plane of the TIRGO telescope are discussed, with special attention given to the InSb Spectrophotometer and the IR Spectrometer. The Spectrophotometer, which can be used for both chopped operation and unmodulated measurements, consists of a LN2/SN2-cooled dewar containing the optics, a set of broadband filters (J, H, K, L, M, and CO), two continuous variable filters, and the InSb detector with its charge-integrating preamplifier. The IR Spectometer consists of a double-reservoir dewar containing the cooled grating with the collimating and imaging optics; the detector is a seven-element InSb array connected to seven preamplifiers. The paper also discusses the properties of integrating IR bidimensional array detectors, which are of astronomical interest for TIRGO because of their capability of recording simultaneously the light fluxes of a large number of picture elements.

Lisi, Franco


Measuring Length  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice measuring length. Play this fun game to work on length. Measure the teddy Next, practice measuring to the nearest 1/2 inch. Measure to 1/2 inches If your ready for a challenge, practice this next game: Measure to 1/4 inches Play the Fish Tales game! *Once you have played all the games, have an adult sign your planner that you practiced these games! You'll ...

Miss Lerdahl



Long wavelength infrared dual field-of-view optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For cooled 320×240 staring focal plane array (FPA), a novel long wavelength infrared dual field-of-view optical system is presented in the paper. The optical system is composed of re-imaging part and zooming part. The parameters of the system are 1.96 f/number, 100% cold shield efficiency, 180mm/60mm effective focal length (EFL) and 8-10 ?m spectrum region. The optical system is analyzed from two modes of narrow field of view (NFOV) and wide field of view (WFOV). The system can be used in the temperature range from-30°Cand 60°C without significant degradation of optical performance. The final test results prove the designed performance is good..

Xiong, Tao; Yang, Chang-cheng



Focal shift of focused truncated Lorentz-Gauss beam.  


Based on the Collins diffraction integral formula and the complex Gaussian expansion of the aperture function, an analytical expression for a Lorentz-Gauss beam focused by an optical system with a thin lens and a circular aperture has been derived. The focal shift of the focused truncated Lorentz-Gauss beam is investigated with numerical examples, and the dependence of the focal shift on the different parameters of the focused truncated Lorentz-Gauss beam is discussed in detail. This research is useful to the applications of highly divergent laser beams. PMID:18830337

Zhou, Guoquan



High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.



DownloadedBy:[IngentaContentDistribution]At:00:0415December2007 JOURNAL OF MODERN OPTICS, 1994, VOL. 41, NO. 2, 345-351  

E-print Network

and CHARLES M . BOWDEN Weapons Sciences Directorate, AMSMI-RD-WS-ST, Research, Development, and Engineering laser accelerators and lenses of ultra-short focal lengths. 1 . Introduction Recently Scully-index material, for example, laser accelerators that require a precise control of the optical phase velocity [1

Dowling, Jonathan P.


Finger Length  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although life experience plays a huge role in shaping who we are, the foundations of our personality begin in the womb. This Science Update describes a recent study that looks to finger length for signs of a man's pre-natal exposure to testosterone.

Science Update



Microlens array based LCD projection display with software-only focal distance control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State of the art LED pico-projectors using single-channeled optical layouts are always constricted by a trade-off between achievable flux and minimum system size. Furthermore, their limited depth of focus require additional mechanically moving components for focusing if variable projection distances are essential for their specific application. We present a novel microlens-array based LCD projector breaking these constraints of conventional LED illuminated systems, thus enabling a super compact, robust and bright module while offering new features for electronic focal distance control without additional mechanical components. While the short focal length of each contributing channel maintains a certain system slimness, the superposition of all individual projections on a screen done by image-preprocessing leads to dramatic flux enhancement without blurring effects. Starting with a description of the working principle of array projection we focus on key properties regarding depth of focus for examining novel image-preprocessing algorithms that enable for only software-controlled focal distance. Further improved program code enables sharp images even onto freeform screen geometries. The realized prototype utilizes a transmissive LCD microdisplay along with a monolithic array of 45 microlenses actively aligned to the top of the display coverglass. While the display is illuminated by a collimated white LED; each channel is assigned to one primary color by applying a color filter array buried below the microlenses to obtain a full color image on the screen. The displayed image content is controlled via PC by a novel software tool, whose correct operation is verified by experimental results.

Sieler, Marcel; Schreiber, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas



Determination of carrier lifetime and diffusion length in Al-doped 4H–SiC epilayers by time-resolved optical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of p-type 4H–SiC epilayers with aluminium concentration ranging from 2? × ?1016 to 8? × ?1019?cm?3 were investigated by time-resolved optical techniques in order to determine the effect of aluminium doping on high-injection carrier lifetime at room temperature and the diffusion coefficient at different injections (from ?3? × ?1018 to ?5? × ?1019?cm?3) and temperatures (from 78 to 730?K). We find that the defect limited carrier lifetime ?SRH decreases from 20?ns in the low-doped samples down to ?0.6?ns in the heavily doped epilayers. Accordingly, the ambipolar diffusion coefficient decreases from Da = 3.5?cm2?s?1 down to ?0.6?cm2?s?1, corresponding to the hole mobility of µh = 70?cm2?Vs?1 and 12?cm2?Vs?1, respectively. In the highly doped epilayers, the injection-induced decrease of the diffusion coefficient, due to the transition from the minority carrier diffusion to the ambipolar diffusion, provided the electron diffusion coefficient of De ? 3?cm2?s?1. The Al-doping resulted in the gradual decrease of the ambipolar diffusion length, from LD = 2.7?µm down to LD = 0.25?µm in the epilayers with the lowest and highest aluminium concentrations.

Liaugaudas, Gediminas; Dargis, Donatas; Kwasnicki, Pawel; Arvinte, Roxana; Zielinski, Marcin; Jaraši?nas, K?stutis



Focal process of the great Chilean earthquake May 22, 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-period strain seismogram recorded at Pasadena is used to determine the focal process of the 1960 Chilean earthquake. Synthetic seismograms computed for various fault models are matched with the observed strain seismogram to determine the fault parameters. A low-angle (~ 10°) thrust model with rupture length of 800 km and rupture velocity of 3.5 km\\/sec is consistent with the observed

Hiroo Kanamori; John J. Cipar



Finger Length  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update explores male agression patterns and their correlation to pre-natal testosterone exposure. Although life experience plays a huge role in shaping who we are, the foundations of our personality begin in the womb. One recent study looks to finger length for signs of a man's pre-natal exposure to testosterone.n women, the index and ring finger are roughly equal in length. But in most men, the ring finger is longer. That's a result of fetal exposure to testosterone. Psychologists Alison Bailey and Pete Hurd, of the University of Alberta in Canada, studied these finger ratios in male college students. And they found that men with more dramatic differences tended to be more aggressive. Additional links to resources are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )



Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

Erfle, Stephen E.



Near-infrared optical-absorption behavior in high-beta nonlinear optical chromophore-polymer guest-host materials. II. Dye spacer length effects in an amorphous polycarbonate copolymer host.  


In the second of a three-part series, spectral absorption behavior of nonlinear optical (NLO) dyes incorporated into amorphous polycarbonate, comprised of a homologous series of dialkyl spacer groups extending from the midsection of the dye molecule, is characterized by UV-Vis and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The dyes are structural analogs of the NLO dye FTC [2-(3-cyano-4-{2-[5-(2-{4-[ethyl-(2-methoxyethyl)amino]phenyl}vinyl)-3,4-diethylthiophen-2-yl]vinyl}-5,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-ylidene)malononitrile]. Previous Monte Carlo calculations [B. H. Robinson and L. R. Dalton, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4785 (2000)] predict a strong dependence of the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibility on the chromophore waist: length aspect ratio in electric-field-poled films arising from interactions between chromophores. It is expected that these interactions will play a role in the absorption characteristics of unpoled films, as well. The spacer groups range in length from diethyl to dihexyl, and each dye is studied over a wide range of concentrations. Among the four dyes studied, a universal dependence of near-IR loss on inhomogeneous broadening of the dye main absorption peak is found. The inhomogeneous width and its concentration dependence are seen to vary with spacer length in a manner characteristic of the near-IR loss-concentration slope at transmission wavelengths of 1.06 and 1.3 mum, but not at 1.55 mum. The lower wavelength loss behavior is assigned to purely Gaussian broadening, and is described by classical mixing thermodynamic quantities based on the Marcus theory of inhomogeneous broadening [R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1261 (1965)], modeled as a convolution of dye-dye dipole broadening and dye-polymer van der Waals broadening. The Gaussian dipole interactions follow a Loring dipole-broadening description [R. F. Loring, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 513 (1990)] dominated by the excited-state dipole moment, and have a correlated homogeneous broadening contribution. The long-wavelength loss behavior has a non-Gaussian dye-dye dipole contribution which follows Kador's broadening analysis [L. Kador, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5574 (1991)], with a net broadening described by a convolution of this term with a Gaussian van der Waals interaction given by Obata et al. [M. Obata, S. Machida, and K. Horie, J. Polym. Sci. B 37, 2173 (1999)], with each term governed by the dye spacer length. A minimum in broadening and loss-concentration slope at a spacer length of four carbons per alkyl at all wavelengths has important consequences for practical waveguide devices, and is of higher aspect ratio than the spherical limit shown by Robinson and Dalton to minimize dipole interactions under a poling field. PMID:16008487

Barto, Richard R; Frank, Curtis W; Bedworth, Peter V; Ermer, Susan; Taylor, Rebecca E



SNAP satellite focal plane development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed SuperNova\\/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just

Christopher Bebek; Carl W. Akerlof; Greg Aldering; R. Amanullah; Pierre Astier; Charles Baltay; E. Barrelet; Stephane Basa; John Bercovitz; Lars Bergstrom; Gary Berstein; Manfred Bester; Ralph C. Bohlin; Alain Bonissent; Charles R. Bower; Myron Campbell; William C. Carithers Jr.; Eugene D. Commins; C. Day; Susana E. Deustua; Richard S. DiGennaro; Anne Ealet; Richard S. Ellis; William Emmett; Mikael Eriksson; D. Fouchez; Andrew Fruchter; Jean-Francois Genat; Gerson Goldhaber; Ariel Goobar; Donald E. Groom; Henry D. Heetderks; Stephen E. Holland; Dragan Huterer; William E. Johnston; Richard W. Kadel; Armin Karcher; Alex G. Kim; William F. Kolbe; Robin E. Lafever; J. I. Lamoureux; Michael L. Lampton; Oliver Le Fèvre; Michael E. Levi; Daniel S. Levin; Eric V. Linder; Stewart C. Loken; Roger Malina; Alain Mazure; Timothy A. McKay; Shawn P. McKee; Ramon Miquel; Nicholas Morgan; E. Mortsell; N. Mostek; Stuart Mufson; J. A. Musser; Natalie A. Roe; Peter E. Nugent; Hakeem M. Oluseyi; Reynald Pain; Nicholas P. Palaio; David H. Pankow; Saul Perlmutter; Eric Prieto; David Rabinowitz; Alexandre Refregier; Jason Rhodes; Michael S. Schubnell; Michael Sholl; G. Smadja; R. Smith; George F. Smoot; Jeffrey A. Snyder; Anthony Spadafora; Andrew Szymkowiak; Gregory Tarle; Keith Taylor; A. Tilquin; Andrew D. Tomasch; D. Vincent; Henrik von der Lippe; Jean-Pierre Walder; Guobin Wang



[Focal liver lesion, incidental finding].  


The differential diagnosis of incidentally found Focal Liver Lesions (FLL) is complex. Screening procedures so far are only defined for patients with liver cirrhosis. Characterization of a FLL begins as soon as it is detected. Taking patients history and thorough clinical examination are essential. An imaging procedure that is used to detect liver masses should also allow the examiner to determine whether the lesion is benign or malignant. Conventional B-mode US and colour Doppler imaging are effective at detecting and characterizing typical liver cysts and calcifications. Laboratory data, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and imaging guided liver biopsy are complementary methods.Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) is a well established diagnostic imaging technique for a variety of indications and applications. One of the most important applications is in the liver where it is frequently a first-line technique for the detection and diagnosis (characterization) of focal liver lesions (FLL). In this setting the accurate differentiation of benign from malignant lesions is critical to ensure the patient undergoes the appropriate therapeutic option. This has been documented in recently published guidelines, in particular in terms of the enhancement patterns of the most common FLL hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia hepatocellular adenoma and their differentiation from malignant lesions. In this article the role of CEUS in the characterization of incidentally found FLL is described. PMID:23033169

Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C



Novel optics/micro-optics for miniature imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The visual revolution triggered by the commercial application of digital image capturing devices generates the need for new miniaturized and cheap optical imaging systems and cameras. However, in imaging we can observe only a permanent miniaturization of elements but always similar optical principles are applied which are known to the optical designers for many decades. With the newly gained spectrum of technological capabilities it is the time to ask: Which vision principle should be used at which level of miniaturization and which technology has to be applied in order to achieve the perfectly adapted imaging system? In this paper we present an overview of two insect inspired artificial compound eye concepts for compact vision systems fabricated by lithographic technologies, one classical miniaturized objective and its wafer-scale fabrication and the use of variable focal length liquid lenses for miniaturized autofocus- and zoom objectives without moving parts.

Duparré, Jacques; Völkel, Reinhard



Focal fibrous hyperplasia: A review of 193 cases  

PubMed Central

Context: Focal fibrous hyperplasia, also known as irritation or traumatic fibroma, is a reactive, inflammatory hyperplastic lesion of the connective tissue. Aim: The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective study of a focal fibrous hyperplasia of 18 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 193 cases of focal fibrous hyperplasia of the oral cavity from the medical and histological reports of the Department of Oral Pathology, Pernambuco University, Brazil, during the period between January 1992 and December 2009. Settings and Design: Data with regard to age, gender, location, size of the lesion (equal to or less than 1 cm, between 1 and 2 cm and greater than 2 cm), pain, history of trauma, treatment, length of follow-up (from diagnosis to release or last review) and recurrence, were collected. Results: The most commonly affected site was the buccal mucosa (n = 119, 61.7%). Almost two-thirds of the cases were concentrated from the second to the fifth decade of life. Females were more affected than men and a history of trauma was related by 90.7% of the patients. Two recurrences were notified (1.0%). Conclusion: Further studies are needed on the distribution of the lesion in different ethnic and geographical populations. The influence of sex hormones on the development of focal fibrous hyperplasia must be clarified. PMID:25364187

de Santana Santos, Thiago; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; Piva, Marta Rabello; de Souza Andrade, Emanuel Sávio



Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

Rienstra, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ballard, M. [Santa Barbara Research Center, Goleta, CA (United States)



1024x1024 Pixel MWIR and LWIR QWIP Focal Plane Arrays and 320x256 MWIR:LWIR Pixel Colocated Simultaneous Dualband QWIP Focal Plane Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE(Delta)T) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NE(Delta)T of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating-temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we are in the process of developing MWIR and LWIR pixel collocated simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays.

Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Liu, John K.; Hill, Cory J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Trinh, Joseph T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; Le Van, P. D.



SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development  

SciTech Connect

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.



Focal-plane irradiance tailoring using the concept of Woofer-Tweeter deformable mirrors.  


Deformable mirror (DM) is a common-used active freeform optical element. We introduce the concept of Woofer-Tweeter DM system for controlling focal-plane irradiance profiles. We firstly determine a freeform reflective surface for transforming a given incident laser beam into the desired focal-plane irradiance distribution by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampère equation. Then, we use a low-bandwidth Woofer DM to approximate the required freeform reflective surface and a high-bandwidth Tweeter DM to compensate the residual error. Simulation results show that, compared with single DMs, the Woofer-Tweeter DM system brings the best focal-plane irradiance performances. PMID:24787776

Feng, Zexin; Huang, Lei; Gong, Mali



Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. For example, rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.



Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.



Programmable focal spot shaping of amplified femtosecond laser pulses and their application to micromachining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present programmable focal spot shaping of amplified femtosecond laser pulses by use of an optically addressed non-pixellated liquid crystal light valve. This extra-cavity phase filtering method is set-up in the frame of femtosecond micromachining processes. Various focal spot shapes are demonstrated together with drilling and marking results in metals and dielectrics. Photowriting of waveguides in bulk fused silica is also presented.

Huot, Nicolas; Sanner, Nicolas; Audouard, Eric



A design method of a compact cooled transmitted IR optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet the demand of miniaturization of multi-function EO sensor systems design, the compact infrared optical system is required. Based on the two present design method of compact cooled transmitted infrared optical system, the paper puts forward a new design idea: using the telephoto structure compress the overall length and re-imaging or multi-imaging reduce the radial diameter of optical system. A compact cooled transmitted infrared optical system, which focal length is 150mm (F#=2), is designed using this method. The cold aperture efficiency is 100% and the image quality is excellent, and the length is less than 120mm, the diameter of the first lens is less than 82mm.

Wu, Fan; Yang, Haibo; Zhu, Haibo



Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan



Focal axis resolver for offset reflector antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described are electrical means for determining the focal axis of an offset reflector antenna whose physical rim is not coincident with the boundary of the electrical aperture. Even and odd sensing functions are employed in the focal region, leading to both amplitude and phase criteria for resolving a focal axis generally inclined with respect to the system axis. The analytical aspects of the problem are discussed, and an example related to a 4-meter Large-Antenna Multiple-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR) is included. The technique is useful for focal axis determination in mathematical simulations and in the physical world.

Schmidt, R. F.



Off-axis scatter measurement of the Mars reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Optical Navigation Camera (ONC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Optical Navigation Camera (ONC) is part of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) scheduled for an August 2005 launch. The design is a 500 mm focal length, F\\/8.3 Ritchey-Chretien with a refractive field corrector. Prior to flight, the off-axis performance of the ONC was measured at visible wavelengths in the off-axis scatter facility at the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). This

John L. Stauder; Andrew E. Lowman; Dave Thiessen; Darryl Day; D. O. Miles



Acousto-optic infrared spectral imager for Pluto fast flyby  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF's) enable the design of compact, two-dimensional imaging spectrometers with high spectral and spatial resolution and with no moving parts. Tellurium dioxide AOTF's operate from about 400 nm to nearly 5 microns, and a single device will tune continuously over one octave by changing the RF acoustic frequency applied to the device. An infrared (1.2-2.5 micron) Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometer (AImS) was designed that closely conforms to the surface composition mapping objectives of the Pluto Fast Flyby. It features a 75-cm focal length telescope, infrared AOTF, and 256 x 256 NICMOS-3 focal plane array for acquiring narrowband images with a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta(lambda)) exceeding 250. We summarize the instrument design features and its expected performance at the Pluto-Charon encounter.

Glenar, D. A.; Hillman, J. J.



High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7??m, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10?×?10{sup ?7} A/cm{sup 2} at ?5?mV and 150?K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320?×?256 IC focal plane array up to 180?K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120?K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)



Optimal focal-plane restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.



Neurocysticercosis presenting as focal hydrocephalus.  


A 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache, nausea and vomiting, with generalised seizures for the past 15?days. On examination he had bilateral papilloedema, visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes but perimetry showed right homonymous inferior quadrantanopia. His MRI showed numerous small cystic lesions with eccentric nodules, diffusely distributed in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. There was also focal hydrocephalus involving occipital and temporal horns of the left lateral ventricle leading to its selective dilation. Stool examination showed ova of Taenia solium. He was treated with albendazole, prednisone and sustained release sodium valproate for 1?month. His headache resolved and he is free of seizures. Repeat perimetry at 1?month also showed resolution of visual field defect. PMID:24962486

Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Shamim, Md Dilawez; Ahmad, Mehtab; Abdali, Nasar



Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization  

PubMed Central

Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2?=?0.9548, R2?=?0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of ?0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of ?0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.



Focal Molography: Coherent Microscopic Detection of Biomolecular Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and theoretically investigate here a novel analytical method that we have called focal molography, in which molecular interactions are made visible through scattering of coherent light by a coherent pattern of molecules. The scattered light quantifies the presence of molecules at molecular interaction sites. It is separated from noncoherent background scatter by a combination of local dark-field illumination, interference enhancement, and spatial filtering. The latter is achieved by holographic focusing of the wave field generated by the coherently assembled molecules onto an Airy disk and by subtraction of the noncoherent irradiance in the focal plane outside the disk from the irradiance in the disk. This new microscopic method allows distinct detection of low-refractive-index contrast in the nanoenvironment of biomolecules from which information on the interaction of the coherently assembled molecules with molecules in a liquid or gaseous sample may be deduced. The noncoherent surroundings of the coherently assembled molecules consist of freely diffusing solvent and solute molecules. The surroundings, as well as changes in temperature, do not contribute to the coherent signal in the diffraction focus. Interference lithography or high-resolution-imaging lithography can be used to synthesize the coherent pattern of molecules on a monolithic substrate. The coherent pattern of molecules constitutes a synthetic phase hologram that creates a diffraction-limited light wave. We suggest the term "mologram" for the coherent assembly of functional nanostructures and the term "focal molography" for label-free or labeled analysis of molecular interactions through the measurement of the properties of light in the focus of the mologram. We derive analytical formulas that express the detection signal and the sensitivity of focal molography on the surface of a high-refractive-index thin-film optical waveguide in terms of known parameters. We discuss the implementation of a readout system for molograms on a thin-film optical waveguide by adapting a confocal laser-scanning microscope to a bifocal laser-scanning microscope.

Fattinger, Christof



Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.



The formation of optical membrane reflector surfaces using uniform pressure loading  

SciTech Connect

Potentially high quality optical reflector surfaces are attainable with the use of pressure formed membranes. Such reflector surfaces offer the prospect of very low weight and low cost. The formation of such surfaces, using initially flat circular membranes with uniform pressure loading, is studied in this paper. Finite axisymmetric deformations, along with both linear and nonlinear material response is considered. A wide range of focal-length-to-diameter ratios (above 0.6) are addressed and the structural/optical response mechanisms that lead to optical distortions relative to ideal parabolic reflector shapes are also considered. Results show that elastic material response can often lead to a significantly larger deviation from the ideal shape than will inelastic material response. This results primarily from the ability to limit stress nonuniformities when inelastic material response is operative. Furthermore, when under pressure loading the membrane focal length decreases monotonically with increasing radius for both linear and nonlinear material response. Further, the predicted focal length variation is increasingly nonlinear near the membrane support.

Murphy, L.M.; Tuan, C.



4 Assessment 4.1 Focal Species  

E-print Network

not distinguish between shrubsteppe habitat dominated by introduced weed species and pristine shrubsteppe habitat29 4 Assessment 4.1 Focal Species A focal species will be used to evaluate the health for the wildlife assessment. Terrestrial/Wildlife: Because terrestrial wildlife species often are wide ranging


Optical passive athermalization for infrared zoom system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an infrared zoom system, it is difficult to obtain the best thermal compensation for all effective focal length (EFL) simultaneously by moving a single lens group. According to the principle of optical passive athermalization, the equations of focal length, achromatization and athermalization of both long and short EFL are established respectively. By analyzing the thermal aberration value relations between long EFL and short EFL, the thermal aberration values of the switching groups for short EFL athermalization are calculated. Firstly, the athermalization of long EFL is designed. Then through reasonable optical materials matching of the switching groups, the short EFL achieves athermalization as well. In this paper, a re-imaging switching zoom system is designed. It has a relative aperture of f/4.0, 100% cold shield efficiency, the EFL of 180mm/30mm at 3.7-4.8?m. The long EFL includes four refractive elements and one hybrid refractive/diffractive element. The switching groups of short EFL have two types, one is composed of four refractive elements, and the other is composed of two refractive elements and one hybrid refractive/diffractive element. Both of the short EFL achieve athermalization. With the aluminum materials of system structures, the zoom system achieves optical passive athermalization. It has the diffraction limited image quality and stable image plane from -30°C to 70°C.

Li, Shenghui; Yang, Changcheng; Zheng, Jia; Lan, Ning; Xiong, Tao; Li, Yong



Embossing of optical document security devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embossing in the transparent window area of polymer banknotes, such as those seen on the Australian, New Zealand and Romanian currencies, have enormous potential for the development of novel optical security devices. The intaglio printing process can provide an efficient means for embossing of optical security structures such as micro lenses. Embossed micro lens arrays in the transparent window of a polymer banknote can be folded over a corresponding printed image array elsewhere on the note to reveal a series of moire magnified images. Analysis of samples of embossed micro lenses showed that the engraving side and impression side had a similar embossed profile. The embossed micro lens profiles were modelled using Optalix-LX commercial optical ray tracing software in order to determine the focal length of the lenses and compare with the focal length of desired embossed lenses. A fundamental understanding of how the polymer deforms during the embossing process is critical towards developing a micro lens embossing tool which can achieve the desired embossed micro lenses. This work also looks at extending the early research of the Intaglio Research Group (IRG) to better understand the embossibility of polymer substrates such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP).

Muke, Sani



Optical System Design Specification Table Author Name  

E-print Network

(line pair/mm) Distortion Field Curvature Lens System Number of elements Glass or plastic Aspheric focal length Max. diameter Max. length Weight Environment Thermal operating range Thermal survival range

Birch, Philip


Adaptive beam shaping by controlled thermal lensing in optical elements.  


We describe an adaptive optical system for use as a tunable focusing element. The system provides adaptive beam shaping via controlled thermal lensing in the optical elements. The system is agile, remotely controllable, touch free, and vacuum compatible; it offers a wide dynamic range, aberration-free focal length tuning, and can provide both positive and negative lensing effects. Focusing is obtained through dynamic heating of an optical element by an external pump beam. The system is especially suitable for use in interferometric gravitational wave interferometers employing high laser power, allowing for in situ control of the laser modal properties and compensation for thermal lensing of the primary laser. Using CO(2) laser heating of fused-silica substrates, we demonstrate a focal length variable from infinity to 4.0 m, with a slope of 0.082 diopter/W of absorbed heat. For on-axis operation, no higher-order modes are introduced by the adaptive optical element. Theoretical modeling of the induced optical path change and predicted thermal lens agrees well with measurement. PMID:17415383

Arain, Muzammil A; Quetschke, Volker; Gleason, Joseph; Williams, Luke F; Rakhmanov, Malik; Lee, Jinho; Cruz, Rachel J; Mueller, Guido; Tanner, D B; Reitze, David H



Early vision and focal attention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

Julesz, Bela



The eye of a procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus: visual fields and optical structure.  


The Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus, is a pelagic sea bird which feeds from the surface of the sea and by shallow surface and plunge dives. Visits to breeding colonies are made at night. The mononuclear retinal field of the Manx shearwater eye is 148 degrees wide and is asymmetric with respect to the optic axis. The nasal and temporal hemi-fields equal 65 and 83 degrees, respectively. The binocular field is long and narrow, and the central placement of the bill suggests that vision is used to guide the bill position during foraging. A schematic model of the shearwater eye's optical system is presented, together with reanalysed data on the optical structure in the eye of the pigeon, Columba livia. The eyes of these two species are nearly identical in axial length and overall shape, but they are of quite different optical design. The shearwater eye has a shorter focal length and higher maximum image brightness, and the ratio of corneal:lens refractive power equals 0.4 and 1.6 in pigeon and shearwater eyes, respectively. In Manx shearwater eyes, the ratio of focal length:axial length and the ratio of lens refractive power:corneal refractive power may be correlated with a nocturnal life style. It is not clear whether the relatively low refractive power of the cornea is best regarded as a feature correlated with an amphibious life style or whether it is a consequence of adaptations for nocturnal activity. PMID:2054585

Martin, G R; Brooke, M de L



Seed-Mediated Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with Controllable Edge Lengths in the Range of 30–200 nm and Comparison of Their Optical Properties  

PubMed Central

Silver nanocubes with edge lengths controllable in the range of 30–200 nm were synthesized using an approach based on seeded growth. The key to the success of this synthesis is the use of single-crystal Ag seeds to direct the growth and the use of AgNO3 as a precursor to elemental Ag where the by-product HNO3 can block both the homogeneous nucleation and evolution of single-crystal seeds into twinned nanoparticles. Either spherical (in the shape of cubooctahedron) or cubic seeds could be employed for this growth process. The edge length of resultant Ag nanocubes can be readily controlled by varying the amount of Ag seeds used, the amount of AgNO3 added, or both. For the first time, we could obtain Ag nanocubes with uniform edge lengths controllable in the range of 30–200 nm and then compare their localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties. PMID:20698704

Zhang, Qiang; Li, Weiyang; Moran, Christine; Zeng, Jie; Chen, Jingyi; Wen, Long-Ping; Xia, Younan



RESEARCH Open Access Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Numerical Simulation of Temperature between active surveillance and radical therapy. Focal laser ablation (FLA) could be one surgical method. Keywords: Prostate cancer focal laser ablation, thermal damage, bioheat transfer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Focal epilepsies: immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms.  


There is increasing evidence documenting activation of inflammatory processes in focal epilepsies. This review article summarizes current data regarding immune mediated inflammatory processes in patients with symptomatic partial epilepsies such as mesial temporal sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. We have also reviewed several neuronal surface antibody-associated syndromes, which have been recently described with focal seizures as an important part of clinical presentation, such as antibody-associated limbic encephalitis and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antibody syndrome. An autoimmune mechanism may be one pathogenic factor in some symptomatic epilepsies acting as a triggering event in the process leading to the development of epilepsy. PMID:25510942

Khurana, Divya S



NIF optics phase gradient specfication  

SciTech Connect

A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.

Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.



Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

Cepek, Jeremy, E-mail:; Fenster, Aaron [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)] [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John [Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Davidson, Sean R. H. [Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)] [Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7 (Canada)] [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7 (Canada); Ghai, Sangeet [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)] [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)



Imaging (NIRI) and quantitation (NIRS) in tissue using time-resolved spectrophotometry: the impact of statistically and dynamically variable optical path lengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and near-infrared optical imaging (NIRI) are two medical techniques under development, respectively offering the ability to use light to noninvasively quantitate metabolite concentration and to image structure within the human body. Due to the dual effects of scattering and absorbance, quantitative measurement using NIRS and reconstruction of deep-tissue structure using NIRI have been problematic. Significant advances have

David A. Benaron; David C. Ho; Boris Rubinsky; Mark Shannon



Development of a cable reel development system using a rotary joint for kilometer lengths of two-fiber multi-mode fiber optic cable  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) recently developed a two-component system for use during remote inspections. The system consists of a mobile unit with television cameras and other equipment and a stationary base station. A variety of signals must be continually transmitted between the two system components as the mobile unit is moved from the location to another. Two channels of broadband (10MHz) NTSC video are transmitted from the mobile unit to the base station, and a bi-directional ``talk set`` provides audio communication between personnel at each location. In addition, several channels of RS-232 are required to support present and future instruments used at the mobile unit and controlled by personnel at the base station. Brookhaven developed a mobile unit which communicated with a base station over a 2-fiber multimode fiber optic cable. One of the design requirements was maintaining constant communication with the base station during the time the mobile unit was moved about. To provide uninterrupted communications, deployment of the 1-km long fiber optic cable was initially performed with a ``spinning reel`` mechanism. The spinning reel mechanism proved to be mechanically unsuitable, and so the cable deployment mechanism was redesigned to spool the cable off the reel. The requirement for uninterrupted communications required a two-channel fiber optic rotary joint in the design. Incorporation of the rotary joint into the design is described, and appropriate reference material is included.

Curtiss, J.A.; Jahelka, J.R.



Genetics Home Reference: Focal dermal hypoplasia  


... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding focal dermal hypoplasia? anophthalmia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...


The AIRES Optical Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AIRES (Airborne InfraRed Echelle Spectrometer) is the facility spectrometer for SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy). AIRES is a long-slit (approximately 160 in) spectrometer designed to cover the 17 to 210-micron range with good sensitivity using three spectroscopic arrays. Initially, only the 30-130 micron, mid-wavelength array will be available. The instrument has a cryogenic K-mirror to perform field rotation and a slit-viewing camera (lambda < 28 microns, FOV = 160 in diameter) to image source morphology and verify telescope pointing. AIRES employs a large echelle grating to achieve a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 1.0 x 10(exp 6)/lambda (sub mu), where lambda (sub mu) is the wavelength in microns. Hyperfine, Inc. has ruled and tested the AIRES' echelle; its wave-front error is 0.028 waves RMS (root mean square) at 10.6 microns. The instrument is housed in a liquid-helium cryostat which is constrained in diameter (approximately 1 m) and length (approximately 2 m) by the observatory. Hence, the length of the echelle (approximately 1.1 m) and the focal length of its collimator (approximately 5.2 m) severely drive the optical design and packaging. The final design uses diamond-turned aluminum optics and has up to 19 reflections inside the cryostat, depending on the optical path. This design was generated, optimized, and toleranced using Code V. The predicted performance is nearly diffraction-limited at 17 microns; the error budget is dominated by design residuals. Light loss due to slit rotation and slit curvature has been minimized. A thorough diffraction analysis with GLAD (G-Level Analysis Drawer) was used to size the mirrors and baffles; the internal light loss is shown to be a strong function of slit width.

Haas, Michael R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)



Electromagnetic Field Intensity Distribution Along Focal Region of a Metallic Circular Reflector Covered with a Plasma Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical analyses has been carried out to study the deviation of the electromagnetic field intensity distribution in the focal region of a long metallic circular reflector that contains a uniform cold collisional plasma layer on its surface. The electromagnetic field intensity expressions along the focal region have been obtained using Maslov's method. Maslov's method is systematic procedure, which combines the simplicity of ray optics and the generality of transform methods. The derived analytical field expressions in the focal region have been solved numerically. The reflected and transmitted field intensity distributions from the plasma layer along the focal point were examined. The effects of some physical parameters such as the plasma frequency, the thickness of plasma layer and the effective collision frequency on the transmitted field intensity distribution along the focal region are studied. The results are found to be in a good agreement with results obtained using Kirchhoff's approximation.

Ghaffar, A.; Alkanhal, M. A. S.



Geometrical parameter analysis of a high-sensitivity fiber optic angular displacement sensor.  


In this work, we present an analysis of the influence of geometrical parameters on the sensitivity and linear range of a fiber optic angular displacement sensor, through computational simulations and experiments. The geometrical parameters analyzed are the lens focal length, the gap between fibers, the fiber cladding radii, the emitting fiber critical angle (or, equivalently, the emitting fiber numerical aperture), and the standoff distance (distance between the lens and the reflective surface). Besides, we analyze the sensor sensitivity regarding any spurious linear displacement. The simulation and experimental results show that the parameters that play the most important roles are the emitting fiber core radius, the lens focal length, and the light coupling efficiency, whereas the remaining parameters have little influence on the sensor characteristics. PMID:25608191

Sakamoto, João M S; Pacheco, Gefeson M; Kitano, Cláudio; Tittmann, Bernhard R



Curved-Focal-Plane Arrays Using Deformed-Membrane Photodetectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile and simple approach to the design and fabrication of curved-focal-plane arrays of silicon-based photodetectors is being developed. This approach is an alternative to the one described in "Curved Focal-Plane Arrays Using Back- Illuminated High-Purity Photodetectors" (NPO-30566), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 10a. As in the cited prior article, the basic idea is to improve the performance of an imaging instrument and simplify the optics needed to obtain a given level of performance by making an image sensor (in this case, an array of photodetectors) conform to a curved focal surface, instead of designing the optics to project an image onto a flat focal surface. There is biological precedent for curved-focal-surface designs: retinas - the image sensors in eyes - conform to the naturally curved focal surfaces of eye lenses. The present approach is applicable to both front-side- and back-side-illuminated, membrane photodetector arrays and is being demonstrated on charge-coupled devices (CCDs). The very-large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry of such a CCD or other array is fabricated on the front side of a silicon substrate, then the CCD substrate is attached temporarily to a second substrate for mechanical support, then material is removed from the back to obtain the CCD membrane, which typically has a thickness between 10 and 20 m. In the case of a CCD designed to operate in back-surface illumination, delta doping can be performed after thinning to enhance the sensitivity. This approach is independent of the design and method of fabrication of the front-side VLSI circuitry and does not involve any processing of a curved silicon substrate. In this approach, a third substrate would be prepared by polishing one of its surfaces to a required focal-surface curvature. A CCD membrane fabricated as described above would be pressed against, deformed into conformity with, and bonded to, the curved surface. The technique used to press and bond the CCD membrane would depend on the nature of the supporting material (see figure). For example, if the third substrate were made of quartz frit, the substrate would be prepared by suffusing it with epoxy. Then one would take advantage of the porosity of the frit by applying a partial vacuum to the opposite surface of the frit, causing atmospheric pressure to push the CCD membrane against the curved surface. The curing of the epoxy would bond the CCD membrane to the curved surface. Alternatively, if the third substrate were made of a nonporous material, the curved substrate surface would be prepared by coating it with a wax or an uncured epoxy. The CCD membrane would be pressed against the coated, curved surface by use of a suitably pressurized balloon. The CCD membrane would then become bonded to the curved surface by curing of the epoxy or freezing of the wax.

Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, Todd



An MLPO Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of the Focal Plane Fields of Reflector Antennas  

E-print Network

An MLPO Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of the Focal Plane Fields of Reflector Antennas Christine antennas for a range of incidence angles and frequencies is proposed. The algorithm is based and phase correction. Keywords- reflector antennas; physical optics; fast multilevel algorithms. I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Design, fabrication and evaluation of chalcogenide glass Luneburg lenses for LiNbO3 integrated optical devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical waveguide Luneburg lenses of arsenic trisulfide glass are described. The lenses are formed by thermal evaporation of As2S3 through suitably placed masks onto the surface of LiNbO3:Ti indiffused waveguides. The lenses are designed for input apertures up to 1 cm and for speeds of f/5 or better. They are designed to focus the TM sub 0 guided mode of a beam of wavelength, external to the guide, of 633 nm. The refractive index of the As2S3 films and the changes induced in the refractive index by exposure to short wavelength light were measured. Some correlation between film thickness and optical properties was noted. The short wavelength photosensitivity was used to shorten the lens focal length from the as deposited value. Lenses of rectangular shape, as viewed from above the guide, as well as conventional circular Luneburg lenses, were made. Measurements made on the lenses include thickness profile, general optical quality, focal length, quality of focal spot, and effect of ultraviolet irradiation on optical properties.

Wood, V. E.; Busch, J. R.; Verber, C. M.



Thermal and mechanical architecture for the SAFARI focal plane assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very challenging SPICA/SAFARI scientific goals imply to cool most detector solutions below 100 mK. This implies to find reliable solutions providing not only very efficient thermal insulation between the different temperature stages, but also keeping the stray light level well below the foreseen astronomical background (20 aW/pixel !). The main constraint is the available power budget (1-2?W) this value includes optical, electrical and parasitic power loads. This poster describes how the Herschel/PACS Bolometer Focal Plane thermo-mechanical design can be adapted to the new thermal and optical needs, while keeping a sufficiently stiff structure to withstand launch vibrations. We give the first results on the thermal and mechanical behaviour obtained with a prototype.

Martignac, J.



Optical zoom camera module using two poly-dimethylsiloxane deformable mirrors.  


Miniaturization is an essential trend in the design of portable devices. Motor-driven lens technology is a traditional way to achieve autofocus and optical zoom functions. This approach usually requires considerable space and consumes significant power. Reflective optics is a methodology that not only can fold the optical path, but it has the advantage of low chromatic aberration. In this paper, we use a deformable mirror as a reflecting element in an optical zoom system. For its low Young's modulus and residual stress, we choose polydimethylsiloxane as a deformable membrane that can provide a large stroke. The optical zoom module consists of a pair of micromachined deformable mirrors. The thickness of this module is 10 mm, which enables 2× optical zoom. The smallest effective focal length is 4.7 mm at a full field angle of 52°, and the f-number is 4.4. The largest effective focal length of the module is 9.4 mm, and the f-number is 6.4. PMID:25322427

Huang, Yu-Hung; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Su, Guo-Dung John



Quaternary GaInAsSb 2.0-2.5 Micron Back-Illuminated Focal Plane Array for Blood Glucose Monitoring  

E-print Network

Quaternary GaInAsSb 2.0-2.5 Micron Back-Illuminated Focal Plane Array for Blood Glucose Monitoring-illumination is the most convenient geometry for mounting the array onto a compact blood glucose sensor because both in detector focal plane arrays optimized for mounting onto an integrated optical sensor for blood glucose

Flatte, Michael E.


Spatial calibration of an optical see-through head mounted display  

PubMed Central

We present here a method for calibrating an optical see-through Head Mounted Display (HMD) using techniques usually applied to camera calibration (photogrammetry). Using a camera placed inside the HMD to take pictures simultaneously of a tracked object and features in the HMD display, we could exploit established camera calibration techniques to recover both the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the HMD (width, height, focal length, optic centre and principal ray of the display). Our method gives low re-projection errors and, unlike existing methods, involves no time-consuming and error-prone human measurements, nor any prior estimates about the HMD geometry. PMID:18599125

Gilson, Stuart J.; Fitzgibbon, Andrew W.; Glennerster, Andrew



Broadband fiber-optic 1x2 switch using an electrically controlled liquid lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To the best of our knowledge, proposed is the first liquid lens technology-based 1x2 fiber optic switch using a single Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL). By controlling the focal length of the liquid ECVFL, the input optical beam is spatially adjusted to couple into the respective output fiber port. The switch demonstrates a 3-dB bandwidth of 175.67 nm, with a center frequency of 1550 nm, and features low power consumption suitable for mobile applications. The proposed switch can be useful in communication and control systems, in roadway sensor systems, vehicle detection systems, and monitoring systems.

Riza, Nabeel A.; Marraccini, Philip J.



Influence of the length and grafting density of PNIPAM chains on the colloidal and optical properties of quantum dot/PNIPAM assemblies.  


Structural and optical characterization of water soluble, thermo-responsive quantum dot/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (QD/PNIPAM) hybrid particles using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements performed at temperatures below and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM is reported. By increasing the temperature above the LCST, the signature of the PNIPAM chain collapse covering the QDs is revealed by FCS measurements. Despite the significant structural change, the TCSPC measurements show that the fluorescence lifetimes remain of the same order of magnitude at T > LCST. Such QD/PNIPAM hybrid particles with water solubility and robust thermo-responsive behavior at physiologically relevant temperatures are potentially useful for (bio)molecular sensing and separation applications. PMID:21576806

Tagit, Oya; Tomczak, Nikodem; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Ja?czewski, Dominik; Han, Ming Yong; Vancso, G Julius; Herek, Jennifer L



Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.



FocalCall: An R Package for the Annotation of Focal Copy Number Aberrations  

PubMed Central

In order to identify somatic focal copy number aberrations (CNAs) in cancer specimens and to distinguish them from germ-line copy number variations (CNVs), we developed the software package FocalCall. FocalCall enables user-defined size cutoffs to recognize focal aberrations and builds on established array comparative genomic hybridization segmentation and calling algorithms. To distinguish CNAs from CNVs, the algorithm uses matched patient normal signals as references or, if this is not available, a list with known CNVs in a population. Furthermore, FocalCall differentiates between homozygous and heterozygous deletions as well as between gains and amplifications and is applicable to high-resolution array and sequencing data. PMID:25506197

Krijgsman, Oscar; Benner, Christian; Meijer, Gerrit A; van de Wiel, Mark A; Ylstra, Bauke



The design and evaluation of grazing incidence relay optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray astronomy, both solar and celestial, has many needs for high spatial resolution observations which have to be performed with electronic detectors. If the resolution is not to be detector limited, plate scales in excess of 25 microns arc/sec, corresponding to focal lengths greater than 5 m, are required. In situations where the physical size is restricted, the problem can be solved by the use of grazing incidence relay optics. A system was developed which employs externally polished hyperboloid-hyperboloid surfaces to be used in conjunction with a Wolter-Schwarzschild primary. The secondary is located in front of the primary focus and provides a magnification of 4, while the system has a plate scale of 28 microns arc/sec and a length of 1.9 m. The design, tolerance specification, fabrication and performance at visible and X-ray wavelengths of this optical system are described.

Davis, John M.; Chase, R. C.; Silk, J. K.; Krieger, A. S.



The Statistics of Calcium-Mediated Focal Excitations on a One-Dimensional Cable  

PubMed Central

It is well known that various cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by an ill-timed excitation that originates from a focal region of the heart. However, up to now, it is not known what governs the timing, location, and morphology of these focal excitations. Recent studies have shown that these excitations can be caused by abnormalities in the calcium (Ca) cycling system. However, the cause-and-effect relationships linking subcellular Ca dynamics and focal activity in cardiac tissue is not completely understood. In this article, we present a minimal model of Ca-mediated focal excitations in cardiac tissue. This model accounts for the stochastic nature of spontaneous Ca release on a one-dimensional cable of cardiac cells. Using this model, we show that the timing of focal excitations is equivalent to a first passage time problem in a spatially extended system. In particular, we find that for a short cable the mean first passage time increases exponentially with the number of cells in tissue, and is critically dependent on the ratio of inward to outward currents near the threshold for an action potential. For long cables excitations occurs due to ectopic foci that occur on a length scale determined by the minimum length of tissue that can induce an action potential. Furthermore, we find that for long cables the mean first passage time decreases as a power law in the number cells. These results provide precise criteria for the occurrence of focal excitations in cardiac tissue, and will serve as a guide to determine the propensity of Ca-mediated triggered arrhythmias in the heart. PMID:22325268

Chen, Wei; Asfaw, Mesfin; Shiferaw, Yohannes



Large-format InGaAs focal plane arrays for SWIR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FLIR Electro Optical Components will present our latest developments in large InGaAs focal plane arrays, which are used for low light level imaging in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) regime. FLIR will present imaging from their latest small pitch (15 ?m) focal plane arrays in VGA and High Definition (HD) formats. FLIR will present characterization of the FPA including dark current measurements as well as the use of correlated double sampling to reduce read noise. FLIR will show imagery as well as FPA-level characterization data.

Hood, Andrew D.; MacDougal, Michael H.; Manzo, Juan; Follman, David; Geske, Jonathan C.



Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  


An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)



Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner  


An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.



Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Dynamic focal retinal arteriolar vasospasm in migraine.  


A 48-year-old man presented following an episode of sudden onset simultaneous inferior altitudinal visual loss in his left eye and visual obscuration with shimmering in the inferonasal quadrant of the right eye. Clinical examination demonstrated left superior hemiretinal artery occlusion and an area of focal dynamic spasm along the right superior temporal branch retinal artery, the arteriolar spastic cycle was about 2 sec in duration. Hematological (including complete blood count, thrombophilia screen, vasculitic screen and serum magnesium), carotid, and cardiac investigations were normal. He was given acetazolamide 500 mg orally, timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops once daily and sublingual amyl-nitrate 0.8 mg, and maintained on felodipine 10 mg/day and aspirin 100 mg/day. The area of focal arteriolar spasm in the right eye resolved over two months. To our knowledge there are no prior reports of photographically documented dynamic focal retinal vascular spasm on a MEDLINE and PUBMED search. PMID:21157074

Abdul-Rahman, Anmar M; Gilhotra, Jagjit S; Selva, Dinesh



A Theoretical Study of Smectic Focal Domains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study of the \\mbi{c}-director and the layer structure in a biaxial smectic focal domain is presented on the basis of a simple elastic theory. A transformation between the Cartesian coordinates and an orthogonal curvilinear system is derived to provide a family of quadratic surface equations representing the Dupin cyclydes. Certain constraints for some of the elastic constants are found to be satisfied in SmC elliptic focal domain to support a uniform molecular alignment corresponding to an equilibrium state. On the other hand, it is shown that there exists no constraint of the elastic constants for biaxial SmA elliptic domain, or a torus domain in SmC phase as well as the biaxial SmA phase. These conclusions are found to be consistent with the experimental findings by Bourdon et al. with SmA and SmC focal domains.

Nakagawa, Masahiro



Optical distortion in end-pumped solid-state rod lasers.  


We explore the thermo-optical issues of mode-matched end-pumped lasers. A combination of analytical and numerical methods is used to extract practically useful scaling relations that characterize the thermally induced optical distortions and the thermal-stress operating limits in rod lasers pumped with super-Gaussian sources. The thermally induced spherical aberration is found to be overcorrected (focal length increases with radial position), weakly dependent on the axial profile, and strongly dependent on the super-Gaussian order. For high-order radial profiles it is shown that a significant portion of the extraction beam will operate aberration free. The effect of aberrations on cavity stability is addressed for the simple case of a cavity with a length that is equal to the rod length. PMID:20856333

Sutton, S B; Albrecht, G F



Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.  


It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo



[Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].  


In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions. PMID:22653180

Streker, M; Kerscher, M



Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

O'Rourke, D.J.; Bergin, A.; Rotenberg, A.; Peters, J.; Gorman, M.; Poduri, A.; Cryan, J.; Lidov, H.; Madsen, J.; Harini, C.



Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia.  


Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

O'Rourke, D J; Bergin, A; Rotenberg, A; Peters, J; Gorman, M; Poduri, A; Cryan, J; Lidov, H; Madsen, J; Harini, C



Acousto-optically cavity dumped Tm:YAG laser with 54 ns pulses at 200 kHz repetition rate.  


In this paper, a cavity dumped Tm:YAG laser was obtained for the first time, whose output pulse width was constant at 54 ns. Maximum repetition rate was 200 kHz, and wavelength was 2013 nm. Its average output power was 595 mW. The laser cavity length was 208 mm with an inserted acousto-optic modulator. Pulses were coupled out of the lateral surface of the cavity when Radio Frequency was added into the modulator. And lens was used to compensate the thermal focal length of Tm:YAG crystal. Numerical calculation of pulse was done. PMID:24787876

Cai, Guoqing; Ju, Youlun; Yao, Baoquan; Liu, Wei; Duan, Xiaoming; Dai, Tongyu



Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3  

SciTech Connect

A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted



Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David



An Integrated Optimal Estimation Approach to Spitzer Space Telescope Focal Plane Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses an accurate and efficient method for focal plane survey that was used for the Spitzer Space Telescope. The approach is based on using a high-order 37-state Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter that combines both engineering parameters and science parameters into a single filter formulation. In this approach, engineering parameters such as pointing alignments, thermomechanical drift and gyro drifts are estimated along with science parameters such as plate scales and optical distortions. This integrated approach has many advantages compared to estimating the engineering and science parameters separately. The resulting focal plane survey approach is applicable to a diverse range of science instruments such as imaging cameras, spectroscopy slits, and scanning-type arrays alike. The paper will summarize results from applying the IPF Kalman Filter to calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane, containing the MIPS, IRAC, and the IRS science Instrument arrays.

Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, D.



Focal and Non-focal Prospective Memory Performance in Very Mild Dementia: A Signature Decline  

PubMed Central

Objective In a recent study, performance on a certain kind of prospective memory task (PM), labeled focal PM, was sensitive to the very early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD; Duchek, Balota, & Cortese, 2006). The present study sought to replicate and extend these findings by investigating both focal and non-focal PM, as well as possible influences of alleles of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. Method Thirty-five healthy older adults and 33 adults in the very earliest stages of AD, as determined by the clinical dementia rating scale, completed both focal and non-focal PM tasks. Performance on these tasks has been linked to qualitatively different cognitive processes (Scullin, McDaniel, Shelton, & Lee, 2010), thereby providing leverage to illuminate the specific processes underlying PM failures in very early AD. Approximately half of the adults in each group were APOE e4 carriers and half were non-carriers. We also obtained participants’ scores on a battery of standard psychometric tests. Results There was a significant interaction between the type of PM task and dementia status, p < .05. ?2p = .12, demonstrating that the AD-related decline was more robust for focal than for non-focal PM. Further, focal PM performance significantly discriminated between the very earliest stages of AD and normal aging, explaining variance unique to that explained by typical psychometric indices. APOE status, however, was not associated with PM performance. Conclusions The pronounced deficit observed in the focal PM task suggests that spontaneous retrieval processes may be compromised in very early AD. PMID:21443344

McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Moynan, Sarah; Balota, David A.



Assessing the effect of laser beam width on quantitative evaluation of optical properties of intraocular lens implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and manufacture of intraocular lenses (IOLs) depend upon the identification and quantitative preclinical evaluation of key optical properties and environmental parameters. The confocal laser method (CLM) is a new technique for measuring IOL optical properties, such as dioptric power, optical quality, refractive index, and geometrical parameters. In comparison to competing systems, the CLM utilizes a fiber-optic confocal laser design that significantly improves the resolution, accuracy, and repeatability of optical measurements. Here, we investigate the impact of changing the beam diameter on the CLM platform for the evaluation of IOL dioptric powers. Due to the Gaussian intensity profile of the CLM laser beam, the changes in focal length and dioptric power associated with changes in beam diameter are well within the tolerances specified in the ISO IOL standard. These results demonstrate some of the advanced potentials of the CLM toward more effectively and quantitatively evaluating IOL optical properties.

Walker, Bennett N.; James, Robert H.; Chakravarty, Aurin; Calogero, Don; Ilev, Ilko K.



Assessing the effect of laser beam width on quantitative evaluation of optical properties of intraocular lens implants.  


The design and manufacture of intraocular lenses (IOLs) depend upon the identification and quantitative preclinical evaluation of key optical properties and environmental parameters. The confocal laser method (CLM) is a new technique for measuring IOL optical properties, such as dioptric power, optical quality, refractive index, and geometrical parameters. In comparison to competing systems, the CLM utilizes a fiber-optic confocal laser design that significantly improves the resolution, accuracy, and repeatability of optical measurements. Here, we investigate the impact of changing the beam diameter on the CLM platform for the evaluation of IOL dioptric powers. Due to the Gaussian intensity profile of the CLM laser beam, the changes in focal length and dioptric power associated with changes in beam diameter are well within the tolerances specified in the ISO IOL standard. These results demonstrate some of the advanced potentials of the CLM toward more effectively and quantitatively evaluating IOL optical properties. PMID:24817618

Walker, Bennett N; James, Robert H; Chakravarty, Aurin; Calogero, Don; Ilev, Ilko K



Hard x-ray nanofocusing with refractive x-ray optics: full beam characterization by ptychographic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard x-ray scanning microscopy relies on small and intensive nanobeams. Refractive x-ray lenses are well suited to generate hard x-ray beams with lateral dimensions of 100 nm and below. The diffraction limited beam size of refractive x-ray lenses mainly depends on the focal length and the attenuation inside the lens material. The numerical aperture of refractive lenses scales with the inverse square root of the focal length until it reaches the critical angle of total reflection. We have used nanofocusing refractive x-ray lenses made of silicon to focus hard x-rays at 8 and 20 keV to (sub-)100 nm dimensions. Using ptychographic scanning coherent diffraction imaging we have characterized these nanobeams with high accuracy and sensitivity, measuring the full complex wave field in the focus. This gives access to the full caustic and aberrations of the x-ray optics.

Schroer, Christian G.; Brack, Florian-Emanuel; Brendler, Roman; Hönig, Susanne; Hoppe, Robert; Patommel, Jens; Ritter, Stephan; Scholz, Maria; Schropp, Andreas; Seiboth, Frank; Nilsson, Daniel; Rahomäki, Jussi; Uhlén, Fredrik; Vogt, Ulrich; Reinhardt, Juliane; Falkenberg, Gerald



The focal plane instrumentation for the DUNE mission  

E-print Network

DUNE (Dark Universe Explorer) is a proposed mission to measure parameters of dark energy using weak gravitational lensing The particular challenges of both optical and infrared focal planes and the DUNE baseline solution is discussed. The DUNE visible Focal Plane Array (VFP) consists of 36 large format red-sensitive CCDs, arranged in a 9x4 array together with the associated mechanical support structure and electronics processing chains. Four additional CCDs dedicated to attitude control measurements are located at the edge of the array. All CCDs are 4096 pixel red-enhanced e2v CCD203-82 devices with square 12 $\\mu$m pixels, operating from 550-920nm. Combining four rows of CCDs provides a total exposure time of 1500s. The VFP will be used in a closed-loop system by the spacecraft, which operates in a drift scan mode, in order to synchronize the scan and readout rates. The Near Infrared (NIR) FPA consists of a 5 x 12 mosaic of 60 Hawaii 2RG detector arrays from Teledyne, NIR bandpass filters for the wavelength ...

Booth, Jeff; Eisenhauer, Frank; Refregier, Alexandre



Performance characterization of a PIAA complex focal plane mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is an architecture for directly observing extrasolar planets, and can achieve performance near the theoretical limits for any direct-detection instrument. PIAACMC can be designed for centrally-obscured and segmented apertures, which is particularly useful for next-generation telescopes. The PIAACMC architecture includes aspheric PIAA optics, and a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask that provides a pi phase shift to a portion of the on-axis starlight. The phase-shifted starlight is forced to interfere destructively with the un-shifted starlight, causing the starlight to be eliminated, and allowing a region for high-contrast imaging near the star.The main challenge in designing the complex focal plane mask is to achieve deep contrast over a wide spectral band. Another challenge for the mask design is to avoid sharp features, which can be difficult to manufacture. We present a solution to the design challenge by dividing the mask into sections and optimizing the phase shift produced by each section. We also demonstrate a method to design the mask with a smooth profile. One remaining challenge is to measure the performance of the mask. We present a method to compute the phase profile of the mask based on measurements of the diffraction pattern. The computed phase profile is used to simulate the expected coronagraph performance.

Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene



SOI diode uncooled infrared focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) is a MEMS device that integrates an array of tiny thermal infrared detector pixels. An SOI diode uncooled IR FPA is a type that uses freestanding single-crystal diodes as temperature sensors and has various advantages over the other MEMS-based uncooled IR FPAs. Since the first demonstration of an SOI diode uncooled IR

Masafumi Kimata; Masashi Ueno; Munehisa Takeda; Toshiki Seto



Urinary Podocytes in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome. Although the pathogenesis is not known, recent studies suggest that FSGS may be a podocyte disease. The aim of this study was to look for podocyte injury in this disease, using measurements of urinary podocytes. Methods: We examined the first morning urine of the day collected from 71

Masanori Hara; Toshio Yanagihara; Itaru Kihara



Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.  


Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi



Intense FDG activity in focal hepatic steatosis.  


A 38-year-old woman underwent PET/CT to evaluate possible hepatic malignancy. The images revealed intense FDG activity in several hypodense regions in the liver, most prominent in the lateral segment of the left lobe. The pathological examination showed that the patient had focal hepatic steatosis. PMID:24873789

Le, Yali; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Cai, Liang; Zhang, Li



Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi



Dual band QWIP focal plane array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)



Submillisecond Optical Knife-Edge Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fast computer-controlled sampling of optical knife-edge response (KER) signal increases accuracy of optical system aberration measurement. Submicrosecond-response detectors in optical focal plane convert optical signals to electrical signals converted to digital data, sampled and feed into computer for storage and subsequent analysis. Optical data are virtually free of effects of index-of-refraction gradients.

Thurlow, P.



The finite element modeling and thermal analysis of the special focal plane of LAMOST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Area Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is a meridian reflecting Schmidt telescope with a 40m optical axis between the reflecting Schmidt plate and the spherical primary mirror. In the middle is located the spherical focal plane, through which there are corresponding 4000+ unit mounting holes for the fibers, and on its back, there attached a support truss adapted from Serrurier concept. The mechanical stabilization of the focal plane system naturally has magnificent impact on the observation efficiency of the LAMOST. A comprehensive Finite Element Model of the focal plane system has been built to evaluate thermally induced degradation of its mechanical accuracy using the nodal modification technique within ANSYS, and diverse temperature load cases have been considered on the Finite Element model and related thermal analyses have been carried out to investigate thermal deformation of the focal plane. Subsequently the calculated deflection of the working surface has been extracted and reconstructed with least square fitting in MATLAB. The results show that temperature change around the telescope has little effect on the performance of the focal plane within temperature variation requirements of the LAMOST. The methods of modeling and analyzing used in this research are informative for future large telescope projects.

Zuo, Heng; Yang, Dehua; Li, Guoping



Polished Panel Optical Receiver for Simultaneous RF/Optical Telemetry with Large DSN Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polished panel optical receiver concept described here makes use of aluminum panels on the main reflector of the Deep Space Network's (DSN's) 34-meter antennas at optical wavelengths by polishing and coating their surface to efficiently reflect near-infrared wavelengths in the 1,064 1,550-nanometer range. Achievable surface smoothness is not a limiting factor for aluminum panels, and initial field experiments indicate that the surface quality of microwave aluminum panels is sufficient to concentrate the light into small, but not diffraction-limited, spots at their primary focus. Preliminary analysis of data from high-quality microwave panels has shown that the light can be concentrated into 200 400 microradian cones, resulting in spot diameters of 2-4 mm at the 10-meter primary focus F(0) shown in the figure, or 2-4 cm spots at F(1) after magnification by the subreflector, which results in an effective focal length of about 100 meters. Three distinct implementation options are possible, with theoretically identical tracking and communications performance: Option 1: The communications assembly could be placed directly behind the subreflector at F(0), but this placement would require replacing the existing all-aluminum subreflector with a new design that transmits optical wavelengths but reflects RF, thus transmitting the optical signal to the primary focus of the parabolic polished aluminum panels at F(0), as shown in the figure. Option 2: Alternately, the optical communications assembly could be located near the first available focal-spot F(1) following reflection by the subreflector (which would have to be polished), next to the input to the beam waveguide on the main reflector as shown in the figure. Option 3: Finally, the optical communications assembly could be placed inside the pedestal room, and separated from the RF signal after the ellipsoid and before the signal reached the microwave receiver via an RF/optical dichroic near F(3).

Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.



Optical fuel pin scanner  


An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)



Arc Length Gone Global  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone with a thorough knowledge of single variable calculus knows that integration can be used to find the length of a curve on a given interval, called its arc length. Fortunately, if one endeavors to pose and solve more interesting problems than simply computing lengths of various curves, there are techniques available that do not require an…

Boudreaux, Gregory M.; Wells, M. Scott



Measuring Thermodynamic Length  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

Crooks, Gavin E



Beam delivery by adaptive optics for material processing applications using high-power CO2 lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high power CO2 lasers for various applications in material and production technologies has increasingly grown, and new applications are on their way to being used in industry. Due to varying beam path lengths, proper beam delivery is essential to obtain constant working conditions when using machines with moving beam guidance. The focussing characteristics of divergent laser beams change with the distance between laser source and processing head. To keep the energy distribution on the workpiece surface on the same level while working with flying optics, the use of deformable mirror systems has proven to be a suitable solution. In this case, a newly-developed system is brought into the beam guidance system to keep the focal spot diameter constant. As far as applications are concerned, where the distance of the focal spot to the surface of the workpiece is of major interest for the performance of the process, these optical devices are also used to tune the focal length. For example collision danger or dynamic limitations of the handling system may mean that the focal spot has to follow the surface outline without keeping the distance between processing head and material surface constant. Besides cutting and shaping by material removal applications, welding is a kind of application where a focus shift without moving the processing head may be advantageous, especially for 3D processes. Therefore, another deformable mirror is installed near to the focusing optics. Investigations have been carried out on the location of the deformable mirror close to the laser source (RS 3000 RF), and inside the processing head.

Haferkamp, Heinz; Seebaum, Dirk



Determining the focal mechanisms of earthquakes by full waveform modeling  

E-print Network

Determining the focal mechanism of an earthquake helps us to better characterize reservoirs, define faults, and understand the stress and strain regime. The objective of this thesis is to find the focal mechanism and depth ...

Busfar, Hussam A. (Hussam Abdullah)



Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.



New multiband IR imaging optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new multispectral materials that transmit from 0.9 to < 12 µm in wavelength. These materials fill up the glass map for multispectral optics and vary in refractive index from 2.38 to 3.17. They show a large spread in dispersion (Abbe number) and offer some unique solutions for multispectral optics designs. One of the glasses developed is a very good candidate to replace Ge, as it has a combination of excellent properties, including high Abbe number in the LWIR, high index of 3.2, 60% lower dn/dT, and better thermal stability at working temperatures. Our results also provide a wider selection of optical materials to enable simpler achromat designs. For example, we have developed other glasses that have relatively high Abbe number in both the MWIR and LWIR regions, while our MILTRAN ceramic has low Abbe number in both regions. This makes for a very good combination of glasses and MILTRAN ceramic (analogous to crown and flint glasses in the visible) for MWIR + LWIR dual band imaging. We have designed preliminary optics for one such imager with f/2.5, 51 mm focal length and 22 degrees FOV using a spaced doublet of NRL's glass and MILTRAN ceramic. NRL's approach reduces the number of elements, weight, complexity and cost compared with the approach using traditional optics. Another important advantage of using NRL glasses in optics design is their negative or very low positive dn/dT, that makes it easier to athermalize the optical system.

Bayya, Shyam; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kim, Woohong; Gibson, Daniel; Fleet, Erin; Shaw, Brandon; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar



Measuring the Flatness of Focal Plane for Very Large Mosaic CCD Camera  

SciTech Connect

Large mosaic multiCCD camera is the key instrument for modern digital sky survey. DECam is an extremely red sensitive 520 Megapixel camera designed for the incoming Dark Energy Survey (DES). It is consist of sixty two 4k x 2k and twelve 2k x 2k 250-micron thick fully-depleted CCDs, with a focal plane of 44 cm in diameter and a field of view of 2.2 square degree. It will be attached to the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. The DES will cover 5000 square-degrees of the southern galactic cap in 5 color bands (g, r, i, z, Y) in 5 years starting from 2011. To achieve the science goal of constraining the Dark Energy evolution, stringent requirements are laid down for the design of DECam. Among them, the flatness of the focal plane needs to be controlled within a 60-micron envelope in order to achieve the specified PSF variation limit. It is very challenging to measure the flatness of the focal plane to such precision when it is placed in a high vacuum dewar at 173 K. We developed two image based techniques to measure the flatness of the focal plane. By imaging a regular grid of dots on the focal plane, the CCD offset along the optical axis is converted to the variation the grid spacings at different positions on the focal plane. After extracting the patterns and comparing the change in spacings, we can measure the flatness to high precision. In method 1, the regular dots are kept in high sub micron precision and cover the whole focal plane. In method 2, no high precision for the grid is required. Instead, we use a precise XY stage moves the pattern across the whole focal plane and comparing the variations of the spacing when it is imaged by different CCDs. Simulation and real measurements show that the two methods work very well for our purpose, and are in good agreement with the direct optical measurements.

Hao, Jiangang; Estrada, Juan; Cease, Herman; Diehl, H.Thomas; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Kubik, Donna; Kuk, Keivin; Kuropatkine, Nickolai; Lin, Huan; Montes, Jorge; Scarpine, Vic; /Fermilab




E-print Network

APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN #12;APPENDIX L DESIGNATION OF FOCAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES FOR THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN Patricia N. Manley and Matthew D. Schlesinger Candidates for Focal Species Status Only species presumed to have established populations in the basin

Standiford, Richard B.


Group focal conflict theory: Description, illustration and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group focal conflict theory makes use of a set of interrelated concepts to contain, order, and introduce meaning into the evolving dynamics of therapeutic groups and to relate and connect group and individual dynamics. Key terms are group focal conflict, disturbing motive, reactive motive, enabling or restrictive solution, individual nuclear and derived individual focal conflict, and resonance. The relationships between

Dorothy Stock Whitaker



Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders.  


The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice. PMID:20380955

Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff



Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia  

PubMed Central

Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disorders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke. PMID:25657720

Ding, Shinghua



Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.  


Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present, which stained positively with alcian blue and was weakly focally positive with periodic acid Schiff. Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and chromogranin were negative. MIB-1 index was < 0.1%. PMID:18579979

De Padua, Michelle; Rajagopal, V



Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia.  


Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disorders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke. PMID:25657720

Ding, Shinghua



Pleiades HR in Flight Geometrical Calibration : Location and Mapping of the Focal Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pleiades system, ORFEO system optical component (Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation) consists of a constellation of two satellites for very High Resolution panchromatic and multispectral optical observation of the Earth. Its mission is to cover all European civilian needs (mapping, tracking floods and fires) and defence in the category of metric resolution: 0.7m Nadir. The first Pleiades satellite was launched at the end of last year. One of the key objectives of the Pleiades HR (PHR) project is to achieve a location accuracy that will allow the use of images in GIS (Geographical Information System) without geometrical model improvement by refining on ground control points. The image location without refined model was specified with the precision of the most commonly used tool ie the civil GPS. So the location accuracy has been specified at less than 12m for 90% of the images on a nominal satellite configuration. Very special care has been taken all along the PHR project realization to achieve this very good location accuracy. The final touch is given during the in-orbit commissioning phase which lasts until June 2012. The geometric quality implies to tune the parameters involved in the geolocation model (geometric calibration): besides attitude and orbit restitution tuning (not considered here), it consists in estimating the biases between the instrument orientation and the AOCS reference frame, and also the sight line of each detector in the focal plane. This is called static geometrical model. The analysis of dynamic perturbations outside of the model are the second most important image quality objective of in-flight commissioning, not described in this paper. Finally "image quality assessment" consists in evaluating the image quality obtained in the final products. For geolocation model, it is quantified by the absolute geolocation and the pointing accuracies, and it is a main contributor in length alteration and planimetric and altimetric accuracies. In this paper we will present both the different practices we have adopted (their advantages, limitations and complementarities) and the means we are using for the operational assessment of the location quality of PHR images. We will focus on the innovative methods and mention the improvements in progress. To conclude, we will present the very first accuracy results assessed after PHR1A launch on L1 and Sensor products.

de Lussy, F.; Greslou, D.; Dechoz, C.; Amberg, V.; Delvit, J. M.; Lebegue, L.; Blanchet, G.; Fourest, S.



[Focal epithelial hyperplasia in lepromatous leprosy].  


Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck (FEH) is most likely caused by human papilloma virus. It mainly occurs in children and young people showing no associated diseases. For the first time, we describe a case of FEH in a patient with lepromatous leprosy who due to persistent erythema nodosum leprosum has been treated with a lang-term glucocorticoid therapy. The question of the competence of lepromatous patients in resisting certain viral infections arises. PMID:6649746

Jacyk, W; Lechner, W



MR imaging of benign focal liver lesions.  


Focal liver lesions (FLLs) are commonly encountered on routine imaging studies. Most lesions detected are benign, but many are indeterminate at the time of initial imaging. This article reviews the important role of MR imaging for the detection and characterization of various benign FLLs while illustrating typical imaging appearances and potential pitfalls in interpretation. The utility of diffusion-weighted imaging and hepatocyte-specific contrast agents is also discussed. PMID:24889166

Cogley, Jonathan R; Miller, Frank H



Acute focal bacterial nephritis in 25 children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN), formerly known as lobar nephronia, is a rare form of interstitial bacterial nephritis.\\u000a Most often described in adults with diabetes, there is only limited knowledge of AFBN in children. Ultrasound shows circular\\u000a hypoechogenic, hypoperfused parenchyma lesions, which may be misdiagnosed as a renal abscess or tumor. From 1984 to 2005,\\u000a AFBN was diagnosed in 30

Tanja Seidel; Eberhard Kuwertz-Bröking; Sigrid Kaczmarek; Martin Kirschstein; Michael Frosch; Monika Bulla; Erik Harms



Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. We apply a conventional likelihood method to measure the skill of earthquake focal mechanism orientation forecasts. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. We measure the difference between two double-couple sources as the minimum rotation angle that transforms one into the other. We measure the uncertainty of a focal mechanism forecast (the variability), and the difference between observed and forecasted orientations (the prediction error), in terms of these minimum rotation angles. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random (or equally probable). For 3-D rotation the random rotation angle distribution is not uniform. To better understand the resulting complexities, we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two theoretical rotational distributions (Cauchy and von Mises-Fisher), which are used to approximate earthquake source orientation pattern. We then calculate the likelihood score for earthquake source forecasts and for their validation by future seismicity data. Several issues need to be explored when analyzing observational results: their dependence on forecast and data resolution, internal dependence of scores on forecasted angle and random variability of likelihood scores. Here, we propose a simple tentative solution but extensive theoretical and statistical analysis is needed.

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.



Minimal change nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms minimal change nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis describe histopathological entities diagnosed\\u000a by renal biopsy, typically in patients presenting with heavy proteinuria and its consequences including nephrotic syndrome.\\u000a Numerous alterations in the immune response have been reported, but there is uncertainty about whether these play a causal\\u000a role. In both conditions, there is evidence of injury to glomerular epithelial

Peter W. Mathieson



Rituximab for refractory focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the cases of two children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) who were treated with rituximab (anti-CD20\\u000a monoclonal antibody). Both were resistant to conventional therapy, and renal biopsy showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis\\u000a (FSGS). Combination therapy with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasmapheresis was the only way to decrease proteinuria.\\u000a However, the patients suffered severe reactions to steroid treatment. We therefore

Makiko Nakayama; Koichi Kamei; Kandai Nozu; Kentaro Matsuoka; Atsuko Nakagawa; Mayumi Sako; Kazumoto Iijima



Single-view Perspective Shape-from-Texture with Focal Length Estimation: A Piecewise Affine Approach  

E-print Network

the 3D shape of a surface using the Shape-From-Texture (SFT) cue. In the classical SFT setting is available at #12;ing to this intuition, it seems that uncalibrated SFT is well- posed. However, this is not true when the textons are small, which is precisely a SFT assumption

Bartoli, Adrien


A Robust Analytical Solution to Isometric Shape-from-Template with Focal Length Calibration  

E-print Network

researched actively over the past decade. We here call this problem Shape-from- Template (SfT). Recovering the 3D deformation is equiv- alent to recovering the shape as seen in the input image. Solving SfT. An important instance of SfT is IsoSfT, where the 3D deformation is distance-preserving, in other words

Bartoli, Adrien


Application study of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical biopsy system for small experimental animals has been developed. The system includes endoscope probe, portable probe and two kinds of miniaturized Raman probes. The micro Raman probe (MRP) is made of optical fibers and the ball lens hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP) is made of hollow fiber. The former has large focal depth and suitable to measure average spectra of subsurface tissue. The latter has rather small focal depth and it is possible to control focal length by selecting ball lens attached at the probe head. It is suitable to survey materials at the fixed depth in the tissue. The system is applied to study various small animal cancer models, such as esophagus and stomach rat models and subcutaneous mouse models of pancreatic cancers. In the studies of subcutaneous tumor model mouse, it is suggested that protein conformational changes occur in the tumor tissue within few minutes after euthanasia of the mouse. No more change is observed for the following ten minutes. Any alterations in the molecular level are not observed in normal skin, muscle tissues. Since the change completes in such a short time, it is suggested that this phenomenon caused by termination of blood circulation.

Sato, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Morita, Shin-ichi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Ozaki, Yukihiro



Coronagraphic phase diversity: a simple focal plane sensor for high-contrast imaging.  


Exoplanet direct imaging is a challenging goal of today's astronomical instrumentation. Several high-contrast imaging instruments dedicated to this task are currently being integrated; they are ultimately limited by the presence of quasi-static speckles in the imaging focal plane. These speckles originate in residual quasi-static optical aberrations, which must be measured and compensated for, typically at a nanometric level. We present a novel focal plane wavefront sensor (WFS) designed for this particular application. It is an extension of the phase diversity technique to coronagraphic imaging. This sensor requires no dedicated hardware and uses only two scientific images differing from a known aberration, which can be conveniently introduced by the adaptive optics subsystem. The aberrations are therefore calibrated all the way down to the scientific camera, without any differential aberrations between the sensor and the scientific camera. We show the potential of this WFS by means of simulations, and we perform a preliminary experimental validation. PMID:23202053

Sauvage, J-F; Mugnier, L; Paul, B; Villecroze, R



Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki



Visual Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT) Uncertainty Analysis (Milestone Report)  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, an uncertainty analysis was conducted of the Video Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT). In 2010, we have completed a new analysis, based primarily on the geometric optics of the system, and it shows sensitivities to various design and operational parameters. We discuss sources of error with measuring devices, instrument calibrations, and operator measurements for a parabolic trough mirror panel test. These help to guide the operator in proper setup, and help end-users to understand the data they are provided. We include both the systematic (bias) and random (precision) errors for VSHOT testing and their contributions to the uncertainty. The contributing factors we considered in this study are: target tilt; target face to laser output distance; instrument vertical offset; laser output angle; distance between the tool and the test piece; camera calibration; and laser scanner. These contributing factors were applied to the calculated slope error, focal length, and test article tilt that are generated by the VSHOT data processing. Results show the estimated 2-sigma uncertainty in slope error for a parabolic trough line scan test to be +/-0.2 milliradians; uncertainty in the focal length is +/- 0.1 mm, and the uncertainty in test article tilt is +/- 0.04 milliradians.

Gray, A.; Lewandowski, A.; Wendelin, T.



High-speed polarization multiplexed optical scanner for three-dimensional scanning applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile high speed 3-D scanner design is proposed and demonstrated for optical beamforming applications such as free-space laser communications, 3-D displays, scanning 3-D optical microscopy, data retrieval, and vision applications. The scanner consists of fast digital-analog control polarization-based optical beamforming cells resulting in complete three-dimensional beamforming programmability. Features include low electrical power consumption and large aperture beamforming optics, digital repeatability, and time multiplexed accurate analog beamforming. Analog frequency and amplitude control of the nematic liquid crystal beamformer cells allows continuous fine scan programmability over a 0.66 mrad horizontal-deflection, 0.75 mrad vertical deflection, and an infinity to 1.84 m focal length longitudinal scan, all at 1310nm. For the first time is demonstrated a coarse angular deflection of an 8-point linear 1-D scan at 1550 nm with a 35 microsecond random-access time.

Khan, Sajjad A.; Riza, Nabeel A.



The DEPFET-based focal plane detectors for MIXS on BepiColombo  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray detectors based on arrays of DEPFET macropixels, which consist of a silicon drift detector combined with a detector\\/amplifier structure DEPFET as readout node, provide a convenient and flexible way to adapt the pixel size of a focal plane detector to the resolving power of any given X-ray optical system. Macropixels combine the traditional benefits of an SDD, like scalability,

J. Treis; L. Andricek; F. Aschauer; K. Heinzinger; S. Herrmann; T. Lauf; P. Lechner; G. Lutz; P. Majewski; M. Porro; J. Reiffers; R. H. Richter; G. Schaller; M. Schnecke; F. Schopper; H. Soltau; A. Stefanescu; L. Strüder; G. de Vita



Conical refraction and formation of multiring focal image with Laguerre-Gauss light beams.  


For a light beam focused through a biaxial crystal along one of its optical axes, the effect of internal conical refraction in the crystal leads to the formation in the focal image plane of two bright rings separated by a dark ring. It is shown that, with circularly polarized Laguerre-Gauss LG(0)(?) beams entering the crystal, this classical double-ring pattern is transformed into a multiring one consisting of ?+2 bright rings. PMID:21808356

Peet, Viktor



Development of microchannel plate x-ray optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research program was to develop a novel technique for focusing x-rays based on the optical system of a lobster's eye. A lobster eye employs many closely packed reflecting surfaces arranged within a spherical or cylindrical shell. These optics have two unique properties: they have unlimited fields of view and can be manufactured via replication of identical structures. Because the angular resolution is given by the ratio of the size of the individual optical elements to the focal length, optical elements with size on the order of one hundred microns are required to achieve good angular resolution with a compact telescope. We employed anisotropic etching of single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of micron-scale optical elements. This technique, commonly referred to as silicon micromachining, is based on silicon fabrication techniques developed by the microelectronics industry. We have succeeded in producing silicon lenses with a geometry suitable for a 1-d focusing x-ray optics. These lenses have an aspect ratio (40:1) suitable for x-ray reflection and have very good optical surface alignment. We have developed a number of process refinements which improved the quality of the lens geometry and the repeatability of the etch process. In addition to the silicon fabrication, an x-ray beam line was constructed at Columbia for testing the optics. Most recently, we have done several experiments to find the fundamental limits that the anisotropic etch process placed on the etched surface roughness.

Kaaret, Philip



Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil



A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions  

PubMed Central

Background Focal adhesions are integrin-based cell-matrix contacts that transduce and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from the environment. They develop from smaller and more numerous focal complexes under the influence of mechanical force and are key elements for many physiological and disease-related processes, including wound healing and metastasis. More than 150 different proteins localize to focal adhesions and have been systematically classified in the adhesome project ( First RNAi-screens have been performed for focal adhesions and the effect of knockdown of many of these components on the number, size, shape and location of focal adhesions has been reported. Results We have developed a kinetic model for RNA interference of focal adhesions which represents some of its main elements: a spatially layered structure, signaling through the small GTPases Rac and Rho, and maturation from focal complexes to focal adhesions under force. The response to force is described by two complementary scenarios corresponding to slip and catch bond behavior, respectively. Using estimated and literature values for the model parameters, three time scales of the dynamics of RNAi-influenced focal adhesions are identified: a sub-minute time scale for the assembly of focal complexes, a sub-hour time scale for the maturation to focal adhesions, and a time scale of days that controls the siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our model shows bistability between states dominated by focal complexes and focal adhesions, respectively. Catch bonding strongly extends the range of stability of the state dominated by focal adhesions. A sensitivity analysis predicts that knockdown of focal adhesion components is more efficient for focal adhesions with slip bonds or if the system is in a state dominated by focal complexes. Knockdown of Rho leads to an increase of focal complexes. Conclusions The suggested model provides a kinetic description of the effect of RNA-interference of focal adhesions. Its predictions are in good agreement with known experimental results and can now guide the design of RNAi-experiments. In the future, it can be extended to include more components of the adhesome. It also could be extended by spatial aspects, for example by the differential activation of the Rac- and Rho-pathways in different parts of the cell. PMID:23311633



Neandertal clavicle length  

PubMed Central

The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.



Neandertal clavicle length.  


The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W; Auerbach, Benjamin M



Electric field Monte Carlo simulations of focal field distributions produced by tightly focused laser beams in tissues  

PubMed Central

The focal field distribution of tightly focused laser beams in turbid media is sensitive to optical scattering and therefore of direct relevance to image quality in confocal and nonlinear microscopy. A model that considers both the influence of scattering and diffraction on the amplitude and phase of the electric field in focused beam geometries is required to describe these distorted focal fields. We combine an electric field Monte Carlo approach that simulates the electric field propagation in turbid media with an angular-spectrum representation of diffraction theory to analyze the effect of tissue scattering properties on the focal field. In particular, we examine the impact of variations in the scattering coefficient (µs), single-scattering anisotropy (g), of the turbid medium and the numerical aperture of the focusing lens on the focal volume at various depths. The model predicts a scattering-induced broadening, amplitude loss, and depolarization of the focal field that corroborates experimental results. We find that both the width and the amplitude of the focal field are dictated primarily by µs with little influence from g. In addition, our model confirms that the depolarization rate is small compared to the amplitude loss of the tightly focused field. PMID:21339874

Hayakawa, Carole K.; Potma, Eric O.; Venugopalan, Vasan



Adaptation in the optical properties of the crystalline lens in the eyes of the Lessepsian migrant Siganus rivulatus.  


Vision is an important source of information for many animals. The crystalline lens plays a central role in the visual pathway and hence the ecology of fishes. In this study, we tested whether the different light regimes in the Mediterranean and Red Seas have an effect on the optical properties of the lenses in the rivulated rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus. This species has migrated through the Suez Canal from the Red Sea and established a vital population in the Mediterranean Sea. Longitudinal spherical aberration curves and focal lengths of the fish lenses were measured by laser scans and compared between the two populations. In addition, rivulated rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were exposed to colored light (yellow, green and blue) and unfiltered light for periods of 1 or 13 days to test for short-term adjustments. Lens focal length was significantly longer (3%) in the Rea Sea population. The shorter focal length of the Mediterranean population can be explained as an adaptation to the dimmer light environment, as this difference makes the Mediterranean eyes 5% more sensitive than the eyes of the Red Sea population. The difference may be due to genetic differences or, more likely, adaptive developmental plasticity. Short-term regulatory mechanisms do not seem to be involved. PMID:21795569

Gagnon, Yakir L; Shashar, Nadav; Kröger, Ronald H H



The focal plane instrumentation for the DUNE mission  

E-print Network

DUNE (Dark Universe Explorer) is a proposed mission to measure parameters of dark energy using weak gravitational lensing The particular challenges of both optical and infrared focal planes and the DUNE baseline solution is discussed. The DUNE visible Focal Plane Array (VFP) consists of 36 large format red-sensitive CCDs, arranged in a 9x4 array together with the associated mechanical support structure and electronics processing chains. Four additional CCDs dedicated to attitude control measurements are located at the edge of the array. All CCDs are 4096 pixel red-enhanced e2v CCD203-82 devices with square 12 $\\mu$m pixels, operating from 550-920nm. Combining four rows of CCDs provides a total exposure time of 1500s. The VFP will be used in a closed-loop system by the spacecraft, which operates in a drift scan mode, in order to synchronize the scan and readout rates. The Near Infrared (NIR) FPA consists of a 5 x 12 mosaic of 60 Hawaii 2RG detector arrays from Teledyne, NIR bandpass filters for the wavelength bands Y, J, and H, the mechanical support structure, and the detector readout and signal processing electronics. The FPA is operated at a maximum temperature of 140 K for low dark current of 0.02e$-$/s. Each sensor chip assembly has 2048 x 2048 square pixels of 18 $\\mu$m size (0.15 arcsec), sensitive in the 0.8 to 1.7 $\\mu$m wavelength range. As the spacecraft is scanning the sky, the image motion on the NIR FPA is stabilized by a de-scanning mirror during the integration time of 300 s per detector. The total integration time of 1500 seconds is split among the three NIR wavelengths bands. DUNE has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program and has been jointly selected with SPACE for an ESA Assessment Phase which has led to the joint Euclid mission concept.

Jeff Booth; Mark Cropper; Frank Eisenhauer; Alexandre Refregier; the DUNE collaboration



Imaging Polarimetry With Polarization-Sensitive Focal Planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compact, lightweight, snapshot imaging polarimeter designed for operation in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). Flux, polarization and spectral energy distribution are the fundamental measurements through which we infer properties of the sources of radiation such as intensity, temperature, chemical composition, emission mechanisms and structure. In recent decades, many scientific fields that utilize radiometry and spectroscopy have benefited from revolutionary improvements in instrumentation, for example, charge-coupled devices, hybridized infrared arrays, multi-object spectrometers and adaptive optics. Advances in polarimetric instrumentation have been more modest. Recently, the fabrication of microgrid polarizer arrays (MGPAs), facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal planes. These devices have inherent capability to measure the degree and angle of polarization across a scene (i.e., imaging polarimetry) instantaneously, without the need for multiple exposures and moving optics or multiple detectors. MGPA-based devices are compact, lightweight, and mechanically robust and perfectly suited for deployment on space-based and airborne platforms. We describe the design, operation and expected performance of MGPA-based imaging polarimeters and identify the applications for which these polarimeters are best suited.

Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Z.



Corrugated Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corrugated quantum-well infrared photodetector (C-QWIP) uses total internal reflection to couple normal incident light into the optically active quantum wells. The coupling efficiency has been shown to be relatively independent of the pixel size and wavelength thus making the C-QWIP a candidate for detectors over the entire infrared spectrum. The broadband coupling efficiency of the C-QWIP makes it an ideal candidate for multiwavelength detectors. We fabricated and tested C-QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) with cutoff wavelengths of 11.2 and 16.2 micrometers. Each FPA has 256 x 256 pixels that are bump-bonded to a direct injection readout circuit. Both FPAs provided infrared imagery with good aesthetic attributes. For the 11.2-micrometers FPA, background-limited performance (BLIP) was observed at 60 K with f/3 optics. For the 16.2-micrometers FPA, BLIP was observed at 38 K. Besides the reduction of dark current in C-QWIP structures, the measured internal quantum efficiency (eta) remains to be high. The values for responsivity and quantum efficiency obtained from the FPA results agree well with those measured for single devices.

Goldberg, A.; Choi, K. K.; Das, N. C.; La, A.; Jhabvala, M.



Effect of focal spot size on in-band 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced  

E-print Network

Effect of focal spot size on in-band 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced Sn spot size on in-band 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from laser-produced Sn plasmas was confirmed by a dip located at 13.5 nm in the spectrum. © 2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 350

Najmabadi, Farrokh


Continuous optical zoom module based on two deformable mirrors for mobile device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, optical zoom function of the mobile camera phones has been studied. However, traditional systems use motors to change separation of lenses to achieve zoom function, suffering from long total length and high power consumption, which is not suitable for mobile phones use. Adopting MEMS polymer deformable mirrors in zoom systems has the potential to reduce thickness and have the advantage of low chromatic aberration. In this paper, we presented a 2X continuous optical zoom systems for mobile phones, using two deformable mirrors, suitable for 5-Mega-pixel image sensors. In our design, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The smallest EFL (effective focal length) is 4.7 mm at full field angle of 52° and the f/# is 4.4. The longest EFL of the module is 9.4 mm and the f/# is 6.4.

Lin, Yu-Hung; Su, Guo-Dung J.



Kartagener syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.  


Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia which is involved in situs inversus associated with chronic respiratory infections. In addition, glomerular disease in KS syndrome is rare and reported cases are limited. We had a 27-year-old female patient with KS who presented with proteinuria, hematuria, normal kidney function, and a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney biopsy showed segmental scar with adhesion to Bowman capsule, which was indicative of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. PMID:24241099

Momeni, Ali; Doroushi, Behzad; Taheri, Nadia



[Focal brain lesions and language dysfunction].  


To be a neurologist, training in cognitive/behavioral neuroscience is essential. In this review article, the author tries to emphasize the localization relationship between focal brain lesions and language dysfunction, by discussing from split-brain syndromes, hemispheric asymmetry, to pure word dumbness, pure word deafness (verbal auditory agnosia), pure agraphia, and pure word blindness (pure alexia; visual word agnosia), and finally to aphasia and aprosodia in general. Hopefully, after getting familiar with all the terms, the readers will feel free exploring language disturbances and behavioral neurology for their own interests. PMID:17966959

Chan, Jin-Lieh



Ambient temperature IR focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of modern photolithography and micromachining techniques has led to the development of many kinds of infrared sensitive focal plane arrays. This paper outlines the history of the development of modern uncooled thermal detector arrays, considerations for reading out those arrays, scaling laws for array design parameters, and ways to improve sensitivity and dynamic range. Future arrays will have smaller pitch (15 micrometer), higher sensitivity (10 - 20 mK, F/1), wider dynamic range (> 100 degrees Celsius, 10,000:1), and better resolution (1280 X 1024). These improvements will come about with better photolithographic resolution, thinner structures, and reduced noise.

Butler, Neal R.



Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors  

SciTech Connect

DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.



Exact optics - V. Null tests for the mirrors of Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Null tests are described for the strongly curved and highly aspheric mirrors of a set of `exact optics' spectrograph cameras based on the design of Schwarzschild. For f/1.0 and f/1.333 cameras having a focal length of 100mm the tests of each mirror are well within the Rayleigh limit and would permit construction on a larger scale. The ray-theoretical image diameters at the edge of the field of view of these two cameras are under 10?m unless they are scaled up to an aperture greater than 450mm.

Willstrop, R. V.



9-fold Fresnel-Köhler concentrator with Fresnel lens of variable focal point.  


Non-uniform irradiance patterns over Multi-Junction Cells gives rise to power losses, especially when considering spectral irradiance distributions over different junctions. Thermal effects on Silicone-on-Glass lenses affect spectral irradiance distributions. A new Photovoltaic Concentrator (CPV), formed by nine optical channels, each one with a Köhler configuration, has been designed to overcome these effects at high concentrations for a large acceptance angle. A Fresnel Lens with a Variable Focal Point is proposed to prevent optical crosstalk in multichannel systems. When integrated into the concentrator, improves the acceptance angle. These designs are designed to fulfill the expected requirements of four junction CPV systems. PMID:24978078

Mendes-Lopes, João; Benítez, Pablo; Zamora, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C



Simulations of partially coherent focal plane imaging arrays: Fisher matrix approach to performance evaluation  

E-print Network

Focal plane arrays of bolometers are increasingly employed in astronomy at far--infrared to millimetre wavelengths. The focal plane fields and the detectors are both partially coherent in these systems, but no account has previously been taken of the effect of partial coherence on array performance. In this paper, we use our recently developed coupled--mode theory of detection together with Fisher information matrix techniques from signal processing to characterize the behaviour of partially coherent imaging arrays. We investigate the effects of the size and coherence length of both the source and the detectors, and the packing density of the array, on the amount of information that can be extracted from observations with such arrays.

George Saklatvala; Michael P. Hobson; Stafford Withington



Optical system design for infrared imaging system of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first infrared imaging system, for monitoring the temperature of the inner wall and localized hot spot such as the ICRH antenna was installed on the midplane of the D-port in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The cassette system of KSTAR makes a periscope inevitable for infrared imaging system. The periscope is composed of a 3 functional optical lens set (input beam shaper, beam deliverer, output beam shaper). CaF2 was chosen for the material of the lens elements. As an infrared image camera, FLIR/ThermoVision SC6000HS is used. The infrared camera has 640 × 512 pixel resolution and a camera lens set with 25.4 mm of focus length and 50 mm of input pupil. The periscope was designed to have 2.7 m of overall length, 19.07 mm of focal length and 3.81 of f-number.

Oh, S.; Seo, D.; KSTAR Team



Achromatic negative index lens with diffractive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, achromatization of a negative index lens is achieved by introducing the diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into the negative index lens. The diffraction efficiency of the negative index material (NIM) DOEs is deduced based on the special propagating laws and imaging properties of negative index lenses, and the expression for microstructure height is given. As an example, an achromatic refractive–diffractive negative index lens with 150 mm focal length and 15 mm entrance pupil diameter is discussed from wavelength 0.848 ?m through wavelength 0.912 ?m to wavelength 1.114 ?m. According to the deduced expression for the NIM DOEs, the diffraction efficiency is calculated, and the diffraction efficiency curve is fitted by interpolation.

Piao, Mingxu; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhang, Bo



Can biologic treatment induce cutaneous focal mucinosis?  

PubMed Central

Skin mucinosis is a rare skin disease which clinically manifests as firm papules and waxy nodules. We report a case of a 66-year-old female psoriatic patient who developed skin mucinosis during biological therapy. Because of a previous lack of response to the local and conventional systemic treatment of psoriasis, the patient received biological therapy (infliximab from June 2008 to May 2009 – initial clinical improvement and loss of treatment effectiveness in the 36th week of the therapy; adalimumab from June 2009 to January 2010 – lack effectiveness; ustekinumab from March 2012 to the present). Throughout 2 months we observed a manifestation of the skin mucinosis as well-demarcated, yellow and brown, papulo-nodular lesions of 5–10 mm in diameter, localized on the back. Histopathological examination with alcian blue staining demonstrated mucin deposits in the dermis. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of cutaneous focal mucinosis was established. We present the case because of the extremely rare occurrence of the disease. Scarce literature and data suggest that there is an association between focal mucinosis and thyroid dysfunction, as well as possible adverse effects of biological therapy with TNF-? antagonists. PMID:25610359

W?odarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Sieniawska, Joanna; Rogowski-Tylman, Micha?; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina; Narbutt, Joanna



Posttraumatic focal dystonia of the shoulder.  


Focal posttraumatic shoulder dystonia is a rare and not easily identifiable entity. Its true pathophysiologic nature, predisposing factors, and disease course remain debatable.This article describes a rare case of a 40-year-old man with late symptoms of focal shoulder dystonia after peripheral trauma of his left shoulder girdle. The shoulder was indirectly injured from the impact of a fall off his motorbike 3 years earlier. He was referred to the authors' institution because remarkable reduction of arm abduction, muscle spasms, and circumscribed hypertrophy of the trapezius muscle were noted while his head and neck were in neutral position and had a full range of motion. The left shoulder had a fixed elevated posture compared with the contralateral shoulder. A continuous burning pain was localized over the area of the hypertrophied trapezius muscle, radiating to the ipsilateral side of the head and neck. Dystonic movements of the trapezius, rhomboid, and supraspinatus muscles were observed. The abduction of the shoulder was significantly decreased, and any repetitive effort for arm abduction induced an exaggeration of his movement disorder, leading to a more pronounced shoulder elevation.Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging of the left shoulder revealed a suprascapular tendinitis with no other abnormalities. Repeated needle electromyography of the left trapezius muscle and neurography of the accessory nerve on both sides were normal. Injections of botulinum toxin A were effective in the resolution of muscle hypertrophy and abnormal posture. PMID:22691679

Vasileiadis, Georgios I; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Zoubos, Aristeides B



Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat.  


Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 h of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we previously developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. Here we describe in detail the surgical procedures of our model, including preparing emboli from rat donors. These procedures can be typically completed within ?30 min, and they are highly adaptable to other strains of rats, as well as mice, in both sexes. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang



Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal conic domains (FCDs) in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micro- and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture, where the focal hyperbolae diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical eventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a "background texture" of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors and nanomanufacturing.

Beller, Daniel A.; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Honglawan, Apiradee; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.



Can biologic treatment induce cutaneous focal mucinosis?  


Skin mucinosis is a rare skin disease which clinically manifests as firm papules and waxy nodules. We report a case of a 66-year-old female psoriatic patient who developed skin mucinosis during biological therapy. Because of a previous lack of response to the local and conventional systemic treatment of psoriasis, the patient received biological therapy (infliximab from June 2008 to May 2009 - initial clinical improvement and loss of treatment effectiveness in the 36(th) week of the therapy; adalimumab from June 2009 to January 2010 - lack effectiveness; ustekinumab from March 2012 to the present). Throughout 2 months we observed a manifestation of the skin mucinosis as well-demarcated, yellow and brown, papulo-nodular lesions of 5-10 mm in diameter, localized on the back. Histopathological examination with alcian blue staining demonstrated mucin deposits in the dermis. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of cutaneous focal mucinosis was established. We present the case because of the extremely rare occurrence of the disease. Scarce literature and data suggest that there is an association between focal mucinosis and thyroid dysfunction, as well as possible adverse effects of biological therapy with TNF-? antagonists. PMID:25610359

Lesiak, Aleksandra; W?odarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Sieniawska, Joanna; Rogowski-Tylman, Micha?; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina; Narbutt, Joanna



Characterization of the KATRIN Focal Plane Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment designed to measure directly the electron neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. In the experiment, electrons from tritium decay of a gaseous source are magnetically guided through analyzing solenoidal retarding electrostatic spectrometers and detected via a focal plane detector. The focal plane detector is a 90mm diameter, 500 micron thick monolithic silicon pin-diode array with 148 pixels. The diode contacts have a titanium nitride overlayer and are connected to preamplifiers via an array of spring-loaded pogo pins. This novel connection scheme minimizes backgrounds from radioactive materials near the detector, facilitates characterization and replacement of the detector wafer, but requires a unique mounting design. The force of the pins strains the silicon, possibly altering the detector properties and performance. Results on the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of a prototype detector under stress from pogo pin readouts will be presented.

Bodine, Laura; Leber, Michelle; Myers, Allan; Tolich, Kazumi; Vandevender, Brent; Wall, Brandon



The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic – being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability. PMID:25538678

Vaughan, David N.; Jackson, Graeme D.



Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

Riza, Nabeel A.



Myofilament length dependent activation  

SciTech Connect

The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)



Length Paradox in Relativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)

Martins, Roberto de A.



Development of a real time MTF test bench for visible optical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time MTF test bench for visible optical systems is presented in this paper. This test bench can perform quick on-axis and off-axis MTF measurement of optical systems whose aperture are less than 200mm in visible wavelength. A high quality off-axis parabolic collimator is used as object generator of this test bench. The image analyzer is a microscopy with CCD camera installed on a multi-axis motion stage. The software of this MTF test bench provides a good interface for the operators to set measurement parameters and control this bench. Validation of this test bench, performed with a 50mm plano-convex audit lens, shows that MTF measurement error of this bench is within 0.04. Besides MTF measurement, this bench can also perform effective focal length (EFL) and back focal length (BFL) without any hardware modification. Transmittance of optical system can also be performed on this bench with an integrating sphere.

Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yuheng; Fan, Jiming; Xiang, Chunchang; Shen, Weimin



Designing an all-reflective, long focus and large field of view optical system with freeform surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All-reflective optical system has been widely used in the deep space detection applications. We studied the application of freeform surface in all-reflective, off-axis optical systems, which have long effective focal length and large field of view, were designed. The freeform surface was employed to achieve better performance, while reduce the system size and weight. The starting point of the design was calculated by using the geometrical optics and properties of conic. After that we optimized the starting point using the strategy of successive approximation optimization method to reduce the design difficulty. Based on the theory of aberration, the best position of freeform surface in the off-axis system was analyzed. At last, two four-mirror optical systems with long EFL and large field of view were designed, the effective focal length are 1.95m and 4.5m, respectively; the field of view for both systems are 3°. The modulation transfer function is close to diffraction limit.

Wang, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, YongTian; Liu, Yue



Paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with fixed distance between object and image points and fixed position of image-space focal point.  


This work performs an analysis of basic optical properties of zoom lenses with a fixed distance between object and image points and a fixed position of the image-space focal point. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples. PMID:24977815

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri



Analytic versus adaptive image formation using optical phased arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current optical phased arrays produce images by adaptively phasing the output of several telescopes on a common focal plane. Image based phasing techniques such as Phase Diversity, are used to maintain the phasing in real time. This requires both a computationally intensive algorithm for estimating the phasing errors as well as a means for rapidly adjusting the optical path length through each telescope. In this paper we will compare the adaptive technique of phasing multiple telescopes with the analytic technique of digital holography. Digital holography provides a means of digitally estimating and correcting the phasing errors between the multiple telescopes. The process can occur long after the data has been acquired which relaxes the requirements on the stability of the phased array as well as the mechanical complexity. Experimental results will be shown for adaptive and analytical image formation in remote sensing applications.

Kendrick, Rick; Marron, Joseph C.



Multiple optical calibration system-based effective multiviews video processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multiple optical calibration system (MOCS)-based effective multiview video processing (MVP) is proposed. The proposed MOCS can be classified as intracamera processing and intercamera processing (IP). In IP, unequal brightness intensity is rectified by using a brightness difference map, and geometric distortion of the optical lens is corrected. In IP, several important factors, such as unequal camera sensor location, tilt degree of lens mount, and focal length, among multiple cameras are calibrated. Furthermore, an effective disparity matching algorithm, called an as adaptive-based disparity matching algorithm (A-DMA), is proposed for MVP. The proposed A-DMA enhances the performance of MVP in terms of accuracy of disparity estimation and computational overhead.

Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Sanghoon; Cha, Si-Ho



A Characteristic Particle Length  

E-print Network

It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

Mark D. Roberts



Editorial: Redefining Length  

SciTech Connect

Technological changes have moved publishing to electronic-first publication where the print version has been relegated to simply another display mode. Distribution in HTML and EPUB formats, for example, changes the reading environment and reduces the need for strict pagination. Therefore, in an effort to streamline the calculation of length, the APS journals will no longer use the printed page as the determining factor for length. Instead the journals will now use word counts (or word equivalents for tables, figures, and equations) to establish length; for details please see The title, byline, abstract, acknowledgment, and references will not be included in these counts allowing authors the freedom to appropriately credit coworkers, funding sources, and the previous literature, bringing all relevant references to the attention of readers. This new method for determining length will be easier for authors to calculate in advance, and lead to fewer length-associated revisions in proof, yet still retain the quality of concise communication that is a virtue of short papers.

Sprouse, Gene D. [American Physical Society (United States)



Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into tissue-mimicking media with thickness up to 70 mean free paths  

PubMed Central

In turbid media such as biological tissue, multiple scattering hinders direct light focusing at depths beyond one transport mean free path. As a solution to this problem, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing is proposed based on ultrasonic encoding of diffused laser light and optical time reversal. In TRUE focusing, a laser beam of long coherence length illuminates a turbid medium, where the incident light undergoes multiple scattering and part of it gets ultrasonically encoded within the ultrasonic focal zone. A conjugated wavefront of the ultrasonically encoded light is then generated by a phase conjugate mirror outside the medium, which traces back the trajectories of the ultrasonically encoded diffused light and converges light to the ultrasonic focal zone. Here, we report the latest experimental improvement in TRUE optical focusing that increases its penetration in tissue-mimicking media from a thickness of 3.75 to 7.00 mm. We also demonstrate that the TRUE focus depends on the focal diameter of the ultrasonic transducer. PMID:21895321

Liu, Honglin; Xu, Xiao; Lai, Puxiang; Wang, Lihong V.



Grazing incidence relay optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity to work in the focal plane of the primary mirrors has been one of the factors limiting the utility of grazing incidence telescopes in X-ray astronomy. In connection with the reported investigation, computer ray tracing programs have been used to study the performance of several grazing incidence relay optics (GIRO) systems used together with a large nested solar X-ray telescope. It was found that GIRO magnifiers are useful to map appropriate sized regions of the sun onto available CCD detectors. GIRO collimators can be used together with an X-ray spectrometer to study the X-ray spectrum from very small regions on the sun. Attention is given to the stationary mode, the tracking mode, and the size of GIRO elements. It is found that for a given GIRO size and magnification a use of the diverging system has the advantage of reducing the overall length of the main telescope-GIRO combination. However, the resolution provided by the diverging GIRO may not be as good as that obtained with the corresponding converging GIRO.

Chase, R. C.; Davis, J. M.; Krieger, A. S.; Underwood, J. H.


Flatland optics. II. Basic experiments.  


In "Flatland optics: fundamentals" [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1755 (2000)] we described the basic principles of two-dimensional (2D) optics and showed that a wavelength lambda in three-dimensional (3D) space (x,y,z) may appear in Flatland (x,z) as a wave with another wavelength, lambda = lambda/cosalpha. The tilt angle alpha can be modified by a 3D (Spaceland) individual who then is able to influence the 2D optics in a way that must appear to be magical to 2D Flatland individuals-in the spirit of E. A. Abbott's science fiction story [Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions, 6th ed. (Dover, New York, 1952)] of 1884. We now want to establish the reality or objectivity of the 2D wavelength lambda by some basic experiments similar to those that demonstrated roughly 200 years ago the wave nature of light. Specifically, we describe how to measure the 2D wavelength lambda by mean of five different arrangements that involve Young's biprism configuration, Talbot's self-imaging effect, measuring the focal length of a Fresnel zone plate, and letting light be diffracted by a double slit and by a grating. We also performed experiments with most of these arrangements. The results reveal that the theoretical wavelength, as predicted by our Flatland optics theory, does indeed coincide with the wavelength lambda as measured by Flatland experiments. Finally, we present an alternative way to understand Flatland optics in the spatial frequency domains of Flatland and Spaceland. PMID:11336208

Lohmann, A W; Wang, D; Pe'er, A; Friesem, A A



The Impact of Domestication on the Chicken Optical Apparatus  

PubMed Central

Domestication processes tend to release animals from natural selection and favour traits desired by humans, such as food-production and co-operative behaviour. A side effect of such selective breeding is the alteration of unintended traits. In this paper, we investigate how active selection for egg production in chickens has affected the visual system, in particular the optical sensitivity that relates to the ability of chickens to see in dim light. We measured eye dimensions as well as the pupil diameter at different light intensities (the steady state pupil dynamics), in adult male and female White Leghorns and the closest relatives to their ancestor, the Red Junglefowls. With this information, we calculated the focal length and optical sensitivity (f-number) of the eyes. Males have larger eyes than females in both breeds and White Leghorn eyes are larger than those of Red Junglefowls in both sexes. The steady state pupil dynamics is less variable, however, the combination of pupil dynamics and eye size gives a higher optical sensitivity in Red Junglefowl eyes than in White Leghorns at light intensities below approximately 10 cd/m2. While eye size and focal length match the larger body size in White Leghorns compared to Red Junglefowls, the steady state pupil dynamics do not. The reason for this is likely to be that eye morphology and the neuro-muscular control of the pupil have been affected differently by the strong selection for egg production and the simultaneous release of the selection pressure for high performing vision. This study is the first description of how optical sensitivity has changed in a domesticated species and our results demonstrate important considerations regarding domestication processes and sensory ability. PMID:23776492



Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Rationale and Treatment Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Focal therapy is an emerging treatment modality for localised prostate cancer that aims to reduce the morbidity seen with radical therapy, while maintaining cancer control. Focal therapy treatment strategies minimise damage to non-cancerous tissue, with priority given to the sparing of key structures such as the neurovascular bundles, external sphincter, bladder neck and rectum. There are a number of ablative technologies that can deliver energy to destroy cancer cells as part of a focal therapy strategy. The most widely investigated are cryotherapy and high-intensity focussed ultrasound. Existing radical therapies, such as brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, also have the potential to be applied in a focal manner. The functional outcomes of focal therapy from several phase I and II trials have been encouraging, with low rates of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Robust medium- and long-term cancer control outcomes are currently lacking. Controversies in focal therapy remain, notably treatment paradigms based on the index lesion hypothesis, appropriate patient selection for focal therapy and how the efficacy of focal therapy should be assessed. This review articles discusses the current status of focal therapy, highlighting controversies and emerging strategies that can influence treatment outcomes for the future. PMID:23759249

Kasivisvanathan, V.; Emberton, M.; Ahmed, H.U.



Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan



PIPKI? regulates focal adhesion dynamics and colon cancer cell invasion.  


Focal adhesion assembly and disassembly are essential for cell migration and cancer invasion, but the detailed molecular mechanisms regulating these processes remain to be elucidated. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type I? (PIPKI?) binds talin and is required for focal adhesion formation in EGF-stimulated cells, but its role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics and cancer invasion is poorly understood. We show here that overexpression of PIPKI? promoted focal adhesion formation, whereas cells expressing either PIPKI?(K188,200R) or PIPKI?(D316K), two kinase-dead mutants, had much fewer focal adhesions than those expressing WT PIPKI? in CHO-K1 cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PIPKI?, but not PIPKI?(K188,200R), resulted in an increase in both focal adhesion assembly and disassembly rates. Depletion of PIPKI? by using shRNA strongly inhibited formation of focal adhesions in HCT116 cells. Overexpression of PIPKI?(K188,200R) or depletion of PIPKI? reduced the strength of HCT116 cell adhesion to fibronection and inhibited the invasive capacities of HCT116 cells. PIPKI? depletion reduced PIP? levels to ?40% of control and PIP? to undetectable levels, and inhibited vinculin localizing to focal adhesions. Taken together, PIPKI? positively regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cancer invasion, most probably through PIP?-mediated vinculin activation. PMID:21931851

Wu, Zhaofei; Li, Xiang; Sunkara, Manjula; Spearman, Heather; Morris, Andrew J; Huang, Cai



Multi-chroic Dual-Polarization Bolometric Focal Plane for Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing multi-chroic antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) focal planes for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimetry. In each pixel, a dual polarized sinuous antenna collects light over a two-octave frequency band. Each antenna couples to the telescope with a contacting silicon lens. The antenna couples the broadband RF signal to microstrip transmission lines, and then filter banks split the broadband signal into several frequency bands. A TES bolometer detects the power in each band and polarization. We will describe the design of this device and demonstrate its performance with optical data measured using prototype pixels. Our measurements show low ellipticity beams, low cross-polarization, and properly partitioned bands in banks of 2, 3, and 7 filters. Finally, we will describe how we will upgrade the Polarbear CMB experiment using the focal planes of these detectors to increase the experiment's mapping speed and its ability to discriminate between the CMB and polarized foregrounds.

Suzuki, A.; Arnold, K.; Edwards, J.; Engargiola, G.; Ghribi, A.; Holzapfel, W.; Lee, A.; Meng, X.; Myers, M.; O'Brient, R.; Quealy, E.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.



Introduction of four different drive systems used in LAMOST focal plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes four different drive systems adopted in LAMOST focal plane mechanism to achieve four movements: field derotation, focal plane attitude adjustment, focusing and move aside out of light path for optical checking. Different type drive systems, such as worm gear drive, spur gear drive, friction drive and direct drive, which were devised and used in telescopes in the past years, have their own inherent characteristics and their working conditions. According to feasibility, reliability, suitability and cost effective, friction drive, worm gear drive, ball screw drive and chain drive are selected to as the drive systems for the above four movements. The on-shop test results show that all the drive systems have met the design goals with the accuracy of image field derotation 0.45 arcsec, attitude adjustment 0.24 arcsec, focusing 2 microns and move aside 0.02mm.

Wang, Guomin; Jiang, Xiang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Guoping; Gu, Bozhong



Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin



Design of large aperture focal plane shutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of ?200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long



Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures.  


Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function, including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a critical mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

Motelow, Joshua E; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M; Sachdev, Robert N S; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P; Englot, Dario J; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal



Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.  


Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas. PMID:24041319

Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François



Acute focal bacterial nephritis in 25 children.  


Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN), formerly known as lobar nephronia, is a rare form of interstitial bacterial nephritis. Most often described in adults with diabetes, there is only limited knowledge of AFBN in children. Ultrasound shows circular hypoechogenic, hypoperfused parenchyma lesions, which may be misdiagnosed as a renal abscess or tumor. From 1984 to 2005, AFBN was diagnosed in 30 children at the University Hospital Münster and the General Hospital Celle, Germany. Data of 25 cases (14 girls, 11 boys) were available for retrospective evaluation. Twenty-five children with AFBN, mean age 4.5 years (range: 0.25-17.5 years), were followed up on average 4.2 years (range: 0.5-11 years). All children were admitted to hospital due to fever and rapid deterioration of clinical condition, initially suspected of having meningitis (four patients), urinary tract infections (five patients), renal tumor (three patients), pneumonia (two patients), appendicitis (one patient), or with only unspecific symptoms (ten patients). AFBN was diagnosed by ultrasound on average 3 days (range: 1-10 days) after onset of symptoms. Pyuria was found in 18/25 children, bacteriuria in 20/25 children, and hematuria in one patient. Blood cultures were negative in all but one patient. Urinary tract abnormalities were found in 12 children, including vesicoureteral reflux (8), megaureter (1), urethral valves (1), unilateral renal hypoplasia (1), and one patient with megacystis, megaureter, caudal dystopic left kidney combined with hypoplasia and dysplasia of the right kidney. High-resolution ultrasound showed AFBN lesions to have resolved completely within 12 weeks after onset of intravenous antibiotic therapy in 20/25 children. Renal parenchymal cysts remained in three cases and focal scarring in two. Blood pressure and renal function was normal in 24/25 cases. AFBN should be suspected in children with fever and rapid deterioration of clinical condition. Residual lesions such as cysts or scarring of renal parenchyma could remain. PMID:17874139

Seidel, Tanja; Kuwertz-Bröking, Eberhard; Kaczmarek, Sigrid; Kirschstein, Martin; Frosch, Michael; Bulla, Monika; Harms, Erik



Focal cortical dysplasias in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports indicate the presence of histological abnormalities in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggestive of a dysplastic process. In this study we identified areas of abnormal cortical thinning within the cerebral cortex of ASD individuals and examined the same for neuronal morphometric abnormalities by using computerized image analysis. Results The study analyzed celloidin-embedded and Nissl-stained serial full coronal brain sections of 7 autistic (ADI-R diagnosed) and 7 age/sex-matched neurotypicals. Sections were scanned and manually segmented before implementing an algorithm using Laplace’s equation to measure cortical width. Identified areas were then subjected to analysis for neuronal morphometry. Results of our study indicate the presence within our ASD population of circumscribed foci of diminished cortical width that varied among affected individuals both in terms of location and overall size with the frontal lobes being particularly involved. Spatial statistic indicated a reduction in size of neurons within affected areas. Granulometry confirmed the presence of smaller pyramidal cells and suggested a concomitant reduction in the total number of interneurons. Conclusions The neuropathology is consistent with a diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Results from the medical literature (e.g., heterotopias) and our own study suggest that the genesis of this cortical malformation seemingly resides in the heterochronic divisions of periventricular germinal cells. The end result is that during corticogenesis radially migrating neuroblasts (future pyramidal cells) are desynchronized in their development from those that follow a tangential route (interneurons). The possible presence of a pathological mechanism in common among different conditions expressing an autism-like phenotype argue in favor of considering ASD a “sequence” rather than a syndrome. Focal cortical dysplasias in ASD may serve to explain the high prevalence of seizures and sensory abnormalities in this patient population. PMID:24252498



Relativistic Length Agony Continued  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

Redzic, D. V.



Design of the focal plane array assembly for the Mars Observer/Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (MO/VIMS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique focal plane array (FPA) assembly combining both electronic and optical components in a single hermetically sealed hybrid package has been designed to meet the performance requirements imposed on the focal plane assembly in the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) for the Mars Observer (MO) mission. Inside the FPA package is a configuration of three multiplexed linear arrays containing 320 detector elements, a combination of Si and InSb, allowing continuous spectral coverage from 0.35 to 5.14 microns. An optical subassembly consisting of two spectral order-sorting filters with intrinsic field-of-view apertures requiring critical optical alignment is also internal to the hybrid. Several engineering issues arose during the MO/VIMS FPA development phase which had challenging design ramifications. FPA performance requirements, design approach, and critical issues are discussed.

Niblack, Curtiss A.; Evans, Thomas G.; Toft, J. Brian



1024 x 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 10(24) x 10(24) pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEAT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.

Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, J. T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; LeVan, P. D.



Advancement in 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS. Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch 640x480 focal plane arrays (FPAs) in 2006, significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs. NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), vehicle driver vision enhancers (DVE), digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles (DENVG) and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.

Li, Chuan; Skidmore, George; Howard, Christopher; Clarke, Elwood; Han, C. J.



Lengths of Ladybugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore the concept of using units to measure length. Learners first read "Ladybug on the Move" by Richard Fowler and measure the distance the ladybug travels on each page using yarn. Next, learners make their own "Go Ladybug Go!" books and use lima beans and a ladybug ruler to make and record measurements.



Length, Perimeter, and Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the concepts of length, perimeter, and area. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to perimeter and area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with learning about perimeter and area.



Mappability and read length  

PubMed Central

Power-law distributions are the main functional form for the distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size of fragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeat sequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome can be as long as 104 bases, or 105 ? 106 bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of 103 bases. With a read length of 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of the assembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1 kb reads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the human genome (8% in GRCh37/hg19). The slow decay (long tail) of the power-law function implies a diminishing return in converting unmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of the read length, with the understanding that increasing read length will always move toward the direction of 100% mappability. PMID:25426137

Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan



How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,,  

E-print Network

How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,, Ying Li,, and Aaron R. Dinner the thermodynamics and kinetics of integrin receptor binding and clustering impact the formation of focal adhesions. Biochemistry 2004, 43, 2699). In this paper, we account for this trend with a simple model in which integrins

Dinner, Aaron


Protein Aggregation After Focal Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hours of transient focal brain ischemia causes acute neuronal death in the striatal core region and a somewhat more delayed type of neuronal death in neocortex. The objective of the current study was to investigate protein aggregation and neuronal death after focal brain ischemia in rats. Brain ischemia was induced by 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Protein

Bing-Ren Hu; Shorena Janelidze; Myron D. Ginsberg; Raul Busto; Miguel Perez-Pinzon; Thomas J. Sick; C. L. Liu



Electron beam deflected to determine focal point location  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System locates the focal point of an extremely high intensity electron beam. The electron beam is swept and scanned cyclically with deflection coils under a focusing lens, causing the beam focal point to move so the locus of its positions is a spherical surface symmetrical to the beam axis.

Downing, R. D.



Recent advances in focal therapy of prostate and kidney cancer  

PubMed Central

The concept of focal therapy in oncologic surgery refers to maximizing healthy tissue preservation while maintaining excellent cancer control outcomes. Herein, we address the recent advantages in the field of focal therapy for both kidney and prostate cancer, focusing on technological achievements and future perspectives. PMID:20948877

Tsivian, Matvey



Focus in Grade 8: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 8 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate understanding, stimulate productive discussions about…

Schielack, Jane



Osteogenic lineage restriction by osteoprogenitors cultured on nanometric grooved surfaces: The role of focal adhesion maturation?  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of progenitor cells is dependent on more than biochemical signalling. Topographical cues in natural bone extracellular matrix guide cellular differentiation through the formation of focal adhesions, contact guidance, cytoskeletal rearrangement and ultimately gene expression. Osteoarthritis and a number of bone disorders present as growing challenges for our society. Hence, there is a need for next generation implantable devices to substitute for, or guide, bone repair in vivo. Cellular responses to nanometric topographical cues need to be better understood in vitro in order to ensure the effective and efficient integration and performance of these orthopedic devices. In this study, the FDA-approved plastic polycaprolactone was embossed with nanometric grooves and the response of primary and immortalized osteoprogenitor cells observed. Nanometric groove dimensions were 240 nm or 540 nm deep and 12.5 ?m wide. Cells cultured on test surfaces followed contact guidance along the length of groove edges, elongated along their major axis and showed nuclear distortion; they formed more focal complexes and lower proportions of mature adhesions relative to planar controls. Down-regulation of the osteoblast marker genes RUNX2 and BMPR2 in primary and immortalized cells was observed on grooved substrates. Down-regulation appeared to directly correlate with focal adhesion maturation, indicating the involvement of ERK 1/2 negative feedback pathways following integrin-mediated FAK activation. PMID:24252447

Cassidy, John W.; Roberts, Jemma N.; Smith, Carol-Anne; Robertson, Mary; White, Kate; Biggs, Manus J.; Oreffo, Richard O.C.; Dalby, Matthew J.



Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL] [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL] [ORNL



Design of the fiber optic support system and fiber bundle accelerated life test for VIRUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantity and length of optical fibers required for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope* Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX) create unique fiber handling challenges. For HETDEX‡, at least 33,600 fibers will transmit light from the focal surface of the telescope to an array of spectrographs making up the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). Up to 96 Integral Field Unit (IFU) bundles, each containing 448 fibers, hang suspended from the telescope's moving tracker located more than 15 meters above the VIRUS instruments. A specialized mechanical system is being developed to support fiber optic assemblies onboard the telescope. The discrete behavior of 448 fibers within a conduit is also of primary concern. A life cycle test must be conducted to study fiber behavior and measure Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD) as a function of time. This paper focuses on the technical requirements and design of the HETDEX fiber optic support system, the electro-mechanical test apparatus for accelerated life testing of optical fiber assemblies. Results generated from the test will be of great interest to designers of robotic fiber handling systems for major telescopes. There is concern that friction, localized contact, entanglement, and excessive tension will be present within each IFU conduit and contribute to FRD. The test apparatus design utilizes six linear actuators to replicate the movement of the telescope over 65,000 accelerated cycles, simulating five years of actual operation.

Soukup, Ian M.; Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard J.; Heisler, James T.; Mock, Jason R.; Mollison, Nicholas T.; Good, John M.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Anderson, Seth C.; Bauer, Svend M.; Kelz, Andreas; Roth, Martin M.; Fahrenthold, Eric P.



LSST Camera Optics Design  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N



Measurement of subpicosecond electron pulse length  

SciTech Connect

A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility to characterize subpicosecond electron pulses. Using a far-infrared Michelson interferometer, this method measures the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical autocorrelation. The electron bunch length is obtained from the measurement with a simple and systematic analysis which includes interference effects caused by the beam splitter. This method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods. The principle of this method and experimental results are discussed.

Lihn, Hung chi



Measurement of subpicosecond electron bunch lengths  

SciTech Connect

A new frequency-resolved bunch-length measuring system has been developed at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility suitable for subpicosecond electron bunches. This method utilizes a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches through optical auto-correlation. A simple and systematic way has also been developed to include interference effects caused by the beam splitter, so the electron bunch length can be easily obtained from the measurement. This autocorrelation method demonstrates subpicosecond resolving power that cannot be achieved by existing time-resolved methods.

Lihn, Hung-chi; Bocek, D.; Kung, P.; Settakorn, C.; Wiedemann, H.



[Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].  


Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a rough border value. Values of DPI (Doppler perfusion index) over 0.3 and tumor index over 1.0 characterize primary, and lower values characterize secondary liver malignancies. In differentiation of benign and malign tumors of kidneys, besides the aspect of vascularisation, the maximal frequency altitude in tumor artery (the limit around 2.5 kHz) is very important. However, peripheral and penetrating blood vessels are most usually seen in RCC, less often in AML and bigger oncocytomas. CDS with contrast agent is very useful in making differential diagnosis of the focal lesions with 95% specificity for some lesions. PMID:15137225

Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurovi?, V; Salihefendi?, Nizama; Smajlovi?, Fahrudin



Back focal plane imaging of Tamm plasmons and their coupled emission  

PubMed Central

The unique optical properties of TPs – such as flexible wavevector matching conditions including in-plane wavevector within the light line, existing both S- and P-polarized TPs and ability of populating with KR and RK illuminations – facilitate them for direct optical excitation. The Tamm plasmon Coupled emission (TPCE) from a combined photonic-plasmonic structure sustaining both surface plasmons (SPs) and Tamm plasmons (TPs) is described. The sensitivity of TPCE to the emission wavelength and polarization is examined with back focal plane imaging and verified with the numerical calculations. The results reveal that the excited probe can couple with both TPs and SPs, resulting in SPCE and TPCE, respectively. The TPCE angle is strongly dependent on the wavelength allowing for spectral resolution using different observation angles. These Tamm structures provide a new tool to control the optical emission from dye molecules and have many potential applications in fluorescence based-sensing and imaging.

Chen, Yikai; Zhang, Douguo; Qiu, Dong; Zhu, Liangfu; Yu, Sisheng; Yao, Peijun; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.



Vowel length in Farsi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tests whether Farsi vowels are contrastive with respective to length. Farsi has a six-vowel system with three lax vowels and three tense vowels. Both traditional grammarians and modern linguists believe that Farsi tense vowels are longer than lax vowels, and that there are no vowel pairs that contrast only in length. However, it has been suggested that Farsi exhibits compensatory lengthening, which is triggered by the deletion of glottal consonants in coda position in informal speech (Darzi, 1991). As a result, minimal pairs such as [tar] and [tarh] should contrast only with respect to vowel length. A corpus of 90 words of the form CVC, CVCG, CVGC, and CVCC (where V=a vowel and G=a glottal consonant) was recorded, and durations of vowels in different contexts were measured and compared. Preliminary results show that lax vowel durations fall into three groups with CVCC longer than CVCG/CVGC, and the latter longer than CVC. It remains to be seen whether CVCG/CVGC words show compensatory lengthening when the glottal consonant is deleted.

Shademan, Shabnam



Electrophysiological response dynamics during focal cortical infarction.  


While the intracellular processes of hypoxia-induced necrosis and the intercellular mechanisms of post-ischemic neurotoxicity associated with stroke are well documented, the dynamic electrophysiological (EP) response of neurons within the core or periinfarct zone remains unclear. The present study validates a method for continuous measurement of the local EP responses during focal cortical infarction induced via photothrombosis. Single microwire electrodes were acutely implanted into the primary auditory cortex of eight rats. Multi-unit neural activity, evoked via a continuous 2 Hz click stimulus, was recorded before, during and after infarction to assess neuronal function in response to local, permanent ischemia. During sham infarction, the average stimulus-evoked peak firing rate over 20 min remained stable at 495.5+/-14.5 spikes s-1, indicating temporal stability of neural function under normal conditions. Stimulus-evoked peak firing was reliably reduced to background levels (firing frequency in the absence of stimulus) following initiation of photothrombosis over a period of 439+/-92 s. The post-infarction firing patterns exhibited unique temporal degradation of the peak firing rate, suggesting a variable response to ischemic challenge. Despite the inherent complexity of cerebral ischemia secondary to microvascular occlusion, complete loss of EP function consistently occurred 300-600 s after photothrombosis. The results suggest that microwire recording during photothrombosis provides a simple and highly efficacious strategy for assessing the electrophysiological dynamics of cortical infarction. PMID:17124326

Chiganos, Terry C; Jensen, Winnie; Rousche, Patrick J



Kindler syndrome: a focal adhesion genodermatosis.  


Kindler syndrome (OMIM 173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by trauma-induced blistering, poikiloderma, skin atrophy, mucosal inflammation and varying degrees of photosensitivity. Although Kindler syndrome is classified as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa, it has distinct clinicopathological and molecular abnormalities. The molecular pathology of Kindler syndrome involves loss-of-function mutations in a newly recognized actin cytoskeleton-associated protein, now known as fermitin family homologue 1, encoded by the gene FERMT1. This protein mediates anchorage between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via focal adhesions, and thus the structural pathology differs from other forms of epidermolysis bullosa in which there is a disruption of the keratin intermediate filament-hemidesmosome network and the extracellular matrix. In the skin, fermitin family homologue 1 is mainly expressed in basal keratinocytes and binds to the cytoplasmic tails of beta1 and beta3 integrins as well as to fermitin family homologue 2 and filamin-binding LIM protein 1. It also plays a crucial role in keratinocyte migration, proliferation and adhesion. In this report, we review the clinical, cellular and molecular pathology of Kindler syndrome and discuss the role of fermitin family homologue 1 in keratinocyte biology. PMID:19120339

Lai-Cheong, J E; Tanaka, A; Hawche, G; Emanuel, P; Maari, C; Taskesen, M; Akdeniz, S; Liu, L; McGrath, J A



Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)



Focal peripheral neuropathies in instrumental musicians.  


Instrumental musicians often seek medical consultation for symptoms suggestive of nerve entrapment. About 20% of those seen in the author's performing artists' clinic were diagnosed with a focal neuropathy. In general, neuropathies that are most common in the overall population tend also to be most common among musicians, although some expectations exist, including, for example, localized peri-oral sensory syndromes associated with playing a brass instrument, and, possibly, ulnar neuropathies related to the playing position of bowed string players. The diagnosis is made, as always, by careful clinical assessment, including observation of the instrumentalist playing, with ancillary procedures such as nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography adding to the accuracy of the diagnosis. Treatment is similar to that used in nonmusicians, but certain factors, including the musician's requirement for extraordinary neuromuscular dexterity, may influence the therapeutic decisions. Very limited long-term outcome results are available, and additional studies in musicians would be helpful in determining the most appropriate therapeutic approaches. Virtually no longitudinal studies have been performed to look at methods for preventing these disorders. PMID:17097478

Lederman, Richard J



[Botulinum toxin in focal hyperhidrosis. An update].  


Eight years after its approval, intralesional injections of botulinum toxin type A have become established as an easily performed, highly effective and almost complication-free therapeutic option in primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Sweat production is decreased to about a sixth of previous amounts, and the effect persists for 7 months on average. Restoration of the often significantly impaired quality of life has been convincingly documented in large studies. The effect of botulinum toxin is based on the inhibition of the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. In addition to this approved use, botulinum toxin is also successfully employed in other forms of focal hyperhidrosis, particularly in gustatory sweating. However, its use in palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, the second most common form of primary hyperhidrosis, is limited because of the pain from numerous injections, need for increased doses of the expensive toxin and the relatively short effective period of about 4 months. Botulinum toxin type B appears to be comparably effective as type A products but is more often associated with systemic adverse events. PMID:22638981

Hosp, C; Naumann, M K; Hamm, H



Focal adhesions as mechanosensors: A physical mechanism  

PubMed Central

Focal adhesions (FA) are large, multiprotein complexes that provide a mechanical link between the cytoskeletal contractile machinery and the extracellular matrix. FA exhibit mechanosensitive properties; they self-assemble and elongate upon application of pulling forces and dissociate when these forces are decreased. We propose a thermodynamic model for the mechanosensitivity of FA, according to which a molecular aggregate, subjected to pulling forces, tends to grow in the direction of force application by incorporating additional molecules. We demonstrate that this principle is consistent with the phenomenology of FA dynamics by considering a one-dimensional protein aggregate subjected to pulling forces and anchored to the substrate. Depending on the force level, force distribution along the aggregate, and the character of its anchoring to the substrate, the aggregate is predicted to exhibit distinct modes of assembly that are largely consistent with the experimentally observed FA behavior. We define here specific conditions that can lead to the different regimes of FA assembly, including growth, steady state, and disassembly. PMID:16113084

Shemesh, Tom; Geiger, Benjamin; Bershadsky, Alexander D.; Kozlov, Michael M.



Mosaic near-infrared focal plane array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To built a 3K X 3K pixel near-IR FPA, we have made a package and a multi-chip module for Mitsubishi 1040 X 1040 PtSi CSD, which is one of the largest SWIR FPAs. Mosaicing demands smallest gaps between chips to achieve a large fill-factor and controlled flatness to fit a camera focal plane. The package of 52-pin half-pitch PGA has been designed to be smaller than the bear chip. After the chip is glued on the package and wire-bonded, nine packages with the chip are arrayed in three by three on a multi chip module (MCM) of 6 cm X 6 cm area. The fill-factor of the imaging area is 89 percent. The package and MCM are made of AlN ceramic of high thermal conductivity. MCM, therefore, plays a role of an efficient heat sink. The surface of the package, with which the chip is in contact, has been polished with accurate flatness as well as MCM. As the result, the height of nine chips built on MCM are uniform within approximately 20 micrometers in 6 cm X 6 cm area. The mosaic array will be equipped in a near-IR camera for astronomical observations of a wide field view.

Ichikawa, Takashi; Itoh, Nobunari; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Asai, Kenichirou; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kimata, Masafumi



Dynamic MEG imaging of focal neuronal sources  

SciTech Connect

We describe inverse methods for using the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) to image neural current sources associated with functional activation in the cerebral cortex. A Bayesian formulation is presented that is based on a Gibbs prior which reflects the sparse, focal nature of neural activation. The model includes a dynamic component so that we can utilize the full spatio-temporal data record to reconstruct a sequence of images reflecting changes in the current source amplitudes during activation. The model consists of the product of a binary field, representing the areas of activation in the cerebral cortex, and a time series at each site which represents the dynamic changes in the source amplitudes at the active sites. Our estimation methods are based on the optimization of three different functions of the posterior density. Each of these methods requires the estimation of a binary field which we compute using a mean field annealing method. We demonstrate and compare our methods in application to computer generated and experimental phantom data.

Phillips, J.W.; Leahy R.M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Controllable parabolic lensed liquid-core optical fiber by using electrostatic force.  


For typical optical fiber system, an external lens accessory set is required to adjust the optical path of output light, which however is limited by the fixed parameter of the lens accessory setup. Considering spherical aberration in the imaging process and its small focusable spot size, a complicated lens combination is required to compensate the aberration. This paper has demonstrated a unique method to fabricate liquid-core lensed fibers by filling water and NOA61 respectively into hollow Teflon AF fibers and silicate fiber, the radius of curvature of the liquid lens can be controlled by adjusting the applied voltage on the core liquid and even parabolic shape lens can be produced with enough applied voltage. The experiment has successfully demonstrated a variation of focal length from 0.628 mm to 0.111 mm responding to the change of applied voltage from 0V to 3.2KV (L = 2mm) for the Teflon AF fiber, as well as a variation of focal length from 0.274 mm to 0.08 mm responding to the change of applied voltage from 0V to 3KV (L = 2mm) for the silicate fiber. Further simulation shows that the focused spot size can be reduced to 2 µm by adjusting the refractive index and fiber geometry. Solid state parabolic lensed fiber can be produced after NOA61 is solidified by the UV curing. PMID:25321295

Tang, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xuming; Chai, Yang; Hui, Long; Tao, Lili; Tsang, Yuen H



Lengthy Relationships: Foot Length, Stride, Leg Length, Height  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paleontologists occasionally find ancient tracks and footprints preserved in the rocks. This lesson opens the door to analysing those footprints, and gleaning information about body size and activities of the extinct animals that made the tracks. Students will learn that patterns can reveal much about the past, in light of the present; and that bipedalism has appeared several times. Relationships will be found between foot length and leg length; foot length and height; leg length and height; stride length and leg length; and stride length and speed.

Jennifer Johnson


Semiconductor detectors and focal plane arrays for far-infrared imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-mm-wave radiation is resistant to the commonly employed techniques in the neighbouring microwave and IR frequency bands. In this wavelength detection range the use of solid state detectors has been hampered for the reasons of transit time of charge carriers being larger than the time of one oscillation period of radiation. Also the energy of radiation quanta is substantially smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature and even liquid nitrogen temperature. The realization of terahertz (THz) emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. Development of semiconductor focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in far-IR and sub-mm-wave semiconductor detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers. Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

Rogalski, A.



The QWIP Focal Plane Assembly for NASA's Landsat Data Continuity Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is a QWIP based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a dual channel far infrared imager with the two bands centered at 10.8[mu]m and 12.0[mu]m. The focal plane assembly (FPA) consists of three 640x512 GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays precisely mounted to a silicon carrier substrate that is mounted on an invar baseplate. The two spectral bands are defined by bandpass filters mounted in close proximity to the detector surfaces. The focal plane operating temperature is 43K. The QWIP arrays are hybridized to Indigo ISC9803 readout integrated circuits (ROICs). Two varieties of QWIP detector arrays are being developed for this project, a corrugated surface structure QWIP and a grating surface structure QWIP. This paper will describe the TIRS system noise equivalent temperature difference sensitivity as it affects the QWIP focal plane performance requirements: spectral response, dark current, conversion efficiency, read noise, temperature stability, pixel uniformity, optical crosstalk and pixel yield. Additional mechanical constraints as well as qualification through Technology Readiness Level 6 (TRL 6) will also be discussed.

Jhabvala, M; Choi, K.; Reuter, D.; Sundaram, M.; Jhabvala, C; La, Anh; Waczynski, Augustyn; Bundas, Jason



Pars Plana Vitrectomy Combined with Focal Endolaser Photocoagulation for Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Background. To report the outcome of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with intraoperative endolaser focal photocoagulation (PC) on eyes with idiopathic macular telangiectasis (MacTel) type 1. Methods. This was a retrospective study of two female patients with MacTel type 1 who were resistant to focal photocoagulation, sub-Tenon triamcinolone injection, and/or antiangiogenic drugs. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was determined, and fluorescein angiography (FA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed before and after surgery for up to 19 months. Results. After surgery, the BCVA gradually improved from 20/100 to 20/20 at 19 months in Case 1 and from 20/50 to 20/13 at 13 months in Case 2. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed leakage at the late phase, and OCT showed that the cystoid macular edema was resolved and the fovea was considerably thinner postoperatively. Conclusion. Patients with MacTel type 1 who are refractory to the other types of treatments can benefit from PPV combined with intraoperative endolaser focal PC with functional and morphological improvements. PMID:24876845

Terauchi, Gaku; Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Imamura, Yutaka; Watanabe, Emiko; Kondo, Takaaki; Mizota, Atsushi



Pars plana vitrectomy combined with focal endolaser photocoagulation for idiopathic macular telangiectasia.  


Background. To report the outcome of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with intraoperative endolaser focal photocoagulation (PC) on eyes with idiopathic macular telangiectasis (MacTel) type 1. Methods. This was a retrospective study of two female patients with MacTel type 1 who were resistant to focal photocoagulation, sub-Tenon triamcinolone injection, and/or antiangiogenic drugs. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was determined, and fluorescein angiography (FA) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed before and after surgery for up to 19 months. Results. After surgery, the BCVA gradually improved from 20/100 to 20/20 at 19 months in Case 1 and from 20/50 to 20/13 at 13 months in Case 2. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed leakage at the late phase, and OCT showed that the cystoid macular edema was resolved and the fovea was considerably thinner postoperatively. Conclusion. Patients with MacTel type 1 who are refractory to the other types of treatments can benefit from PPV combined with intraoperative endolaser focal PC with functional and morphological improvements. PMID:24876845

Terauchi, Gaku; Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Imamura, Yutaka; Watanabe, Emiko; Kondo, Takaaki; Mizota, Atsushi



Hybrid refractive/diffractive optical system design for light and compact uncooled longwave infrared imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compares with traditional optics,the difractive optical element(DOE) has unique property of minus dispersion.The special state can be used in the optical system to improve performance,lighten weight and reduce volume effectively.In the paper,an infrared optical system with DOE for LWIR thermal imager is proposed.The primary optical parameters of thermal imager are wavelength range 8.0- 12.0?m,effective focal length (EFL) 150 mm,f/numbe 1.0 and field of view 8.58 degrees.The system uses uncooled infrared detector with 320×240 pixels and 45?m pixel size. The f/number matches the sensitivity range of detector array. The infrared optical system is designed by CODE-V optical design software.It is consisted of two lens,the materials of the two lenses are Germanium.The DOE is fabricated on the convex of the first lens and it can be fabricated by diamond turning technology.The imaging quafity of the optical system approached to diffraction limit.The value of modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist frequency(11lp/mm) is great than 0.78.

Wang, Hu; Bai, Yu; Luo, Jianjun



Clinical course of focal choroidal excavation in Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease  

PubMed Central

We describe focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in a case of Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada (VKH) disease and compare the findings with different chorioretinal conditions. A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with VKH based on panuveitis and exudative retinal detachments. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated a dome-shaped protrusion with a nonconforming pattern at the fovea, which had been detected as a conforming pattern 1 year before the onset. The FCE pattern returned into a conforming pattern following corticosteroid therapy. These findings suggest that the natively existent FCE could be affected by pathophysiological changes of VKH as well as other chorioretinal conditions. PMID:25506207

Nishikawa, Yuko; Fujinami, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ken; Noda, Toru; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Akiyama, Kunihiko



Review of Concepts and Applications for Multispectral/Hyperspectral Focal Plane Array (FPA) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral, and ultimately hyperspectral, focal plane arrays (FPAs) represent the logical extension of two-color FPA technology, which has already shown its utility in military applications. Incorporating the spectral discrimination function directly in the FPA would offer the potential for orders-of-magnitude increase in remote sensor system performance. It would allow reduction or even elimination of optical components currently required to provide spectral discrimination in atmospheric remote sensors. The result would be smaller, simpler instruments with higher performance than exist today.

McAdoo, James A.



Focal conduction block in a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome.  


We report a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) with focal conduction block across the tarsal tunnel (TT). A 46-year-old woman had pain in the left foot, sensory loss on the plantar surface, and positive Tinel sign over the TT. TTS was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and surgery. Motor nerve conduction studies showed focal conduction block across the TT. Conduction block has rarely been reported in TTS. In this case, conduction block provides evidence for focal demyelination as the primary pathological process in TTS. PMID:20665513

Almeida, Diogo F; Scremin, Luciano; Zúniga, Sérgio F; Oh, Shin J



Thermal analysis of the DES camera focal plate.  

SciTech Connect

A design specification for the DES Camera focal plate is to keep the deformation of the plate to less than 30 microns under operating conditions. Figure 1 shows the assembly of the focal plate, the support bipods and support ring, and the copper braid assemblies. Several studies were done to examine the deformation of the focal plate under different thermal and structural constraints. Simple hand calculations were also performed as a check of the finite element model and results. The main goal of this analysis was to determine the deformation of the plate and to understand what thermal and structural conditions are causing the deformation.

Guarino, V.; High Energy Physics



Optical amplifiers for telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains the results of simulation of Raman optical amplifiers with copropagating and counterpropagating pumping. The computer program was developed to calculate signals and noise of amplified spontaneous emission for various lengths of amplifier sections. The various applications of optical amplifiers allowing to increase regenerator section length are considered. The results of calculations are of interest to the designers

Maria S. Bylina; Sergey F. Glagolev



Focal Laser Photocoagulation in Non-Center Involved Diabetic Macular Edema  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the functional and anatomic outcomes of focal macular laser photocoagulation in eyes with non-center involved macular edema (non-CI ME). Forty-nine eyes of 43 patients with non-CI ME were included. Focal macular laser photocoagulation was conducted on twenty-nine eyes of 25 patients, while 20 eyes of 18 patients with non-CI ME were followed without treatment and served as the control group. Data relating to best corrected visual acuity (BCVA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) and central subfield thickness (CST), inner zone thickness (IZT), outer zone thickness (OZT), and total macular volume (TMV) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were collected and compared between the groups. At 12 months, VA decreased by a mean of 0.4 letters in the treatment group and 3.3 letters in the control group (p=0.03). Gain in VA ?5 letters was noted in 6 (21%) of the eyes in the treatment group versus 1 (5%) eye in the control group (p=0.12). At 12 months, average IZT decreased by 22.6 microns in the treatment group and increased by 10.9 microns in the control group (p<0.001). The treatment group revealed significant reduction in CST, average OZT, and TMV as compared to the control group at 12 months (all p<0.05).Generally, focal laser photocoagulation may have more favourable visual outcomes in this specific group of diabetic patients than does observation. In addition, focal laser treatment provided better outcomes with improvement in OCT parameters as compared to the control group. PMID:24804275

Perente, Irfan; Alkin, Zeynep; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Dardabounis, Doukas; Ogreden, Tulin Aras; Konstantinidis, Aristeidis; Kyratzoglou, Konstantinos; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan



Length of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students measure the length of the day using the rotation of the Earth, and discover that the Sun is not exactly in the same place at the same clock time every day, understand that the changes are due to motions of the Earth, and lead to differences in solar, star, and sidereal time. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.


HAb18G/CD147 Regulates Vinculin-Mediated Focal Adhesion and Cytoskeleton Organization in Cultured Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Focal adhesions (FAs), integrin-mediated macromolecular complexes located at the cell membrane extracellular interface, have been shown to regulate cell adhesion and migration. Our previous studies have indicated that HAb18G/CD147 (CD147) is involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and FA formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the current study, we determined that CD147 was involved in vinculin-mediated FA focal adhesion formation in HCC cells. We also found that deletion of CD147 led to reduced vinculin-mediated FA areas (P<0.0001), length/width ratios (P<0.0001), and mean intensities (P<0.0001). CD147 promoted lamellipodia formation by localizing Arp2/3 to the leading edge of the cell. Deletion of CD147 significantly reduced the fluorescence (t1/2) recovery times (22.7±3.3 s) of vinculin-mediated focal adhesions (P<0.0001). In cell-spreading assays, CD147 was found to be essential for dynamic focal adhesion enlargement and disassembly. Furthermore, the current data showed that CD147 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation in vinculin-mediated focal adhesions, and enhanced the accumulation of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Together, these results revealed that CD147 is involved in vinculin-mediated focal adhesion formation, which subsequently promotes cytoskeleton reorganization to facilitate invasion and migration of human HCC cells. PMID:25033086

Nan, Gang; Xu, Bao-Qing; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan



Adaptive Optics Communications Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance improvement obtained through the use of adaptive optics for deep-space communications in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is analyzed. Using simulated focal-plane signal-intensity distributions, uncoded pulse-position modulation (PPM) bit-error probabilities are calculated assuming the use of an adaptive focal-plane detector array as well as an adaptively sized single detector. It is demonstrated that current practical adaptive optics systems can yield performance gains over an uncompensated system ranging from approximately 1 dB to 6 dB depending upon the PPM order and background radiation level.

Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.; Troy, M.; Wilson, K.



Length of stain dosimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Payload customers for the Space Shuttle have recently expressed concerns about the possibility of their payloads at an adjacent pad being contaminated by plume effluents from a shuttle at an active pad as they await launch on an inactive pad. As part of a study to satisfy such concerns a ring of inexpensive dosimeters was deployed around the active pad at the inter-pad distance. However, following a launch, dosimeters cannot be read for several hours after the exposure. As a consequence factors such as different substrates, solvent systems, and possible volatilization of HCl from the badges were studied. This observation led to the length of stain (LOS) dosimeters of this invention. Commercial passive LOS dosimeters are sensitive only to the extent of being capable of sensing 2 ppm to 20 ppm if the exposure is 8 hours. To map and quantitate the HCl generated by Shuttle launches, and in the atmosphere within a radius of 1.5 miles from the active pad, a sensitivity of 2 ppm HCl in the atmospheric gases on an exposure of 5 minutes is required. A passive length of stain dosimeter has been developed having a sensitivity rendering it capable of detecting a gas in a concentration as low as 2 ppm on an exposure of five minutes.

Lueck, Dale E. (inventor)




E-print Network

.1 Focal plane array concept One option for a replacement low frequency system is a phased array proposal consists of a prime-focus cooled receiver covering 700 MHz to 1 GHz, and additional units to cover

Groppi, Christopher


Spreading Depression in Focal Ischemia: A Computational Study  

E-print Network

Spreading Depression in Focal Ischemia: A Computational Study February 27, 1997 Kenneth Revett cortical spreading depression (CSD) waves, i.e., by ischemic depolarizations. We describe here depression, computational models, stroke, ischemic penumbra and post-infarct debilitation. Running title

Ruppin, Eytan


Quantitative multi-modal analysis of pediatric focal epilepsy  

E-print Network

For patients with medically refractive focal epilepsy, surgical intervention to remove the epileptic foci is often the last alternative for permanent cure. The success of such surgery is highly dependent on the doctor's ...

Eow, Andy Khai Siang



Oral focal mucinosis: a rare case with literature review.  


Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an unusual disease that affects diverse localised areas of the mouth, where the connective tissue undergoes focal degeneration. It was described for the first time by Tomich in 1974. It presents as an asymptomatic pedunculated or sessile growth, commonly on the gingiva, with most cases being in women. Its pathogenesis is linked to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblasts during collagen production, ensuing in focal myxoid degeneration. It has no characteristic features and diagnosis depends on histological scrutiny. We report a rare case of oral focal mucinosis affecting a 54-year-old man who presented with a sessile gingival growth mimicking a common tumour-like lesion. PMID:25759271

Sowmya, G V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Nahar, Prashant; Aggarwal, Hersheal



Focal Mechanism Determination using High Frequency, Full Waveform Information  

E-print Network

In this research, we use high frequency waveform information to determine the focal mechanisms of small local earthquakes at an oil reservoir. During the waveform inversion, we maximize both the phase and amplitude matching ...

Li, Junlun



Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang



Towards a comprehensive eye model for zebrafish retinal imaging using full range spectral domain optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regenerative medicine, the zebrafish is a prominent animal model for studying degeneration and regeneration processes, e.g. of photoreceptor cells in the retina. By means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), these studies can be conducted over weeks using the same individual and hence reducing the variability of the results. To allow an improvement of zebrafish retinal OCT imaging by suitable optics, we developed a zebrafish eye model using geometrical data obtained by in vivo dispersion encoded full range OCT as well as a dispersion comprising gradient index (GRIN) lens model based on refractive index data found in the literature. Using non-sequential ray tracing, the focal length of the spherical GRIN lens (diameter of 0.96 mm) was determined to be 1.22 mm at 800 nm wavelength giving a Matheissen's ratio (ratio of focal length to radius of the lens) of 2.54, which fits well into the range between 2.19 and 2.82, found for various fish lenses. Additionally, a mean refractive index of 1.64 at 800 nm could be retrieved for the lens to yield the same focal position as found for the GRIN condition. With the aid of the zebrafish eye model, the optics of the OCT scanner head were adjusted to provide high-resolution retinal images with a field of view of 30° x 30°. The introduced model therefore provides the basis for improved retinal imaging with OCT and can be further used to study the image formation within the zebrafish eye.

Gaertner, Maria; Weber, Anke; Cimalla, Peter; Köttig, Felix; Brand, Michael; Koch, Edmund



Mid-IR quantum cascade laser mode coupling in hollow-core, fiber-optic waveguides with single-mode beam delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a theoretical and experimental study of laser coupling in hollow-core, fiber-optic waveguides with small-bore diameters of d=200 ?m. For the experiments we utilized three mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with different emission wavelength, which were coupled into the waveguides using lenses with focal lengths in the range 25-76 mm. Measurements of the output beam profiles and propagation losses were obtained as a function of the coupling conditions. With appropriate coupling parameters, single mode beam delivery can be obtained for all laser wavelengths, ranging from ? ~ 5.4 to 10.5 ?m.

Patimisco, P.; Sampaolo, A.; Kriesel, J. M.; Scamarcio, G.; Spagnolo, V.



Idiopathic unilateral focal hyperhidrosis with social anxiety disorder.  


Hyperhidrosis especially palmoplantar type are commonly referred to psychiatrist for management. Focal type of hyperhidrosis is less commonly seen more so associated with social anxiety disorder. Focal type is associated with variety of organic causes which has to be excluded before labeling it as Idiopathic variety. The variety of treatment that they are subjected to and its outcome are discussed in this case report. PMID:19881053

Ghorpade, V Anand Prakash



Focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in inflammatory pancreatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Focal 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) in a pancreatic mass has been reported as a specific finding for\\u000a pancreatic carcinoma. Inflammatory conditions of the pancreas and associated clinical circumstances yielding similar findings\\u000a have not yet been fully defined. Among 42 patients studied by attenuation-corrected FDG PET for pancreatic disease, 12 with\\u000a focal FDG uptake in the

Paul D. Shreve



Gouy phase shift in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gouy phase shift is acquired each time a beam goes through a focal point. It is a common practice in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems to focus the light on a sample to obtain a good transverse resolution in addition to the axial resolution provided by the coherence gating. In presence of chromatic aberration, the position of the focal

G. Lamouche; S. Vergnole; M. L. Dufour; B. Gauthier



Myosin II-Mediated Focal Adhesion Maturation Is Tension Insensitive  

PubMed Central

Myosin II motors drive changes in focal adhesion morphology and composition in a “maturation process” that is crucial for regulating adhesion dynamics and signaling guiding cell adhesion, migration and fate. The underlying mechanisms of maturation, however, have been obscured by the intermingled effects of myosin II on lamellar actin architecture, dynamics and force transmission. Here, we show that focal adhesion growth rate stays constant even when cellular tension is reduced by 75%. Focal adhesion growth halts only when myosin stresses are sufficiently low to impair actin retrograde flow. Focal adhesion lifetime is reduced at low levels of cellular tension, but adhesion stability can be rescued at low levels of force by over-expression of ?-actinin or constitutively active Dia1. Our work identifies a minimal myosin activity threshold that is necessary to drive lamellar actin retrograde flow is sufficient to permit focal adhesion elongation. Above this nominal threshold, myosin-mediated actin organization and dynamics regulate focal adhesion growth and stability in a force-insensitive fashion. PMID:23923013

Stricker, Jonathan; Beckham, Yvonne; Davidson, Michael W.; Gardel, Margaret L.



Fabrication of wavefront sensor microlens array and atmospheric turbulence generator for adaptive optics of a telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nalux has developed a unique 3D nanometric fabrication technology in several years. Unlike conventional diamond turning machines that are restricted to symmetric components, this device is capable of cutting any free-form surface which can be specified by a xyz coordinate map. This 3D nanometric fabrication technology includes CAD/CAM, ultra-precision machining using single crystal diamond, and high precise shape evaluation. The capabilities of the technology are demonstrated in this paper. We have succeeded in fabricating two unique optical components used in an adaptive optics system at the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The first component is a microlens array that is used in the wavefront curvature sensor. This 37- element array has the individual lens elements distributed in a nonrectangular pie pattern, with very tight tolerances on focal point, focal length, lens shape, and the radius of each lens. The second component is an atmospheric phase plate that generates the atmospheric phase aberrations. This component requires a prescribed random surface yet requires a high degree of smoothness. This component is used to test adaptive optic systems.

Kitagawa, Seiichiro; Kotani, Yoichi; Kubo, Junichi; Owari, Hiroshi



High-energy X-ray optics with silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses.  


Silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses have been in successful use for vertical focusing and collimation of high-energy X-rays (50-100 keV) at the 1-ID undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. In addition to presenting an effectively parabolic thickness profile, as required for aberration-free refractive optics, these devices allow high transmission and continuous tunability in photon energy and focal length. Furthermore, the use of a single-crystal material (i.e. Si) minimizes small-angle scattering background. The focusing performance of such saw-tooth lenses, used in conjunction with the 1-ID beamline's bent double-Laue monochromator, is presented for both short ( approximately 1:0.02) and long ( approximately 1:0.6) focal-length geometries, giving line-foci in the 2 microm-25 microm width range with 81 keV X-rays. In addition, a compound focusing scheme was tested whereby the radiation intercepted by a distant short-focal-length lens is increased by having it receive a collimated beam from a nearer (upstream) lens. The collimation capabilities of Si saw-tooth lenses are also exploited to deliver enhanced throughput of a subsequently placed small-angular-acceptance high-energy-resolution post-monochromator in the 50-80 keV range. The successful use of such lenses in all these configurations establishes an important detail, that the pre-monochromator, despite being comprised of vertically reflecting bent Laue geometry crystals, can be brilliance-preserving to a very high degree. PMID:17317922

Shastri, S D; Almer, J; Ribbing, C; Cederström, B



Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles. These detectors consist of 30-layer thermopiles deposited in series upon a silicon nitride membrane. At 300 K, the thermopile arrays are highly linear over many orders of magnitude of incident IR power, and have a reported specific detectivity that exceeds the requirements imposed on future mission concepts. The bandpass filter array board is integrated with a thermopile array board by mounting both boards on a machined aluminum jig.

Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind



Dynamics of similariton pulses in length-inhomogeneous active fibres  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of producing self-similar frequency-modulated (FM) optical wave packets in length-inhomogeneous active fibres is studied for optical pulses with the initial Gaussian, hyperbolic-secant or parabolic shape. The conditions for converting these pulses into stable parabolic-type pulses with a constant frequency-modulation rate are considered. It is shown that the use of FM pulses of parabolic shape in active and length-inhomogeneous fibres can ensure the creation of an all-fibre generator-amplifier-compressor system with peak powers up to 1 MW and higher in the generated pulses. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Zolotovskii, Igor' O; Sementsov, Dmitrii I; Yavtushenko, M S [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Senatorov, A K; Sysolyatin, A A [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Estimation of path length factor for measurement of haemoglobin concentration in the exposed cortical tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The change in oxy- and deoxy haemoglobin in the cortical tissue caused by brain function can be measured from multi-spectral images of exposed cortex. We cannot ignore the wavelength dependence of mean optical path length of detected light to calculate the accurate changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy- haemoglobin in the cortical tissue. The optical path length factor, which reflects the wavelength dependence of mean optical path length, is experimentally estimated from the multi-spectral images of exposed cortex of guinea pigs. The optical path length factor improves the accuracy in changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin obtained from the multi-spectral images.

Sakaguchi, K.; Tachibana, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Furukawa, S.; Katsura, T.; Maki, A.; Kawaguchi, H.; Okada, E.



Two-dimensional tracking of ncd motility by back focal plane interferometry.  

PubMed Central

A technique for detecting the displacement of micron-sized optically trapped probes using far-field interference is introduced, theoretically explained, and used to study the motility of the ncd motor protein. Bead motions in the focal plane relative to the optical trap were detected by measuring laser intensity shifts in the back-focal plane of the microscope condenser by projection on a quadrant diode. This detection method is two-dimensional, largely independent of the position of the trap in the field of view and has approximately 10-micros time resolution. The high resolution makes it possible to apply spectral analysis to measure dynamic parameters such as local viscosity and attachment compliance. A simple quantitative theory for back-focal-plane detection was derived that shows that the laser intensity shifts are caused primarily by a far-field interference effect. The theory predicts the detector response to bead displacement, without adjustable parameters, with good accuracy. To demonstrate the potential of the method, the ATP-dependent motility of ncd, a kinesin-related motor protein, was observed with an in vitro bead assay. A fusion protein consisting of truncated ncd (amino acids 195-685) fused with glutathione-S-transferase was adsorbed to silica beads, and the axial and lateral motions of the beads along the microtubule surface were observed with high spatial and temporal resolution. The average axial velocity of the ncd-coated beads was 230 +/- 30 nm/s (average +/- SD). Spectral analysis of bead motion showed the increase in viscous drag near the surface; we also found that any elastic constraints of the moving motors are much smaller than the constraints due to binding in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable nucleotide adenylylimidodiphosphate. PMID:9533719

Allersma, M W; Gittes, F; deCastro, M J; Stewart, R J; Schmidt, C F



Hollow fiber optic probe for in vivo Raman measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hollow optical fiber Raman probe equipped with a ball lens is developed to study the stomach cancer. The probe generates little Raman scattering or fluorescence noise because the HOF confine light into the air core. In order to maximize the collection efficiency and the spatial resolution, material and size of the ball lens is optimized. The total diameter of the probe head is 0.64 mm. The probe is useful for measurement of layered sample by the contact mode because it has very short focal length and high depth resolution. In vivo experiments in a stomach of a living rat demonstrate the high viability of the probe for noninvasive diagnosis of the stomach cancer.

Katagiri, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Komachi, Yuichi; Matsuura, Yuji; Tashiro, Hideo; Sato, Hidetoshi



Effects of thermal deformations on the sensitivity of optical systems for space application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the results of the thermo-elastic analysis performed on the Stereo Imaging Channel of the imaging system SIMBIO-SYS for the BepiColombo ESA mission to Mercury is presented. The aim of the work is to determine the expected stereo reconstruction accuracy of the surface of the planet Mercury, i.e. the target of BepiColombo mission, due to the effects of the optics misalignments and deformations induced by temperature changes during the mission lifetime. The camera optics and their mountings are modeled and processed by a thermo-mechanical Finite Element Model (FEM) program, which reproduces the expected optics and structure thermo-elastic variations in the instrument foreseen operative temperature range, i.e. between -20 °C and 30 °C. The FEM outputs are elaborated using a MATLAB optimization routine: a non-linear least square algorithm is adopted to determine the surface equation (plane, spherical, nth polynomial) which best fits the deformed optical surfaces. The obtained surfaces are then directly imported into ZEMAX raytracing code for sequential raytrace analysis. Variations of the optical center position, boresight direction, focal length and distortion are then computed together with the corresponding image shift on the detector. The overall analysis shows the preferable use of kinematic constraints, instead of glue classical solution, for optical element mountings, this minimize the uncertainty on the Mercury Digital Terrain Model (DTM) reconstructed via a stereo-vision algorithm based on the triangulation from two optical channels.

Segato, Elisa; Da Deppo, Vania; Debei, Stefano; Cremonese, Gabriele; Cherubini, Giovanni



Range Technique in Scattering Medium Using a Needle-Fiber Optical Coherence Tomography System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A needle-fiber optical coherence tomography (OCT) system designed for guiding epidural anesthesia to a target is presented. In the preliminary experiment, a desired target in tofu as a strong scattering medium can be monitored over a sufficient range of several millimeters within a short measuring time. The axial resolution is 21 ?m. In order to investigate the ranging performance, the relation between background noise levels and focus-scattering properties in a confocal optical system is numerically studied by use of Monte Carlo technique. Numerical results indicate that an appropriate focal length of the lens attached to the fiber should be used to separate the OCT signal from strong noise in strongly scattered medium.

Li, Tingyu; Nitta, Kouichi; Matoba, Osamu; Yoshimura, Takeaki



Paraxial analysis of zoom lens composed of three tunable-focus elements with fixed position of image-space focal point and object-image distance.  


This work performs a paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with a fixed position of image-space focal point and a distance between object and image points, which is composed of three tunable-focus elements. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples. PMID:25401855

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri



Characteristics of an adjacent pulse repetition interval length as a scale for length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the characteristics of the adjacent pulse repetition interval length (APRIL), which is used as a scale for femtosecond optical frequency comb (FOFC)-based length measurements. This approach is based on the analogy between the phase refractive index and the group refractive index. Because the former influences the wavelength, which is the basic parameter used to describe monochromatic light in terms of length measurement, we investigated the latter to analyze the theoretical properties of the APRIL when used as a length standard. The results of theoretical analyses and numerical investigations show that when the air parameters change, the changes in the wavelength of a He-Ne laser and the APRIL of an FOFC laser are of the same order of magnitude. The difference between the effects of the phase refractive index on the wavelength and the group refractive index on the APRIL was also confirmed. The proposed concept and analysis pave the way for developing a length traceability system based on the APRIL via optical fibers.

Wei, Dong; Aketagawa, Masato



X-Ray Diffractive Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald



Sequence length requirements Tandy Warnow  

E-print Network

Sequence length requirements Tandy Warnow Department of Computer Science The University of Texas at Austin #12;Part 1: Absolute Fast Convergence #12;DNA Sequence Evolution AAGACTT TGGACTTAAGGCCT -3 mil yrs convergence (afc) #12;"Convergence rate" or sequence length requirement The sequence length (number of sites



Infrared focal plane design for the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby and Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A focal plane assembly combining hybrid electronic components with passive optical components within a single hermetically sealed package has been designed by Cincinnati Electronics to meet the performance requirements imposed by the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (VIMSs). A single line array of 256 InSb photodiodes, accessed by two 1 x 128 multiplexers, provides continuous spectral coverage from 0.85 to 5.1 microns. Intrinsic field-of-view apertures and a unique order sorting filter require critical optical alignment within the hybrid. FPA performance requirements, design approach, and critical issues are discussed.

Staller, Craig; Niblack, Curtiss; Evans, Thomas; Blessinger, Michael; Westrick, Anthony



FOCAL mission to 550 thru 1000 AU: Status review 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a 2009 status review of the "FOCAL" space mission studied by this author and others since 1992 and formally proposed to ESA for consideration after the year 2000. The FOCAL probe is intended to reach distances between 550 and 1000 AU to exploit the huge radio magnification provided there by the gravitational lens of the Sun, as predicted by the general theory of relativity. However, the alignment between the radio source (any star, for instance), the center of the Sun and the FOCAL spacecraft is rather strict, and so it will be necessary to send a FOCAL probe in the opposite sky direction for any stellar system we wish to observe. For instance, before humanity ever embarked in a true interstellar mission even to the closest stars, the Alpha Centauri three stars system at 4.40 light-years from us, it plainly appears that before launching a really interstellar spacecraft it will be better to send a FOCAL probe in the opposite direction of the sky. In fact, the distance it must reach is 278 times smaller than 4.40 light-years, or, in other words, assuming equal engineering problems, FOCAL will take 278 times less than the trip to Alpha Centauri. This makes the Sun focus a reasonable target for our probes to reach within this century already. This paper describes the gravitational lens of the Sun and an updated status review of FOCAL including:(1) The new book by the author, published in March 2009 and entitled "Deep Space Flight and Communications".(2) The utilization of the relativistic KLT (Karhunen-Loève Transform) instead of the classical FFT to insure optimal telecommunications with the Earth during such a relativistic flight.

Maccone, Claudio



Design of apochromatic telescopic optical system based on PWC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to technical requirements,an apochromatic telescopic optical system which is characterized by the focal length 1.5m~2m,with the visible region spectrum band is needed.The successful design consists in using normal glasses based on PWC method to get a completely secondary-spectrum-removed and cramped construction telescopic optical system in this paper.Firstly, by the aberration theory and ZEMAX optical design software,a catadioptric achromatic optical system composed of a reflecting mirror and a couple of air-spaced negative doublets are designed.The initial configuration of optical system is calculated by PWC method and the proper couple of air-spaced negative doublets are chosen by the theory of achromatic.By comparing with various optical systems with different couple of air-spaced negative doublets, it is found that the combination of the heavy crown glass ZK7 and heavy flint glass ZF3 is effective to correct chromatic aberration and its secondary spectrum value is minimality.It can conclude that fact with the abbe number of ZK7 is twice than ZF3 make the good result and give guiding to the design of the same type of optical system. Secondary,according to the theory of secondary spectrum,the secondary spectrum value to be corrected is analyzed and the compensation can be changed by adjust the magnification power.The comparison is presented and the final telescopic optical system with cramped construction is achieved, and the goal of apochromatism and other aberration is reached.

Wei, Xiao-Xiao; Xu, Feng; Yu, Jian-jun



Design and performance of a sub-nanoradian resolution autocollimating optical lever.  


Precision goniometry using optics has the advantage that it does not impose much stress on the object of investigation and, as such, is adopted extensively in gravitational wave detection, in torsion balances investigating fundamental forces, in specialized studies of biological samples, and it has potential applications in condensed matter physics. In this article we present the considerations that go into designing optical levers and discuss the performance of the instrument we have constructed. We motivate the design by considering an idealized setup and the limitations to the angular resolution induced by statistical fluctuations of the photon count rate and diffraction at the apertures. The effects of digitization of the count rate and of the spatial location of the photons on the image plane motivating the actual design are discussed next. Based on these considerations, we have developed an autocollimating optical lever which has a very high resolution and dynamic range. An array of 110 slits, of 90 microm width and a pitch of 182 microm, is located in the focal plane of a field lens, of focal length 1000 mm, and is illuminated by a CCFL tube. This array is imaged back onto the focal plane after retroreflection from a mirror placed just beyond the lens. The image is recorded on a linear charge-coupled device array at the rate of 1000 images/s and is processed through a special algorithm to obtain the centroid. The instrument has a centroid stability of approximately 3 x 10(-10) rad Hz(-1/2) and a dynamic range of approximately 10(7). PMID:17411215

Cowsik, R; Srinivasan, R; Kasturirengan, S; Kumar, A Senthil; Wagoner, K



Design and performance of a sub-nanoradian resolution autocollimating optical lever  

SciTech Connect

Precision goniometry using optics has the advantage that it does not impose much stress on the object of investigation and, as such, is adopted extensively in gravitational wave detection, in torsion balances investigating fundamental forces, in specialized studies of biological samples, and it has potential applications in condensed matter physics. In this article we present the considerations that go into designing optical levers and discuss the performance of the instrument we have constructed. We motivate the design by considering an idealized setup and the limitations to the angular resolution induced by statistical fluctuations of the photon count rate and diffraction at the apertures. The effects of digitization of the count rate and of the spatial location of the photons on the image plane motivating the actual design are discussed next. Based on these considerations, we have developed an autocollimating optical lever which has a very high resolution and dynamic range. An array of 110 slits, of 90 {mu}m width and a pitch of 182 {mu}m, is located in the focal plane of a field lens, of focal length 1000 mm, and is illuminated by a CCFL tube. This array is imaged back onto the focal plane after retroreflection from a mirror placed just beyond the lens. The image is recorded on a linear charge-coupled device array at the rate of 1000 images/s and is processed through a special algorithm to obtain the centroid. The instrument has a centroid stability of {approx}3x10{sup -10} rad Hz{sup -1/2} and a dynamic range of {approx}10{sup 7}.

Cowsik, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Kasturirengan, S.; Kumar, A. Senthil; Wagoner, K. [McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, and Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)



Focal spot shaping for femtosecond laser pulse photodisruption through turbid media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown allows for high-precision cutting of transparent materials with low energy deposit and little peripheral damage for applications in micromachining and minimally invasive medical surgery. Little peripheral damage is especially important for laser incisions in the posterior eye due to the vicinity to the retina. When applying laser pulses through the anterior eye, aberrations are introduced to the wave front, which cause a distortion of the focal volume and an increase in required pulse energy for tissue manipulation through photodisruption. To decrease the pulse energy, aberrations need to be corrected to restore a diffraction limited focus. In this work, the influence of an aberration correction using adaptive optics on the required pulse energy for an optical breakdown was investigated. The aberrations were introduced in an eye model using HEMA as eye tissue substitute and corrected in an optical setup including a deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack-Sensor. The laser pulses were focused by a plano-convex lens and the induced impact was compared for the aberrated and the corrected case. The pulse energy required to obtain an effect was reduced when correcting for aberrations. Therefore, adaptive optics can reduce the risk for potential peripheral damage during ophthalmic surgery.

Hansen, Anja; Ripken, Tammo; Heisterkamp, Alexander