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Sample records for fodder beet fields

  1. Ethanol production from fodder beet

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Kliza, S.

    1983-07-01

    Various yeasts such as two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces diastaticus, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were investigated for their ability to ferment fodder beet juice to alcohol. Juice extracted from fodder beet roots without any additives was used as a fermentation substrate. The fermentation kinetic parameters were determined and compared for each species of yeast tested. The best species for fodder beet juice fermentation was chosen and products obtained by fermentation of one hectare of fodder beet plants are given. (Refs. 8).

  2. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  3. Effects of inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% (vol/vol)) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  4. Effects of sodium meta bisulfite on diffusion fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors designed and tested a new process for converting fodder beets to ethanol: continuous diffusion-fermentation. This process utilizes the simultaneous diffusion-fermentation concept of the EX-FERM design; however, it overcomes the material handling problems inherent in that system by utilizing a counterflow tubular auger system. This process also eliminates the need for roller mills or presses and dryers which are required for alcohol recovery from solid phase fermentation. The latter is the only other currently feasible procedure for producing distillably worthwhile amounts of ethanol from fodder beets, sweet sorghum, and other similar feedstocks. Results on the use of sodium meta bisulfite (SMB) for contamination control with fermenting fodder beet cubes are reported.

  5. Continuous, farm-scale, solid-phase fermentation process for fuel ethanol and protein feed production from fodder beets

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel ethanol (95%) was produced from fodder beets in two farm-scale processes. In the first process, involving conventional submerged fermentation of the fodder beets in a mash, ethanol and a feed (PF) rich in protein, fat, and fiber were produced. Ethanol yields of 70 L/metric ton (17 gal/ton) were obtained; however, resulting beers had low ethanol concentrations )3-5% (v/v)). The high viscosity of medium and low sugar, beet mashes caused mixing problems which prevented any further increase of beet sugar in the mash. This severely limited the maximum attainable ethanol concentration during fermentation, thereby making the beer costly to distill into fuel ethanol and the process energy inefficient. In order to achieve distillably worthwhile ethanol concentrations of 8-10% (v/v), a solid phase fermentation process (continuous) was developed and tested. In preliminary trials, this system produced fermented pulp with over 8% (v/v) ethanol corresponding to an ethanol yield of 87 L/metric ton (21 gal/ton). Production costs with this novel process are $0.47/L ($1.77/gal) and the energy balance is 2.11. These preliminary cost estimates indicate that fodder beets are potentially competitive with corn as an ethanol feedstock. Additional research, however, is warranted to more precisely refine individual costs, energy balances and the actual value of the PF.

  6. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    PubMed Central

    Sorathiya, L. M.; Patel, M. D.; Tyagi, K. K.; Fulsoundar, A. B.; Raval, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding. PMID:27046988

  7. Versatile synthesis of PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their significant stimulating effect on fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander А; Kudrinsky, Alexey A; Zakharova, Olga V; Klimov, Alexey I; Zherebin, Pavel M; Lisichkin, George V; Vasyukova, Inna A; Denisov, Albert N; Krutyakov, Yurii A

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known bactericidal agents. However, information about the influence of AgNPs on the morphometric parameters and biochemical status of most important agricultural crops is limited. The present study reports the influence of AgNPs stabilized with cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) on growth, development, and biochemical status of fodder beet Beta vulgaris L. under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. PHMB-stabilized AgNPs were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The average diameter of thus prepared AgNPs was 10 nm. It appears that the results of experiments with laboratory-grown beets in the nanosilver-containing medium, where germination of seeds and growth of roots were suppressed, do not correlate with the results of greenhouse experiments. The observed growth-stimulating action of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs can be explained by the change of activity of oxidases and, consequently, by the change of auxins amount in plant tissues. In beets grown in the presence of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs no negative deviations of biological parameters from normal values were registered. Furthermore, the SEM/EDS examination revealed no presence of silver in the tissues of the studied plants. PMID:26952409

  8. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  9. Hybrid sugarbeets - fuel from fodder

    SciTech Connect

    Yarris, L.

    1980-05-01

    Plant geneticists at Utah University are exploring the possibility of developing a hybrid sugarbeet especially bred for use in making alcohol fuel. They are aiming at increasing sugar quantity in the beet without having to worry about the quality factors that affect sugar crystallization. A cross between European fodder beets and U.S. sugarbeets which would be resistant to curly top virus disease is envisaged.

  10. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  11. Transgene escape in sugar beet production fields: data from six years farm scale monitoring.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri; Vigouroux, Yves; Gestat De Garambé, Thierry; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in Europe about the efficiency, sustainability, and environmental impact of the first genetically modified crops. The committees and regulators in charge of approving procedures have encouraged a field trial approach for safety assessment studies under current agronomic conditions. We describe the gene flow from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in a multi-year and multi-crop monitoring study on farmers' fields at two locations that has been carried out since 1995. We analyzed two sugar beet lines that have been genetically transformed for herbicide resistance. One sugar beet has resistance to glufosinate and the other to glyphosate. Large differences among lines, years and locations were observed. These differences provided a broad range of situations to estimate the risks. Sugar beet bolters produced the majority (86%) of the herbicide-resistant seeds harvested in the field. Direct pollen flow from sugar beet bolters to weed beets that were growing within the same field as well as in a neighboring field that was left fallow accounted for only 0.4% of the resistant seeds released over the years and locations. Descendants of the hybrids between the sugar beet and the weed beet produced the remaining 13.6% of resistant seeds. Herbicide-resistant seeds from the progeny of the weed beet were recorded up to 112 m away from the closest transgenic pollen donor. Indications were observed of non-randomness of the weed beet producing resistant progeny. We also analyzed pollen flow to male-sterile bait plants located within and outside of the sugar beet field. Herbicide-resistant pollen flow was recorded up to 277 m, and fitted with an inverse power regression. Using sugar beet varieties with no, or very low, sensitivity to bolting and destroying bolters are two necessary measures that could delay gene flow. PMID:18001686

  12. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  13. Broadening the Genetic Base of Sugar Beet: Introgression from Wild Relatives.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is, perhaps, the first to be developed at a time when modern genetic principles were becoming understood. It was developed in the late 1700s from white fodder beet; therefore, the genetic base of sugar beet has been thought to be narrower than many open-pollinated crops.. The wild sea b...

  14. Seasonal OVOC fluxes from an agricultural field planted with sugar beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, T. G.; Schade, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    Although agricultural crops are generally not strong isoprenoid emitters, they do emit a variety of other atmospherically significant species collectively known as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), such as methanol, acetaldehyde, or various hexenal and hexenol compounds. Many OVOCs have longer atmospheric lifetimes than isoprenoid compounds and can affect the atmosphere's oxidative potential at higher elevations and far from sources. We performed selected OVOC flux measurements for select species above an agricultural field planted with sugar beets ( B. vulgaris) in northern Germany in 2004 to better understand the magnitude and controls over these OVOC emissions. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance was used to measure fluxes beginning immediately following seeding and continuing until past harvest. A commercial PTR-MS provided mixing ratios of methanol (m/z 33), acetaldehyde (m/z 45), acetone (m/z 59), and the sum of the isoprene oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone (m/z 71) while 3D wind velocities were measured using a Gill R3 sonic anemometer. Here, we compare the fluxes of methanol and acetone over the growth cycle of sugar beet to plant development as measured by the leaf area index. Methanol fluxes ranged from approximately -0.05 to 0.15 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~1 to 15 ppbv) and showed a clear diurnal cycle after the sugar beets established a significant leaf area. Acetone fluxes ranged from approximately -0.2 to 0.2 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~0.2 to 3 ppb). Higher specific emissions were found during earlier growth stages. Methanol flux correlated strongly with latent heat flux (or alternatively, with canopy conductance derived from the latent heat flux), while acetone flux did not. Acetone flux was small compared to methanol flux and sugar beet is likely not a significant acetone emitter. Weekly measurements of soil OVOC exchange using a flux chamber showed that the soil may have contributed significantly to the overall flux values

  15. Artificial infestations of transgenic cotton with beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and evaluation of insect mortality and damage under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons containing Bollgard(R), Bollgard II(R), and Widestrike(TM) traits along with nonBt cotton were grown during 2005-2009, to examine efficacy against beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), and (BAW) in field performance using natural and artificial infestations. Damage and morta...

  16. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide demand for sugar approaches 140Mt each year, and is supplied by only two plants, once of which is the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.). A team of international researchers were assembled by the editor to review the body of literature on sugar beet production and assemble it into an accessi...

  17. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  18. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  19. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN RADISHES AND GARDEN BEETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of garden beet and radish grown under standard agronomic practices. Plots were exposed to small additions of simulated rain with pH levels of 5.7, 4.0, 3.1, and 2.7. The spray to wet simulated ...

  20. Sugar Beet, Energy Beet, and Industrial Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a temperate root crop grown primarily as a source of sucrose for human diets. Breeding has focused on sucrose yield, which is simply the product of total root yield times the proportion of sucrose in the harvested roots, minus loss of sucrose in molasses due to impuriti...

  1. Population Dynamics of Sugar Beets, Rhizoctonia solani, and Laetisaria arvalis: Responses of a Host, Plant Pathogen, and Hyperparasite to Perturbation in the Field.

    PubMed

    Allen, M F; Boosalis, M G; Kerr, E D; Muldoon, A E; Larsen, H J

    1985-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani causes crown rot of sugar beets, a severe disease that has destroyed up to 60% of the plants in a test field in western Nebraska. Laetisaria arvalis, a natural hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia spp., was isolated from fields in western Nebraska. To test for the potential for biological control of R. solani, in November 1980 (following harvest) we applied various combinations of a nematicide (Telone II; Dow Chemical Co.), a nutrition source (sugar beet pulp), and an inoculum of L. arvalis in a randomized block design. Populations of R. solani, L. arvalis, and sugar beets were monitored monthly through October 1981 (just after harvest). In control and nematicide plots, the R. solani population did not change significantly through time. In plots inoculated with L. arvalis, the R. solani populations declined through March, concomitant with an increase in L. arvalis. L. arvalis then declined with a corresponding increase in the R. solani populations. Beet plant numbers declined significantly in all treatments. We suggest that reduction of the R. solani populations with the hyperparasite L. arvalis is possible but that a stable equilibrium naturally exists. PMID:16346925

  2. Development of a field inoculation method to screen for sugar beet seedling resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in many sugar beet production areas throughout the U.S. and yield losses can be devastating. Also seedling damping off caused by Fusarium can result in serious damage to the sugar beet stand establishment. This can lead to a severe loss in yield. The object...

  3. Synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight intensifies larval outbreaks of beet webworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet webworm (BWW), Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a migrant species surviving in the belt zone of 36-54 degrees N, is one of the most destructive insect pests of crops and fodder plants in northern China. Flight capacity, preoviposition period (POP), period of first oviposi...

  4. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 28 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  5. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 30 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  6. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  7. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 33 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  8. Challenges to grow oilseed rape Brassica napus in sugar beet rotations.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, T; Pidlisnyuk, V

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out in 1989-1991 and repeated in 2003-2006 to compare life cycle and dynamics of Heterodera schachtii Schm. on sugar beet, oilseed rape, fodder radish and to work out recommendations on how to decrease the risk of yield reduction while it grows in sugar-beet rotations. Research was carried out in plot experiment in natural conditions. Nematode community on rape, fodder radish and sugar beet was analyzed. Data of nematode community showed that composition of nematode species was very similar. Heterodera shachtii were dominated species with rape and sugar beet. All tested Brassica crops are susceptible to H. schachtii. However there is significant difference in population dynamics. The highest total number of brown cysts, eggs and juveniles of all ages was observed in winter rape. H.schachtii developed two generations on sugar beet and one generation on mustard. The voluntary seed germination after harvest contributes to increasing H. schachtii population. Therefore it is necessary to destroy oilseed rape voluntary chemically or physically. This operation should be done in about 2-4 weeks. The exact time can be calculated using the temperature- based model. Growing regular fodder radish and mustard as the trap crops can significantly reduce population of H. schachtii. The time of sowing is not earlier than August 20th. While estimating the time of destruction of trap crops it should be taken into consideration that H. schachtii can complete life cycle without foliage. PMID:20222620

  9. Occurrence, sequence polymorphism and population structure of Circulifer tenellus virus 1 in a field population of the beet leafhopper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of Circulifer tenellus virus 1 (CiTV1) as a surrogate marker to determine population structure of the beet leafhopper (BLH; Circulifer tenellus [Baker]) was assessed. Prevalence, incidence, and nucleotide sequence polymorphism of CiTV1 present in BLH adults collected from the southern...

  10. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  11. Screening Sugar Beet Germplasm for Resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in Artifically Induced Field Epiphytotics: Examining 25 Years of Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot (caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, AG2-2) continues to be a problem in most sugar beet-growing areas in the United States, and is a growing problem worldwide. The USDA-ARS at Fort Collins has screened germplasm in artificially induced epiphytotics to provide uniform...

  12. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating...

  13. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating...

  14. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets...

  15. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  16. Frequency distribution of mineral elements in samples of alfalfa and sugar beet leaves obtained from a common field in Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Kinnear, J.

    1982-07-01

    Baseline measurements were made of mineral composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) from one field each in the Imperial Valley of California. The fields are in a geothermal area being developed for energy production, and the purpose of the investigation was to ascertain variablility within a relatively large number of samples from a common area, so that subsequent samplings could be made to satisfactorily detect whether there were changes resulting from the geothermal activity. Means, standard deviations, frequency distribution, correlations, cluster trees, and other statistics were examined for over 20 elements at each site.Most elements were normally distributed, but there was three- to fourfold range in the concentration for each.

  17. Beet Rust and Seedling Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet rust, caused by Uromyces betae, can cause pustules on most beet types, and can be a problem in various beet growing areas. Seedling rust, caused by Puccinia subnitens can cause lesions on young beets, primarily on cotyledons, and does not cause economic damage. This chapter describes the dise...

  18. Postharvest Storage Losses Associated with Rhizomania in Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During storage of sugar beet, respiration and rots consume sucrose and produce invert sugar. Diseases that occur in the field can affect the magnitude of these losses. This research examines the storage of roots with rhizomania (caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus) and the effectiveness of rh...

  19. Analysis and Modeling of spatio-temporal Patterns of Carbon and Water Fluxes in Production Fields of Winter Wheat and Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupisch, M.; Langensiepen, M.; van Wijk, M.; Stadler, A.; Ewert, F.

    2011-12-01

    Gas exchange of CO2 and water vapour are important processes that determine crop growth and yield. Understanding their spatio-temporal variability at field level is necessary for accurate simulation of crop growth in fields with heterogeneous growing conditions and for parameterizing soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models. Accordingly, relationships between the spatio-temporal patterns of assimilation and transpiration rates and environmental (e.g. soil) heterogeneity are of specific interest. A particular challenge refers then to the appropriate method of up-scaling of these relationships from the leaf to the canopy and field level. Therefore, gas-exchange (CO2 and water vapour) was measured at different points in winter wheat and sugar beet fieldsboth at leaf and at canopy level in a nearly biweekly cycle during the growing seasons 2010 and 2011. The measurements comprised also C/N-content of leaf, leaf area index, soil water content and soil nitrogen content. The results revealed a strong spatial heterogeneity of carbon and water canopy fluxes across the fields. While canopy measurements had a temporal variability with distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, the temporal (and spatial) variability of leaf level photosynthesisand transpirationwas comparably small.Further analysis suggests that the observed spatial and seasonal variability of canopy measurements was mainly caused by field heterogeneity in LAI and less by gas exchange rates per unit leaf area. However, both crops differed in their response to drought stress: while wheat responded mainly through irreversible reduction in green leaf area, the canopy assimilation rate of sugar beets decreases only temporarily with no observed effects in LAI. The obtained datasets from both years are the basis for parameterizing a crop growth model with canopy assimilation and transpiration components and for developing appropriate up-scaling methods from leaf to field. Our results indicate that it is

  20. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  1. Precision Drilling Of Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, Jaroslav

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the features of the precision drilling of sugar beet, methods of measurements, mathematical relations, procedure and results. The use of a high-speed camera and of a computer with an investigation of the drilling mechanisms enabled to achieve the shortening of the procedure by one half, an accurate assessment of the principles of drilling mechanisms without implication of other influences arising in field tests and the availability of more data for decision making. The result of the experiments was a considerably simpler assessment of the principles of drill mechanisms.

  2. First evidence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia as the causal agent of dry rot canker of sugar beet in Nebraska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is the primary source of domestic sucrose in the United States. In 2011, a sugar beet field in Morrill County NE was noted with wilting and yellowing symptoms suggestive of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot (RCRR), an important disease of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia s...

  3. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships and the occurrence of interspecific recombination between beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and Beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV).

    PubMed

    Kozlowska-Makulska, Anna; Hasiow-Jaroszewska, Beata; Szyndel, Marek S; Herrbach, Etienne; Bouzoubaa, Salah; Lemaire, Olivier; Beuve, Monique

    2015-02-01

    Samples containing two viruses belonging to the genus Polerovirus, beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV), were collected from French and Polish sugar beet fields. The molecular properties of 24 isolates of BChV and BMYV were investigated, and their genetic diversity was examined in the coat protein (CP)- and P0-encoding genes. For the first time, we have demonstrated that beet polerovirus populations include recombinants between BChV and BMYV containing breakpoints within the CP gene. Moreover, a partial correlation between geographic origin and phylogenetic clustering was observed for BMYV isolates. PMID:25283610

  5. Transgenic sugar beet cultivars evaluated for resistance to bacterial root rot in Idaho, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is an important problem in sugar beets because of issues it causes in the field, storage, and factories. Thirty-three transgenic (roundup ready) sugar beet cultivars were grown in a commercial irrigated field. Four roots fro...

  6. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes. PMID:23329008

  7. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

  8. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  9. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  10. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead...

  11. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead...

  12. Verticillium wilt in transgenic sugar beet cultivars in Cassia County, ID, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-three transgenic (resistant to glyphosate) and six commercial sugar beet cultivars were evaluated for their susceptibility to Verticillium dahliae in Heyburn, ID during the 2006 growing season. The cultivars were planted in a commercial sugar beet field and exposed to natural levels of V. da...

  13. Length of efficacy for control of curly top in sugar beet with seed foliar insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top in sugar beet caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is an important yield limiting disease that can be reduced via neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. However the length of efficacy of these insecticides is poorly understood, so a series of field experiments was conducted with the ...

  14. Registration of sugar beet doubled haploid line KDH13 with resistance to beet curly top

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KDH13 is a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) doubled haploid line (PI 663862) released as a genetic stock by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Denver, CO. KDH13 is resistant to beet curly top (BCT) caused by Beet curly top virus which is transmitted by the ...

  15. Construction and characterization of a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library.

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schulz, Britta; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library from the doubled haploid accession KWS2320 encompassing 115 200 independent clones was constructed and characterized. The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to be 39 kbp on average, thus representing 5.9-fold coverage of the sugar beet genome (758 Mbp). PCR screening of plate pools with primer pairs against nine sugar beet genes supported the insert size estimation. BLAST searches with 2951 fosmid end-sequences originating from 1510 clones (1536 clones attempted) revealed little contamination with organellar DNA (2.1% chloroplast DNA, 0.3% mitochondrial DNA). The sugar beet fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the sugar beet genome. Fosmids will be publicly available in the format of plate pools and individual clones. PMID:18956027

  16. Relationship Between Subsoil Nitrogen Availability and Sugar Beet Processing Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to verify the possibility that undetected amounts of available nitrogen in the deep soil could explain the often observed lowering of sugar content and processing quality during the harvest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris). In 29 field trials carried out on al...

  17. Precision fertilization of Wyoming sugar beets: A case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field Studies were conducted on a farm in northwest Wyoming to compare variable-rate fertilization (VRF) with uniform-rate fertilization (URF) of sugar beets. Results from this study failed to show an economic advantage from VRF compared to URF, implying producers should be very cautious to adopt VR...

  18. Cultivar selection for bacterial root rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States, which has frequently been found in association with Rhizoctonia root rot. To reduce the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, st...

  19. Cultivar Selection for Sugar Beet Root Rot Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  20. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on nitrogen mineralization and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Land application of food processing wastes has become an acceptable practice because of the nutrient value of the wastes and potential cost savings in their disposal. Spoiled beets and pulp are among the main by-products generated by the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing industry. Farmers commonly land apply these by-products at rates >224 Mg ha(-1) on a fresh weight basis. However, information on nutrient release in soils treated with these by-products and their subsequent impacts on crop yield is lacking. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of sugar beet by-product application on N release and crop yields over two growing seasons. Treatments in the first year were two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year after by-product application, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet in the subsequent year. By-product treatments caused a significant reduction in wheat grain yield compared with the control. This was due to a decline in N availability as a result of immobilization. Based on microplots receiving 15N labeled beets, wheat took up <1% of spoiled beet-N (approximately 4.7 kg ha(-1)) during the year of by-product application. In the second cropping year, sugar beet root yields were significantly higher in the fertilized control and by-product treatments than the nonfertilized control. The lack of significant difference in sugar beet yield between the fertilized control and by-product treatments was likely due to the greater availability of N in the second year. Labeled 15N data also showed that the sugar beet crop recovered a 17% of sugar beet-N, an equivalent of 86 kg N ha(-1), during the second cropping year. There was no difference in sugar beet root yield, N uptake, or

  1. Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Excessive Nitrate Accumulation in Fodder Crops Leading to Ill-Health in Dairy Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, P. K.; Bedi, G. K.; Meenakshi; Mahajan, V.; Sharma, S.; Sandhu, K. S.; Gupta, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate nitrate content in commonly used fodder crops, viz., berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays), oats (Avena sativa), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and toriya (Brassica napus), collected from the fields of different villages of Punjab and farms of the university, and to evaluate the factors associated with nitrate accumulation in these crops. The nitrate level was highest in sorghum on dry matter basis, followed by oats and toriya, berseem, maize and bajra. The nitrate content was also determined in fodder samples harvested from young and mature stages and in different parts of plants. The stem part of forages had higher content than leaves; however, concentrations were low in mature crops as compared to immature ones. The environmental and soil factors associated with it are discussed and correlated with the experimental findings. PMID:21430916

  2. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    PubMed

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland. PMID:14761694

  3. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  4. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  5. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  6. Sugar beet storability and the influence of beet necrotic yellow vein virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania in sugar beets caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious problems in sugar beet production. Storage issues associated with outdoor piles may be exacerbated by disease problems such as rhizomania. To investigate the influence of BNYVV on storability...

  7. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet germplasm, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify no...

  8. Relationship of beet curly top foliar ratings to sugar beet yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet varieties were evaluated for disease resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and closely related virus species to establish if disease ratings made in inoculated nurseries correlated with disease ratings and yield in sugar beet crops exposed to natural disease outbreaks. Cultiv...

  9. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is widely grown, however high profitability requires proper land selection and management. This chapter describes the characteristics of sugar beet and reviews its land and soil management, including cultivation techniques, crop rotation, soil tillage, planting and seedbed preparation, di...

  10. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  11. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  12. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base...

  13. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  14. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  15. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  16. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  17. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  18. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  19. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight. PMID:2814447

  20. Aphanomyces effects on carbohydrate impurities and sucrose extractability in postharvest sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet roots with rot caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides often are incorporated into storage piles even though effects of disease on processing properties are unknown. Roots with Aphanomyces root rot were harvested from six fields over 2 years. For each field, roots with similar disease symptom...

  1. Whole Genome Sequencing of Sugar Beet and Transcriptional Profiling of Beet Curly Top Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) doubled haploid line (KDH13) has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 next generation sequencing platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end...

  2. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  3. Susceptibility of Five Sugar Beet Cultivars to the Black Bean Aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Golizadeh, A; Abedi, Z; Borzoui, E; Golikhajeh, N; Jafary, M

    2016-08-01

    The black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the important pests of sugar beet. The relative impact of resistance, including antibiosis and antixenosis of five sugar beet cultivars (Doroti, Perimer, Pershia, Rozier and 006) on A. fabae was studied under laboratory conditions using clip cages. The antibiosis test was based on life table parameters. Significant differences on developmental time, mean number of nymphs/aphid/day, fecundity, and adult longevity of A. fabae were found across tested sugar beet cultivars. In addition, there were significant differences among the sugar beet cultivars for population growth parameters such as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), net reproductive rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), doubling time (DT), and mean generation time (T) of A. fabae. The highest and lowest (r m ) values were observed on Pershia (0.449 nymphs/female/day) and Perimer (0.358 nymphs/female/day), respectively. No significant differences were found for the preference of the black bean aphid, and antixenosis had no effect on resistance against this aphid. As a result, our findings showed that the Pershia cultivar was a relatively susceptible host plant. Two cultivars (Perimer and Rozier) were relatively resistant to A. fabae, which could prove useful in the development of IPM programs for this aphid in sugar beet fields. PMID:26927334

  4. Effect of subsoiling on the yield of sugar beet under conditions of rhizomania infection.

    PubMed

    Németh, L; Kuroli, G

    2002-01-01

    The rhizomania is known in Hungary since 1982. The causal agent, Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus (BNYVV) is transmitted by a soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae Keskin. A field experiment was done under rhizomania infested and non-infested conditions to compare the yield parameters of five tolerant and four sensitive sugar beet hybrids. Tolerant varieties produced higher root yield under rhizomania infected conditions. The root yields of the sensitive varieties were similar to the tolerant ones on the uninfested field, but the root mass of some tolerant varieties exceeded the production of the former group. Subsoiling was carried out in two strips of a heavily infested field, while conventional soil cultivation was done on the other parts. There was not any other difference in the cultivation of the treated and control areas. Sugar beet root samples were collected at the time of harvesting from the subsoiled and control plots. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) infection was tested by means of ELISA. Virus content, yield and yield parameters of samples were compared. There were no significant differences in virus infection between sugar beet roots derived from subsoiled and untreated plots. Ratio of BNYVV infected plants was about 90% in both areas. However, yield and yield parameters showed remarkable difference. Root yield of treated plots, calculated from average individual root weight and 80,000 plant/ha plant density exceeded by 140% the yield of control. Sugar content was 2.6% higher and the harmful non-sugar content was lower on the subsoiled plots. Owing to the favourable chemical and technological value of beet the white sugar content was approximately three-times higher on the treated area. PMID:12701439

  5. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  6. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  7. Effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the US sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, crop is produced in North Dakota and Minnesota . The objective of this research was to determine the effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality in the absence of disease. Sugar beet was planted at Prosper, North Dakota in 2005, 2006 and...

  8. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  9. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  10. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  11. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  12. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  13. Energy beets: an undiscovered crop for the Southeastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy beets (Beta vulgaris), which are sugar beets grown for non-food sources, are a potential winter cash crop for growers in the southeastern U.S. that are planted in the autumn and harvested in the spring, complementing current summer crop rotations. The end-product from energy beets will be in...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  18. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  19. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  1. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  2. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section....

  3. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  4. Remote sensing of canopy dynamics and biochemical variables estimation of fodder crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Suchit K.; Das, S. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2010-04-01

    Non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis of plant nitrogen (N) concentration status is necessary for precision in N management. Leaf -N and chlorophyll (Chl) concentration of fodder crops are important indicators of plant N status. Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between canopy hyperspectral reflectance (325 to 1075 nm) and Chl or N concentration in field grown fodder crops [bajra (Pennisetum typhoides, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Kharif season and oat (Avena sativa) in Rabi season] without and with recommended dose of nitrogen of different crops. Nitrogen fertilizer application mainly affected leaf reflectance at 575 and 623 nm in sorghum, 565 and 657 nm in bajra and 563 and 716 nm in oat. The reflectance ratio at R581/R397 (R2=0.46**) and R619/R462 nm (R2=0.79***) had the highest correlation with sorghum and bajra leaf N concentration respectively with greatest R2 values. However in oat single reflectance at R542 (R2=0.53**) had the highest correlation with leaf N concentration. Similarly, sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl concentration were highly correlated with R677/R527 (R2=0.63**), R688/R409 (R2=0.71***) and R695 (R2=0.56** ), respectively. A linear relationship was found between sorghum leaf N and a simple ratio at R581/R397 (Intercept=8.85, slope=-2.64, R2=0.44). Bajra leaf N concentration was associated closely with ratio of R619/ R462, (R2= 0.78***). Oat leaf N concentration could be best estimate through single reflectance at R695 (Slope=-0.48, Intercept=0.15; R2=0.56). Similarly sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl could be best-estimated using reflectance ratio of R677/R527, R615/R411 and R695, respectively. Thus our results suggest that spectral reflectance measurements hold promise for the assessment of some physiological parameter at the leaf level real time monitoring of sorghum and bajra N status and N fertilizer management.

  5. Seedling vigor and stand establishment: transcriptome profiling of sugar beet under temperature stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Michigan, an average of 60% of sugar beet seeds germinate and survive to harvest under field conditions, and planting occurs in early spring when soil temperatures approach 55 deg F (~12 deg C). Large temperature deviations above or below that may induce heat or cold stress that may be lead to a ...

  6. Limited geographic distribution of beet pseudo-yellows virus in Costa Rican cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported the detection of beet pseudo yellows crinivirus (BPYV) in field-grown cucurbits in Costa Rica. The presence of the virus was associated with severe yellowing and chlorosis, and a large population of whiteflies was observed on symptomatic plants. To determine the prevalence and...

  7. FIRST REPORT OF RHIZOMANIA DISEASE OF SUGAR BEET IN THE GREAT LAKES PRODUCTION REGION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fall of 2002, mature sugarbeet plants exhibiting typical root symptoms of rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and vectored by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae Keskin (3) were found in several fields scattered throughout central and eastern Michigan. Two to five s...

  8. Influence of Rhizoctonia-Bacterial root rot complex on storability of sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root rot complex, caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, can lead to yield loss in the field but may also lead to problems with sucrose loss in storage. Thus, studies were conducted to investigate if placing sugar beet roots suffering from root rot together with healthy roo...

  9. First report of the stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus allius on sugar beet in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus) are migratory ectoparasites that feed on roots, transmit tobraviruses, and cause significant crop loss. In June 2015, three soil samples from a sugar beet field near Felton (Clay County), MN were submitted to the Nematology Laboratory at North ...

  10. A Colletotrichum sp. causing root rot in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fall of 2014 sugar beets were observed in a field in Washington State with shallow, dark, firm lesions on the surface. When examined under magnification, minute black “dots” were observed on the surface of the lesions. Isolations were made from the lesions and a Colletotrichum species was consist...

  11. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

  12. Black Tea and Lignin as Ultraviolet Protectants for the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of major constraints to use baculoviruses for biocontrol of insect pests in field conditions is their sensitivity to breakdown by sunlight. In this study, we evaluated black tea and lignin (Reax 85A) as potential ultraviolet (UV) protectants for beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (L...

  13. Commercial Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance to Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  14. Experimental Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  15. Construction and characterization of a BAC library for the molecular dissection of a single wild beet centromere and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Gindullis, F; Dechyeva, D; Schmidt, T

    2001-10-01

    We have constructed a sugar beet bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the chromosome mutant PRO1. This Beta vulgaris mutant carries a single chromosome fragment of 6-9 Mbp that is derived from the wild beet Beta procumbens and is transmitted efficiently in meiosis and mitosis. The library consists of 50,304 clones, with an average insert size of 125 kb. Filter hybridizations revealed that approximately 3.1% of the clones contain mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA. Based on a haploid genome size of 758 Mbp, the library represents eight genome equivalents. Thus, there is a greater than 99.96% probability that any sequence of the PROI genome can be found in the library. Approximately 0.2% of the clones hybridized with centromeric sequences of the PRO1 minichromosome. Using the identified BAC clones in fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments with PRO1 and B. procumbens chromosome spreads, their wild-beet origin and centromeric localization were demonstrated. Comparative Southern hybridization of pulsed-field separated PROI DNA and BAC inserts indicate that the centromeric region of the minichromosome is represented by overlapping clones in the library. Therefore, the PRO1 BAC library provides a useful tool for the characterization of a single plant centromere and is a valuable resource for sugar beet genome analysis. PMID:11681609

  16. Determination of amino acids in fodders and raw materials using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Komarova, N V; Kamentsev, J S; Solomonova, A P; Anufrieva, R M

    2004-02-01

    Two schemes were offered for analysis of amino acid contents in fodders and raw materials for mixed fodders by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The first variant provides express analysis of four technologically important amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine, cystine) in borate buffer on characteristic absorption of aminogroup (190 nm), with limits of quantitation being on average 0.2%. The second scheme includes pre-capillary derivatization of amino acids using phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and separation of phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-derivatives obtained by CZE with a detection on 254 nm, which allows to widen a list of detectable components up to 19 (without tryptophan) and significantly improve detection limits down to 0.01%. Acid hydrolysis was used for a sample preparation. The results of analysis of fodders were compared using such methods, as CZE, ion exchange chromatography (amino acid analyzer) and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC (with gradient technique of elution). PMID:14698247

  17. Molecular and Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Sea, Ruderal and Cultivated Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta vulgaris genetic resources are essential for broadening genetic base of sugar beet and developing cultivars adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Wild beets (sea beets, B. vulgaris spp. maritima and their naturalized introgressions with cultivated beets known as ruderal beets) harbor su...

  18. Induced Resistance to Beet Curly Top Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top management in many parts of the West has focused on the large-scale application of insecticides to beet leafhopper over-wintering grounds (perennial weeds) to control the leafhopper vector, often combined with host resistance. Insecticide application to rangeland has been challenged by env...

  19. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  20. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  1. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  2. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  3. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on runoff and percolating water quality.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Water quality concerns, including greater potential for nutrient transport to surface waters resulting in eutrophication and nutrient leaching to ground water, exist when agricultural or food processing industry wastes and by-products are land applied. Plot- and field-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sugar beet by-products on NO3-N and P losses and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in runoff and NO3-N concentrations in percolating waters. In the runoff plot study, treatments in the first year included two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year, no by-products were applied on the treated plots, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer, and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the following year. In the percolation field study, the treatments were the control, pulp (224 Mg ha(-)(1)), and spoiled beets (224 Mg ha(-1)). Results from the runoff plot showed that both by-products caused immobilization of soil inorganic N and thus reduced NO3-N losses in runoff and soil waters during the first growing season. There was some risk of NO3-N exceeding the drinking water limit of 10 mg L(-1), especially between the period of wheat harvest and soil freezing in fall when pulp was applied at 448 Mg ha(-1). The field-scale study showed that by-product application at 224 Mg ha(-1) did not result in increased ground water NO3-N concentrations. Application of spoiled beets at both rates caused significantly higher BODs in runoff in the first year of application. The concentrations of total and soluble reactive P (SRP) were also higher from both rates of spoiled beet application and from the higher application rate of pulp during the 2-yr study period. These high BODs and total P and SRP concentrations in runoff waters

  4. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  5. Leuconostoc spp. Associated with Root Rot in Sugar Beet and Their Interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Strausbaugh, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc spp. Initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly understood; therefore, a more thorough investigation was conducted. In total, 203 Leuconostoc isolates were collected from recently harvested sugar beet roots in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon during 2010 and 2012: 88 and 85% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 6 and 15% L. pseudomesenteroides, 2 and 0% L. kimchi, and 4 and 0% unrecognized Leuconostoc spp., respectively. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, haplotype 11 (L. mesenteroides isolates) comprised 68 to 70% of the isolates in both years. In pathogenicity field studies with commercial sugar beet 'B-7', all Leuconostoc isolates caused more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) when combined with R. solani than when inoculated alone in both years. Also, 46 of the 52 combination treatments over the 2 years had significantly more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) than the fungal check. The data support the conclusion that a synergistic interaction leads to more rot when both Leuconostoc spp. and R. solani are present in sugar beet roots. PMID:26735061

  6. Fodder Resource Uses and Assessment of Nitrogen Flows on Livestock Farming with Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahase, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    With understanding the livestock farming on cattle breeding practiced increasing of self-production of fodders by the farmland's operation as “Livestock Farming with crop production”, we investigated the utilizations of actual fodder resources and farmland for two selected different types of livestock farming systems: “Multiple Type” which practices cattle raising with fodder cultivation, and “Grazing Type” which practices grazing and fodder cultivation with similar feed self-sufficiency rates. We also prepared and compared material and nitrogen flow of both livestock farming systems. The amount of nitrogen flow is clearly different between the two types though feed self-sufficiency rates are at similar level. Moreover, we defined “Internal Nitrogen Rate (INR)” which indicates the rate of internal nitrogen use to total nitrogen use in cattle raising, “Internal Nitrogen Circulation Rate (NCR)” which indicates the ratio of nitrogen amount in internal circulation to the nitrogen amount introduced from outside, and Nitrogen Outflow Potential (Op), which is the balance of nitrogen amount between input to farmlands and uptake by plants, and analyzed the balance of the amounts of nitrogen flows in both livestock farming type. It is suggested that “Grazing type”, which had the values of relatively high NCR and absolutely low Op, was the livestock farming type with high rates of nitrogen procurement from the interregional farming and low risk of nitrogen outflow.

  7. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. PMID:26364185

  8. Organic vs. conventional fodder crops in the USA: A challenge for breeders?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fodder crops are becoming an increasingly important component of organic agriculture systems in the USA. However, due to wide array of production environments in the USA, the large number of species targeted by breeding programs, and the large demand for new and improved products for traditional ag...

  9. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  10. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. PMID:26436847

  11. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  12. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  13. Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacteria from Sugar Beets

    PubMed Central

    Tallgren, Antti H.; Airaksinen, Ulla; von Weissenberg, Robert; Ojamo, Heikki; Kuusisto, Juhani; Leisola, Matti

    1999-01-01

    Six hundred microorganisms were isolated from sugar beets collected from different parts of Finland to study their slime production. A total of 170 of them produced exopolysaccharides, of which 35% were heteropolysaccharides. The yield of heteropolysaccharides from sucrose was lower than that of dextrans. Five isolates, which were chosen for closer study, were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides (two species), Rahnella aquatilis (two species), and Enterobacter amnigenus. PMID:9925632

  14. Effect of NaCl on Germination of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is a salt tolerant crop, but is most vulnerable to salinity during germination. The goal of this research is to examine the response to salinity on the germination of sugar beet, ultimately to provide germplasm that has an agronomic use in saline soils around the world. Expanding the char...

  15. Genetic Variability Among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Yellows, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), can lead to significant yield losses for sugar beet growers. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range, and symptoms; and, it is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 – 2003, 8...

  16. Long-term Survival of Cryopreserved Sugar Beet Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hecker and coworkers demonstrated that sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.) pollen could be stored in liquid nitrogen vapor phase (-160°C) (LN) for 1 yr and remained viable. In this study we demonstrate that similar pollen, stored for 17 years in LN was able to successfully pollinate sugar beet and prod...

  17. Fusarium Wilt and Yellows of Sugar Beet and Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central High Plains (Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming) is among the largest producer of dry edible beans and sugar beets in the United States. Sugar beet is an important cash crop in northeastern Colorado with approximately 30,000 acres planted and 944,000 tons harvested in 2012. Approximately 250...

  18. Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

  19. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  20. Initial assessment of energy beets in the Southeast Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy beets as a non-food biofuel feedstock can help the U.S. achieve its renewable fuel goals, but with current emphasis on cellulosic feedstocks, there has been minimal research and development effort for energy beets in commercial bioconversion operations. Research was initiated to examine and ...

  1. Biosynthetic origin of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Guiping; Edwards, Charles G; Fellman, John K; Mattinson, D Scott; Navazio, John

    2003-02-12

    Geosmin provides the characteristic but sometimes undesirable "earthy" flavor to red table beets. To date, it is not known whether geosmin is a byproduct of beet metabolism or synthesized by soil-borne microorganisms and taken up by the beets during maturation. Analysis of mature beet roots revealed that peels contained 6 times the amount of geosmin compared to the bodies and cores. Sterilized beet seeds were aseptically grown in a basal medium prior to analysis for the presence of geosmin. Using a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME) method, the relative recovery of geosmin from beet seedling extracts was 72.0 +/- 4.2% with (-)-menthone as the internal standard. The presence of geosmin in aseptically grown beet seedlings was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using authentic geosmin as the standard. During aseptic growth, the concentration of geosmin in seedlings remained constant for up to 5 months but increased at 6 months. Geosmin added to the growth medium was not absorbed by the seedlings. These studies support the conclusion that red beets are capable of endogenous synthesis of geosmin. PMID:12568567

  2. Brief History of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is most likely native to western and southern Asia and is believed to have arrived in Europe via the Mediterranean countries through Egypt. The cultivation of sugar beet as an alternate source of sugar is attributed Andreas Siegmund Marggraf in the 1740s. Subsequent pro...

  3. Depth at which Rhizoctonia solani causes infection fo sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root rot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Typically, Rhizoctonia root rot symptoms appear to be initiated on the plant at the soil line. Recently, sugar beet plants were observed with Rhizoctonia root rot infections close to the root ti...

  4. Influence of harvest timing, fungicides, and Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus on sugar beet storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in the rot complex. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect, Propuls...

  5. The origin of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album populations in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; De Cauwer, B; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2012-01-01

    Chenopodium album L. is a major weed in spring-planted crops in the temperate regions of the world. Since 2000, farmers have reported an unsatisfactory control of this weed in sugar beet fields in Belgium, France and The Netherlands. Frequently, the surviving C. album plants are resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in this crop. Metamitron resistance in C. album is caused by a Ser264 to Gly mutation in the psbA gene on the chloroplast genome, which prevents binding of metamitron to its target site. This mutation causes also resistance to other herbicides with a similar mode of action, like metribuzin -applied in potato- and atrazine in particular. Atrazine has been applied very frequently in maize in the 1970s and the 1980s, but is now banned in Europe due to environmental reasons. The persistent use of atrazine in maize confronted Belgian and other European farmers in the early 1980s with atrazine resistant C. album with the same Ser264 to Gly mutation. The problems with atrazine resistant C. album disappeared when other herbicides were applied in maize. Unfortunately, this is not the case for metamitron resistant C. album in sugar beet, because no replacement herbicide is readily available. The history of atrazine use in maize brought up a question concerning the origin of the current metamitron resistant C. album populations. Have these populations been selected locally by regular use of metamitron in sugar beet or did the selection occur earlier by atrazine use when maize was grown in the same fields? This would have serious implications regarding the reversibility of herbicide resistance. Therefore, soil samples were collected on 16 fields with different histories: five fields with an organic management over 25 years, two fields with a history of atrazine resistant C. album, five fields with metamitron resistant C. album in sugar beet and four fields which were under permanent grassland for 10 years, preceded by a regular rotation in which sugar beet was a

  6. Evaluation of Rhizoctonia zeae as a potential biological control option for fungal root diseases of sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several common root diseases routinely damage sugar beet in Nebraska and other production areas of the Central High Plains, and it is becoming more common to find fields infested simultaneously with multiple pathogens. Due to the lack of available chemicals for economic management of soilborne dise...

  7. First report of strobilurin resistance in Cercospora beticola in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan and Nebraska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most important foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) worldwide. CLS is controlled mainly with fungicides, including strobilurins (FRAC group 11). Resistance to strobilurins in C. beticola has not been reported in the field ...

  8. Control of curly top in sugar beet with seed and foliar insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top in sugar beet is a serious widespread problem that is caused by Beet curly top virus and other closely species and vectored by the beet leafhopper. In order to find a means of reducing curly top in sugar beet, 15 combinations of insecticide seed (Poncho, Poncho Beta, and Poncho Votivo) an...

  9. Beta vulgaris L. serine proteinase inhibitor gene expression correlates to insect pest resistance in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyzing genes that can be used for improving sugar beet resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis Roder), one of the most destructive insect pests of sugar beet in North America, was a major goal in our investigation. We report on the expression patterns of a sugar beet...

  10. Milled industrial beet color kinetics and total soluble solid contents by image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial beets are an emerging feedstock for biofuel and bioproducts industry in the US. Milling of industrial beets is the primary step in front end processing (FEP) for ethanol production. Milled beets undergo multiple pressings with water addition during raw beet juice extraction, and extracted...

  11. Kimberly sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet germplasm lines with resistance to BNYVV and storage rots, 11germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet program were screened. The lines wer...

  12. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Ft. Collins Germplasm, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventeen sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and other closely related Curtovirus species in 2012. Commercial sugar beet cultivars Monohikari and HM PM90 were included as susceptibl...

  13. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  14. Impact of presowing laser irradiation of seeds on sugar beet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacała, E.; Demczuk, A.; Grzyś, E.; Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of biostimulation on the sugar beet seeds. The seeds came from the specialized breeding program energ'hill or were irradiated by the laser in two doses. The impact of the biostimulation was analyzed by determining the nitrate reductase activity and the nitrate, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in leaves, as well as, the dry matter and sugar concentration in mature roots. The field experiment was established for two sugar beet cultivars. Biostimulation by irradiation and a special seed breeding program energ'hill had a positive influence on some examined parameters (particularly on nitrate reductase activity in Ruveta and in numerous cases on photosynthetic pigments in both cultivars). Regarding the dry matter accumulation and sugar concentration this impact was more favourable for Tiziana than for Ruveta cultivar.

  15. Assessment of change in soil water content properties irrigated with industrial sugar beet wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Sayyed Hassan; Najafi, Payam; Amini, Hussein

    2007-05-15

    In this research the effect of industrial sugar beet wastewater has been assessed on the soil water content properties in summer 2005. The evaluated parameters were the soil water content points such as Saturation Percent (SP), Field Capacity (FC), Permanent Wilting Point (PWP), gravitational water and Total Available Water (TAW). The pilot design was fully randomized with three replications and three treatments. The three treatments were: 1-normal water, 2-industrial sugar beet wastewater (50%) and normal water (50%) and 3-sugar beet wastewater (100%). The experiments have been carried out in the field, in 21 columns with the diameter 110 mm and the height of 400 mm. The soil was irrigated using surface irrigation method for 12 events with a constant volume and period. Based on the result, the SP, FC and PWP initial value were 46.5, 35 and 15%, respectively for all the treatments. At the end of the period, the values changed to 47, 36.6 and 17.5% for T2. They are also increased significantly to 48.5, 37 and 18.7% for T3 at the end of the period. The increasing of soil Organic Matter (OM) during the period is expected to be the main factor for this change. The result shows that although the FC and PWP parameters are increased during the period but TAW decreased significantly from the 20 to 18.5%. The other effects of wastewater on soil and leached water quality should be evaluated too. PMID:19086512

  16. Ethylene Formation in Sugar Beet Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Elstner, Erich F.; Konze, Jörg R.; Selman, Bruce R.; Stoffer, Claus

    1976-01-01

    Ethylene production by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf discs is inhibited by white (or red, >610 nm) light or by wounding. In contrast, in wounded leaf discs, ethylene production is stimulated by light. The effect of light on wounded leaf discs has been studied by using an in vitro system which mimics the loss of compartmentation in the wounded leaf. Chlorophyll-free extracts from sugar beet leaves stimulate the production of the superoxide free radical ion (as a prerequisite for ethylene formation) by illuminated chloroplast lamellae. The substance from the crude leaf extracts which is active in stimulating the production of the superoxide free radical ion has been identified as 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine). Exogenous dopamine between 5 μm and 100 μm stimulates ethylene formation by illuminated chloroplast lamellae from methional. It also stimulates the production of the superoxide free radical ion, the formation of which apparently involves both a lamellar phenoloxidase and photosynthetic electron transport as a 1-electron donor, and is cyanide-sensitive. PMID:16659639

  17. Utilization of beet molasses for riboflavin production by Mycobacterium phlei.

    PubMed

    Ghozlan, H A

    1994-01-01

    Mycobacterium phlei was tested for its ability to utilize beet molasses as the sole carbon source and produce riboflavin. The crude beet molasses was analyzed and treated in various ways to reduce its heavy element content and to remove the muddy residue. Promising amounts of riboflavin were produced when the organism was cultivated on decationized (resin-treated) beet molasses. The highest vitamin productivity was achieved by incubating the inoculated medium containing 9% molasses and initially adjusted to pH 6 under shacked condition for 6 days in the dark. PMID:8071802

  18. Development of a DNA Microarray-Based Assay for the Detection of Sugar Beet Root Rot Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sebastian; Christ, Daniela S; Ehricht, Ralf; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet root rot diseases that occur during the cropping season or in storage are accompanied by high yield losses and a severe reduction of processing quality. The vast diversity of microorganism species involved in rot development requires molecular tools allowing simultaneous identification of many different targets. Therefore, a new microarray technology (ArrayTube) was applied in this study to improve diagnosis of sugar beet root rot diseases. Based on three marker genes (internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1 alpha, and 16S ribosomal DNA), 42 well-performing probes enabled the identification of prevalent field pathogens (e.g., Aphanomyces cochlioides), storage pathogens (e.g., Botrytis cinerea), and ubiquitous spoilage fungi (e.g., Penicillium expansum). All probes were proven for specificity with pure cultures from 73 microorganism species as well as for in planta detection of their target species using inoculated sugar beet tissue. Microarray-based identification of root rot pathogens in diseased field beets was successfully confirmed by classical detection methods. The high discriminatory potential was proven by Fusarium species differentiation based on a single nucleotide polymorphism. The results demonstrate that the ArrayTube constitute an innovative tool allowing a rapid and reliable detection of plant pathogens particularly when multiple microorganism species are present. PMID:26524545

  19. Defective DNAs of beet curly top virus from long-term survivor sugar beet plants.

    PubMed

    Bach, Judith; Jeske, Holger

    2014-04-01

    Long-term surviving sugar beet plants were investigated after beet curly top virus infection to characterize defective (D) viral DNAs as potential symptom attenuators. Twenty or 14 months after inoculation, 20 D-DNAs were cloned and sequenced. In contrast to known D-DNAs, they exhibited a large range of sizes. Deletions were present in most open reading frames except ORF C4, which encodes a pathogenicity factor. Direct repeats and inverted sequences were observed. Interestingly, the bidirectional terminator of transcription was retained in all D-DNAs. A model is presented to explain the deletion sites and sizes with reference to the viral minichromosome structure, and symptom attenuation by D-DNAs is discussed in relation to RNA interference. PMID:24530983

  20. Improvement of Lesion Phenotyping in Cercospora beticola-Sugar Beet Interaction by Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leucker, Marlene; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2016-02-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola is the most destructive leaf disease of sugar beet and may cause high losses in yield and quality. Breeding and cultivation of disease-resistant varieties is an important strategy to control this economically relevant plant disease. Reliable and robust resistance parameters are required to promote breeding progress. CLS lesions on five different sugar beet genotypes incubated under controlled conditions were analyzed for phenotypic differences related to field resistance to C. beticola. Lesions of CLS were rated by classical quantitative and qualitative methods in combination with noninvasive hyperspectral imaging. Calculating the ratio of lesion center to lesion margin, four CLS phenotypes were identified that vary in size and spatial composition. Lesions could be differentiated into subareas based on their spectral characteristics in the range of 400 to 900 nm. Sugar beet genotypes with lower disease severity typically had lesions with smaller centers compared with highly susceptible genotypes. Accordingly, the number of conidia per diseased leaf area on resistant plants was lower. The assessment of lesion phenotypes by hyperspectral imaging with regard to sporulation may be an appropriate method to identify subtle differences in disease resistance. The spectral and spatial analysis of the lesions has the potential to improve the screening process in breeding for CLS resistance. PMID:26506458

  1. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes. PMID:11123616

  2. Successful application of dextranase in sugar beet factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextranases are sometimes applied to hydrolyze dextran polysaccharide in sugar manufacture when bacterial deterioration of sugar beet has occurred. Unfortunately, dextranases only have a small market and low volume sales compared to many other industrial enzymes. Consequently, research and develop...

  3. Beet sugar refining applications: Hydrate freeze separation program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The beet sugar segment is the most energy intensive of the food products industry, consuming some 40 trillion Btu per year of primary fuel (the equivalent of over 13.5 million barrels a year of oil). It takes about 6700 Btu to refine 1 pound of sugar from beets. Changing factory operations to use freeze crystallization as outlined in this report and demonstrated in this program, the energy use in the industry can be reduced by about 40%. A project to accomplish full scale changes in a factory is projected to have a simple payback of just over 3 years. The sugar industry now loses about 15% of the sugar extracted from the beet. This sugar is lost in the molasses, the concentrated impurities that are extracted with sugar from the beet. One proposed use of this process described in this report is to recover a fraction of this sugar that is now lost. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Utilization of waste products of dehydrated onion industry for production of fodder yeast by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ghonaim, S A; Abou-Zeid, A A; Abd El-Fattah, A F; Farid, M A

    1980-01-01

    One strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected from different yeasts, isolated from black strap molasses. This microorganism was cultivated on seven fermentation media for the production of protein. Medium I exhibited the highest potentiality for formation of protein. Therefore strain 1 of S. cerevisiae and medium I were used for further studies in the formation of protein. Factors controlling production of protein were explored. The required incubation period for the fermentation process was 72 hrs, while the initial pH value of the medium was 6.0. Sucrose supported the microorganism for higher production of protein (40.96%), while the best concentration of sucrose was shown to be 10.0 g/l. The best inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for protein formation were (NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)3PO4 and yeast extract, respectively. The best concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 and yeast extract, supporting protein formation, were 5.0 g/l and 10.0 g/l, respectively. Addition of MgSO4, ZnSO4, ferrous ammonium sulphate, copper sulphate, biotin, Ca-pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, and inositol to the synthetic medium did not markedly influence high level of protein formation. Glutamic acid was the best amino acid, supporting protein formation by S. cerevisiae. Onion juice was found to be a good medium, after deletion of inhibitory volatile sulphur organic compounds, for the production of protein by S. cerevisiae. Addition of (NH4)2HPO4 to the best concentration of onion juice assisted the onion medium in production of fodder yeast, containing high level of protein. Addition of MgSO4 to onion juice and (NH4)2HPO4 did not increase the total nitrogen of the biomass. Fodder yeast, produced by onion juice medium, contained more valuable ingredients than fodder yeast, produced by synthetic medium. PMID:6990654

  5. Quantitative trait locus responsible for resistance to Aphanomyces root rot (black root) caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs. in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kazunori; Ogata, Naoki; Kubo, Tomohiko; Kawasaki, Shinji; Mikami, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs., is one of the most serious diseases of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Identification and characterization of resistance genes is a major task in sugar beet breeding. To ensure the effectiveness of marker-assisted screening for Aphanomyces root rot resistance, genetic analysis of mature plants' phenotypic and molecular markers' segregation was carried out. At a highly infested field site, some 187 F(2) and 66 F(3) individuals, derived from a cross between lines 'NK-310mm-O' (highly resistant) and 'NK-184mm-O' (susceptible), were tested, over two seasons, for their level of resistance to Aphanomyces root rot. This resistance was classified into six categories according to the extent and intensity of whole plant symptoms. Simultaneously, two selected RAPD and 159 'NK-310mm-O'-coupled AFLP were used in the construction of a linkage map of 695.7 cM. Each of nine resultant linkage groups was successfully anchored to one of nine sugar beet chromosomes by incorporating 16 STS markers. Combining data for phenotype and molecular marker segregation, a single QTL was identified on chromosome III. This QTL explained 20% of the variance in F(2) population (in the year 2002) and 65% in F(3) lines (2003), indicating that this QTL plays a major role in the Aphanomyces root rot resistance. This is the first report of the genetic mapping of resistance to Aphanomyces-caused diseases in sugar beet. PMID:18813904

  6. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose), α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time. PMID:22925105

  7. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p<0.0001) and affected color traits. Lightness of emulsified pork sausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p<0.01), whereas lightness with red beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (p<0.05). Redness dramatically increased with red beet powder (p<0.0001). Color by sensory evaluation also showed a significant effect from red beet addition (p<0.05), whereas the other sensory properties such as flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not affected by the addition of red beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products. PMID:26761285

  8. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p<0.0001) and affected color traits. Lightness of emulsified pork sausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p<0.01), whereas lightness with red beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (p<0.05). Redness dramatically increased with red beet powder (p<0.0001). Color by sensory evaluation also showed a significant effect from red beet addition (p<0.05), whereas the other sensory properties such as flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not affected by the addition of red beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products. PMID:26761285

  9. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content. PMID:27228610

  10. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  11. Analytical characterization of beet root vacuole membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, F.; Branton, D.

    1980-10-01

    Vacuoles from beet root (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta Gurke) isolated by a mechanical procedure were osmotically lysed to separate the membrane and sap components for analysis. Approximately 62% of the vacuole proteins, 70% of the nondialyzable carbohydrates and almost all of the phospholipids and sterols were recovered in the membrane fraction. The vacuole membrane had a phospholipid:protein ratio of 0.68 and a sterol:phospholipid ratio of 0.21. Seventeen complex polar lipids including phosphatides ad glycolipids have been tentatively identified. Phosphatidylcholine (54%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (24%) were the most prominant phosphoglycerides besides phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid (1, 4, 5, and 12%, respectively. A putative sulfoglycoside and two major ceramide glycoside-like lipids, resembling those of animal lysosomes, were identified by thin-layer chromatography. High-resolution SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the polypeptides from the vacuole revealed 15 major bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 91,000 to 12,000. Selective elution experiments delineated those polypeptides that were peripheral membrane proteins or sap proteins adsorbed to the membrane, and those that exhibited hydrophobic interaction with the lipid core. Lectin labeling results indicated that most of the polypeptides from the membrane and from the sap were glycoproteins probably of the high-mannose type characteristic of lysosomal enzymes that have undergone several stages of posttranslational modification.

  12. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  13. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  14. Characterization of Protein Changes Associated with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Resistance and Susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum is serious threat to sugar beet production worldwide. Although certain sugar beet lines appear to have resistance against F. oxysporum, little is understood about the basis for that resistance. Examination of F. oxysporum-induced changes in the sugar beet proteome has the poten...

  15. First report of sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) are major cops in North Dakota with sugar beet production primarily in the eastern part of the state in the Red River Valley and canola production along the northern half of the state from east to west. Both crops are hosts of sugar beet ...

  16. Estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products used as animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A veterinarian observed a reduction in embryo transfer success rates on beef and dairy farms in Minnesota, which were both feeding sugar beet by-products. Beet tailings and pelleted post-extraction beet pulp, associated with the affected farms were analyzed for estrogenicity by E-Screen (proliferati...

  17. Beet curly top resistance in germplasm from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins program, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program, a resistant control germplasm (1996A008), and three commercial control cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible), Monohikari (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for response to Beet ...

  18. Cross pathogenicity and vegetative compatibility of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, which causes Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, can be highly variable in virulence and morphology, with further diversity derived due to the wide geographic distribution of sugar beet production. Little is known about factors that determine pathogenicity to sugar beet...

  19. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Kimberly germplasm lines, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify no...

  20. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and four check cultivars were screened for resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the causal agent of rhizomania, and storage rot. The rhizomania evaluation was conducted at the USDA-ARS...

  1. USDA-ARS Ft. Collins germplasm screened for resistance to Beet curly top, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines produced by the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and two commercial check cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for resistance to Beet curly top virus (BCTV). The curly top evaluation was conducted at the ...

  2. Evaluation of fungicide and biological treatments for control of fungal storage rots in sugar beet, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventing sucrose losses in storage is important to the economic viability of the sugar beet industry. In an effort to establish additional measures for reducing sucrose losses in storage, ten fungicide and/or biological treatments were evaluated on sugar beet roots in a commercial sugar beet stor...

  3. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introduction lines, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to iden...

  4. Management of curly top in sugar beet with seed and foliar insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top in sugar beet can result in severe yield losses and is caused by Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and other closely related Curtovirus spp. which are vectored by the beet leafhopper. Neonicotinoid seed treatments (Cruiser, NipsIt, and Poncho) have been shown to be an effective suppleme...

  5. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introduction lines, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to iden...

  6. Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

  7. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J.

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  8. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  9. Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Sugar Beet Farms. Agricultural Economic Report Number 584.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauson, Annette L.; Hoff, Frederic L.

    This report analyzes production and financial characteristics of sugar beet producers in seven regions. Section 1 examines the structural characteristics of U.S. sugar beet producers. Sugar beet production; land use, tenure, irrigation, and livestock enterprises are considered. Section 2 discusses production costs, including cost estimates,…

  10. [Detection and kinetic characterization of Candida tropicalis contamination during fodder yeast production].

    PubMed

    García Gutiérrez, Roxana; Otero Rambla, Miguel Angel; Fundora Toucet, Norka; Martínez Sánchez, Aidín; Saura Lauria, Gustavo; Casalot, Laurence

    2006-06-01

    Candida tropicalis was identified as the etiologic agent of a severe contamination detected on an industrial fodder yeast production at the Cuban eastern region. After a detailed diagnostic task on raw material carried out on different factory sections, protocols to identify the contamination source and to isolate the microorganism were proposed. The identification was by comparison of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4 from 5.8S ribosomal DNA nucleotide sequences. In parallel, propagation of production strain, Candida utilis NRRL Y-660, at lab scale (2.5 l) was performed. Similar results to those observed in the factory concerning to its kinetic behavior in aerobic propagation with contaminated molasses, were detected at this level. The identification and primary kinetic characterization led to the implementation of sanitary and technological measures to bring production at its normal operational conditions as well as the application of prophylactic surveillance methodologies to avoid future contaminations. PMID:16854184

  11. Metabolism of Red Beet Slices I. Effects of Washing 1

    PubMed Central

    Reed, D. J.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1966-01-01

    The changes in relative participation of pathways of glucose catabolism in red beet slices during washing have been examined using specifically 14C labeled glucoses. Washing of these slices brings about an increase in participation of the pentose phosphate pathway. The composition of the washing medium influences slightly the extent of change in pathway participation. The activity level of certain enzymes participating in the initial stages of glucose catabolism has been measured in fresh and washed beet slices. Fresh slices which barely metabolized gluconate were found to have very little 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity. Washing brings about a dramatic increase in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and this increase was accompanied by a marked increase in the ability of the slices to metabolize gluconate. In red beet slices the TPNH generated via pentose phosphate pathway appears to be utilized for biosynthetic reductions rather than as respiratory substrate. PMID:16656302

  12. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  13. Stereoselective Metabolism of the Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor Fungicides Fenpropidin, Fenpropimorph, and Spiroxamine in Grapes, Sugar Beets, and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Buerge, Ignaz J; Krauss, Jürgen; López-Cabeza, Rocío; Siegfried, Werner; Stüssi, Michael; Wettstein, Felix E; Poiger, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Metabolism of chiral pesticides in crops is typically studied using achiral analytical methods and, consequently, the stereoisomer composition of residues is unknown. In this study, we developed an enantioselective GC-MS/MS method to quantify residues of the fungicides fenpropidin, fenpropimorph, and spiroxamine in plant matrices. In field trials, the fungicides were applied to grapevines, sugar beets, or wheat. Fenpropidin was metabolized with no or only weak enantioselectivity. For fenpropimorph, slightly enantioselective metabolism was observed in wheat but more pronounced in sugar beets. This enantioselectivity was due to different rates of metabolism and not due to interconversion of enantiomers. The four stereoisomers of spiroxamine were also metabolized at different rates, but selectivity was only found between diastereomers and not between enantiomers. trans-Spiroxamine was preferentially degraded in grapes and cis-spiroxamine in wheat. These findings may affect the consumer dietary risk assessment because toxicological end points were determined using racemic test substances. PMID:27248479

  14. Effect of the red imported fire ant on cotton aphid population density and predation of bollworm and beet armyworm eggs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rodrigo; Knutson, Allen; Bernal, Julio S

    2004-04-01

    The effects of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, populations and its predation of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs were evaluated in cotton under field conditions during 2001 and 2002 in central and northern Texas. In central Texas, cotton aphid populations were approximately 5.5 times greater and predation of sentinel bollworm eggs 2 times greater in the presence of S. invicta versus in its absence, although aphid populations did not reach economic levels. Most predation of beet armyworm egg masses, measured via direct nocturnal observations, was due to S. invicta (68%) and cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (21%), where S. invicta was present, and by the mite Abrolophus sp. (52%), spiders (13%), and minute pirate bug (Orius sp.) (13%) where S. invicta was absent. Predation of sentinel bollworm eggs and beet armyworm egg masses was approximately 1.5 and 4.1 times greater, respectively, in the presence of S. invicta versus in their absence. In the presence of S. invicta, the relative frequencies of minute pirate bug and cotton fleahopper were higher, and of S. invicta and native ants lower in beat bucket samples compared with their relative frequencies in nocturnal observations of predation upon beet armyworm egg masses. In the absence of S. invicta seven of eight predators sampled were similarly represented in beat bucket samples and nocturnal observations of beet armyworm egg mass predation, whereas minute pirate bug occurred at a higher frequency in beat bucket samples relative to nocturnal observations. These observations suggested that the relative frequencies of minute pirate bug, cotton fleahopper, S. invicta and native ants in beat bucket samples do not closely reflect the frequency with which these predators prey on noctuid eggs. Overall, the results of this study show

  15. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    PubMed

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. PMID:18957765

  16. The Impact of Multi-Sensor Data Assimilation on Plant Parameter Retrieval and Yield Estimation for Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodrius, M.; Migdall, S.; Bach, H.; Hank, T.

    2015-04-01

    Yield Maps are a basic information source for site-specific farming. For sugar beet they are not available as in-situ measurements. This gap of information can be filled with Earth Observation (EO) data in combination with a plant growth model (PROMET) to improve farming and harvest management. The estimation of yield based on optical satellite imagery and crop growth modelling is more challenging for sugar beet than for other crop types since the plants' roots are harvested. These are not directly visible from EO. In this study, the impact of multi-sensor data assimilation on the yield estimation for sugar beet is evaluated. Yield and plant growth are modelled with PROMET. This multi-physics, raster-based model calculates photosynthesis and crop growth based on the physiological processes in the plant, including the distribution of biomass into the different plant organs (roots, stem, leaves and fruit) at different phenological stages. The crop variable used in the assimilation is the green (photosynthetically active) leaf area, which is derived as spatially heterogeneous input from optical satellite imagery with the radiative transfer model SLC (Soil-Leaf-Canopy). Leaf area index was retrieved from RapidEye, Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. It could be shown that the used methods are very suitable to derive plant parameters time-series with different sensors. The LAI retrievals from different sensors are quantitatively compared to each other. Results for sugar beet yield estimation are shown for a test-site in Southern Germany. The validation of the yield estimation for the years 2012 to 2014 shows that the approach reproduced the measured yield on field level with high accuracy. Finally, it is demonstrated through comparison of different spatial resolutions that small-scale in-field variety is modelled with adequate results at 20 m raster size, but the results could be improved by recalculating the assimilation at a finer spatial resolution of 5 m.

  17. Seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of pathogens can cause early season stand loss in sugar beet. In an ongoing survey, the most commonly identified damping-off pathogens were Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides, and Fusarium species. Pythium and Phoma also were isolated every year, but never as the sole or most commo...

  18. The 'C869' sugar beet genome: a draft assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet 'C869' is a diploid, self-fertile, public germplasm release used extensively as the seed parent of recombinant inbred lines designed to genetically dissect agronomic, disease, domestication, and other traits. From the original release, three additional generations of inbreeding were done,...

  19. Seedling diseases of sugar beet – diversity and host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling diseases cause loss of plant stand due to pre- and post-emergence damping-off and weakened plants due to root or hypocotyl infection. Several pathogens cause seedling disease of sugar beet, including Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Pythium species, and Fusarium species. Differe...

  20. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  1. Investigation of copper sorption by sugar beet processing lime waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western US, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 megagrams/yr) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairies utilizing copper-based hoof baths ...

  2. Reducing sucrose loss in sugar beet storage with fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to multi-million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in the rot complex. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect, Pro...

  3. Rhizomania Resistance in the Tandem Sugar Beet Variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania, caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is a major disease of sugarbeets world-wide. The ‘Holly’ resistance gene (Rz1) confers strong resistance to several BNYVV isolates and has been incorporated into most major sugarbeet breeding lines. However, the threat presented by resis...

  4. Molecular and Morphological Differentiation Among Sea, Ruderal and Cultivated Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of genetic diversity and relationships among Beta vulgaris genetic resources is essential for their conservation and development of breeding populations. In this study, we compared patterns of genetic variability and quantitative morphological data between a sea and a ruderal beet populati...

  5. Rhizomania resistance in the Tandem® sugar beet variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania, caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is a major disease of sugarbeets world-wide. The ‘Holly’ resistance gene (Rz1) confers strong resistance to several BNYVV isolates and has been incorporated into most major sugarbeet breeding lines. However, the threat presented by resis...

  6. ROOT PLASTICITY TO NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN MEDITERRANEAN SEA BEET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of root adaptive responses to nutritional stress is required to improve yield stability of sugarbeet. The aim of this research was a comparative study of the root morpho-physiological plasticity among two sea beet populations collected on poor- and nutrient-rich habitats of the Adriatic co...

  7. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  8. Interaction between weed and disease management methods in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work with an experimental glyphosate-resistant sugar beet variety indicated host resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot could be compromised when plants were exposed to glyphosate. In order to improve disease management recommendations, work was initiated to investigate the interactio...

  9. Genetic structure and immigation in French sea beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we examined accessions of sea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.), collected along the Mediterranean Sea up the Atlantic coast of France. The aim was to identify the scale and magnitude of differentiation and diversity in these accessions using both molecular and quantita...

  10. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes.

    PubMed

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. PMID:26463996

  11. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G.; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. PMID:26463996

  12. Differentiating Rz-1 AND Rz-2 resistance reactions to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus through proteome analysis in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sugarbeet, and is widely distributed in most sugarbeet growing areas of the world. Control is achieved almost exclusively through planting of resistant varieties. Following t...

  13. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajčevič, Marija; Jačimović, Radojko; Budič, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  14. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  15. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  16. Foam formation in biogas plants caused by anaerobic digestion of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Lucie; Lehnig, Marcus; Schenk, Joachim; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The use of sugar beet in anaerobic digestion (AD) during biogas production can lead to process upsets such as excessive foaming in fermenters. In the present study, foam formation in sugar beet-fed digestates was studied in foaming tests. The increasing disintegration grade of sugar beet was observed to have a promoting effect on foaming in the digestate but did not affect the biogas yield. Chemical analysis of foam and digestate from sugar beet silage AD showed high concentrations of pectin, other carbohydrates and N-containing substances in the foam. Both pectin and sucrose showed little foaming in AD. Nevertheless, sucrose and calcium chloride had a promoting effect on foaming for pectin AD. Salts of divalent ions also enhanced the foam intensity in the case of sugar beet silage AD, whereas ammonium chloride and urea had a lessening effect on sugar beet-based foaming. PMID:25446785

  17. Photoacoustic and optothermal studies of tomato ketchup adulterated by the red beet (Beta vulgaris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicanic, D.; Westra, E.; Seters, J.; van Houten, S.; Huberts, D.; Colić-Barić, I.; Cozijnsen, J.; Boshoven, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy and optothermal window (OW) technique were used to explore their potential to detect red beet added as a colorant to tomato ketchup. The associated changes of colour resulting in the changes of absorbance (and hence of PA and OT signals) were monitored in the 500 nm region corresponding to the absorption maximum of lycopene. Both methods were shown capable of quantifying about 1% of red beet (by mass) in the mixture of ketchup and red beet.

  18. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  19. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = −0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It’s suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  20. Energy reduction in beet sugar processing by cossette liming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.; Camirand, W.M.; Neumann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions of temperature and fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ application, demethylation occurs in the pectin in the cell walls of sugar beet cossettes, allowing Ca/sup 2 +/ to precipitate the pectin as calcium pectate. The calcium pectate will not degrade and pass into solution during subsequent hot extraction of sugar from the cossettes. This retention of pectin in the pulp was shown by 10 to 20% increases in solids weight in the pulp for a number of processing conditions. The toughened pulp produced by retention of calcium pectate allowed easier mechanical dewatering of the pulp which could save considerably on the heat normally required to dry the pulp for cattle feed. Beyond data reported in this paper, there are qualitative indications that the sugar juice extracted from limed cossettes is purer than standard juice, for pectin and colloidal materials remain in the pulp. Thus, much less purification of the juice with lime would be necessary than is required in standard beet-sugar processing, and the current 2% CaO used for purification may be cut almost in half. This represents another energy saving, for production of CaO at the factory is a major consumer of energy. These, along with other possible energy savings resulting from cossette liming (such as less water used for extraction, cold extraction, ion exchange of the purer juice), could produce an overall saving up to 20% of the energy currently used in beet-sugar processing. Some of these possibilities will be further investigated.

  1. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  2. Distribution and Rate of Movement of the Curtovirus Beet mild curly top virus (Family Geminiviridae) in the Beet Leafhopper.

    PubMed

    Soto, Maria J; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of the curtovirus Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV, previously named the Worland strain of Beet curly top virus) was developed and used to investigate the BMCTV-beet leafhopper interaction. Using PCR and a BMCTV-specific primer pair, an approximately 1.1-kb BMCTV DNA fragment was amplified from adult leafhoppers and from the organs involved in circulative transmission: the digestive tract, hemolymph, and salivary glands. The temporal distribution of BMCTV in the leafhopper was determined using insects given acquisition access periods (AAPs) ranging from 1 to 48 h on BMCTV-infected shepherd's purse plants. BMCTV was detected in the digestive tract after all AAPs, in the hemolymph after AAPs of 3 h or greater, and in the salivary glands after AAPs of 4 h or greater. The amount of virus detected in the hemolymph and salivary glands increased with AAP length. The virus persisted for up to 30 days in leafhoppers (given a 3-day AAP on BMCTV-infected plants) maintained on corn plants, a nonhost for BMCTV, but transovarial transmission was not detected. These results are consistent with a persistent but nonpropagative mode of circulative transmission. PMID:18944363

  3. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  4. Research solutions in a non-model system: developing tools to understand Sugar Beet-Fusarium Oxysporum interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (Fob), is a problem for sugar beet production throughout the United States and Europe. Little is known about how Fob infects sugar beet roots to elicit disease symptoms. Additionally, a high rate of non-patho...

  5. Resistance to curly top of sugar beet in germplasm developed at USDA-ARS Ft. Collins, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-one sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and three control lines were screened for resistance to Beet curly top virus (BCTV) in 2013. Commercial cultivars ‘Monohikari’ (susceptible), ‘HM PM90’ (resistant) and Betaseed line Beta G6040 (resista...

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  7. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  8. Detection of sucrose content of sugar beet by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose content is the most important quality parameter in the production and processing of sugar beet. This paper reports on the application of visible/near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy for measurement of the sucrose content of sugar beet. Two portable spectrometers, covering the spectral region...

  9. Sugar Beet Resistance to Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot: Where does it fit in?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), Rhizoctonia root- or crown-rot is caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG-2-2). Seedling damping-off in sugar beet is caused by R. solani of both anastomosis groups, AG-2-2 and AG-4. Rhizoctonia solani subgroup AG-2-2 IV had been considered to be the primary cause of Rhi...

  10. Predict compositions and mechanical properties of sugar beet using hyperspectral scattering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose, soluble solids, and moisture content and mechanical properties are important quality/property attributes of sugar beet. In this study, hyperspectral scattering images for the spectral region of 500-1,000 nm were acquired from 398 beet slices, from which relative mean spectra were calculated...

  11. Comparison of sugar beet responses at different ages to isolates of Fusarium oxysporum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum has been reported to cause several diseases of sugar beet, including seedling damping-off, a mature plant wilt (Fusarium yellows), a mature plant root rot, and seed stalk blight. Recent work in our lab and others has shown a great deal of diversity in F. oxysporum from sugar beet....

  12. Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

  13. Identification of a SNP marker associated with WB242 nematode resistance in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is one of the major diseases of sugar beet. The identification of molecular markers associated to the nematode resistance would be helpful for developing resistant varieties. The aim of this study was the identification of SNP (Single Nucleotide ...

  14. Phoma species on beet: more cause disease than just Phoma betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In the Un...

  15. Molecular technology for developing durable resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet root maggot (SBRM), Tetanops myopaeformis von Röder, is a major economic insect pest of sugar beet in North America. While several moderately resistant breeding lines have recently been registered, they do not offer complete control. A significant amount of knowledge about how plants pr...

  16. Sugar Beet Germination: Phenotypic Selection and Molecular Profiling to Identify Genes Involved in Abiotic Stress Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establish are critical concerns of sugar beet growers worldwide and abiotic stresses potentially limit the types of varieties that can be grown productively. This project seeks to develop information that will be useful in selecting and breeding sugar beet for enhanced emergence...

  17. Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and leads to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storage for sugar beet producers. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum isolated from...

  18. INFLUENCE OF GLYPHOSATE ON RHIZOCTONIA AND FUSARIUM ROOT ROT IN SUGAR BEET.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tests the effect of glyphosate application on disease severity of glyphosate resistant sugar beet and examines whether the increase in disease in fungal- or plant-mediated. In greenhouse studies of glyphosate resistant sugar beet, increased disease severity was observed following glyphosa...

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity and root traits of sea beet accessions of the Adriatic Sea coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty nine sea beet [Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.] accessions of the Adriatic coast were screened genetically and for their adaptive morpho-functional root traits in order to identify new sources of abiotic resistances for sugar beet breeding programs. Genetic diversity was evaluat...

  20. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introductions, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top caused by Curtovirus species is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify novel s...

  1. Temperature, Moisture, and Fungicide Effects in Managing Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and subgroups were tested for pathogenicity on resistant (FC708 CMS) and susceptible (Monohikari) seedl...

  2. Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been...

  3. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity in verticillium dahliae from sugar beet and historical strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of Verticillium wilt, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms (leaves with yellow or n...

  4. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  5. Storage rot in sugar beet: variable response over time and with different host germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. While in storage the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. In the Michigan growing region, little loss due to storage rots is observed until beets have been in storage for several mo...

  6. Bacteria and yeast associated with sugar beet root rot at harvest in the Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An undescribed bacterial-like root rot has been observed in sugar beets at harvest time in the Intermountain West. This root rot was observed during surveys of recently harvested sugar beets in 2004 and 2005. Microorganisms recovered from 287 roots fell into the following groups: lactic acid bacte...

  7. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Fort Collins Germplasm, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugarbeet program were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and other closely related Curtovirus species in 2011. Commercial cultivars Monohikari and HM PM90 were included as susceptible and resis...

  8. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

  12. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

  13. Response of sugar beet recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been little work done on host resistance to p...

  14. Beet curly top resistance of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System plant introductions, 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) in 2009. The curly top evaluation was conducted at the USDA-ARS North Farm in Kimberly...

  15. Beet curly top resistance of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System plant introductions, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and other closely related Curtovirus species in 2010. The curly top evaluation was...

  16. Verticillium dahliae Causes Wilt on Sugar Beet Following Potato in Eastern North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wilt is a serious disease on sugar beet that decreases content and purity of sugar, but does not significantly decrease root yield. The disease is typically reported as caused by the microorganism Verticillium albo-atrum. The disease has not been previously reported on sugar beet in the Red River ...

  17. Nutritional evaluation of organically grown fodders in lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Nag, Subir Kumar; Maity, Subhendu Bikash; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348

  18. The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

  19. Effect of Sugar Beet Variety and Nonhost Plant on Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB Soil Inoculum Potential Measured in Soil DNA Extracts.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Sascha; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Märländer, Bernward; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-09-01

    A direct soil DNA extraction method from soil samples (250 g) was applied for detection of the soilborne sugar-beet-infecting pathogen Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 2-2IIIB using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay that showed specificity to AG2-2IIIB when tested against various R. solani AG. The assay showed a good relation between cycle threshold and amount of AG2-2IIIB sclerotia detected in three spiked field soils and was also able to detect the pathogen in naturally infested field soil samples. A field trial was conducted to quantify R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil inoculum potential (IP) before and after growing a susceptible and a resistant sugar beet variety as well as after subsequent growth of an expected nonhost winter rye. Plants of the susceptible sugar beet variety displayed a higher disease severity. A more than sixfold increase of the R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil IP was observed in contrast to the resistant variety that resulted in a constant IP. Growing winter rye significantly reduced soil IP to the initial level at sowing. Further research is required to better understand the interaction between disease occurrence and soil IP as well as the environmental influence on IP development. PMID:27143412

  20. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the soil of the mining-contaminated sites as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of toxic heavy metals, present in the bed rocks and waste of the mines. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in majority of medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk. PMID:26324064

  1. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5. PMID:27180098

  2. Energy use reduction potential in the beet sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.S.; Cleary, M.

    1985-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories cogenerate steam and electricity for their own use. Fossil fuel boilers and low- to medium-pressure steam turbines are used exclusively for this purpose. Three alternative cogeneration technologies are evaluated, with economic feasibility found to depend on the price at which excess electricity can be sold.

  3. Sugar beet production as influenced by water stress

    SciTech Connect

    Flack, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Irrigation water supplies are becoming expensive and scarce in the western United States. As a water management tool, production functions indicating relationships between crop yields and evapotranspiration have been utilized. Models have been developed using this information. Transferability of these models is dependent upon understanding the moisture extraction characteristics for a given crop under a given set of climatic and soil conditions. Therefore, a wide range of water stress conditions must be produced. The objective of our research was to generate production function data for sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) as influenced by drought stress under irrigation.

  4. Energy use reduction potential in the beet sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.S.; Heist, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories cogenerate steam and electricity for their own use. Fossil fuel boilers and low- to medium-pressure steam turbines are used exclusively for this purpose. Three alternative cogeneration technologies are evaluated, with economic feasibility found to depend on the price at which excess electricity can be sold.

  5. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Rezić, Tonči; Oros, Damir; Marković, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

  6. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of beet pulp fiber.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1997-05-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a design based on a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with the last period removed to determine the influence of particle size of beet pulp neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on its effectiveness as a replacement for alfalfa NDF. Diets were a low forage, low fiber diet [12.1 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dry matter (DM)], a normal forage diet (low forage plus 7.8 g of additional alfalfa NDF/100 g of DM), and two low forage diets with 5.3 g of NDF/100 g of DM from either whole or finely ground dried sugar beet pulp. Replacement of alfalfa fiber with beet pulp fiber increased milk protein yield because of the tendencies toward increased milk yield and protein concentration. However, milk fat concentration and yield were unaffected. The addition of beet pulp fiber, either whole or ground, to the basal low forage, low fiber diet did not affect yields of milk, protein, or fat, but milk protein concentration tended to be lower for cows fed the beet pulp diets than for cows fed the basal diet. Reducing the particle size of beet pulp increased DM intake but did not affect any of the milk yield measurements. Particle size reduction of beet pulp did not reduce its effectiveness as a fiber source as measured by changes in milk fat content. PMID:9178130

  7. Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Leiqing; Zhu, Qibing; Lu, Renfu; McGrath, J Mitchell

    2015-01-15

    Visible and near-infrared spectra in interactance mode were acquired for intact and sliced beet samples, using two portable spectrometers for the spectral regions of 400-1100 nm and 900-1600 nm, respectively. Sucrose prediction models for intact and sliced beets were developed and then validated. The spectrometer for 400-1100 nm was able to predict the sucrose content with correlations of prediction (rp) of 0.80 and 0.88 and standard errors of prediction (SEPs) of 0.89% and 0.70%, for intact beets and beet slices, respectively. The spectrometer for 900-1600 nm had rp values of 0.74 and 0.88 and SEPs of 1.02% and 0.69% for intact beets and beet slices. These results showed the feasibility of using the portable spectrometer to predict the sucrose content of beet slices. Using simple correlation analysis, the study also identified important wavelengths that had strong correlation with the sucrose content. PMID:25148988

  8. Fresh and preserved green fodder modify effects of urinary acidifiers on urine pH of horses.

    PubMed

    Goren, G; Fritz, J; Dillitzer, N; Hipp, B; Kienzle, E

    2014-04-01

    Hay stabilises urine pH in horses. It is unknown whether this is an effect of structure or of chemical composition. In this study, four ponies (230-384 kg body weight [BW]) were fed six different diets with either a structure or a composition similar to hay with and without acidifiers in a cross-over experimental design in amounts to maintain body weight with the following main compounds: Fresh grass (GRASS), alfalfa hay (ALF), grass cobs (COBS), grass silage (SIL), straw (STR) or extruded straw (STRe) for 2 to 10 days. Urine pH was measured in all trials, blood pH, blood base excess and bicarbonate as well as mineral balance were determined in GRASS, ALF, STR and STRe. In the trials with straw and extruded straw, urine pH decreased significantly (STR control: 7.8 ± 0.23, acidifier: 5.2 ± 0.38) when acidifiers were added, whereas in all other diets that were based on fresh or preserved green fodder, pH did not decrease below 7. Blood pH was similarly affected by diet and acidifiers. Acidifiers had little effect on the pre-prandial blood pH, only in diet STR there was a significant reduction in relation to control. Post-prandial blood pH was significantly reduced by acidifiers in all diets. Blood bicarbonate and base excess showed corresponding effects. Faecal and renal mineral excretion and apparent mineral digestibility were not systematically affected by diet or acidifiers except for chloride. Chloride added as inorganic chloride salt had an even better apparent digestibility than chloride originating from feed. Because only green plant material stabilised acid base balance, chlorophyll and its metabolites are discussed as potential mediators of the effect of green fodder on acid base balance. PMID:23551706

  9. Preliming of sugar beet cossettes to reduce energy in sugar beet processing. Final technical report, August 1, 1978-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.

    1981-06-30

    In the United States, the beet sugar industry is the most intensive user of energy, per unit value of product shipped. Approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu of energy are required per ton of beets processed. The increasing cost and scarcity of energy has made the industry very receptive to process changes which can reduce energy requirements for sugar production. A two-year project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of liming fresh sugar beet cossettes, prior to extraction, as a means of reducing energy consumption. Fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ was added to cossettes for 10 min prior to introduction into the diffuser (extractor). It was found that up to 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/ton of beets sliced could be saved in pulp drying and 0.45 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/ton could be saved in production of lime (13.5% and 1.7%, respectively, of current overall energy requirements of the beet-sugar process). Quality of raw juice from the diffuser was much better with limed cossettes than with control cossettes. Experimental thin juice was slightly higher in lime salts and lower in quality than controls. Liming of cossettes by dipping in a slurry of 2.6% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ gave better results than mixing of cossettes with dry Ca(OH)/sub 2/ and would be much easier to implement in an existing plant.

  10. Detection of alien chromatin conferring resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) in cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Jung, C; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Kleine, M

    1997-05-01

    Chromatin originating from wild beets of the genus Beta, section Procumbentes, has been investigated in nematode-resistant hybrid-derived lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by in situ hybridization using satellite, telomeric and ribosomal DNA repeats, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and total genomic DNA as probes. The allen chromosome was detected in three monosomic addition lines (2n = 18 + 1) by genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a genome-specific satellite repeat and YAC DNA enabled the visualization of Procumbentes chromosomes, and in double-target hybridization it was shown that they do not carry 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes. The wild beet-specific satellite repeat and the telomere sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana were used to perform a structural analysis of the wild beet chromosome fragments of two resistant fragment addition lines. It was shown that one physical end of the chromosome fragments consists of telomeric repeats. Comparison of fragment sizes indicated that the small chromosome fragments harbouring the resistance gene most likely resulted from the loss of one wild beet chromosome arm and an internal deletion of the remaining arm. PMID:9246412

  11. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes. PMID:18324413

  12. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  13. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  14. Quantitative determination of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.) using headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guiping; Fellman, John K; Edwards, Charles G; Mattinson, D Scott; Navazio, John

    2003-02-12

    An improved analytical method for the determination of geosmin in red beets was developed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME). Volatiles of beet juice were extracted in headspace for 2 h using a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber, thermally desorbed from the fiber, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The HSPME method was determined to be suitable for geosmin analysis as evidenced by high relative recovery (99.2%), low relative standard deviation (7.48%), and reasonable detection limit (1 microg/kg of beet root tissue). The concentrations of geosmin in four beet cultivars ranged from 9.69 +/- 0.22 to 26.7 +/- 0.27 microg/kg, depending on cultivar. PMID:12568566

  15. Genomic characterization of phenotypic variants of beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C; Carbonaro, D; Duffus, J E

    1990-10-01

    Full-length infectious DNA clones were constructed for four distinct phenotypic variants of beet curly top virus (BCTV). Southern hybridization assays indicated that each cloned BCTV genome shared sequence homology with pBCT-028, a full-length infectious DNA clone of a California isolate of BCTV previously characterized by others. Restriction endonuclease maps of the cloned BCTV genomes were distinct from one another. Infectivity assays determined that plasmids containing tandem repeats of BCTV genomes were generally more infectious than excised linear DNA inserts. Progeny virus, derived from plants inoculated with cloned DNAs, differed in their ability to infect sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., and the severity of symptoms produced in B. vulgaris and other experimental hosts. PMID:2230726

  16. The physical and genomic organization of microsatellites in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    1996-08-01

    Microsatellites, tandem arrays of short (2-5 bp) nucleotide motifs, are present in high numbers in most eukaryotic genomes. We have characterized the physical distribution of microsatellites on chromosomes of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Each microsatellite sequence shows a characteristic genomic distribution and motif-dependent dispersion, with site-specific amplification on one to seven pairs of centromeres or intercalary chromosomal regions and weaker, dispersed hybridization along chromosomes. Exclusion of some microsatellites from 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA gene sites, centromeres, and intercalary sites was observed. In-gel and in situ hybridization patterns are correlated, with highly repeated restriction fragments indicating major centromeric sites of microsatellite arrays. The results have implications for genome evolution and the suitability of particular microsatellite markers for genetic mapping and genome analysis. PMID:8710945

  17. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  18. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P < 0.05) between beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

  19. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Levine, L. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Sodium (Na) movement between plants and humans is one of the more critical aspects of bioregenerative systems of life support, which NASA is studying for the establishment of long-term bases on the Lunar or Martian surface. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which Na can replace potassium (K) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) without adversely affecting metabolic functions such as water relations, photosynthetic rates, and thus growth. Two cultivars, Ruby Queen and Klein Bol, were grown for 42 days at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0%, 75%, 95%, and 98% Na substitution for K in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution. Total biomass of Ruby Queen was greatest at 95% Na substitution and equal at 0% and 98% Na substitution. For Klein Bol, there was a 75% reduction in total biomass at 98% Na substitution. Nearly 95% of the total plant K was replaced with Na at 98% Na substitution in both cultivars. Potassium concentrations in leaves decreased from 120 g kg-1 dwt in 0% Na substitution to 3.5 g kg-1 dwt at 98% Na substitution. Leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic rate, and osmotic potential were not affected in either cultivar by Na substitution for K. Leaf glycinebetaine levels were doubled at 75% Na substitution in Klein Bol, but decreased at higher levels of Na substitution. For Ruby Queen, glycinebetaine levels in leaf increased with the first increase of Na levels and were maintained at the higher Na levels. These results indicate that in some cultivars of red beet, 95% of the normal tissue K can be replaced by Na without a reduction in growth.

  20. Airborne and ground-based remote sensing for the estimation of evapotranspiration and yield of bean, potato, and sugar beet crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Harikishan

    The focus of this research was two-fold: (1) extend the reflectance-based crop coefficient approach to non-grain (potato and sugar beet), and vegetable crops (bean), and (2) develop vegetation index (VI)-yield statistical models for potato and sugar beet crops using high-resolution aerial multispectral imagery. Extensive crop biophysical sampling (leaf area index and aboveground dry biomass sampling) and canopy reflectance measurements formed the backbone of developing of canopy reflectance-based crop coefficients for bean, potato, and sugar beet crops in this study. Reflectance-based crop coefficient equations were developed for the study crops cultivated in Kimberly, Idaho, and subsequently used in water availability simulations in the plant root zone during 1998 and 1999 seasons. The simulated soil water profiles were compared with independent measurements of actual soil water profiles in the crop root zone in selected fields. It is concluded that the canopy reflectance-based crop coefficient technique can be successfully extended to non-grain crops as well. While the traditional basal crop coefficients generally expect uniform growth in a region the reflectance-based crop coefficients represent the actual crop growth pattern (in less than ideal water availability conditions) in individual fields. Literature on crop canopy interactions with sunlight states that there is a definite correspondence between leaf area index progression in the season and the final yield. In case of crops like potato and sugar beet, the yield is influenced not only on how early and how quickly the crop establishes its canopy but also on how long the plant stands on the ground in a healthy state. The integrated area under the crop growth curve has shown excellent correlations with hand-dug samples of potato and sugar beet crops in this research. Soil adjusted vegetation index-yield models were developed, and validated using multispectral aerial imagery. Estimated yield images were

  1. Recombinant beet curly top virus genomes exhibit both parental and novel pathogenic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C; Davis, K R; Bisaro, D M

    1994-05-01

    Recombinant genomes derived from the Logan and CFH strains of the geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) have been constructed and analyzed for pathogenicity on Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infectivity assays indicated that the latent period on N. benthamiana was primarily determined by a DNA fragment bearing the leftward open reading frames (ORFs) L1, L2, L3, and L4. Recombinants bearing leftward ORFs from the CFH strain were characterized as having a short latent period (mean = 6-11 days), while the reciprocal recombinants bearing leftward ORFs from the Logan strain had latent periods defined as long (mean = 16-22 days). Infectivity assays on sugar beet indicated that certain recombinant BCTV genomes exhibited novel pathogenic properties not common to either wild type strain, including the loss of systemic movement and replication competency, or asymptomatic systemic infection of sugar beet. The results indicate that N. benthamiana is a more permissive host than sugar beet with respect to heterologous combinations of BCTV genes, and that pathogenicity and virulence of BCTV in sugar beet requires the interaction of certain viral gene products and/or cis-elements that have coevolved in the same strain. PMID:8178452

  2. Identification and Plant Interaction of a Phyllobacterium sp., a Predominant Rhizobacterium of Young Sugar Beet Plants.

    PubMed

    Lambert, B; Joos, H; Dierickx, S; Vantomme, R; Swings, J; Kersters, K; Van Montagu, M

    1990-04-01

    The second most abundant bacterium on the root surface of young sugar beet plants was identified as a Phyllobacterium sp. (Rhizobiaceae) based on a comparison of the results of 39 conventional identification tests, 167 API tests, 30 antibiotic susceptibility tests, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic fingerprints of total cellular proteins with type strains of Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum and Phyllobacterium rubiacearum. It was found on 198 of 1,100 investigated plants between the 2nd and 10th leaf stage on three different fields in Belgium and one field in Spain. Densities ranged from 2 x 10 to 2 x 10 CFU/g of root. Five isolates exerted a broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activity. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that Phyllobacterium sp. does not contain DNA sequences that are homologous with the attachment genes chvA, chvB, the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) hormone genes iaaH and ipt from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, iaaM from A. tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi, or the nitrogenase genes nifHDK from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Phyllobacterium sp. produces indolylacetic acid in in vitro cultures and induces auxinlike effects when cocultivated with callus tissue of tobacco. When Phyllobacterium sp. was transformed with a Ti plasmid derivative, it gained the capacity to induce tumors on Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The potential role of Phyllobacterium sp. in this newly recognized niche is discussed. PMID:16348158

  3. [The transfer of 90Sr and of 137Cs radionuclides in the chain of soil-fodder-animal products in the area contaminated as a consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Spirin, E V; Aleksakhin, R M; Kalmykov, M V; Ageets, V Iu; Averin, V S; Lazarev, N M; Cavellin, G D; Biesold, H

    2006-01-01

    The database on 137Cs and or 90Sr transfer factors in the soil-fodder-animal products chain compiled in the framework of the project "Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" under the French-German Initiative was analyzed. The 137Cs transfer factors were determined into 10 fodder types for farm animals. The 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from daily diet to milk is practically independent from milk yield and season and is about 0.83% and 0.16%. 137Cs transfer factor into beef (adult animals) is about to 2.4% from the daily uptake with fodder per 1 kg meat. PMID:16579548

  4. Population Dynamics of Dactylella oviparasitica and Heterodera schachtii: Toward a Decision Model for Sugar Beet Planting

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiue-in; Benecke, Scott; Jeske, Daniel R.; Rocha, Fernando S.; Smith Becker, Jennifer; Timper, Patricia; Ole Becker, J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed to examine the population dynamics of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and the nematophagus fungus Dactylella oviparasitica. After two nematode generations, the population densities of H. schachtii were measured in relation to various initial infestation densities of both D. oviparasitica and H. schachtii. In general, higher initial population densities of D. oviparasitica were associated with lower final population densities of H. schachtii. Regression models showed that the initial densities of D. oviparasitica were only significant when predicting the final densities of H. schachtii J2 and eggs as well as fungal egg parasitism, while the initial densities of J2 were significant for all final H. schachtii population density measurements. We also showed that the densities of H. schachtii-associated D. oviparasitica fluctuate greatly, with rRNA gene numbers going from zero in most field-soil-collected cysts to an average of 4.24 x 108 in mature females isolated directly from root surfaces. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of rRNA genes suggested that D. oviparasitica belongs to a clade of nematophagous fungi that includes Arkansas Fungus strain L (ARF-L) and that these fungi are widely distributed. We anticipate that these findings will provide foundational data facilitating the development of more effective decision models for sugar beet planting. PMID:23481664

  5. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance. PMID:25851439

  6. Effect of Plant Age and Transplanting Damage on Sugar Beets infected by Heterodera schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Olthof, Th. H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Monogerm C.S.F. 1971) seeds sown into Vineland fine sandy loam, infested with 15,500 H. schachtii juveniles/pot, showed little growth during an 11-week test in the greenhouse. Seedlings transplanted at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age had 32, 30, and 31% less top weight and 71, 68, and 59% less root weight, respectively, compared to controls grown in nematode-free soil. Nematode reproduction in both direct-seeded and transplanted sugar beets was limited and related to root weight. Shoot/root ratios were increased by the nematodes in all nematode-infected beets compared to those grown in soil without nematodes. In contrast to seeding or transplanting sugar beets into nematode-infested Vineland fine sandy loam, an inoculation of Beverly fine sandy loam supporting 0 (seeds), 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old sugar beet seedlings with 7,400 juveniles/pot, followed by 11 weeks of growth in the growth-room, resulted in top weight losses of only 13, 3, 18, and 15% and losses in root weight of 44, 38, 36, and 38%, respectively. Nematode reproduction was high and all shoot/root ratios were increased by the nematode compared to the noninoculated controls. These experiments have shown that sugar beets sown into nematode-infested soil are damaged much more heavily by H. schachtii juveniles than seeds inoculated with the nematode immediately following sowing. Results indicate that an increase in tolerance of sugar beets to attack by H. schachtii does not occur beyond the first 2 weeks of growth and that transplanting damage lowers the tolerance of seedlings to nematode attack. PMID:19295846

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bacterial Community Associated with the Taproot of Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded β-1,3-glucanase (18 per 105 reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 105 reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the 15N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  8. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded β-1,3-glucanase (18 per 10(5) reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 10(5) reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the (15)N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  9. Genotypic diversity of beet curly top virus populations in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C; McMahon, C L

    1997-07-01

    ABSTRACT The genotypic diversity of beet curly top virus (BCTV) present in the western United States has been examined by the analysis of 58 field isolates and eight laboratory or nursery isolates of the virus. Full-length clones for each isolate have been characterized for genotype by restriction endonuclease mapping. The results indicate that most of the genotypes examined may be classified as variants of the CFH, Worland, or Cal/Logan strains of BCTV. Two genotypes were recovered that appear to share certain genotypic markers of both Worland and CFH strains. Genotypic variants of the CFH and Worland strains and the two genotypes sharing markers of both strains were recovered from field isolates collected during 1994 and 1995. In contrast, the Cal/Logan strain was recovered only from isolates maintained in laboratories or nurseries. Comparisons of restriction endonuclease maps of cloned BCTV genomes revealed considerable variability both within and between strains. Although a total of 43 distinct genotypes of BCTV were identified, only 36 (84%) were recovered from field isolates. Of 37 field isolates for which more than a single clone was recovered, 16 (43%) contained more than a single genotype of one strain, whereas 4 (11%) harbored mixed infections of the CFH and Worland strains. A phylogenetic analysis using 43 characters derived from restriction endonuclease mapping data supported the grouping of 41 genotypes into three taxa consistent with the three currently recognized strains of BCTV. The relationships of the two genotypes sharing genotypic markers of both the Worland and CFH strains to other BCTV genotypes was unresolved in the phylogenetic analysis. Based on the mild symptom phenotype of the isolates from which these two genotypes were recovered and the presence of Worland genotypic markers in portions of the genome containing both cis- and trans-acting elements determining replication specificity, these two genotypes were tentatively considered as

  10. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  11. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  12. Rhizomania as seen from inside the beet cell: Identifying proteome differences between sugarbeet infected with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and healthy sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sugarbeet. The disease is characterized by excessive growth of lateral roots and constriction of the taproot, the main sucrose storage site in sugarbeet, resulting in decreased ...

  13. Utilization of fodder yeast and agro-industrial by-products in production of spores and biologically - active endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Salama, H S; Foda, M S; Selim, M H; El-Sharaby, A

    1983-01-01

    A number of newly-devised fermentation media were evaluated with respect to their ability to support sporulation and biosynthesis of endotoxins by strains of Bacillus thuringiensis that are biologically active against Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis armigera, and Spodoptera exigua. Fodder yeast from dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a complete mono-component medium for production of highly active spore-delta-endotoxin complexes from B. thur., vars. entomocidus, kurstaki and galleriae. Highest sporulation titers were obtained at 2% fodder yeast concentration with endotoxin yields ranging between 7 to 9 grams per liter of medium. Ground horse beans and kidney bean seeds could also be used successfully as complete media for sporulation and endotoxin production. Extracts of potato tubers and sweet potato roots were efficient media for active endotoxin production from B. thur. var. kurstaki, although the obtained yields were much lower than those produced in fodder yeast media. The utilization of fish meal, cotton seed meal, and residues of chicken from the slaughter-house as media for the production of endotoxins active against Spodoptera littoralis, was not successful. On the other hand, minced citrus peels, ground seeds of dates, and wheat bran could be successfully used in combination with fodder yeast as media for production of endotoxins, active against Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera exigua. Re-utilization of culture supernatants in a second fermentation cycle after supplementation with some nutrients gave promising results with some of the strains tested. The data obtained are discussed in view of their feasibility of application. PMID:6666415

  14. Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.

    PubMed

    Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates. PMID:19552666

  15. Taproot promoters cause tissue specific gene expression within the storage root of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, Heiko; Kloos, Dorothee U; Briess, Waltraud; Pflugmacher, Maike; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The storage root (taproot) of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) originates from hypocotyl and primary root and contains many different tissues such as central xylem, primary and secondary cambium, secondary xylem and phloem, and parenchyma. It was the aim of this work to characterize the promoters of three taproot-expressed genes with respect to their tissue specificity. To investigate this, promoters for the genes Tlp, His1-r, and Mll were cloned from sugar beet, linked to reporter genes and transformed into sugar beet and tobacco. Reporter gene expression analysis in transgenic sugar beet plants revealed that all three promoters are active in the storage root. Expression in storage root tissues is either restricted to the vascular zone (Tlp, His1-r) or is observed in the whole organ (Mll). The Mll gene is highly organ specific throughout different developmental stages of the sugar beet. In tobacco, the Tlp and Mll promoters drive reporter gene expression preferentially in hypocotyl and roots. The properties of the Mll promoter may be advantageous for the modification of sucrose metabolism in storage roots. PMID:16482437

  16. Treatment of beet sugar wastewater by UAFB bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Mehrdad; Borghei, Mehdi; Umrania, Valentina V

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the treatment of strong beet sugar wastewater by an upflow anaerobic fixed bed (UAFB) at pilot plant scale. Three fixed bed bioreactors (each 60 L) were filled with standard industrial packing, inoculated with anaerobic culture (chicken manure, cow manure, anaerobic sludge digested from domestic wastewater) and operated at 32-34 degrees C with 20 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent COD ranging between 2000-8000 mg/L. Under these conditions the maximum efficiency of organic content reduction in the reactor ranged from 75% to 93%. The reactor filled with standard pall rings made of polypropylene with an effective surface area of 206 m(2)/m(3) performed best in comparison to the reactor filled with cut polyethylene pipe 134 m(2)/m(3) and reactor filled with PVC packing (50 m(2)/m(3)). There was 2-7% decrease in efficiency with PE while it was 10-16% in case of PVC when compared to standard pall rings. The study provided a very good basis for comparing the effect of packing in reduction efficiency of the system. PMID:17391955

  17. Compartmentation of Malate in Relation to Ion Absorption in Beet

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, C. B.; Laties, George G.

    1969-01-01

    Malate in beet discs treated in different salt solutions was labeled by a 30 min pulse of 14CO2, and subsequent changes in specific activity were followed for several hr. In treatments which resulted in net acid synthesis in response to excess cation absorption, malate specific activity fell slowly after removal of 14CO2. In solutions where no net acid synthesis occurred, and from which cation and anion were absorbed equally, malate specific activity fell rapidly when 14CO2 was removed. The foregoing suggests that the net synthesis of organic acids in response to excess cation absorption leads to the removal of organic anions from cytoplasmic metabolic pools as counter-ions in salt transport to the vacuole. The latter hypothesis was further examined by direct measurement of the distribution of labeled malate between cytoplasm and vacuole using the wash-exchange method of compartmental analysis, previously described for inorganic ions. The method satisfied the criterion of exchange specificity necessary for this purpose. Much higher retention of label in the cytoplasm was observed in KCl solutions (no net synthesis) than in K2SO4 solutions (net synthesis) after 3 hr 14CO2 fixation and subsequent wash-exchange. The observed distribution is consistent with the rapid removal of organic anions to the vacuole during net acid synthesis. The significance of organic acid transport in relation to metabolism is discussed. PMID:16657035

  18. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  19. Recent advances in functional genomics for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) improvement: progress in determining the role of BvSTI in pest resistance in roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain knowledge of root resistance mechanisms in sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L., our laboratory has been studying the interaction of sugar beet with its most devastating insect pest, the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM; Tetanops myopaeformis Roder). Damage from SBRM infestations is a serious problem a...

  20. E-Screen evaluation of sugar beet feedstuffs in a case of reduced embryo transfer efficiencies in cattle: the role of phytoestrogens and zearalenone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The E-Screen assay was used to evaluate the estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products obtained from a dairy farm experiencing low success rates of embryo transfer. The beet tailings had ~ 3 fold the estradiol equivalents of the pelleted beet pulp (3.9 and 1.2 µg estradiol equivalents or E2Eq/kg dry m...

  1. Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

  2. The characterization of sugar beet pectin using the EcoSEC® GPC system coupled to multi-angle light scattering, quasi-elastic light scattering, and differential viscometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to increase the use of low valued co-products derived from the processing of sugar beets has prompted the investigation of the structure of the pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp. The characterization of sugar beet pectin is essential as it has the potential to be used in the production ...

  3. Identification of Sugar Beet Germplasm EL51 as a Source of Resistance to Post-Emergence Rhizoctonia Damping-Off

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani is a major agent of seedling stand declines in Michigan sugar beet production. Disease progress, starting from 2-week-old sugar beet seedlings, was scored daily over the following ca. two weeks in a controlled environment, using two AG-2-2 isolates and two AG-4 i...

  4. Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that α-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

  5. Varying Response of Sugar Beet Lines to Different Fusarium Oxysporum F. sp. Betae Isolates from the United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae, the cause of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet, were tested for their interaction with different sugar beet lines. In addition, two of these isolates were tested in the presence or absence of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii. Differen...

  6. Potassium Uptake Efficiency and Dynamics in the Rhizosphere of Maize, Wheat, and Sugar Beet Evaluated with a Mechanistic Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant species differ in nutrient uptake efficiency. With a pot experiment, we evaluated potassium (K) uptake efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a low-K soil. Sugar beet and wheat maintained higher shoot K concentrations, indica...

  7. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet... State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which... sugarcane processors according to the statute and the regulations in 7 CFR part 1435 and made...

  8. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  9. Population dynamics of the beet leafhopper in northeastern Oregon and incidence of the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet leafhoppers were collected weekly on yellow sticky traps placed at 35 locations in Morrow and Umatilla Counties in northeastern Oregon in April through November 2007, 2008, and 2009. Insects were counted, collected, and a subset of the insects was tested for the presence of the beet leafhopper...

  10. Beet curly top resistance of released germplasm from the USDA-ARS program at Fort Collins, CO, 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms released from the USDA-ARS Breeding Program in Fort Collins, Colorado over the last 40 years and 27 experimental germplasm were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) in 2009. The curly top evaluation was conducted at the USDA...

  11. Sugar beet breeding lines evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-nine beet sugar beet breeding lines (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service breeding program at Fort Collins, CO, were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rcrr) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. The...

  12. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine...

  13. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  14. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  16. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  17. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  18. Characterization of a population of Fusarium oxysporum, from sugar beet, using the population structure of putative pathogenicity genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WEBB, KIMBERLY M.*, PAUL COVEY, BRETT KUWITZKY, AND MIA HANSON, USDA-ARS, Sugar Beet Research Unit, 1701 Centre Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80526. Characterization of a population of Fusarium oxysporum, from sugar beet, using the population structure of putative pathogenicity genes. Fusarium oxysp...

  19. Distribution and molecular characterization of resistance-breaking isolates of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is the causal agent of rhizomania disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The virus is transmitted by the plasmodiophorid Polymyxa betae. The disease can only be controlled effectively by the use of partially resistant cultivars. During 2003 and 2004 in the ...

  20. [Characteristics of virus double-stranded RNA, isolated from microscopic fungi parasitizing on sugar beet].

    PubMed

    Mel'nychuk, M D; Spyrydonov, V H; Oleksiienko, I P

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out comparative studies of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of viral nature isolated from sugar beet leaves and from mycelium of microscopic fungi using different methods such as PAAG electrophoresis and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was shown that the fragments of dsRNA from sugar beet leaves and from mycelium microscopic fungi had the identical electrophoretic pattern and the same size (1.8 and 2.0 kbp). Using PCR technique it was shown, that isolated dsRNA have a common template for amplification. Electron microscopy of PCR-positive mycelium allows us to detect the virus particles of the spherical form with diameter 30-40 nm. The obtained data confirm our previous suppositions, concerning the belonging of isolated dsRNAs (size 1.8 and 2.0 kbp) to new mycovirus targeted a microscopic fungus, instead of beet cryptic viruses. PMID:16250236

  1. A simple analytical method for dhurrin content evaluation in cyanogenic plants for their utilization in fodder and biofumigation.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Leoni, Onofrio; Malaguti, Lorena; Bernardi, Roberta; Lazzeri, Luca

    2011-08-10

    Cyanogenic plants have some potential as biocidal green manure crops in limiting several soilborne pests and pathogens. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. sudanense (P.) Stapf), in fact, contain the cyanogenic glucoside p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside (dhurrin) as a substrate of its secondary defensive system able to release hydrogen cyanide following tissue lesions due to biotic or abiotic factors. Given that dhurrin content is correlated with the biofumigant efficacy of the plants, a high dhurrin content could be a positive character for utilization of sorghum and Sudangrass as biocidal green manure plants. For chemical characterization of the available germplasm, a simple, safe, and accurate method is necessary. In this paper, a new method for dhurrin analysis, based on methanol extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, is reported and discussed. The feasibility of this analytical procedure was tested by evaluating dhurrin level in roots and stems during cultivation of four different sorghum and Sudangrass varieties in agronomic trials performed in 2008 in the Po valley (Italy). The dhurrin content ranged from 0.16 ± 0.04 to 7.14 ± 0.32 mg g(-1) on dried matter (DM) in stems and from 1.38 ± 0.02 to 6.57 ± 0.09 mg g(-1) on DM in roots, showing statistical differences among the tested germplasms that could be linked to the efficacy of their utilization as biofumigant plants. The method also opens new perspectives for the characterization of sorgum plants as fodder, for which the presence of dhurrin is considered to be negative for its well-known toxicity. PMID:21707058

  2. Effect of replacing oat fodder with fresh and chopped oak leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and metabolizable energy

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhar, R.; Kannan, A.; Jadhav, R.V.; Singh, Birbal; Mal, and G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing oat fodder (OF) with fresh oak leaves (FOL) or chopped oak leaves (COL) on rumen fermentation and digestibility through in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). Materials and Methods: Nine different diets were prepared by mixing OF with oak leaves (either FOL or COL) in different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The rations were evaluated through Hohenheim IVGPT with 200 mg substrate and 30 ml of buffered rumen liquor. All the syringes were incubated at 39°C for 24 h in buffered rumen liquor of cattle. After 24 h, the total gas production was recorded, and the contents were analyzed for in vitro methane production, protozoa no. and ammonia-N. Results: Chopping (p<0.01) reduced the tannin fractions as well as non-tannin phenol. Increase in levels of oak decreased total gas production, methane, organic matter (OM) digestibility, and metabolizable energy (ME) values. The polyphenol content of the substrate did not show any significant difference on the protozoal count. Conclusion: In vitro studies revealed that the addition of oak leaves reduced the methane production and ammonia nitrogen levels; however, it also decreased the OM digestibility and ME values linearly as the level of the oak leaves increased in the diet. Chopping was effective only at lower inclusion levels. Further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to explore the safe inclusion levels of oak leaves in the diet of ruminants. PMID:27047192

  3. Mutational analysis of the monopartite geminivirus beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J; Latham, J R; Pinner, M S; Bedford, I; Markham, P G

    1992-11-01

    Mutants of the monopartite geminivirus beet curly top virus have been screened for infectivity and symptom development in Nicotiana benthamiana and Beta vulgaris, for replication competence in N. benthamiana leaf discs, and for transmission by the leafhopper Circulifer tenellus. Disruption of open reading frame (ORF) V2 by the introduction of a termination codon resulted in symptomless infection of N. benthamiana associated with low levels of virus and reduced single-stranded (ss) DNA and prevented systemic infection of B. vulgaris. Reduced levels of ssDNA were produced by the mutant in N. benthamiana leaf discs, suggesting that V2 affects the synthesis or accumulation of this viral DNA form. Mutants in which ORF C2 had been truncated by the introduction of termination codons or by frame-shifting remained highly infectious and induced severe symptoms in both N. benthamiana and B. vulgaris. Similarly, a mutant containing a termination codon within ORF C3 was highly infectious and induced severe symptoms in N. benthamiana although infectivity in B. vulgaris was greatly reduced, symptoms were extremely mild, and virus levels were low. A synergistic effect of a double mutation in ORFs C2 and C3, manifested by the inability of mutants to systemically infect N. benthamiana and the production of reduced amounts of ssDNA in N. benthamiana leaf discs, suggests that both ORFs are functional in this host. A mutant containing a termination codon within the 5' terminus of ORF C4 produced severe symptoms in both N. benthamiana and B. vulgaris resembling those induced by wild-type virus. Comparison with the phenotypes of previously characterized ORF C4 mutants suggests that a conserved core sequence of this ORF is an important symptom determinant. ORF C2, C3, and C4 mutants produced virus particles and were transmitted by C. tenellus, eliminating agroinoculation as a contributory factor to the mutant phenotypes. Our results are compared with those derived from mutagenesis studies

  4. Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Grusak, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies were undertaken on a simplified single source leaf-single sink leaf, or single source leaf-double sink leaf sugar beet system to investigate the responsive nature of the long-distance phloem translocation system to localized cooling perturbations on the source leaf petiole. Experiments were performed by using a steady state (/sup 14/C)-labelling system for the source leaf, and translocation into the sink leaf (leaves) was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller system. A specially designed Peltier apparatus enabled cooling of the source petiole to 1/sup 0/C (or other desired temperatures) at various positions on the petiole, over different lengths, and at different rates of cooling. Initial experiment were designed to test the predictions of a mathematical recovery model of translocation inhibited by cold. The results did not support the mathematical model, but did suggest that vascular anastomoses may be involved in the recovery response. Selective petiolar incision/excision experiments showed that anastomoses were capable of re-establishing translocation following a disruption of flow. Studies with two monitored sink levels suggested that the inhibition to slow-coolings was not due to reduced translocation through the cooled source petiole region, but rather, was due to a repartitioning of flow among the terminal sinks (sink leaves and hypocotyl/crown region above the heat-girdled root). This repartitioning occurred via a redirection of flow through the vascular connections in the crown region of the plant, and appeared to be promoted by rapid, physical signals originating from the cooled region of the petiole.

  5. Data on milk dioxin contamination linked with the location of fodder croplands allow to hypothesize the origin of the pollution source in an Italian valley.

    PubMed

    Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Baioni, Elisa; Crescio, Maria Ines; Scortichini, Giampiero; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Sparagna, Bruno; Cuttica, Giancarlo; Ru, Giuseppe

    2014-11-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) have similar toxic, endocrine-disrupting, and carcinogenic activity. They are classified as persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the environment and the tissues of living organisms. High concentrations of PCDD/F and dl-PCB have been detected in bovine milk collected in a Piedmont valley (Northwestern Italy) since 2004. This geographic study describes the local distribution of pollution from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since their presence in animal products could be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated fodder, dioxin levels in cow milk were related to the distribution of fodder cropland parcels. Specifically, the aim of the study was to determine, through an exploratory approach, whether the contamination was consistent with one common point source of contamination or different scattered sources. Data for PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations in the bulk milk from 27 herds, sampled over a 4-year period (2004-2007), were matched to the georeferenced land parcels the dairy farmers used for growing fodder. Isopleth maps of dioxin concentrations were estimated with ordinary kriging. The highest level of pollution for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was geographically juxtaposed: in both instances, the location of the local steel plant was within this extremely highly polluted area. The study results support the hypothesis for one common point source of contamination in the valley. The exploratory spatial analysis applied in this research may provide a valuable, novel approach to straightforward identification of a highly likely source of dioxin contamination of dairy products (even in the absence of top soil contamination data). PMID:25194902

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the global structure of microwave-assisted alkaline soluble polysaccharides (ASP) isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of these polysaccharides during extraction. Prior to ASP microwave assisted-extraction (...

  7. Global structure of microwave-assisted flash extracted sugar beet pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the global structure of microwave assisted, flash extracted pectins isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of pectin molecules during extraction. We have characterized these pectins by HPSEC with light scatter...

  8. Biodegradable composites from polyester and sugar beet pulp with antimicrobial coating for food packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Totally biodegradable, double-layered antimicrobial composite Sheets were introduced for food packaging. The substrate layers of the sheets were prepared from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) or poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and SBP by a twin-screw extruder. The ac...

  9. Inheritance of resistance to Beet curly top virus in G122 common bean landrace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. G122, an Andean landrace from India, known as Jatu Rong, appears to possess resistance independent of Bct-1 gen...

  10. Inheritance of resistance to Beet curly top virus in the G122 common bean landrace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. G122, an Andean landrace from India, known as Jatu Rong, appears to possess resistance independent of Bct-1 gen...

  11. Response of BGMV and BGYMV resistant common bean to beet curly top virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses can be severe when susceptible large-seeded Andean dry and green bean cultivars are planted early in dry areas with a history of curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and closely related species. In order to assess the level of curly top resistance in 65 diverse dry and green ...

  12. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  13. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis of sugar beet pectin-protein complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin is a complex heteropolysaccharide found in the cell walls of terrestrial plants. Among its properties, emulsification is of interest in industrial applications for food products. Pectin extracted from sugar beet (Beta vulgaries) pulp, a sub-product of the sugar extraction process, shows exc...

  14. Preparation and properties of water and glycerol-plasticized sugar beet pulp plastics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP), the residue from sugar extraction, was compounded and turned into thermoplastic composite materials. The compounding was performed using a common twin screw compounding extruder and water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The plasticization of SBP utilized the water-solu...

  15. Functional differentiation of the sugar beet root system as indicator of developmental phase change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental phase transition in the plant root system has not been well characterized. In this study we compared the dynamics of sucrose accumulation with gene expression changes analyzed with cDNA-AFLP in the tap root system of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) during the first nine weeks after emerg...

  16. The America Society of Sugar Beet Technologist, advancing sugarbeet research for 75 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists (ASSBT) was created 75 years ago when a group of researchers that had been meeting informally as the Sugarbeet Roundtable adopted the constitution and by-laws that provided the basis for an organization that continues to foster the exchange of ideas a...

  17. Whole genome sequencing of sugarbeet and identification of differentially expressed genes regulating beet curly top resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of KDH13 doubled haploid line has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 NGS platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end and a 2kb-insert mate-pair genomic libraries, constructed from a leaf ...

  18. Virus induced gene silencing of a gene repressing flowering in sugar beet.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to a prolonged cold period during winter is necessary for flowering in the next spring in many biennial plants - a process termed vernalization. We have described BvFL1, a vernalization gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), which is a repressor of flowering that is downregulated in response ...

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of protein associated polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 67 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We have solubilized and separated polysaccharides from SBP into three fractions with steam assisted flash extraction (SAFE) employed to solubilize the first and second fractions. Pectin, the first fract...

  20. Differential Sugar Beet gene expression during the defense response to challenge by Cercospora beticola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc. (Saccardo, 1867) (C. beticola) is a widespread foliar disease of sugar beet that causes reduced sugar and root yield. It can become a problem in many production areas in the U.S. and world-wide. The study of host resistance ...

  1. First report of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet caused by F. oxysporum in Michigan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in the western United States, and has recently been reported in the Red River Valley. The primary causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2005, beet samples were found in Michigan with symptoms typical of Fusarium yellows. Isolates of Fusarium o...

  2. EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE SUGAR BEET TRANSPORT WATER SOLIDS DEWATERING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate a full-scale vacuum filtration system for dewatering solids removed from the transport water in an operating beet sugar plant in terms of operational reliability and efficiency, economics, and ultimate disposal of the dewatered solids...

  3. Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Sugar Beet Dietary Fibre.

    PubMed

    Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Medić, Đorđe; Tadić, Vanja; Marković, Goran; Gyura, Julliana; Pagano, Ester; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Milić, Nataša

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine if hydrogen peroxide treatment of sugar beet fibre that aimed at improving its physicochemical properties would impair its antioxidant potential. Three different sugar beet fibres were obtained from sugar beet - non-treated fibre (NTF) from sugar beet cossettes extracted with sulphurous acid, treated fibre (TF) from NTF treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and commercially available Fibrex(®) . The antioxidant activity of extractable and non-extractable fibre fractions in ethanol/water mixture (80:20, v/v) of three fibre samples was estimated. Non-extractable fractions obtained after alkaline treatment of investigated fibres were much higher in phenolic compounds and possessed higher antioxidant potential than extractable fractions. Ferulic acid was proven to be the dominant phenolic acid. Regarding both extractable and non-extractable fractions, Fibrex(®) had the highest antioxidant activity in chemical tests, while NTF was superior in comparison with TF. Based on the results of Caco-2 cells-based test, all non-extractable fractions possessed potential for reactive oxygen species inhibition. Regarding the extractable fractions, only the TF manifested this effect.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26929014

  4. Effects of Vanadate on the Plasma Membrane ATPase of Red Beet and Corn 1

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sharman D.; Spanswick, Roger M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vanadate on the plant plasma membrane ATPase were investigated in plasma membrane fractions derived from corn roots (Zea mays L.) and red beets (Beta vulgaris L.). The Ki for vanadate inhibition of the plasma membrane ATPase from corn roots and red beets was between 6 and 15 micromolar vanadate. In both membrane fractions, 80% to 90% of the total ATPase was inhibited at vanadate concentrations below 100 micromolar. Vanadate inhibition was optimal at pH 6.5, enhanced by the presence of K+, and was partially reversed by 1 millimolar EDTA. The Mg:ATP kinetics for the plasma membrane ATPase were hyperbolic in both the absence and presence of vanadate. Vanadate decreased both the Km and Vmax of the red beet plasma membrane ATPase, indicating that vanadate inhibits the ATPase uncompetitively. These results indicate many similarities with respect to vanadate inhibition between the plant plasma membrane ATPase and other major iontranslocating ATPases from fungal and animal cells. The high sensitivity to vanadate reported here, however, differs from other reports of vanadate inhibition of the plant plasma membrane ATPase from corn, beets, and in some instances oats. PMID:16663670

  5. Plant Phenolics as Radiation Protectants For The Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen phenolics were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). After 30 minute exposure to UVB/UVB radiation, eleven SeMNPV/phenolic combinations provided good to excellent UV protection when used at a concentra...

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of a cellulosic fraction from sugar beet pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The residue of sugar beet pulp from which pectin and alkaline soluble polysaccharides have been removed by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) or conventional heat was treated with sodium monochloroacetate under alkaline pH to convert the residual cellulose present to carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)....

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes induced by beet curly top virus infection in sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to beet curly top virus (BCTV) trait is crucial in Western USA. There is sparse public knowledge of genes regulating resistance. This research focused on gene expression profiling of resistance to the three BCTV strains: Cal/Logan (Cal), Worland (Wor), and severe. Differential gene exp...

  8. Leuconostoc spp. associated with root rot in sugar beet and their interaction with rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc. Since, the initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly underst...

  9. CFP Positive Progeny from Genetic Crosses of Elite Germplasm with a Transgenic Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to Cercospora leaf spot disease, a serious problem for sugar beet production in most growing regions, has historically not been very amenable to genetic improvement by traditional means since only moderate resistance occurs naturally and it is multigenic with low heritability. Therefore, ...

  10. Evaluations of Bollgard, Bollgard II, and Widestrike technologies against beet and fall armyworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons containing the Bollgard®, Bollgard II® and WideStrike® traits were grown in 2005 and 2007 to examine the efficacy against beet [Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)] and fall armyworms [S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith)]. Results suggest that both dual-gene traits are more efficacious against th...

  11. Ethanol fermentation of energy beets by self-flocculating and non-flocculating yeasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Steven Green, V; Ge, Xumeng; Savary, Brett J; Xu, Jianfeng

    2014-03-01

    Specialized varieties of sugar beets (Energy Beets™) are being developed for producing industrial sugars in Arkansas' Mississippi River Delta. To evaluate their suitability for producing regional fermentation feedstocks, we report initial cultivation trials and ethanol fermentation of raw beet juice and combined juice with pulp mash (JPM) liquefied with enzymes, comparing ethanol yields under different regimes by self-flocculating and non-flocculating yeasts. Nine varieties produced root yields averaging 115Mg/ha and 18.5% sucrose contents. Raw beet juice fermentation yielded ethanol up to 0.48g/g (sugar). JPM was directly fermented through either a sequential (SeqSF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. For both yeast types, SSF was a more efficient process than SeqSF, with ethanol yields up to 0.47g/g (sugar) and volumetric productivity up to 7.81g/L/h. These results indicate the self-flocculating yeast is suitable for developing efficient bioprocesses to ferment industrial sugar from energy beets. PMID:24462879

  12. High-throughput RAD-SNP genotyping for characterization of sugar beet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput SNP genotyping provides a rapid way of developing resourceful set of markers for delineating the genetic architecture and for effective species discrimination. In the presented research, we demonstrate a set of 192 SNPs for effective genotyping in sugar beet using high-throughput mar...

  13. Nucleotide Sequence Analyses of a Sugar Beet Genomic NPR1-class Disease Resistance Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is centrally controlled by the NPR1 gene that modulates multiple disease response pathways. A homolog of NPR1 was isolated from Beta vulgaris as a first step in deducing the potentially similarly important role of this gene for sugar beet disease resistanc...

  14. Beet Juice-Induced Green Fabrication of Plasmonic AgCl/Ag Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, green, and fast approach (complete within 5 min) was explored for the fabrication of hybrid AgCl/Ag plasmonic nanoparticles under microwave (MW) irradiation. In this method, beet juice served as a reducing reagent, which is an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce. I...

  15. INFLUENCE OF HOST RESISTANCE AND INSECTICIDE SEED TREATMENTS ON CURLY TOP IN SUGAR BEETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top on sugarbeets caused by Beet severe curly top virus or closely related strains is a considerable problem in arid growing regions of the western United States. Two insecticide seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g ai clothianidin + 8 g ai beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Gaucho (45 g ai imid...

  16. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  17. The measurement of mannitol in sugar beet factories to monitor deterioration and processing problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet deterioration can still be a major technological constraint in processing. The major (but not sole) contributor to deterioration in many countries, particularly when warm and humid conditions prevail, is infection by hetero-fermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides lactic acid bacteria. In...

  18. Fractionation of sugar beet pulp into pectin, cellulose, and arabinose by arabinases combined with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Spangnuolo, M.; Crecchio, C.; Pizzigallo, M.D.R.; Ruggiero, P.

    1999-09-20

    Incubation of beet pulp with two arabinases ({alpha}-L-arabinofuranosidase and endo-arabinase), used singularly or in combination at different units of activity per gram of beet pulp, caused the hydrolysis of arabinasn, which produced a hydrolyzate consisting mainly of arabinose. Pectin and a residue enriched with cellulose were subsequently separated from the incubation mixture. The best enzymatic hydrolysis results were obtained when 100 U/g of beet pulp of each enzyme worked synergistically with yields of 100% arabinose and 91.7% pectin. These yields were higher than those obtained with traditional chemical hydrolysis. The pectin fraction showed a low content of neutral sugar content and the cellulose residue contained only a small amount of pentoses. Semicontinuous hydrolysis with enzyme recycling in an ultrafiltration unit was also carried out to separate arabinose, pectin, and cellulose from beet pulp in 7 cycles of hydrolysis followed by ultrafiltration. The yields of separation were similar to those obtained in batch experiments, with an enzyme consumption reduced by 3.5 times and some significant advantages over batch processes.

  19. Determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for measurement of the sucrose content of sugar beet was investigated with two portable spectrometers that cover the spectral regions of 400-1,100 nm and 900-1,600 nm, respectively. Spectra in interactance mode were collected first from 398 i...

  20. Stalk rot of sugar beet caused by Fusarium solani on the Pacific coast.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight can cause loss of seed production in sugar beet. The only known causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2006, plants that had been grown as stecklings in Oregon and planted in the greenhouse in California for seed production showed symptoms of stalk blight. In add...

  1. Sugar Beets, Segregation, and Schools: Mexican Americans in a Northern Colorado Community, 1920-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Ruben

    2003-01-01

    What was unique about the Mexican American experience in Fort Collins (Colorado) was the extent to which the Great Western Sugar Company colonized Mexican workers. They lived in Mexican colonies, separate neighborhoods, or remote locations on sugar beet farms. In public schools, Mexican Americans were perceived as intellectually inferior and were…

  2. Yield potential of spring-harvested sugar beet depends on autumn planting time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar crops grown for biofuel production provide a source of simple sugars that can readily be made into advanced biofuels. In the mild climate of the southeastern USA, sugar beet can be grown as a winter crop, providing growers with an alternative crop. Experiments evaluated autumn planting dates...

  3. Polysaccharides isolated from sugar beet pulp by quaternization under acidic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp was extracted and chemically modified under acidic conditions using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the presence of trifuoroacetic (TFA), HCl or H3PO4. The goal was to find out how the type of acid used and quaternization could affect the yield of soluble polysaccharide, its mo...

  4. Biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings: characterization and phosphate removal potential.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Inyang, Mandu; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Cao, Xinde; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-05-01

    Two biochars were produced from anaerobically digested and undigested sugar beet tailings through slow-pyrolysis at 600°C. The digested sugar beet tailing biochar (DSTC) and raw sugar beet tailing biochar (STC) yields were around 45.5% and 36.3% of initial dry weight, respectively. Compared to STC, DSTC had similar pH and surface functional groups, but higher surface area, and its surface was less negatively charged. SEM-EDS and XRD analyses showed that colloidal and nano-sized periclase (MgO) was presented on the surface of DSTC. Laboratory adsorption experiments were conducted to assess the phosphate removal ability of the two biochars, an activated carbon (AC), and three Fe-modified biochar/AC adsorbents. The DSTC showed the highest phosphate removal ability with a removal rate around 73%. Our results suggest that anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings can be used as feedstock materials to produce high quality biochars, which could be used as adsorbents to reclaim phosphate. PMID:21450461

  5. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. PMID:25442590

  6. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT–PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

  7. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

  8. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L) as a Biofuel Feedstock in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is a biennial plant, which produces an enlarged root and hypocotyl in the first year, in which it stores sucrose that provides energy used to flower in the next season. Technically, conversion of sugar to ethanol is a simple process requiring only yeast fermentation. A 2006 USDA study c...

  9. Evaluation of sugar beet germplasm and plant introductions response to rhizomania and storability in Idaho, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar beet industry requires that all cultivars must posse’s high level of genetic resistance to rhizomania. The objectives of this research were to identify germplasm and accessions that carry novel resistance genes so as to be utilized in the breeding program. Sixteen accessions and checks we...

  10. Cross Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae on Sugar Beet and Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, also known as Fusarium yellows, is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Fusarium oxysporum is a vascular pathogen with a broad host range including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with formae speciales (f. sp.) defined by the ability to cause ...

  11. Fractionation of sugar beet pulp by introducing ion-exchange groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) was chemically modified with the goal to utilize this method for the preparation of water-soluble polysaccharides. Yields of the trimethylammoniumhydroxypropylated (TMAHP) polysaccharide fractions prepared under vacuum in absence of NaOH or KOH, as well as their molar masses, w...

  12. Comparative infectivity of homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses against beet armyworm larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) were assayed to determine the most effective NPV against beet armyworm larvae, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(SeMNPV). Included were three isolates from S. exigua, one isolate each from S. littoralis Boisduval, S. litura...

  13. The American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists advancing sugarbeet research for 75 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists (ASSBT) was created 75 years ago when a group of researchers that had been meeting informally as the Sugarbeet Roundtable adopted the constitution and by-laws that provided the basis for an organization that continues to foster the exchange of ideas a...

  14. Differential sugar beet gene expression during the defense response to challenge by Cercospora beticola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola Sacc., is a widespread foliar disease of sugar beet that causes reduced sugar and root yield. It can become a problem in many production areas in the U.S. and world-wide. The study of host resistance is important for the understa...

  15. Assessment of strobilurin resistance in Cercospora beticola in on sugar beet in Michigan and Nebraska, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most important foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) worldwide. CLS is controlled mainly with fungicides, including strobilurins (FRAC group 11). Resistance to strobilurins in C. beticola was first identified in 2011 from s...

  16. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Isa C.; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Veloso, Maria M.; Simoes-Costa, Maria C.; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S.; Ricardo, Cândido P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  17. Methane emissions from river buffaloes fed on green fodders in relation to the nutrient [corrected] intake and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Mohini, Madhu; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kumar, Ajay; Datt, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen male Murrah buffalo calves (15-18 months, 227.98 ± 4.44 kg body weight) were distributed randomly in to three equal groups and fed solely on either berseem (G1), oats (G2), or chicory fodder (G3). A digestibility trial followed by methane measurement using SF6 tracer technique was conducted. No significant difference was observed in nutrient intake; however, crude protein (CP) intake was lower in G2 (0.35 kg) than G1 (0.7) and in G3 (0.71) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), and neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) intake was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in G3 (1.54 and 0.31 kg) followed by G2 (1.27 and 0.2 kg) and G1 (1.06 and 0.18 kg). The digestible dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and ether extract intake was similar in all the groups, whereas the digestible CP and NFC intake was lower in G2 compared to G1 and G3. Chicory- and berseem-fed groups emitted 12.2 and 5.2 % less methane than oats-fed group. However, no significant difference was observed in the absolute methane loss and methane loss as percentage of energy intake (p > 0.05) among the groups. There was positive correlation between nutrient intake and total methane production. However, an inverse relationship was observed between total digestible carbohydrate intake and methane production (g/kg dry matter intake). The following regression equations were developed to estimate methane production: methane (g/kg BW) = 128.8553 + (167.7456 × dNDFI) + (216.32 × dCPI) - (40.3313 × dNFCI) and methane (g/d) = -1.7494 + (41.42 × NDFI) + (39.8686 × CPI) + (0.5197 × NFCI). PMID:23857630

  18. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  19. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance of Beta PIs from the USDA-ARS NPGS, 2007.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-two plant introductions (PI) from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) (including garden beet, sugar beet, leaf beet, fodder beet, and wild beet) were evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot. The trial was a randomized complete-block design with five replications in ...

  20. Influence of mode of storage and drying of fodder on thermophilic actinomycete aerocontamination in dairy farms of the Doubs region of France.

    PubMed Central

    Dalphin, J C; Pernet, D; Reboux, G; Martinez, J; Dubiez, A; Barale, T; Depierre, A

    1991-01-01

    Airborne contamination by thermophilic actinomycetes, micromycetes and Gram negative bacteria was determined on 34 dairy farms and related to fodder drying and storage methods. Eighteen farms had a barn drying system, eight with additional heating; the remaining 16 had traditional fodder storage methods. Three air samples were obtained for each farm with a six stage Andersen sampler. The thermophilic actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces and the dominant micromycetes as Aspergillus spp; there was no relation between the levels of these organisms. There were fewer thermophilic actinomycete colonies per Petri dish (stage 5 on the Anderson sampler) on farms with barn drying than on those with traditional storage (median (range) 7 (0-2628) and 56 (4-2628) respectively). The three farms where no thermophilic actinomycetes were found had barn drying with heating and the four most modern farms had lower thermophilic actinomycete colony counts than the others (median (range) 3 (0-10) and 48 (0-2628)). The level of thermophilic actinomycetes and, to a lesser degree, of micromycetes was higher where the farmer had farmer's lung. Thermophilic actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyces are probably the antigens associated with farmer's lung in the Doubs, and modern farms with barn drying and heating furnish some protection against this disease. PMID:1948788

  1. PGE2 induces oenocytoid cell lysis via a G protein-coupled receptor in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO activation begins with release of its inactive zymogen, PPO, from oenocytoids in response to prostaglandins (PGs). Based on the biomedical literatur...

  2. Detection of beet yellows virus by RT-PCR and immunocapture RT-PCR in Tetragonia expansa and Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kundu, K; Rysánek, P

    2004-01-01

    Two sensitive methods, RT-PCR with phenol-extracted RNA or Triton X-100-released RNA and immunocapture RT-PCR (IR-RT-PCR) were used for the detection of Beet yellows virus (BYV) in young and old leaves of Tetragonia expansa and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and in sugar beet roots. Four oligonucleotide primer pairs proved suitable for the detection of BYV. The release of BYV RNA with Triton X-100 was shown to be a very effective and easy as compared to isolation of total RNA by phenol extraction with the same or higher sensitivity of subsequent PCR. Using the Triton X-100 release of RNA and IC-RT-PCR the sensitivity of detection was so high that pg amounts of BYV RNA occurring in dilutions up to 10(-6) of saps from young Tetragonia and sugar beet leaves could be detected. PMID:15595212

  3. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet. PMID:27423042

  4. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Dietmar J; Kloos, Dorothee U; Hehl, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12) were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed. PMID:15579211

  5. Biosynthesis, translocation, and accumulation of betaine in sugar beet and its progenitors in relation to salinity.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A D; Wyse, R

    1982-10-01

    Like other halophytic chenopods, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) can accumulate high betaine levels in shoots and roots. N,N,N-trimethylglycine impedes sucrose crystallization and so lowers beet quality. The objective of this research was to examine the genetic variability and physiological significance of betaine accumulation in sugar beet and its relatives. Three cultivated genotypes of B. vulgaris and two genotypes of the wild progenitor B. maritima L. were grown with and without gradual salinization (final NaCl concentration = 150 millimolar). At 6 weeks old, all five genotypes had moderately high betaine levels in shoots and roots when unsalinized (averages for all genotypes: shoots = 108 micromoles per gram dry weight; roots = 99 micromoles per gram dry weight). Salinization raised betaine levels of shoots and roots 2- to 3-fold, but did not greatly depress shoot or root growth. The genotype WB-167-an annual B. maritima type-always had approximately 40% lower betaine levels in roots than the other four genotypes, although the betaine levels in the shoots were not atypically low.THE SITE AND PATHWAY OF BETAINE SYNTHESIS WERE INVESTIGATED IN YOUNG, SALINIZED SUGAR BEET PLANTS BY: (a) supplying 1 micromole [(14)C]ethanolamine to young leaf blades or to the taproot sink of intact plants; (b) supplying tracer [(14)C]formate to discs of leaf, hypocotyl, and taproot tissues in darkness. Conversion of both (14)C precursors to betaine was active only in leaf tissue. Very little (14)C appeared in the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine before betaine was heavily labeled; this was in marked contrast to the labeling patterns in salinized barley. Phosphorylcholine was a prominent early (14)C metabolite of both [(14)C]ethanolamine and [(14)C]formate in all tissues of sugar beet. Betaine translocation was examined in young plants of sugar beet and WB-167 by applying tracer [methyl-(14)C]betaine to a young expanded leaf and determining the distribution of (14)C after 3 days. In

  6. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Hillnhütter, C; Sikora, R A; Oerke, E-C; van Dusschoten, D

    2012-01-01

    Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method. PMID:21948851

  8. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic. PMID

  9. Mitochondrial plasmids of sugar beet amplified via rolling circle method detected during curtovirus screening.

    PubMed

    Homs, Maria; Kober, Sigrid; Kepp, Gabi; Jeske, Holger

    2008-09-01

    Crops of sugar beet have been considerably impaired by infection with Beet curly top virus (BCTV) during the past decades. Quick and reliable diagnostic techniques are therefore desirable to detect this circular single-stranded DNA-containing geminivirus. Techniques combining either tissue printing or blot hybridization, or rolling circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were compared. Although they easily detected BCTV with certainty, both exhibited apparent false positive results which have been scrutinized in closer detail. Uninfected control plants revealed unspecific signals due to probe attachment on tissue blots, and dominant fragment patterns upon RCA/RFLP which did not hybridize with BCTV-specific probes. Cloning and sequencing of these DNA fragments showed that they were amplified from mitochondrial plasmids. Examination of their genome structure revealed no relationship with geminiviruses or their satellites. PMID:18562034

  10. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  11. [Epigenetic variation of the choriflowered--symflowered character in the symflowered sugar beet line SOAN-14].

    PubMed

    Iudanova, S S; Maletskaia, E I; Maletskiĭ, S I

    2012-07-01

    The effect of 5-azacytidine on the variation of the choriflowered (CF)-symflowered (SF) character in sugar beet was studied in several generations obtained via seed reproduction. The epimutagen (5-azacytidine) significantly reduced the number of flowers in glomerate inflorescences in the year of seed treatment and in the next generation (Az1), leading to the appearance of plants with single flowers in bract axils of a flower stalk. The CF character resulting from epimutagene treatment of sugar beet seeds (plants with genotype M(Z)M(Z) was inherited as a monohybrid character in both zygotic and apozygotic seed progenies. The proportion of the CF and SF phenotypes in the progenies was affected bythe chromatid number in the chromosomes (mixoploidy of the cell populations). Alleles of the Mm locus were found to affect the variation in phytomere organization of flower stalks. PMID:22988768

  12. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  13. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i) explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii) investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii) assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of genome-wide association

  14. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service plans to prepare an environmental impact statement in connection with a court-mandated evaluation of the potential impacts on the human environment associated with the Agency's determination of nonregulated status for a Monsanto/KWS SAAT AG sugar beet line, designated as event H7-1. This notice identifies the......

  15. Potential nitrosamine formation and its prevention during biological denitrification of red beet juice.

    PubMed

    Kolb, E; Haug, M; Janzowski, C; Vetter, A; Eisenbrand, G

    1997-02-01

    High nitrate intake has been shown to result in an increased risk of endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds. Certain vegetables and vegetable juices contain high concentrations of nitrate. Biological denitrification using strains of Paracoccus denitrificans (P.d.) has been proposed as effective means to reduce nitrate contents in such vegetable juices. During this bacterial denitrification process, substantial nitrite concentrations are transiently formed. This study investigated whether N-nitrosation reactions might occur. The easily nitrosatable amine morpholine was added to red beet juice at high concentration (100 ppm) during denitrification 10 different batches of red beet juice served as raw material. Each batch was submitted to denitrification in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid. In the absence of ascorbic acid, formation of N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was observed in the low ppb range (0.5-8 ppb). Addition of ascorbic acid (500 mg/litre) inhibited the formation of NMOR, except for those instances where the pH was less than 6 and/or nitrate turnover was low (< 200 mg NO3-/litre/hr). Under conditions leading to high rates of nitrate turnover (> 200 mg NO3-/litre/hr), nitrosamine formation can reliably be prevented by ascorbic acid. The results show that bacterial denitrification of red beet juice high in nitrate can be accomplished without the risk of nitrosamine formation. PMID:9146735

  16. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. PMID:24039080

  17. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

  18. Pyrolysis kinetics of blends of Yeni Celtek lignite and sugar beet pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Devrim, Y.G.

    2008-07-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of the Yeni Celtek lignite/sugar beet pulp blends prepared at different ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in the present study. All the experiments were carried out in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions with a heating rate range of 30 K/min in the pyrolysis temperature interval of 298-1,173 K. The Arrhenius model is applied to determine the kinetic parameters from TG/DTG curves. Apparent activation energies of the lignite and sugar beet pulp were calculated as 51.55 kJ/mol and 97.27 kJ/mol, respectively. Activation energies of the blends were also calculated and were found to vary between 54.87 and 74.83 kJ/mol. Effects of blending ratio of lignite to sugar beet pulp on kinetic parameters were investigated and the results were discussed.

  19. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet. PMID:26474333

  20. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii)

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Steven J.; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management. PMID:24964150

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus.

    PubMed

    Son, Seungmin; Oh, Chang Jae; An, Chung Sun

    2014-09-01

    Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4). To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection. PMID:25289013

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seungmin; Oh, Chang Jae; An, Chung Sun

    2014-01-01

    Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4). To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection. PMID:25289013

  3. The influence of leaf photosynthetic efficiency and stomatal closure on canopy carbon uptake and evapotranspiration - a model study in wheat and sugar beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schickling, A.; Graf, A.; Pieruschka, R.; Plückers, C.; Geiß, H.; Lai, I.-L.; Schween, J. H.; Erentok, K.; Schmidt, M.; Wahner, A.; Crewell, S.; Rascher, U.

    2010-09-01

    In this study two crop species, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), were monitored over the course of five days during the entire season. We investigated the link of the main physiological leaf-level mechanisms, stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion on canopy transpiration and photosynthetic CO2 uptake. The physiological status of 900 leaves of different plants in a natural canopy was characterized on the leaf level using chlorophyll fluorescence. Gas exchange measurements were performed at leaves of 12 individual plants of each species. Eddy covariance flux measurements provided information on CO2, water and energy fluxes on the field scale. The diurnal pattern of stomatal resistance on the leaf level was especially for sugar beet similar to the canopy resistance, which indicates that stomatal resistance may have a large impact on the bulk canopy resistance. The diurnal changes in canopy resistance appeared to have less effect on the evapotranspiration, which was mainly dependent on the amount of incoming radiation. The similar diurnal pattern of water use efficiency on the leaf level and on the canopy level during the day, underline the influence of physiological mechanisms of leaves on the canopy. The greatest difference between water use efficiency on leaf and canopy occurred in the morning, mainly due to an increase of stomatal resistance. Limitation of CO2 uptake occurred in the afternoon when water vapor pressure deficit increased. Maxima of net ecosystem productivity corresponded to the highest values of photosynthetic capacity of single leaves, which occurred before solar noon. Within the course of a few hours, photosynthetic efficiency and stomatal resistance of leaves varied and these variations were the reason for diurnal variations in the carbon fluxes of the whole field. During the seasonal development, the leaf area index was the main factor driving carbon and water exchange, when both

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Beta macrocarpa and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in Response to Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huiyan; Zhang, Yongliang; Sun, Haiwen; Liu, Junying; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xianbing; Li, Dawei; Yu, Jialin; Han, Chenggui

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhizomania is one of the most devastating diseases of sugar beet. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. Beta macrocarpa, a wild beet species widely used as a systemic host in the laboratory, can be rub-inoculated with BNYVV to avoid variation associated with the presence of the vector P. betae. To better understand disease and resistance between beets and BNYVV, we characterized the transcriptome of B. macrocarpa and analyzed global gene expression of B. macrocarpa in response to BNYVV infection using the Illumina sequencing platform. Results The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 75,917 unigenes, with an average length of 1054 bp. Based on a BLASTX search (E-value ≤ 10−5) against the non-redundant (NR, NCBI) protein, Swiss-Prot, the Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, there were 39,372 unigenes annotated. In addition, 4,834 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also predicted, which could serve as a foundation for various applications in beet breeding. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes revealed that 261 genes were differentially expressed in infected compared to control plants, including 128 up- and 133 down-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that the changes in the differently expressed genes were mainly enrichment in response to biotic stimulus and primary metabolic process. Conclusion Our results not only provide a rich genomic resource for beets, but also benefit research into the molecular mechanisms of beet- BNYV Vinteraction. PMID:26196682

  5. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    PubMed

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile. PMID:22252364

  6. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products. PMID:20050665

  7. Enhanced L-lysine production from pretreated beet molasses by engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong; Qian, Juan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-08-01

    Faster sugar consumption rate and low-cost nitrogen source are required for the chemical biosynthesis using molasses. Five pretreatment methods were applied to beet molasses prior to fermentation through engineered Escherichia coli, respectively, and corn steep liquid was used as an organic nitrogen source to replace expensive yeast extract. Furthermore, the effects of different feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation on L-lysine production were investigated. The experimental results showed that combined tricalcium phosphate, sulfuric acid, and activated carbon pretreatment method (TPSA) pretreatment could improve the sugar consumption rate most greatly, and the initial total sugar concentration of 35 g/L from TPSA-pretreated beet molasses gave the best results with respect to L-lysine production, dry cell weight concentration, and L-lysine yield in batch fermentation. Moreover, a mixture of low-cost corn steep liquid and yeast extract containing equal amount of nitrogen could be used as the organic nitrogen source for effective L-lysine fermentation, and constant speed feeding strategy of TPSA-pretreated beet molasses promoted L-lysine production by engineered E. coli. The TPSA-pretreated beet molasses had a sugar consumption rate of 1.75 g/(L h), and a L-lysine yield of 27.81% was achieved, compared with the theoretical yield of 62% by glucose. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of sugars in beet molasses to L-lysine. PMID:25899726

  8. Mechanical Property Characterization of Plasticized Sugar Beet Pulp and Poly(lactic acid) Green Composites using Acoustic Emission and Confocal Microscopy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol and glycerol were used to plasticize sugar beet pulp-poly (lactic acid) green composites. The plasticizer was incorporated into sugar beet pulp (SBP)at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/w at low temperature and shear and then compounded with PLA using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. The...

  9. Measurement of moisture, soluble solids, and sucrose content and mechanical properties in sugar beet using portable visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares regression, was used to predict the moisture, soluble solids and sucrose content and mechanical properties of sugar beet. Interactance spectra were acquired from both intact and sliced beets, using two portable spectrometers ...

  10. EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESSED COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L., ON BEET ARMYWORM, SPODOPTERA EXIGUA (HUBNER), OVIPOSITION, AND LARVAL FEEDING PREFERENCES AND GROWTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), has been reported to oviposit more on drought stressed than on non-stressed cotton plants. Using potted cotton plants in cages, this study demonstrated that beet armyworms deposited 3.3, 4.6, and 2.3 times more (P less than or equal to 0.05) eggs on co...

  11. New Research Program at the Sugar Beet Research Unit (USDA-ARS, Ft. Collins) Focusing on Addressing Plant-Pathogen Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases are recognized as a major cause of yield and sugar losses in sugar beet production worldwide. The Fort Collins USDA-ARS Sugarbeet Research Unit (SBRU) mission is to facilitate development of sugar beet germplasm with greater disease resistance and assist in the development of improved and ...

  12. Sugar beet molasses as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Šarić, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses is a raw material with high potential to be a functional ingredient in baked goods. This paper investigated the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies enriched with sugar beet molasses. At all enrichment levels and forms tested (liquid and dry), the addition of beet molasses improved the micronutrient pattern and antioxidative status of gluten-free cookies. The cookies prepared with molasses were significantly higher in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, betaine, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. Molasses contributed to wider spectra of phenolic compounds. The dominating phenolic compounds in the molasses-enriched cookies were catechin, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid. Molasses also contributed to the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the cookies. Addition of molasses increased the content of hydroxymethyfurfural in the cookies, but not above values commonly reported for this product type. Molasses addition improved the overall acceptance of gluten-free cookies up to 30% enrichment level. PMID:26947667

  13. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity. PMID:26572430

  14. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  15. Chemical composition and protein enrichment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp after fermentation by two Trichoderma species

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, F; Zamiri, M. J.; Khorvash, M; Banihashemi, Z; Bayat, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment aimed at increasing orange peel and sugar beet pulp protein content through solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride. In vitro digestibility and changes in the chemical composition of the fermented products were determined after seven days of fungal cultivation using gas production tests. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on orange peels decreased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and increased cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents (P<0.01). Changes in fiber fractions were found to be more pronounced with T. viride. The cultivation of T. reesei and T. viride on sugar beet pulp increased neutral detergent soluble content (P<0.01) and decreased cellulose and hemicellulose contents (P<0.01). These changes were more pronounced with T. reesei. The cultivation of T. reesei or T. viride on orange peels or sugar beet pulp increased crude protein content (P<0.01) compared with the unfermented materials; however, the increase was more pronounced for orange peels fermented with T. viride when corrected for weight loss (P<0.05). After 24 and 48 h of incubation, significant decreases in cumulative gas production (P<0.01) were observed in fermented sugar beet pulp and orange peels compared with the unfermented materials. Fungal treatment of orange peels and sugar beet pulp reduced the digestibility of in vitro organic matter, metabolizable energy and average fermentation and gas production rates (P<0.01). The data showed that seven days of solid-state fermentation of orange peels and sugar beet pulp by T. reesei or T. viride can increase their crude protein content. PMID:27175146

  16. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  17. Beta vulgaris crop types: Genomic signatures of selection (GSS) using next generation sequencing of pooled samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta vulgaris crop types represent highly diverged populations with distinct phenotypes resulting from long-term selection. Differential end use in the crop types includes: leaf quality (chard/leaf beet), root enlargement and biomass, (table beet, fodder beet, sugar beet), and secondary metabolite a...

  18. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  19. C4 protein of Beet severe curly top virus is a pathomorphogenetic factor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungan; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Buckley, Kenneth J; Park, Jong-Bum; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Giun; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith R

    2010-12-01

    The Curtovirus C4 protein is required for symptom development during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing C4 from either Beet curly top virus or Beet severe curly top virus produced phenotypes that were similar to symptoms seen during infection with wild-type viruses. The pseudosymptoms caused by C4 protein alone were novel to transgenic Arabidopsis and included bumpy trichomes, severe enations, disorientation of vascular bundles and stomata, swelling, callus-like structure formation, and twisted siliques. C4 induced abnormal cell division and altered cell fate in a variety of tissues depending on the C4 expression level. C4 protein expression increased the expression levels of cell-cycle-related genes CYCs, CDKs and PCNA, and suppressed ICK1 and the retinoblastoma-related gene RBR1, resulting in activation of host cell division. These results suggest that the Curtovirus C4 proteins are involved actively in host cell-cycle regulation to recruit host factors for virus replication and symptom development. PMID:20960205

  20. A number of subgenomic DNAs are produced following agroinoculation of plants with beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C; Stevenson, M C; Hormuzdi, S G; Bisaro, D M

    1992-02-01

    In addition to ss and ds genomic DNA, agroinoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with the Logan strain of the geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) consistently resulted in de novo production of subgenomic DNAs on initial passage. Single-stranded and dsDNA forms representing at least seven size classes (0.8 to 1.8 kb) of subgenomic DNA were observed in total DNA extracts from inoculated plants. Extracts from infected sugar beet and tomato contained variable but usually smaller amounts of subgenomic DNAs, suggesting that their production may be influenced by the host species. Restriction endonuclease mapping and partial nucleotide sequencing of three independent clones of a 1.5 kb size class indicated that this subgenomic DNA is produced from the standard viral genome by two separate deletion events. One deletion of 941 bp includes portions of the leftward open reading frames (ORFs) L1, L2 and L3, while the other deletion of 579 bp encompasses portions of the intergenic region and the rightward ORFs R1, R2 and R3. The data indicate that the 1.5 kb BCTV subgenomic DNA is a defective DNA that has retained cis-elements essential for replication. PMID:1538189

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Na; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zong-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Zhen; Han, Cheng-Gui; Wang, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is a serious threat to the sugar beet industry worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of BNYVV in China. Here, we analyzed multiple sequences from four genomic regions (CP, RNA3, RNA4 and RNA5) of a set of Chinese isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that several isolates were mixed infections of variants with different genotypes and/or different p25 tetrad motifs. In total, 12 distinct p25 tetrads were found in the Chinese BNYVV population, of which four tetrads were newly identified. Phylogenetic analyses based on four genes (CP, RNA3-p25, RNA4-p31 and RNA5-p26) in isolates from around the world revealed the existence of two to four groups, which mostly corresponded to previously reported phylogenetic groups. Two new subgroups and a new group were identified from the Chinese isolates in p25 and p26 trees, respectively. Selection pressure analysis indicated that there was a positive selection pressure on the p25 from the Chinese isolates, but the other three proteins were under a negative selection pressure. There was frequent gene flow between geographically distant populations, which meant that BNYVV populations from different provinces were not geographically differentiated. PMID:25997927

  2. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media. PMID:26821256

  3. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Inyang, Mandu; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Cao, Xinde; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-06-15

    Biochar converted from agricultural residues or other carbon-rich wastes may provide new methods and materials for environmental management, particularly with respect to carbon sequestration and contaminant remediation. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings (DSTC). Batch adsorption kinetic and equilibrium isotherm experiments and post-adsorption characterizations using SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR suggested that colloidal and nano-sized MgO (periclase) particles on the biochar surface were the main adsorption sites for aqueous phosphate. Batch adsorption experiments also showed that both initial solution pH and coexisting anions could affect the adsorption of phosphate onto the DSTC biochar. Of the mathematical models used to describe the adsorption kinetics of phosphate removal by the biochar, the Ritchie N_th-order (N=1.14) model showed the best fit. Two heterogeneous isotherm models (Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich) fitted the experimental isotherm of phosphate adsorption onto the biochar better than the Langmuir adsorption model. Our results suggest that biochar converted from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings is a promising alternative adsorbent, which can be used to reclaim phosphate from water or reduce phosphate leaching from fertilized soils. In addition, there is no need to regenerate the exhausted biochar because the phosphate-laden biochar contains abundance of valuable nutrients, which may be used as a slow-release fertilizer to enhance soil fertility and to sequester carbon. PMID:21497441

  4. Lenacil degradation in the environment and its metabolism in the sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Smyser, B P; Shalaby, L M; Boucher, C R; Berg, D S

    1999-09-01

    14C-Lenacil photolysis and hydrolysis studies were conducted at 2 ppm in sterilized buffers at pH 5, 7, and 9 for up to 15 and 30 days, respectively. The degradation of (14)C-lenacil in three soils and in two sediments systems was monitored for up to 100 days. Residue level and metabolites were analyzed in sugar beets following the application of (14)C-lenacil at 4- and at 6-leaf stages at the rate of 204 g ai/ha and 321 g ai/ha, respectively. Lenacil was stable in the dark and at pH 5 and 7 under irradiation. At pH 9 under irradiation, the half-life (DT(50)) was 41 days. Lenacil DT(50) in three soils ranged from 81 to 150 days. The DT(50) in two sediments ranged from 32 to 105 days. In mature sugar beets, the total radioactive residue was 0.16 ppm in the tops and <0.03 ppm in the roots. The majority of lenacil metabolites identified were hydroxylated or oxidized products and their conjugates. PMID:10552732

  5. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

    1987-04-01

    Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose (/sup 3/H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose (/sup 14/C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM (/sup 3/H//sup 14/C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. /sup 14/C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than /sup 3/H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of /sup 3/H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of /sup 3/H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the /sup 3/H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no /sup 14/C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear.

  6. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  7. Responses of Sugar Beet Roots to Iron Deficiency. Changes in Carbon Assimilation and Oxygen Use1

    PubMed Central

    López-Millán, Ana Flor; Morales, Fermín; Andaluz, Sofía; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Abadía, Anunciación; Rivas, Javier De Las; Abadía, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Different root parts with or without increased iron-reducing activities have been studied in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient control sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Monohil hybrid). The distal root parts of iron-deficient plants, 0 to 5 mm from the root apex, were capable to reduce Fe(III)-chelates and contained concentrations of flavins near 700 μm, two characteristics absent in the 5 to 10 mm sections of iron-deficient plants and the whole root of iron-sufficient plants. Flavin-containing root tips had large pools of carboxylic acids and high activities of enzymes involved in organic acid metabolism. In iron-deficient yellow root tips there was a large increase in carbon fixation associated to an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. Part of this carbon was used, through an increase in mitochondrial activity, to increase the capacity to produce reducing power, whereas another part was exported via xylem. Root respiration was increased by iron deficiency. In sugar beet iron-deficient roots flavins would provide a suitable link between the increased capacity to produce reduced nucleotides and the plasma membrane associated ferric chelate reductase enzyme(s). Iron-deficient roots had a large oxygen consumption rate in the presence of cyanide and hydroxisalycilic acid, suggesting that the ferric chelate reductase enzyme is able to reduce oxygen in the absence of Fe(III)-chelates. PMID:11027736

  8. Salt stress induced proteome and transcriptome changes in sugar beet monosomic addition line M14.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Ma, Chunquan; Wang, Linlin; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2012-06-15

    Sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 displays interesting phenotypes such as apomixis and salt stress tolerance. Here we reported proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of M14 leaves and roots under 500mM NaCl treatment for seven days. Proteins from control and treated samples were extracted and separated using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). A total of 40 protein spots from leaf gels and 36 protein spots from root gels exhibited significant changes. Using mass spectrometry and database searching, 38 unique proteins in leaves and 29 unique proteins in roots were identified. The proteins included those involved in metabolism, protein folding, photosynthesis, and protein degradation. In addition, cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Fifty-eight unigenes including 14 singletons and 44 contigs were obtained. Some salt-responsive genes were identified to function in metabolism, photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, protein synthesis and protein degradation. This research has revealed candidate genes and proteins for detailed functional characterization, and set the stage for further investigation of the salt tolerance mechanisms in sugar beet. PMID:22498239

  9. Increased Long-Flight Activity Triggered in Beet Armyworm by Larval Feeding on Diet Containing Cry1Ac Protoxin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xing Fu; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W.; Luo, Li Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i) sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii) increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving sublethal doses

  10. Specific screening for color precursors and colorants in beet and cane sugar liquors in relation to model colorants using spectrofluorometry evaluated by HPLC and multiway data analysis.

    PubMed

    Baunsgaard, D; Nørgaard, L; Godshall, M A

    2001-04-01

    A comparison was made of the fluorophores in beet thick juice and cane final evaporator syrup, which are comparable in the production of cane and beet sugar; that is, both represent the final stage of syrup concentration prior to crystallization of sugar. To further elucidate the nature of the color components in cane and beet syrup, a series of model colorants was also prepared, consisting of mildly alkaline-degraded fructose and glucose and two Maillard type colorants, glucose--glycine and glucose--lysine. Fluorescence excitation--emission landscapes resolved into individual fluorescent components with PARAFAC modeling were used as a screening method for colorants, and the method was validated with size exclusion chromatography using a diode array UV--vis detector. Fluorophores from the model colorants were mainly located at visible wavelengths. An overall similarity in chromatograms and absorption spectra of the four model colorant samples indicated that the formation of darker color was the distinguishing characteristic, rather than different reaction products. The fluorophores obtained from the beet and cane syrups consisted of color precursor amino acids in the UV wavelength region. Tryptophan was found in both beet and cane syrups. Tyrosine as a fluorophore was resolved in only beet syrup, reflecting the higher levels of amino acids in beet processing. In the visible wavelength region, cane syrup colorant fluorophores were situated at higher wavelengths than those of beet syrup, indicating formation of darker colorants. A higher level of invert sugar in cane processing compared to beet processing was suggested as a possible explanation for the darker colorants. PMID:11308311

  11. High production of plant type levan in sugar beet transformed with timothy (Phleum pratense) 6-SFT genes.

    PubMed

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Tamagake, Hideto; Sato, Yutaka; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-12-20

    Levan, a type of fructan, is an oligomer or polymer with mainly a β(2,6)-linked fructose chain attached to sucrose. We introduced two timothy genes, PpFT1 and PpFT2, coding for two homologous sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. Sugar beet produces a high concentration of sucrose, a starting substrate in fructan synthesis, in the root. Among transgenic T1 lines, we obtained sugar beet transformants that accumulated large amounts of β(2,6)-linked levans (about 20 to 75mgg(-1) FW) in the roots. The transformed sugar beet plants possessing PpFT1 or PpFT2 produced linear levans with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Namely, the PpFT1 transformants accumulated mainly high DP levans including those with DP>40, while the PpFT2 transformants accumulated levans with DP between 3 and 40. Chromatograms showed that PpFT2 produces pure β(2,6)-linked linear levans compared with fructans synthesized by PpFT1. These levans belong to the high DP class of plant fructans, but have much shorter DP than that of levans generally produced by microorganisms. PMID:25305472

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Beet Endophyte Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Christin; Alavi, Mohammadali; Tilcher, Ralf; Krempl, Peter Mauritius; Thallinger, Gerhard Günther; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14 shows broad antagonistic activity and is applied to seeds as a biocontrol agent to suppress late root rot in the sugar beet. The completely sequenced 5.5-Mb genome reveals genes that putatively contribute to this antagonistic activity and the intimate plant-microbe interaction. PMID:23516179

  13. Two independent QTL condition novel resistance to beet curly top virus in common bean landrace G122

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet curly top virus, often referred to as Curly top virus (CTV), is an important virus of common bean in the semiarid regions of the US, Canada and Mexico, and the only effective control is disease resistance. The landrace G122 is resistant to CTV but does not contain the Bct resistance gene. To d...

  14. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  15. Tyrosine Hydroxylation in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis Is Performed by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Beets (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Sunnadeniya, Rasika; Bean, Alexander; Brown, Matthew; Akhavan, Neda; Hatlestad, Gregory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Symonds, V Vaughan; Lloyd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow and red-violet betalain plant pigments are restricted to several families in the order Caryophyllales, where betacyanins play analogous biological roles to anthocyanins. The initial step in betalain biosynthesis is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Using gene expression experiments in beets, yeast, and Arabidopsis, along with HPLC/MS analysis, the present study shows that two novel cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5, and the previously described CYP76AD1 can perform this initial step. Co-expressing these CYP450s with DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase in yeast, and overexpression of these CYP450s in yellow beets show that CYP76AD1 efficiently uses L-DOPA leading to red betacyanins while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 lack this activity. Furthermore, CYP76AD1 can complement yellow beetroots to red while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 cannot. Therefore CYP76AD1 uniquely performs the beet R locus function and beets appear to be genetically redundant for tyrosine hydroxylation. These new functional data and ancestral character state reconstructions indicate that tyrosine hydroxylation alone was the most likely ancestral function of the CYP76AD alpha and beta groups and the ability to convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA evolved later in the alpha group. PMID:26890886

  16. GROWING HIGH-VALUE IRRIGATED CROPS IN A LIMITED IRRIGATION SYSTEM - A CASE STUDY WITH SUGAR BEET.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 300,000 acres of sugar beet grown in the semi-arid western United States. This is often the crop the “pays the mortgage” in those areas where it is grown. As water becomes limited and more expense, growers need to make hard choices on which crops to plant to maximize the impact of t...

  17. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  18. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is not a direct target of transgenic cotton in China but nevertheless recently has become an important pest. In laboratory...

  19. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  20. Temperature effects on the interactions of sugar beet Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, causes a significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. The environmental or agronomic factors that contribute to development and severity of Fusarium yellows have not been desc...

  1. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all...) among the sugarcane processors. CCC determined that it was not necessary to establish farm level... sector was not expected to fill its allotment and therefore, there was no need to limit sugarcane...

  2. Assessing beet armyworm damage on Bt and non-Bt cottons by visual observations and remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated damage, survival, and yield of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), populations on Bollgard II (ST 4357 BGII/RRF and AMX 1532RGII/RR), WideStrike™ (Phy 485 WRF), Bollgard® (DPL 444 BRRR), and non-Bt cottons (AMX 262R, Phy 425 RF) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. Ex...

  3. Nitrogen fertilization rate affects feeding, larval performance, and oviposition preference of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most critical chemical elements for plant and animal growth. Development and oviposition of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was studied in relation to varying nitrogen levels in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The development of S. exig...

  4. Population Dynamics of the Beet Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the Potato Growing Region of Washington and Oregon Columbia Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003, 2004 and 2005, leafhopper sampling was conducted in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon to determine the seasonal occurrence and abundance of the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus Baker, the primary vector potato purple top disease in this major potato producing region of the Uni...

  5. The Journal of Sugar Beet Research of the ASSBT; A Clearing House for the Exchange of Ideas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1935, 1936, and 1937, between 37 to 140 sugarbeet researchers met informally as the “Sugar Beet Round Table” to discuss the needs of the industry. At the 1937 meeting, which included California participants for the first time, the formation of a more structured national organization was proposed...

  6. Understanding Transcription Factors in Sugar Beets: Genetic and Physical Mapping, Differential Expression, and Conservation Between Related Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcription factors control all biological processes at the cellular level, but their role in sugar beets is still widely unknown. In order to develop a greater understanding, 47 primer pairs were designed around expressed tag sequences (ESTs) whose putative functions are various transcription fac...

  7. Performance of rhizomania resistant sugarbeet under normal and resistance-breaking strains of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). In current commercial cultivars, resistance to BNYVV is conditioned primarily by the allele Rz1. Since 2003, observations indicate that Rz1 has been compromised by resistance-breaking strains of BNYVV (RB-B...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATES FROM COMMON BEAN AND SUGAR BEET USIG PATHOGENICITY ASSAYS AND RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract. Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common bean and Fusarium yellows of sugar beet in the Central High Plains (CHP) region of the United States with yield losses approaching 30% under appropriate environmental conditions. The objective of this study was ...

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE-BREAKING ISOLATES OF BEET NECROTIC YELLOW VEIN VIRUS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania is one of the most economically important diseases of sugar beet. It is caused by Bee necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and is vectored by the plasmodiophorid Polymyxa betae. The disease can only be controlled effectively by the use of resistant cultivars. In 2003, the resistance-breakin...

  10. Green composites of poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp. II. Structural and mechanical property analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp were compounded by twin-screw extrusion and injection molded into composite forms. Specific mechanical energy decreased with the addition of SBP during processing. PLA-SBP composites retained more tensile strength than expected based on the Nicolais-Narkis mod...

  11. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  12. Dietary effects of cotton tissue expressing germin like protein on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) growth, survival and pupation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cotton lines that ectopically express a cotton germin-like protein (ABP) were screened for resistance/tolerance factors to the beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) via feeding assays. The number of BAW eggs that successfully hatched was not statistically different at 72 h observ...

  13. Tyrosine Hydroxylation in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis Is Performed by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Beets (Beta vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Sunnadeniya, Rasika; Bean, Alexander; Brown, Matthew; Akhavan, Neda; Hatlestad, Gregory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Lloyd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow and red-violet betalain plant pigments are restricted to several families in the order Caryophyllales, where betacyanins play analogous biological roles to anthocyanins. The initial step in betalain biosynthesis is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Using gene expression experiments in beets, yeast, and Arabidopsis, along with HPLC/MS analysis, the present study shows that two novel cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5, and the previously described CYP76AD1 can perform this initial step. Co-expressing these CYP450s with DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase in yeast, and overexpression of these CYP450s in yellow beets show that CYP76AD1 efficiently uses L-DOPA leading to red betacyanins while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 lack this activity. Furthermore, CYP76AD1 can complement yellow beetroots to red while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 cannot. Therefore CYP76AD1 uniquely performs the beet R locus function and beets appear to be genetically redundant for tyrosine hydroxylation. These new functional data and ancestral character state reconstructions indicate that tyrosine hydroxylation alone was the most likely ancestral function of the CYP76AD alpha and beta groups and the ability to convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA evolved later in the alpha group. PMID:26890886

  14. Beet juice utilization: Expeditious green synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd) using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd were prepared in aqueous solutions via a rapid microwave-assisted green method using beet juice, an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce, served as both a reducing and a capping reagent. The Ag nanoparticles with capping prepared by b...

  15. Comparison and evaluation of three diagnostic methods for detection of beet curly top virus in sugar beet using different visualizing systems.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseyni-Dehabadi, Seyed Mohammad; Aghapour-ojaghkandi, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    To diminish the time required for some diagnostic assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP; due to mainly DNA extraction step) and also triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) into a minimum level, an innovative immunocapture LAMP (IC-LAMP) and immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR) protocol on the basis of beet curly top virus (BCTV) genome was used and optimized. TAS-ELISA was employed first to validate the existence of the virus. All six IC-LAMP primers (i.e. forward outer primer (F3), backward outer primer (B3), forward inner primer (FIP), backward inner primer (BIP), loop forward (LF) and loop backward (LB)) together with IC-PCR primers were designed on the basis of the replication-associated protein (rep) gene (GenBank accession AF379637.1) of BCTV genome. Also, a novel colorimetric IC-LAMP assay for rapid and easy detection of BCTV was developed here, its potential compared with TAS-ELISA and IC-PCR assays. The method, on the whole, had the following advantages over the two mentioned procedures: (i) fascinatingly, no need of DNA extraction; (ii) no requirement of expensive and sophisticated tools for amplification and detection; (iii) no post-amplification treatment of the amplicons and (iv) a flexible and easy detection approach, which is visually detected by naked eyes using diverse visual dyes. PMID:24894659

  16. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M Antonia

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017-0.021μg As person(-1)day(-1)) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50μg As person(-1)day(-1). Therefore, no

  17. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

  18. Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.

    PubMed

    Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2 °C day(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646 mg L(-1), propionic acid 596 mg L(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000 mg L(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

  19. Genetic variability of somatic embryogenesis in tissue cultures of sugar beet breeding lines.

    PubMed

    Golovko, A

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability of callus initiation and plant regeneration has been investigated among three sugar beet genotypes. It was found that TDZ has a genotype-independent effect on callus initiation and is responsible for more than a two-fold increase in the friable callus induction rate and more than a three-fold increase in the shoot regeneration rate from this callus. Along with the genotype-independent organogenesis, regeneration from callus occasionally went through the process of somatic embryogenesis in a highly genotype-specific manner. Despite fast and uncontrollable conversion of embryos to normal plants, it was possible to select and maintain repetitive embryogenic culture without loosing regeneration and root formation capabilities. Extensive experimenting with medium composition and culture conditions resulted in an optimal medium for maintenance of repetitive embryos. Comparing with BAP, low concentrations of TDZ provide higher level of adventitious shoot formation and do not induce vitrification of tissues. PMID:11944321

  20. Characterization of beet curly top virus subgenomic DNA localizes sequences required for replication.

    PubMed

    Frischmuth, T; Stanley, J

    1992-08-01

    Subgenomic viral DNA is accumulated in Nicotiana benthamiana and Beta vulgaris plants agroinoculated with the geminivirus beet curly top virus. The subgenomic DNA is more abundant in N. benthamiana and is distributed between two broad size groups in this host. Six unique examples, ranging in size from 887 to 1311 nucleotides, have been cloned from viral double-stranded DNA purified from N. benthamiana and analyzed by sequence determination. Deletions are distributed throughout most of the genome and only nucleotides 2946-410 are represented in all subgenomic DNAs. Comparison with a previously characterized subgenomic DNA suggests that cis-acting signals necessary for viral DNA replication are located in a predominantly intergenic region between nucleotides 2946-308. PMID:1641993

  1. The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of the geminivirus beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J; Markham, P G; Callis, R J; Pinner, M S

    1986-08-01

    A number of infectious clones of a Californian isolate of the leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) have been constructed from virus-specific double-stranded DNA isolated from infected Beta vulgaris and used to demonstrate a single component genome. The nucleotide sequence of one infectious clone has been determined (2993 nucleotides). Comparison with other geminiviruses has shown that the organisation of the genome closely resembles DNA 1 of the whitefly-transmitted members. The four conserved coding regions of DNA 1 have highly homologous counterparts in BCTV with the exception of the putative coat protein which is more closely related to those of the leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses suggesting a strong interrelationship between coat protein and insect vector. A BCTV component equivalent to DNA 2 is not required for virus infection or transmission and has not been isolated from infected plants. PMID:16453696

  2. The coat protein of beet curly top virus is essential for infectivity.

    PubMed

    Briddon, R W; Watts, J; Markham, P G; Stanley, J

    1989-10-01

    We have applied the procedure of Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to develop a simple, efficient, and reproducible assay for the infectivity of the leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus, beet curly top virus (BCTV). This assay system was used to show that a coat protein mutant of BCTV is not infectious, but could be complemented by coagroinoculation with a second mutant bearing a lethal mutation in the complementary-sense open reading frame, C1. Furthermore, the coat protein mutant retained the ability to replicate and to produce both ssDNA and dsDNA when electroporated into Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts. We conclude that the coat protein of BCTV is essential for spread of the virus. The results are discussed in the light of results with coat protein mutants of other geminiviruses. PMID:2800340

  3. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  4. Phase separation induced molecular fractionation of gum arabic--sugar beet pectin systems.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Yapeng; Phillips, Glyn O; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Jiang, Fatang

    2013-10-15

    This paper investigates the phase separation and phase separation-induced fractionation of gum arabic (GA)/sugar beet pectin (SBP) mixed solutions. A phase diagram, including cloud and binodal curves, was established by visual observation and phase composition analysis. The deviation of the binodal curve from the cloud curve was a result of phase separation-induced fractionation of polydisperse GA and SBP molecules. Fractionation of GA increased the content of arabinogalactan-protein complex (AGP) from ca. 13% to 27%. The fractionated GA (FGA) showed improved emulsifying functionality, whereas the fractionated SBP (FSBP) had a reduced emulsifying functionality. The changes in emulsifying efficiency can be explained by interfacial adsorption behaviors at the oil-water interface as indicated by interfacial tension measurements. PMID:23987401

  5. Extraction, characterization and spontaneous emulsifying properties of pectin from sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sen; Yu, Shu-juan; Zheng, Xue-ling; Wang, Xiao-xi; Bao, Qing-Dan; Guo, Xiao-ming

    2013-10-15

    The effects of organic acid extractants on the yield and characteristics of pectin from sugar beet pulp were investigated with citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid at different pH (1.5 and 2.0) and time (1 h and 2 h). The results demonstrated that the yields of pectins were directly correlated with the decrease of pH and reaction time, and the optimum yield of 17.2% was obtained at pH 1.5 and 2 h. Furthermore, the acid type also affected the physicochemical characteristics of pectin, especially on the esterification degree (42-71), galacturonic acid content (60.2-77.8%), emulsion activity (35.2-40.1%) and emulsion stability (62.1-79.4%), and a relatively single pectin mainly consisted of homogalacturonan could be obtained under a suitable reaction condition, which was an excellent crude material for the production of emulsion activity. PMID:23987408

  6. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  7. Stepwise ethanolic precipitation of sugar beet pectins from the acidic extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-20

    A stepwise ethanol-precipitation (SEP) procedure was developed for the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from a pectin-containing aqueous extract. Five fractions of different chemical and molecular characteristics were produced by stepwise elevating the alcohol concentration of the precipitation medium from 50% to 80% v/v. Comparison of chemical and macromolecular features between the obtained fractions indirectly suggested that the ability of pectin to solubilize in the ethanol-water binary mixture depended greatly on the polymer structure. Fractions rich in neutral sugars were precipitated at relatively high ethanol concentrations, probably due to the enhanced interactions generated between pectin side chains and solvent molecules. Furthermore, the obtained fractions displayed different surface activities. Results obtained in this work indicate that the SEP procedure is more selective with respect to pectin structural features and surface properties than the one-step ethanolic precipitation. PMID:26572361

  8. Comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp: performance, dewaterability and foam control.

    PubMed

    Suhartini, Sri; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Digestion of sugar beet pulp was assessed in relation to biogas and methane production, foaming potential, and digestate dewaterability. Four 4-litre working volume digesters were operated mesophilically (37±0.5 °C) and four thermophilically (55±0.5 °C) over three hydraulic retention times. Digesters were operated in duplicate at organic loading rates (OLR) of 4 and 5 g volatile solids l(-1) day(-1) without water addition. Thermophilic digestion gave higher biogas and methane productivity than mesophilic and was able to operate at the higher OLR, where mesophilic digestion showed signs of instability. Digestate dewaterability was assessed using capillary suction time and frozen image centrifugation. The occurrence of, or potential for, stable foam formation was assessed using a foaming potential test. Thermophilic operation allowed higher loadings to be applied without loss of performance, and gave a digestate with superior dewatering characteristics and very little foaming potential. PMID:24291796

  9. Hormonal control of endoreduplication in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seedlings growing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewska, E; Virden, R; Sliwinska, E

    2012-01-01

    The effect on endoreduplication in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seedlings of five plant hormones in MS medium, ethylene, 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), gibberellic acid (GA(3) ), kinetin and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), as well as a combination of kinetin and NAA at two different concentrations, was studied using flow cytometry. Analyses of DNA content in nuclei of the root, hypocotyl and cotyledons of seedlings growing in vitro were performed during their early development, starting from when the root was 0.5-1.0 cm long until expansion of the first pair of leaves. The proportions of nuclei with different DNA contents were established and the mean C-value calculated. The presence of exogenous plant hormones changed endoreduplication intensity, although to different extents, depending on the organ and developmental stage. Ethylene and NAA stimulated the process, while EBR and kinetin suppressed it and GA did not clearly affect it. PMID:21973015

  10. Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from de-pectinated sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Cheng, Yan-ling; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    Cellulose nanofibers (diameter=10-70 nm) were produced using chemical treatments (alkali treatment and bleaching) and high pressure homogenization from de-pectinated sugar beet pulp (DSBP). Chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the chemical treatments greatly removed the hemicellulose and lignin from the DSBP and significantly increased the cellulose content. The crystallinity of the cellulose nanofibers increased from 35.67% to 69.62% after alkali treatment and bleaching. The thermal degradation temperature of DSBP cellulose nanofibers was 271.7 °C which was found to be 47.3 °C higher than that of the untreated DSBP. The DSBP cellulose nanofibers can be preferably used as reinforcement in the biocomposite material at high temperature. PMID:24507265

  11. Characterization of sugar beet pectic-derived oligosaccharides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Combo, Agnan Marie Michel; Aguedo, Mario; Quiévy, Nicolas; Danthine, Sabine; Goffin, Dorothée; Jacquet, Nicolas; Blecker, Christophe; Devaux, Jacques; Paquot, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Three pectic oligosaccharides (POS) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pectin by combining endopolygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase, were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. According to chromatographic analyses, POS are composed of mixture of polymers with different molecular weights and different galacturonic acid contents. The thermal analysis showed no major variation in thermal behavior regarding POS composition but showed that POS were more sensitive to thermal degradation than the parent pectin as well as the deesterified pectin. No change in composition of the gaseous products was obtained through TGA-FTIR analysis. The X-ray pattern of POS clearly indicated a considerable decrease in crystallinity when compared to the native pectin. Thus, thermal characterization of POS may have practical repercussions if the formulation in which POS is incorporated is submitted to a high temperature treatment. PMID:22986181

  12. In-situ wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation at a sugar beet processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.L.; Fuller-Pratt, P.R.; Mielke, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Groundwater monitoring data collected at the Western Sugar Company sugar beet processing plant, in Billings, Montana identified groundwater mounding and groundwater nitrogen concentration increases associated with lime slurry discharge to an on-site storage pile. The nitrogen impacts (primarily ammonia) likely originated through decomposition of organic matter in the slurry. Initially, Western Sugar considered constructing an expensive anaerobic and nitrification-denitrification wastewater treatment system. However, further investigation of the lime pile revealed that it was already serving as an efficient filter and anaerobic reactor. Comparisons of slurry application with other land application systems suggested that groundwater nitrogen impacts could be minimized through groundwater capture, re-application, and improved slurry management. The resultant system required little capitol and maintenance cost. The immediate effect was to substantially decrease the groundwater mound. Subsequent monitoring has demonstrated a gradual decline in nitrogen concentrations under the lime pile and a considerable concentration decrease downgradient of the groundwater recovery system.

  13. An Assessment of the Diversity of Culturable Bacteria from Main Root of Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Iino, Takao; Kuroda, Yosuke; Taguchi, Kazunori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ohwada, Takuji; Tsurumaru, Hiroto; Okubo, Takashi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Ikeda, Seishi

    2014-01-01

    The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of 531 bacteria isolated from the main root of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) were determined and subsequently grouped into 155 operational taxonomic units by clustering analysis (≥99% identity). The most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria (72.5–77.2%), followed by Actinobacteria (9.8–16.6%) and Bacteroidetes (4.3– 15.4%). Alphaproteobacteria (46.7–64.8%) was the most dominant class within Proteobacteria. Four strains belonging to Verrucomicrobia were also isolated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Verrucomicrobia bacterial strains were closely related to Haloferula or Verrucomicrobium. PMID:24789987

  14. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  15. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  16. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  17. Biosynthesis, Translocation, and Accumulation of Betaine in Sugar Beet and Its Progenitors in Relation to Salinity 12

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Andrew D.; Wyse, Roger

    1982-01-01

    Like other halophytic chenopods, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) can accumulate high betaine levels in shoots and roots. N,N,N-trimethylglycine impedes sucrose crystallization and so lowers beet quality. The objective of this research was to examine the genetic variability and physiological significance of betaine accumulation in sugar beet and its relatives. Three cultivated genotypes of B. vulgaris and two genotypes of the wild progenitor B. maritima L. were grown with and without gradual salinization (final NaCl concentration = 150 millimolar). At 6 weeks old, all five genotypes had moderately high betaine levels in shoots and roots when unsalinized (averages for all genotypes: shoots = 108 micromoles per gram dry weight; roots = 99 micromoles per gram dry weight). Salinization raised betaine levels of shoots and roots 2- to 3-fold, but did not greatly depress shoot or root growth. The genotype WB-167—an annual B. maritima type—always had approximately 40% lower betaine levels in roots than the other four genotypes, although the betaine levels in the shoots were not atypically low. The site and pathway of betaine synthesis were investigated in young, salinized sugar beet plants by: (a) supplying 1 micromole [14C]ethanolamine to young leaf blades or to the taproot sink of intact plants; (b) supplying tracer [14C]formate to discs of leaf, hypocotyl, and taproot tissues in darkness. Conversion of both 14C precursors to betaine was active only in leaf tissue. Very little 14C appeared in the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine before betaine was heavily labeled; this was in marked contrast to the labeling patterns in salinized barley. Phosphorylcholine was a prominent early 14C metabolite of both [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate in all tissues of sugar beet. Betaine translocation was examined in young plants of sugar beet and WB-167 by applying tracer [methyl-14C]betaine to a young expanded leaf and determining the distribution of 14C after 3 days. In all cases

  18. Survey of Field Soils for Cercospora beticola by PCR and ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed several fields in the Lower Yellowstone River Valley (Eastern Montana and Western North Dakota) for Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet. We used both PCR based technique and ELISA for detection of C. beticola in soil. Soils were sampled from severa...

  19. Survey of field soils for cercospora beticola by PCR and ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed several fields in the Lower Yellowstone River Valley (Eastern Montana and Western North Dakota) for Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet. We used both PCR based technique and ELISA for detection of C. beticola in soil. Soils were sampled from severa...

  20. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-12-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  1. PAFC fed by biogas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste waters of a beet-sugar refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Ascoli, A.; Elias, G.; Bigoni, L.; Giachero, R.

    1996-10-01

    Beet-washing waters of a beet-sugar refinery carry a high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and their conditioning to meet legal constraints before disposal considerably contributes to the operation costs of the refinery. Their fermentation in an anaerobic digestor could instead produce readily disposable non-polluting waters, fertilizers and biogas, useful to feed a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) heat and power generator system. A real refinery case is considered in this work, where the electrical characteristics V = V(I) of a laboratory PAFC stack, fueled with a dry simulated reforming gas (having the same H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} content as the biogas obtainable by the above said anaerobic digestion), are determined. The encouraging results show that a possible market niche for fuel cells, in the food-industry waste partial recovery and residual disposal, deserves attention.

  2. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen. PMID:26398665

  3. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  4. Association of beet leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with a clover proliferation group phytoplasma in Columbia basin of Washington and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, J M; Munyaneza, J E; Jensen, A; Hamm, P B

    2005-04-01

    At least 16 taxa of cicadellids and delphacids were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of a phytoplasma in the clover proliferation group, designated 16SrVI. Nucleic acid extracts from individual insects or groups of 5-10 were tested using PCR primers designed from the DNA sequence of 16S-23S rRNA or ribosomal protein genes of the pathogen. The beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker), was most often associated with the phytoplasma, with approximately 16% of the insects testing positive. The phytoplasma was occasionally found associated with Ceratagallia spp. Leafhopper species that were not associated with the phytoplasma included Macrosteles spp., Dikraneura spp., Colladonus montanus (Van Duzee), Circulifer geminatus (Van Duzee), Ballana spp., Amplysellus spp., Paraphlepsius spp., Texananus spp., Balclutha spp., Latalus spp., Erythroneura spp., Exitianus exitiosus (Uhler), and unidentified delphacids. The detected phytoplasma was similar to, or synonymous with, the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent that is associated with the potato purple top disease in the Columbia Basin region of Washington and Oregon. This is in contrast to the phytoplasma associated with potato purple top disease in Mexico that is related to aster yellows (group 16SrI). The association of the group 16SrVI phytoplasma almost exclusively with the beet leafhopper suggests that this insect is the major vector of the phytoplasma in this region. PMID:15889714

  5. The effect of vegetables and beet fibre on the absorption of zinc in humans from composite meals.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Davidsson, L; Kivistö, B; Hasselblad, C; Cederblad, A

    1987-07-01

    1. The absorption of zinc in humans from composite meals, was determined by extrinsic labelling of the meals with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radioisotope. 2. Low-Zn (mean 25 mumol) chicken meals with 150 g white bread or 225 g potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbage or green peas were studied. The effect of a beet-pulp-fibre preparation used as a breakfast cereal, in bread and as a meat extender on Zn absorption was also studied. 3. The mean percentage absorption from the chicken meals with white bread, carrots and cabbage was significantly different from the meals with potatoes, turnips and green peas. When the amount of Zn in the meals was taken into account a slightly higher absorption was observed from the white-bread meal compared with the meals with potatoes and cabbage, while no differences were seen between the vegetable meals. 4. The beet-pulp-fibre preparation did not affect the extent of Zn absorption when used as a meat extender. The absorption of Zn was higher when the beet fibre was included in bread than when used as müesli. 5. The results obtained suggest that, besides the low-Zn content in vegetables, a large intake of vegetables or a pure-vegetable-fibre preparation has no significant effect on Zn availability from animal-protein-based meals. PMID:3040077

  6. Fulfilling Koch's postulates for beet curly top Iran virus and proposal for consideration of new genus in the family Geminiviridae.

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Keyvani, Nahid; Razavinejad, Sara; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-02-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a divergent geminivirus with biological properties similar to those of curtoviruses; however, the virus is distinct from curtoviruses phylogenetically and in its genome organisation. The replication-associated protein is phylogenetically more closely related to those of mastreviruses than to those of curtoviruses whereas the capsid protein shares high amino acid sequence identity (77-83 %) with those of curtoviruses. The 17 BCTIV genomes from Iran share ~77 % pairwise nucleotide sequence identity with spinach curly top Arizona virus (SCTAV) from Arizona, USA, which was characterised recently. To demonstrate the infectivity of the monopartite BCTIV genome and to fulfil Koch's postulates, an infectious clone was constructed using a dimer of the full-length genome of an isolate from this study - BCTIV-[IR:Neg:B33P:Sug:08]. Agroinoculation with the cloned DNA resulted in the efficient infection of 74 % of sugar beet plants, which resulted in curly top symptoms. The curly top infection of agroinoculated plants was successfully transmitted to 80 % of healthy sugar beet plants by the natural BCTIV vector, Circulifer haematoceps. Since BCTIV and SCTAV share <62 % pairwise nucleotide sequence identity with all other geminiviruses and have unique genome architectures and properties, and since this is coupled with phylogenetic support at the full-genome level and that of it proteins, we propose that they should be re-classified as members of a new genus, "Becurtovirus", in the family Geminiviridae. PMID:23081676

  7. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property. PMID:26050895

  8. Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.

    2009-01-01

    At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than λ.

  9. Reliable In Silico Identification of Sequence Polymorphisms and Their Application for Extending the Genetic Map of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Viehöver, Prisca; Schneider, Jessica; Schulz, Britta; Borchardt, Dietrich; Kraft, Thomas; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Molecular markers are a highly valuable tool for creating genetic maps. Like in many other crops, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding is increasingly supported by the application of such genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers have a high potential for automated analysis and high-throughput genotyping. We developed a bioinformatics workflow that uses Sanger and 2nd-generation sequence data for detection, evaluation and verification of new transcript-associated SNPs from sugar beet. RNAseq data from one parent of an established mapping population were produced by 454-FLX sequencing and compared to Sanger ESTs derived from the other parent. The workflow established for SNP detection considers the quality values of both types of reads, provides polymorphic alignments as well as selection criteria for reliable SNP detection and allows painless generation of new genetic markers within genes. We obtained a total of 14,323 genic SNPs and InDels. According to empirically optimised settings for the quality parameters, we classified these SNPs into four usability categories. Validation of a subset of the in silico detected SNPs by genotyping the mapping population indicated a high success rate of the SNP detection. Finally, a total of 307 new markers were integrated with existing data into a new genetic map of sugar beet which offers improved resolution and the integration of terminal markers. PMID:25302600

  10. [Creation of transgenic sugar beet lines expressing insect pest resistance genes cry1C and cry2A].

    PubMed

    Litvin, D I; Sivura, V V; Kurilo, V V; Oleneva, V D; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    Impact of insect pests makes a significant limitation of the sugar beet crop yield. Integration of cry-genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into plant genome is one of the promising strategies to ensure plant resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain sugar beet lines (based on the MM 1/2 line) transformed with cry2A and cry1Cgenes. We have optimized transformation protocol and direct plant let regeneration protocol from leaf explants using 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine as well as 0,25 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0,1 mg/l indole-butyric acid. Consequently, transgenic sugar beet lines transformed with vector constructs pRD400-cry1C and pRD400-cry2A have been obtained. PCR analysis revealed integration of cry2A and cry1C into genome of transgenic lines and expression of these genes in leaf tissues was shown by reverse transcription PCR. PMID:24818505

  11. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    PubMed

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. PMID:25209635

  12. A survey on basal resistance and riboflavin-induced defense responses of sugar beet against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Parissa; Tarighi, Saeed

    2011-07-01

    We examined basal defense responses and cytomolecular aspects of riboflavin-induced resistance (IR) in sugar beet-Rhizoctonia solani pathsystem by investigating H(2)O(2) burst, phenolics accumulation and analyzing the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (cprx1) genes. Riboflavin was capable of priming plant defense responses via timely induction of H(2)O(2) production and phenolics accumulation. A correlation was found between induction of resistance by riboflavin and upregulation of PAL and cprx1 which are involved in phenylpropanoid signaling and phenolics metabolism. Application of peroxidase and PAL inhibitors suppressed not only basal resistance, but also riboflavin-IR of sugar beet to the pathogen. Treatment of the leaves with each inhibitor alone or together with riboflavin reduced phenolics accumulation which was correlated with higher level of disease progress. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of rapid H(2)O(2) accumulation, phenylpropanoid pathway and phenolics metabolism in basal defense and riboflavin-IR of sugar beet against R. solani. PMID:21269732

  13. Taxonomic analysis of the microbial community in stored sugar beets using high-throughput sequencing of different marker genes.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Post-harvest colonization of sugar beets accompanied by rot development is a serious problem due to sugar losses and negative impact on processing quality. Studies on the microbial community associated with rot development and factors shaping their structure are missing. Therefore, high-throughput sequencing was applied to describe the influence of environment, plant genotype and storage temperature (8°C and 20°C) on three different communities in stored sugar beets, namely fungi (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2), Fusarium spp. (elongation factor-1α gene fragment) and oomycetes (internal transcribed spacers 1). The composition of the fungal community changed during storage mostly influenced by the storage temperature followed by a weak environmental effect. Botrytis cinerea was the prevalent species at 8°C whereas members of the fungal genera Fusarium and Penicillium became dominant at 20°C. This shift was independent of the plant genotype. Species richness within the genus Fusarium also increased during storage at both temperatures whereas the oomycetes community did not change. Moreover, oomycetes species were absent after storage at 20°C. The results of the present study clearly show that rot development during sugar beet storage is associated with pathogens well known as causal agents of post-harvest diseases in many other crops. PMID:26738557

  14. Computational identification and characterization of conserved miRNAs and their target genes in beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Li, J L; Cui, J; Cheng, D Y

    2015-01-01

    Highly conserved endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plants and animals by silencing genes via destruction or blocking of translation of homologous mRNA. Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, is one of the most important sugar crops in China, with properties that include wide adaptability and strong tolerance to salinity and impoverished soils. Seedlings of B. vulgaris can grow in soils containing up to 0.6% salt; it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance to enrich genetic resources for breeding salt-tolerant sugar beets. Here, we report 13 mature miRNAs from 12 families, predicted using an in silico approach from 29,857 expressed sequence tags and 279,223 genome survey sequences. The psRNATarget server predicted 25 target genes for the 13 miRNAs. Most of the target genes appeared to encode transcription factors or were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, stress response, growth, and development. These results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA in beet and may aid in the development of novel and precise techniques for understanding post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanisms in response to stress tolerance. PMID:26345842

  15. Effects of beer factory sludge on soil properties and growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kütük, Cihat; Cayci, Gökhan; Baran, Abdullah; Başkan, Oguz; Hartmann, Roger

    2003-10-01

    The possible use of beer factory sludge (BFS) for an agricultural purpose was investigated with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera L.). BFS was air dried and sieved through a 4 mm mesh before application to a soil (Typic Xerofluvent). Afterwards, the BFS was mixed with soil at a rate 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 tonnes ha(-1). The mixtures were than put into pots and kept in the greenhouse for an incubation of five months. During the incubation, pH, the electrical conductivity, the organic matter content, NH4+-N and NO3--N content were regularly measured. At the end of the incubation period, sugar beet seeds were sown into the same pots. After a growing period of six-months the sugar beet plants were harvested, and yield and quality parameters were determined. BFS increased leaf and root yield. However, the effect of BFS on leaf growth was more pronounced than on root growth. The highest sugar content, refined sugar content and refined sugar yield were obtained with the application rate of 10 tonnes BFS per hectare. Ten tonnes of BSF per hectare was the most suitable on the basis of root quality parameters and root yield. However BFS should be applied to the soil six or seven months in advance due to the high level of nitrogen released through mineralization. PMID:12835061

  16. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure. PMID:25794577

  17. Generation and Molecular Mapping of a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region Marker Linked with the Bct Gene for Resistance to Beet curly top virus in Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Richard C; Miklas, Phillip N

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker directly linked (0.0 cM) with a resistance gene was identified in a snap bean recombinant inbred population (Moncayo x Primo) consisting of 94 F(5:7) recombinant inbred lines that had uniform segregation for disease reaction to Beet curly top virus (BCTV) across three field locations. Resistance was conditioned by a single dominant allele tentatively designated Bct. Seven hundred and fifty decamer primers were screened to obtain the linked RAPD marker that was then converted to a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker SAS8.1550. The SCAR mapped within a cluster of resistance genes on linkage group B7 of the core map. A survey of 103 BCTV-resistant and -susceptible snap and dry bean genotypes was conducted using SAS8.1550. Results showed that the SCAR would be highly useful for marker-assisted selection of Bct in snap and dry bean originating from the Andean gene pool. Marker-assisted selection for Bct will expedite the development of BCTV-resistant cultivars and minimize the need for cumbersome pathogen tests. PMID:18944106

  18. Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 Reduces Sclerotia Formation, Biomass Development, and Disease Incidence of Rhizoctonia solani Causing Damping-Off in Sugar Beet.

    PubMed

    Thrane, C.; Nielsen, M.N.; Sørensen, J.; Olsson, S.

    2001-10-01

    Effects of the biocontrol strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54, on growth and disease development by Rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off in sugar beet were studied in soil microcosms and in pot experiments with natural, clay-type soil. In pot experiments with P. fluorescens DR54-treated seeds, significantly fewer Rhizoctonia-challenged seedlings showed damping-off symptoms than when not inoculated with the biocontrol agent. In the rhizosphere of P. fluorescens DR54 inoculated seeds, the bacterial inoculant was present in high numbers as shown by dilution plating and immunoblotting. By the ELISA antibody technique and direct microscopy of the fungal pathogen grown in soil microcosms, it was shown that the presence of P. fluorescens DR54 on the inoculated seeds had a strong inhibitory effect on development of both mycelium biomass and sclerotia formation by R. solani. In the field experiment, plant emergence was increased by treatment with P. fluorescens DR54 and the inoculant was found to be the dominating rhizosphere colonizing pseudomonad immediately after seedling emergence. PMID:12024268

  19. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    PubMed

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA. PMID:22775355

  20. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the