Science.gov

Sample records for focus watershed coordinator

  1. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Fiscal Year 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Runyon, John; Davis-Born, Renee

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments made by the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 1998. Coordination and administration consists of tasks associated with Focus Watershed Council staffing, project management, and public outreach.

  2. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2005-07-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2005 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN Watershed Coordination Program is coordinating projects and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. The KRN willingly shares its resources with these groups. The 2004-2005 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out by one half-time Watershed Coordinator position in Montana-Idaho (Nancy Zapotocki) and one half-time Watershed Coordination team in British Columbia (Laura and Jim Duncan). Nancy Zapotocki was hired as the KRN US Watershed Coordinator in July 2004. Her extensive work experience in outreach and education and watershed planning complements the Duncans in British Columbia. To continue rejuvenating and revitalizing the KRN, the Board conducted a second retreat in November 2004. The first retreat took place in November 2003. Board and staff members combined efforts to define KRN goals and ways of achieving them. An Education and Outreach Plan formulated by the Watershed Coordinators was used to guide much of the discussions. The conclusions reached during the retreat specified four ''flagship'' projects for 2005-2006, to: (1) Provide leadership and facilitation, and build on current work related to the TMDL plans and planning efforts on the United States side of the border. (2) Continue facilitating trans-boundary British Columbia projects building on established work and applying the KRN model of project facilitation to other areas of the Kootenai basin. (3) Finalize and implement the KRN Education and Outreach plan

  3. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a

  4. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2006-02-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN is coordinating activities and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. To this end, the KRN primarily focuses on maintaining communication networks among private and public watershed improvement groups in the Columbia River Basin. The KRN willing shares its resources with these groups. The 2003-2004 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out through Watershed Coordinator position. The highly successful Kootenai River Network Annual General Meeting in Bonners Ferry in May 2003 demonstrated the tremendous gains that the Kootenai River Network has made in trans-boundary networking of watershed issues and accomplishments. The Annual General Meeting included seventy five participants representing more than forty US and Canadian citizen groups, tribes, first nations, agencies, ministries, businesses and private land owners from Montana, British Columbia, Idaho and Alberta. The International Restoration Tour in July 2004 featured the Grave Creek and Therriault Wetlands restoration projects in Montana and the Sand Creek and Wolf Creek restoration projects in British Columbia. The tour was attended by more than thirty people representing US and Canadian Federal and State/Provincial agencies, schools, colleges, conservation groups, private land owners, consultants, tribes, first nations, and politicians. These exciting trans-boundary successes encouraged the KRN to establish half-time Watershed Coordinator positions in both the United

  5. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost

  6. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2006-06-26

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost

  7. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost

  8. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2003-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NPPC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost

  9. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-12-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. A primary goal of the Council's program is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. This watershed program is strengthened by the completion of the BPA funded Sub-basin Assessment, Conservation Strategy and the establishment of a Benchmarks system, thus, providing the MWC a prioritized framework for restoration efforts. Objectives for FY03 included: (1) Continued coordination of McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and council operations.

  10. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Year-End Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2001-12-31

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations, supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. The goal of the MWC is to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. The MWC will always have a baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY01 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups that restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though a strategic and comprehensive outreach and education program, utilizing Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  11. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Gretchen

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and stream

  12. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Year-End Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments of the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council (MWC) in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 2000. Coordination and administration consist of prioritization and planning for projects; project management and implementation; procurement of funding for long-term support of the Council; and watershed education/outreach program for residents and local schools. Key accomplishments in the area of project planning include coordinating: monthly Council and executive committee meetings; staffing the Upper Willamette Spring Chinook Working Group; staffing the water quality technical committee; and guiding education and stewardship projects. Key accomplishments in the area of project management include the completion of the McKenzie-Willamette Confluence Assessment; securing funds for project planning in the confluence area; near completion of the BPA funded McKenzie sub-basin assessment; development of a framework for a McKenzie Watershed Conservation Strategy; an evaluation of Council's monitoring programs - ambient water quality, storm-event water quality, Tier III water quality, and macroinvertebrate monitoring. The Council, in cooperation with the McKenzie River Cooperative, completed habitat enhancements in the Gate Creek and Deer Creek sub-watersheds. This partnership recently submitted Bring Back the Natives grant for initiation of projects in other McKenzie tributaries. The Council will also be working with a local business to develop a river-side riparian enhancement and native landscaping project on the lodge grounds. This will serve as a demonstration project for blending fish and wildlife habitat concerns with maintaining grounds for business opportunities. Accomplishments in the area of procurement of funding included developing the FY2000 Scope of Work and budget for approval by the Council and BPA; providing quarterly budget and work program progress reports to the Council; and securing additional

  13. McKenzie River Watershed Coordination, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-11-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations and grant funds supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's (MWC) efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. Primary goals of the MWC are to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. Underpinning the goals is the MWC's baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY02 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the middle to lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though an outreach and education program, utilizing (BPA funded) Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  14. Optimizing Watershed Management by Coordinated Operation of Storing Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo; Weber, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    Water storing facilities in a watershed are very often operated independently one to another to meet specific operating objectives, with no information sharing among the operators. This uncoordinated approach might result in upstream-downstream disputes and conflicts among different water users, or inefficiencies in the watershed management, when looked at from the viewpoint of an ideal central decision-maker. In this study, we propose an approach in two steps to design coordination mechanisms at the watershed scale with the ultimate goal of enlarging the space for negotiated agreements between competing uses and improve the overall system efficiency. First, we compute the multi-objective centralized solution to assess the maximum potential benefits of a shift from a sector-by-sector to an ideal fully coordinated perspective. Then, we analyze the Pareto-optimal operating policies to gain insight into suitable strategies to foster cooperation or impose coordination among the involved agents. The approach is demonstrated on an Alpine watershed in Italy where a long lasting conflict exists between upstream hydropower production and downstream irrigation water users. Results show that a coordination mechanism can be designed that drive the current uncoordinated structure towards the performance of the ideal centralized operation.

  15. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira

    2006-02-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. The key objective of the Nez Perce Tribe Focus Coordinator position is to overcome fragmentation within the basin by managing communications with the subbasin, providing an overall framework and process for coordinated fisheries restoration and managing the planning, assessment, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation process. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, restoring fish passage, as well as other watershed restoration projects. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  16. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira; McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. The key objective of the Nez Perce Tribe Focus Coordinator position is to overcome fragmentation within the basin by managing communications with the subbasin, providing an overall framework and process for coordinated fisheries restoration and managing the planning, assessment, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation process. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, restoring fish passage, as well as other watershed restoration projects. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  17. 1989 Walker Branch Watershed Surveying and Mapping Including a Guide to Coordinate Transformation Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Timmins, S.

    1991-01-01

    Walker Branch Watershed is a forested, research watershed marked throughout by a 264 ft grid that was surveyed in 1967 using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10) coordinate system. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) prepared a contour map of the watershed in 1987, and an ARC/INFO{trademark} version of the TVA topographic map with the X-10 grid superimposed has since been used as the primary geographic information system (GIS) data base for the watershed. However, because of inaccuracies observed in mapped locations of some grid markers and permanent research plots, portions of the watershed were resurveyed in 1989 and an extensive investigation of the coordinates used in creating both the TVA map and ARC/INFO data base and of coordinate transformation procedures currently in use on the Oak Ridge Reservation was conducted. They determined that the positional errors resulted from the field orientation of the blazed grid rather than problems in mapmaking. In resurveying the watershed, previously surveyed control points were located or noted as missing, and 25 new control points along the perimeter roads were surveyed. In addition, 67 of 156 grid line intersections (pegs) were physically located and their positions relative to mapped landmarks were recorded. As a result, coordinates for the Walker Branch Watershed grid lines and permanent research plots were revised, and a revised map of the watershed was produced. In conjunction with this work, existing procedures for converting between the local grid systems, Tennessee state plane, and the 1927 and 1983 North American Datums were updated and compiled along with illustrative examples and relevant historical information. Alternative algorithms were developed for several coordinate conversions commonly used on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  18. Coordinating Scientist and Policymaker Response Types and Times to Improve Watershed Management in Suburbanizing Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.

    2001-05-01

    Watershed scientists and policymakers represent two separate professional cultures in the manner that they respond to new patterns of watershed land-use change. The lack of coordination between scientist and policymaker response types and times, which are the "how" and "when" of action, limit the water quality benefits of water resource management in suburbanizing watersheds. Science requires long-term experimentation to understand how suburbanization impacts the previously generalizable watershed relationships for undeveloped sites. Policy, on the other hand, must respond to constituents, in the form of clear watershed regulations, as soon as possible. As a result, management plans are often adopted that are not based on the best or latest scientific knowledge. Scientific investigations on pollutant loading mechanisms in New York City's suburbanized Croton water supply area and in Twin Cities suburbs indicate that policy makers would ideally provide spatially targeted guidelines that are sensitive to spatial heterogeneities in watershed features, such as soil types, terrain slopes, and seasonal watertable profiles. Examples of these spatially distributed policy guidelines include set back distances for septic systems and loading rates for fertilizer application. This research recommends that policymakers and scientists better coordinate to set future research agendas that spatially quantify how heterogeneities in watershed response can be used to spatially guide geo-political zoning and development decisions.

  19. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. Its goal is also to re-establish normal patters of production, dispersal, and exchange of genetic information within the 1855 Treaty Area. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination includes: within department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, and treaty area coordination.

  20. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. Its goal is also to re-establish normal patterns of production, dispersal, and exchange of genetic information within the 1855 Treaty Area. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  1. Urban Watershed Management with a Focus on Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the physical principles that link together the various parts of the urban water cycle are well understood, the integration of green technologies into urban watershed management requires some further study. I will present results from a multidisciplinary approach to water...

  2. USE OF ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPING AND COORDINATING RESEARCH AT REGIONAL AND WATERSHED SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of studies were undertaken to develop quantitative methods that could be used for ecological risk assessments at a watershed scale. This work contributed to the newly published ecological risk assessment guidelines (USEPA, 1998) and focused attention on the need for a pr...

  3. Effects of Topography and Soil Depth on Runon and Focused Infiltration: Upper Split Wash Watershed, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolhiser, D. A.; Fedors, R. W.; Stothoff, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    A modeling study of surface and near surface hydrology of a small watershed, upper Split Wash, overlying the potential Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada high level nuclear waste repository was carried out. The objective was to evaluate the interaction of topography and soil depth across a small watershed and the hillslope process of runoff-runon. Zones of focused infiltration can result from the phenomenon of runon leading to localized deep percolation. The distribution of percolation fluxes within YM has a significant impact on repository performance. The KINEROS2 surface runoff model was used to calculate distributed Hortonian and saturation-induced overland flow using 9-years of tipping bucket precipitation data and 100-years of simulated precipitation. In the KINEROS2 model, watershed geometry is described by cascades of plane elements contributing lateral or upper boundary flow to trapezoidal channel elements. The Smith-Parlange model is used for infiltration and saturated and unsaturated flow were assumed to be in the vertical direction. Plane and channel geometries for the Upper Split Wash watershed (0.25 km2), were determined from topographic maps and field measurements. Soil depths, soil and bedrock hydraulic parameters, initial water contents, and Mannings "n" for plane and channels were based on a combination of field measurements and values reported in the literature. Runoff was simulated for all storms that had intensities greater than the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil or had a total depth that could saturate the shallowest soils. Simulated runoff per unit area for the measured precipitation compared reasonably well with measurements at nearby watersheds. For the upper Split Wash watershed, the runoff-runon phenomenon was important during the infrequent saturation-induced overland flow events but was not important for Hortonian runoff. Focused infiltration into channel alluvium and underlying bedrock occurred for both types of runoff

  4. Watershed Dynamics, with focus on connectivity index and management of water related impacts on road infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. This study was built on a conceptual framework for looking at SedInConnect model, topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs and climate change in an integrated way to pave the way for more integrated policy making. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. This framework can provide a region with an effective tool to inform a broad range of watershed planning activities within a region. Regional planners, decision-makers, etc. can utilize this tool to identify the most vulnerable points in a watershed and along roads to plan for interventions and actions to alter impacts of high flows and other extreme weather events on roads construction. The application of the model over a large scale can give a realistic spatial characterization of sediment connectivity for the optimal management of debris flow to road structures. The ability of the model to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  5. Estimation of 3-D pore network coordination number of rocks from watershed segmentation of a single 2-D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, Arash; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Kharrat, Riyaz; Dashti, Nader

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we have utilized 3-D micro-tomography images of real and synthetic rocks to introduce two mathematical correlations which estimate the distribution parameters of 3-D coordination number using a single 2-D cross-sectional image. By applying a watershed segmentation algorithm, it is found that the distribution of 3-D coordination number is acceptably predictable by statistical analysis of the network extracted from 2-D images. In this study, we have utilized 25 volumetric images of rocks in order to propose two mathematical formulas. These formulas aim to approximate the average and standard deviation of coordination number in 3-D pore networks. Then, the formulas are applied for five independent test samples to evaluate the reliability. Finally, pore network flow modeling is used to find the error of absolute permeability prediction using estimated and measured coordination numbers. Results show that the 2-D images are considerably informative about the 3-D network of the rocks and can be utilized to approximate the 3-D connectivity of the porous spaces with determination coefficient of about 0.85 that seems to be acceptable considering the variety of the studied samples.

  6. Flat focusing lens designs having minimized reflection based on coordinate transformation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2009-05-11

    Two-dimensional far-zone focusing lenses are designed using the coordinate transformation approach that feature minimized reflections from the lens boundaries. A flat lens of trapezoidal cross section completely converts incident waves with cylindrical wavefronts into transmitted waves with planar wavefronts. A rectangular lens with reduced non-magnetic material parameters that incorporates a nonlinear coordinate transformation features a significantly reduced amount of reflections compared with the non-magnetic lens based on a linear transformation. The improved reflection performance of each new lens design is verified using a full-wave finite-element analysis and compared with previously reported transformation optical lenses. PMID:19434112

  7. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  8. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR EFFECTIVE WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed research has historically focused on physical and biological processes, stressor-response, and effects research, providing valuable understanding of the effects of human activity and natural disturbances on watershed ecosystems. Continued research to support watershed ...

  9. The Speech Focus Position Effect on Jaw-Finger Coordination in a Pointing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet-Capellan, Amelie; Laboissiere, Rafael; Galvan, Arturo; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates jaw-finger coordination in a task involving pointing to a target while naming it with a 'CVCV (e.g., /'papa/) versus CV'CV (e.g., /pa'pa/) word. According to the authors' working hypothesis, the pointing apex (gesture extremum) would be synchronized with the apex of the jaw-opening gesture corresponding to the…

  10. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this project. Riparian enhancement through planting of riparian trees and streambank bioengineering was completed. Culvert inventory was completed in 2004 on US Forest Service and Potlatch Corporation lands in the Lolo Creek drainage. Two high priority culverts were replaced, and are now accessible for fish species. Four miles of road was decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  11. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this project. Riparian enhancement through planning of riparian trees continues. Culvert inventory is on-going and will be completed in 2004 for the entire Lolo Creek drainage. High priority culverts are being replaced and passage blocking log culverts are being removed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  12. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  13. "Hills of Friends": Cultural Watersheds in the Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson-Towner, Sioux

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth grade activity that focuses on cultural watersheds, in which students represent their "personal landscapes." Explains that students list watershed and cultural attributes in lesson one. In lesson two students paint a representation of their cultural watershed. (CMK)

  14. Watershed Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna

    2007-01-01

    All schools are located in "watersheds," land that drains into bodies of water. Some watersheds, like the one which encompasses the school discussed in this article, include bodies of water that are walking distance from the school. The watershed cited in this article has a brook and wetland within a several-block walk from the school. This…

  15. A Coordinated Focused Ion Beam/Ultramicrotomy Technique for Serial Sectioning of Hayabusa Particles and Other Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, E. L.; Keller, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent sample return missions, such as NASA's Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 and JAXA's Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa, have returned particulate samples (typically 5-50 µm) that pose tremendous challenges to coordinated analysis using a variety of nano- and micro-beam techniques. The ability to glean maximal information from individual particles has become increasingly important and depends critically on how the samples are prepared for analysis. This also holds true for other extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles, micrometeorites and lunar regolith grains. Traditionally, particulate samples have been prepared using microtomy techniques (e.g., [1]). However, for hard mineral particles ?20 µm, microtome thin sections are compromised by severe chatter and sample loss. For these difficult samples, we have developed a hybrid technique that combines traditional ultramicrotomy with focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, allowing for the in situ investigation of grain surfaces and interiors. Using this method, we have increased the number of FIB-SEM prepared sections that can be recovered from a particle with dimensions on the order of tens of µms. These sections can be subsequently analyzed using a variety of electron beam techniques. Here, we demonstrate this sample preparation technique on individual lunar regolith grains in order to study their space-weathered surfaces. We plan to extend these efforts to analyses of individual Hayabusa samples.

  16. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  17. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  18. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  19. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM (URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH - WSWRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops, and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the risk management aspects of WWF research.One...

  20. Water Quality and Fecal-Indicator Detection in Response to an Impaired Urban Watershed: Turkey Creek "Gulf of Mexico Initiative Focus"; and a "Making a Visible Difference" Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The historical communities of Turkey Creek originated in 1866, when a group of emancipated African-Americans purchased land in Harrison County, MS, along the Turkey Creek watershed. Many of the current members of this community are descendants from the original settlers. This wa...

  1. Watershed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed management is aimed at land and water resources, and is applied to an area of land that drains to a defined location along a stream or river. Watershed management aims to care for natural resources in a way that supports human needs for water, food, fiber, energy, and habitation, while sup...

  2. Watershed management and organizational dynamics: nationwide findings and regional variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, B.T.; Burkardt, N.; King, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on resource management initiatives at the watershed scale with emphasis on collaborative, locally driven, and decentralized institutional arrangements. Existing literature on limited selection of well-established watershed-based organizations has provided valuable insights. The current research extends this focus by including a broad survey of watershed organizations from across the United States as a means to estimate a national portrait. Organizational characteristics include year of formation, membership size and composition, budget, guiding principles, and mechanisms of decision-making. These characteristics and the issue concerns of organizations are expected to vary with respect to location. Because this research focuses on organizations that are place based and stakeholder driven, the forces driving them are expected to differ across regions of the country. On this basis of location, we suggest basic elements for a regional assessment of watershed organizations to channel future research and to better approximate the organizational dynamics, issue concerns, and information needs unique to organizations across the country. At the broadest level, the identification of regional patters or organizational similarities may facilitate the linkage among organizations to coordinate their actions at the much broader river basin or ecosystem scale.

  3. WATERSHED INFORMATION - SURF YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surf Your Watershed is both a database of urls to world wide web pages associated with the watershed approach of environmental management and also data sets of relevant environmental information that can be queried. It is designed for citizens and decision makers across the count...

  4. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  5. 7 CFR 624.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WATERSHED PROTECTION § 624.5 Coordination. (a) If the President declares... Presidentially-declared natural disasters. (b) When an NRCS State Conservationist determines that a watershed... agencies involved with emergency activities, as appropriate. (c) In the case where the watershed...

  6. 7 CFR 624.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WATERSHED PROTECTION § 624.5 Coordination. (a) If the President declares... Presidentially-declared natural disasters. (b) When an NRCS State Conservationist determines that a watershed... agencies involved with emergency activities, as appropriate. (c) In the case where the watershed...

  7. 7 CFR 624.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WATERSHED PROTECTION § 624.5 Coordination. (a) If the President declares... Presidentially-declared natural disasters. (b) When an NRCS State Conservationist determines that a watershed... agencies involved with emergency activities, as appropriate. (c) In the case where the watershed...

  8. 7 CFR 624.5 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WATERSHED PROTECTION § 624.5 Coordination. (a) If the President declares... Presidentially-declared natural disasters. (b) When an NRCS State Conservationist determines that a watershed... agencies involved with emergency activities, as appropriate. (c) In the case where the watershed...

  9. Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  10. Care coordination between specialty care and primary care: a focus group study of provider perspectives on strong practices and improvement opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo; Lucatorto, Michelle A; Hawthorne, Kara; Hersh, Janis; Myers, Raquel; Elwy, A Rani; Graham, Glenn D

    2015-01-01

    Care coordination between the specialty care provider (SCP) and the primary care provider (PCP) is a critical component of safe, efficient, and patient-centered care. Veterans Health Administration conducted a series of focus groups of providers, from specialty care and primary care clinics at VA Medical Centers nationally, to assess 1) what SCPs and PCPs perceive to be current practices that enable or hinder effective care coordination with one another and 2) how these perceptions differ between the two groups of providers. A qualitative thematic analysis of the gathered data validates previous studies that identify communication as being an important enabler of coordination, and uncovers relationship building between specialty care and primary care (particularly through both formal and informal relationship-building opportunities such as collaborative seminars and shared lunch space, respectively) to be the most notable facilitator of effective communication between the two sides. Results from this study suggest concrete next steps that medical facilities can take to improve care coordination, using as their basis the mutual understanding and respect developed between SCPs and PCPs through relationship-building efforts. PMID:25653538

  11. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  12. SUSTAINABLE URBAN TECHNOLOGIES TEAM (URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH - WSWRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the...

  13. USING WATERSHED COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many researchers examining relationships between water quality and the surrounding watershed have focused on landscape metrics associated with composition (e.g., % of the whole watershed in agriculture) often excluding measures of landscape structure. In addition, little work ha...

  14. Model Watershed Development in Eastern Washington, Administrative Project Support, Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bottman, Bob; Bartels, Duane; Johnson, Bradley J.

    1998-10-28

    The purpose of the Model Watershed Coordinator Grant was to help impact water quality and fisheries habitat concerns within the Asotin Creek Watershed by developing relationships between local landowners and resource agencies in the area.

  15. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions favorable for a fish

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site is largely

  17. Watersheds: Where We Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Presents information about watersheds including water quantity, water quality, floods and floodplains. Lists resources for learning more about watersheds as well as Internet resources. Includes a foldout that can be used to teach children about watersheds and floodplains. (JRH)

  18. WATERSHED AND OTHER PLACE-BASED RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Place-based assessments include regional, watershed and other geographically focused assessments.

    Watershed Assessments and Methods

    The watershed ...

  19. Educating the Community: A Watershed Model Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perryess, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the construction and use of a schoolyard model of the Morrow Bay watershed in California. Describes the design and use of materials that include styrofoam insulation, crushed granite, cement, and stucco. (DDR)

  20. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  1. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  2. ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING FOR WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively manage watersheds, the assessment of watershed ecological response to physicochemical stressors such as nutrients, sediments, pathogens, and toxics over broad spatial and temporal scales is needed. Assessments at this level of complexity requires the development of...

  3. MASSACHUSETTS WATERSHED ANALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MassGIS Watershed Analyst comprises a set of menu choices and tools that are available in the MassGIS Data Viewer. These tools provide users of the Viewer the capability to perform various types of watershed analysis.

  4. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  5. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  6. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  7. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. Designs for culvert replacements are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. 20 miles of roads were decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  8. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  9. Box Canyon Model Watershed Project : Annual Report 1997/1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Box Canyon Watershed Project. This project will concentrate on watershed protection and enhancement from an upland perspective and will complement current instream restoration efforts implemented through the Kalispel Resident Fish Project. Primary focus of this project is the Cee Cee Ah Creek watershed due to its proximity to the Reservation, importance as a traditional fishery, and potential for bull trout and west-slope cutthroat trout recovery.

  10. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. During the years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas of headwater streams to Lolo Creek. Inventory of culverts is an on-going practice, being completed by sub-drainage, and are being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage and 100-year flow events throughout the watershed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  11. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  12. Application of WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  13. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  14. A Distributed Hydrologic Model, HL-RDHM, for Flash Flood Forecasting in Hawaiian Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, A.; Awal, R.; Michaud, J.; Chu, P.; Fares, S.; Kevin, K.; Rosener, M.

    2012-12-01

    Hawai'i's watersheds are flash flood prone due to their small contributing areas, and frequent intense spatially variable precipitation. Accurate simulation of the hydrology of these watersheds should incorporate spatial variability of at least the major input data, e.g., precipitation. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the U.S. National Weather Service Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) in flash flood forecasting at Hanalei watershed, Kauai, Hawai'i. Some of the major limitations of using HL-RDHM in Hawaii are: i) Hawaii lies outside the Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) coordinate system of the continental US (CONUS), unavailability of a priori SAC-SMA parameter grids, and absence of hourly multi-sensor NEXRAD based precipitation grids. The specific objectives of this study were to i) run HL-RDHM outside CONUS domain, and ii) evaluate the performance of HL-RDHM for flash flood forecasting in the flood prone Hanalei watershed, Kauai, Hawai'i. We i) modified HRAP coordinate system; ii) generated input data of precipitation grids at different resolutions using data from 20 precipitation gauges five of which were within Hanalei watershed; iii) and generated SAC-SMA and routing parameter grids for the modified HRAP coordinate system. The one HRAP resolution grid (4 km x 4 km) was not accurate; thus, the basin averaged annual hourly precipitation of 1 HRAP grid is comparatively lower than that of ½ and ¼ HRAP grids. The performance of HL-RDHM using basin averaged a priori grids and distributed a priori grids was reasonable even using non-optimized a priori parameter values for 2008 data. HL-RDHM reasonably matched the observed streamflow magnitudes of peaks and time to peak during the calibration and validation periods. Overall, HL-RDHM performance is "good" to "very good" if we use input data of finer resolution grids (½ HRAP or ¼ HRAP) and precipitation grids interpolated from sufficient data of

  15. ANNAGNPS APPLICATION FOR BEASLEY WATERSHED CONSERVATION PRACTICES ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principal focus of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Watershed Assessment Study effort is to produce an assessment of environmental benefits derived from implementing USDA conservation programs. When determining the priority for conservation measures within a watershed for non-po...

  16. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a screening model that is spatially lumped with options for a daily or monthly time step. It is specifically focused on modeling the effect of management decisions on the watershed. The model considers water flows and ...

  17. USING WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PROTECTING DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first manuscript describes the application of watershed ERA principles to the development of a strategic watershed management plan for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where the primary focus was on the protection of drinking water quality, a concern typically addressed by...

  18. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  19. Couse/Tenmile Creeks Watershed Project Implementation : 2007 Conservtion Projects. [2007 Habitat Projects Completed].

    SciTech Connect

    Asotin County Conservation District

    2008-12-10

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on private lands within Asotin County watersheds. The Tenmile Creek watershed is a 42 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Asotin Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Couse Creek watershed is a 24 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Tenmile Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Both watersheds are almost exclusively under private ownership. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has documented wild steelhead and rainbow/redband trout spawning and rearing in Tenmile Creek and Couse Creek. The project also provides Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation throughout Asotin County, but the primary focus is for the Couse and Tenmile Creek watersheds. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Salmon Recovery Funding Board (SRFB), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. The Asotin Subbasin Plan identified priority areas and actions for ESA listed streams within Asotin County. Couse Creek and Tenmile Creek are identified as protection areas in the plan. The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has been successful in working with landowners to protect riparian areas throughout Asotin County. Funding from BPA and other agencies has also been instrumental in protecting streams throughout Asotin County by utilizing the ridge top to ridge top approach.

  20. Validation of a watershed model without calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional approaches for the validation of watershed models focus on the "goodness of fit" between model predictions and observations. It is possible for a watershed model to exhibit a "good" fit, yet not accurately represent hydrologic processes; hence "goodness of fit" can be misleading. Instead, we introduce an approach which evaluates the ability of a model to represent the observed covariance structure of the input (climate) and output (streamflow) without ever calibrating the model. An advantage of this approach is that it is not confounded by model error introduced during the calibration process. We illustrate that once a watershed model is calibrated, the unavoidable model error can cloud our ability to validate (or invalidate) the model. We emphasize that model hypothesis testing (validation) should be performed prior to, and independent of, parameter estimation (calibration), contrary to traditional practice in which watershed models are usually validated after calibrating the model. Our approach is tested using two different watershed models at a number of different watersheds in the United States.

  1. Master Watershed Stewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Gary L.

    The Master Watershed Stewards (MWS) Program is a pilot project (developed through the cooperation of the Ohio State University Extension Logan and Hardin County Offices and the Indian Lake Watershed Project) offering the opportunity for communities to get involved at the local level to protect their water quality. The program grew out of the…

  2. WATERSHED INFORMATION NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Watershed Information Network is a set of about 30 web pages that are organized by topic. These pages access existing databases like the American Heritage Rivers Services database and Surf Your Watershed. WIN in itself has no data or data sets.
    L...

  3. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  4. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  5. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy shade

  6. Discover a Watershed: The Watershed Manager Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains 19 science-based, multidisciplinary activities that teach what a watershed is, how it works and why we must all consider ourselves watershed managers. An extensive background section introduces readers to fundamental watershed concepts. Each activity adapts to local watersheds, contains e-links for further Internet research and…

  7. Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Model Application for Mississippi Delta Beasley Lake Watershed Conservation Practices Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principal focus of the USDA Conservation Effect Assessment Project (CEAP) Watershed Assessment Study effort is to provide an assessment of environmental benefits derived from implementing USDA conservation programs. When determining the priority for conservation measures within a watershed for ...

  8. Web-based decision support and visualization tools for water quality management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullinix, C.; Hearn, P.; Zhang, H.; Aguinaldo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local water quality managers charged with restoring the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem require tools to maximize the impact of their limited resources. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) are developing a suite of Web-based tools called the Chesapeake Online Assessment Support Toolkit (COAST). The goal of COAST is to help CBP partners identify geographic areas where restoration activities would have the greatest effect, select the appropriate management strategies, and improve coordination and prioritization among partners. As part of the COAST suite of tools focused on environmental restoration, a water quality management visualization component called the Nutrient Yields Mapper (NYM) tool is being developed by USGS. The NYM tool is a web application that uses watershed yield estimates from USGS SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed (SPARROW) attributes model (Schwarz et al., 2006) [6] to allow water quality managers to identify important sources of nitrogen and phosphorous within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The NYM tool utilizes new open source technologies that have become popular in geospatial web development, including components such as OpenLayers and GeoServer. This paper presents examples of water quality data analysis based on nutrient type, source, yield, and area of interest using the NYM tool for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In addition, we describe examples of map-based techniques for identifying high and low nutrient yield areas; web map engines; and data visualization and data management techniques.

  9. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  10. Extending the ARS Experimental Watersheds to Address Regional Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D.; Goodrich, D. C.; Winstral, A.; Bosch, D. D.; Pool, D.

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Watershed Research Program maintains and operates a diverse, geog raphically distributed, nested, multi-scale, national ex perimental watershed network. This network, much of which has been operational for more than 40 years (several more than 60 years), constitutes one the best networks of its kind in the world. The watershed network and its instrumentation was primarily established to assess the hydrologic impacts of watershed conservation and management practices. It has evolved, through development of long-term hydrologic data, as a network of high quality outdoor laboratories for addressing emerging science issues facing hydrologists and resource managers. While the value of the experimental watershed for investigating precipitation, climatic, and hydrologic processes is unquestioned, extending the results from these investigations to other sites and larger areas is more difficult. ARS experimental watersheds are a few hundred km2 or smaller making it challenging to address regional scale issues. To address this the ARS watershed program is, with a suite of partners from universities and other federal agencies, enlarging its research focus to extend beyond the boundaries of the experimental watershed. In this poster we present several examples of this effort, with suggestions on how, using the experimental watershed and its core, a larger scale hydrologic observatory could be developed and maintained.

  11. Watersheds in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Joséi, Jr.; Araújo, Nuno; Herrmann, Hans; Schrenk, Julian

    2015-02-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  12. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  13. Pataha [Creek] Model Watershed : 1997 Habitat Projects : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane

    1998-10-28

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until this year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream.

  14. Advances in Watershed Models and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, G. T.; Zhang, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of watershed models and their applications to real-world problems has evolved significantly since 1960's. Watershed models can be classified based on what media are included, what processes are dealt with, and what approaches are taken. In term of media, a watershed may include segregated overland regime, river-canal-open channel networks, ponds-reservoirs-small lakes, and subsurface media. It may also include integrated media of all these or a partial set of these as well as man-made control structures. In term of processes, a watershed model may deal with coupled or decoupled hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. These processes include fluid flow, thermal transport, salinity transport, sediment transport, reactive transport, and biota and microbe kinetics. In terms of approaches, either parametric or physics-based approach can be taken. This talk discusses the evolution of watershed models in the past sixty years. The advances of watershed models center around their increasing design capability to foster these segregated or integrated media and coupled or decoupled processes. Widely used models developed by academia, research institutes, government agencies, and private industries will be reviewed in terms of the media and processes included as well as approaches taken. Many types of potential benchmark problems in general can be proposed and will be discussed. This presentation will focus on three benchmark problems of biogeochemical cycles. These three problems, dealing with water quality transport, will be formulated in terms of reactive transport. Simulation results will be illustrated using WASH123D, a watershed model developed and continuously updated by the author and his PhD graduates. Keywords: Hydrological Cycles, Biogeochemical Cycles, Biota Kinetics, Parametric Approach, Physics-based Approach, Reactive Transport.

  15. Movement and distribution of arsenic in the Aberjona watershed.

    PubMed Central

    Hemond, H F

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and movement of arsenic was investigated on the Aberjona watershed in eastern Massachusetts for the purpose of identifying where and by what processes present and past human exposures to this element could have occurred. It was found that although most of the arsenic was originally released in the headwaters of the watershed, extensive migration had occurred, and the potential for human exposure existed far from designated hazardous waste sites. Both surface water and groundwater were found to be important transport pathways; arsenic moved between these two media at several locations in the watershed, with hydrology and concomitant redox, sorption, and alkylation processes determining the observed patterns of arsenic movement. These findings demonstrate that risk assessments or remedial investigations restricted to designated sites or properties in a watershed may yield both an inaccurate picture of the overall risks presented by a chemical and a less-than-optimum focus for remedial efforts. Since total recovery of the arsenic on this watershed is probably not feasible, cost-effective management will also depend on an adequate understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry and hydrologic transport processes at the watershed scale. Because the Aberjona Watershed is typical of many urban, industrialized areas, these results suggest that the whole watershed often defines the appropriate unit for investigation of chemical contamination in the environment. PMID:7621797

  16. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed. PMID:24483100

  17. EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT FROM FIELD TO WATERSHED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated some phosphorus (P) loss reduction following implementation of remedial strategies at field scales. However, there has been little coordinated evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, and which work most effectively. Thus, i...

  18. Determining Water Quality Trends in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Watershed in the Face of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kynett, K.; Azimi-Gaylon, S.; Doidic, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Marsh (Delta) is the largest estuary on the West Coast of the Americas and is a resource of local, State, and national significance. The Delta is simultaneously the most critical component of California's water supply, a primary focus of the state's ecological conservation measures, and a vital resource deeply imperiled by degraded water quality. Delta waterbodies are identified as impaired by salinity, excess nutrients, low dissolved oxygen, pathogens, pesticides, heavy metals, and other contaminants. Climate change is expected to exacerbate the impacts of existing stressors in the Delta and magnify the challenges of managing this natural resource. A clear understanding of the current state of the watershed is needed to better inform scientists, decision makers, and the public about potential impacts from climate change. The Delta Watershed Initiative Network (Delta WIN) leverages the ecological benefits of healthy watersheds, and enhances, expands and creates opportunities for greater watershed health by coordinating with agencies, established programs, and local organizations. At this critical junction, Delta WIN is coordinating data integration and analysis to develop better understanding of the existing and emerging water quality concerns. As first steps, Delta WIN is integrating existing water quality data, analyzing trends, and monitoring to fill data gaps and to evaluate indicators of climate change impacts. Available data will be used for trend analysis; Delta WIN will continue to monitor where data is incomplete and new questions arise. Understanding how climate change conditions may affect water quality will be used to inform efforts to build resilience and maintain water quality levels which sustain aquatic life and human needs. Assessments of historical and new data will aid in recognition of potential climate change impacts and in initiating implementation of best management practices in collaboration with

  19. Watershed Central: Dynamic Collaboration for Improving Watershed Management (Philadelphia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Central web and wiki pages will be presented and demonstrated real-time as part of the overview of Web 2.0 collaboration tools for watershed management. The presentation portion will discuss how EPA worked with watershed practitioners and within the Agency to deter...

  20. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  1. DEM time series of an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineux, Nathalie; Lisein, Jonathan; Swerts, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural landscape soil surface evolves notably due to erosion and deposition phenomenon. Even if most of the field data come from plot scale studies, the watershed scale seems to be more appropriate to understand them. Currently, small unmanned aircraft systems and images treatments are improving. In this way, 3D models are built from multiple covering shots. When techniques for large areas would be to expensive for a watershed level study or techniques for small areas would be too time consumer, the unmanned aerial system seems to be a promising solution to quantify the erosion and deposition patterns. The increasing technical improvements in this growth field allow us to obtain a really good quality of data and a very high spatial resolution with a high Z accuracy. In the center of Belgium, we equipped an agricultural watershed of 124 ha. For three years (2011-2013), we have been monitoring weather (including rainfall erosivity using a spectropluviograph), discharge at three different locations, sediment in runoff water, and watershed microtopography through unmanned airborne imagery (Gatewing X100). We also collected all available historical data to try to capture the "long-term" changes in watershed morphology during the last decades: old topography maps, soil historical descriptions, etc. An erosion model (LANDSOIL) is also used to assess the evolution of the relief. Short-term evolution of the surface are now observed through flights done at 200m height. The pictures are taken with a side overlap equal to 80%. To precisely georeference the DEM produced, ground control points are placed on the study site and surveyed using a Leica GPS1200 (accuracy of 1cm for x and y coordinates and 1.5cm for the z coordinate). Flights are done each year in December to have an as bare as possible ground surface. Specific treatments are developed to counteract vegetation effect because it is know as key sources of error in the DEM produced by small unmanned aircraft

  2. Watershed Assessment and Management Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal proposed for the Watershed Assessment and Management research program is to: Provide the scientific knowledge and tools needed by OW and Regions to assess and optimize activities for protecting, maintaining and improving water quality through effective watershed ...

  3. Entering the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Doppelt, B.; Scurlock, M.; Frissell, C.; Karr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological integrity of a river is a direct function of the health of its watershed. Riverine pollution, habitat degradation, and extinction of aquatic biodiversity are all issues that must be addressed at the ecosystem level. The product of a two-year project established by The Pacific Rivers Council to develop new federal riverine protection and restoration policy alternatives, this book recommends a comprehensive new approach to river protection: a nationwide, strategic community- and ecosystem-based watershed restoration initiative founded upon principles of watershed dynamics, ecosystem function, and conservation biology. The book describes in detail the existing level of damage of rivers and species. A new, intensified national emphasis on rivers is presented. The flaws and gaps in existing policy are analyzed. The scientific underpinnings and management strategies needed in new policy are outlined. Specific policy proposals are made.

  4. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is written as a resource for state and local watershed managers who have the responsibility of managing pathogen contamination in urban watersheds. In addition it can be an information source for members of the public interested in watershed mitigation efforts aime...

  5. Watershed Watch: Using undergraduate student-driven inquiry-based research projects as a means of engaging undeclared students in the biogeosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Graham, K.; Hayden, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) engages early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). The program focuses on two watersheds: the Merrimack Ricer Watershed in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and the Pasquotank River Watershed in Virginia and North Carolina. Both the terrestrial and aquatic components of both watersheds are evaluated using the student-driven projects. A significant component of this program is an intensive two-week Summer Research Institute (SRI), in which undeclared freshmen and sophomores investigate various aspects of their local watershed. Two Summer Research Institutes have been held on the UNH campus (2006 and 2008) and two on the ECSU campus (2007 and 2009). Students develop their own research questions and study design, collect and analyze data, and produce a scientific oral or poster presentation on the last day of the SRI. The course objectives, curriculum and schedule are presented as a model for dissemination for other institutions and programs seeking to develop inquiry-rich programs or courses designed to attract students into biogeoscience disciplines. Data from self-reported student feedback indicate the most important factors explaining high-levels of student motivation and research excellence in the program are: 1) working with committed, energetic, and enthusiastic faculty mentors, and 2) faculty mentors demonstrating high degrees of

  6. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2000-10-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  7. Team coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J

    2010-07-01

    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams. PMID:20587302

  8. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reaney, Mark D.

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment activities

  9. Technology coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology coordination are provided. Topics covered include: technology coordination process to date; goals; how the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) can support the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA); how OSSA can support OAST; steps to technology transfer; and recommendations.

  10. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  11. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service, and the University of Arizona to a...

  12. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  13. UNIFIED WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:State and tribal submitted watersheds identified as in need of restoration efforts during 1999 and 2000. The lists will be used to help target broader efforts, programs, and resources of all involved stakeholders.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:...

  14. Enhancements to TauDEM to support Rapid Watershed Delineation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazib, N. S.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds are widely recognized as the basic functional unit for water resources management studies and are important for a variety of problems in hydrology, ecology, and geomorphology. Nevertheless, delineating a watershed spread across a large region is still cumbersome due to the processing burden of working with large Digital Elevation Model. Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) software supports the delineation of watersheds and stream networks from within desktop Geographic Information Systems. A rich set of watershed and stream network attributes are computed. However limitations of the TauDEM desktop tools are (1) it supports only one type of raster (tiff format) data (2) requires installation of software for parallel processing, and (3) data have to be in projected coordinate system. This paper presents enhancements to TauDEM that have been developed to extend its generality and support web based watershed delineation services. The enhancements of TauDEM include (1) reading and writing raster data with the open-source geospatial data abstraction library (GDAL) not limited to the tiff data format and (2) support for both geographic and projected coordinates. To support web services for rapid watershed delineation a procedure has been developed for sub setting the domain based on sub-catchments, with preprocessed data prepared for each catchment stored. This allows the watershed delineation to function locally, while extending to the full extent of watersheds using preprocessed information. Additional capabilities of this program includes computation of average watershed properties and geomorphic and channel network variables such as drainage density, shape factor, relief ratio and stream ordering. The updated version of TauDEM increases the practical applicability of it in terms of raster data type, size and coordinate system. The watershed delineation web service functionality is useful for web based software as service deployments

  15. River flow fluctuation analysis: Effect of watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirpa, Feyera A.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Over, Thomas M.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River Basin in Georgia in the southeastern United States with special focus on the effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 23 to 19,606 km2. The climatic and seasonal trends are removed using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique. Results show that (1) river flow fluctuations have two distinct scaling regimes, and the scaling break is delayed for large watershed areas; (2) large watersheds have more persistent river flow fluctuations and stronger long memory (i.e., for lag times beyond the scale break) than small watersheds do; (3) the long memory of river flow fluctuations does not come from the long memory of precipitation; (4) a linear reservoir unit hydrograph transfer function approach does not capture correctly the basin processes that convert short-memory precipitation to long-memory streamflow; and (5) the degree of multifractality of river flow fluctuations decreases with increasing watershed area. The results clearly indicate that watershed area is an important factor in the long-memory studies of streamflow such as streamflow prediction.

  16. Hydroclimatology of continental watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Cayan, D.R.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    1995-03-01

    We diagnose the spatial patterns and further examine temporal behavior of anomalous monthly-seasonal precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric circulation in relationship to hydrologic (soil water and potential evapotranspiration) flutuations at two watersheds in the central United States. The bulk hydrologic abalance at each of the two watersheds, Boone River, Iowa (BN), and Bird Creek, Oklahoma (BC), was determined from the rainfall-runoff-routing watershed model described in part 1. There are many similarities among the hydroclimatic linkages at the two basins. In both, relationships with precipitation and temperature indicate that the forcing occurs on regional scales, much larger than the individual watersheds. Precipitation exhibits anomaly variability over 500-km scales, and sometimes larger. Anomalous temperature, which is strongly correlated with potential evapotranspiration, often extends from the Great Plains to the Appalachian Mountains. Seasonally, the temperature and precipitation anomalies tend to have greatest spatial coherence in fall and least in summer. The temperature and precipitation tend to have out-of-phase anomalies (e.g., warm associated with dry). Thus low soil water conditions are reinforced by low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration, and vice versa for high soil water. Soil water anomalies in each basin accumulate over a history of significant large-scale climate forcing that usually appears one or two seasons in advance. These forcing fields are produced by atmospheric circulation anomaly patterns that often take on hemispheric scales. BN and BC have strong similarities in their monthly circulation patterns producing heavy/light monthly precipitation episodes, the primary means of forcing of the watersheds. The patterns exhibit regional high or low geopotential anomalies just upstream over the western United States or near the center of the country. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hydro power benefits of cooperative watershed management

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, L.L.; Lindquist, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the efforts of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) in cooperation with a number of agencies and public and private land managers to reduce erosion and restore the health of the East Branch North Fork Feather River (EBNFFR) watershed in Plumas County, California. Erosion of the 2600 square kilometer watershed has been identified as a major contributor of sediments to PG&E`s Rock Creek and Cresta hydroelectric reservoirs which have collected more than 5.4 million cubic meters of sediment over the past 45 years. PG&E and the 17 other participants of the cooperative erosion control program are joined by a {open_quotes}Memorandum of Agreement{close_quotes} (MOA) and are applying {open_quotes}Coordinated Resource Management{close_quotes} (CRM). To date, more than 33 individual watershed improvement projects and a comprehensive erosion control strategy document have been completed. It is anticipated that over the long term, the erosion control program may reduce the water-borne sediment delivery to Rock Creek and Cresta reservoirs by as much as 50 percent. PG&E benefits from the program through reduced sediment deposition in the reservoirs, reduced sediment wear on the power turbines, and potential increases in base flow during summer months when water power is of greatest value.

  18. Using a watershed-based approach to manage and protect water resources in the Bear Canyon Watershed, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    Depending upon how people use land in a watershed, whether it be farming, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, mining, urbanization, or even recreation, all have significant impacts on the water moving through that watershed. This paper will focus on the urban watershed and how stormwater runoff from urbanization affects erosion, sedimentation, and water quality. It also will explore the potential of a watershed as the basis for managing and protecting water resources. Watershed-based management offers a clear look at how land-use changes affect not only water quality but also erosion and sedimentation; in addition, this approach develops preventive strategies to restore those affected water and land resources. The preventive strategies the author uses for this watershed can be applied to other New Mexico urban watersheds. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part shows how past and present land-use activities affect erosion, sedimentation, and water quality in the Bear Canyon arroyo system. The second part provides solutions to the problems of soil erosion and stormwater pollution in the urban areas through government intervention. The third part discusses how Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to limit or reduce stormwater pollution in residential and industrial areas.

  19. When Everything Changes: Mountaintop Mining Effects on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippgen, F.; Ross, M. R.; McGlynn, B. L.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mountaintop removal coal mining (MTM) in the Central Appalachians has expanded over the last 40 years to cover ~7% of this mountainous landscape. MTM operations remove mountaintops and ridges with explosives and machinery to access underlying coal seams. Much of this crushed rock overburden is subsequently deposited into nearby valleys, creating valley fills that often bury headwater streams. In contrast to other disturbances such as forest clear-cutting, perturbations from MTM can extend hundreds of meters deep into the critical zone and completely reshape landscapes. Despite the expansiveness and intensity of the disturbance, MTM has only recently begun to receive focused attention from the hydrologic community and the effect of MTM on the hydrology of impacted watersheds is still not well understood. We are using a two-pronged approach consisting of GIS analysis to quantify spoil volumes and landscape change, together with empirical analysis and modeling of rainfall and runoff data collected in two sets of paired watersheds. We seek to investigate how MTM affects basic hydrologic metrics, including storm peakflows, runoff response times, baseflow, statistics of flow duration curves, and longer-term water balances. Each pair consists of a mined and an unmined watershed; the first set contains headwater streams (size ~100ha), the second set consists of 3rd order streams, draining ~3500ha. Mining covers ~ 95% of the headwater watershed, and 40% of the 3rd-order watershed. Initial GIS analysis indicates that the overburden moved during the mining process could be up to three times greater than previously estimated. Storm runoff peaks in the mined watersheds were muted as compared to the unmined watersheds and runoff ratios were reduced by up to 75% during both wet and dry antecedent conditions. The natural reference watersheds were highly responsive while the additional storage in the mined watersheds led to decreased peak flows during storms and enhanced baseflow

  20. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  1. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    PubMed

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method. PMID:25698546

  2. Integrated Watershed Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagulho Galvão, P.; Neves, R.; Silva, A.; Chambel Leitão, P.; Braunchweig, F.

    2004-05-01

    Integrated systems that bring together EO data, local measurements and modeling tools, are a fundamental instrument to help decision making in watershed and land use management. The BASINS system (EPA http://www.epa.gov/OST/BASINS/) follows this philosophy, merging data from local measurement with modeling tools (HSPF, SWAT, PLOAD, QUAL2E). However, remote sensed data is still used in a very static way (usually to define land cover, see corine land cover project). This approach is being replaced with operational methods that use EO data (such as land surface temperature, vegetation state, soil moisture, surface roughness) for both inputs and validation. The development of integrated watershed models that dynamically interact with remote sensed data opens interesting prospective to the validation and improvement of such models. This paper describes the possible data contribution of remote sensing to the needs associated with state of the art watershed models, including well know systems (such as SWAT or HSPF) and a system still under development (MOHID LAND). Application of such models is shown at two pilot sites, which were selected under EU projects, TempQsim and Interreg II B - ICRW.

  3. EPA'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed management presumes that community groups can best solve many water quality and ecosystem problems at the watershed level rather than at the individual site, receiving waterbody, or discharger level. After assessing and ranking watershed problems, and setting environ...

  4. Magnetosheath Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M.; Chen, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    The eventual goal of this work is to develop an approximate analytical representation of solar-wind streamlines in the magnetosheath surrounding a magnetosphere of rather general shape. Previous analytical representations of magnetosheath streamlines and magnetic fields have invoked magnetopause shapes that conform to standard coordinate systems (e.g., spherical, cylindrical, paraboloidal, ellipsoidal), but it seems now that such a restriction on magnetopause shape is unnecessary. In the present work it is assumed only that the magnetopause is a continuously differentiable convex surface axisymmetric about the Sun-Earth line. This geometry permits the construction of an orthogonal coordinate system (mu, eta, chi) such that eta is the cosine of the cone angle between the Sun-Earth line and any conical surafce extending normally outward from the magnetopause, mu is a measure of the perpendicular distance of any magnetosheath point from the magnetopause, and chi is an azimuthal coordinate measured around the Sun-Earth line. It is convenient here to assign a label mu = mu* to the magnetopause itself, so that mu - mu* denotes perpendicular distance from the magnetopause and mu* is an adjustable parameter roughly comparable to the radius of the magnetotail. This choice provides for a rough correspondence between the (mu, eta, chi) coordinates introduced here and the ellipsoidal coordinates used in our previous efforts at magnetosheath modeling.

  5. The St. Joseph River Watershed CEAP Project: Highlights of Recent Refocusing of Our Efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring in the St. Joseph River watershed was initiated in 2002. Over the last six years, the focus has been on monitoring surface runoff from fields and discharge from drainage ditches and a natural stream. The watershed lies in one of the areas of the country with the greatest density of subs...

  6. STAFF - URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Watershed Management Branch is known internationally for its high-quality, well-focused work on urban watershed environmental problems due to wet weather flow and on urban infrastructure. UWMB is a team of individuals with complementary skills and interest and is made o...

  7. A Tale of Three Watersheds: Non-point Source Pollution and Conservation Practices Across Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted as part of a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) - Watershed Assessment Study supported by USDA-CSREES. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effects of watershed conservation practices on water quality, with a focus on understanding how the suite o...

  8. TEAMS - OVERVIEW OF EPA'S WET-WEATHER LOW RESEARCH PROGRAM (URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops and evaluates technologies, practices and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF)sources in urban watersheds.The focus is on the risk management aspects of WWF research. It ad...

  9. Challenges of watershed implementation plans: Joe's bayou watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Joe’s Bayou watershed is located in the Ouachita River Basin, Louisiana and covers a drainage area of about 173 square kilometers. This watershed is listed on the §303(d) List for Louisiana as impaired for dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients. The TMDL report recommends a reduction of 89% of total no...

  10. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT ON THE PAJARITO PLATEAU: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect

    K. MULLEN; K. BITNER

    2001-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a draft watershed-management plan that pertains to the 43-mi{sup 2} area within the LANL boundaries. The watershed-management plan was started in 1996 with a number of overall goals: (1) to be a good steward of the natural resources entrusted to the laboratory, (2) to provide long-term evaluation regarding success of the Environmental Restoration Project in acceptably cleaning up sites, (3) compliance with the storm water National Pollution Discharge Elimination System program, and (4) upgrading the LANL environmental surveillance program that has been ongoing since the 1940s. LANL has an extensive network consisting of 53 surface-water-monitoring stations located in every major canyon, upstream and downstream of LANL, and at most confluences. Monitoring of the network has been ongoing for about 20 years. The stations are equipped with ultrasonic transducers that trip automated samplers to collect water samples from every flow event. These data have been reported every year in the report series Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos, but have not been used to analyze watershed health. The focus of the LANL watershed-management plan is to use water quality data to monitor watershed health and to implement management actions when LANL activities, past or present, adversely impact the health of the watershed.

  11. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a

  12. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  13. PROFILE: Management of Sedimentation in Tropical Watersheds.

    PubMed

    NAGLE; FAHEY; LASSOIE

    1999-05-01

    reducing sedimentation. When sedimentation of reservoirs is the key issue, sediment budgets must focus especially on channel transport rates and sediment delivery from hillsides. Sediment budgets are especially critical for tropical areas where project funds and technical help are limited. Once sediment budgets are available, watershed managers will be able to direct erosion control programs towards locations where they will be most effective. KEY WORDS: Tropical watersheds; Sedimentation; Reservoirs; Erosion control PMID:10085377

  14. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period, bids were solicited and awarded for two culvert replacement projects on Doe Creek, and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally, NEPA and permits were completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Due to delays in cultural resource surveys, the contract was not awarded for the performance of the ditch restoration. It will occur in 2005. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  15. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  16. Watershed Education for Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), which is a global communication system for analyzing watershed usage and monitoring the quality and quantity of river water. Describes GREEN's watershed educational model and strategies and international development. (Contains 67 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. INTEGRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN WATERSHED PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the filters through which society views the values produced by watersheds is key to developing effective and adaptable watershed plans, and ultimately a measure of how well policy makers are likely to meet a sustainability, or any other, intent. Many natural resour...

  18. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the amount of

  19. Nitrate export from forested watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, O.P.; Kuebler, A.; Rice, K.C.; Anderson, R.T.; Kennedy, M.M.

    1994-12-31

    Current levels of nitrogen inputs to the Chesapeake Bay exceed the ecological demand, resulting in eutrophication and algal blooms which degrade water quality. The Chesapeake Bay receives nitrogen compounds from a variety of sources. Previously, much attention had been focused on point source contributions such as sewage treatment plants and industrial discharges. More recently, however, inputs from atmospheric deposition and non-point sources have been considered. Land use practices vary widely within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, the largest portion is forested. Given that forested watersheds occupy a large area of the Chesapeake Bay drainage system, export of nitrogen from forested watersheds could potentially play an important role in the nitrogen balance. Here, examine the nitrate input/output budgets for eight forested headwater watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay drainage, several of which have a 10-year record of chemical data. The authors explore annual and seasonal input/output budgets for these watersheds and, at several sites, define the variability in nitrate export during episodic events Seasonal and episodic information on nitrate export may be useful to watershed managers in designing and applying techniques for minimizing nitrate export from these systems. Comparison of the behavior of nitrate in these systems, and with forested watersheds in other regions across a deposition gradient, will help to elucidate the factors that control nitrate export from forested watersheds. This information will better define the expected nitrate exports from forested watersheds and contribute to improving the confidence limits of models of nutrient loading to the Chesapeake Bay.

  20. Watershed-based survey designs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  1. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  2. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  3. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2004-05-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  4. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon : Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2005-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  5. Building a Comprehensive Watershed-Scale Project for Assessing Conservation Effects at the St Joseph River Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, we began a Source Water Protection Initiative project in the St Joseph River Watershed at northeast Indiana, USA. The initial focus was to evaluate existing and innovative agricultural practices in reducing pesticides, specifically atrazine, loadings to the source water for the City of Ft ...

  6. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TWO DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO A SMALL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed watershed models are beneficial tools for assessment of management practices on runoff and water-induced erosion. This paper evaluates, by application to an experimental watershed, two promising distributed watershed-scale sediment models in detail: The Kinematic Runo...

  7. Optimizing conservation practices in watersheds: Do community preferences matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piemonti, Adriana D.; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Jane Luzar, E.

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on investigating (a) how landowner tenure and attitudes of farming communities affect the preference of individual conservation practices in agricultural watersheds, (b) how spatial distribution of landowner tenure affects the spatial optimization of conservation practices on a watershed scale, and (c) how the different attitudes and preferences of stakeholders can modify the effectiveness of alternatives obtained via classic optimization approaches that do not include the influence of existing social attitudes in a watershed during the search process. Results show that for Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana, USA, the most optimal alternatives (i.e., highest benefits for minimum economic costs) are for a scenario when the watershed consists of landowners who operate as farmers on their own land. When a different land-tenure scenario was used for the watershed (e.g., share renters and cash renters), the optimized alternatives had similar nitrate reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but at higher economic costs. Our experiments also demonstrated that social attitudes can lead to alteration of optimized alternatives found via typical optimization approaches. For example, when certain practices were rejected by landowner operators whose attitudes toward practices were driven by economic profits, removal of these practices from the optimized alternatives led to a setback of nitrates reduction by 2-50%, peak flow reductions by 11-98 %, and sediments reduction by 20-77%. In conclusion, this study reveals the potential loss in optimality of optimized alternatives possible, when socioeconomic data on farmer preferences and land tenure are not incorporated within watershed optimization investigations.

  8. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1998 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    1999-11-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  9. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  10. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  11. STEWARDS: A watershed data system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive, long-term data from watersheds across diverse environments are needed for hydrologic and ecosystem analysis and for model development, calibration and validation. To support the Agricultural Research Service's Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing impacts of USDA...

  12. Watershed Simulation of Nutrient Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, nitrogen processes simulated in watershed models were reviewed and compared. Furthermore, current researches on nitrogen losses from agricultural fields were also reviewed. Finally, applications with those models were reviewed and selected successful and u...

  13. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K. Van, Jr.; Clair, Michael G., II; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  14. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  15. Nutrient Characterization of Rainwater, Soil and Groundwater from Two Different Watersheds, Lake Taihu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaw, M.; Gao, F.; Yu, Z.; Acharya, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past two decades, an increase of nutrients to Lake Taihu, China has resulted in hyper-eutrophication and the production of severe cyanobacterial blooms. While many past studies have focused on how surface water transports nutrients to the lake, this study seeks to characterize the concentration of nutrients in different media, including rainwater, soil and groundwater from two different watersheds. These two watersheds varied in overall land use, and agricultural sites within each watershed varied by crop type and growing method. Samples were collected from the Meilin watershed, a mix of forest and agricultural land and the Zhangjiagang watershed, which consisted of industrial, urban and agricultural lands. Samples included soils, groundwater and rain water. Soils from each site were characterized by aggregate size class and analyzed for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Rainwater and groundwater samples were analyzed for total nitrogen and total phosphorus.

  16. Strengthening Student Interest and Learning of Watershed Science using a Case-History Investigation of a Rapidly Changing Semi-Arid Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, A. K.; Hall, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    In a changing climate, watershed disturbances such as drought, large-scale wildfires, and extreme rainfall patterns are on the rise, particularly in the southwestern U.S. Yet, at high-school grade levels, hydrology and watershed science get minimal coverage in classrooms. To address this situation, we developed a set of GIS- based student investigations on the affect of natural and human-induced disturbances on watershed hydrology. The case history focuses on the 2003 Aspen Fire in southern Arizona, but also incorporates investigations of undisturbed watersheds. We structured these investigations around recent hydrologic, geologic, and fire data collected by USGS, USFS, and University of Arizona scientists. The investigations encourage students to use Google Earth and MyWorld GIS to learn about the watersheds of the Santa Catalina Mountains in southern Arizona. Students use precipitation and streamflow data to discover the "normal" response of a semi-arid watershed to rainfall. Through spatial visualization and analysis of the data, they learn how and why a semi-arid watershed may become vulnerable to change due to "unusual" conditions. The large-scale Aspen wildfire and subsequent massive debris flows caused watershed instability and were used as teaching tools in these investigations. Field testing has focused on increasing usability and pedagogical effectiveness, whereas external peer reviews have addressed scientific accuracy. We found the overall response to these investigations by both students and teachers to be positive. The benefits of using real, scientific data in combination with spatial visualization tools to teach about a watershed's response to fire were measured using a survey assessment of student learning during field testing.

  17. Programs for Watershed-Plus phase for rainfed regions in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Kausalya; Ramakrishna, Y. S.

    2006-12-01

    Watershed-based development is the strategy for sustainable growth in the vast rain-fed regions of India since 1980s to enhance agricultural production, conservation of natural resources and raising rural livelihood of farming communities. Although soil and water conservation was initially the primary objective of watershed program that saw large public investment since inception, later its focus shifted to principles of equity and enhancing rural livelihood opportunities and more recently to sustainable development since mid-1990s. At present a major emphasis under watershed program is the regeneration of degraded fragile lands in rain-fed regions. Several noteworthy watershed programs have been carried out since inception that have yielded sterling results while many others have yielded little by way of unbalanced development because of improper characterization of watersheds and poor project planning and implementation. Tools of Geomatics like satellite data, GIS and GPS besides conventional ones like field survey, topographical and cadastral maps along with traditional multi-disciplinary methods like PRA, soil and water analysis, socio-economic survey etc. provide insight into characterization of watersheds, project formulation and proper implementation of such development programs. The present paper illustrates the methodology for characterization of watersheds using the tools of Geomatics on one hand, besides exhibiting its utility for scaling-out the program benefits like sustaining higher agricultural productivity, enhancing irrigation efficiency, equity, enhanced rural livelihood opportunities, women empowerment, drought-proofing etc. during Watershed-Plus phase in the coming decades, on the other.

  18. Monitoring, Modeling, and Emergent Toxicology in the East Fork Watershed: Developing a Test Bed for Water Quality Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overarching objectives for the development of the East Fork Watershed Test Bed in Southwestern Ohio include: 1) providing research infrastructure for integrating risk assessment and management research on the scale of a large multi-use watershed (1295 km2); 2) Focusing on process...

  19. 77 FR 11111 - Assessment of Potential Large-Scale Mining on the Bristol Bay Watershed of Alaska: Nomination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... AGENCY Assessment of Potential Large-Scale Mining on the Bristol Bay Watershed of Alaska: Nomination of... impacts associated with potential large-scale mining development in the Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds of... how large-scale mining activities might affect water quality and habitat. EPA will focus primarily...

  20. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhruvesh P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Gupta, Manika; Nandhakumar, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  1. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds, while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. Together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.

  2. Hydrological changes prints in subarctic watersheds discharge records: a case study in the Duke River watershed, Yukon, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, A.; Baraer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological changes from alpine glacierized watersheds have been reported from almost all the regions of the world. In most cases those changes have, or are foreseen to have, marked impacts on water resources with implications for downstream population and ecosystems. One of the ways to assess climate change impacts on glacierized watersheds is to conduct appropriate statistical analyses on historical hydrometric data where long and accurate time series exist. In the Yukon, Canada, a fair number of hydrometric time series are made accessible by institutions such as Environment Canada or the Yukon National Parks Organisation. Some of those time series have been studied previously at a regional scale in the territory. In the present study, focusing on the Duke River watershed area, we reanalyse these datasets based on a larger number of discharge characteristics and compare results with regional meteorological data analysis. We perform non-parametric trend analysis to assess long-term changes in watersheds response to climate-induced variability. Eight watersheds with varying glacierized area were chosen for this study. Main glaciers in the region are situated in St. Elias Mountains and are characterised by ubiquitous mass loss (Arendt et al., 2002; Barrand and Sharp, 2010). Historical hydrometric data analysis shows two distinct hydrological regimes in the area: (i) - snow fed rivers with peak runoff following spring snowmelt, and (ii) - glacier fed rivers with peak runoff following glacier ablation in July. While total discharge during ablation season does not vary significantly between watersheds with different regimes, the difference in late summer runoff is close to 50%. Moreover, trend analysis provides evidence of changes in hydrological regimes in the area. As a response to ubiquitous temperature increase, hydrologically active period for highly glacieized watershed (with glacierized area of 30%) has shifted from the beginning of August to the beginning of

  3. Watershed approach: the EPRI Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, A.H.; Goldstein, R.A.; Chen, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the philosophy and organization of the Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS). These data are used for detailed watershed budgets and to establish a benchmark for future ecological effects studies in the Adirondacks. An intensive, integrated, five-year study of three forested watersheds was established to determine how lake waters become acidified and to quantify the train of events occurring as acid precipitation becomes lake water. The study integrated management questions into the scientific research at the planning stage. The total system was divided into compartments for detailed scientific analysis with a model being developed to reassemble the data from each subsection to represent the overall behavior of the system.

  4. Watershed management and the web

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A.; Costanza, R.

    1999-08-01

    Watershed analysis and watershed management are developing as tools of integrated ecological and economic study. They also assist decision-making at the regional scale. The new technology and thinking offered by the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web is highly complementary to some of the goals of watershed analysis. Services delivered by the Web are open, interactive, gas, spatially distributed, hierarchical and flexible. The Web offers the ability to display information creatively, to interact with that information and to change and modify it remotely. In this way the Internet provides a much-needed opportunity to deliver scientific findings and information to stakeholders and to link stakeholders together providing for collective decision=making. The benefits fall into two major categories: methological and educational. Methodologically the approach furthers the watershed management concept, offering an avenue for practical implementation of watershed management principles. For educational purposes the Web is a source of data and insight serving a variety of needs at all levels.

  5. Targeting land-use change for nitratenitrogen load reductions in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, M.K.; Schilling, K.E.; Gassman, P.W.; Wolter, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    The research was conducted as part of the USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project. The objective of the project was to evaluate the environmental effects of land-use changes, with a focus on understanding how the spatial distribution throughout a watershed influences their effectiveness.The Soil and Water AssessmentTool (SWAT) water quality model was applied to the Squaw Creek watershed, which covers 4,730 ha (11,683 ac) of prime agriculture land in southern Iowa. The model was calibrated (2000 to 2004) and validated (1996 to 1999) for overall watershed hydrology and for streamflow and nitrate loadings at the watershed outlet on an annual and monthly basis. Four scenarios for land-use change were evaluated including one scenario consistent with recent land-use changes and three scenarios focused on land-use change on highly erodible land areas, upper basin areas, and floodplain areas. Results for the Squaw Creek watershed suggested that nitrate losses were sensitive to land-use change. If land-use patterns were restored to 1990 conditions, nitrate loads may be reduced 7% to 47% in the watershed and subbasins, whereas converting row crops to grass in highly erodible land, upper basin, and floodplain areas would reduce nitrate loads by 47%, 16%, and 8%, respectively. These SWAT model simulations can provide guidance on how to begin targeting land-use change for nitrate load reductions in agricultural watersheds.

  6. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...

  7. Watershed Management in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    A watershed approach provides an effective framework for dealing with water resources challenges. Watersheds provide drinking water, recreation, and ecological habitat, as well as a place for waste disposal, a source of industrial cooling water, and navigable inland water transpo...

  8. GROUND WATER AND WATERSHEDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective watershed management has the potential to achieve both drinking water and ecological protection goals. However, it is important that the watershed perspective be three- dimensional and include the hidden subsurface. The subsurface catchment, or groundwatershed, is geohy...

  9. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  10. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2003-06-23

    This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns

  11. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  12. MAP OF THE MAJOR WATERSHEDS OF ILLINOIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map illustrates general boundaries of major watersheds in Illinois. The watersheds in the Illinois River Basin are shaded green. A watershed is often considered synonymous with drainage basin, and in this context it is the land area which directly drains to a common stream...

  13. Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed: A Historical Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed was established in north central Mississippi by U.S. Congressional action and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Sedimentation Laboratory has operated the watershed since October, 1981. Since then, the watershed has provided a platform for research ...

  14. The watershed and river systems management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, S.L.; Frevert, D.; Leavesley, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Watershed and River System Management Program (WaRSMP), a joint effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is focused on research and development of decision support systems and their application to achieve an equitable balance among diverse water resource management demands. Considerations include: (1) legal and political constraints; (2) stake holder and consensus-building; (3) sound technical knowledge; (4) flood control, consumptive use, and hydropower; (5) water transfers; (6) irrigation return flows and water quality; (7) recreation; (8) habitat for endangered species; (9) water supply and proration; (10) near-surface groundwater; and (11) water ownership, accounting, and rights. To address the interdisciplinary and multi-stake holder needs of real-time watershed management, WaRSMP has developed a decision support system toolbox. The USGS Object User Interface facilitates the coupling of Reclamation's RiverWare reservoir operations model with the USGS Modular Modeling and Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems through a central database. This integration is accomplished through the use of Model and Data Management Interfaces. WaRSMP applications include Colorado River Main stem and Gunnison Basin, the Yakima Basin, the Middle Rio Grande Basin, the Truckee-Carson Basin, and the Umatilla Basin.

  15. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  16. Climate Variability Impacts on Watershed Nutrient Delivery and Reservoir Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. D.; Prochnow, S. J.; Zygo, L. M.; Byars, B. W.

    2005-05-01

    Reservoirs in agricultural dominated watersheds tend to exhibit pulse-system behavior especially if located in climates dominated by summer convective precipitation inputs. Concentration and bulk mass of nutrient and sediment inputs into reservoir systems vary in terms of timing and magnitude of delivery from watershed sources to reservoirs under these climate conditions. Reservoir management often focuses on long-term average inputs without considering short and long-term impacts of variation in loading. In this study we modeled a watershed-reservoir system to assess how climate variability affects reservoir primary production through shifts in external loading and internal recycling of limiting nutrients. The Bosque watershed encompasses 423,824 ha in central Texas which delivers water to Lake Waco, a 2900 ha reservoir that is the primary water source for the city of Waco and surrounding areas. Utilizing the Soil Water Assessment Tool for the watershed and river simulations and the CE-Qual-2e model for the reservoir, hydrologic and nutrient dynamics were simulated for a 10 year period encompassing two ENSO cycles. The models were calibrated based on point measurement of water quality attributes for a two year time period. Results indicated that watershed delivery of nutrients was affected by the presence and density of small flood-control structure in the watershed. However, considerable nitrogen and phosphorus loadings were derived from soils in the upper watershed which have had long-term waste-application from concentrated animal feeding operations. During El Niño years, nutrient and sediment loads increased by 3 times above non-El Niño years. The simulated response within the reservoir to these nutrient and sediment loads had both direct and indirect. Productivity evaluated from chlorophyll a and algal biomass increased under El Niño conditions, however species composition shifts were found with an increase in cyanobacteria dominance. In non-El Niño years

  17. The Bio-Geo-Socio-Chemistry of Urban Watershed Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groffman, P. M.; Band, L. E.; Pouyat, R. V.; Belt, K. T.; Fisher, G. T.; Grove, M.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Watersheds are a natural (and well-used) physical unit for ecological research and can also function as a focus for human-environment interactions. Suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen (N) have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be a major source of N in suburban watersheds have more complex coupled carbon (C) and N dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much N retention. Levels of soil organic matter, microbial biomass and respiration are similar in home lawns and forests, leading to relatively low inorganic N pools in soil and low hydrologic losses of inorganic N from lawns. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for N in many watersheds, have turned out be N sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. High storm flows lead to stream incision which lowers riparian water tables which stimulates aerobic production (nitrification) and decreases anaerobic consumption (denitrification) of inorganic N. In-stream processing of N is also affected by these hydrologic changes, with important effects (both positive and negative) on retention. Geomorphic stream restoration designed to reverse structural degradation caused by urban runoff can increase in-stream retention by creating features with high denitrification potential. Organic debris dams and hyporheic zones exposed to nitrate-rich stream water can function as hotspots of denitrification in restored streams. Considering human goals in stream restoration can help to establish connections between people and streams, which can lead to improvements in water quality as people

  18. A science-based, watershed strategy to support effective remediation of abandoned mine lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Nimick, David A.; Von Guerard, Paul; Church, Stanley E.; Frazier, Ann G.; Gray, John R.; Lipin, Bruce R.; Marsh, Sherman P.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Finger, Susan E.; Ischinger, Lee S.; Fordham, John C.; Power, Martha S.; Bunch, Christine M.; Jones, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative will develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to formulate effective and cost-efficient remediation of abandoned mine lands. A watershed approach will identify, characterize, and remediate contaminated sites that have the most profound effect on water and ecosystem quality within a watershed. The Initiative will be conducted during 1997 through 2001 in two pilot watersheds, the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in Montana. Initiative efforts are being coordinated with the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, and other stakeholders which are using the resulting scientific information to design and implement remediation activities. The Initiative has the following eight objective-oriented components: estimate background (pre-mining) conditions; define baseline (current) conditions; identify target sites (major contaminant sources); characterize target sites and processes affecting contaminant dispersal; characterize ecosystem health and controlling processes at target sites; develop remediation goals and monitoring network; provide an integrated, quality-assured and accessible data network; and document lessons learned for future applications of the watershed approach.

  19. Watershed processes, fish habitat, and salmonid distribution in the Tonsina River (Copper River watershed), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. B.; Ligon, F. K.; Sloat, M. R.; Amerson, B.; Ralph, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    -scale differences in physical habitat features. For example, juvenile coho salmon used interstitial spaces between unembedded cobbles and boulders but were absent from adjacent habitat with high embeddedness. Thus high delivery rates of coarse sediment sustain critical rearing habitat that would otherwise be relatively inhospitable to fish. Using Chinook salmon as a focal species, we have integrated field- and map-based analyses to predict basin- scale geomorphic and biological constraints on the distribution of suitable spawning and rearing habitat. These analyses provide rapid guidance for where focused investigations or monitoring of key habitats should occur, a particularly important outcome where watersheds are large and field logistics are challenging. The predicted extent of suitable stream habitat within the study area represents a relatively minor fraction (ca. 10 percent) of the total stream channel network, suggesting that production of salmon from the study area depends on the maintenance of quality habitat in discrete, and relatively rare, reaches.

  20. Keep meaning in conversational coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cuffari, Elena C.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making). These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination. PMID:25520693

  1. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  2. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  3. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-11-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been recognized as one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" from 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful, because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings on a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water yield increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation on both spatial scales. The impact magnitude caused by forest harvesting indicates that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yield in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of evapotranspiration (ET), with

  4. A Science Framework for Connecticut River Watershed Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rideout, Stephen; Nicolson, Craig; Russell-Robinson, Susan L.; Mecray, Ellen L.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This document outlines a research framework for water resource managers and land-use planners in the four-state Connecticut River Watershed (CRW). It specifically focuses on developing the decision-support tools and data needed by managers in the watershed. The purpose of the Science Framework is to identify critical research issues and information required to better equip managers to make decisions on desirable changes in the CRW. This Science Framework is the result of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Massachusetts at Amherst (UMass-Amherst), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The cooperative project was guided by a Science Steering Committee (SC) and included several focus groups, a 70-person workshop in September 2004, and an open collaborative process by which the workshop outcomes were synthesized, written up, and then progressively refined through peer review. This document is the product of that collaborative process.

  5. URBAN/SUBURBAN WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to characterize the land surface and related pollutant source loadings is critical for reliable watershed modeling. Urban/suburban land uses are the most rapidly growing land use class, generating non-point source pollutant loadings likely to seriously impair streams...

  6. MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory



    Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

  7. Little River Experimental Watershed Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term, watershed-scale hydrologic and climatic data are invaluable for natural resource and environmental planning and management. Historically, long-term hydrologic records have proved critical for flood forecasting, water conservation and management, agricultural and drought planning, and for...

  8. WATERSHED-BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...

  9. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  10. REFERENCE SITE WATERSHED DELINEATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of geographic information systems for the delineation of watersheds and analysis of land use / land cover associated with 250 reference sites on wadeable streams as identified by the Central Plains Bioassessment workgroup and located in the States of Kansas, Iowa, Missour...

  11. ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES AND WATERSHED STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the proposed study is to assess the responsiveness of indicators of ecosystem function to three intensities of watershed disturbance in four regions. An integrated assessment of abiotic and biotic condition of streams will be conducted to assess streams affected...

  12. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a summary of the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) publication entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination, EPA/600/R-03/111 (September 2003). It is available on the internet at http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/water...

  13. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  14. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  15. Flood response for the watersheds of the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Naomi S.; Smith, James A.; Villarini, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    We examine flood response of high-gradient, forested central Appalachian watersheds through analyses of rainfall, streamflow, and piezometer observations from the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia. Analyses focus on hydrologic processes that control the "upper tail" of flood distributions. The largest flood peaks in the Fernow are an order of magnitude smaller than record floods in the central Appalachian region (for basins of comparable drainage area). We examine flood distributions in the Fernow using extreme value distributions (Generalized Extreme Value and Generalized Pareto distributions) and compare them to other watersheds in the central Appalachians. To examine the role of antecedent soil moisture on flood response, we installed a network of 415 crest-stage piezometers on two headwater watersheds (0.30 and 0.14 km2) of the Fernow. Observations show pronounced heterogeneity of subsurface saturation even within the unchannelized swales of headwater watersheds. Shallow perched water tables over large portions of a watershed occur infrequently in forested central Appalachian basins, but may play an important role in extreme flood response. Fernow watersheds include "treated" and control watersheds with stream gaging records extending back to 1951. We examine nonstationarites in flood frequency in the Fernow and show that forest management practices have had relatively minor impacts on flood frequency.

  16. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  17. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.

    2011-12-01

    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been

  18. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  19. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    Null, Sarah E; Viers, Joshua H; Mount, Jeffrey F

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds. PMID:20368984

  20. Hydrologic Response and Watershed Sensitivity to Climate Warming in California's Sierra Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Null, Sarah E.; Viers, Joshua H.; Mount, Jeffrey F.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2°, 4°, and 6°C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds. PMID:20368984

  1. Genome-to-Watershed Predictive Understanding of Terrestrial Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Agarwal, D.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Long, P.; Nico, P. S.; Steefel, C. I.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although terrestrial environments play a critical role in cycling water, greenhouse gasses, and other life-critical elements, the complexity of interactions among component microbes, plants, minerals, migrating fluids and dissolved constituents hinders predictive understanding of system behavior. The 'Sustainable Systems 2.0' project is developing genome-to-watershed scale predictive capabilities to quantify how the microbiome affects biogeochemical watershed functioning, how watershed-scale hydro-biogeochemical processes affect microbial functioning, and how these interactions co-evolve with climate and land-use changes. Development of such predictive capabilities is critical for guiding the optimal management of water resources, contaminant remediation, carbon stabilization, and agricultural sustainability - now and with global change. Initial investigations are focused on floodplains in the Colorado River Basin, and include iterative model development, experiments and observations with an early emphasis on subsurface aspects. Field experiments include local-scale experiments at Rifle CO to quantify spatiotemporal metabolic and geochemical responses to O2and nitrate amendments as well as floodplain-scale monitoring to quantify genomic and biogeochemical response to natural hydrological perturbations. Information obtained from such experiments are represented within GEWaSC, a Genome-Enabled Watershed Simulation Capability, which is being developed to allow mechanistic interrogation of how genomic information stored in a subsurface microbiome affects biogeochemical cycling. This presentation will describe the genome-to-watershed scale approach as well as early highlights associated with the project. Highlights include: first insights into the diversity of the subsurface microbiome and metabolic roles of organisms involved in subsurface nitrogen, sulfur and hydrogen and carbon cycling; the extreme variability of subsurface DOC and hydrological controls on carbon and

  2. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  3. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  4. 77 FR 260 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... coordination of actions within USDA and the broader forestry sector, with specific focus on owners of non... disabilities. Dated: December 27, 2011. Robin L. Thompson, Associate Deputy Chief, State and Private...

  5. Watershed Modeling Applications with the Open-Access Modular Distributed Watershed Educational Toolbox (MOD-WET) and Introductory Hydrology Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huning, L. S.; Margulis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, introductory hydrology courses focus on hydrologic processes as independent or semi-independent concepts that are ultimately integrated into a watershed model near the end of the term. When an "off-the-shelf" watershed model is introduced in the curriculum, this approach can result in a potential disconnect between process-based hydrology and the inherent interconnectivity of processes within the water cycle. In order to curb this and reduce the learning curve associated with applying hydrologic concepts to complex real-world problems, we developed the open-access Modular Distributed Watershed Educational Toolbox (MOD-WET). The user-friendly, MATLAB-based toolbox contains the same physical equations for hydrological processes (i.e. precipitation, snow, radiation, evaporation, unsaturated flow, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff) that are presented in the companion e-textbook (http://aqua.seas.ucla.edu/margulis_intro_to_hydro_textbook.html) and taught in the classroom. The modular toolbox functions can be used by students to study individual hydrologic processes. These functions are integrated together to form a simple spatially-distributed watershed model, which reinforces a holistic understanding of how hydrologic processes are interconnected and modeled. Therefore when watershed modeling is introduced, students are already familiar with the fundamental building blocks that have been unified in the MOD-WET model. Extensive effort has been placed on the development of a highly modular and well-documented code that can be run on a personal computer within the commonly-used MATLAB environment. MOD-WET was designed to: 1) increase the qualitative and quantitative understanding of hydrological processes at the basin-scale and demonstrate how they vary with watershed properties, 2) emphasize applications of hydrologic concepts rather than computer programming, 3) elucidate the underlying physical processes that can often be obscured with a complicated

  6. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  7. Simulating Multi-Scale Mercury Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Davis, G. M.; Golden, H. E.; Conrads, P. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often highly spatially variable. In this study, we applied a linked watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (VELMA, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment) to simulate daily flow, fluxes, and soil and stream concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at multiple spatial scales in McTier Creek, a Coastal Plain watershed within the Edisto River basin of South Carolina, USA. Our goals were to (1) calibrate and simulate Hg fate and transport processes at a focused reach scale (0.1 km2) and (2) assess how representative the reach-scale parameters and processes are when multi-scale watershed information is included in Hg cycling simulations. Thus, reach-scale parameterization was applied to multi-scaled watersheds, including two headwater sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) nested within the McTier Creek watershed (79 km2), to evaluate model performance and how well reach-scale parameterization and processes characterize nested watersheds with increasing drainage areas. The current VELMA simulations suggest that stream water column THg concentration predictions perform reasonably well at different scales based on reach-scale calibrations, but the model simulations of MeHg reach, sub-watershed, and watershed stream concentrations are out-of-phase with observed MeHg concentrations. This result suggests that processes governing MeHg loading to the main channel may be under-represented in the current model structure and underscores the complexity of simulating MeHg dynamics in watershed models. This work supports the importance of hydrology in

  8. AN INTEGRATED COASTAL-WATERSHED MONITORING FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach for watershed classification in support of assessments, disgnosis of biological impairment, and prioritization of watershed restorations has been tested in coastal watersheds surrounding the western arm of Lake Superior and is currently being assessed for a series of ...

  9. A TEST OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate extrapolation among watersheds, ecological risk assessments should be based on a model of underlying factors influencing watershed response, particularly vulnerability. We propose a conceptual model of landscape vulnerability to serve as a basis for watershed classi...

  10. Sediment reduction due to conservation practices at the watershed scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In large agricultural watersheds, upland conservation practices and channel stabilization may not result in immediately measurable sediment reduction at the watershed outlet. Measurable reduction in watershed sediment yield depends on placement, or targeting, of conservation practices and on the fr...

  11. Watershed Stewardship Education Program--A Multidisciplinary Extension Education Program for Oregon's Watershed Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Flaxen D. L.; Godwin, Derek; Cloughesy, Mike; Nierenberg, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Stewardship Education Program (WSEP) is a multidisciplinary Oregon Extension designed to help watershed councils, landowners, and others work effectively together on water management. Components include practical, easy-to-use educational materials, training in effective collaboration, a Master Watershed Stewards program, and advanced…

  12. Introduction to the Watershed Central Web Site and Watershed Wiki Mini-Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to include in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new web site called "Watershed Central,” a “one-stop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protec...

  13. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  14. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  15. Sediment and nutrient losses from an irrigated watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorneberg, D.; Ippolito, J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is an essential part of stable food and fiber production. However, water returning from irrigated watersheds can contain excess sediment, nutrients and salts. Applying polyacrylamide to furrow irrigated fields reduces erosion 60 to 90%. Converting from furrow irrigation to sprinkler irrigation eliminates planned irrigation runoff necessary for uniform water application. Installing sediment ponds removes 50 to 80% of the suspended sediment from water before it flows back to major water bodies. In southern Idaho, irrigation watershed monitoring showed that implementing these conservation practices has reduced average suspended sediment loss from 460 kg/ha in 1970 to less than 100 kg/ha in 2005. These practices, however, have had less effect on soluble nutrients. Median nitrate concentrations have almost doubled from 1970 to 2005. Current research is focusing on identifying practices to reduce soluble nutrient losses.

  16. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  17. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  18. Tsunami focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  19. A framework for propagation of uncertainty contributed by parameterization, input data, model structure, and calibration/validation data in watershed modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The progressive improvement of computer science and development of auto-calibration techniques means that calibration of simulation models is no longer a major challenge for watershed planning and management. Modelers now increasingly focus on challenges such as improved representation of watershed...

  20. Flash flooding in small urban watersheds: Storm event hydrologic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    We analyze flash flooding in small urban watersheds, with special focus on the roles of rainfall variability, antecedent soil moisture, and urban storm water management infrastructure in storm event hydrologic response. Our results are based on empirical analyses of high-resolution rainfall and discharge observations over Harry's Brook watershed in Princeton, New Jersey, during 2005-2006, as well as numerical experiments with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. We focus on two subwatersheds of Harry's Brook, a 1.1 km2 subwatershed which was developed prior to modern storm water management regulations, and a 0.5 km2 subwatershed with an extensive network of storm water detention ponds. The watershed developed prior to modern storm water regulations is an "end-member" in urban flood response, exhibiting a frequency of flood peaks (with unit discharge exceeding 1 m3 s-1 km-2) that is comparable to the "flashiest" watersheds in the conterminous U.S. Observational analyses show that variability in storm event water balance is strongly linked to peak rain rates at time intervals of less than 30 min and only weakly linked to antecedent soil moisture conditions. Peak discharge for both the 1.1 and 0.5 km2 subwatersheds are strongly correlated with rainfall rate averaged over 1-30 min. Hydrologic modeling analyses indicate that the sensitivity of storm event hydrologic response to spatial rainfall variability decreases with storm intensity. Temporal rainfall variability is relatively more important than spatial rainfall variability in representing urban flood response, especially for extreme storm events.

  1. Reaction Coordinates and Mechanistic Hypothesis Tests.

    PubMed

    Peters, Baron

    2016-05-27

    Reaction coordinates are integral to several classic rate theories that can (a) predict kinetic trends across conditions and homologous reactions, (b) extract activation parameters with a clear physical interpretation from experimental rates, and (c) enable efficient calculations of free energy barriers and rates. New trajectory-based rare events methods can provide rates directly from dynamical trajectories without a reaction coordinate. Trajectory-based frameworks can also generate ideal (but abstract) reaction coordinates such as committors and eigenfunctions of the master equation. However, rates and mechanistic insights obtained from trajectory-based methods and abstract coordinates are not readily generalized across simulation conditions or reaction families. We discuss methods for identifying physically meaningful reaction coordinates, including committor analysis, variational transition state theory, Kramers-Langer-Berezhkovskii-Szabo theory, and statistical inference methods that can use path sampling data to screen, mix, and optimize thousands of trial coordinates. Special focus is given to likelihood maximization and inertial likelihood maximization approaches. PMID:27090846

  2. Reaction Coordinates and Mechanistic Hypothesis Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Baron

    2016-05-01

    Reaction coordinates are integral to several classic rate theories that can (a) predict kinetic trends across conditions and homologous reactions, (b) extract activation parameters with a clear physical interpretation from experimental rates, and (c) enable efficient calculations of free energy barriers and rates. New trajectory-based rare events methods can provide rates directly from dynamical trajectories without a reaction coordinate. Trajectory-based frameworks can also generate ideal (but abstract) reaction coordinates such as committors and eigenfunctions of the master equation. However, rates and mechanistic insights obtained from trajectory-based methods and abstract coordinates are not readily generalized across simulation conditions or reaction families. We discuss methods for identifying physically meaningful reaction coordinates, including committor analysis, variational transition state theory, Kramers-Langer-Berezhkovskii-Szabo theory, and statistical inference methods that can use path sampling data to screen, mix, and optimize thousands of trial coordinates. Special focus is given to likelihood maximization and inertial likelihood maximization approaches.

  3. A comparative analysis of aluminum biogeochemistry in a northeastern and a southeastern forested watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Cronan, C.S. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Newton, R.M. ); Kelly, J.M. ); Schofield, C.L. ); Bartlett, R.J. ); April, R. )

    1990-07-01

    This comparative biogeochemical analysis focused on the patterns and processees of aluminum cycling in two small watersheds, one in the west-central Adirondacks of New York and the other on Cumberland Plateau of eastern Tennessee. Despite shared similarities in soil acidity, soil exchangeable aluminum concentrations, and elevated inputs of acidic deposition, the northern and southern sites exhibited strong differences in aqueous aluminum chemistry and transport. Soil and stream drainage waters in the northern watershed were more acidic, and contained higher concentrations of base cations, sulfate, nitrate, and organic carbon than waters in the southern ecosystem. Mean concentrations of biologically active labile inorganic aluminum, Al{sub i}, ranged from 17 to 46 {mu}mol L{sup {minus}1} in soil solutions and stream water in the northern drainage basin, and from 0 to 2 {mu}mol L{sup {minus}1} in the southern system. The major differences in aluminum chemistry and transport between the two watersheds were related to different patterns of alkalinity generation and mobile anion transport in these contrasting systems. In the northern watershed, atmospheric inputs of acidicty were partially neutralized through the release of mixed cations from soils and detritus. Because of the high mobility of sulfate and nitrate in the northern watershed, there was significant transport of Al through the soil profile and into stream water. At the southern watershed, soil sulfate adsorption, biological retention of nitrate, and base cation release were the major sources of acid neutralizing capacity for soil drainage waters and surface waters.

  4. Community Capacity for Watershed Conservation: A Quantitative Assessment of Indicators and Core Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, Elliot; Seekamp, Erin; Davenport, Mae A.; Brehm, Joan M.

    2012-10-01

    Community capacity for watershed management has emerged as an important topic for the conservation of water resources. While much of the literature on community capacity has focused primarily on theory construction, there have been few efforts to quantitatively assess community capacity variables and constructs, particularly for watershed management and conservation. This study seeks to identify predictors of community capacity for watershed conservation in southwestern Illinois. A subwatershed-scale survey of residents from four communities located within the Lower Kaskaskia River watershed of southwestern Illinois was administered to measure three specific capacity variables: community empowerment, shared vision and collective action. Principal component analysis revealed key dimensions of each variable. Specifically, collective action was characterized by items relating to collaborative governance and social networks, community empowerment was characterized by items relating to community competency and a sense of responsibility and shared vision was characterized by items relating to perceptions of environmental threats, issues with development, environmental sense of place and quality of life. From the emerging factors, composite measures were calculated to determine the extent to which each variable contributed to community capacity. A stepwise regression revealed that community empowerment explained most of the variability in the composite measure of community capacity for watershed conservation. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of community capacity by quantifying the role of collective action, community empowerment and shared vision in community capacity, highlighting the need for multilevel interaction to address watershed issues.

  5. Electrophoretic Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic focusing is a new method of continuous flow electrophoresis that introduces precision flow control to achieve high resolution separations. The electric field is applied perpendicular to an incoming sample lamina and buffer but also perpendicular to the broad faces of the thin rectangular chamber. A uniform fluid cross-flow then enters and exits the separation chamber through the same broad faces which are porous. A balance is achieved by adjusting either the electric field or the cross-flow so the desired sample fraction with its specific migration velocity encounters an opposing flow of the same velocity. Applying an electric field transverse to the incoming sample lamina and opposing this field with a carefully configured buffer flow, a sample constituent can be selected and focused into a narrow stream for subsequent analysis. Monotonically changing either electric field or buffer cross-flow will yield a scan of all constituents of the sample. Stopping the scan increases the collection time for minor constituents to improve their analysis. Using the high voltage gradients and/or cross-flow to rapidly deflect extraneous sample through the porous screens and into either of the side (purge) chambers, the selected sample is focused in the center plane of the separation chamber and collected without contact or interaction with the separation chamber walls. Results will be presented on the separation of a range of materials including dyes, proteins, and monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Sources of sample dispersion inherent in other electrokinetic techniques will be shown to be negligible for a variety of sample concentrations, buffer properties and operating conditions.

  6. Quantifying Watershed-Scale Effects of Wildland Fires on Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, E. K.; Moritz, M.; Hunt, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Mediterranean-type climate of coastal California is characterized by highly seasonal precipitation and temperature regimes. Plant adaptations to prolonged hot, dry periods, such as the hardened “sclerophyllous” leaves of many chaparral shrubs, make the plant communities of this area especially fire-prone. Periodic extreme fire events can remove all vegetation, diminish water infiltration, increase storm runoff, and generate substantial sediment erosion. Most of the studies of fire effects on watershed hydrology have either focused on individual storm events following wildland fires or the response of smaller scale test plots where trees and other vegetation were removed. In this effort we utilized a database of USGS stream gauging records, NOAA precipitation stations, PRISM precipitation maps, and fire perimeter data in the Santa Lucia Mountains of central coastal California to compare precipitation vs. runoff relationships pre- and post-fire from two moderate scale watersheds (100 to 500 square kilometers) that were nearly completely burned with one nearby that did not burn. PRISM data allowed for the extrapolation of station precipitation data to the scale of the entire watersheds, and watershed totals were compared with runoff on an annual water-year basis. The differences were calculated for the burned and unburned watersheds, both before and after the fire, to assess whether the lack of vegetation in the burned watersheds reduced water consumption, at least during the first few years after the wildland fire. Despite extensive stream gauge and precipitation data, there was considerable statistical variability in the results, making it difficult to distinguish pre- and post-fire hydrologic response. As climates shift to possibly hotter and drier conditions, wildland fire frequency and watershed response are of immediate interest. We therefore examined additional approaches needed to quantify the expected impacts at the watershed scale.

  7. Movement and Coordination

    MedlinePlus

    ... will seem to be continually on the go—running, kicking, climbing, jumping. His attention span, which was ... his coordination. In the months ahead, your child’s running will become smoother and more coordinated. He’ll ...

  8. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  9. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  10. DETECTING TEMPORAL CHANGE IN WATERSHED NUTRIENT YIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increase...

  11. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  12. Uncertainty Consideration in Watershed Scale Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed scale hydrologic and water quality models have been used with increasing frequency to devise alternative pollution control strategies. With recent reenactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act’s TMDL (total maximum daily load) component, some of the watershed scale models are being recommended ...

  13. Healthy Watersheds Integrated Assessments Workshop Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with others, is embarking on the new Healthy Watersheds Initiative to protect our remaining healthy watersheds, prevent them from becoming impaired, and accelerate our restoration successes. In November 2010, a Healthy Wate...

  14. WATERSHED LANDSCAPE INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do land use/cover characteristics of watersheds associated with small estuaries exhibit a strong enough signal to make landscape metrics useful for identifying degraded bottom communities? We tested this idea with 58 pairs of small estuaries (<260 km2) and watersheds in the U.S. ...

  15. Watershed Conservation Management Planning Using AGNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  16. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  17. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  18. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  19. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  20. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  1. Watershed: A Successful Voyage into Integrative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Mark

    This book describes a "whole learning" approach to education called the Watershed Program, which stresses integrated curriculum and experiential learning. Each chapter begins with an episode from the history of eastern Pennsylvania along the Brandywine River, used as an analogy to problems faced by the teachers in the Watershed program. The…

  2. COMPREHENSIVE PLAN FOR A SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical Challenge. This proposal deals with the urban watershed. The urban watershed is important to the quality of life in the city. For many urban dwellers, the urban stream represents a unique opportunity for recreation and the experience of the ...

  3. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Forest timber (36 CFR part 223). In any removal of timber from the watershed, the Forest Supervisor shall... 36 CFR 261.1b. (e) The Forest Supervisor of the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petersburg watershed....

  4. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Forest timber (36 CFR part 223). In any removal of timber from the watershed, the Forest Supervisor shall... 36 CFR 261.1b. (e) The Forest Supervisor of the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petersburg watershed....

  5. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Forest timber (36 CFR part 223). In any removal of timber from the watershed, the Forest Supervisor shall... 36 CFR 261.1b. (e) The Forest Supervisor of the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petersburg watershed....

  6. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Forest timber (36 CFR part 223). In any removal of timber from the watershed, the Forest Supervisor shall... 36 CFR 261.1b. (e) The Forest Supervisor of the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petersburg watershed....

  7. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet presents an overview of six selected watershed modeling studies by the USGS and partners that address a variety of water-resource issues in south Texas. These studies provide examples of modeling applications and demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of watershed models in aiding the understanding of hydrologic systems.

  8. WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION: LINKING MONITORING, LISTING, AND DIAGNOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This describes a watershed classification approach that helps to link activities under CWA sections 305(b) and 303(d), using a case study developed with the state of West Virginia as an example. The watershed classification approach can help Regions, States, and Tribes provide th...

  9. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Forest timber (36 CFR part 223). In any removal of timber from the watershed, the Forest Supervisor shall... 36 CFR 261.1b. (e) The Forest Supervisor of the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petersburg watershed....

  10. Upper Washita River experimental watersheds: Sediment Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures to control floods and soil erosion is one of the primary objectives for sediment studies in the upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds. This paper summarizes se...

  11. TRACKING SEDIMENT REDISTRIBUTION IN A SMALL WATERSHED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method is used to track erosion, translocation, and re-deposition of sediment in a small watershed, thus allowing for the first time a complete, spatially distributed, sediment balance to be made as a function of landscape position. A 0.68 ha watershed in Coshocton, OH was divided into six mo...

  12. ANALYZING CORRELATIONS BETWEEN STREAM AND WATERSHED ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivariate correlation analysis has been widely used to explore relationships between stream and watershed attributes that have all been measured on the same set of watersheds or sampling locations. Researchers routinely test H0: =0 for each correlation in a large table and then ...

  13. Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

    2014-11-01

    Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

  14. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  15. Analysis Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nothnagel, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the IVS analysis coordination issues of 2012. The IVS Analysis Coordinator is responsible for generating and disseminating the official IVS products. This requires consistency of the input data by strict adherence to models and conventions. The term of the current IVS Analysis Coordinator will end on February 28, 2013.

  16. Coordinating Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  17. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. ); Stewart, E.H. )

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

  18. Watershed Landscape Ecology: Interdisciplinary and Field-based Learning in the Northeast Creek Watershed, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. R.; Anderson, J.; Rajakaruna, N.; Cass, D.

    2014-12-01

    At the College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine, undergraduate students have the opportunity to design their own curriculum within a major of "Human Ecology." To enable students to have early research experiences, we developed a field-based interdisciplinary program for students to learn and practice field methods in a variety of disciplines, Earth Science, Botany, Chemistry, and Wildlife Biology at three specific field sites within a single watershed on Mt. Desert Island. As the Northeast Creek watershed was the site of previous water quality studies, this program of courses enabled continued monitoring of portions of the watershed. The program includes 4 new courses: Critical Zone 1, Critical Zone 2, Wildlife Biology, and Botany. In Critical Zone 1 students are introduced to general topics in Earth Science and learn to use ArcGIS to make basic maps. In Critical Zone 2, Wildlife Biology, and Botany, students are in the field every week using classic field tools and methods. All three of these courses use the same three general field areas: two with working farms at the middle and lower portion of the watershed and one uninhabited forested property in the higher relief headwaters of the watershed. Students collect daily surface water chemistry data at five stream sites within the watershed, complete basic geologic bedrock and geomorphic mapping, conduct wildlife surveys, botanical surveys, and monitor weather patterns at each of the main sites. Beyond the class data collected and synthesized, students also complete group independent study projects at focused field sites, some of which have turned into much larger research projects. This program is an opportunity for students and faculty with varied interests and expertise to work together to study a specific field locality over multiple years. We see this model as enhancing a number of positive education components: field-based learning, teamwork, problem solving, interdisciplinary discussion, multiple faculty

  19. Walnut creek watershed monitoring project, Iowa: Monitoring water quality in response to prairie restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Thompson, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    row crop in the basins and subbasins. Although some results are encouraging, definitive water quality improvements have not been observed during the first three years of monitoring. Possible reasons include: (1) more time is needed to adequately detect changes; (2) the size of the watershed is too large to detect improvements; (3) land use changes are not located in the area of the watershed where they would have greatest effect; or (4) water quality improvements have occurred but have been missed by the project monitoring design. Longer-term monitoring will allow better evaluation of the impact of restoration activities on water quality.An overview is given on the Walnut Creek Watershed Monitoring Project established as a nonpoint source monitoring program in relation to watershed habitat restoration and agricultural management changes implemented at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. Focus is on land use and surface water data for nitrogen and pesticides. Initial results obtained for the first three years of monitoring are discussed.

  20. Impaired Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheysen, Freja; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Fias, Wim

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is the marked impairment in the development of motor coordination (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In the current study, we focused on one core aspect of motor coordination: learning to correctly sequence movements. We investigated the procedural, visuo-motor…

  1. How Do Teachers Coordinate Their Work? A Framing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumay, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, schools have been characterized as loosely coupled systems, meaning that the teachers' work is weakly coordinated at the local level. Nonetheless, few studies have focused on the local variations of coordination modes, their sources and their nature. In this article, the process of local coordination of the teachers'…

  2. Self-Concept of Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Neralie; Barton, Belinda; Donelly, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience difficulties in motor coordination. During the last decade there has been increasing interest in the psychosocial aspects of children with motor coordination difficulties. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the perceived competence and global self-worth of children…

  3. Hybrid image segmentation using watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, Kostas; Efstratiadis, Serafim N.; Maglaveras, Nicos; Pappas, Costas

    1996-02-01

    A hybrid image segmentation algorithm is proposed which combines edge- and region-based techniques through the morphological algorithm of watersheds. The algorithm consists of the following steps: (1) edge-preserving statistical noise reduction, (2) gradient approximation, (3) detection of watersheds on gradient magnitude image, and (4) hierarchical region merging (HRM) in order to get semantically meaningful segmentations. The HRM process uses the region adjacency graph (RAG) representation of the image regions. At each step, the most similar pair of regions is determined (minimum cost RAG edge), the regions are merged and the RAG is updated. Traditionally, the above is implemented by storing all the RAG edges in a priority queue (heap). We propose a significantly faster algorithm which maintains an additional graph, the most similar neighbor graph, through which the priority queue size and processing time are drastically reduced. The final segmentation is an image partition which, through the RAG, provides information that can be used by knowledge-based high level processes, i.e. recognition. In addition, this region based representation provides one-pixel wide, closed, and accurately localized contours/surfaces. Due to the small number of free parameters, the algorithm can be quite effectively used in interactive image processing. Experimental results obtained with 2D MR images are presented.

  4. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  5. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  6. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  7. Linking the watershed to the schoolshed: teaching sustainable development in K-12 with the Chester RIver Watershed Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Levin, D.; Seidel, J.

    2012-12-01

    (developed by Levin) engage students in the building and testing of buoys to monitor the environment. Additional hands on science activities include the Levin developed ROVs-in-a-bucket project that Trembanis has incorporated into the University of Delaware high school summer science camp TIDE (Teaching an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/tide/ in which 12-15 high school students annually participate in groups working to design, build, and operate a simple remotely operated vehicle in a series of real work simulation activities such as responding to an oil spill. The new CRW network will be the focus for formal and informal learning partnerships between schools in the watershed. Professional development opportunities for Chester River watershed teachers focus on the use of sensors, utilization of GIS in the classroom, and other resources that become available as shared teaching resources. Federal, state, regional, and local users in government, private industry, and educational venues from grades k-16 will be able to observe the trends and learn together the most prudent ways to sustain and conserve natural resources.

  8. Adventures in Coordinate Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    A variety of coordinate systems have been used to study the N-body problem for cases involving a dominant central mass. These include the traditional Keplerian orbital elements and the canonical Delaunay variables, which both incorporate conserved quantities of the two-body problem. Recently, Cartesian coordinate systems have returned to favour with the rise of mixed-variable symplectic integrators, since these coordinates prove to be more efficient than using orbital elements. Three sets of canonical Cartesian coordinates are well known, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Inertial coordinates (which include barycentric coordinates as a special case) are the simplest and easiest to implement. However, they suffer from the disadvantage that the motion of the central body must be calculated explicitly, leading to relatively large errors in general. Jacobi coordinates overcome this problem by replacing the coordinates and momenta of the central body with those of the system as a whole, so that momentum is conserved exactly. This leads to substantial improvements in accuracy, but has the disadvantage that every object is treated differently, and interactions between each pair of bodies are now expressed in a complicated manner involving the coordinates of many bodies. Canonical heliocentric coordinates (also known as democratic heliocentric coordinates) treat all bodies equally, and conserve the centre of mass motion, but at the cost of introducing momentum cross terms into the kinetic energy. This complicates the development of higher order symplectic integrators and symplectic correctors, as well as the development of methods used to resolve close encounters with the central body. Here I will re-examine the set of possible canonical Cartesian coordinate systems to determine if it is possible to (a) conserve the centre of mass motion, (b) treat all bodies equally, and (c) eliminate the momentum cross terms. I will demonstrate that this is indeed possible

  9. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  10. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  11. Studying Watersheds: A Confluence of Important Ideas. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how the study of watersheds can serve to connect concept and skill development across subject areas and grade levels for curriculum reform and standards-based assessment. Specific resources are organized into watersheds in the curriculum, connections to National Standards, watershed concepts and activities, watershed education…

  12. Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed: Bendway Model Data Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed is a 21.3 km2 watershed near Batesville, Mississippi. The watershed is organized and instrumented for conducting extensive research on upstream erosion, stream erosion and sedimentation, and watershed hydrology. Data collection is directed towards providing i...

  13. INDEX OF WATERSHED INDICATORS (IWI) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Index of Watershed Indicators (the IWI or Index) is the EPAs first national picture of watershed health. The Index organizes and presents aquatic resource information on a watershed basis. Watersheds are those land areas bounded by ridge lines that catch rain and snow, and d...

  14. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream. 38 pools were

  15. Simulating the Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change in 5 Research Watersheds using a Distributed-Parameter Watershed Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. F.; Hunt, R.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Clow, D. W.; Murphy, S.; Shanley, J. B.; Scholl, M. A.; Hay, L.; Regan, R. S.; Markstrom, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    A new focus of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program is the development of watershed models to predict hydrologic response to future conditions including land-use and climate change. Fine-scale models of 5 WEBB watersheds were constructed and embedded in coarse-scale models of larger stream systems. The WEBB watersheds range in size from 41 to 3,260 hectares; the coarse-scale models range in size from 1,100 to 4,800 square kilometers. The coarse-scale models were calibrated using data collected from 1980 to 2012 and included streamflow, snow-water equivalent (where appropriate), and seasonal distributions of solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration. Solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration were retrieved from a national gridded dataset using the USGS Geodata Portal (GDP) tool. Snowpack data was available as a national gridded dataset from December 2003 through November 2012, and was retrieved using the GDP. A stepwise approach was taken to identify specific hydrologic processes pertinent to the calibration targets. Calibration was carried out using the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) suite of automated calibration tools. Several climate models and three emission scenarios were selected from a range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections to investigate the potential hydrologic effects of climate change in the WEBB watersheds. The GDP was used to construct input data sets for each coarse-scale model using a national dataset of downscaled climate data. Comparisons include projected changes in the dominant hydrologic processes across the five WEBB headwater basins, as well as, differences between headwater streams and higher-order streams at a regional scale.

  16. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds,more » while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. In conclusion, together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.« less

  17. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  18. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  19. CONNECTING WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS TO NUTRIENT REGIME FROM HEADWATERS TO RECEIVING WATERS IN THE LAURENTIAL GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are evaluating the influence of position along the tributary-coastal wetland-lake continuum on the expression of watershed characteristics in the water quality of Great Lakes (GL) coastal ecosystems as part of an EPA study focused on determining stressor-response relationships...

  20. Scaling-up from plot to watershed for agro-ecosystem services appraisal under climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly diverse soils in the Chippewa River Watershed (CRW) in west central Minnesota are increasingly the focus of conservation efforts. Land use in CRW has a major impact on the status of soil conservation and on agro-ecosystem services (AES), including provisioning, supporting, regulating and ...

  1. LINKING GREAT WATERSHEDS WITH LAKE MICHIGAN: THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study -- which is focusing on atrazine, PCBs, nutrients, suspended solids, trans-nonachlor, and mercury. The relative contribution of contaminants to Lake Michigan will be examined for all major watersheds in the basin. - - - Further ...

  2. Linking Ecosystem Services Supply to Stakeholder Values in Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Policies to protect coastal resources will be more effective when they account for the social and economic concerns of stakeholders in the coastal zone and watershed, and are responsive to potential tradeoffs between benefits offered by both land and sea. We focus on the Gu&aacu...

  3. Suspended Sediment Transport Dynamics and Sediment Yields in Relation to Watershed Characteristics, Upper Green River Basin, Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoo, J.; Kentworthy, S.; Florea, L.; May, M.; Meier, Q.; Hollon, C.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment delivery is a major problem in the Green River, Kentucky, home of 71 of the state's 103 known mussel species and 151 fish species. The river also provides water for many of its surrounding counties. This research focuses on how suspended sediment loads, grain size, and the temporal co-variation of flow rate and sediment concentration during runoff events are related to watershed characteristics. The link between sediment load and watershed characteristics can help in the planning and development of effective strategies to minimize sediment load and suspended sediment concentration in the Green River, thereby improving the water quality of the river. The primary research objectives were on suspended sediment loads from two watersheds namely: Pitman Creek and Brush Creek in the Upper Green River Basin. Water quality was monitored using data sondes positioned at selected sites in the two watersheds. Water samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediments. The suspended sediments data was then linked to watershed characteristics to determine what factors affect or influence suspended sediment concentration in the Upper Green River Basin. Thus, the research reveals the relationships between suspended sediment loads, grain size, flow rate and the watershed characteristics of interest. We will present hydrologic monitoring results combined with field investigations which indicate that suspended sediment in the Green River is affected by an discharge, relief, geology, watershed area, landuse, and cover conditions.

  4. Effect of climate change on watershed runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, D.M.; Ayers, M.A.; Hay, L.E.; McCabe, G.J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines forecasts of changes in watershed runoff in the Delaware River basin that result from a range of predicted effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on future precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance of plants. A deterministic hydrologic model, TOPMODEL, was driven with stochastic inputs of temperature and precipitation to derive the forecasts. Results indicate that the direction and magnitude of the changes in watershed runoff are dependent on the relative magnitudes of the induced changes in precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance. Natural variability in temperature and precipitation obscured the changes in watershed runoff even when the simulated changes in precipitation, temperature, and stomatal resistance were substantial.

  5. Hydrological modelling in sandstone rocks watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponížilová, Iva; Unucka, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The contribution is focused on the modelling of surface and subsurface runoff in the Ploučnice basin. The used rainfall-runoff model is HEC-HMS comprising of the method of SCS CN curves and a recession method. The geological subsurface consisting of sandstone is characterised by reduced surface runoff and, on the contrary, it contributes to subsurface runoff. The aim of this paper is comparison of the rate of influence of sandstone on reducing surface runoff. The recession method for subsurface runoff was used to determine the subsurface runoff. The HEC-HMS model allows semi- and fully distributed approaches to schematisation of the watershed and rainfall situations. To determine the volume of runoff the method of SCS CN curves is used, which results depend on hydrological conditions of the soils. The rainfall-runoff model assuming selection of so-called methods of event of the SCS-CN type is used to determine the hydrograph and peak flow rate based on simulation of surface runoff in precipitation exceeding the infiltration capacity of the soil. The recession method is used to solve the baseflow (subsurface) runoff. The method is based on the separation of hydrograph to direct runoff and subsurface or baseflow runoff. The study area for the simulation of runoff using the method of SCS CN curves to determine the hydrological transformation is the Ploučnice basin. The Ploučnice is a hydrologically significant river in the northern part of the Czech Republic, it is a right tributary of the Elbe river with a total basin area of 1.194 km2. The average value of CN curves for the Ploučnice basin is 72. The geological structure of the Ploučnice basin is predominantly formed by Mesozoic sandstone. Despite significant initial loss of rainfall the basin response to the causal rainfall was demonstrated by a rapid rise of the surface runoff from the watershed and reached culmination flow. Basically, only surface runoff occures in the catchment during the initial phase of

  6. Prioritizing Restoration in the Hangman Creek Watershed: Predicting Baseflow through Sub-basin Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navickis-Brasch, A. S.; Fiedler, F. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes since European settlement have significantly impaired the beneficial uses of Coeur d'Alene (CDA) Tribe water bodies in the Hangman Creek watershed. The cumulative impacts have resulted in a 303 (d) designation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), extirpated the only salmon run on the reservation, and reduced tributary connectivity by isolating many native fish populations. Considering salmon were an essential part of tribal identity and cultural activities, the tribe initiated a 100-year management plan to restore the 155,000-acre portion of the Hangman Creek watershed located on the CDA reservation. The restoration management plan focuses on sustaining subsistence and cultural activities by reestablishing stream connectivity and providing sustainable aquatic habitats as well as restoring watershed processes and improving water quality. Ultimately, the restoration goal is to improve the habitat suitability of Hangman Creek for the eventual return of salmon. To accomplish these goals, it is essential to prioritize and sequence activities that most effectively support restoration. While watershed modeling provides a commonly accepted holistic approach to simulating watershed responses, it appears the effectiveness of models in predicting restoration success, particularly with respect to the effects of restoration on baseflow, have not been well documented. In addition, creating a representative watershed model capable of accounting for a watershed scale spatial and temporal variability generally requires extensive field measurements. This presents a challenge for developing a model of Hangman Creek, since the watershed is mostly ungauged with only limited data available at a few monitoring sites. Our approach to developing a restoration prioritization plan is to first model a subbasin in the watershed with similar characteristics and restoration goals, then utilize the subbasin model to project future baseflow responses in the larger

  7. Explicitly computing geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huaien

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new form of quartic equation based on Lagrange's extremum law and a Groebner basis under the constraint that the geodetic height is the shortest distance between a given point and the reference ellipsoid. A very explicit and concise formulae of the quartic equation by Ferrari's line is found, which avoids the need of a good starting guess for iterative methods. A new explicit algorithm is then proposed to compute geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates. The convergence region of the algorithm is investigated and the corresponding correct solution is given. Lastly, the algorithm is validated with numerical experiments.

  8. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program FY 1998 Habitat Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Grande Ronde Model Watershed Staff

    1999-08-01

    The Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (GRMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat restoration on both private and public lands within the Grande Ronde Basin. The Grande Ronde Basin covers approximately 5,300 square miles, containing more than 2600 miles of fish bearing streams, in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act, are present in the basin. The GRMWP began coordinating restoration projects in 1994. Approximately 215 projects have been implemented through the GRMWP program as of 1998. Nine of these projects were funded in part through the Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These nine projects used a variety of methods to enhance and restore watershed conditions. In-stream work to improve fish habitat included construction of hard structures (eg. vortex rock weirs), placement of large woody material and whole trees, gravel bar treatments, and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; 55 miles of stream were treated. Fish passage was improved at three locations by replacing or removing culverts that blocked fish. Stream riparian conditions were enhanced with exclosure fencing, vegetation planting and thinning, noxious weed control, and floodplain enhancements; 10 miles of stream were directly benefited with these riparian improvements. Four spring developments were constructed to enhance riparian and stream conditions by providing off stream livestock water sources. Nine spring developments and 1 reservoir were improved with fencing and/or piping to troughs to reduce sediment runoff and restore riparian habitat. Roads were closed or obliterated (8.5 miles) and road drainage was improved (3.4 miles) to reduce sediment delivery to streams. These nine projects cost approximately 1.3 million dollars to implement and monitor. BPA provided 41% of the funding, the remainder was cost shared by

  9. A CLASS Act: The Teaching Team Approach to Subject Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefoe, Geraldine E.; Parrish, Dominique Rene; Keevers, Lynne Maree; Ryan, Yoni; McKenzie, Jo; Malfroy, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the development of good practice around the teaching team has been the focus of a recently completed, nationally funded Australian grant entitled Coordinators Leading Advancement of Sessional Staff (CLASS). The project focused on developing leadership capacity of subject coordinators to provide supportive contexts for sessional staff to…

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Aluminum Biogeochemistry in a Northeastern and a Southeastern Forested Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronan, Christopher S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Newton, Robert M.; Kelly, J. Michael; Schofield, Carl L.; Bartlett, Richmond J.; April, Richard

    1990-07-01

    This comparative biogeochemical analysis focused on the patterns and processes of aluminum cycling in two small watersheds, one in the west-central Adirondacks of New York and the other on Cumberland Plateau of eastern Tennessee. Despite shared similarities in soil acidity, soil exchangeable aluminum concentrations, and elevated inputs of acidic deposition, the northern and southern sites exhibited strong differences in aqueous aluminum chemistry and transport. Soil and stream drainage waters in the northern watershed were more acidic, and contained higher concentrations of base cations, sulfate, nitrate, and organic carbon than waters in the southern ecosystem. Mean concentrations of biologically active labile inorganic aluminum, Ali, ranged from 17 to 46 μmol L-1 in soil solutions and stream water in the northern drainage basin, and from 0 to 2 μmol L-1 in the southern system. The major differences in aluminum chemistry and transport between the two watersheds were related to different patterns of alkalinity generation and mobile anion transport in these contrasting systems. In the northern watershed, atmospheric inputs of acidity were partially neutralized through the release of mixed cations (Ca, Al, Mg, K, and Na) from soils and detritus. Because of the high mobility of sulfate and nitrate in the northern watershed, there was significant transport of Al through the soil profile and into stream water. At the southern watershed, soil sulfate adsorption, biological retention of nitrate, and base cation release were the major sources of acid neutralizing capacity for soil drainage waters and surface waters. Because these processes resulted in both the release of alkalinity and the removal of mobile strong acid anions, concentrations of labile Al remained low throughout most of the drainage profile in the southern watershed. At the ecosystem level, results indicated that aluminum cycling at the southern site was controlled more by biotic transfers (e.g., plant

  11. Relating sediment impacts on coral reefs to watershed sources, processes and management: a review.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Rebecca; Bainbridge, Zoe T; Lewis, Stephen E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Wilkinson, Scott N; Brodie, Jon E; Silburn, D Mark

    2014-01-15

    Modification of terrestrial sediment fluxes can result in increased sedimentation and turbidity in receiving waters, with detrimental impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Preventing anthropogenic sediment reaching coral reefs requires a better understanding of the specific characteristics, sources and processes generating the anthropogenic sediment, so that effective watershed management strategies can be implemented. Here, we review and synthesise research on measured runoff, sediment erosion and sediment delivery from watersheds to near-shore marine areas, with a strong focus on the Burdekin watershed in the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. We first investigate the characteristics of sediment that pose the greatest risk to coral reef ecosystems. Next we track this sediment back from the marine system into the watershed to determine the storage zones, source areas and processes responsible for sediment generation and run-off. The review determined that only a small proportion of the sediment that has been eroded from the watershed makes it to the mid and outer reefs. The sediment transported >1 km offshore is generally the clay to fine silt (<4-16 μm) fraction, yet there is considerable potential for other terrestrially derived sediment fractions (<63 μm) to be stored in the near-shore zone and remobilised during wind and tide driven re-suspension. The specific source of the fine clay sediments is still under investigation; however, the Bowen, Upper Burdekin and Lower Burdekin sub-watersheds appear to be the dominant source of the clay and fine silt fractions. Sub-surface erosion is the dominant process responsible for the fine sediment exported from these watersheds in recent times, although further work on the particle size of this material is required. Maintaining average minimum ground cover >75% will likely be required to reduce runoff and prevent sub-soil erosion; however, it is not known whether ground cover management alone will reduce sediment supply

  12. Asymptotes in Polar Coordinates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    1986-01-01

    An old way to determine asymptotes for curves described in polar coordinates is presented. Practice in solving trigonometric equations, in differentiation, and in calculating limits is involved. (MNS)

  13. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  14. A Pilot Study of Watershed Flow Using Stable Water Isotopes in Support of the Development of the Lamprey River Watershed (Southeast New Hampshire) as a Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frades, M.; Davis, J.; Bryce, J.; McDowell, W. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Lamprey River Watershed provides a suite of ecologic, geographic, geologic, and cultural characteristics that together provide an excellent opportunity to establish a convenient, unique, instructive, and informative natural laboratory. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire are establishing the Lamprey River Watershed, located in the seacoast region of New Hampshire, as a long term hydrologic observatory, where the instrumentation, data, and results from multi-disciplinary studies can be integrated to achieve greater understanding of the hydrologic system as a whole.One component of this proposed research is the establishment of a long term record of water isotope data. The results of a 1.5-year pilot study of stable water isotopes in the Headwaters of the Lamprey River Watershed (HLRW) are the focus of this presentation. In order to better understand groundwater flowpaths and residence times within the HLRW, we used stable water isotopes as natural tracers. For the period of June 2006 through October 2007, over 200 total water samples of groundwater, surface water, precipitation, and infiltration were collected and analyzed for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Based on analysis of isotopic and hydrometric data, the groundwater system is interpreted to be comprised of three distinct but interconnected reservoirs: a shallow groundwater reservoir which does not directly contribute to stream flow at the watershed outlet and has a mean residence time greater than 9 years; a near-surface groundwater reservoir, which is fed by the shallow system, flows through surface water bodies and wetlands with a mean residence time of approximately 1.5 months, and is the primary source of baseflow in the stream network; and a deep groundwater reservoir. The findings have significant implications for the interpretation of biogeochemical mass balance models of the Lamprey River Watershed and ongoing strontium isotope and trace element tracer studies. In a broader sense

  15. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  16. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

  17. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  18. A TRAINING RESOURCE FOR WATERSHED PROFESSIONALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing awareness of the issues impacting our waters has lead to an increased involvement in watershed management by organizations and individuals across the globe. More and more local state and national organizations seeking monitoring information for a variety of educational, ...

  19. Draft framework for watershed-based trading

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Effluent trading is an innovative way for water quality agencies and community stakeholders to develop common-sense, cost-effective solutions for water quality problems in their watersheds. Trading can allow communities to grow and prosper while retaining their commitment to water quality. The bulk of this framework discusses effluent trading in watersheds. Remaining sections discuss transactions that, while not technically fulfilling the definition of `effluent` trade, do involve the exchange of valued water quality or other ecological improvements between partners responding to market initiatives. This document therefore includes activities such as trades within a facility (intra-plant trading) and wetland mitigation banking, effluent trading/watersheds/watershed management/water quality protection/water quality management.

  20. NUMERICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING WATERSHED ACIDIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three numerical models of watershed acidification, including the MAGIC II, ETD, and ILWAS models, are reviewed, and a comparative study is made of the specific process formulations that are incorporated in the models to represent hydrological, geochemical, and biogeochemical proc...

  1. ROCKY MOUNTAIN WATERSHEDS VOLUNTEER MONITORING NETWORK (RMWVMN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planned outcomes for this project include the following: 1) Standardize the design process in order to improve monitoring and assessment in the region for physical, chemical, biological stream, lake, wetland, watershed, community scale indicators and project specific efforts. 2)...

  2. APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES FOR WATERSHED INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental isotopes include naturally-occurring nuclides that can be applied as tracers within watersheds (Sidle, 1998). Recent advances in mass spectroscopy may supplant many traditional and costly hydrometric techniques. It is now possible, for example, to utilize isotopes a...

  3. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  4. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  5. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  6. Integrated Investigations of Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; Von Guerard, Paul; Finger, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This publication comprises a Volume Contents of chapters (listed below) and a CD-ROM of data (contents shown in column at right). The Animas River watershed in southwest Colorado is one of many watersheds in the western United States where historical mining has left a legacy of acid mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements in surface streams. U.S. Geological Survey scientists have completed a major assessment of the environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River watershed focusing on the area upstream of Silverton, Colo.?the Mineral Creek, Cement Creek, and upper Animas River basins. The study demonstrated how the watershed approach can be used to assess and rank mining-affected sites for possible cleanup. The study was conducted in collaboration with State and Federal land-management agencies and regional stakeholders groups. This book is available for purchase at Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  7. An Integrated Mobile Application to Improve the Watershed Management in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, T. Y.; Chen, M. H.; Lee, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to focus on the application of information technology on the reservoir watershed management. For the civil and commercial water usage, reservoirs and its upstream plays a significant role due to water scarcity and inequality, especially in Taiwan. Due to the progress of information technology, apply it can improve the efficiency and accuracy of daily affairs significantly which already proved by previous researches. Taipei Water Resource District (TWRD) is selected as study area for this study, it is the first reservoir watershed which authorized as special protection district by urban planning act. This study has designed a framework of mobile application, which addressed three types of public affairs relate to watershed management, includes building management, illegal land-use investigation, and a dashboard of real time stream information. This mobile application integrated a dis-connected map and interactive interface to collect, record and calculate field information which helps the authority manage the public affairs more efficiency.

  8. A watershed-based cumulative risk impact analysis: environmental vulnerability and impact criteria.

    PubMed

    Osowski, S L; Swick, J D; Carney, G R; Pena, H B; Danielson, J E; Parrish, D A

    2001-01-01

    Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have received much attention in recent years. As a result, a watershed-based screening tool, the Cumulative Risk Index Analysis (CRIA), was developed to assess the cumulative impacts of multiple CAFO facilities in a watershed subunit. The CRIA formula calculates an index number based on: 1) the area of one or more facilities compared to the area of the watershed subunit, 2) the average of the environmental vulnerability criteria, and 3) the average of the industry-specific impact criteria. Each vulnerability or impact criterion is ranked on a 1 to 5 scale, with a low rank indicating low environmental vulnerability or impact and a high rank indicating high environmental vulnerability or impact. The individual criterion ranks, as well as the total CRIA score, can be used to focus the environmental analysis and facilitate discussions with industry, public, and other stakeholders in the Agency decision-making process. PMID:11214349

  9. Environmental Effects of Historical Mining in the Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stan E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an extensive environmental study of the effects of historical mining on water and sediment quality and aquatic and riparian habitat in the Animas River watershed upstream from Silverton, Colorado. Results from this study are being used by Federal and State agencies and by the local watershed stakeholders group to implement remediation and cleanup activities. The Watershed Approach provides an effective means to rank and evaluate environmental impact of historical mining throughout a region: The mining-related sites that, upon evaluation, are shown to cause the greatest impact can become the subjects of remediation planning and implementation. This process helps land managers evaluate risk and focus remediation efforts on sites that may be the most deleterious to water quality and aquatic and riparian habitat.

  10. An evaluation and analysis of three dynamic watershed acidification codes (MAGIC, ETD, and ILWAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, E.A.; Eary, L.E.; Vail, L.W.; Girvin, D.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Hibler, L.F.; Miley, T.B.; Monsour, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently using the dynamic watershed acidification codes MAGIC, ILWAS, and ETD to assess the potential future impact of the acidic deposition on surface water quality by simulating watershed acid neutralization processes. The reliability of forecasts made with these codes is of considerable concern. The present study evaluates the process formulations (i.e., conceptual and numerical representation of atmospheric, hydrologic geochemical and biogeochemical processes), compares their approaches to calculating acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and estimates the relative effects (sensitivity) of perturbations in the input data on selected output variables for each code. Input data were drawn from three Adirondack (upstate New York) watersheds: Panther Lake, Clear Pond, and Woods Lake. Code calibration was performed by the developers of the codes. Conclusions focus on summarizing the adequacy of process formulations, differences in ANC simulation among codes and recommendations for further research to increase forecast reliability. 87 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  11. John Day Watershed Restoration Projects, annual report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The John Day is the nation's second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and the longest containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, Oregon's fourth largest drainage basin, and incorporates portions of eleven counties. Originating in the Strawberry Mountains near Prairie City, the John Day River flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead, westslope cutthroat, and redband and bull trout, the John Day system is truly a basin with national significance. The majority of the John Day basin was ceded to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) formed a partnership with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), which contracts the majority of the construction implementation activities for these projects from the JDBO. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of most projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 2003, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of their successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional

  12. The quest for customer focus.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line. PMID:15807042

  13. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models.

    PubMed

    Yen, Haw; Bailey, Ryan T; Arabi, Mazdak; Ahmadi, Mehdi; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the large number of parameters at the disposal of these models, circumstances may arise in which excellent global results are achieved using inaccurate magnitudes of these "intra-watershed" responses. When used for scenario analysis, a given model hence may inaccurately predict the global, in-stream effect of implementing land-use practices at the interior of the watershed. In this study, data regarding internal watershed behavior are used to constrain parameter estimation to maintain realistic intra-watershed responses while also matching available in-stream monitoring data. The methodology is demonstrated for the Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana. Streamflow and nitrate (NO) loading are used as global in-stream comparisons, with two process responses, the annual mass of denitrification and the ratio of NO losses from subsurface and surface flow, used to constrain parameter estimation. Results show that imposing these constraints not only yields realistic internal watershed behavior but also provides good in-stream comparisons. Results further demonstrate that in the absence of incorporating intra-watershed constraints, evaluation of nutrient abatement strategies could be misleading, even though typical performance criteria are satisfied. Incorporating intra-watershed responses yields a watershed model that more accurately represents the observed behavior of the system and hence a tool that can be used with confidence in scenario evaluation. PMID:25603246

  14. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  15. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  16. The Urban Watershed Continuum: Biogeochemistry of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; Smith, C.; Newcomb, K.; Newcomer, T. A.; Smith, R.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time. We explore the relationship between infrastructure and ecosystem function relevant to the inorganic and organic carbon cycle along urban watersheds across spatial and temporal dimensions. We provide examples from watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological (LTER) and Washington D.C. Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA EX) sites with varying land use and contrasting sanitary sewer systems. At a stream and river network scale, there are distinct longitudinal patterns in dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate carbon concentrations from suburban headwaters to progressively urbanized receiving waters. There are also distinct changes in stable isotopic signatures of organic carbon and inorganic carbon suggesting shifts in carbon sources and processing throughout urban stream and river networks. Longitudinal patterns appear to be related to in-stream transformations, as suggested by high frequency sensor measurements, mass balances, and diurnal sampling. We suggest that stream and river networks act as "transformers" of watershed nitrogen and phosphorus pollution to increasingly generate carbon throughout the urban watershed continuum via biological processes. Additionally, sources and quality of carbon may vary with watershed inputs from suburban headwaters to progressively urbanized downstream reaches. The role of the urban watershed continuum as a "transporter" and "transformer" of organic matter has important implications for anticipating changes in the forms and reactivity of carbon delivered to receiving waters and coastal zones.

  17. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  18. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  19. 6. Coordination and control.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Any complex operation requires a system for management. In most societies, disaster management is the responsibility of the government. Coordination and control is a system that provides the oversight for all of the disaster management functions. The roles and responsibilities of a coordination and control centre include: (1) planning; (2) maintenance of inventories; (3) activation of the disaster response plan; (4) application of indicators of function; (5) surveillance; (6) information management; (7) coordination of activities of the BSFs; (8) decision-making; (9) priority setting; (10) defining overarching goal and objectives for interventions; (11) applying indicators of effectiveness; (12) applying indicators of benefit and impact; (13) exercising authority; (14) managing resources; (15) initiating actions; (16) preventing influx of unneeded resources; (17) defining progress; (18) providing information; (19) liasing with responding organisations; and (20) providing quality assurance. Coordination and control is impossible without communications. To accomplish coordination and control, three factors must be present: (1) mandate; (2) power and authority; and (3) available resources. Coordination and control is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits/impacts of all interventions. Coordination and control centres (CCCs) are organised hierarchically from the on-scene CCCs (incident command) to local provincial to national CCCs. Currently, no comprehensive regional and international CCCs have been universally endorsed. Systems such as the incident command system, the unified command system, and the hospital incident command system are described as are the humanitarian reform movement and the importance of coordination and control in disaster planning and preparedness. PMID:24785803

  20. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  1. Meaningful Watershed Experiences for Middle and High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Melinda; Smith, Cynthia; Greene, Joy

    2014-05-01

    Prince William County Public Schools and George Mason University in Virginia, USA, partnered to provide Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences (MWEEs) for over 25,000 middle and high school students (11-18 year olds) across 34 schools. This school district, situated in a rapidly growing region 55 km southwest of Washington DC, has over 82,000 K-12 students. As native forest cover has been replaced with farming and urbanization, water quality has significantly degraded in the 166,534 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. This project was designed to increase student awareness of their impact on the land and waters of the largest estuary in the United States. MWEE is a long-term comprehensive project that incorporates a classroom preparation phase, a hands-on outdoor field investigation, and a reflection and data-sharing component. Training and technical assistance enhances the capacity of teachers of 6th grade, high school Earth Science and Environmental Science to deliver MWEEs which includes schoolyard stewardship, inquiry driven field study, use of hand-held technology and computer based mapping and analysis, project sharing and outreach. George Mason University researchers worked closely with K-12 science educators to create a comprehensive watershed-focused curriculum. Graduate and undergraduate students with strong interests in environmental science and education were trained to deliver the field investigation component of the MWEE. Representative teachers from each school were provided 3 days of professional development and were responsible for the training of their school's science education team. A comprehensive curriculum provided teachers with activities and tools designed to enhance students' mastery of state science objectives. Watershed concepts were used as the unifying theme to support student understanding of curriculum and STEM objectives including: scientific investigation, data collection and communication, chemistry, energy, erosion, human

  2. Coordination sequences and coordination waves in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, V. G. Pugaev, A. A.; Rau, T. F.

    2006-01-15

    A possible way of partitioning a space into polycubes (n-dimensional modifications of Golomb polyominoes, which are generally nonconvex) is used as a basic model of ordered matter structure. It is suggested that layer-by-layer growth of a structure, occurring along the geodetics of the digraph of a net defined by the local rules of bonding of polycubes, justifies the phenomenological laws of shaping (self-similarity during the growth, independence of the polyhedron shape on the 'seed,' the symmetry of the growth polyhedron, etc.). Specific results of the analysis of number sequences of the increase in coordination circles for planar periodic partitions of model and real crystal structures, as well as the preliminary results of investigation of standing coordination topological waves, revealed for the first time in computer experiments, are reported.

  3. A Component-Based Distributed Watershed Model for the USDA CEAP Watershed Assessment Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenges in agro-ecosystem conservation management have created demand for state-of-the-art, integrated, and flexible modeling tools. For example, Objective 5 of the USDA CEAP Watershed Assessment Study (WAS) is to “develop and verify regional watershed models that quantify environmental outcomes ...

  4. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the l...

  5. Watershed Research at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed at Coshocton, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) at Coshocton, Ohio was established during the mid 1930s as one of the first watershed research locations in the US (other locations included Riesel, TX and Hastings, NE). The mission of the outdoor laboratory facility was to determine the effects ...

  6. Watershed studies at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed at Coshocton, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presentation will describe the facilities and studies conducted at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) at Coshocton, Ohio, one of the first watershed research locations in the US. The mission of the outdoor laboratory facility was to determine the effects of land-management prac...

  7. Precipitation, Soil Moisture, and Climate Database, Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory initiated a watershed research program at the Little River Experimental Watershed in 1967. Continuous rainfall measurement across the watershed began at that time. Soil moisture measurements ...

  8. Empirical Relationships Between Watershed Attributes and Headwater Lake Chemistry in the Adirondack Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Surface water acidification may be caused or influenced by both natural watershed processes and anthropogenic actions. Empirical models and observational data can be useful for identifying watershed attributes or processes that require further research or that should be considered in the development of process models. This study focuses on the Adirondack region of New York and has two purposes: to (1) develop empirical models that can be used to assess the chemical status of lakes for which no chemistry data exist and (2) determine on a regional scale watershed attributes that account for variability in lake pH and acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). Headwater lakes, rather than lakes linked to upstream lakes, were selected for initial analysis. The Adirondacks Watershed Data Base (AWDB), part of the Acid Deposition Data Network maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), integrates data on physiography, bedrock, soils, land cover, wetlands, disturbances, beaver activity, land use, and atmospheric deposition with the water chemistry and morphology for the watersheds of 463 headwater lakes. The AWD8 facilitates both geographic display and statistical analysis of the data. The report, An Adirondack Watershed Data Base: Attribute and Mapping Information for Regional Acidic Deposition Studies (ORNL/TM--10144), describes the AWDB. Both bivariate (correlations and Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests) and multivariate analyses were performed. Fifty-seven watershed attributes were selected as input variables to multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis. For model development -200 lakes for which pH and ANC data exist were randomly subdivided into a specification and a verification data set. Several indices were used to select models for predicting lake pH (31 variables) and ANC (27 variables). Twenty-five variables are common to the pH and ANC models: four lake morphology, nine soil/geology, eight land cover, three disturbance, and one watershed aspect. An

  9. Engineering a Healthier Watershed: Middle School Students Use Engineering Design to Lessen the Impact of Their Campus' Impervious Surfaces on Their Local Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Elizabeth Claire

    It is important that students understand not only how their local watershed functions, but also how it is being impacted by impervious surfaces. Additionally, students need experience exploring the scientific and engineering practices that are necessary for a strong STEM background. With this knowledge students can be empowered to tackle this real and local problem using engineering design, a powerful practice gaining momentum and clarity through its prominence in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education. Twenty classes of suburban sixth-graders participated in a new five-week Watershed Engineering Design Unit taught by their regular science teachers. Students engaged in scientific inquiry to learn about the structure, function, and health of their local watersheds, focusing on the effects of impervious surfaces. In small groups, students used the engineering design process to propose solutions to lessen the impact of runoff from their school campuses. The goal of this evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of the curriculum in terms of student gains in understanding of (1) watershed function, (2) the impact of impervious surfaces, and (3) the engineering design process. To determine the impact of this curriculum on their learning, students took multiple-choice pre- and post-assessments made up of items covering the three categories above. This data was analyzed for statistical significance using a lower-tailed paired sample t-test. All three objectives showed statistically significant learning gains and the results were used to recommend improvements to the curriculum and the assessment instrument for future iterations.

  10. Pine Hollow Watershed Project : FY 2000 Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District

    2001-06-01

    The Pine Hollow Project (1999-010-00) is an on-going watershed restoration effort administered by Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District and spearheaded by Pine Hollow/Jackknife Watershed Council. The headwaters are located near Shaniko in Wasco County, and the mouth is in Sherman County on the John Day River. Pine Hollow provides more than 20 miles of potential summer steelhead spawning and rearing habitat. The watershed is 92,000 acres. Land use is mostly range, with some dryland grain. There are no water rights on Pine Hollow. Due to shallow soils, the watershed is prone to rapid runoff events which scour out the streambed and the riparian vegetation. This project seeks to improve the quality of upland, riparian and in-stream habitat by restoring the natural hydrologic function of the entire watershed. Project implementation to date has consisted of construction of water/sediment control basins, gradient terraces on croplands, pasture cross-fences, upland water sources, and grass seeding on degraded sites, many of which were crop fields in the early part of the century. The project is expected to continue through about 2007. From March 2000 to June 2001, the Pine Hollow Project built 6 sediment basins, 1 cross-fence, 2 spring developments, 1 well development, 1 solar pump, 50 acres of native range seeding and 1 livestock waterline. FY2000 projects were funded by BPA, Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, US Fish and Wildlife Service and landowners. In-kind services were provided by Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pine Hollow/Jackknife Watershed Council, landowners and Wasco County Soil and Water Conservation District.

  11. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program Administration and Habitat Projects, Annual Progress Report, Project Period: Program Administration: January 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997 Habitat Projects: January 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, Cecilia; Kuchenbecker, Lyle; Perry, Patty

    1998-10-28

    This agreement provided funding for operation and administration of the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program including staffing of an Executive Director, Program Planner, and clerical personnel. The contract covers maintaining program services, project planning, subwatershed plans (CRMP's), public involvement and education, interagency coordination/clearing house, monitoring, and technical support activities that have taken place in the Grande Ronde basin. Cost-share has been received from the Bureau of Reclamation and the Governor's Watershed Enhancement Board.

  12. Metallosurfactants of bioinorganic interest: Coordination-induced self assembly

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Tate; Butler, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This review covers selected surfactant ligands that undergo a change in aggregate morphology upon coordination of a metal ion, with a particular focus on coordination-induced micelle-to-vesicle transitions. The surfactants include microbially produced amphiphilic siderophores, as well as synthetic amphiphilic ligands. The mechanism of the metal-induced phase change is considered in light of the coordination chemistry of the metal ions, the nature of the ligands, and changes in molecular geometry that result from metal coordination. Of particular interest are biologically produced amphiphiles that coordinate transition metal ions and amphiphilic ligands of relevance to bioinorganic chemistry. PMID:21603255

  13. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SOURCE TRACKING TO ENHANCE SOURCE WATER PROTECTION IMPLEMENTATION IN THE POTOMAC RIVER WATERSHED: A REGIONAL APPLIED RESEARCH EFFORTS (RARE) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Potomac River watershed is a critical drinking water supply for the Washington DC metropolitan area. In 2004, the Drinking Water Source Protection Partnership (DWSPP) was formed to help coordinate efforts by local drinking water utilities and government agencies to protect th...

  14. EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS, LAND USE, AND GEOMORPHOLOGY IN THE LITTLE MIAMI RIVER WATERSHED (INITIALLY, OTHER SITES INCLUDE LA CROSSE, WI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of ongoing research in watersheds is to assess and improve the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural sediment and nutrients. This goal will be accomplished through coordinated research in stream ecology (e.g., productivity and species diversi...

  15. Coordination-Cluster-Based Molecular Magnetic Refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaowei; Cheng, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Coordination polymers serving as molecular magnetic refrigerants have been attracting great interest. In particular, coordination cluster compounds that demonstrate their apparent advantages on cryogenic magnetic refrigerants have attracted more attention in the last five years. Herein, we mainly focus on depicting aspects of syntheses, structures, and magnetothermal properties of coordination clusters that serve as magnetic refrigerants on account of the magnetocaloric effect. The documented molecular magnetic refrigerants are classified into two primary categories according to the types of metal centers, namely, homo- and heterometallic clusters. Every section is further divided into several subgroups based on the metal nuclearity and their dimensionalities, including discrete molecular clusters and those with extended structures constructed from molecular clusters. The objective is to present a rough overview of recent progress in coordination-cluster-based molecular magnetic refrigerants and provide a tutorial for researchers who are interested in the field. PMID:27381662

  16. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  17. Providing a virtual tour of a glacial watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L.; Habermann, M.; Hood, E.; Fatland, R.; Heavner, M.; Knuth, E.

    2007-12-01

    SEAMONSTER, a NASA funded sensor web project, is the SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education, and Research. Seamonster is leveraging existing open-source software and is an implementation of existing sensor web technologies intended to act as a sensor web testbed, an educational tool, a scientific resource, and a public resource. The primary focus area of initial SEAMONSTER deployment is the Lemon Creek watershed, which includes the Lemon Creek Glacier studied as part of the 1957-58 IPY. This presentation describes our year one efforts to maximize education and public outreach activities of SEAMONSTER. During the first summer, 37 sensors were deployed throughout two partially glaciated watersheds and facilitated data acquisition in temperate rain forest, alpine, lacustrine, and glacial environments. Understanding these environments are important for public understanding of climate change. These environments are geographically isolated, limiting public access to, and understanding of, such locales. In an effort to inform the general public and primary educators about the basic processes occurring in these unique natural systems, we are developing an interactive website. This web portal will supplement and enhance environmental science primary education by providing educators and students with interactive access to basic information from the glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological systems we are studying. In addition, we are developing an interactive virtual tour of the Lemon Glacier and its watershed. This effort will include Google Earth as a means of real-time data visualization and will take advantage of time-lapse movies, photographs, maps, and satellite imagery to promote an understanding of these unique natural systems and the role of sensor webs in education.

  18. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Physical causes and other types of learning disabilities must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be confirmed. ... Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems ... wanting to participate in physical activities (such as sports)

  19. Developmental coordination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Physical education and perceptual motor training (combining movement with tasks that require thinking, like math or reading) are the best ways to treat coordination disorder. Using a computer to take ...

  20. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  1. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  2. Model investigation overthrows assumptions of watershed research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 study revealed serious flaws in a standard technique used by hydrological researchers to understand how changes in watershed land use affect stream flow behaviors, such as peak flows. The study caused academics and government agencies alike to rethink decades of watershed research and prompted Kuraś et al. to reinvestigate a number of long-standing assumptions in watershed research using a complex and well-validated computer model that accounts for a range of internal watershed dynamics and hydrologic processes. For the test site at 241 Creek in British Columbia, Canada, the authors found not only that deforestation increased the severity of foods but also that it had a scaling influence on both the magnitudes and frequencies of the foods. The model showed that the larger the food, the more its magnitude was amplified by deforestation, with 10-to 100-year-return-period foods increasing in size by 9%-25%. Following a simulated removal of half of the watershed's trees, the authors found that 10-year-return-period foods occurred twice as often, while 100-year-returnperiod events became 5-6.7 times more frequent. This proportional relationship between the increase in food magnitudes and frequencies following deforestation and the size of the food runs counter to the prevailing wisdom in hydrological science.

  3. Model investigation overthrows assumptions of watershed research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 study revealed serious flaws in a standard technique used by hydrological researchers to understand how changes in watershed land use affect stream flow behaviors, such as peak flows. The study caused academics and government agencies alike to rethink decades of watershed research and prompted Kuraś et al. to reinvestigate a number of long-standing assumptions in watershed research using a complex and well-validated computer model that accounts for a range of internal watershed dynamics and hydrologic processes. For the test site at 241 Creek in British Columbia, Canada, the authors found not only that deforestation increased the severity of floods but also that it had a scaling influence on both the magnitudes and frequencies of the floods. The model showed that the larger the flood, the more its magnitude was amplified by deforestation, with 10-to 100-year-return-period floods increasing in size by 9%-25%. Following a simulated removal of half of the watershed's trees, the authors found that 10-year-return-period floods occurred twice as often, while 100-year-return-period events became 5-6.7 times more frequent. This proportional relationship between the increase in flood magnitudes and frequencies following deforestation and the size of the flood runs counter to the prevailing wisdom in hydrological science.

  4. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  5. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  6. Coordinating ‘Ethical’ Clinical Trials: The Role of Research Coordinators in the Contract Research Industry

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.

    2010-01-01

    Change in the way new drugs are developed, including the privatization of clinical trials, has altered the arrangement and roles of health care professions. In this article I examine one aspect of this change: the role of research coordinators in the conduct of contract research in the United States. My focus on coordinators highlights the ethical conflicts embedded in clinical trials. I describe the ways in which coordinators experience and contend with the conflict between research and care and show how their construction of ethics is distinct from institutional conceptions formally associated with human subjects research. My analysis demonstrates how the coordinators' focus on ethics is a response to their role conflict and an attempt to reinsert individualized care into the context of research. PMID:17184412

  7. Sediment database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States 1853

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the scientific understanding of erosion and sedimentation processes within semiarid rangeland watersheds has been a primary objective of data collection on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed since it's establishment in 1953. Sampling instruments and techniques are described, including...

  8. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  9. WATERSHED AND INSTREAM MODELING OF SEDIMENT FATE AND TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively manage watersheds, the assessment of watershed ecological response to physicochemical stressors such as sediments over broad spatial and temporal scales is needed. Assessments at this level of complexity requires the development of sediment transport and fate model...

  10. SFA 2.0- Watershed Structure and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ken

    2015-01-23

    Berkeley Lab Earth Scientist Ken Williams explains the watershed research within the Sustainable Systems SFA 2.0 project—including identification and monitoring of primary factors that control watershed biogeochemical functioning.

  11. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE. Book Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through a wide range of information and topics, Integrated Watershed Management Principles and Practice shows how involved the watershed management planning process can be. The book is informative, and the author obviously has researched the subject thoroughly. The book's case...

  12. RESTORING SUBURBAN WATERSHEDS USING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mixed-use, suburban watersheds, stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on both public and private property impairs stream ecosystems. Decentralized stormwater management, which distributes stormwater infiltration and retention devices throughout watersheds, is more effect...

  13. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  14. Dissolved rainfall inputs and streamwater outputs in an undisturbed watershed on highly weathered soils in the Brazilian cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markewitz, Daniel; Resende, Julio C. F.; Parron, Lucilia; Bustamante, Mercedes; Klink, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Ricardo De O.; Davidson, Eric A.

    2006-08-01

    The cerrados of Brazil cover 2 million km2. Despite the extent of these seasonally dry ecosystems, little watershed research has been focused in this region, particularly relative to the watersheds of the Amazon Basin. The cerrado shares pedogenic characteristics with the Amazon Basin in draining portions of the Brazilian shield and in possessing Oxisols over much of the landscape. The objective of this research was to quantify the stream water geochemical relationships of an undisturbed 1200 ha cerrado watershed for comparison to river geochemistry in the Amazon. Furthermore, this undisturbed watershed was used to evaluate stream discharge versus dissolved ion concentration relationships. This research was conducted in the Córrego Roncador watershed of the Reserva Ecológica do Roncador (RECOR) of the Instituto Brasileiro Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) near Brasilia, Brazil. Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry were analysed between May 1998 and May 2000. The upland soils of this watershed are nutrient poor possessing total stocks of exchangeable elements in the upper 1 m of 81 +/- 13, 77 +/- 4, 25 +/- 3, and 1 +/- 1 kg ha-1 of K, Ca, Mg, and P, respectively. Bulk precipitation inputs of dissolved nutrients for this watershed are low and consistent with previous estimates. The nutrient-poor soils of this watershed, however, increase the relative importance of precipitation for nutrient replenishment to vegetation during episodes of ecosystem disturbance. Stream water dissolved loads were extremely dilute with conductivities ranging from 4 to 10 μS cm-1 during periods of high- and low-flow, respectively. Despite the low concentrations in this stream, geochemical relationships were similar to other Amazonian streams draining shield geologies. Discharge-concentration relationships for Ca and Mg in these highly weathered soils developed from igneous rocks of the Brazilian shield demonstrated a significant negative relationship indicating a continued

  15. A cross-site comparison of factors influencing soil nitrification rates in northeastern USA forested watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; Wemple, B.C.; Jamison, A.E.; Fredriksen, G.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Campbell, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated N deposition is continuing on many forested landscapes around the world and our understanding of ecosystem response is incomplete. Soil processes, especially nitrification, are critical. Many studies of soil N transformations have focused on identifying relationships within a single watershed but these results are often not transferable. We studied 10 small forested research watersheds in the northeastern USA to determine if there were common factors related to soil ammonification and nitrification. Vegetation varied between mixed northern hardwoods and mixed conifers. Watershed surface soils (Oa or A horizons) were sampled at grid or transect points and analyzed for a suite of chemical characteristics. At each sampling point, vegetation and topographic metrics (field and GIS-based) were also obtained. Results were examined by watershed averages (n = 10), seasonal/watershed averages (n = 28), and individual sampling points (n = 608). Using both linear and tree regression techniques, the proportion of conifer species was the single best predictor of nitrification rates, with lower rates at higher conifer dominance. Similar to other studies, the soil C/N ratio was also a good predictor and was well correlated with conifer dominance. Unlike other studies, the presence of Acer saccharum was not by itself a strong predictor, but was when combined with the presence of Betula alleghaniensis. Topographic metrics (slope, aspect, relative elevation, and the topographic index) were not related to N transformation rates across the watersheds. Although found to be significant in other studies, neither soil pH, Ca nor Al was related to nitrification. Results showed a strong relationship between dominant vegetation, soil C, and soil C/N. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Composition of water and suspended sediment in streams of urbanized subtropical watersheds in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Carlo, E. H.; Beltran, V.L.; Tomlinson, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization on the small subtropical island of Oahu, Hawaii provides an opportunity to examine how anthropogenic activity affects the composition of material transferred from land to ocean by streams. This paper investigates the variability in concentrations of trace elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ba, Co, As, Ni, V and Cr) in streams of watersheds on Oahu, Hawaii. The focus is on water and suspended particulate matter collected from the Ala Wai Canal watershed in Honolulu and also the Kaneohe Stream watershed. As predicted, suspended particulate matter controls most trace element transport. Elements such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Ba and Co exhibit increased concentrations within urbanized portions of the watersheds. Particulate concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms owing to input of road runoff containing elevated concentrations of elements associated with vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Enrichments of As in samples from predominantly conservation areas are interpreted as reflecting agricultural use of fertilizers at the boundaries of urban and conservation lands. Particulate Ni, V and Cr exhibit distributions during storm events that suggest a mineralogical control. Principal component analysis of particulate trace element concentrations establishes eigenvalues that account for nearly 80% of the total variance and separates trace elements into 3 factors. Factor 1 includes Pb, Zn, Cu, Ba and Co, interpreted to represent metals with an urban anthropogenic enrichment. Factor 2 includes Ni, V and Cr, elements whose concentrations do not appear to derive from anthropogenic activity and is interpreted to reflect mineralogical control. Another, albeit less significant, anthropogenic factor includes As, Cd and U and is thought to represent agricultural inputs. Samples collected during a storm derived from an offshore low-pressure system suggest that downstream transport of upper watershed material during tradewind-derived rains results in a 2

  17. Estimation of watershed hydrologic processes in arid conditions with a modified watershed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jian; Swaney, Dennis P.; Hong, Bongghi; Wang, Jinnan; Wang, Yuqiu; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2014-11-01

    Watershed models play an important role in modern water resource management, increasingly demanding a robust hydrologic data framework to estimate watershed hydrochemical processes. The Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF), a typical watershed model with modest data requirements, has been applied to watershed-scale hydrochemical estimation worldwide. However, while it generally successfully estimates flows in humid regions, the model suffers from a weakness in hydrologic estimation during low-flow periods, which are projected to continue increasing with global climate change in many places. To address this issue, three algorithms describing functional responses of flows to saturated water storage, the segment function approach, linear function approach, and exponential function approach, have been proposed in this paper, integrated with a previous leakage mechanism for unsaturated water storage used in two earlier GWLF versions, and applied to a case study of Shuai Shui River watershed in China. Comparisons of this version, including new algorithms or algorithm linkages, with the earlier GWLF versions, show that all the new algorithms improve model accuracy in low-flow months; the linear function approach linking the leakage process has the best effect. This work refines the framework of GWLF model to address both humid and arid conditions that can be used as alternatives for future applications. These new functional dynamic responses should also have potential application in other similar watershed models.

  18. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies. PMID:16849145

  19. Coordinating Council. Ninth Meeting: Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the 9th meeting of the STI Coordinating Council. The council listened to the speakers' understanding of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and heard stories of successful applications of these principles. Definitions of quality stated were focused on customer satisfaction. Reports presented by the speakers are also included.

  20. Activity Coordinators: The View from the Bottom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucci, Frank A.

    1971-01-01

    Data for this study was drawn for an extensive study on personnel practices. This particular report focuses on the position of coordinator of student activities which is seen as ranking low on the totem pole in regard to benefits, perceived responsibilities, and perception by other staff personnel. (CJ)

  1. Micro practices of coordination based on complex adaptive systems: user needs and strategies for coordinating public health in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Wittrup, Inge; Burau, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many highly formalised approaches to coordination poorly fit public health and recent studies call for coordination based on complex adaptive systems. Our contribution is two-fold. Empirically, we focus on public health, and theoretically we build on the patient perspective and treat coordination as a process of contingent, two-level negotiations of user needs. Theory and Methods The paper draws on the concept of user needs-based coordination and sees coordination as a process, whereby needs emerging from the life world of the user are made amenable to the health system through negotiations. The analysis is based on an explorative case study of a health promotion initiative in Denmark. It adopts an anthropological qualitative approach and uses a range of qualitative data. Results The analysis identifies four strategies of coordination: the coordinator focusing on the individual user or on relations with other professionals; and the manager coaching the coordinator or providing structural support. Crucially, the coordination strategies by management remain weak as they do not directly relate to specific user needs. Discussion In process of bottom-up negotiations user needs become blurred and this is especially a challenge for management. The study therefore calls for an increased focus on the level nature of negotiations to bridge the gap that currently weakens coordination strategies by management. PMID:26528097

  2. Agricultural chemical export dynamics in a watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    chemicals filter through a catchment is important for managing water quality. Using a concept of the catchment as a physicochemical filter, Guan et al. examined nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine loads in the Little Vermillion River watershed, a tile-drained watershed in Illinois. They analyzed a 10-year data set using mathematical signal processing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in chemical concentrations and discharge rate. They found that export of these chemicals had a linear relationship with streamflow at annual scales—the higher the streamflow, the more these chemicals were exported from the watershed. The researchers' approach helps identify the roles of different hydrological flow paths in controlling chemical export at different spatial and temporal scales and reveals that chemical inputs overwhelm normal biogeochemical processing in these agricultural systems, leading to high long-term average rates of export. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/ 2010WR009997, 2011)

  3. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of 3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural

  4. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Laboratory at Tifton, GA:Index Site Design for the Suwannee Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, D.; Strickland, T.; Sheridan, J.; Lowrance, R.; Truman, C.; Hubbard, R.; Potter, T.; Wauchope, D.; Vellidis, G.; Thomas, D.

    2001-12-01

    The Southeast Watershed Hydrology Research Center (SEWHRC) was established in 1966 by order of the U.S. Senate "to identify and characterize those elements that control the flow of water from watersheds in the southeast". A 129 sq.mi. area within the headwaters of Little River Watershed (LRW) in central south Georgia was instrumented to provide data for evaluating and characterizing Coastal Plain hydrologic processes and for development and testing of prediction methodologies for use in ungaged watersheds in regions of low topographic relief. Pesticide analytical capabilities were added in 1976, and inorganic chemistry and sediment transport research were expanded. In 1980, the Center was renamed as the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL), and laboratories were constructed for nutrient analysis and soil physics. A pesticide analysis laboratory was constructed in 1987. In the early 1990s, a hydraulics laboratory was established for sediment and chemical transport studies, and research on riparian buffers was expanded. The SEWRL research program continues to focus on hydrologic and environmental concerns. Major components of the program are hydrology, pesticides behavior, buffer systems, animal waste management, erosion, remote sensing of watershed condition, and relationships between site-specific agricultural management (BMPs) and small-to-large watershed response. SEWRL's program will be expanded over the next five years to include two additional watersheds comparable in size and instrumentation to the LRW; nesting the LRW within the full Little River drainage and subsequently...all three watersheds within the full Suwannee Basin; and mapping and quantifying irrigation water removals within the Suwannee Basin. We will instrument the three intensive study watersheds and the full Suwannee Basin to provide real-time characterization of precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic flow, and water quality at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We will

  5. My life in the watershed: then, now, and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "My Life in the Watershed" tells the first-hand account of a young girl growing up in southwestern Oklahoma, the impact growing up in a watershed had on her life, and the vision she sees for her children and her children's children, so they will continue to benefit from the USDA Small Watershed Prog...

  6. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed projects. (a) To be eligible for...

  7. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed projects. (a) To be eligible for...

  8. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed projects. (a) To be eligible for...

  9. Conservation Effects Assessment in the South Georgia Little River Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) located in the upper Coastal Plain region of Southern Georgia is one of the 14 benchmark watersheds involved in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL) initiated a hydrologic research prog...

  10. Water resources of the Crow Wing River watershed, central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Oakes, E.L.; Ericson, D.W.; Helgesen, J.O.

    1972-01-01

    Topography of most of the watershed is slightly- to moderately-undulating and has local relief of up to about 50 feet. The margin of the watershed, particularly the southwestern and northwestern parts, is higher and has local relief often exceeding 150 feet. The higher areas contain numerous lakes and, in the extreme north and east parts of the watershed, are heavily forested.

  11. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  12. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  13. Mapping Watershed Integrity for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is partially a function of the degree to which watersheds are altered by human activities. In a recent manuscript, Flotemersch and others (in preparation), defined watershed integr...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATERSHED-BASED MERCURY POLLUTION CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate total mercury loadings to streams in a watershed, we have developed a watershed-based source quantification model ? Watershed Mercury Characterization System. The system uses the grid-based GIS modeling technology to calculate total soil mercury concentrations and ...

  15. Nutrient Sources and Transport from the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Goodwater Creek watershed has been monitored for flow since 1971 and for dissolved nutrients since 1991 for 3 nested watersheds (12.1, 31.5 and 73.0 km2 drainage area). This watershed includes row crop land (76%), grassland (14%), woodland (6%) and a small town at the upper end (4%). The objecti...

  16. 7 CFR 622.11 - Eligible watershed projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible watershed projects. 622.11 Section 622.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Qualifications § 622.11 Eligible watershed projects. (a) To be eligible for...

  17. Public participation in watershed management: International practices for inclusiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)

    This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Watershed responses to climate change at Glacier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, D.B.; Comanor, P.L.; White, J.D.; Hauer, F. Richard; Running, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed an approach which examines ecosystem function and the potential effects of climatic shifts. The Lake McDonald watershed of Glacier National Park was the focus for two linked research activities: acquisition of baseline data on hydrologic, chemical and aquatic organism attributes that characterize this pristine northern rocky mountain watershed, and further developing the Regional Hydro-Ecosystem Simulation System (RHESSys), a collection of integrated models which collectively provide spatially explicit, mechanistically-derived outputs of ecosystem processes, including hydrologic outflow, soil moisture, and snowpack water equivalence. In this unique setting field validation of RHESSys, outputs demonstrated that reasonable estimates of SWE and streamflow are being produced. RHESSys was used to predict annual stream discharge and temperature. The predictions, in conjunction with the field data, indicated that aquatic resources of the park may be significantly affected. Utilizing RHESSys to predict potential climate scenarios and response of other key ecosystem components can provide scientific insights as well as proactive guidelines for national park management.

  19. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  20. Geospatial Estimates of Road Salt Usage Across a Gradient of Urbanizing Watersheds in Southern Ontario:Thesis for Masters in Spatial Analysis (MSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giberson, G. K.; Oswald, C.

    2015-12-01

    In areas affected by snow, chloride (Cl) salts are widely used as a de-icing agent to improve road conditions. While the improvement in road safety is indisputable, there are environmental consequences to local aquatic ecosystems. In many waterways, Cl concentrations have been increasing since the early 1990s, often exceeding national water quality guidelines. To determine the quantity of Cl that is accumulating in urban and urbanizing watersheds, accurate estimates of road salt usage at the watershed-scale are needed. The complex jurisdictional control over road salt application in southern Ontario lends itself to a geospatial approach for calculating Cl inputs to improve the accuracy of watershed-scale Cl mass balance estimates. This study will develop a geospatial protocol for combining information on road salt applications and road network areas to refine watershed-scale Cl inputs, as well as assess spatiotemporal patterns in road salt application across the southern Ontario study region. The overall objective of this project is to use geospatial methods (predominantly ArcGIS) to develop high-accuracy estimates of road salt usage in urbanizing watersheds in southern Ontario. Specifically, the aims will be to map and summarize the types and areas ("lane-lengths") of roadways in each watershed that have road salt applied to them, to determine the most appropriate source(s) of road salt usage data for each watershed, taking into consideration multiple levels of jurisdiction (e.g. municipal, regional, provincial), to calculate and summarize sub-watershed and watershed-scale road salt usage estimates for multiple years, and to analyze intra-watershed spatiotemporal patterns of road salt usage, especially focusing on impervious surfaces. These analyses will recommend areas of concern exacerbated by high-levels of road salt distribution; recommendations around modifying on-the-ground operations will be the next step in helping to correct these issues.

  1. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  2. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  3. ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION: DYNAMIC WATERSHED SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research focuses on developing methods and models to determine how terrestrial ecosystem/habitats will respond to anthropogenic stress. The primary objective is to develop a comprehensive modeling framework for predicting the effects of multiple stressors on key hydrologic,...

  4. Evaluation of the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model for Flood Forecasting in a Hawaiian Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awal, R.; Fares, A.; Michaud, J.; Chu, P.; Fares, S.; Rosener, M.; Kevin, K.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the performance of the U.S. National Weather Service Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA) on the flash flood prone Hanalei watershed, Kauai, Hawaii, using site specific hydrologic data. The model was calibrated and validated using six-years of observed field hydrological data, e.g., stream flow, and spatially distributed rainfall. The ordinary kriging method was used to calculate mean watershed wide hourly precipitation for the six years using data from twenty rain gauges from north shore Kauai including five rain gauges within the watershed. Ranges of the values of a priori SAC-SMA parameters were also estimated based on the site specific soil hydrological properties; these calculated values were well within those reported in literature for different watersheds SAC-SMA was run for one year runs using the calibration and validation data. The performance of model in predicting streamflow using average watershed wide values of the a priori parameters was very poor. SAC-SMA over predicted streamflow throughout the year as compared to observed streamflow data. The upper limit of the lower layer tension water capacity, LZTWM, parameter was higher than those reported in the literature this might be due to the wetter conditions, higher precipitation, in Hanalei watershed (>6400mm) than the other previously studied watersheds (<1600mm). When the upper bound of LZTWM varied between 2500 and 3000 during calibration, SAC-SMA's performance improved to satisfactory and even to good for almost all years based on PBIAS and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency. When we used optimized parameter of one year to other years for the validation, the performance of optimized parameter of year 2005 was satisfactory for most of the year when upper bound of LZTWM = 2500 and the optimized parameter of year 2004 was satisfactory for most of the year when upper bound of LZTWM = 3000. The annual precipitation of 2004 was the highest

  5. Comparison of SWAT and AnnAGNPS Applications to a Sub-Watershed Within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted under the USDA-CEAP program on the Choptank watershed which is located within the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the Eastern Shore region of Maryland. The watershed is nearly 400 square mile and is dominated by corn and soybean productions. Poultry manure is being used heavil...

  6. Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Watershed Assessment Studies: Advancing the Science for Conservation Assessment at Watershed Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CEAP Watershed Assessment Studies were initiated in 2004 or later to measure the environmental effects of conservation practices on water resources (quality and availability), soil quality, or fish and wildlife habitat at the watershed scale. Over 40 CEAP Watershed Studies have now been sponsored co...

  7. Evaluating integrated watershed management using multiple criteria analysis--a case study at Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shampa; Vacik, Harald; Swanson, Mark E; Haque, S M Sirajul

    2012-05-01

    Criteria and indicators assessment is one of the ways to evaluate management strategies for mountain watersheds. One framework for this, Integrated Watershed Management (IWM), was employed at Chittagong Hill Tracts region of Bangladesh using a multi-criteria analysis approach. The IWM framework, consisting of the design and application of principles, criteria, indicators, and verifiers (PCIV), facilitates active participation by diverse professionals, experts, and interest groups in watershed management, to explicitly address the demands and problems to measure the complexity of problems in a transparent and understandable way. Management alternatives are developed to fulfill every key component of IWM considering the developed PCIV set and current situation of the study area. Different management strategies, each focusing on a different approach (biodiversity conservation, flood control, soil and water quality conservation, indigenous knowledge conservation, income generation, watershed conservation, and landscape conservation) were assessed qualitatively on their potential to improve the current situation according to each verifier of the criteria and indicator set. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), including sensitivity analysis, was employed to identify an appropriate management strategy according to overall priorities (i.e., different weights of each principle) of key informants. The AHP process indicated that a strategy focused on conservation of biodiversity provided the best option to address watershed-related challenges in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. PMID:21674224

  8. Strong anticipation: complexity matching in interpersonal coordination.

    PubMed

    Marmelat, Vivien; Delignières, Didier

    2012-10-01

    A subtle coordination occurs within complex systems, between multiple nested sub-systems. This intra-system coordination can be detected by the presence of 1/f fluctuations produced by the system. But coordination can occur also between systems. Interpersonal coordination has been studied from a local point of view until now, focusing on macroscopic interactions. But the recent concept of strong anticipation introduced by Dubois (Lect Notes Comput Sci 2684:110-132, 2003) suggests that interactions could occur on multiple levels between complex systems. The hypothesis is that time series in interpersonal synchronization present a matching of the complexity index (fractal exponent). Moreover, it is argued that this matching is not a consequence of short-term adaptations but reveals a global coordination between participants. Eleven pairs of participants oscillated a hand-held pendulum in the in-phase pattern for 11 min, in three conditions where the coupling strength was manipulated by the perceptual feedbacks. The results show a high correlation between fractal exponents irrespective of the coupling strength, and a very low percentage of local cross-correlations between time series appear at lag 0 and lag 1. These results suggest that interpersonal coordination, and more globally synchronization of participants with natural environments, is based on non-local time scales. PMID:22865163

  9. On projective coordinate spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiftçi, Süleyman; Erdoǧan, Fatma Özen

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, an (n+1)-dimensional module over the local ring K = Mmm(ℝ) is constructed. Further, an n- dimensional projective coordinate space over this module is constructed by the help of equivalence classes. The points and lines of this space are determined and the points are classified. Finally, for a 3-dimensional projective coordinate space, the incidence matrix for a line that goes through the given points and also all points of a line given with the incidence matrix are found by the use of Maple commands.

  10. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  11. Coordination and citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D J

    1980-03-01

    This study investigates the validity of the assumption that coordination and citizen participation are related inversely and, thus, are incompatible as features in the same social service reform strategy. Seventeen social service organizations situated in the same urban area were studied. Data were obtained by structured interview. The concepts of coordination and citizen participation were operationalized by means of scales. The findings support the validity of the assumption noted above. Although interpretations of the findings can be provided, they are post-factum. This implies a need for explanatory research which might be guided by theories of community power structure and of organizational behavior. PMID:10246483

  12. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  13. Watershed Characteristics and Land Management in the Nonpoint-Source Evaluation Monitoring Watersheds in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rappold, K.F.; Wierl, J.A.; Amerson, F.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, began a land-use inventory to identify sources of contaminants and track the land-management changes for eight evaluation monitoring watersheds in Wisconsin. An important component of the land-use inventory has been developing descriptions and preliminary assessments for the eight watersheds. These descriptions establish a baseline for future data analysis. The watershed descriptions include sections on location, reference watersheds, climate, land use, soils and topography, and surface-water resources. The land-management descriptions include sections on objectives, sources of nonpoint contamination and goals of contaminant reduction, and implementation of best-management practices. This information was compiled primarily from the nonpoint-source control plans, county soil surveys, farm conservation plans, Federal and State agency data reports, and data collected through the land-use inventory.

  14. TESTING WATERSHED CLASSIFICATIONS RELEVANT TO BIOASSESSMENT, CONSERVATION PLANNING, AND WATERSHED RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective:

    Our research is designed to test the effectiveness of a systematic approach for developing watershed classification schemes useful for environmental assessment and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems. In doing so, we will identify the specific wa...

  15. Spectral Measurement of Watershed Coefficients in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator); Bausch, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was apparent that the spectra calibration of runoff curve numbers cannot be achieved on watersheds where significant areas of timber were within the drainage area. The absorption of light by wet soil conditions restricts differentiation of watersheds with regard to watershed runoff curve numbers. It appeared that the predominant factor influencing the classification of watershed runoff curve numbers was the difference in soil color and its associated reflectance when dry. In regions where vegetation grown throughout the year, where wet surface conditions prevail or where watersheds are timbered, there is little hope of classifying runoff potential with visible light alone.

  16. Watershed and ecosystem responses to invasive grass establishment and dominance across a desert grassland watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamerlynck, E.; Scott, R.; Polyakov, V.; Sugg, Z.; Moran, M. S.; Stone, J.; Nearing, M.

    2012-04-01

    Compared to aridland systems that have undergone rapid change in dominant vegetation growth form, the consequences to watershed and ecosystem processes following a shift in dominance between similar growth forms have not been well-studied. Following a five year drought period, strong summer monsoon rains in 2006 across the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed near Tombstone, AZ, were accompanied by widespread native perennial grass mortality, a transient increase in annual forbs, followed by establishment and sustained dominance by the invasive South African bunchgrass, Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) across a semiarid grassland watershed (Kendall grassland, WS#112). This loss of ecological diversity occurred across a watershed already instrumented for quantifying long-term climate, watershed, hill-slope, and ecosystem-level gas exchange. Salient findings from these data sets were: 1) annual watershed sediment discharge rapidly returned to pre-invasion levels following a large spike in 2006 that accounted for 65% of the total sediment yield summed over 35 years, 2) plot-level experimental runoff studies showed hill-slope sediment yields consistently doubled, as did growing season soil evaporation contributions to ET, and 3) the grassland was a carbon sink during dry conditions under lovegrass dominance. These findings show that while some aspects of watershed and ecosystem function rapidly re-established (i.e. sediment yield and net primary productivity), processes acting at lower spatial and temporal scales have been negatively impacted by lovegrass dominance. We believe these lower-order processes underlie the strong ecological effects associated with Lehmann lovegrass invasion, and may also accelerate landform processes and change the basic ecohydrological characteristics of semi-arid grassland watersheds.

  17. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  18. LINKING WATERSHED MANAGEMENT WITH STREAM ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing the loading of ’stressors‚ (pollutants) from watershed lands to streams and lakes is the concern of a broad range of environmental stakeholders—including local and state governments, utilities, farm collectives, construction firms—and even homeowners. Their adoption of E...

  19. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    .... Section 1240Q of the Food Security Act of 1985, as amended by the Food, ] Conservation, and Energy Act of... various natural resources conservation programs authorized under Subtitle D, Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985, as amended. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative assistance in FY 2010 will...

  20. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) supported the development of the Watersh...

  1. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona...

  2. A mean field approach to watershed hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Mark; Porporato, Amilcare

    2016-04-01

    Mean field theory (also known as self-consistent field theory) is commonly used in statistical physics when modeling the space-time behavior of complex systems. The mean field theory approximates a complex multi-component system by considering a lumped (or average) effect for all individual components acting on a single component. Thus, the many body problem is reduced to a one body problem. For watershed hydrology, a mean field theory reduces the numerous point component effects to more tractable watershed averages, resulting in a consistent method for linking the average watershed fluxes to the local fluxes at each point. We apply this approach to the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and as a result, the numerous local interactions related to lateral fluxes of soil water are parameterized in terms of the average soil moisture. The mean field approach provides a basis for unifying and extending common event-based models (e.g. Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method) with more modern semi-distributed models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the Probability Distributed (PDM) model, and TOPMODEL). We obtain simple equations for the fractions of the different source areas of runoff, the spatial variability of runoff, and the average runoff value (i.e., the so-called runoff curve). The resulting space time distribution of soil moisture offers a concise description of the variability of watershed fluxes.

  3. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  4. Curve Numbers for Golf Course Watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storm event runoff is a critical component to the environmental and structural design related to hydrology. The curve number (CN) method is a robust and accepted method for determining excess rainfall. Measured CNs for golf course watersheds and for that matter hydrologic data from golf course wate...

  5. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts of different extents and...

  6. INTENSIVE WATERSHED STUDY: THE PATUXENT RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was one of five intensive watershed studies designed by the Chesapeake Bay Program's Eutrophication Work Group to provide detailed nonpoint source loading rates and ambient water quality data within the Chesapeake Bay drainage area. The study was conducted within the P...

  7. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University ...

  8. Engaging Pennsylvania Teachers in Watershed Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua; Luloff, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Water-resource scientists have become increasingly concerned about global water quality and quantity issues. Water and watershed education are now mandated topics for school-aged youth. Pennsylvania teachers lack consistent and accessible curricula to teach students about water quality and quantity. A mail survey administered in 2004 determined…

  9. WATERSHED SCALE REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH IN HYDROMETEOROLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper provides an overview of watershed scale remote sensing research in hydrometeorology with an emphasis on the major contributions that have been made by United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). The major contributions are separated into deriving fr...

  10. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  11. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  12. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

  13. Discover a Watershed: The Colorado Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This engaging, informative "Educators Guide" provides detailed background information about the Colorado Watershed. Its reference section contains 25 science-based, multidisciplinary, hands-on activities that teach about hydrology, geography, geology, ecology, tribes, history, cultures, economics, management issues and resource stewardship. In…

  14. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  15. Groundwater-transported dissolved organic nitrogen exports from coastal watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroeger, K.D.; Cole, Marci L.; Valiela, I.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed groundwater-transported nitrogen (N) exports from 41 watershed segments that comprised 10 Cape Cod, Massachusetts watersheds to test the hypotheses that chemical form of N exports is related to land use and to length of flow paths through watersheds. In the absence of human habitation, these glacial outwash-plain watersheds exported largely dissolved organic N (DON) but at relatively low annual rate. Addition of people to watersheds increased rates of both total dissolved N (TDN) and DON export through groundwater. Percent of TDN as DON in groundwater was negatively related to path length of groundwater through aquifers, but %DON was not significantly related to population density on the watersheds. DON was often the dominant form of N exported from the watersheds, even at high population densities. Our results suggest that natural sources are not entirely responsible for organic N exports from watersheds, but, instead, a substantial portion of anthropogenic N introduced to watersheds is exported as DON. This finding is in disagreement with previous results, which suggest that anthropogenic N is exported from watersheds largely as NO 3- and that DON exported from watersheds is from natural sources. ?? 2006, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  16. Runoff and sediment yield model for predicting nuclide transport in watersheds using BIOTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    The environmental risk simulation model BIOTRAN was interfaced with a series of new subroutines (RUNOFF, GEOFLX, EROSON, and AQUIFER) to predict the movement of nuclides, elements, and pertinent chemical compounds in association with sediments through lateral and channel flow of runoff water. In addition, the movement of water into and out of segmented portions of runoff channels was modeled to simulate the dynamics of moisture flow through specified aquifers within the watershed. The BIOTRAN soil water flux subroutine, WATFLX, was modified to interface the relationships found in the SPUR model for runoff and sediment transport into channels with the particle sorting relationships to predict radionuclide enrichment and movement in watersheds. The new subroutines were applied specifically to Mortandad Canyon within Los Alamos National Laboratory by simultaneous simulation of eight surface vegetational subdivisions and associated channel and aquifer segments of this watershed. This report focuses on descriptions of the construction and rationale for the new subroutines and on discussing both input characteristics and output relationships to known runoff events from Mortandad Canyon. Limitations of the simplified input on model behavior are also discussed. Uranium-238 was selected as the nuclide for demonstration of the model because it could be assumed to be homogeneously distributed over the watershed surface. 22 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  18. Probing the integration of land use and watershed planning in a shifting governance regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Ryan; de Grosbois, Danuta; de Loë, Rob; VelanišKis, Jonas

    2011-09-01

    Effective governance that contributes to the integration of water management and land use planning is essential for successful protection of drinking water sources and, ultimately, provision of safe drinking water. In many jurisdictions, land use planning and watershed management occur on separate tracks. This article examines the prospects for integration of these two critical processes. A multicase study approach is used, focusing on the specific objective of protection of drinking water sources. Experiences in three case study watershed regions in Ontario, Canada (Grand River, Upper Thames, and Lake Simcoe), were analyzed. The goal was to identify the extent to which source water protection components and indicators are expressed in land use and watershed-based planning documents. Similarities and differences among the watershed regions are distinguished through a cross-case analysis. The results suggest that a shifting governance regime for drinking water safety in Ontario is contributing to integration between land use and water management. However, proactive and ongoing efforts are required to ensure that integration occurs and that barriers to integration are addressed. Timely guidelines, incentive-based tools, up-to-date and accurate information, and adequate financial resources are essential.

  19. [Spatial Variability and Distribution Pattern of Soil Organic Matter in a Mollisol Watershed of China].

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-jie; Ma, Quan-lai; Han, Wen-wen; Shan, Pei-ming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Shao-liang; Zhang, Zhi-min; Wang, Hong-yan

    2016-05-15

    Spatial variability of soil organic matter and its distribution pattern are the hot issues of soil scientific research. Selecting Haigouhe watershed as the study area, this paper mainly focused on the spatial variability, distribution pattern and its impact factors of SOM in the surface soil by classical statistics, Geo-statistics and "3S" technology. The results showed that: compared with the other black soil areas, the SOM content in Haigouhe watershed was a little lower, there was a spatial autocorrelation, and a moderate variability. Random factors, such as human activities, cultivation measures and so on, had little impact on the spatial variation, while the structural factors had a dominant function, and there was a remarkable spatial anisotropy of SOM. The SOM content reduced gradually from east to west with the familiar changes of height, so the co-kriging interpolation, selecting elevation as the co-variate, was employed to improve the accuracy. The spatial variability of SOM and its distribution pattern in Haigouhe watershed were greatly affected by topography and land use but weakly influenced by traffic, villages and other social factors. The surrounding environment of the samples would increase the uncertainty of spatial variability and interpolation of SOM and it cannot be ignored in future studies. In summary, it was a significant scientific research to analyze the spatial variability, distribution pattern of SOM and its main impact factors in a mollisol hilly watershed of China. PMID:27506048

  20. Cumulative impact assessment in coastal wetland watersheds: Jacoby Creek, Humboldt County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    This work tests the transferability of a model cumulative impact assessment method - developed for an agricultural/residential watershed in central California - to a forested/residential watershed in northern California. The method focuses on coastal wetland sedimentation caused by development in the surrounding watershed. The premise of the method is that future wetland impacts will resemble those of the past if future anthropogenic disturbances and natural processes occur at the same intensity as those experienced over the historical record. The method quantifies historic land-use disturbance and wetland change, and establishes a recommended upper limit for future land-use intensity based on historic site disturbance. Indices of site disturbance are keyed to local erosional processes. Measures include impervious surface coverage, bare ground disturbance, location of mass-movement features, and intersections of roads with streams. For Jacoby Creek it was found that the creek-mouth delta grew nearly 18 acres between 1931 and 1978 due to deposition of sediment from the 17 sq. mi. watershed. Approximately 8 acres of the delta have become vegetated; established salt marsh remains unchanged. The method is potentially transferable to other cumulative impact problems where land-use intensity is an important variable.

  1. Hydrograph separation for karst watersheds using a two-domain rainfall-discharge model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Highly parameterized, physically based models may be no more effective at simulating the relations between rainfall and outflow from karst watersheds than are simpler models. Here an antecedent rainfall and convolution model was used to separate a karst watershed hydrograph into two outflow components: one originating from focused recharge in conduits and one originating from slow flow in a porous annex system. In convolution, parameters of a complex system are lumped together in the impulse-response function (IRF), which describes the response of the system to an impulse of effective precipitation. Two parametric functions in superposition approximate the two-domain IRF. The outflow hydrograph can be separated into flow components by forward modeling with isolated IRF components, which provides an objective criterion for separation. As an example, the model was applied to a karst watershed in the Madison aquifer, South Dakota, USA. Simulation results indicate that this watershed is characterized by a flashy response to storms, with a peak response time of 1 day, but that 89% of the flow results from the slow-flow domain, with a peak response time of more than 1 year. This long response time may be the result of perched areas that store water above the main water table. Simulation results indicated that some aspects of the system are stationary but that nonlinearities also exist.

  2. Watershed-scale effects of urbanization on sediment export: Assessment and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randhir, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    Built components of watersheds are associated with impervious surfaces that alter hydrology, disrupt ecosystems, and affect water quality. This study focuses on the impervious factor as a tool for assessment and policy design to address water quality impacts. The empirical model uses a combination of watershed simulation and statistical regression modeling to study sediment loading at various stages of urbanization. The policy design is based on private behavior in a watershed setting to develop appropriate economic approaches. The incentives through taxes, subsidies, and cost sharing are based on water quality impacts. It was observed that nonlinearity in response functions resulted in transition effects that are continuous. This is due to gradual shifts in landscape characteristics as a result of urbanization. On a regional basis, impervious factor had a varying effect on water quality and depend on the state of urbanization and spatial characteristics. Economic policies based on a metric like impervious cover can be used to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization in watersheds through use of appropriate BMPs, urban forestry methods, and spatial targeting. While linear rules in policy are easier to implement, nonlinear rules were more effective in representing the changes in marginal social cost of impervious factor, especially initial and late stages of urbanization. There exists excellent scope in using this targeted policy to address specific problems associated with complex urban systems.

  3. Profiling Computing Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sigrid; Morton, Allan

    The people responsible for managing school computing resources in Australia have become known as Computing Coordinators. To date there has been no large systematic study of the role, responsibilities and characteristics of this position. This paper represents a first attempt to provide information on the functions and attributes of the Computing…

  4. Coordination of hand shape.

    PubMed

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

  5. Cooperative Education Coordinator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Tom

    Designed to serve as a guide for teacher-coordinators, counselors, administrators, and the employing community, this handbook is a performance-oriented desk reference that provides a base for cooperative education program operations. Chapter 1 overviews cooperative education, contrasts cooperative training and work experience programs, and…

  6. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G.; Matzger, Adam J.; Benin, Annabelle I.; Willis, Richard R.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  7. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  8. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  9. Origins of Coordinate Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Frederick G.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the origins of post-coordinate searching and emphasizes that the focal point should be on the searcher, not on the item being indexed. Highlights include the history of the term information retrieval; edge notched punch cards; the "peek-a-boo" system; the Uniterm system; and using computers to search for information. (LRW)

  10. Manual for Youth Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Youth Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    This manual was designed primarily for use by coordinators responsible for developing comprehensive community youth opportunity programs of employment, education, and recreation, but the material may also be of assistance to community and business leaders, educators, and others involved in expanding local opportunities for young people. Contents…

  11. Development of EOS-aided procedures for the determination of the water balance of hydrologic budget of a large watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congalton, Russell G.; Thomas, Randall W.; Zinke, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Work focused on the acquisition of remotely sensed data for the 1985 to 1986 hydrogolic year; continuation of the field measurement program; continued acquisition and construction of passive microwave remote sensing instruments; a compilation of data necessary for an initial water balance computation; and participation with the EOS Simulataneity Team in reviewing the Feather River watershed as a possible site for a simultaneity experiment.

  12. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing Watershed Management Options in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management de...

  13. Tokamak coordinate conventions: COCOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    Dealing with electromagnetic fields, in particular current and related magnetic fields, yields "natural" physical vector relations in 3-D. However, when it comes to choosing local coordinate systems, the "usual" right-handed systems are not necessarily the best choices, which means that there are several options being chosen. In the magnetic fusion community such a difficulty exists for the choices of the cylindrical and of the toroidal coordinate systems. In addition many codes depend on knowledge of an equilibrium. In particular, the Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric equilibrium solution for tokamak plasmas, ψ, does not depend on the sign of the plasma current Ip nor that of the magnetic field B0. This often results in ill-defined conventions. Moreover the sign, amplitude and offset of ψ are of less importance, since the free sources in the equation depend on the normalized radial coordinate. The signs of the free sources, dp/dψ and dF2/dψ (p being the pressure, ψ the poloidal magnetic flux and F=RBφ), must be consistent to generate the current density profile. For example, RF and CD calculations (Radio Frequency heating and Current Drive) require an exact sign convention in order to calculate a co- or counter-CD component. It is shown that there are over 16 different coordinate conventions. This paper proposes a unique identifier, the COCOS convention, to distinguish between the 16 most-commonly used options. Given the present worldwide efforts towards code integration, the proposed new index COCOS defining uniquely the COordinate COnventionS required as input by a given code or module is particularly useful. As codes use different conventions, it is useful to allow different sign conventions for equilibrium code input and output, equilibrium being at the core of any calculations in magnetic fusion. Additionally, given two different COCOS conventions, it becomes simple to transform between them. The relevant transformations are described in detail.

  14. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  15. Detecting similarities in watershed response behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, M. C.; Ley, R.

    2009-04-01

    We require detailed knowledge of watershed response behaviour to establish a regionalisation of flood frequencies for ungauged basins, to customise parameters of hydrologic models and for many other purposes. For many areas data have been collected only for short time periods. To extend the basis of information, we reuse data from watersheds with a similar response behaviour or build homogeneous regions. But which watersheds behave in the same way and which indices indicate similar or different behaviour? For watersheds in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, we study the response behaviours of gauged watersheds. We use data from 115 gauges with covering periods between 13 and 54 years, a wide range of topography, land use, geology, soil types, average annual precipitation and areas between 40 and 1000 km². For these runoff time series we developed several indices to describe the response behaviour. Some indices, portraying flow variability like frequencies, maximum/mean flows at various times and timescales, are derived directly from runoff time series. Flow duration curves are the basis of other indices like slopes, areas under the curve and individual values on the curve. For some catchment areas, especially in the Nahe river basin and the Westerwald, we use runoff coefficients as additional information. The calculated indices for each catchment area show a wide range of values but also similarities between catchments. Some of these indices are redundant or misleading for our selection process. To find most significant indices to combine catchments and thus improve the data base we use statistical methods like principal component or factor analysis and self-organizing maps.

  16. Application of a Distributed Hydrologic Model to Watersheds in the Central U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, T. M.; Georgakakos, K. P.; Georgakakos, K. P.; Sperfslage, J. A.

    2001-05-01

    Since the late 1980s, the increasing availability of digital, high-resolution terrain and land (land use, vegetative cover, soils) data along with spatially distributed precipitation data from radars has lead to significant research on the use of distributed hydrologic models as predictive tools for hydrologists. The current study is focused on distributed hydrologic models appropriate for use in an operational flow-forecasting environment. Digital terrain and land use data are incorporated through a GIS to delineate sub-basins within a large watershed and to derive basin characteristics, such as area, channel length, and channel-network topology, for each sub-basin. These characteristics are input to a catchemt-based distributed model, HRCDHM, along with gridded, hourly WSR-88D radar precipitation estimates, and model parameters. HRCDHM uses an adaptation of the U.S. NWS's operational Sacramento soil moisture accounting model for each sub-basin within the larger watershed, and channel routing to combine and route sub-basin flows through the channel network. The Sacramento model parameters may be applied uniformly to all sub-basins within the watershed of interest, or varied throughout the watershed on the basis of spatially-distributed measures (e.g., based on characteristics of available spatial soil information). In this work, we use HRCDHM to address such issues as whether the distributed model offers advantage over existing operational spatially-lumped hydrologic forecasting models, and the sensitivity of the modeled flows to errors or uncertainty in hydrologic model parameters and input. HRCDHM is applied to two watersheds in the central United States. These catchments are: the Blue River in Oklahoma and the Illinois River in Arkansas and Oklahoma. These watersheds fall under the umbrella of the WSR-88D radar at Tulsa, Oklahoma (ABRFC). The watersheds range in drainage area from 1,000 to 2,500 km2. Generally, these basins are mildly sloping, with silty to

  17. Comparison of varied precipitation and soil data types for use in watershed modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, K.; Purucker, T.; Kraemer, S.; Babendreier, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    . Calibration and accuracy assessment based on these objective functions capture minimal information on accuracy of low flows or flow variability, which are as important as high flows to habitat suitability and water availability. In addition to standard approaches, we used an alternative calibration strategy, using a combination of objective functions representing high flows (NSE), low flows (modified NSE), and flow variability (standard deviation ratio), and focused on likelihood distributions rather than individual "winning" simulations. Streamflow simulation accuracy improved with MPE data for the two smaller watersheds (10s to 100s km^2) but not in the larger watersheds (1000s of km^2). This nested approach needs to be repeated in other study areas, but it appears that semi-distributed modeling in watersheds large enough to include multiple rain gauges within the watershed boundary may not benefit from use of MPE data. SSURGO data did not lead to significantly improved streamflow simulations at any watershed scale. These results suggest that for many watershed modeling tasks, rain gauge and STATSGO data are of sufficient resolution, particularly for semi-distributed and lumped models. These results also serve as a reminder that increased spatial resolution does not necessarily equal increased data accuracy.

  18. A Customizable Model for Chronic Disease Coordination: Lessons Learned From the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program.

    PubMed

    Voetsch, Karen; Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs. PMID:27032986

  19. A Customizable Model for Chronic Disease Coordination: Lessons Learned From the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs. PMID:27032986

  20. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  1. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated

  2. Small watershed response to porous rock check dams in a semiarid watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Mary; Polyakov, Viktor; Nearing, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Rock check dams are used throughout the world as technique for mitigating erosion problems on degraded lands. Increasingly, they are being used in restoration efforts on rangelands in the southwestern US, however, their impact on watershed response and channel morphology is not well quantified. In 2008, 37 porous rock structures were built on two small (4.0 and 3.1 ha) instrumented watersheds on an alluvial fan at the base of the Santa Rita Mountains in southern Arizona, USA. 35 years of historical rainfall and runoff, and sediment data are available to compare with 7 years of data collected after check dam construction. In addition, post construction measurements of channel geometry and longitudinal channel profiles were compared with pre-construction measurements to characterize the impact of check dams on sediment retention and channel morphology. The primary impact of the check dams is was retention of channel sediment and reduction in channel gradient; however response varied between the proximal watersheds with 80% of the check dams on one of the watersheds filled to 100% of their capacity after 7 runoff seasons. In addition, initial impact on precipitation runoff ratios is was not persistent. The contrasting watershed experiences lower sediment yields and only 20% of the check dams on this watershed are were filled to capacity and continue to influence runoff during small events. Within the watersheds the mean gradient of the channel reach immediately upstream of the structures has been reduced by 35% (from 0.061 to 0.039) and 34% on (from 0.071 to 0.047).

  3. Principles of Coordination Polymerisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuran, Witold

    2001-11-01

    The first all-inclusive text covering coordination polymerisation, including important classes of non-hydrocarbon monomers. Charting the achievements and progress in the field, in terms of both basic and industrial research, this book offers a unified and complete overview of coordination polymerisation. Provides detailed description of the historical development of the subject Presents a unified view of catalysis, mechanisms, structures and utility Encourages learning through a step-by-step progression from basic to in-depth text Features end-of-chapter exercises to reinforce understanding Offers a full bibliography and comprehensive literature review Requisite reading for research students studying introductory and advanced courses in; polymer science, catalysis and polymerisation catalysis, and valuable reference for researchers and technicians in industry.

  4. Erosion-induced CO2 flux of small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jinren; Yue, Yao; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Li, Tianhong; Miao, Chiyuan; He, Xiaojia

    2012-08-01

    Soil erosion not only results in severe ecological damage, but also interferes with soil organic carbon formation and decomposition, influencing the global green-house effect. However, there is controversy as to whether a typical small watershed presumed as the basic unit of sediment yield acts as a CO2 sink or source. This paper proposes a discriminant equation for the direction of CO2 flux in small watersheds, basing on the concept of Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR). Using this equation, watersheds can be classified as Sink Watersheds, Source Watersheds, or Transition Watersheds, noting that small watersheds can act either as a CO2 sink or as a CO2 source. A mathematical model for calculating the two discriminant coefficients in the equation is set up to analyze the conditions under which each type of watershed would occur. After assigning the model parameter values at three levels (low, medium, and high), and considering 486 scenarios in total, the influences are examined for turnover rate of the carbon pool, erosion rate, deposition rate, cultivation depth and period. The effect of adopting conservation measures like residue return, contour farming, terracing, and conservation tillage is also analyzed. The results show that Sink Watersheds are more likely to result in conditions of high erosion rate, long cultivation period, high deposition rate, fast carbon pool turnover rate, and small depth of cultivation; otherwise, Source Watersheds would possibly occur. The results also indicate that residue return and conservation tillage are beneficial for CO2 sequestration.

  5. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P., Jr.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  6. Streamflow variability and hydroclimatic change at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Suk; Jain, Shaleen; Norton, Stephen A

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal variations in streamflow and the associated hydrologic extremes impart significant temporal structure to watershed-scale chemical fluxes. Consequently, a careful characterization of the episodic-to-seasonal and longer-term streamflow variations is a first step toward developing a comprehensive view of the temporal dynamics of watershed processes in a changing climate. Here we analyze a nearly two-decade-long streamflow record for the East Bear subwatershed within the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) (USA) to understand the envelope of streamflow variability by season, with a particular focus on the high flow events that have a disproportionately large impact on the biogeochemical processes and fluxes. Interannual and longer-term variations in a number of derived statistical metrics of hydrologic variability are examined. Our analysis shows substantial interannual and longer-term variability in seasonal flow volumes and peak flows. Furthermore, a long, unimpaired streamflow record for the Narraguagus River (a proximate watershed to the BBWM) is examined with a view to understand the relative coherence in hydrologic variability, as well as quantifying the decadal and longer-term hydrologic variations in this region. We find that the streamflow variability in the two watersheds shows similarity in all seasons. A moving window analysis to assess the changing flood potential over time indicates upward trends in the recent decades. Spring season (March-May) flood estimates show a near-monotonic trend over the 1949-2008 record. Finally, empirical relationships between streamflow and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns highlight the regional and global climatic drivers of hydrologic extremes in this region, including impacts from remnants of Atlantic hurricanes. PMID:20577798

  7. Selected achievements, science directions, and new opportunities for the WEBB small watershed research program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Greene, Earl A.; Buss, Heather L.; Clow, David W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Murphy, Sheila F.; Peters, Norman E.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Shanley, James B.; Walker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) small watershed research program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented how water and solute fluxes, nutrient, carbon, and mercury dynamics, and weathering and sediment transport respond to natural and humancaused drivers, including climate, climate change, and atmospheric deposition. Together with a continued and increasing focus on the effects of climate change, more investigations are needed that examine ecological effects (e.g., evapotranspiration, nutrient uptake) and responses (e.g., species abundances, biodiversity) that are coupled with the physical and chemical processes historically observed in the WEBB program. Greater use of remote sensing, geographic modeling, and habitat/watershed modeling tools is needed, as is closer integration with the USGS-led National Phenology Network. Better understanding of process and system response times is needed. The analysis and observation of land-use and climate change effects over time should be improved by pooling data obtained by the WEBB program during the last two decades with data obtained earlier and (or) concurrently from other research and monitoring studies conducted at or near the five WEBB watershed sites. These data can be supplemented with historical and paleo-environmental information, such as could be obtained from tree rings and lake cores. Because of the relatively pristine nature and small size of its watersheds, the WEBB program could provide process understanding and basic data to better characterize and quantify ecosystem services and to develop and apply indicators of ecosystem health. In collaboration with other Federal and State watershed research programs, the WEBB program has an opportunity to contribute to tracking the short-term dynamics and long-term evolution of ecosystem services and health indicators at a multiplicity of scales across the landscape. 

  8. Climate Change Impact on Water Balance at the Chipola River Watershed in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    As the largest tributary to the Apalachicola River, the Chipola River originates in southern Alabama, flows through the Florida Panhandle and drains into the Gulf of Mexico. The Chipola watershed is located in an intermediate climate environment with an aridity index of approximately 1.0. However, climate change affects the hydrologic cycle of Chipola River watershed at various temporal and spatial scales. Studying the effects of climate variations is of great importance for water and environmental management purposes in this watershed. This research is mainly focused on assessing climate change impact on the partitioning of rainfall and the following runoff generation in Chipola watershed, from long-term mean annual to inter-annual and to seasonal and monthly scales. A comprehensive water balance model at inter-annual scale is built in this study based on Budyko's framework, two-stage runoff theory and proportionality hypothesis. The inter-annual scale model considers the impact of storage change, seasonality and landscape controls, which are normally assumed to be negligible on a long-term scale. The model is applied to the Chipola River Watershed in Florida to project future water balance pattern with the input from a Regional Climate Model projection. Based on the projection results: evaporation will increase in the future in all 12 months; runoff will increase only in dry months of July to October, while significantly decrease in wet months of December to April; storage change will increase in wet months of January to April, while decrease in the dry months of August to November.

  9. Hipparchus' coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Dennis W.

    2002-07-01

    In his "Histoire de l'Astronomie Ancienne" Delambre concludes unequivocally that Hipparchus knew and used a definite system of celestial spherical coordinates, namely the right ascension and declination system that we use today. The basis of Delambre's conclusion was disarmingly simple: he pointed out that in the "Commentary to Aratus" Hipparchus actually quotes the positions of numerous stars directly in right ascension and declination (or more often its complement, polar distance). Nearly two centuries later, in his "A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy", Neugebauer not only completely ignores Delambre's conclusion on this issue, but goes further to propose his own, as we shall see quite fanciful, theory that begins "From the Commentary to Aratus, it is quite obvious that at Hipparchus' time a definite system of spherical coordinates for stellar positions did not yet exist." and concludes "...nowhere in Greek astronomy before the catalogue of stars in the Almagest is it attested that orthogonal spherical coordinates are used to determine stellar positions." Today it is clear that Neugebauer's theory is conventionally accepted. It is the purpose of this paper to offer fresh arguments that Delambre was correct.

  10. Universal mechatronics coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Patrick F.

    1999-11-01

    Mechatronic systems incorporate multiple actuators and sensor which must be properly coordinated to achieve the desired system functionality. Many mechatronic systems are designed as one-of-a-kind custom projects without consideration for facilitating future system or alterations and extensions to the current syste. Thus, subsequent changes to the system are slow, different, and costly. It has become apparent that manufacturing processes, and thus the mechatronics which embody them, need to be agile in order to more quickly and easily respond to changing customer demands or market pressures. To achieve agility, both the hardware and software of the system need to be designed such that the creation of new system and the alteration and extension of current system is fast and easy. This paper describes the design of a Universal Mechatronics Coordinator (UMC) which facilitates agile setup and changeover of coordination software for mechatronic systems. The UMC is capable of sequencing continuous and discrete actions that are programmed as stimulus-response pairs, as state machines, or a combination of the two. It facilitates the modular, reusable programing of continuous actions such as servo control algorithms, data collection code, and safety checking routines; and discrete actions such as reporting achieved states, and turning on/off binary devices. The UMC has been applied to the control of a z- theta assembly robot for the Minifactory project and is applicable to a spectrum of widely differing mechatronic systems.

  11. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  12. Enhancing ecosystem restoration efficiency through spatial and temporal coordination

    PubMed Central

    Neeson, Thomas M.; Ferris, Michael C.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Doran, Patrick J.; O’Hanley, Jesse R.; McIntyre, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    In many large ecosystems, conservation projects are selected by a diverse set of actors operating independently at spatial scales ranging from local to international. Although small-scale decision making can leverage local expert knowledge, it also may be an inefficient means of achieving large-scale objectives if piecemeal efforts are poorly coordinated. Here, we assess the value of coordinating efforts in both space and time to maximize the restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivity. Habitat fragmentation is a leading driver of declining biodiversity and ecosystem services in rivers worldwide, and we simultaneously evaluate optimal barrier removal strategies for 661 tributary rivers of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which are fragmented by at least 6,692 dams and 232,068 road crossings. We find that coordinating barrier removals across the entire basin is nine times more efficient at reconnecting fish to headwater breeding grounds than optimizing independently for each watershed. Similarly, a one-time pulse of restoration investment is up to 10 times more efficient than annual allocations totaling the same amount. Despite widespread emphasis on dams as key barriers in river networks, improving road culvert passability is also essential for efficiently restoring connectivity to the Great Lakes. Our results highlight the dramatic economic and ecological advantages of coordinating efforts in both space and time during restoration of large ecosystems. PMID:25918378

  13. Enhancing ecosystem restoration efficiency through spatial and temporal coordination.

    PubMed

    Neeson, Thomas M; Ferris, Michael C; Diebel, Matthew W; Doran, Patrick J; O'Hanley, Jesse R; McIntyre, Peter B

    2015-05-12

    In many large ecosystems, conservation projects are selected by a diverse set of actors operating independently at spatial scales ranging from local to international. Although small-scale decision making can leverage local expert knowledge, it also may be an inefficient means of achieving large-scale objectives if piecemeal efforts are poorly coordinated. Here, we assess the value of coordinating efforts in both space and time to maximize the restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivity. Habitat fragmentation is a leading driver of declining biodiversity and ecosystem services in rivers worldwide, and we simultaneously evaluate optimal barrier removal strategies for 661 tributary rivers of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which are fragmented by at least 6,692 dams and 232,068 road crossings. We find that coordinating barrier removals across the entire basin is nine times more efficient at reconnecting fish to headwater breeding grounds than optimizing independently for each watershed. Similarly, a one-time pulse of restoration investment is up to 10 times more efficient than annual allocations totaling the same amount. Despite widespread emphasis on dams as key barriers in river networks, improving road culvert passability is also essential for efficiently restoring connectivity to the Great Lakes. Our results highlight the dramatic economic and ecological advantages of coordinating efforts in both space and time during restoration of large ecosystems. PMID:25918378

  14. Contaminants in sediment, food-chain biota, and bird eggs from the Newport Bay watershed, Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Santolo, Gary M; Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater-related discharges in the San Diego Creek/Newport Bay watershed in Orange County, California have the potential to adversely affect the surface waters within the watershed and would likely not comply with the established total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the watershed. In 2004 and 2005, we studied the concentrations of contaminants of TMDL concern (particularly selenium [Se]) in birds that are at risk of exposure to contaminated food items because they feed and nest in the Newport Bay watershed. Most bioaccumulation is from elevated Se in groundwater downstream of a historic terminal swamp. Se bioaccumulation was observed in all biota tested, and DDE was found in fish and bird egg samples. Effects of contaminants on fish and birds are inconclusive due to the management disturbances in the watershed (e.g., flood control) and lack of bird nesting habitat. Although a significant relationship was observed between DDE concentrations and eggshell thinning in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) eggs, the shell thinning in avocet and other species examined was not enough to result in hatching failure. Further focused monitoring efforts will be needed to characterize the exposure and risk levels. PMID:26803663

  15. Watershed Watch: A Curriculum Model for an Undergraduate Biogeoscience Course Designed to Attract Undeclared and Undecided Students into STEM Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S.; Rock, B. N.; Schloss, J. A.; Gagnon, M. T.; Perry, C.; Yuan, J.; Branch, B. D.; Lecompte, M. A.; Mitchell, L.; Traore, K.; Hayden, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF-DUE-STEP 0525433) engages early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in biogeoscience. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The curriculum model for Watershed Watch includes a Summer two-week, fieldwork-based, inquiry instructional model followed by a semester long Academic Year follow-up course that features students continuing authentic research experiences. This curriculum model utilizes the Summer experience as a rapid immersion into how to conduct a scientific investigation and focuses on various research methodologies used on watershed ecology, and the Academic Year follow-up as a more controlled and thoughtful exercise into scientific investigations in watershed ecology. Together, these two curricular components expose early undergraduates to the rewarding aspect of doing science, and the model has been effective at attracting and retaining students into science majors.

  16. Effect of Wildfire on Hydrological Processes in a Monoculture Invasive Grass Catchment within the Panama Canal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to watershed management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One question posed by this project concerns the hydrologic role of fire in tropical environments. Within the Panama Canal Watershed, fire has seen widespread use among agriculturalists. This study focused on a monoculture invasive grass (Saccharum spontaneum) catchment. Specifically, the effects of significant wildfire events on hydrological processes in the catchment were analyzed. The catchment is within Panama's protected Soberania National Park, which is part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Installed instrumentation includes a rain gauge cluster, a two-stage v-notch weir, atmometer and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across the catchment is available from 2009-2013. Various hydrologic characteristics, such as runoff ratio, peak flow per unit area, time to peak, runoff duration, and leaf area index, from before and after the events were compared. These characteristics are related to rates of ground water recharge and the occurrence of flash floods. This study provides a baseline from which the potential impacts of fire on hydrological processes in tropical environments can be analyzed.

  17. Assisting community management of groundwater: Irrigator attitudes in two watersheds in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.

    2016-06-01

    The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.

  18. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  19. Nitrogen fate and Transport in Diverse Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaid, H.; McCarthy, K. A.; Baker, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen mass budgets have been estimated for ten agricultural watersheds located in a range of hydrologic settings in order to understand the factors controlling the fate of nitrogen applied at the surface. The watersheds, study areas of the Agricultural Chemical Sources, Transport and Fate study of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, are located in Indiana (IN), Iowa (IA), Maryland (MD), Nebraska (NE), Mississippi (MS) and Washington (WA). They range in size from 7 to 1254 km2, with four of the watersheds nested within larger watersheds. Surface water outflow (normalized to watershed area) ranged from 4 to 83 cm/yr. Crops planted include corn, soybean, small grains, rice, cotton, orchards and vegetables. “Surplus nitrogen” was determined for each watershed by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of nitrogen input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, and fertilizer and manure applications for the period from 1987 to 2004. This surplus nitrogen is transported though the watershed via surface and subsurface flow paths, while simultaneously undergoing transformations (such as denitrification and in-stream processing) that result in less export of nitrogen from the watershed. Surface-water discharge and concentration data were used to estimate the export of nitrogen from the watersheds (groundwater outflow from the watersheds was minimal). Subtracting nitrogen export from surplus nitrogen provides an estimate of the net amount of nitrogen removal occurring during internal watershed transport. Watershed average nitrogen surplus ranged from 6 to 49 kg-N/ha. The more permeable and/or greater water flux watersheds (MD, NE, and WA) tended to have larger surplus nitrogen, possibly due to less crop uptake caused by greater leaching and runoff of nitrogen. Almost all of the surplus nitrogen in the low permeability (MS) and tile drained watersheds (IA, IN) was exported from the watershed with

  20. Development of infant leg coordination: Exploiting passive torques.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Scholz, John; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Leg joint coordination systematically changes over the first months of life, yet there is minimal data on the underlying change in muscle torques that might account for this change in coordination. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of torque changes to early changes in leg joint coordination. Kicking actions were analyzed of 10 full-term infants between 6 and 15-weeks of age using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. We found 11 of 15 joint angle pairs demonstrated a change from more in-phase intralimb coordination at 6-weeks to less in-phase coordination at 15-weeks. Although the magnitude of joint torques normalized to the mass of the leg remained relatively consistent, we noted more complex patterns of torque component contribution across ages. By focusing on the change in torques associated with hip-knee joint coordination, we found that less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination at 15-weeks was associated with decreased influence of knee muscle torque and increased influence of knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques, supporting that infants coordinate hip muscle torque with passive knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques to generate kicks with reduced active knee muscle torque. We propose that between 6 and 15-weeks of age less in-phase hip-knee coordination emerges as infants exploit passive dynamics in the coordination of hip and knee motions. PMID:26117493

  1. "Only" and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallduvi, Enric

    The relationship of the word "only," one of a class of words known as scalar particles, focus adverbs, focus inducers, or focus-sensitive particles, with the "focus" of the sentence is examined. It is suggested, based on analysis of discourse structure, that this "association with focus" is not an inherent property of this scalar particle. The…

  2. The establishment of experimental watershed in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Chi; Tsung, Shun-Chung; Wang, Hau-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Chang, Ya-Chi; Ho, Jui-Yi; Lee, Shih-Chiang; Hong, Jian-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The rainfall distribution in Taiwan is non-uniform in space and unsteady in time. The water level in the river usually rises rapidly due to the steep slope gradient in the upland area of the watershed. In addition, urbanization and high rainfall intensity result in an increase in surface runoff and decrease the time of concentration. All of these lead to flooding-related disasters and influence people's lives. Thus, the establishment of a more complete hydro-information will increase our understanding of the characteristics of watersheds, prevent disasters, and mitigate damages. To overcome these deficiencies, the Water Resources Agency (WRA), Ministry of Economic Affairs has identified Yilan and Dianbao River Basin to develop a long-term monitoring, then Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute is responsible for this project. The monitoring sites had been installed in 2012. The sensors for monitoring include rainfall gauge, water level sensor, water surface velocity sensor and pressure-type water depth sensor. Totally, there are 73 sites in the experimental watershed, including the sites installed by the Central Weather Bureau and the Water Resources Agency. Over 30 million data have been collected and validated. Most of data have been passed the processes and considered reliable data. Then, three types of models are applied including rainfall-runoff, river routing and two-dimensional flood models. The simulation results can properly fit the monitored data in these selected events and indicates these models are proper for the experimental watersheds and suitable used for real-time warning. Finally, for purpose of hydrological monitoring and disaster mitigation, a website has been created to show the monitoring data. The users can login and browse the real time monitoring data and figure of temporal data in the past 24 hours and get the information for flood mitigation and emergent evacuation.

  3. Multiple stressors in the Sacramento River watershed.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D E

    1998-01-01

    Aquatic biota in the Sacramento River watershed are stressed by diversion of river flows, by historical mining resulting in cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury, and, more recently, contamination by agricultural and urban chemical runoff. In addition, the proposed redirection of drainage of saline waters--containing selenium--from the western slope of the San Joaquin River into the Delta formed by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers could add to the stress on resident organisms. These combined stressors have led to deterioration in surface water quality and the aquatic habitat. The potential interaction of these stressors, coupled with invasions of foreign species and the export of juvenile fish into aqueducts, has driven several species of fish to near extinction in the system. Effects of historical contamination by heavy metals are potentially exacerbated by presence of organophosphate pesticides, at concentrations exceeding National Academy of Sciences recommendations, throughout the lower watershed and the San Francisco Bay. The Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, an introduced non-indigenous species has apparently become a preferred food item of the sturgeon, Accipenser transmontanus, an important sport and aquaculture species. Since this introduction, sturgeon body burdens for selenium have increased dramatically and analytical chemistry of P. amurensis indicates that these organisms are effective bioaccumulators of selenium. This review examines potential ecotoxicity associated with multiple stressors in the watershed. Data from field monitoring, laboratory toxicity assays with ambient water, and ecotoxicologic investigations are reviewed. Potential designs for multiple stressor investigations are discussed. The information presented on this watershed illustrates the challenge to investigators seeking to evaluate multiple stressor effects on riverine and estuarine organisms. PMID:9949879

  4. Characterization of phosphorus sources in rural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Withers, P J A; Jarvie, H P; Hodgkinson, R A; Palmer-Felgate, E J; Bates, A; Neal, M; Howells, R; Withers, C M; Wickham, H D

    2009-01-01

    Correct identification of P sources in rural watersheds is critical for the development of cost-effective measures to combat agriculturally-driven eutrophication. The chemical composition of various storm runoff types (field surface runoff, field drain outfalls, roads, farmyards, and septic tanks) and the receiving streams in three micro (<10 km(2)) watersheds of varying agricultural intensity were monitored over a 2-yr period. Mean weekly stream soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations increased from 29 and 69 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with the lowest intensity agriculture to 382 and 503 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with high intensity agriculture and a village sewage treatment works. Concentrations of TP in storm runoff varied by up to two orders of magnitude reflecting the complex origins, routing, and composition of contributing source areas. Application of the DESPRAL test suggested field runoff TP concentrations were influenced by both P and organic matter in soil. However, runoff from impervious surfaces (farmyard and roads), and/or influenced by septic tank discharges, was significantly more concentrated (0.08-16 mg TP L(-1), mean >1 mg L(-1)) than surface and subsurface runoff from cultivated land and pasture (0.02-3.6 mg TP L(-1), mean <1 mg L(-1)), and/or contained a significantly greater proportion (>50% vs. <50%) of P in dissolved forms. It is concluded that P sources associated with the functioning of rural communities (impervious surfaces, detergents, and wastewater) may be more ecologically relevant than those associated with agriculture and should be better quantified and controlled to avoid localized eutrophication impacts. PMID:19704143

  5. Nitrogen transport from tallgrass prairie watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodds, W.K.; Blair, J.M.; Henebry, G.M.; Koelliker, J.K.; Ramundo, R.; Tate, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Discharge and N content of surface water flowing from four Karat watersheds on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas, managed with different burn frequencies, were monitored from 1986 to 1992. The goal was to establish the influence of natural processes (climate, fire, and bison grazing) on N transport and concentration in streams. Streams were characterized by variable flow, under conditions that included an extreme flood and a drought during which all channels were dry for over a year. The estimated groundwater/stream water discharge ratio varied between 0.15 to 6.41. Annual N transport by streams, averaged across all watersheds and years, was 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Annual N transport per unit area also increased as the watershed area increased and as precipitation increased. Total annual transport of N horn the prairie via streams ranged from 0.01 to 6.0% of the N input from precipitation. Nitrate and total N concentrations in surface water decreased (P < 0.001, r values ranged from 0.140.26) as length of time since last fire increased. Increased watershed area was correlated negatively (P < 0.0001) to stream water concentrations of NO3-N and total N (r values = -0.43 and -0.20, respectively). Low N concentration is typical of these streams, with NH4/+-N concentrations below 1.0 ??g L-1, NO3-N ranging from below 1.4 to 392 ??g L-1, and total N from 3.0 to 714 ??g L-1. These data provide an important baseline for evaluating N transport and stream water quality from unfertilized grasslands.

  6. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  7. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Vache, Kellie

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  8. Coupling a continuous watershed-scale microbial fate and transport model with a stochastic dose-response model to estimate risk of illness in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Kline, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Within the United States, elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) remain the leading cause of surface water-quality impairments requiring formal remediation plans under the federal Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The sufficiency of compliance with numerical FIB criteria as the targeted endpoint of TMDL remediation plans may be questionable given poor correlations between FIB and pathogenic microorganisms and varying degrees of risk associated with exposure to different fecal pollution sources (e.g. human vs animal). The present study linked a watershed-scale FIB fate and transport model with a dose-response model to continuously predict human health risks via quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for comparison to regulatory benchmarks. This process permitted comparison of risks associated with different fecal pollution sources in an impaired urban watershed in order to identify remediation priorities. Results indicate that total human illness risks were consistently higher than the regulatory benchmark of 36 illnesses/1000 people for the study watershed, even when the predicted FIB levels were in compliance with the Escherichia coli geometric mean standard of 126CFU/100mL. Sanitary sewer overflows were associated with the greatest risk of illness. This is of particular concern, given increasing indications that sewer leakage is ubiquitous in urban areas, yet not typically fully accounted for during TMDL development. Uncertainty analysis suggested the accuracy of risk estimates would be improved by more detailed knowledge of site-specific pathogen presence and densities. While previous applications of the QMRA process to impaired waterways have mostly focused on single storm events or hypothetical situations, the continuous modeling framework presented in this study could be integrated into long-term water quality management planning, especially the United States' TMDL program, providing greater clarity to watershed

  9. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: physiography data.

    PubMed

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Starks, Patrick J; Steiner, Jean L; Guzman, Jorge A; Allen, Paul B; Naney, James W

    2014-07-01

    Physiographic data such as digital elevation models (DEMs), soils, geology, stream channel network characteristics, channel stability, and land use data are essential for understanding the complex hydrologic cycle and chemical transport processes of any given study area. We describe the physiographic data available in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watershed (FCREW) in Oklahoma. Specifically, we describe (i) available raw and post-processed DEM products (), (ii) available soils data ( and ) and associated error analysis based on limited measured data, (iii) geologic formations in the LWREW and FCREW ( and ), and (iv) available rapid geomorphic assessment measurements () and their uses. Data collection is a collaborative effort among USGS, NRCS, and ARS. These data sets have been used for several research applications by USDA-ARS scientists and researchers from other institutions and agencies. Plans for detailed geomorphic assessment of stream channel networks in the FCREW are underway in collaboration with Oklahoma State University in Stillwater. The collected data will enable updating of the channel stability stage condition since there have been several major rainfall events in the watershed since the last geomorphic assessment. PMID:25603077

  10. Citizen Participation in Collaborative Watershed Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  11. Citizen participation in collaborative watershed partnerships.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities. PMID:18004619

  12. Automated storm water sampling on small watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmel, R.D.; King, K.W.; Slade, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Few guidelines are currently available to assist in designing appropriate automated storm water sampling strategies for small watersheds. Therefore, guidance is needed to develop strategies that achieve an appropriate balance between accurate characterization of storm water quality and loads and limitations of budget, equipment, and personnel. In this article, we explore the important sampling strategy components (minimum flow threshold, sampling interval, and discrete versus composite sampling) and project-specific considerations (sampling goal, sampling and analysis resources, and watershed characteristics) based on personal experiences and pertinent field and analytical studies. These components and considerations are important in achieving the balance between sampling goals and limitations because they determine how and when samples are taken and the potential sampling error. Several general recommendations are made, including: setting low minimum flow thresholds, using flow-interval or variable time-interval sampling, and using composite sampling to limit the number of samples collected. Guidelines are presented to aid in selection of an appropriate sampling strategy based on user's project-specific considerations. Our experiences suggest these recommendations should allow implementation of a successful sampling strategy for most small watershed sampling projects with common sampling goals.

  13. Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use Change: The Chesapeake Bay watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Claire A.; Prince, Stephen D.; Smith, Andrew J.; Varlyguin, Dmitry; Wright, Robb K.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, encompassed by a watershed extending 168,000 km2 over portions of six states and Washington, D.C. Restoration of the Bay has been the focus of a two-decade regional partnership of local, state and federal agencies, including a network of scientists, politicians and activists interacting through various committees, working groups, and advisory panels. The effectiveness of the restoration effort has been mixed, with both notable successes and failures. The overall health of the Bay has not declined since the restoration was initiated in 1983, but many of the advances have been offset by the pressure of increasing population and exurban sprawl across the watershed. The needs of the Chesapeake Bay Program are many, but the greatest is accurate information on land cover and land use change, primarily to assess the implications for water quality, examine various restoration scenarios, and calibrate spatial models of the urbanization process. We report here on a number of new land cover and land use data products, and associated applications to assist vulnerability assessment, integrated ecosystem analysis, and ultimately Bay restoration. We provide brief overviews of applications to model new residential development, assess losses and vulnerability of resource lands, and identify the factors that disrupt the health of streams in small watersheds. These data products and approaches are being applied by a number of agencies involved with the restoration effort, including the Chesapeake Bay Program's activities focused on living resources, water quality, and sound land use.

  14. Linking the Molecular Signature of Heteroatomic Dissolved Organic Matter to Watershed Characteristics in World Rivers.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sasha; Riedel, Thomas; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Large world rivers are significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans. Watershed geomorphology and land use can drive the quality and reactivity of DOM. Determining the molecular composition of riverine DOM is essential for understanding its source, mobility and fate across landscapes. In this study, DOM from the main stem of 10 global rivers covering a wide climatic range and land use features was molecularly characterized via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). FT-ICR mass spectral data revealed an overall similarity in molecular components among the rivers. However, when focusing specifically on the contribution of nonoxygen heteroatomic molecular formulas (CHON, CHOS, CHOP, etc.) to the bulk molecular signature, patterns relating DOM composition and watershed land use became apparent. Greater abundances of N- and S-containing molecular formulas were identified as unique to rivers influenced by anthropogenic inputs, whereas rivers with primarily forested watersheds had DOM signatures relatively depleted in heteroatomic content. A strong correlation between cropland cover and dissolved black nitrogen was established when focusing specifically on the pyrogenic class of compounds. This study demonstrated how changes in land use directly affect downstream DOM quality and could impact C and nutrient cycling on a global scale. PMID:26153846

  15. The Suwannee River Hydrologic Observatory: A Subtropical Coastal Plain Watershed in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) proposed to establish a network of 5-15 hydrologic observatories (HO's) across North America is to support fundamental research for the hydrologic science community into the next century. These HO's are projected to be 10,000 to 50,000 km2 and will include a broad range of hydrologic, climatic, bio-geochemical and ecosystem processes, including the critical linkages and couplings. This network is envisioned as the natural laboratory for experimental hydrology in support of scientific investigations focused on predictive understanding at a scale that will include both atmospheric- and ecosystem-hydrologic interaction, as well as the hydrologic response to larger-scale climate variation and change. A group of researchers from Florida and Georgia plan to propose the Suwannee River watershed as a Hydrologic Observatory. The Suwannee River flows through a diverse watershed relatively unimpacted by urbanization but in transition to more intense land-use practices. It thus provides excellent opportunities to study the effects of ongoing changes in land use and water supply on varied hydrological processes. Much background information is available on the hydrology, hydrogeology, geology, chemistry, and biology of the watershed. Several major on-going monitoring programs are supported by state and federal agencies. Four characteristics, discussed in greater detail below, make the Suwannee River watershed ideal for a Hydrologic Observatory: Unregulated and rural - The Suwannee River is one of few major rivers in the United States with largely unregulated flow through rural areas and is relatively unimpaired with regard to water quality, leading to its designation as one of twelve National Showcase Watersheds. At Risk and in Transition - Land use is trending toward increased urbanization and intensive agriculture with an apparent coupled increase in nutrient loads and decline in water quality

  16. Multipole Structure and Coordinate Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burko, Lior M.

    2007-01-01

    Multipole expansions depend on the coordinate system, so that coefficients of multipole moments can be set equal to zero by an appropriate choice of coordinates. Therefore, it is meaningless to say that a physical system has a nonvanishing quadrupole moment, say, without specifying which coordinate system is used. (Except if this moment is the…

  17. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    PubMed

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. PMID:26023957

  18. A Linear Systems Approach to Segmented Watershed Contaminant Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) employs simulation models to estimate concentrations of pesticide residues in surface waters for risk assessment. These models have historically been used to simulate runoff loadings from homogeneous landscapes to isolated, well-mixed lentic systems that generically represent vulnerable waters. Recent efforts to refine this approach in terms of realism and geographic specificity have focused on enhancing the level of detail of the landscape representation, rather than that of receiving water hydrology. Linear systems theory and transfer function based approaches have been applied by various investigators to the representation of contaminant leaching through soils, and to surface water hydrology (e.g., unit hydrographs), but rarely to contaminant transport either within surface waters, or through multi-compartment systems such as stream networks. This poster describes a straightforward approach to simulating watersheds as segmented into collections of linked water bodies. The approach employs convolution integrals, impulse response functions, and the Discrete Fourier Transform to propagate concentration time series from upstream to downstream locations. Given knowledge only of estimated mean stream residence times, with appropriately-scaled segmentations of catchments, realistic representations of concentration dynamics are shown to be achievable. These representations are based upon high-frequency atrazine monitoring data sets collected over common time periods from upstream and downstream locations within the same small watersheds. Simulated concentrations are shown to match measured concentrations well in both the temporal and spectral domains without the need for calibration, and despite inherent simplifying assumptions such as steady flow. The approach may have utility for enhancing surface water hydrologic representation in contaminant modeling used for regulatory purposes.

  19. Three Different Methods of Estimating LAI in a Small Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.; Beverly, D.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a critical input of models that improve predictive understanding of ecology, hydrology, and climate change. Multiple techniques exist to quantify LAI, most of which are labor intensive, and all often fail to converge on similar estimates. . Recent large-scale bark beetle induced mortality greatly altered LAI, which is now dominated by younger and more metabolically active trees compared to the pre-beetle forest. Tree mortality increases error in optical LAI estimates due to the lack of differentiation between live and dead branches in dense canopy. Our study aims to quantify LAI using three different LAI methods, and then to compare the techniques to each other and topographic drivers to develop an effective predictive model of LAI. This study focuses on quantifying LAI within a small (~120 ha) beetle infested watershed in Wyoming's Snowy Range Mountains. The first technique estimated LAI using in-situ hemispherical canopy photographs that were then analyzed with Hemisfer software. The second LAI estimation technique was use of the Kaufmann 1982 allometrerics from forest inventories conducted throughout the watershed, accounting for stand basal area, species composition, and the extent of bark beetle driven mortality. The final technique used airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) first DMS returns, which were used to estimating canopy heights and crown area. LIDAR final returns provided topographical information and were then ground-truthed during forest inventories. Once data was collected, a fractural analysis was conducted comparing the three methods. Species composition was driven by slope position and elevation Ultimately the three different techniques provided very different estimations of LAI, but each had their advantage: estimates from hemisphere photos were well correlated with SWE and snow depth measurements, forest inventories provided insight into stand health and composition, and LIDAR were able to quickly and

  20. Diatom tracing at the watershed scale : A new approach for assessing the geographic sources of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J. J.; Wrede, S.; Hlúbiková, D.; Matgen, P.; Fenicia, F.; Ector, L.; Hoffmann, L.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding of the time- and geographic sources of water at catchment scale has been derived largely from geochemical and isotope tracers. While helpful, these techniques suffer from a number of assumptions and limitations, including : unstable end-member solutions, temporally varying input concentrations and the need for unrealistic mixing assumptions. As a result, continued advancement of our conceptual understanding of water mixing, source apportionment and connectivity at the watershed scale is currently tracer limited. Here we present new work in the experimental Attert watershed in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Europe) that focuses on possible new tracers that might help to answer questions of the geographic source of water. These preliminary investigations have been focusing on the mobilisation of living organisms in the watersheds, and more specifically on the potential for diatoms as tracers of water source and hydrological connectivity during rainfall-runoff events. Diatoms are unicellular algae and one of the most common algal groups in freshwaters and marine ecosystems. Since diatoms are very sensitive to environmental variables, such as light, moisture conditions or temperature, they are often used in geological, archaeological and water quality research. Diatom taxonomy and systematics rely on species-specific silica cell-wall ornamentations. With most species measuring between 10 and 200 μm, they are easily transported by flowing water and thus have the potential for tracing the geographic source of water at the watershed scale. Their occurrence is not only limited to aquatic ecosystems, since they also live in moist terrestrial habitats, such as soils, rock surfaces or epiphytes. Especially the so-called drift diatoms thus have the potential to link the terrestrial and aquatic environments with a view to trace water sources and hydrological connectivity at the watershed scale. Our preliminary investigations in the Attert watershed suggest that

  1. Work Coordination Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zendejas, Silvino; Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, Rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Sadaqathulla, Syed

    2009-01-01

    The Work Coordination Engine (WCE) is a Java application integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB), which coordinates the dispatching and monitoring of a work order system. WCE de-queues work orders from SMDB and orchestrates the dispatching of work to a registered set of software worker applications distributed over a set of local, or remote, heterogeneous computing systems. WCE monitors the execution of work orders once dispatched, and accepts the results of the work order by storing to the SMDB persistent store. The software leverages the use of a relational database, Java Messaging System (JMS), and Web Services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) technologies to implement an efficient work-order dispatching mechanism capable of coordinating the work of multiple computer servers on various platforms working concurrently on different, or similar, types of data or algorithmic processing. Existing (legacy) applications can be wrapped with a proxy object so that no changes to the application are needed to make them available for integration into the work order system as "workers." WCE automatically reschedules work orders that fail to be executed by one server to a different server if available. From initiation to completion, the system manages the execution state of work orders and workers via a well-defined set of events, states, and actions. It allows for configurable work-order execution timeouts by work-order type. This innovation eliminates a current processing bottleneck by providing a highly scalable, distributed work-order system used to quickly generate products needed by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to support space flight operations. WCE is driven by asynchronous messages delivered via JMS indicating the availability of new work or workers. It runs completely unattended in support of the lights-out operations concept in the DSN.

  2. Test reactor irradiation coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Heartherly, D.W.; Siman Tov, I.I.; Sparks, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    This task was established to supply and coordinate irradiation services needed by NRC contractors other than ORNL. These services include the design and assembly of irradiation capsules as well as arranging for their exposure, disassembly, and return of specimens. During this period, the final design of the facility and specimen baskets was determined through an iterative process involving the designers and thermal analysts. The resulting design should permit the irradiation of all test specimens to within 5{degrees}C of their desired temperature. Detailing of all parts is ongoing and should be completed during the next reporting period. Procurement of the facility will also be initiated during the next review period.

  3. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  4. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  5. THE ROLE OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION IN DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmention with a gewographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  6. Initial Ecosystem Development in an Artificial Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettl, R.; Koegel-Knabner, I.; Zeyer, J.

    2008-12-01

    Watersheds are often used as a base for ecosystem research. However, boundaries and inner structures of natural watersheds are often insufficiently known and have to be explored indirectly e.g. by means of geophysical methods. Therefore, important parts of the system often remain 'black boxes'. In addition, natural systems are characterized by huge complexity and heterogeneity. To overcome these disadvantages artificially created watersheds may play an important role in ecosystem research. They offer the chance to investigate systems with well defined boundary conditions and inner structures. Furthermore, artificial watersheds might be an important link between lysimeter research and investigations at the landscape scale. The artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" ('Huehnerwasser') is one of the world's largest man-made catchments for scientific purposes. It was established in 2005 with an area of 6 ha (450 m x 150 m) including a small lake. The site is located in the Eastern German lignite mining district near Cottbus, about 150 km southeast of Berlin. The watershed was constructed by Vattenfall Europe Mining AG as the operator of the still active lignite open-cast mine Welzow-South. Construction work was done by means of large mining machines in co-operation with the Brandenburg University of Technology at Cottbus. The inner structure of this new landscape element is relatively simple: A clay layer was dumped as a barrier for seepage water overlaid by a 3 m sandy layer consisting of Quaternary substrate from Pleistocene sediments. The surface of the site has been flattened and the area was fenced to prevent disturbances. Neither amelioration nor any reclamation measures were carried out afterwards. The site has been left for an unrestricted natural succession. In 2007 the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre (SFB/TRR 38) as a joint project between 3 Universities (BTU Cottbus, TU Munich and ETH Zurich) was launched and is funded by the German Research

  7. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  8. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  9. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  10. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices. PMID:26784287

  11. Best Management Practices for sediment control in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    ) utilizing a crop rotation of wheat and forage crops (Abdelwahab et al., 2014). Further evaluations include scenarios with additional improvements in the input data, in particular better reflecting the management operations within model input parameters used to represent the current conditions applied in the watershed, and the study of the efficiency of the model in predicting runoff and sediment loads at a monthly and annual scale using un-calibrated parameters. The effect of riparian buffers as a natural trap that reduce runoff and increase the in-situ sediment deposition are also investigated. Acknowledgements This work is carried out in the framework of the Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, "National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area" National Coordinator prof. Mario Lenzi (University of Padova). References Gentile F., Bisantino T., Corbino R., Milillo F., Romano G., Trisorio Liuzzi G. (2010) Monitoring and analysis of suspended sediment transport dynamics in the Carapelle torrent (southern Italy). Catena 80, 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.08.004. Bisantino T., Bingner R., Chouaib W., Gentile F., Trisorio Liuzzi G. (2013) Estimation of runoff, peak discharge and sediment load at the event scale in a medium-size Mediterranean watershed using the AnnAGNPS model. Land Degradation & Development, wileyonlinelibrary.com, doi: 10.1002/ldr.2213. Abdelwahab O.M.M., Bingner R.L., Milillo F., Gentile F. (2014) Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, vol. XLV:430, 125-136, doi: 10.4081/jae.2014.430.

  12. Using Dramatic Events and Visualization Technology to Teach About Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, A. K.; Hall, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    We developed a GIS-based, two-unit module about dynamic watersheds that uses spatial visualization tools, inquiry-based questioning, and eyewitness accounts of historical, dramatic events to teach students about the natural phenomenon of watershed evolution. The module puts into context the relationship between watersheds and human behavior. The centerpiece of Unit 1 is the Big Thompson watershed in Colorado and the flash flood that killed 145 people in 1976. Unit 2 is a case history of the Sabino Canyon watershed in Arizona, which was ravaged by wildfires in 2002 and 2003, as well as destructive debris flows in 2006. Students examine the causes and magnitude of each of these events, and how they changed landscapes and people. Both units use MyWorld GIS and Google Earth visualization software tools. A teacher workshop in summer 2008 revealed an increased understanding of watersheds and an improved comfort level using spatial visualization software after working with the module. Prior to the workshop, a survey demonstrated that fewer than 50 percent of the workshop participants knew the name of the watershed in which they lived. After the workshop, all teachers were able to conceptually define a watershed, identify the watershed in which they live, and describe hazards that would put a watershed and its communities at risk for dramatic changes. They also showed an increased awareness of seasonal variations in streamflow and made connections between these variations and the sources that generate streamflow in different watersheds. We expect similar results among high-school students who will field test these materials during the Fall 2008 semester.

  13. Using ecological risk assessment to identify the major anthropogenic stressor in the Waquoit Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Serveiss, Victor B; Bowen, Jennifer L; Dow, David; Valiela, Ivan

    2004-05-01

    The Waquoit Bay Watershed ecological risk assessment was performed by an interdisciplinary and interagency workgroup. This paper focuses on the steps taken to formulate the analysis plan for this watershed assessment. The workgroup initially conducted a series of meetings with the general public and local and state managers to determine environmental management objectives for the watershed. The workgroup then decided that more information was needed on the impacts of six stressors: nutrient enrichment, physical alteration of habitat, altered freshwater flow, toxic chemicals, pathogens, and fisheries harvesting. Assessment endpoints were selected to establish the link between environmental management objectives, impacts of stressors, and scientifically measurable endpoints. The following assessment end-points were selected: estuarine eelgrass cover, scallop abundance, finfish diversity and abundance, wetland bird distribution and abundance, piping plover distribution and abundance, tissue contaminant levels, and brook trout distribution and abundance in streams. A conceptual model was developed to show the pathways between human activities, stressors, and ecological effects. The workgroup analyzed comparative risks, by first ranking stressors in terms of their potential risk to biotic resources in the watershed. Then stressors were evaluated by considering the components of stressors (e.g., the stressor chemical pollution included both heavy metals and chlorinated solvents components) in terms of intensity and extensiveness. The workgroup identified nutrient enrichment as the major stressor. Nutrient enrichment comprised both phosphorus enrichment in freshwater ponds and nitrogen enrichment within estuaries. Because phosphorus impacts were being analyzed and mitigated by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, this assessment focused on nitrogen. The process followed to identify the predominant stressor and focus the analyses on nitrogen impacts on

  14. Emerging Technologies for Ecohydrological Studies during the North American Monsoon in a Chihuahuan Desert Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, R. C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2010-12-01

    Monsoonal systems are due to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation that may result in a large fraction of the annual precipitation falling within a few months. The North American Monsoon System (NAMS) contributes approximately 55% of the annual rainfall in the New Mexico Chihuahuan Desert during the summer period. Relatively frequent storm events during the NAMS result in increased soil moisture that drive greater soil microbial activity and increased ecosystem primary productivity. During severe storms, runoff production can lead to flood events that recharge the subsurface through channel losses. In this study, we present preliminary results from a network of soil, channel, and atmospheric monitoring equipment in a small watershed (~0.05 km2) located in the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Using the instrument network, we characterize the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall (5 rain gauges), soil moisture and temperature (16 profile locations), and channel runoff (4 flumes) within the watershed during the summer of 2010. In addition, we utilize CO2, H2O, and energy flux measurements by an eddy covariance tower to quantify the seasonal changes in land-atmosphere exchanges. These coordinated, spatially-distributed observations are complemented by the novel use of two Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms for watershed characterization. Using a small airplane (the MLB BAT 3), we obtained a set of very high-resolution images (~7 cm) and created an orthomosaic to characterize vegetation cover and species prior to the NAMS and after full canopy development. Several instrument packages (optical, stereo and LIDAR) on board a SR30 UAV Electric helicopter also provide detailed information on the watershed, including a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The conjunctive use of these datasets will allow for unprecedented analysis of how the onset and progression of the NAMS affects water, energy and carbon fluxes in a

  15. Network Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himwich, Ed; Strand, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This report includes an assessment of the network performance in terms of lost observing time for the 2012 calendar year. Overall, the observing time loss was about 12.3%, which is in-line with previous years. A table of relative incidence of problems with various subsystems is presented. The most significant identified causes of loss were electronics rack problems (accounting for about 21.8% of losses), antenna reliability (18.1%), RFI (11.8%), and receiver problems (11.7%). About 14.2% of the losses occurred for unknown reasons. New antennas are under development in the USA, Germany, and Spain. There are plans for new telescopes in Norway and Sweden. Other activities of the Network Coordinator are summarized.

  16. Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Issacson, P.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Ohtake, M.; Foing, B.; Grande, M.

    2007-01-01

    A new era of international lunar exploration has begun and will expand over the next four years with data acquired from at least four sophisticated remote sensing missions: KAGUYA (SELENE) [Japan], Chang'E [China], Chandrayaan-l [India], and LRO [United States]. It is recognized that this combined activity at the Moon with modern sophisticated sensors wi II provide unprecedented new information about the Moon and will dramatically improve our understanding of Earth's nearest neighbor. It is anticipated that the blooming of scientific exploration of the Moon by nations involved in space activities will seed and foster peaceful international coordination and cooperation that will benefit all. Summarized here are eight Lunar International Science Coordination/Calibration Targets (L-ISCT) that are intended to a) allow cross-calibration of diverse multi-national instruments and b) provide a focus for training young scientists about a range of lunar science issues. The targets, discussed at several scientific forums, were selected for coordinated science and instrument calibration of orbital data. All instrument teams are encouraged to participate in a coordinated activity of early-release data that will improve calibration and validation of data across independent and diverse instruments.

  17. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED TOOL FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execu...

  18. Scaling up the SWAT model from Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed to the Long Branch Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary model selected for use in the Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Watershed Assessment Study (CEAP-WAS) was the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The first objective of the study was to calibrate and validate the SWAT model to simulating stream flow and sediment yield for ...

  19. Validation of Paired Watersheds for Assessing Conservation Practices in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices are effective measures to combat sediment, nutrient, and pesticide transport at the plot scale. The impacts of watershed scale adoption of conservation practices on sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses and the impacts on adjacent stream biota are not well understood. A pai...

  20. Watershed sediment yield reduction through soil conservation in a west-central Oklahoma watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil conservation practices on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma were few before the 1950s. In the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation measures were implemented to protect agriculturally fertile but erosion-prone soils. Fortuitously, the U.S. Geolo...