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Sample records for foer perioden 1997-1999

  1. New Mexico aggregate production sites, 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  2. CHLORDANES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC ATMOSPHERE: NEW JERSEY 1997-1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    To characterize the atmospheric dynamics and behavior of chlordane compounds in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, atmospheric concentrations were measured in 1997-1999 at three New Jersey locations as part of the New Jersey Atmospheric Deposition Network (NJADN) pro...

  3. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summaries 1997- 1999. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1999 An Assessment Report.

  4. [The malaria situation in the Russian Federation (1997-1999)].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A M; Sergiev, V P

    2000-01-01

    Profound socio-economic changes within the CIS countries in the 1990s brought a lot of negative changes in malaria prevention in targeted countries. The previously stable connection and cooperation in prophylactic activities have been interrupted. Supply of antimalarials, insecticides and equipment had been stopped. Many qualified cadres in the sanitary-epidemiological services in the countries were lost. Because of difficult economic situation they had to change their occupation and place of job. After prolonged period of a stable benign epidemiological situation within Russia the number of imported cases started to grow up. The sharp increase of imported malaria cases from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan had been noticed since 1994 (Tab. 1). For the first time in the history of malaria registration the number of cases imported from the CIS countries has been exceeded the number of malaria cases imported from all other countries in the world in 1995. Later in the end of the 1990s the imported malaria cases has been registered in Russia from some other CIS countries apart from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. There were malaria cases imported from Armenia (13 cases), Moldavia (2), Turkmenistan (2), and Uzbekistan (2) in 1998. The number of imported malaria cases in Russia in 1999 (Jan-July) is 437. There is no information about introduced or indigenous malaria cases registered until now] within Russia. There were 13 introduced malaria cases as the result of numerous imported ones. 13 introduced cases have been registered in 10 oblasts (administrative regions of Russia). This number has been increased to 53 (!) in 1998 in 20 oblasts. There was one local outbreak of P. vivax malaria in Izberbash settlement (Dagestan). Number of indigenous malaria cases were 5 (1996), 18 (1997), 1 (1998). The contra-epidemic measures in Izberbash have included active cases detection and treatment indoor insecticide spaying and one tour of mass primaguine treatment during interseasonal period of time. Additional indigenous cases after imported and introduced ones have been detected in Krasnodar (1 cases), Samara (1), Tolyaty (1), and Cherkessk (5) in 1998. One induced P. falciparum malaria case has been detected Moscow in 1998. Medical nurse from urological branch of the Moscow hospital No. 29 has penetrated by syringe needle her hand after performing of intravenous injection to the patient with imported P. falciparum malaria. No other induced cases have been detected. Because of local administrative problems with primaquine supply not all P. vivax malaria cases have received complete treatment. As the result of these events there was malaria relapsed cases registered every year. The actual number was 20 (1993), 37 (1994), 45 (1995), 59 (1996), 99 (1997). Due to late appearance of patient with P. falciparum malaria before medical staff and as a result late diagnosis and late and some time inappropriate treatment there were several lethal malaria cases registered [table: see text] every year. Inappropriate treatment means that treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases was consisted of chloroquine only. The cumulative number of lethal cases in 1994-1997 was 12, and the same number in 1998 was 6. One should mention that one lethal case in 1998 in Volgograd was due to P. vivax. The subject was chronic alcoholic and combination with P. vivax malaria brings him to death. Some calculation reveals the risk of resurgence of malaria in Russia. If one analyses all P. vivax imported cases from the point of view of time and place of detection the following picture would be emerged: 83% of all imported cases has been localized within cities, and 17% only--in rural areas. Half of the latter has been appeared during cold part of years when transmission was impossible. The result of approximately 200 imported cases has been appeared in a right time and place there were 75 introduced cases. PMID:10900914

  5. Impacts of ENSO on the South American Summer Monsoon During 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Zhou, Jia-Yu; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis, and CPC Merged Analysis Product (CMAP) rainfall, we have compared and contrasted the anomalies of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) during two extreme years of 1997/98 (EI Nino) and 1998/99 (La Nina). The results are assessed against a "canonical" ENSO response (CER) pattern for the SASM obtained from empirical mode decomposition based on a previous period (1980-1995). Overall, the SASM anomalies compare well with CER, but with some important differences. Anomalies occurring in the warm phase of the 1997-98 El Nino are very significant and robust, while those occurring in 1998/99 La Nina, appear to be reversed from 1997/98, but are relatively weak and less well-defined. The most pronounced signal in DJF 1997/98 is the development of drought conditions in northern Brazil, excessive rainfall over northern Peru and Ecuador, and over Uruguay and southern Brazil. The tropical rainfall anomalies are associated with the eastward shift of the Walker circulation, which is represented by pronounced low-level anomalous westerlies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and easterlies over northern Brazil. The easterlies are deflected sharply southeastward by the steep topography of the Andes, enhancing the low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the Andes near 15-20 S. The LLJ penetrates deep into the extratropics, yielding rainfall anomalies further poleward compared to CER. During DJF 1997/98, the eastward expansion of the warm tropospheric temperature over the Nino-3 region causes anomalous geopotential height to develop in the upper troposphere above the Altiplano, leading to a strengthened Bolivian High. An upper-tropospheric jet anomaly maximum is found over the subtropical continent near 30 S, due to increasing meridional gradient of tropospheric temperature, as well as teleconnection patterns linking the South Pacific and the South Atlantic. Consistent with the CER, the South Pacific High is weakened, and the South Atlantic High is strengthened in DJF 1997/98. However, rather than appearing as a coherent large scale signal over the entire Atlantic as in CER, the South Atlantic High anomalies in DJF 1997/98 split into two separate high pressure centers; one located south of the Amazon basin, and another over the southeastern South Atlantic. The former is induced as a Rossby-wave response by ENSO-Induced sinking motion over nor-them and eastern Brazil, and the latter may be associated with extratropical teleconnection signals. Anomalous convection observed over equatorial western Africa may also have contributed to the different circulation response over the Atlantic in DFJ 1997/99 compared to the CER. Comparison of the evolution of the SASM anomalies in 1997-99 with their corresponding annual cycles, suggest that the anomalies are phase-locked to and represent either enhancement or reduction of the annual variations. Results suggest that, from a system perspective the SASM was strengthened during the 1997/98 El Nino and weakened, albeit to a lesser extent, during the 1998/99 La Nina.

  6. Daily birth numbers in Passo Fundo, South Brazil, 1997-1999: trends and periodicities.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, M; Lisboa, H R K

    2002-08-01

    Between October 6, 1997 and April 30, 1999, 5011 births (mean: 8.76 per day) were registered in the city of Passo Fundo, South Brazil. The sequence of 572 daily birth numbers was not random (iteration test). Neyman distribution (m = yen ) showed the best fit. Clusters of days with higher birth numbers alternated with days with low numbers of births. Periodogram analysis revealed a significant periodicity of 6.98 days. The cosinor regression, testing 10 a priori supposed period lengths, found significant seasonality peaking in August-September and significantly highest birth numbers on Thursdays. Among the lunar and solar rotation cycles, the tropic lunar cycle and its 4th harmonic were most pronounced, in agreement with results concerning natality in Germany obtained by Svante Arrhenius in the 19th century. These findings confirm Derer-Halberg's concept of multiseptans. In addition to cycling, a significantly increasing linear trend with a daily increase of 0.0045 births was encountered. This documents a growth of the population in agreement with national statistical data. PMID:12185392

  7. National Science Foundation Support for Two-Year Colleges, Fiscal Years 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Undergraduate Education.

    This National Science Foundation (NSF) report, prepared by NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), analyzes the role the Foundation plays in recognizing and supporting the critical function of community colleges in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education. The Foundation aims to improve and strengthen SMET…

  8. Trends in positive drug tests, United States Air Force, fiscal years 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Grayson, J Kevin; Gibson, Roger L; Shanklin, Shari L; Neuhauser, Katerina M; McGhee, Charles

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between various demographic factors and the risk of testing positive for marijuana or cocaine use in the U.S. Air Force in fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Overall test positive rates for marijuana and cocaine were very low, at 0.24 and 0.07% of all tests, respectively. However, monthly test positive rates increased significantly during the study period while the number of tests conducted decreased by more than 50%. Gender, race/ethnicity, service component, military rank, education level, and assignment location each predicted the likelihood of testing positive for marijuana or cocaine use. These findings were consistent with annual surveys of self-reported drug use conducted in military and civilian populations in the United States. We conclude that overall testing percentages should be re-evaluated in light of these findings, but we do not recommend oversampling from population subgroups that demonstrated a higher likelihood of testing positive. PMID:15291178

  9. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  10. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Graduate and Professional Education. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    The literature on graduate and professional education reflects many of the trends present in the literature on undergraduate education, including concerns about student learning; transforming the curriculum to be more inclusive; internationalization of the curriculum; incorporation of technology; growth in interdisciplinary education; and outcomes…

  11. A comparison of eastern and western Hong Kong phytoplankton from weekly samples (1997-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Mike; Sen-Ming, Tang; Lai, Jessie

    2002-03-01

    Weekly phytoplankton samples were taken from western Hong Kong (Lamma) from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1999 and from Port Shelter in Eastern Hong Kong from January 1998 to December 1999. During that time diatom blooms occurred repeatedly at both sites but never in synchrony. One species would bloom at one site and then weeks later it or another species would bloom at the other site; while the 1998 red tide of the mucus producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium mikimotoi occurred at both sites. It first occurred at the Port Shelter site in March and did not appear at the Lamma site until April. With the single exception of this species, no other dinoflagellate reached bloom concentrations at the Lamma site. In addition, dinoflagellate abundance at the Lamma site was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that at the Port Shelter site. This was correlated with a significantly higher turbidity (i. e. low Secchi transparency) and higher turbulence (stronger currents) at the Lamma site. Annual variation in surface temperature correlated with total surface phytoplankton abundance at both our sample sites. Phytoplankton abundance increased in spring as water temperatures warmed. In fall, as surface water temperatures began to decline and the monsoon rains became less frequent there was a reduction in phytoplankton abundance associated with the reduction in temperature and light. Because so many variables co-occur with temperature (e. g. the amount of rainfall light intensity and light duration etc.) it is not possible to cite temperature as the causal factor associated weth controlling phytoplankton abundance at our two sample sites. Our data support the rather controversial notion that percentage-wise, there are relatively more harmful bloom forming species in nutrient-rich coastal waters than there are in the world's oceans. 16% of the dinoflagellate species and 10.3% of the diatom species observed at our two sample sites were classed as harmful. These percentages were higher than those cited by Sournia (1995) for the worlds oceans (9.6% and 6.8% respectively). This raises the possibility that there are relatively more toxic species in the nutrient-rich coastal waters of the world than there are in the mid ocean nutrient-poor areas of the world. Some reasons for this are briefly discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  13. Directory of International and Area Studies Librarians in Ohio, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Beau David, Comp.; Riedinger, Edward A., Comp.

    This work published every 2 years is a directory of international and area studies librarians in Ohio. It is the first project of the Organization of International and Area Studies Librarians in Ohio (OIALO) organized in July 1996. This directory identifies 35 individuals with experience in collection development, reference service, and cataloging…

  14. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 1997 through 1999 newsletters of the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, published three times a year. It provides topical information on research findings concerning children and media violence, children's media use, and activities aiming to limit gratuitous media violence.…

  15. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Finance. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    The literature on financial issues in higher education is limited. Six major themes in the literature in l996 include the reduced federal role and increased state role in funding; managing costs, including deferred maintenance and capital spending in times of shrinking resources; concern about rising tuition and its impact on access; concern about…

  16. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain). This is the first time that a molecular analysis was performed for the E. granulosus isolates from Tierra del Fuego. PMID:16504405

  17. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Program Evaluation. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    The amount of literature on program evaluation decreased in 1996, continuing a trend begun in the late 1980s. One exception to this is the literature on assessment. Another frequent issue is the technique of evaluation. Many examples of research on evaluation are from international settings, where accountability and evaluation appear to be…

  18. METAZOOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. THERMAL, MIXING, AND OXYGEN REGIMES OF THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Curriculum. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Literature on college curriculum has been declining since the early 1990s, representing under 5 percent of the literature added to the ERIC database in 1996. One reason seems to be the emphasis on instruction; another is that information on curricular movements are often addressed in the literature on instructional change. Trends in 1996 in the…

  1. EMERGENCE OF A MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT STRAIN OF SALMONELLA SEROTYPE NEWPORT IN THE UNITED STATES, NARMS 1997-1999

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the National Microbial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for Enteric Bacteria participating state and local health departments send every tenth human Salmonella submitted to their laboratory to CDC. Also, the USDA tests chilled carcasses and other raw meat and poultry products, including grou...

  2. An evaluation of selenium concentrations in water, sediment, invertebrates, and fish from the Republican River Basin: 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Walther, M.J.; Petty, J.D.; Fairchild, J.F.; Lucero, J.; Delvaux, M.; Manring, J.; Armbruster, M.; Hartman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Republican River Basin of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas lies in a valley which contains Pierre Shale as part of its geological substrata. Selenium is an indigenous constituent in the shale and is readily leached into surrounding groundwater. The Basin is heavily irrigated through the pumping of groundwater, some of which is selenium-contaminated, onto fields in agricultural production. Water, sediment, benthic invertebrates, and/or fish were collected from 46 sites in the Basin and were analyzed for selenium to determine the potential for food-chain bioaccumulation, dietary toxicity, and reproductive effects of selenium in biota. Resulting selenium concentrations were compared to published guidelines or biological effects thresholds. Water from 38% of the sites (n = 18) contained selenium concentrations exceeding 5 ??g L-1, which is reported to be a high hazard for selenium accumulation into the planktonic food chain. An additional 12 sites (26% of the sites) contained selenium in water between 3-5 ??g L-1, constituting a moderate hazard. Selenium concentrations in sediment indicated little to no hazard for selenium accumulation from sediments into the benthic food chain. Ninety-five percent of benthic invertebrates collected exhibited selenium concentrations exceeding 3 ??g g-1, a level reported as potentially lethal to fish and birds that consume them. Seventy-five percent of fish collected in 1997, 90% in 1998, and 64% in 1999 exceeded 4 ??g g-1 selenium, indicating a high potential for toxicity and reproductive effects. However, examination of weight profiles of various species of collected individual fish suggested successful recruitment in spite of selenium concentrations that exceeded published biological effects thresholds for health and reproductive success. This finding suggested that universal application of published guidelines for selenium may be inappropriate or at least may need refinement for systems similar to the Republican River Basin. Additional research is needed to determine the true impact of selenium on fish and wildlife resources in the Basin.

  3. Managing Electronic Serials: Essays Based on the ALCTS Electronic Serials Institutes 1997-1999. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services & Collections, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluh, Pamela M., Ed.

    If managed well, electronic journals (e-journals) can be extremely efficient, saving money and space while improving access and speeding information delivery. With the help of the Internet, e-journals can also make library collections more accessible to both users and staff. Covering the process of managing electronic serials from licensing,…

  4. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil); "Family…

  5. The analysis of the structure of suicidal behaviours in the region of the Lublin voivodship in the years 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka-Drozak, Ewa; Skórzyńska, Hanna; Makara-Studzińska, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Suicide is a phenomenon that raises particularly strong emotions of the public creating a question about the sense of life and death. The phenomenon reflects customs, personal and social approach, as well as it undergoes historical and cultural changes. The aim of the study is to find the factors that influence making the decision about suicide. The analysis was concerned with the statistical data taken from the Voivodship Police Headquarters in Lublin and with death certificates in the Lublin voivodship. The highest suicide rates were for people included in the age group between 31 and 50. The suicides more frequently were males. PMID:12898825

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Assessment of the Lake Roosevelt Walleye Population: Compilation of 1997-1999 Data, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason; McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    A walleye mark-recapture study was conducted on Lake Roosevelt between 1997 and 1999. The primary objective of the study was to describe the status and biological characteristics of the walleye population in Lake Roosevelt by determining its abundance, movement patterns, age structure, growth, condition, and mortality. The abundance estimates were also to be used to estimate the consumptive impact of walleye on stocked kokanee and rainbow trout. Walleye were collected by electrofishing and angling. Each walleye was tagged with an individually numbered Floy tag. The Jolly-Seber model was used to estimate the size of the walleye population in 1999, using each year of the study as a mark-recapture occasion. Mark-recapture data collected in 1998 was re-analyzed in 1999 with the data pooled in various combinations, using closed and open population models, in an attempt to provide an estimate of walleye abundance that was unbiased, accurate, and more precise. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye were determined from tag returns. Over the three study years, a total of 12,343 walleye {ge} 150 mm TL were collected by Eastern Washington University (EWU), Spokane Tribe of Indians, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and of those, 10,770 were tagged and released. Of the 10,770 walleye marked and released, 775 were recaptured and returned to EWU. The 1999 abundance estimate ({+-} standard error) for walleye {ge} 150 mm TL was 129,183 ({+-} 45,578) and the estimated abundance ({+-} standard error) of walleye {ge} 200 mm TL was 101,508 ({+-} 35,603). A total of 38 population estimates were calculated for 1998. The estimates of the abundance of walleye {ge} 150 mm TL in Lake Roosevelt ranged from 84,335 to 180,568 fish. Estimates of the size of the walleye population {ge} 200 mm TL ranged from 14,971 to 173,702. The 1999 estimate, which used each study year as a mark-recapture occasion, was biased due to unequal capture probabilities. If biases were eliminated, the annual sampling strategy may be the most cost-effective. Of the reanalyzed 1998 estimates, the Schnabel corrected for tag loss and recruitment and the Jolly-Seber estimate, both calculated with the 200 mm minimum length, were recommended for modeling walleye consumption. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye marked on the spawning run ranged from 0 to 245 km over a range of 11 to 486 days. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye marked during the summer/fall ranged from 0 to 217 km over a range of 8 to 788 days. Walleye exhibited seasonal movement trends that included a migration to the spawning area in the upper Spokane River Arm in the spring, with peak spawning occurring in April and May, and a migration following spawning to summer habitats. Once at the summer habitat, walleye appeared to establish summer home ranges (SHR). Walleye collected in Lake Roosevelt in 1999 ranged in age from 0 to 8. Mean instantaneous and mean annual mortality were estimated at 0.62% and 46%. Mean condition factor (K{sub TL}) of the 343 walleye measured and weighed in 1999 was 0.83 (SD = 0.13). Walleye mortality rates appeared to be relatively stable. Mortality and growth were average when compared to other walleye producing waters. Walleye condition was low when compared to condition factors in 1980-83, 1988, 1989, and 1990. The K{sub TL}'s of walleye from Lake Roosevelt were slightly below average when compared to other walleye populations.

  7. Caliciviruses in hospitalized children, São Luís, Maranhão, 1997-1999: detection of norovirus GII.12.

    PubMed

    Portal, Thayara Morais; Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Costa, Larissa Cristina Prado das Neves; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa de; Bandeira, Renato da Silva; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Luz, Claudia Regina Nunes Eloi da; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Resque, Hugo Reis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases during childhood, with norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) being two of its main causes. This study reports for the first time the incidence of these viruses in hospitalized children with and without gastroenteritis in São Luís, Maranhão. A total of 136 fecal samples were tested by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of NoV and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of both NoV and SaV. Positive samples for both agents were subjected to sequencing. The overall frequency of NoV as detected by EIA and RT-PCR was 17.6% (24/136) and 32.6% (15/46), respectively in diarrheic patients and 10.0% (9/90) in non-diarrheic patients (p<0.01). Of the diarrheic patients, 17% had fever, vomiting and anorexia, and 13% developed fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. Of the 24 NoV-positive samples, 50% (12/24) were sequenced and classified as genotypes GII.3 (n=1), GII.4 (6), GII.5 (1), GII.7 (2), GII.12 (1) and GII.16 (1). SaV frequency was 9.8% (11/112), with 22.6% (7/31) in diarrheic patients and 4.9% (4/81) in nondiarrheic (p=0.04) ones. In diarrheic cases, 27.3% had fever, vomiting and anorexia, whereas 18.2% had fever, anorexia and abdominal pain. One SaV-positive sample was sequenced and classified as GII.1. These results show a high genetic diversity of NoV and higher prevalence of NoV compared to SaV. Our data highlight the importance of NoV and SaV as enteropathogens in São Luís, Maranhão. PMID:27161199

  8. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... and private schools throughout the United States. 1991 1993 1995 1997 Ever used marijuana (one or more ... 800 − CDC − INFO (800 − 232 − 4636). Percentages 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 ...

  9. Microbial problems in connection with storage of jet fuel in rock caverns. Development of a process for purification of corrosive jet fuel). Mikrobiella problem vid bergrumslagring av jetbraensle. Utveckling av process foer rening av korrosivt jetbraensle

    SciTech Connect

    Roffey, R.

    1985-06-01

    The literature concerning desulfurization is summarized. Investigations concerning the use of different compounds in order to purify corrosive jet fuel are described. A process for purification of corrosive jet fuel with 1-5 mg/l elemental sulphur was developed which is based on powdered silver as adsorbent. The capacity for adsorption was determined. On the basis of the data obtained, a scale-up was carried out to a full scale plant. The plant was planned for a capacity of 100 - 300 mT fuel/hour and so that it can be constructed as a mobile unit enabling it to be transported to various storage plants.

  10. Microbial problems in connection with storage of jet fuel in rock caverns. Methods to inhibit development of corrosive fuel. Mikrobiella problem vid bergrumslagring av jetbraensle. Inhiberingsmetoder foer att foerhindra uppkomst av korrosivt braensle

    SciTech Connect

    Norqvist, A.; Edlund, A.; Roffey

    1986-04-01

    Problems with long-term storage of jet fuel in rock caverns have during the last years been observed. The problems have mainly been concerned with the accumulation of corrosive compounds in the fuel. Studies in laboratory model systems were carried out in order to understand which factors are important in causing the problems. The rate of groundwater leaking in, the oxygen and sulfate concentration in the bedwater, the amount of sediment, and the temperature were shown to be some of the more-important factors. With the aim to find some suitable methods to prevent the problems from arising, studies in model systems were also carried out. Oxygenation of the bedwater or addition of a biodegradable biocide gave positive effects resulting in reduction of microbial activities and no development of corrosive fuel.

  11. Cornell University's Entrepreneurship Education & Outreach Program: Evaluation and Proposal. A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlough, Charles; Streeter, Deborah H.

    In 1997-1999, the Department of Agriculture, Resource, and Managerial Economics of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences conducted an entrepreneurship education and outreach program that was based on the Premier FastTrac Curriculum, which is a model delivery tool for entrepreneurship education. In 1997-1998, the program was…

  12. Development of a Brief Measure of Career Development Influences Based on the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgstock, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the initial development and validation of a brief quantitative measure of career development influences based on the Systems Theory Framework (STF) of career development (McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 1997, 1999, 2006). Initial exploratory factor analyses of pilot study data revealed a six-factor structure based on…

  13. Elevated CO2 alters plant & microbial communities in the shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2] in Open Top Chambers (OTC) installed over native Colorado shortgrass steppe increased the productivity of C3 grasses from 1997-1999, and progressively increased plant cover of Artemisia frigida, fringed sage, a common shrub of North American a...

  14. The Effects of Social Class and Ethnicity on Gender Differences in GCSE Attainment: A Secondary Analysis of the Youth Cohort Study of England and Wales 1997-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article is based upon a secondary analysis of three successive cohorts of the Youth Cohort Study of England and Wales and examines the effects of social class and ethnicity on gender differences in General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) attainment for those who left school in 1997, 1999 and 2001 respectively. The article shows that…

  15. A Learning Framework for the Small Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Felicity; Henderson, Joan Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to offer insight into the factors affecting individual and organisational learning in a small business; specifically the identification of the learning relationships that are unique to the small business environment. Design/methodology/approach: The authors apply Crossan et al.'s (1997, 1999) Organisational…

  16. Contingent Work in the Late-1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Steven

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, there were 5.6 million contingent workers; the number and proportion remained unchanged from 1997-1999. Contingency rate was highest for younger workers, part-time workers, women, blacks, and Hispanics. More than half would rather have noncontingent jobs. Compared with earlier data, they were more likely to have personal than economic…

  17. Alignment of Idaho State Standards With The Idaho Direct Mathematics Assessment In Grades 4, 6, and 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, James

    2004-01-01

    The process used for this alignment was an abbreviated version of the alignment work and models developed by Norman L. Webb (1997, 1999, 2001, and 2002), and used in alignment studies of the Idaho state assessment system. While the full Webb alignment includes four dimensions, this study only considers two of the dimensions -- Depth of Knowledge…

  18. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  19. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides residues in green mussels (Perna viridis) from the coastal area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Jaksakul, Areerat; Puncharoen, Pornthip; Tabucanon, Monthip Sriratana

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of organochlorine pesticides for pest control chemical has been of great interest on residue contamination from biological organisms in the environment. Green mussel (Perna viridis) samples were monitored as bioindicators for assessment of the water quality in coastal waters along the Gulf of Thailand. Thirty-six samples were collected from 12 stations during 1997-1999 and analysed for 26 organochlorine pesticide compounds. This paper focuses on the contamination of organochlorine pesticide residues in green mussel (P. viridis) during 1997-1999. The limit of detection of all organochlorine pesticides compounds was at the range of 0.1-8.3 ng g(-1) wet weight and recovery 75-95%. The concentration of organochlorine pesticides residues in green mussel was lower than the maximum residue limit for aquatic animals as recommended by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The trend of organochlorine pesticide residue contamination in this area decreased from 1989 to 1999. PMID:12152831

  20. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  1. A model of diurnally forced vertical current structure near 30° latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Peter D.

    1989-11-01

    At 30° latitude, the inertial frequency is equal to the frequency of the diurnal tide, or diurnal winds such as a sea breeze. The extension of Ekman's (1905, Arkiv foer Matematik, Astronomi och Fysik, 2, 11) theory to incorporate oscillatory forcing indicates that at the latitude where the inertial and forcing frequencies are the same, the sense of rotation of the current profile with depth will change. The coastal-ocean model of BATTISTI and CLARKE (1982, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 12, 8-16) is extended to include cross-shore wind stress and a constant eddy viscosity model of vertical current structure. The model is used to demonstrate the latitude-dependence of the tidally and wind-forced current structure near 30° latitude. The results are best interpreted in a fixed reference frame, rather than the rotating f-plane.

  2. Current status of quality in Japanese clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kodama, Yasuo; Ono, Shunsuke; Mutoh, Mizue; Kawashima, Susumu; Fujimura, Akio

    2005-08-01

    The changes in the quality of Japanese clinical trials were evaluated by comparing the results of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audits conducted from April 1997 to March 2000 (fiscal year (FY) 1997-1999) with those from April 2001 to March 2002 (FY2001). During both of the periods inspections were undertaken by the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). The audit findings in the former period were based on the audits that covered 331 hospitals and 775 trials conducted under the old GCP guideline. The audits in the latter period targeted 147 hospitals and 238 trials conducted under the old or new GCP guideline. The total number of deficiencies detected by GCP audits in the former three-year period (FY 1997-1999) was 1529, and the corresponding number in the latter single year (FY 2001) was 912. Two remarkable changes in OPSR's findings were observed between FY 1997-1999 and FY 2001 as follows; the proportion of protocol deviations increased from 14.7% (225/1529) to 53.1% (484/912), while the proportion of errors in case report forms (CRFs) decreased from 43.6% (666/1529) to 15.4% (140/912). The new GCP guideline sets very high standards for a hospital's qualification: to have sufficient equipment and hospital resources, to have capacity for promptly responding to urgent trial-related problems, to have an IRB, and to have appropriate staff including clinical research coordinators (CRCs) assigned to the clinical trial. Our results suggest that the impact of the regulatory changes of applicable standard is large for a hospital's qualification for conducting clinical trials in Japan. PMID:16054582

  3. Reliability of Japanese clinical trials estimated from GCP audit findings.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kodama, Y; Ono, S; Maida, C; Fujimura, A; Miyamoto, E

    2008-08-01

    To describe the reliability of Japanese clinical trials, we compared the results of a Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audit conducted between April 1997 and March 2000 (fiscal year (FY) 1997 - 1999) with those from April 2004 - March 2005 (FY2004). The number and proportion of various types of deficiencies described in GCP audit reports were compared between the 2 periods. The audit findings in the former period were based on official audits that covered 331 hospitals and 775 trials. The audits in the latter period targeted 114 hospitals and 189 trials. The inspection of former period was undertaken by the Organization for Pharmaceuticals Safety and Research (OPSR). On the other hand, the latter period was undertaken by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The total number of deficiencies detected in GCP audits was 1,529 in the former 3-year period (FY1997 - 1999) and 819 in the latter period (FY2004). The total number of deficiencies detected and reported was more than 1.5-fold on an annual basis in the latter period. By category of deficiencies, the proportion of protocol deviations increased from 14.7 (225/1,529) to 45.7% (374/819), while the proportion of errors in case report forms (CRFs) decreased from 43.6 (666/ 1,529) to 27.1% (222/819). There were two remarkable changes in audit findings between FY1997 - 1999 and FY2004; the increase in the proportion of protocol deviations and the decrease in the proportion of CRF-related deficiencies. We think that in Japan the improvement of research environments is needed to provide reliable clinical data responsible for the regulatory standard of GCP. PMID:18793583

  4. Early epileptic encephalopathies including West syndrome: a 3-year retrospective study from Klang Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thambyayah, M

    2001-11-01

    It is difficult to give a country report from Malaysia. A study done in 1999 reported the incidence of West Syndrome to be 3% among newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy. In this 3 year retrospective hospital-based study (1997-1999), the prevalence of early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and West Syndrome were 4.1 and 2.5% respectively. There is difficulty classifying EEE cases into distinct sub-groups of EIEE (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), WS (West Syndrome) and SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy), using a combination of clinical features, EEG and CT/MRI findings. PMID:11701263

  5. Prediction failure of a wolf landscape model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    I compared 101 wolf (Canis lupus) pack territories formed in Wisconsin during 1993-2004 to the logistic regression predictive model of Mladenoff et al. (1995, 1997, 1999). Of these, 60% were located in putative habitat suitabilities 50% remained unoccupied by known packs after 24 years of recolonization. This model was a poor predictor of wolf re-colonizing locations in Wisconsin, apparently because it failed to consider the adaptability of wolves. Such models should be used cautiously in wolf-management or restoration plans.

  6. Social class inequalities in health among occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kivimäki, Mika; Martikainen, Pekka; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Shipley, Martin; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Lallukka, Tea

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether relative occupational social class inequalities in physical health functioning widen, narrow or remain stable among white collar employees from three affluent countries. Health functioning was assessed twice in occupational cohorts from Britain (1997-1999 and 2003-2004), Finland (2000-2002 and 2007) and Japan (1998-1999 and 2003). Widening inequalities were seen for British and Finnish men, whereas inequalities among British and Finnish women remained relatively stable. Japanese women showed reverse inequalities at follow up, but no health inequalities were seen among Japanese men. Health behaviours and social relations explained 4-37% of the magnitude in health inequalities, but not their widening. PMID:25545770

  7. Materials compatibility for 238Pu-HNO3/HF solution containment: 238Pu aqueous processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimus, M. A.; Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Silver, G.; Brock, J.; Nixon, J.; Ramsey, K. B.; Moniz, P.

    2000-07-01

    The Power Source Technologies Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory is building a 238Pu Aqueous Scrap Recovery Line at the Plutonium Facility. The process line incorporates several unit operations including dissolution, filtration, ion exchange, and precipitation. During 1997-1999, studies were carried out to determine the chemistry used in the full-scale process. Other studies focussed on the engineering design of the operation. Part of the engineering design was to determine, in compatibility studies, the materials for reaction and storage vessels which will contain corrosive 238Pu-HNO3/HF solutions. The full-scale line is to be operational by the end of year 2000.

  8. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  9. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  10. PCBs in sediments and the coastal food web near a local contaminant source in Saglek Bay, Labrador.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Z A; Stow, J P; Burgess, N M; Solomon, S M; Reimer, K J

    2005-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in marine sediments and the coastal food web in Saglek Bay, Labrador, to investigate the influence of a local PCB source. Saglek Bay has been the site of a military radar station since the late 1950s and there was PCB-contaminated soil at a beach prior to cleanup in 1997-1999. PCB concentrations in marine sediments during 1997-1999 ranged from 0.24 to 62000 ng/g (dry weight) and decreased exponentially with distance from the contaminated beach. Given this gradient, spatial trends of PCBs in the food web were examined over four zones, according to distance from the contaminated beach: within 1.5 km--zone one, 1.5-4.5 km--zone two, 4.5-7.5 km--zone three, and greater than 7.5 km--zone four. PCB concentrations in a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), decreased significantly from zone one to zone two, three, four, and distant Labrador reference sites. PCB concentrations in the eggs of a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle) were as high as 48000 ng/g during 1997-1999 and average concentrations in zones one and two were 84 and 13 times higher than in zone four. Marine invertebrates closely reflected the concentrations of PCBs in the associated sediment. In contrast to the benthic-based food web, anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) showed no evidence of PCB accumulation from the contaminated sediments. Relatively high PCB concentrations were discovered in some great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) but appear to relate more to their high trophic level than sampling location. Those species that fed on or near the seabed and had limited foraging ranges were strongly influenced by the local contamination. Total PCB concentrations in the benthic-based food web were significantly higher than background levels for a distance of at least 7.5 km from the contaminated beach. This area is small in the context of widely distributed contamination from

  11. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  12. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  13. GoldHelox solar x-ray telescope testing progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jonathan P.; Roming, Peter W.; Moody, J. W.; Turley, R. S.; Eastman, Paul F.; Lloyd, T.; Eldredge, K. D.; Raines, Allen L.; Reily, J. Cary; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Keidel, John W.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Whitley, Kenneth M.; Wright, Ernest R.; Baker, Markus A.; Carpenter, James R.; Chavers, D. G.; Haight, Harlan J.; Hale, K. Barry; Hill, Thomas A.; Javins, David R.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Siler, Richard D.; Tucker, John M.; Watson, David W.; Takahashi, R.

    2000-07-01

    The GoldHelox Solar X-ray Telescope underwent several tests during the years of 1997 - 1999, and continues through the testing phase of the project. The instrument itself, a solar telescope to ride on board the Space Shuttle, is designed to photograph the sun in soft x-ray wavelengths between 171 angstroms to 181 angstroms. Critical to its success, many tests are required to insure safety, robustness, and overall accuracy of the telescope during its mission. Among these are shake table tests, optical tests, vacuum integrity, and thermal analysis. This paper describes the GoldHelox project including its current status as a mission, the tests performed on the instrument to date, and the tests pending.

  14. Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

  15. Dataset of aggregate producers in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  16. Baxter operators for arbitrary spin II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, D.; Derkachov, S.; Karakhanyan, D.; Kirschner, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the second part of our study devoted to the construction of Baxter operators for the homogeneous closed XXX spin chain with the quantum space carrying infinite or finite-dimensional sℓ representations. We consider the Baxter operators used in Bazhanov et al. (1996, 1997, 1999, 2010) [1,2], formulate their construction uniformly with the construction of our previous paper. The building blocks of all global chain operators are derived from the general Yang-Baxter operators and all operator relations are derived from general Yang-Baxter relations. This leads naturally to the comparison of both constructions and allows to connect closely the treatment of the cases of infinite-dimensional representation of generic spin and finite-dimensional representations of integer or half-integer spin. We prove not only the relations between the operators but present also their explicit forms and expressions for their action on polynomials representing the quantum states.

  17. Net Ecosystem Exchange in a Tall Tower Footprint: Reconciling Observations, Modeling, and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B.; Braswell, B.; Churkina, G.; Schimel, D.; Davis, K.

    2001-05-01

    In this study we investigate the controls on monthly-to-interannual terrestrial NEP within the footprint of the WLEF tall tower. This footprint is large enough (>1 km2) to be considered as a single example of a global ecosystem model or global remote sensing grid cell. We compare the observed NEE from 1997-1999 with predictions of the Biome-BGC model and attempt to associate discrepancies with specific processes, including plant phenology and soil respiration. The remote sensing observations are used in this exercise to help diagnose interannual variability in growing season length and to characterize the distribution of landcover within the footprint. We consider also inherent limitations in the data, especially the uncertainty associated with data gap-filling methods.

  18. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Bezrukikh, P. Jr.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-10-20

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF and E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  19. A Synopsis of Ion Propulsion Development Projects in the United States: SERT 1 to Deep Space I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations were reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, SERT I which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technology employed on the early cesium engine flights. the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space I flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high-level of flight-readiness.

  20. Ion Propulsion Development Projects in US: Space Electric Rocket Test I to Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations are reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT) I, which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technologies employed on the early cesium engine flights, the applications technology satellite series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space 1 flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high level of flight readiness.

  1. Temporal variability in phytodetritus and megabenthic activity at the seabed in the deep Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Brian J.; Malzone, M. Gabriella; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Wigham, Benjamin D.

    We report a ten-year study of the abundance and activity of megabenthos on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, northeast Atlantic, together with observations on the occurrence of phytodetritus at the deep-sea floor (4850 m). Using the Southampton Oceanography Centre time-lapse camera system, ‘Bathysnap’, we have recorded a radical change in the abundance and activity of megabenthos between the two periods of study (1991-1994 and 1997-2000). In 1991-1994, the larger megabenthos occurred at an abundance of c. 71.6/ha and were dominated by large holothurians. In addition, there were very substantial populations of smaller megabenthic ophiuroids (c. 4979/ha). Together, the total megabenthos are estimated to track over some 17 cm 2/m 2/d (exploiting 100% of the surface of the seabed in c. 2.5 years). In 1997-2000, the larger megabenthos increased to an abundance of c. 204/ha and were joined by exceptional numbers of a small holothurian species ( Amperima rosea, 6457/ha) and ophiuroids (principally Ophiocten hastatum, 53,539/ha). The total megabenthos population was tracking at an estimnated rate of c. 247 cm 2/m 2/d (exploiting 100% of seabed in just 6 weeks). Coincident with these increases in the abundance and activity of the megabenthos, there were apparently no mass depositions of aggregated phytodetritus to the seabed in the summers of 1997-1999. Mass occurrences of phytodetritus had been noted during the summer months of the three years previously studied (1991, 1993 and 1994), with covering between 50 and 96% of the sediment surface. There is a statistically significant (p<0.02) negative correlation between maximum extent of this seabed cover of phytodetritus and seabed tracking by megabenthos. Additional studies [Lampitt et al., Progr. Ocean. 50 (2001)], indicate that there were no substantial changes in surface ocean primary productivity, in export flux, or in the composition of the flux that might otherwise account for the apparent absence of observable

  2. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  3. Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan--changes from 1997 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Rong; Tzeng, Min-Su; Kao, Mei-Ding; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand present infant complementary foods eating and compare trends over the past 10 years in Taiwan. We investigated the methods used to introduce infants to complementary foods, difficulties encountered, sources of information and the principle caregiver's knowledge about infant feeding. This study focused on findings from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) and compared with those from the 1997-1999 Child NAHSIT. Interviews in both surveys were carried out by trained interviewers. In 2005-2008 survey, 50% of infants aged 7-12 months had started eating baby cereals or juice at age 4-6 months as recommended. The proportions of infants aged 10-12 months who were introduced to particular complementary foods at recommended periods varied from biscuits (51.1%) to tofu (1.1%). The proportions were higher in 2005-2008 than in 1997-1999 for only 3 items. In both survey, more than 80% of mothers were the one who made the decision to introduce their children to complementary foods. More than 75% of caregivers fed baby cereals to their babies from milk bottles. In 2005-2008, the most commonly encountered problem was that the child wouldn't eat. Nutrition knowledge of the caregivers have improved since 1999, but still needs fostering. The timing to introduce complementary foods become later than ten years ago. Whether the delay will affect the normal dietary intakes of children after one year of age needs attention. The government should not only promote breastfeeding, but also reevaluate current evidence-based recommendation on complementary food introduction time. PMID:21669603

  4. Nitrate leaching to subsurface drains as affected by drain spacing and changes in crop production system.

    PubMed

    Kladivko, E J; Frankenberger, J R; Jaynes, D B; Meek, D W; Jenkinson, B J; Fausey, N R

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface drainage is a beneficial water management practice in poorly drained soils but may also contribute substantial nitrate N loads to surface waters. This paper summarizes results from a 15-yr drainage study in Indiana that includes three drain spacings (5, 10, and 20 m) managed for 10 yr with chisel tillage in monoculture corn (Zea mays L.) and currently managed under a no-till corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation. In general, drainflow and nitrate N losses per unit area were greater for narrower drain spacings. Drainflow removed between 8 and 26% of annual rainfall, depending on year and drain spacing. Nitrate N concentrations in drainflow did not vary with spacing, but concentrations have significantly decreased from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Flow-weighted mean concentrations decreased from 28 mg L(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 8 mg L(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. The reduction in concentration was due to both a reduction in fertilizer N rates over the study period and to the addition of a winter cover crop as a "trap crop" after corn in the corn-soybean rotation. Annual nitrate N loads decreased from 38 kg ha(-1) in the 1986-1988 period to 15 kg ha(-1) in the 1997-1999 period. Most of the nitrate N losses occurred during the fallow season, when most of the drainage occurred. Results of this study underscore the necessity of long-term research on different soil types and in different climatic zones, to develop appropriate management strategies for both economic crop production and protection of environmental quality. PMID:15356241

  5. Vegetation dynamics in a large braided river (Tagliamento River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barban, M.; Monegato, G.; Surian, N.; Ziliani, L.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation has often a crucial role on braided river dynamics in humid environments. The aim of this work is to investigate island dynamics and, specifically, the controls of such dynamics. We started exploring the relation between islands dynamics and flow regime, testing the hypothesis if islands erosion is associated with floods of specific magnitude. Besides geological (e.g. groundwater depth) and geomorphological (e.g. channel confinement and evolutionary trajectory of channel morphology) controls were taken into account to explain vegetation dynamics. The study was conducted on a 14 km reach of the Tagliamento River (northeastern Italy). Changes in channel morphology and vegetation cover were analyzed over a time period of 25 years, from 1986 to 2011, using 8 sets of aerial photographs (1986, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011). Ten types of fluvial features were digitized within the fluvial corridor which includes the active channel, floodplain and recent terraces. Vegetation was distinguished in three categories according to its height and tree canopy: herbaceous vegetation and shrubs, shrubs and trees of low-medium height, high trees. The extent of the last two categories, that is extent of vegetated patches where trees are dominant, ranged between 4% (in 2005) and 11% (in 1986) of the whole active channel. Preliminary analyses were focused on the dynamics of such vegetation patches, considering the extent of vegetated areas that were eroded and flow regime for each sub-period (e.g. 1986-1993). Erosion of vegetation occurred during all sub-periods but with different magnitude. Three sub-periods were characterized by less intense erosion (annual rates of erosion varying between 4% and 5%) while during the other four sub-periods annual erosion rates were in the range 11% - 15%. Correlations of those erosion rates with flow regime (i.e. cumulative discharges above a defined threshold) suggest that vegetation erosion is strictly connected to occurrence

  6. [Sick leave among workers employed in restructured enterprise].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Ownership and restructuring transformations that are taking now place in Poland, as well as the situation on the labor market have their impact on the indicators, which illustrate the workers' health situation, including temporary work disability preceding the issue of the certification granting the disability pension. The aim of this analysis was to identify the changes in the extent and causes of sickness absence among workers after restructuring. The study was carried out in one of the largest transport industry enterprises during the years of its restructuring (1984-1994), covering 8588 workers, and after its restructuring (1997-1999), covering 2702 workers. Following the restructuring, the enterprise's staff was rejuvenated so that the number of workers aged over 50 years decreased by almost fifty percent. The analysis was based on the sickness absence rate calculated as the ratio between the number of days of work disability in a given period of time and the number of person-days in the same period. In 1997-1999, a 33% decrease in sickness absence among women and a 25% decrease among men were observed in the study enterprise as compared with the period of 1989-1994. However, the enhanced absence was also found due to the following diseases: mental disorders (a threefold increase in men); diseases of the musculoskeletal system (by 54% in men and by 43% in women); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (a threefold increase in women). Following the restructuring, considerable changes in the sickness absence structure, by causes of diseases, were revealed. A substantial decrease in the share of male and female absence due to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems and almost threefold decrease in complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium in women were noted. In addition, over twofold increase in male and female sickness absence due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and lower but significant

  7. Interannual variation of the Indonesian throughflow in the Timor Passage as revealed in SODA: 1958 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Poerwono, P.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2015-09-01

    Temporal variability of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the Timor Passage was evaluated with special focus on its interannual variation. The ITF transport was estimated as a latitudinal averaged of an along strait currents in the Timor Passage based on the output of Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) experiment from 1958 - 2008. A Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (CEOF), then, was applied to the interannual estimated ITF transport to extract the dominant mode of variability. The result has shown that the leading CEOF mode was explaining 67.2% of the total interannual variation. The reconstructed first CEOF time series shows strong positive anomalies (towards the Pacific Ocean) during 1962 - 1969, 1972 - 1978, 1997 - 1999, 2002 - 2005 and 2007. The transport was reversed (towards the Indian Ocean) during other periods. The upper layer transport above ˜200m depth is significantly correlated with the zonal wind stress in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, with the transport lagging the winds by about 10 months. The middle layer transport between about 200 - 600m depth is significantly influenced by the zonal wind from the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in which the zonal winds lag the ITF by about 5 months. In addition, the deeper layer transport below about 600m depth shows significant zero lag correlation with the zonal wind stress in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, though the impact of the equatorial Indian Ocean zonal wind stress is not negligible.

  8. Parasite fauna of selected fish species of Lake Miedwie.

    PubMed

    Sobecka, Ewa; Piasecki, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    A total of 136 fishes, representing 9 species (perch, Perca fluviatilis L.; pike, Esox lucius L.; European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.); common bream, Abramis brama (L.); roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.); tench Tinca tinca (L.); European whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.); vendace, Coregonus albula (L.); and zander, Sander lucioperca (L.)), from Lake Miedwie were studied within 1997-1999. The necropsies yielded 41 parasite species (taxa). The most diversified were parasite faunas of pike (19 parasite species) and perch (16 species). The parasites found represented 13 higher taxa: Monera, Fungi, Protista, Myxozoa, Monogenea, Cestoda, Digenea, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Branchiura, Copepoda, Mollusca, and Acarina. The parasites affecting fishes of Lake Miedwie exhibited diversified host-specificity. The most fish species were infected by metacercariae of Diplostomum spp. (8 fish species) and Tylodelphys clavata (7). Three fish species harboured: Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus, Ergasilus sieboldi, and glochidia Unionidae gen. sp. while Dermocystidium sp., Trichodinella epizootica, Henneguya psorospermica, Triaenophorus nodulosus, Posthodiplostomum cuticula, and Camallanus lacustris parasitised two host species. The remaining parasites were found in single fish species. PMID:16888943

  9. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  10. Social integration and suicide-related ideation from a social network perspective: a longitudinal study among inner-city African Americans.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Wilcox, Holly C; Latkin, Carl A

    2013-08-01

    Social network density, as measured by the extent to which network members know each other, was examined to determine whether it is associated with suicide-related ideation and plan approximately 3 years later. Eight hundred and nineteen African Americans were interviewed at Wave 1 (1997-1999) and Wave 4 (2001-2003) of the Self-Help In Eliminating Life-Threatening Diseases (SHIELD) study, a HIV preventive intervention study in Baltimore, MD. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare risks of suicide-related ideation and plan at Wave 4 by Wave 1 density. Even after adjusting for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, individuals with a lower level of density were three times more likely to report suicide-related ideation and plan in the past year at Wave 4. The findings reinforce the importance of social integration among inner-city African Americans from a social network perspective. Future research should examine the mechanisms associated with this relationship and other social network constructs. PMID:23530665

  11. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of metals in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator after a modernization of the flue gas cleaning systems of the facility.

    PubMed

    Llobet, J M; Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L

    2002-02-01

    In June 1994 and 1997, the concentrations of a number of elements were determined in soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) (Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain). In August 1997, an adaptation to the EU legislation on pollutant emissions from the stack was carried out to the incinerator. In June 1999, soil and herbage samples were collected again at the same sampling points and the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were measured by ICP-MS or AAS with graphite furnace. The results are compared with those obtained in the 1994 and 1997 surveys. In the period 1997-1999, the only significant changes in soil levels corresponded to Cd and Pb, with decreases of 21.0% and 53.5%, respectively. In vegetation, only Mn levels showed a significant reduction, which contrasts with the notable increases found in the concentrations of As, Hg and Ni. According to the results of this survey, it seems evident that other metal emission sources in the same area of study are masking the environmental improvements carried out in the MSWI. PMID:11846165

  12. Mantle P wave travel time tomography of Eastern and Southern Africa: New images of mantle upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Li, C.; van der Hilst, R.

    2006-12-01

    Much of Eastern Africa, including Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, has undergone extensive tectonism, including rifting, uplift, and volcanism during the Cenozoic. The cause of this tectonism is often attributed to the presence of one or more mantle upwellings, including starting thermal plumes and superplumes. Previous regional seismic studies and global tomographic models show conflicting results regarding the spatial and thermal characteristics of these upwellings. Additionally, there are questions concerning the extent to which the Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere has been altered by possible thermal upwellings in the mantle. To further constrain the mantle structure beneath Southern and Eastern Africa and to investigate the origin of the tectonism in Eastern Africa, we present preliminary results of a large-scale P wave travel time tomographic study of the region. We invert travel time measurements from the EHB database with travel time measurements taken from regional PASSCAL datasets including the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment (2000-2002); Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiment (2000-2002); Southern Africa Seismic Experiment (1997- 1999); Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment (1995-1997), and the Saudi Arabia PASSCAL Experiment (1995-1997). The tomographic inversion uses 3-D sensitivity kernels to combine different datasets and is parameterized with an irregular grid so that high spatial resolution can be obtained in areas of dense data coverage. It uses an adaptive least-squares context using the LSQR method with norm and gradient damping.

  13. Time trends and predictors of mortality from ill-defined causes in old age: 9 year follow-up of the Bambuí cohort study (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Matos, Divane Leite; Laurenti, Ruy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de; Cesar, Cibele Comini

    2010-03-01

    The study objective was to examine differentials in time trends and predictors of deaths assigned to symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions in comparison with other ill-defined conditions (ill-defined cardiovascular diseases, cancer and injury) in a population-based cohort study. Of 1,606 baseline participants aged 60 years and over, 524 died during 9-year follow-up and were included in this study. Deaths coded to "symptoms" declined by 77% in the period from 1997-1999 to 2003-2005. Deaths coded to other ill-defined conditions remained unchanged. The calendar period 2003-2005 (RR = 0.25; 95%CI: 0.09-0.70) and in-hospital deaths (RR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.08-0.34) were independently associated with "symptoms", but not with other ill-defined conditions. Baseline socio-demographic characteristics and chronic diseases were not predictors of these outcomes. International and national agencies have focused on the reduction of deaths assigned to "symptoms" to improve the registration of vital statistics, while other ill-defined conditions have received little attention. Our data provide evidence supporting the need to redress this situation. PMID:20464070

  14. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark: Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra G; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine S; Ravn, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children with inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods.  A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses of DTaP-IPV-Hib, were observed from 24 months (first OPV dose) to 36 months of age. Results.  Oral polio vaccine was associated with a lower rate of admissions with any type of non-polio infection compared with DTaP-IPV-Hib as most recent vaccine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], .77-.95). The association was separately significant for admissions with lower respiratory infections (adjusted IRR, 0.73; 95% CI, .61-.87). The admission rates did not differ for OPV versus MMR. Conclusions.  Like MMR, OPV was associated with fewer admissions for lower respiratory infections than having DTaP-IPV-Hib as the most recent vaccination. Because OPV is now being phased-out globally, further studies of the potential beneficial nonspecific effects of OPV are warranted. PMID:26885538

  15. Initial poststocking mortality, oxytetracycline marking, and year-class contribution of black-nosed crappies stocked into Tennessee reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Bettoli, P.W.; Sammons, S.M.; Churchill, T.N.

    2002-01-01

    Initial poststocking mortality, oxytetracycline mark persistence, and year-class contribution were evaluated for black-nosed crappies, a morphological variant of the black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Tennessee reservoirs during 1997-1999. Average initial poststocking mortality was low (x?? = 13%, N = 44). Lake temperature and the difference between lake and hauling tank water temperatures were significant in explaining variability in arcsine-transformed mortality estimates; however, the variability explained by these factors was low (R2 = 0.15). Oxytetracycline immersion was a highly effective marking tool; 97-100% of all crappies treated were marked, and 99% of the marks were visible 36-110 weeks after marking. All control otoliths were correctly scored as unmarked during the evaluation, and mortality rates did not differ between marked and unmarked crappies. Year-class contribution was variable across reservoirs and was highest in Normandy Reservoir (34-93% at ages 1-3). Contribution at ages 1 and 2 was 11-24% in Woods Reservoir. Stocking did not supplement the crappie population in Lake Graham. Black-nosed crappies made up a significant portion (>50%) of the crappies harvested by anglers in Center Hill Reservoir 3 years after stocking was initiated. Conversely, black-nosed crappies made up a relatively small percentage (???12%) of the crappies harvested in Cherokee Reservoir in the 4 years after initial stocking.

  16. Effects of reformulated gasoline and motor vehicle fleet turnover on emissions and ambient concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Harley, Robert A; Hooper, Daniel S; Kean, Andrew J; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Hesson, James M; Balberan, Nancy T; Stevenson, Eric D; Kendall, Gary R

    2006-08-15

    Gasoline-powered motor vehicles are a major source of toxic air contaminants such as benzene. Emissions from light-duty vehicles were measured in a San Francisco area highway tunnel during summers 1991, 1994-1997, 1999, 2001, and 2004. Benzene emission rates decreased over this time period, with a large (54 +/- 5%) decrease observed between 1995 and 1996 when California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) was introduced. We attribute this one-year change in benzene mainly to RFG effects: 36% from lower aromatics in gasoline that led to a lower benzene mass fraction in vehicle emissions, 14% due to RFG effects on total nonmethane organic compound mass emissions, and the remaining 4% due to fleet turnover. Fleet turnover effects accumulate over longer time periods: between 1995 and 2004, fleet turnover led to a 32% reduction in the benzene emission rate. A approximately 4 microg m(-3) decrease in benzene concentrations was observed at a network of ambient air sampling sites in the San Francisco Bay area between the late 1980s and 2004. The largest decrease in annual average ambient benzene concentrations (1.5 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) or 42 +/- 19%) was observed between 1995 and 1996. The reduction in ambient benzene between spring/summer months of 1995 and 1996 due to phase 2 RFG was larger (60 +/- 20%). Effects of fuel changes on benzene during fall/winter months are difficult to quantify because some wintertime fuel changes had already occurred prior to 1995. PMID:16955911

  17. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  18. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  19. Cardiac transplantation at the Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hoercher, Katherine J; Gonzalez-Stawinski, G V; Taylor, David O; McCarthy, Patrick M; Young, James B; Starling, Randall C

    2003-01-01

    The cardiac transplant program at the Cleveland Clinic began in 1984 and has performed nearly 1,100 heart transplants. One-year actual graft and patient survival was 88% among 185 adult recipients transplanted between 1997-1999. In the past 20 years, we have seen a significant evolution of recipient selection criteria, donor suitability, immunosuppressive therapies, and posttransplant patient surveillance. Many of the changes in our program are a result of the bleak forecast, that even in a utopian situation, there would be an inadequate supply of donors. Since the potential growth in transplantable organs appears to be finite, every mechanism possible should be utilized to decrease the demand for this scarce resource. It is of utmost importance that all medical and surgical options have been exhausted prior to listing a patient for transplantation. More than 90% of our transplants are performed in patients who are UNOS Status 1A or 1B. Every patient on the waiting list must be reviewed periodically, to ensure that transplantation is still the most viable option. Finally, to reduce the risk of rejection and preserve graft survival, we must continue the search for novel immunosuppressants. PMID:15387118

  20. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice ( Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Wilderbuer, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    We examined the patterns of abundance and distribution of Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to better understand factors controlling transport and recruitment of flatfish in the Bering Sea. Ichthyoplankton data were derived from plankton surveys conducted in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Temperature, salinity, depth, and abundance of microzooplankton were measured concurrently. Eggs and larvae were primarily collected from depths < 200 m, with the majority occurring over bottom depths ranging 50-100 m. Eggs were present throughout the water column, though densities of preflexion stage larvae were concentrated at depths 10-20 m. There was no evidence of vertical migration for pre-flexion stages. Spawning in Alaska plaice occurs primarily east of Port Moller in April and May, and eggs and larvae appear to drift to the north and northeast, an observation based on satellite-tracked drifter information, model output, and collections of older, later-stage postlarvae. Connectivity between spawning areas and nursery habitats is likely influenced by wind forcing, so climate-mediated changes to dispersal trajectory or timing is expected to have significant impacts on recruitment in this species, though entrainment in consistent, directional currents may modify these effects.

  1. Jupiter's closed cyclones and anticyclones vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legarreta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2003-05-01

    We have measured the motions and derived de velocity field tracking the cloud elements present in Jovian large-scale cyclones and anticyclones. We have used very high spatial resolution images obtained by the Voyager 1 and 2 (in 1979) and the Galileo (1997-1999) spacecrafts. In total we measured motions in 13 vortices covering a range of latitudes from -59 deg to + 41 deg. The tangential component of the velocity as a function of the distance to the vortex centre and position angle is used to retrieve the vorticity field. Then, we compare each vortex mean vorticity with the ambient and planetary vorticities (i. e. with latitude). For most cases studied (11), the vortex vorticity is greater than the ambient vorticity, although two types of vortices showed the same vorticity than the ambient, suggesting that their periphery motions can be entrained by the ambient shear. We present an analysis of the correlations between the mean vorticity and mean zonal motion of each vortex, and the relationship between the ambient to intrinsic vorticity versus the zonal to meridional size ratio. This is used to demonstrate that most vortices do not follow the Kida type vortex relationship. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932 and Grupos-UPV/EHU. We acknowledge the access to the Voyager and Galileo images through the NASA - PDS Atmospheric node at NMSU.

  2. Self-management education en masse: effectiveness of the Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2008-11-17

    Despite the availability of a range of Australian self-management support programs targeting the individual patient and/or health professional, three-quarters of Australians have at least one long-term medical condition, suggesting that a more comprehensive public health approach is needed. Use of mass media to deliver community health messages is a well established public health strategy. It may enhance more targeted approaches with its ability to reach large numbers of people simultaneously, including those difficult to identify, high-risk groups and those difficult to reach through traditional medical delivery. By simultaneously influencing large numbers of people, well designed health messages have the potential to promote and maintain behavioural change over time. Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down (1997-1999), a mass media campaign of the Victorian WorkCover Authority, can be seen as a prototype of a successful public health strategy designed to enhance people's self-management abilities. One of the main messages of the campaign was that there is a lot you can do to help yourself, which emphasises shifting the responsibility of control onto the individual. The success of the campaign makes a compelling evidence-based case for using a similar strategy to enhance the self-management abilities of the population. PMID:19143582

  3. Atmospheric modes influence on the inter- annual variability of the Iberian Poleward Current from 1985 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Álvarez, I.; Crespo, A. J. C.; Ramos, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    The inter-annual variability of the Iberian poleward current (IPC) along the northwestern coast of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) (40- 43N) and its intrusion in the Cantabrian Sea (Navidad, 6- 8W) were analyzed. The January Sea Surface Temperature (J SST) was obtained from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) NOAA satellite from 1985 to 2006. In addition, the dependence of IPC SST on the most representative regional patterns with some influence upon the eastern North Atlantic region was analyzed by means of correlations between November- December atmospheric modes and J SST. The considered modes were: North Atlantic Oscillation pattern (NAO), Eastern Atlantic pattern (EA), Eastern Atlantic Western Russia pattern (EA/WR), Polar/Eurasia pattern (POL) and Scandinavia pattern (SCA). In the present study it has been highlighted that: (1) there are several years (1986, 1987, 1992, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2004 and 2005) during which water in the IPC region is colder than the oceanic one remarking a weak or inexistent IPC during these Januaries and (2) three atmospheric patterns (N-D NAO, N-D EA/WR and N-D POL) are responsible of the main variability of the J SST in the IPC region of the western IP and only two indices (N-D EA/WR, N-D NAO) have shown to be significant to explain the variability of the J SST in the IPC region of the northern IP region.

  4. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  5. Redox History of the Earth's Interior since ~3900 Ma: Implications for Prebiotic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delano, John W.

    2001-08-01

    The history of the oxidation state in the Earth's mantle has been constrained using (a) the whole-rock abundances of Cr and V in ancient volcanics, and (b) the composition of Cr-rich spinels in ancient volcanics. Results indicate that the Earth's mantle has been at-or-near its current oxidation state (+/-0.5 log-unit fO_2) since at least 3600 Ma, and probably since at least 3960 Ma. Volatiles released into the Earth's atmosphere by high-temperature (T >= 1300 K) volcanism during this time have been dominated by H_2O, CO_2, and SO_2. This blend of volatiles is known to provide smaller yields of prebiotic, organic molecules by atmospheric and surface processes than gas mixtures containing higher concentrations of reduced species such as H_2, CO, and H_2S (e.g., Miller, 1998; Zolotov and Shock, 2000). The results discussed in this article independently support the conclusion of Canil (1997, 1999). f the atmosphere was reducing (e.g., CH_4, H_2, H_2S, NH_3, CO) at any time during the last ~3900 Ma, high-temperature volcanic outgassing was not the cause of it.

  6. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge recycling options and treatment processes in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hara, K; Mino, T

    2008-12-01

    Tokyo has historically suffered from a shortage of final disposal sites for the treated sewage sludge. Given this situation, sludge recycling and incineration have been promoted to reduce the volume of treated sludge conveyed to the disposal site, and the recycling options have changed since the late 1990s. This study aims to revisit the sewage sludge treatment and recycling processes in Tokyo and to evaluate different recycling options (brick, aggregate, refuse derived fuel and slag) from the energy consumption perspective by clarifying the complex flow of treated sludge within Tokyo's 23 wards. The study also estimates environmental loads associated with the operation of the whole sludge management system in the area. The environmental loads include: (1) total energy consumption and (2) gas emissions (greenhouse and acidification gases). The estimation was carried out for the years 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001, during which a drastic change in recycling options occurred. The results indicated that the production of refuse derived fuel was the most energy consuming recycling option while aggregate production is the least energy consuming. They also showed that despite the increasing sludge volume, the energy consumption associated with the operation of the whole system decreased during the period while the gas emissions increased. PMID:18439814

  7. The X-Ray Spectral Changes of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, C. F.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Fomalont, E. B.

    2003-07-01

    Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of Sco X-1 during 1997-1999 have been analyzed for spectral characteristics. All the X-ray branches of Sco X-1 were observed during these epochs. On the basis of our observations, we present a simple model for the behavior of Sco X-1 as a function of accretion rate and angle of the observer's line of sight that explains quantitatively the results of VLBA and RXTE observations. Our model presents a unified view of bright low-mass X-ray binaries as an accretion-driven system in which, at the Eddington accretion rate, material overflows the magnetosphere of the neutron star and quenches the jets of Sco X-1. We present supporting evidence of absorption as a function of X-ray branch. The model explains the two distinct color diagrams of observed Z source horizontal branches as variations in the observed line of sight to the accretion disk. The model also applies to the recently discovered Z traces in atoll sources.

  8. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure. PMID:15383411

  9. Temporal dynamics of emergency department and hospital admissions of pediatric asthmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel; Levine, Elissa; Timmins, Sidey; Weiss, Sheila R.; Bollinger, Mary E.; Blaisdell, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that can result in exacerbations leading to urgent care in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. We examined seasonal and temporal trends in pediatric asthma ED (1997-1999) and hospital (1986-1999) admission data so as to identify periods of increased risk of urgent care by age group, gender, and race. All pediatric ED and hospital admission data for Maryland residents occurring within the state of Maryland were evaluated. Distinct peaks in pediatric ED and hospital asthma admissions occurred each year during the winter-spring and autumn seasons. Although the number and timing of these peaks were consistent across age and racial groups, the magnitude of the peaks differed by age and race. The same number, timing, and relative magnitude of the major peaks in asthma admissions occurred statewide, implying that the variables affecting these seasonal patterns of acute asthma exacerbations occur statewide. Similar gross seasonal trends are observed worldwide. Although several environmental, infectious, and psychosocial factors have been linked with increases in asthma exacerbations among children, thus far they have not explained these seasonal patterns of admissions. The striking temporal patterns of pediatric asthma admissions within Maryland, as described here, provide valuable information in the search for causes.

  10. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6)

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, A. I.; McLeod, G. F. H.; Gray, A. R.; McGee, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity) obtained from 6,195 respondents, 50.2% female, 15–69 years, was investigated in relation to six sun-tanning related statements. A total “positive perceptions of tanning” (ProTan) score was also calculated. Regression analyses modelled each component and the ProTan score against survey year and respondent characteristics. Results. Statistically significantly higher ProTan scores were found for age group (strong reverse dose-response effect), male sex, residence (highest in Auckland), ethnicity (highest among Europeans), and sun sensitivity (an n-shaped association). There was no statistically significant change in total ProTan scores from baseline. Conclusions. The development, pretesting, and evaluation of messages for those groups most likely to endorse ProTan statements should be considered for the New Zealand skin cancer prevention program. To achieve and embed significant change, mass media campaigns may require greater intensity and reinforcement with sustained contextual support for settings-based behavioural change. PMID:24660064

  11. Accuracy of analyzed stratospheric temperatures in the winter Arctic vortex from infrared Montgolfier long-duration balloon flights 2. Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, B. M.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Nunes-Pinharanda, M.; Denis, L.; Newman, P.; Letrenne, G.; Durand, M.

    2002-08-01

    Five long-duration flights with the Mongolfier infrared (MIR) balloon lasting 15 days, on average, have been conducted in the Arctic winter stratospheric vortex in 1997, 1999, and 2000. Temperatures from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Met Office (MO), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Data Assimilation Office (DAO), and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (REA) have been compared to the observations from 4 to 146 hPa. Occasional large errors (>14 K) occur in each analysis, mainly above 30 hPa. In 2000 the standard deviations of ECMWF, MO, and DAO with respect to the measured temperatures range from 1.0 to 1.3 K, whereas NCEP and REA have substantially larger errors. In 1999 the flights took place during a major warming, and all operational models had large standard deviations and substantial biases. Preoperational versions of the new ECMWF model with increased stratospheric resolution and assimilation of the advanced microwave sounding unit, which none of the other models assimilated, show small biases and standard deviations.

  12. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  13. Generalized surficial geologic map of the Denver 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.W.; Straub, A.W.; Berry, M.E.; Baker, M.L.; Brandt, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-nine types of surficial geologic deposits and residual materials of Quaternary age are described and mapped in the greater Denver area, in part of the Front Range, and in the piedmont and plains east of Denver, Boulder, and Castle Rock. Descriptions appear in the pamphlet that accompanies the map. Landslide deposits, colluvium, residuum, alluvium, and other deposits or materials are described in terms of predominant grain size, mineral or rock composition (e.g., gypsiferous, calcareous, granitic, andesitic), thickness of deposits, and other physical characteristics. Origins and ages of the deposits and geologic hazards related to them are noted. Many lines between geologic units on our map were placed by generalizing contacts on published maps. However, in 1997-1999 we mapped new boundaries, as well. The map was projected to the UTM projection. This large map area extends from the Continental Divide near Winter Park and Fairplay (on the west edge), eastward about 107 mi (172 km); and extends from Boulder on the north edge to Woodland Park at the south edge (68 mi; 109 km).

  14. Generalized surficial geology map of the Pueblo 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.W.; Straub, A.W.; Berry, M.E.; Baker, M.L.; Brandt, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-three types of surficial geologic deposits and residual materials of Quaternary age are described in a pamphlet and located on a map of the greater Pueblo area, in part of the Front Range, in the Wet and Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and on the plains east of Colorado Springs and Pueblo. Deposits formed by landslides, wind, and glaciers, as well as colluvium, residuum, alluvium, and others are described in terms of predominant grain size, mineral or rock composition (e.g., gypsiferous, calcareous, granitic, andesitic), thickness, and other physical characteristics. Origins and ages of the deposits and geologic hazards related to them are noted. Many lines drawn between units on our map were placed by generalizing contacts on published maps. However, in 1997-1999 we mapped new boundaries as well. The map was projected to the UTM projection. This large map area extends from near Salida (on the west edge), eastward about 107 mi (172 km), and from Antero Reservoir and Woodland Park on the north edge to near Colorado City at the south edge (68 mi; 109 km).

  15. Promoting prevention with economic arguments – The case of Finnish occupational health services

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Background Both social and ethical arguments have been used to support preventive occupational health services (OHS). During the 1990s it became more common to support political argumentation for occupational health and safety by converting the consequences of ill health at work into monetary units. In addition, OHS has been promoted as a profitable investment for companies, and this aspect has been used by OHS providers in their marketing. Our intention was to study whether preventive occupational health services positively influence a company's economic performance. Methods We combined the financial statements provided by Statistics Finland and employers' reimbursement applications for occupational health services (OHS) costs to the Social Insurance Institution. The data covered the years 1997, 1999 and 2001 and over 6000 companies. We applied linear regression analysis to assess whether preventive OHS had had a positive influence on the companies' economic performance after two or four years. Results Resources invested in preventive OHS were not positively related to a company's economic performance. In fact, the total cost of preventive OHS per turnover was negatively correlated to economic performance. Conclusion Even if OHS has no effect on the economic performance of companies, it may have other effects more specific to OHS. Therefore, we recommend that the evaluation of prevention in OHS should move towards outcome measures, such as sickness absence, disability pension and productivity, when applicable, both in occupational health service research and in practice at workplaces. PMID:18430218

  16. Comparison of the financial performance of Islamic and conventional bank in Malaysia during and after economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Jaffar, Aidatullaini; Abdullah, Nur Lina; Harun, Nurzalina

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a continuation of our former work. In this paper, we compare the financial performance of the two banking systems that exist in Malaysia over two periods of time, during economic crisis (1997-1999) and after economic crisis (2001-2003). In order to see the conventional as well as Islamic bank's performance over these two periods of time, the study uses 10 financial ratios which are broadly categorized into 4 groups: (a) profitability ratios; (b) liquidity ratios; (c) risk and solvency ratios; and (d) efficiency ratios. Next, the study used T-test in determining the significance of the differential performance of the two banks over two periods of time. By using inter-bank comparison, the study found that, conventional bank has better performance, efficient, more profitable and has greater risk as compared to Islamic bank. However, in terms of utilizing asset, Islamic bank is better than conventional bank. As an overall, conventional bank is better in much aspect due to the longer history and experience in the industry than Islamic bank that start their operation in 1983.

  17. Residential mobility and breast cancer in Marin County, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Barlow, Janice; Rommel, Robert; Kaufmann, Andy; Rienti, Michael; AvRuskin, Gillian; Rasul, Jawaid

    2014-01-01

    Marin County (California, USA) has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997-1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990-1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while statistic accounted for participants' residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified. PMID:24366047

  18. On the Making of Quantum Chemistry in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachalios, Andreas

    During the 1990s several historians of science have studied the emergence of quantum chemistry as an autonomous discipline in different national contexts (Nye, 1993; Simões, 1993; Simões, forthcoming; Gavroglu and Simões, 1994; Karachalios, 1997a). Beyond these disciplinary studies, a number of contributions to special aspects of this theme have appeared (Schweber, 1990; Gavroglu, 1995; Simões and Gavroglu, 1997, 1999a,b; Schwarz et al., 1999). In this literature the birth of quantum chemistry has generally been associated with two dates: the 1927 paper of Walter Heitler and Fritz London and the year 1931 in which Linus Pauling and John Clarke Slater independently explained the tetrahedral orientation of the four bonds of the carbon atom. To these dates we might also add a third: in 1928 London published a paper, 'Zur Quantentheorie der homöopolaren Valenzzahlen' (London, 1928), in which he gave a quantum mechanical explanation of the classical chemical notion of valency. There he showed a relationship between the valency numbers and the spectroscopical multiplicity, namely that valency=multiplicity-1. This relation established a bridge between physical and chemical facts. Taken together, these developments constitute important events for the international development of quantum chemistry.

  19. KARMEN upgrade and prospects at ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexlin, G.; Armbruster, B.; Eberhard, V.; Eitel, K.; Gemmeke, H.; Jannakos, T.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Oehler, C.; Plischke, P.; Rapp, J.; Reichenbacher, J.; Steidl, M.; Wolf, J.; Zeitnits, B.; Bodmann, B. A.; Finckh, E.; Hößl, J.; Jünger, P.; Kretschmer, W.; Eichner, C.; Maschuw, R.; Ruf, C.; Blair, I. M.; Edgington, J. A.; Seligmann, B.; Booth, N. E.; Karmen Collaboration

    The KARMEN experiment at the ISIS spallation source has enhanced its sensitivity for overlineν μ → overlineν e oscillations in 1996 by the installation of an additional large area veto counter system. Consisting of 136 highly transparent plastic scintillator modules, the new veto is completely embedded inside the experiment's 7000 tonne steel blockhouse. It allows to eliminate the main background component in the search for overlineν μ → overlineν e appearance originating from high energy neutrons induced by deep inelastic scattering of cosmic ray muons in the massive shielding. First measurements after the detector upgrade show a substantial reduction of this background meeting the expected factor of 40. If no oscillation signal is seen after 3 years of measuring (1997-1999) KARMEN will be able to exclude mixing amplitudes of sin 22 Θ≃1 x10 -3. The ongoing KARMEN2 measurements will thus allow a decisive and reliable test of the entire parameter space favoured by the positive result of LSND. An even higher oscillation sensitivity can be achieved by experiments at future high intensity short spill proton accelerators such as the planned European Spallation Source ESS.

  20. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  1. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  2. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  3. Factors which influence acoustic surveys of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    Traditionally, many marine mammal populations have been estimated by visual surveys. These count the animals that are available-either seals hauled-out on the ice or whales at the water's surface. Corrections are then made to include the animals that were not seen either because they were in (seals) or under (whales) the water. However when the majority of the animals in a population are not available to a visual survey this approach may be less effective. So we investigated whether acoustic surveys offered promise for estimating the distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. Four acoustic surveys were conducted (October 1996, 1997; December 1997, 1999) between longitudes 600E and 1500E. Surveys were bounded to the south by fast-ice, shelf-ice or the Antarctic continent and to the north by the edge of the pack-ice. No crabeater seals were heard. Leopard and Ross seals were highly vociferous in December coinciding with their breeding season. To predict the area surveyed we modeled transmission loss and measurements of received background levels. To identify the number of seals calling we modeled calling behavior. A preliminary estimate of 0.13 male leopard seals/km2 was calculated which is in the high-density range described from the literature.

  4. Chromatographic analysis of banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria F; Evaggelopoulou, Evaggelia N

    2008-06-01

    The issue of antimicrobial use in animals used as food is of global concern. Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to improve health and welfare of animals, meat quality, the economic efficiency of growth and production and public health by decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. However, large quantities are often used without professional supervision. The growth-promotant (now reclassified as zootechnical feed additives) effect of low levels of antibiotics in animal feeds was first described in the late 1940s. Already in 1969 the Swann Committee recommended that use of antibiotics as a supplement in animal feedstuff should be restricted to those with little or no application as therapeutic agents for humans and animals, which would not impair the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics through the development of resistant strains of organisms. Antimicrobials like avoparcin, ardacin, zinc bacitracin, virginiamycin, tylosin, spriramycin, carbadox and olaquindox were withdrawn within the period 1997-1999. Four others (monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, avilamycin and flavophospholipol) were still permitted for use as growth promoters in animal feed to animals marketed in the European Union (EU). Since January 2006, they have been banned as well. This review focuses on the analytical methods developed to be an effective tool for monitoring compliance with the ban. PMID:18491356

  5. Thermal Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonium Nitrate at Low Pressure: Kinetic Modeling of Product Formation and Heterogeneous Decomposition of Nitric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Lin, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N2, N2O, H2O, and NH3, which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH3-NO2 (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO3 itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO3 in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO3, HNO3 + (B2O3/SiO2) → OH + NO2 + (B2O3/SiO2), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH3 and H2O; the rate could be represented by k2b = 7.91 × 107 exp(-12 600/T) s-1, which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO3 decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  6. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  7. A 16-year record of eolian dust in Southern Nevada and California, USA: Controls on dust generation and accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    An ongoing project monitors modern dust accumulation in the arid southwestern United States to (1) determine the rate and composition of dust inputs to soils and (2) relate dust accumulation to weather patterns to help predict the effects of climate change on dust production and accumulation. The 16-year records of 35 dust-trap sites in the eastern Mojave Desert and southern Great Basin reveal how generation and accumulation of dust, including the silt-clay, carbonate, and soluble-salt fractions, is affected by the amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall and the behavior of different source types (alluvium, dry playas, and wet playas). Accumulation rates (fluxes) of the silt-clay fraction of dust, including carbonates, range from about 2-20 g/m2/yr. Average rates are higher in the southern part of the study area (south of latitude 36.5??N) and annually fluctuate over a larger range than rates in the northern part of the area. Sites throughout the study area show peaks in dust flux in the 1984-1985 sampling period and again in 1997-1999; northern sites also show increased flux in 1987-1988 and southern sites in 1989-1991. These peaks of dust flux correspond with both La Nina (dry) conditions and with strong El Nino (wet) periods. The accumulation rates of different components of mineral dusts fluctuate differently. For example, soluble-salt flux increases in 1987-1988, coincident with a moderate El Nino event, and increases very strongly in 1997-1999, overlapping with a strong El Nino event. Both of these high-rainfall winters were preceded and accompanied by strong summer rains. In contrast, little or no change in soluble-salt flux occurred during other periods of high winter rainfall but little summer rain, e.g. 1992-1995. The differences between northern vs. southern sites and between sites with playa dust sources vs. alluvial dust sources indicate that regional differences in the response of precipitation and vegetation growth to ENSO influence and

  8. A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushaw, B. D.; Worcester, P. F.; Munk, W. H.; Spindel, R. C.; Mercer, J. A.; Howe, B. M.; Metzger, K.; Birdsall, T. G.; Andrew, R. K.; Dzieciuch, M. A.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Menemenlis, D.

    2009-07-01

    Over the decade 1996-2006, acoustic sources located off central California (1996-1999) and north of Kauai (1997-1999, 2002-2006) transmitted to receivers distributed throughout the northeast and north central Pacific. The acoustic travel times are inherently spatially integrating, which suppresses mesoscale variability and provides a precise measure of ray-averaged temperature. Daily average travel times at 4-day intervals provide excellent temporal resolution of the large-scale thermal field. The interannual, seasonal, and shorter-period variability is large, with substantial changes sometimes occurring in only a few weeks. Linear trends estimated over the decade are small compared to the interannual variability and inconsistent from path to path, with some acoustic paths warming slightly and others cooling slightly. The measured travel times are compared with travel times derived from four independent estimates of the North Pacific: (1) climatology, as represented by the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05); (2) objective analysis of the upper-ocean temperature field derived from satellite altimetry and in situ profiles; (3) an analysis provided by the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean project, as implemented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL-ECCO); and (4) simulation results from a high-resolution configuration of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model. The acoustic data show that WOA05 is a better estimate of the time mean hydrography than either the JPL-ECCO or the POP estimates, both of which proved incapable of reproducing the observed acoustic arrival patterns. The comparisons of time series provide a stringent test of the large-scale temperature variability in the models. The differences are sometimes substantial, indicating that acoustic thermometry data can provide significant additional constraints for numerical ocean models.

  9. Evolution of Tropical and Extratropical Precipitation Anomalies During the 1997 to 1999 ENSO Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Nelkin, Eric; Bolvin, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 1997-1999 ENSO period was very powerful, but also well observed. Multiple satellite rainfall estimates combined with gauge observations allow for a quantitative analysis of precipitation anomalies in the tropics and elsewhere accompanying the 1997-99 ENSO cycle. An examination of the evolution of the El Nino and accompanying precipitation anomalies revealed that a dry Maritime Continent preceded the formation of positive SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 30-60 day oscillations in the winter of 1996/97 may have contributed to this lag relationship. Furthermore, westerly wind burst events may have maintained the drought over the Maritime Continent. The warming of the equatorial Pacific was then followed by an increase in convection. A rapid transition from El Nino to La Nina occurred in May 1998, but as early as October-November 1997 precipitation indices captured substantial changes in Pacific rainfall anomalies. The global precipitation patterns for this event were in good agreement with the strong consistent ENSO-related precipitation signals identified in earlier studies. Differences included a shift in precipitation anomalies over Africa during the 1997-98 El Nino and unusually wet conditions over northeast Australia during the later stages of the El Nino. Also, the typically wet region in the north tropical Pacific was mostly dry during the 1998-99 La Nina. Reanalysis precipitation was compared to observations during this time period and substantial differences were noted. In particular, the model had a bias towards positive precipitation anomalies and the magnitudes of the anomalies in the equatorial Pacific were small compared to the observations. Also, the evolution of the precipitation field, including the drying of the Maritime Continent and eastward progression of rainfall in the equatorial Pacific was less pronounced for the model compared to the observations.

  10. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  11. Abrupt change of the mid-summer climate in central east China by the influence of atmospheric pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qun

    Following the great flooding of summer 1998, the mid-lower Yangtze Basin further suffered from another large flooding in summer 1999. Successive droughts through 3 recent summers (1997-1999) appeared in north China in addition, leading to an abnormal summer climate pattern of "north drought with south flooding". Such southward move of the summer monsoon rainy belt in east China started in the late 1970s-early 1980s. Its main cause may not be a purely natural climate change, but the acceleration of industrialization in east China could play a major role by emitting large volumes of SO 2, especially from the rapidly growing rural factories of east China. The annual release of SO 2 in China exceeded 20 Tg during 1992-1998, so dense sulfate aerosols covered the central east China which significantly reduced the sunlight. Although present estimates for the changes of clear sky global solar radiation may include some error, they show that the negative radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols in central east China by far exceeds the effect of greenhouse warming in summer. Hence the mid-summer monsoon rainy belt of east China has a trend moving southward in 21 recent years (1979-1999), showing the very sensitive characteristic of the summer monsoon system to the change in heat equilibrium of the land surface. The occurrence rate of summer climate pattern of "north drought with south flooding" in east China during 21 recent years is the largest since AD 950; such anomalous climate has brought large losses to China. The only possible way to reverse this southward trend of summer monsoon rainy belt is to significantly reduce air pollution by using more clean energy. Recently, the PRC has paid serious attention to this problem by adopting a series of countermeasures.

  12. Nitrogen cycling through swine production systems: ammonia, dinitrogen, and nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lowry A; Sharpe, Ron R; Parkin, Tim B; De Visscher, Alex; van Cleemput, Oswald; Byers, F Michael

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from animal systems have become a primary concern for all of livestock production. The purpose of this research was to establish the relationship of nitrogen (N) emissions to specific components of swine production systems and to determine accurate NH(3) emission factors appropriate for the regional climate, geography, and production systems. Micrometeorological instrumentation and gas sensors were placed over two lagoons in North Carolina during 1997-1999 to obtain information for determining ammonia emissions over extended periods and without interfering with the surrounding climate. Ammonia emissions varied diurnally and seasonally and were related to lagoon ammonium concentration, acidity, temperature, and wind turbulence. Conversion of significant quantities of ammonium NH(4)(+) to dinitrogen gas (N(2)) were measured in all lagoons with the emission rate largely dependent on NH(4)(+) concentration. Lagoon NH(4)(+) conversion to N(2) accounted for the largest loss component of the N entering the farm (43% as N(2)); however, small amounts of N(2)O were emitted from the lagoon (0.1%) and from field applications (0.05%) when effluent was applied nearby. In disagreement with previous and current estimates of NH(3) emissions from confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) systems, and invalidating current assumptions that most or all emissions are in the form of NH(3), we found much smaller NH(3) emissions from animal housing (7%), lagoons (8%), and fields (2%) using independent measurements of N transformation and transport. Nitrogen input and output in the production system were evaluated, and 95% of input N was accounted for as output N from the system. PMID:15254100

  13. Extracellular Synthesis, Specific Recognition, and Intracellular Degradation of Cyclomaltodextrins by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus sp. Strain B1001

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Takagi, Masahiro; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2001-01-01

    A unique extracellular and thermostable cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sp. strain B1001 produces predominantly (>85%) α-cyclomaltodextrin (α-CD) from starch (Y. Tachibana, et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1991–1997, 1999). Nucleotide sequencing of the CGTase gene (cgtA) and its flanking region was performed, and a cluster of five genes was found, including a gene homolog encoding a cyclomaltodextrinase (CDase) involved in the degradation of CDs (cgtB), the gene encoding CGTase (cgtA), a gene homolog for a CD-binding protein (CBP) (cgtC), and a putative CBP-dependent ABC transporter involved in uptake of CDs (cgtDE). The CDase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The optimum pH and temperature for CD hydrolysis were 5.5 and 95°C, respectively. The molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 79,000. The CDase hydrolyzed β-CD most efficiently among other CDs. Maltose and pullulan were not utilized as substrates. Linear maltodextrins with a small glucose unit were very slowly hydrolyzed, and starch was hydrolyzed more slowly. Analysis by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose and maltose were produced as end products. The purified recombinant CBP bound to maltose as well as to α-CD. However, the CBP exhibited higher thermostability in the presence of α-CD. These results suggested that strain B1001 possesses a unique metabolic pathway that includes extracellular synthesis, transmembrane uptake, and intracellular degradation of CDs in starch utilization. Potential advantages of this starch metabolic pathway via CDs are discussed. PMID:11489857

  14. Numerical investigations of the WASA pellet target operation and proposal of a new technique for the PANDA pellet target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Victor L.

    2011-08-01

    The conventional nozzle vibration technique of the hydrogen micro-droplet generation that is supposed to be used for internal pellet target production for the future PANDA experiment at the international FAIR facility in Darmstadtfor is described. The operation of this technique has been investigated by means of detailed computer simulations. Results of calculations for the geometry and operation conditions of the WASA pellet generator are presented and discussed. We have found that for every given pellet size, there is a set of operation parameters where the efficiency of the WASA hydrogen pellet target operation is considerably increased. Moreover, the results of presented computer simulations clearly show that the future PANDA pellet target setup can be realized with the use of much smaller (and cheaper) vacuum pumps than those used at present in the WASA hydrogen pellet target. To qualitatively improve the PANDA hydrogen pellet target performance we have proposed the use of a novel flow focusing method of Gañán-Calvo and Barreto (1997,1999) [28,30] combined with the use of conventional vacuum injection capillary. Possibilities of this approach for the PANDA pellet target production have been also explored by means of computer simulations. The results of these simulations show that the use of this new approach looks very promising and in particular, there is no need here to use of expensive ultra-pure hydrogen to prevent nozzle clogging or freezing up due to impurities and it will allow simple, fast, smooth and a wide range of change of pellet sizes in accordance with requirements of different experiments at the PANDA detector. In this article we also propose and describe the idea of a new technique to break up a liquid microjet into microdroplets using a process of liquid jet evaporation under pulsed laser beam irradiation. This technique should be experimentally checked before it may be used in the design of the future PANDA pellet target setup.

  15. Spatial and overwinter changes in clam populations of San Pablo Bay, a semiarid estuary with highly variable freshwater inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulton, V. K.; Lovvorn, J. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.

    2004-03-01

    In many estuaries worldwide, climate trends together with human diversion of fresh water have dramatically impacted the benthos. Such impacts have sometimes been complicated by exotic species, whose invasion and persistence can be mediated by wide variations in freshwater inflow. Monitoring such changes usually involves periodic samples at a few sites; but sampling that does not recognize variation at a range of spatial and seasonal scales may not reveal important benthic trends. San Pablo Bay, in northern San Francisco Bay, has extreme fluctuations in freshwater inflow. This bay also experienced a major benthic change with introduction of the Asian clam ( Potamocorbula amurensis) in 1986. This species initially displaced the former community, but later appeared to vary in abundance depending on site and freshwater inflow. To investigate such patterns and provide guidelines for research and monitoring, we took 1746 core samples at six sites around San Pablo Bay from 19 October to 17 December 1999 and from 6 March to 19 April 2000. Most biomass consisted of the clams P. amurensis, Macoma balthica and Mya arenaria. Potamocorbula amurensis dominated the benthos at most sites in the fall and recruited a new cohort during winter, while there was weak recruitment in M. balthica and none in M. arenaria. At most but not all sites, densities of P. amurensis and M. arenaria declined dramatically over winter while M. balthica declined only slightly. The dominant clams had patch diameters >5 m at most but not all sites, and some showed inconsistent patch structure at scales of 100-1400 m. In this semiarid estuary with highly variable freshwater inflow, samples for research and monitoring should include multiple sites and seasons, and samples within sites should be ≥5 m apart to account for between-patch variation. Species abundance in winter 1999-2000 appeared to be affected by high freshwater inflows in 1997-1999, while spatial patterns were probably most affected by post

  16. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity andmore » Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.« less

  17. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lino, Celeste Matos . E-mail: cmlino@ci.uc.pt; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-11-15

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 {mu}g/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 {mu}g/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 {mu}g/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For {sigma}-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in {sigma}-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America.

  18. Observation of a Distinct Transition in Transport Response to Injection Stress in the Floridan Aquifer System, Southeastern Florida, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.; Cunningham, K. J.; Foster, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects effluent approximately one km below land surface into the Boulder Zone (BZ) at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP). The BZ is highly conductive and composed of fractured dolomite. MDWASD monitors upward effluent migration 450 m below land surface in the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ). The BZ and APPZ---units within the Floridan aquifer system---are separated by a series of inter-bedded aquifers and leaky confining units with hydraulic conductivities that are orders of magnitude smaller than the BZ. MDWASD injected effluent at the NDWWTP during two distinct periods: (1) July 1997 to September 1999, and (2) August 2004 to January 2011. No effluent was injected between October 1999 and July 2004. A few months after the July 1997 injection, MDWASD observed effluent constituents in the APPZ (Figure 1). Some confinement bypass feature permits effluent constituents to be transported from the BZ to the APPZ. Bypass features may include poorly-cased wells, or natural conduits such as fractures, faults, or karst collapse systems. It is possible to describe confinement bypass features with conductance KA/L, where K is hydraulic conductivity, A is cross-sectional area, and L is length. MDWASD observed a distinct transition in the transport response to injection stress of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the APPZ. The conductance required to describe early system response (1997-1999) is one order-of-magnitude larger than the conductance required to describe late system response (2004-2011). Hypotheses to explain transient conductance include clogging of bypass features by some geochemical or biological process that results from the mixing of effluent with groundwater; dissolution or precipitation; or changes in bypass-feature geometry forced by cyclical changes in aquifer-fluid pressure associated with injection. Hypotheses may be tested with geochemical analyses, tracer tests, hydraulic

  19. Changes in concentrations of triazine and acetamide herbicides by bank filtration, ozonation, and chlorination in a public water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Thurman, E.M.; Lindsey, M.E.; Lee, E.C.; Smith, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The changes in triazine and acetamide concentrations in water during natural and artificial treatment by bank filtration, ozonation, filtration, and chlorination were measured at the well field and drinking water treatment plant of Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The city's groundwater supply is affected by induced infiltration and transport of triazines and acetamide herbicides from the Platte River in late spring and early summer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of infiltration and treatment on the presence of triazines and acetamides in drinking water. Samples of river water, well water, and public supply water at various stages of water treatment were collected from 1997-1999 during spring-runoff when the presence of herbicides in the Platte River is largest. In 1999, parent compounds were reduced by 76% of the concentration present in river water (33% by bank filtration, 41% by ozonation, and 1.5% by chlorination). Metabolites of herbicides for which analytical techniques existed were reduced by 21% (plus 26% by bank filtration, minus 23% by ozonation, and minus 24% by chlorination). However, increases in concentrations of specific metabolite compounds were identified after bank filtration and ozonation. After bank filtration, increases in cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine acid were identified. After ozonation, concentrations of deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, atrazine amide-I, hydroxydeethylatrazine, hydroxydeisopopylatrazine, deethylcyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine increased. Concentrations of cyanazine acid and ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acids of acetamides decreased during ozonation. Our findings suggest that bank filtration and ozonation of water in part can shift the assessment of risk to human health associated with the consumption of the water from the parent compounds to their degradation products.

  20. Aerosol optical depth over a remote semi-arid region of South Africa from spectral measurements of the daytime solar extinction and the nighttime stellar extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, P.; Winkler, H.; Fourie, P.; Piketh, S.; Makgopa, B.; Helas, G.; Andreae, M. O.

    Spectral daytime aerosol optical depths have been measured at Sutherland, South Africa (32°22'S, 20°48'E), from January 1998 to November 1999. Sutherland is located in the semi-arid Karoo desert, approximately 400-km northeast from Cape Town. The site, remote from major sources of aerosols, hosts the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), where nighttime stellar extinction is being measured. The comparison of daytime and nighttime measurements for the years 1998-1999 makes it possible to validate the astronomical dataset of aerosol optical depth ( τa) dating back to 1991. The 1998 and 1999 annually averaged daytime τa at 500 nm are 0.04±0.04 and 0.06±0.06, respectively. Half-day averages vary between 0.03 and 0.44, with peak values in August-September. This pronounced seasonality is linked to the biomass-burning season in the Southern Hemisphere. Smoke haze layers transported to Sutherland originated primarily on the African landmass at latitudes between 10° and 20°S and passed over Namibia and Angola. On one occasion, aerosols from fires in Brazil transported across the Atlantic Ocean were likely detected. The haze layers reaching Sutherland are therefore at least 2-3 days old. The spectral dependence of the aerosol optical depth for the smoke layers supports the bimodality of the volume size distribution for biomass burning aerosols. The accumulation mode has a volume modal diameter of 0.32 μm, consistent with the hypothesis of aged haze. The stellar measurements (1991-2001) show that, due to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, the atmospheric extinction depth at 550 nm in the years 1991-1993 increased by 33% with respect to the average value (0.14±0.03) for the period 1994-2001. Outside the Pinatubo event, extinction is largest in the period 1997-1999.

  1. Fast evolution of tropospheric Pb- and Zn-rich particles in the vicinity of a lead smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choël, M.; Deboudt, K.; Flament, P.; Lecornet, G.; Perdrix, E.; Sobanska, S.

    Dusts collected on air filters at a Pb-Zn refinery located in northern France were sampled in 1997, 1999 and 2002. The low temporal variability in major elements (Pb, Zn and S) abundances suggested chemical composition of particulate emissions was stable over time. In July 2001 and March 2002, atmospheric aerosols were sampled in the vicinity of the Pb-Zn refinery upwind and downwind from the smelters. Bulk concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Pb and Zn) and hydrosoluble ions (Na +, NH 4+, Mg 2+, K +, Ca 2+, Cl - NO 3- and SO 42-) were, respectively, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion chromatography. Elemental and molecular individual particle analyses were, respectively, performed by automated SEM-EDX and Raman microspectrometry. Continental air masses (campaign 2001) were characterized by low Na + and high SO 42-, NO 3- and NH 4+ contents upwind from the smelters. Individual particle analysis of Pb- and Zn-rich airborne particles collected downwind from the refinery indicated elemental associations and molecular speciation were similar to those obtained at the emission: Pb compounds were mainly identified as oxides, sulfates and oxy-sulfates whereas Zn compounds were identified as sulfides. Marine air masses (campaign 2002) were characterized by high Na + contents upwind from the smelters. Individual particle analysis of Pb- and Zn-rich particles collected downwind from the refinery pointed out a systematic association with Na, not emitted by the refinery, suggesting internal mixing of marine aerosols with heavy-metals dusts emitted by the refinery. Such fast evolution of airborne particles chemical composition in the vicinity of the refinery was further proven by SEM-EDX and Raman microspectrometry mappings showing physical evolution by aggregation or coagulation of Zn- and Pb-rich particles with aged sea-salts.

  2. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  3. Regional Climate Studies with Variable-Resolution Stretched-Grid GCMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variable resolution GCM using a global stretched grid with fine resolution over the area(s) of interest, is a viable new approach to regional and subregional climate studies and applications. It is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. The first version of the SG-GCM based on the GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) GCM using a finite-difference approximation, has been developed and thoroughly tested during the last few years. Successful simulations have been performed with the SG-GCM for the anomalous regional climate events of the U.S. 1988 summer drought and 1993 summer flood. They have shown the practical feasibility of the SG-approach for regional climate modeling. The GEOS SG-DAS (Data Assimilation System) incorporating the SG-GCM has also been developed and tested. The assimilated regional fields and diagnostics are used for validating the SG-GCM regional simulations. Two new SG-GCMs are being developed. The first is the SG-version of the new NASANCAR FV-GCM (with the finite-volume (FV) dynamics), and the second is the SG-version of the new GCM with spectral-element dynamics. Both GCMs use the WAR CCM4 physics. Using these advanced numerics will provide increased computational efficiency for the new the SG-GCMs, and will allow us to employ more flexible stretching strategies beneficial for the efficient regional down-scaling. The major current developments are focused on: simulating the 1997-1999 (and beyond) ENSO cycle and related monsoonal circulations, with enhanced regional resolution; studying intraseasonal and interannual regional climate variability for the extended multiyear (AMIP-type) SG-GCM simulations; and studying the impact of ensemble integrations.

  4. Indirect benefits of high coral cover for non-corallivorous butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Blowes, S. A.; Coker, D.; Kubacki, E.; Nowicki, J.; Hoey, A. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive coral loss often leads to pronounced declines in the abundance of fishes, which are not necessarily limited to those fishes that are directly reliant on live coral for food or shelter. This study explored changes in the abundance of two non-corallivorous butterflyfish, Chaetadon auriga and Chaetodon vagabundus, during declines in coral cover at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, caused by localised outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS). At North Reef, where COTS caused significant coral depletion, the abundance of C. auriga declined from 1995-1996 to 1997-1999, whereas abundance was unchanged at Washing Machine Reef, which was relatively unaffected by COTS. Abundance of C. vagabundus did not vary through the course of this study at either site. To better understand inter-specific differences in the responses of non-corallivorous butterflyfishes, feeding rates of C. auriga and C. vagabundus were quantified across sites with varying coral cover. Feeding rates of C. auriga were significantly and positively correlated with live coral cover. In contrast, feeding rates of C. vagabundus did not differ among sites with varying levels of live coral cover. This study shows that C. auriga is negatively affected by localised coral depletion, possibly because its prey is more abundant in coral-rich habitats. C. vagabundus, meanwhile, is generally unaffected by changes in coral cover. This study stresses the need for more detailed research in light of current and predicted declines in coral cover to elucidate specific differences in the dietary composition of C. auriga versus C. vagabundus, and the extent to which their prey is actually reliant on live coral.

  5. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  6. Atomic Oscillator Strengths by Emission Spectroscopy and Lifetime Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, W. L.; Griesmann, U.; Kling, R.; Musielok, J.

    2002-11-01

    Over the last seven years, we have carried out numerous oscillator strength measurements for some light and medium heavy elements (Musielok et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000; Veres & Wiese 1996; Griesmann et al. 1997; Bridges & Wiese 1998; Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Gries- mann 2000; Bridges & Wiese to be published). Most recently we have determined numerous transitions of Mu II (Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Griesmann 2000) and are now working on Cl I (Bridges & Wiese to be published). See the summary statement at the end of the text. For the emission measurements, we have applied either a high-current wall-stabilized arc (described for example, in Musielok et al. (1999)), or a high-current hollow cathode, or a Penning discharge. The latter two sources were used for branching ratio measurements from common upper 1ev- els, while the wall-stabilized arc was operated at atmospheric pressure under the condition of partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, which allows the measurement of relative transition probabilities. Absolute data were obtained by combining the emission results with lifetime data measured by other research groups, especially the University of Hannover, with which we have closely collaborated. This group uses the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Our emission spectra were recorded for the light elements with a 2 m grating spectrometer, or, for Mu II, with an FT 700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. The radiometric calibration was carried out with a tungsten strip lamp for the visible part of the spectrum and with a deuterium lamp for the ultraviolet. All measurements were made under optically thin conditions, which was checked by doubling the path length with a focusing mirror setup. Typical uncertainties of the measured oscillator strengths are estimated to be in the range 15%-20% (one-standard deviation). However, discrepancies with advanced atomic structure theories are sometimes much larger. In Tables 1-3 and Fig. 1, we

  7. Sedimentological Signatures of Transient Depositional Events in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. C.; Thunell, R. C.; Black, D. E.; Murray, R. W.; Martinez, N. C.

    2004-12-01

    The varved sediments that have accumulated in the Cariaco Basin throughout the Holocene provide a detailed archive of the region's climatic history, and act as a historical record for the occurrence of phenomena such as earthquakes and coastal flooding. In this study we compare the sedimentological characteristics of lithogenic material collected from the water column during transient depositional events to those of normal hemipelagic sedimentation in the basin. Specifically, we have examined the clay mineralogy and grain size distribution of detrital material delivered to the basin by the July 9, 1997 earthquake near Cumana, Venezuela and the coastal flooding of Venezuela in late 1999. The sample material used in our study was collected as part of an ongoing sediment trap time series in the Cariaco Basin. The sedimentological signatures associated with these two events are distinctive from the typical lithogenic input to the basin. Preliminary data for biweekly samples collected from 1997-1999 shows a tri-modal particle size distribution, with peaks at 3, 22, and 80 im. However, material collected from the deep basin immediately following the 1997 earthquake is characterized by a particle diameter distribution at 6 and 22 im with a smaller than normal peak at 80 im; this variance suggests an alternate source of material was delivered to the basin via a turbidity flow induced by the earthquake. Supporting this theory, the clay mineralogy of the same sediment trap samples shows a higher than average ratio of kaolinite to quartz for sediments delivered to the basin following both the earthquake and flooding. We hope to extend the use of these sedimentological methods to identify past transient depositional events in Cariaco Basin cores.

  8. Mercury in tree swallow food, eggs, bodies, and feathers at Acadia National Park, Maine, and an EPA Superfund Site, Ayer, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.; Haines, T.; Halteman, W.

    2007-01-01

    We monitored nest boxes during 1997-1999 at Acadia National Park, Mt. Desert Island, ME and at an old-field site in Orono, ME to determine mercury (Hg) uptake in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs, tissues, and food boluses. Also, in 1998-1999 we monitored nest boxes at Grove Pond and Plow Shop Pond at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site in Ayer, MA. We recorded breeding success at all locations. On average among locations, total mercury (THg) biomagnified 2 to 4-fold from food to eggs and 9 to 18-fold from food to feathers. These are minimum values because the proportion of transferable methyl mercury (MeHg) of the THg in insects varies (i.e., 35%-95% of THg) in food boluses. THg was highest in food boluses at Aunt Betty Pond at Acadia, whereas THg in eggs was highest at the Superfund site. A few eggs from nests at each of these locations exceeded the threshold (i.e., 800-1,000 ng/g, wet wt.) of embryotoxicity established for Hg. Hatching success was 88.9% to 100% among locations, but five eggs failed to hatch from 4 of the 11 clutches in which an egg exceeded this threshold. MeHg in feathers was highest in tree swallows at Aunt Betty Pond and the concentration of THg in bodies was related to the concentration in feathers. Transfer of an average of 80%-92% of the Hg in bodies to feathers may have enhanced nestling survival. Residues of Hg in tissues of tree swallows in the Northeast seem higher than those of the Midwest.

  9. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  10. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Swart, D. P. J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H. M.; Kerridge, B. J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I. S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; van der A, R. J.; van Oss, R. F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-11-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information and a priori constraints. In total nine different algorithms will be evaluated exploiting the optimal estimation (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Bremen, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory), Phillips-Tikhonov regularization (Space Research Organization Netherlands), neural network (Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Tor Vergata University), and data assimilation (German Aerospace Center) approaches. Analysis tools are used to interpret data sets that provide averaging kernels. In the interpretation of these data, the focus is on the vertical resolution, the indicative altitude of the retrieved value, and the fraction of a priori information. The evaluation is completed with a comparison of the results to lidar data from the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations in Andoya (Norway), Observatoire Haute Provence (France), Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Lauder (New Zealand), and Dumont d'Urville (Antarctic) for the years 1997-1999. In total, the comparison involves nearly 1000 ozone profiles and allows the analysis of GOME data measured in different global regions and hence observational circumstances. The main conclusion of this paper is that unambiguous information on the ozone profile can at best be retrieved in the altitude range 15-48 km with a vertical resolution of 10 to 15 km, precision of 5-10%, and a bias up to 5% or 20% depending on the success of recalibration of the input spectra. The sensitivity of retrievals to ozone at lower altitudes varies from scheme to scheme and includes significant influence from a priori assumptions.

  11. Incidence, risk factors and mortality of tuberculosis in Danish HIV patients 1995-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection predisposes to tuberculosis (TB). We described incidence, risk factors and prognosis of TB in HIV-1 infected patients during pre (1995-1996), early (1997-1999), and late Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (2000-2007) periods. Methods We included patients from a population-based, multicenter, nationwide cohort. We calculated incidence rates (IRs) and mortality rates (MRs). Cox's regression analysis was used to estimate risk factors for TB infection with HAART initiation included as time updated variable. Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate mortality after TB. Results Among 2,668 patients identified, 120 patients developed TB during the follow-up period. The overall IR was 8.2 cases of TB/1,000 person-years of follow-up (PYR). IRs decreased during the pre-, early and late-HAART periods (37.1/1000 PYR, 12.9/1000 PYR and 6.5/1000 PYR respectively). African and Asian origin, low CD4 cell count and heterosexual and injection drug user route of HIV transmission were risk factors for TB and start of HAART reduced the risk substantially. The overall MR in TB patients was 34.4 deaths per 1,000 PYR (95% Confidence Interval: 22.0-54.0) and was highest in the first two years after the diagnosis of TB. Conclusions Incidence of TB still associated with conventional risk factors as country of birth, low CD4 count and route of HIV infection while HAART reduces the risk substantially. The mortality in this patient population is high in the first two years after TB diagnosis. PMID:21605366

  12. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Abell, Jessica G; Shipley, Martin J; Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-06-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985-1989. Salivary cortisol was measured in 2007-2009 and six saliva samples were collected: (1) waking, (2) waking+0.5h, (3) +2.5h, (4) +8h, (5) +12h and (6) bedtime, for assessment of the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope in cortisol secretion. Participants with the first saliva sample collected within 15min of waking and not on steroid medication were examined. Short sleep duration (≤5h) and insomnia symptoms (Jenkins scale, highest quartile) were measured in 1997-1999, 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Recurrent short sleep was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper morning rise in cortisol was observed among those reporting chronic insomnia symptoms at three time points and among those reporting short sleep twice, compared to those who never reported sleep problems. Participants reporting short sleep on three occasions had higher levels of cortisol later in the day, compared to those never reporting short sleep, indicated by a positive interaction with hours since waking (β=0.02 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03)). We conclude that recurrent sleep problems are associated with adverse salivary cortisol patterns throughout the day. PMID:26963375

  13. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark; Perkins, Raymond R.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  14. Upper Mantle Seismic Structure Beneath Southern Africa: Constraints on the Buoyancy Supporting the African Superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Martin B. C.; Grand, Stephen P.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Dirks, Paul H. G. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present new one-dimensional SH-wave velocity models of the upper mantle beneath the Kalahari craton in southern Africa obtained from waveform inversion of regional seismograms from an Mw = 5.9 earthquake located near Lake Tanganyika recorded on broadband seismic stations deployed during the 1997-1999 Southern African Seismic Experiment. The velocity in the lithosphere beneath the Kalahari craton is similar to that of other shields, and there is little evidence for a significant low velocity zone beneath the lithosphere. The lower part of the lithosphere, from 110 to 220 km depth, is slightly slower than beneath other shields, possibly due to higher temperatures or a decrease in Mg number (Mg#). If the slower velocities are caused by a thermal anomaly, then slightly less than half of the unusually high elevation of the Kalahari craton can be explained by shallow buoyancy from a hot lithosphere. However, a decrease in the Mg# of the lower lithosphere would increase the density and counteract the buoyancy effect of the higher temperatures. We obtain a thickness of 250 ± 30 km for the mantle transition zone, which is similar to the global average, but the velocity gradient between the 410 and 660 km discontinuities is less steep than in global models, such as PREM and IASP91. We also obtain velocity jumps of between 0.16 ± 0.1 and 0.21 ± 0.1 km/s across the 410 km discontinuity. Our results suggest that there may be a thermal or chemical anomaly in the mantle transition zone, or alternatively that the shear wave velocity structure of the transition zone in global reference models needs to be refined. Overall, our seismic models provide little support for an upper mantle source of buoyancy for the unusually high elevation of the Kalahari craton, and hence the southern African portion of the African Superswell.

  15. The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

    The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

  16. Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Cosmic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, D. W.; Gwinner, G.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2002-11-01

    Low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) is the dominant recombination mechanism for most ions in X-ray photoionized cosmic plasmas. Reliably modeling and interpreting spectra from these plasmas requires accurate low temperature DR rate coefficients. Of particular importance are the DR rate coefficients for the iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII -Fe XXIV). These ions are predicted to play an important role in determining the thermal structure and line emission of X-ray photoionized plasmas, which form in the media surrounding accretion powered sources such as X-ray binaries (XRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cataclysmic variables (Savin et al. 2000). The need for reliable DR data of iron L-shell ions has become particularly urgent after the launches of Chandra and XMM-Newton. These satellites are now providing high-resolution X-ray spectra from a wide range of X-ray photoionized sources. Interpreting the spectra from these sources requires reliable DR rate coefficients. However, at the temperatures relevant for X-ray photoionized plasmas, existing theoretical DR rate coefficients can differ from one another by factors of two to orders of magnitudes. To address the need for accurate low temperature DR rate coefficients of the iron L-shell ions, we have initiated a program of measurements for DR via 2 to 2 core excitations using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring located at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. To date measurements have been carried out for Fe XVIII (Savin et al. 1997, 1999), Fe XIX (Savin et al. 1999), Fe XX (Savin et al. 2002), Fe XXI, Fe XXII, and Fe XXIV. Here we review our work to date, discuss the implications of our results, and map out our future research efforts. This work was supported in part by NASA SARA Program grant NAG5-5261, the German Federal Minister for Education and Research (BMBF), and the German Research Council (DFG).

  17. Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide from a Repeatedly Burned Mediterranean Shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, A.; Buchmann, N.; Gross, S.; Sörgel, K.; Weitz, A.

    2003-04-01

    Ecosystem carbon and nitrogen fluxes are closely coupled. Soil nitrogen availability and organic matter content affect soil carbon turnover as well as emissions of nitrogen oxides. Fire affects nutrient availability, typically leading to peaks in soil-atmosphere gas fluxes. However, little information on this subject is currently available from Mediterranean ecosystems. Our study is carried out within the framework of the EU project SPREAD (Forest Fire Spread Prevention and Mitigation). In the context of SPREAD, we study effects of repeated management fires on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO). The study is performed in a mountain bushland area at Quintos de Mora Biological Station, Montes de Toledo, central Spain (39°23'N, 4°00'W). The experiments are set up in a split plot design where autumn- and spring burns from three consecutive years (1997-1999) and one additional burn from 1994 are compared with unburned controls. During the first field campaign, conducted in November 2002, soil respiration (CO2 emission) was measured from 30 permanently installed frames by a manual chamber technique using infrared gas analysis (LI-6400-09, LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska). The preliminary results indicate no significant differences in CO2 emissions between different burns. Emissions of NO were not measured at this occasion, but in future field campaigns, we will use a luminol chemiluminescence detection technique (LMA-3D, Unisearch Associates Inc., Concord, Canada) with dynamic vented chambers to determine soil NO fluxes. Soil physical (bulk density, gravimetric soil water content, water-filled pore space) and chemical (pH, available ammonium a nitrate) properties are also determined. Additional field campaigns are scheduled to March, early summer and late summer 2003.

  18. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  19. Blast related neurotrauma: a review of cellular injury.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lai Yee; VandeVord, Pamela J; Dal Cengio, Alessandra Leonardi; Bir, Cynthia; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2008-09-01

    Historically, blast overpressure is known to affect primarily gas-containing organs such as the lung and ear. More recent interests focus on its ability to cause damage to solid organs such as the brain, resulting in neurological disorders. Returning veterans exposed to blast but without external injuries are being diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (Warden 2006) and with cortical dysfunction (Cernak et al 1999). Decades of studies have been conducted to elucidate the effects of primary blast wave on the central nervous system. These studies were mostly concerned with systemic effects (Saljo et al 2000-2003; Kaur et al 1995-1997, 1999; Cernak et al 1996, 2001). The molecular mechanism of blast-induced neurotrauma is still poorly understood. This paper reviews studies related to primary blast injury to the nervous system, particularly at the cellular level. It starts with a general discussion of primary blast injury and blast wave physics, followed by a review of the literature related to 1) the blast wave/body interaction, 2) injuries to the peripheral nervous system, 3) injuries to the central nervous system, and 4) injury criteria. Finally, some of our preliminary data on cellular injury from in vitro and in vivo studies are presented. Specifically, we report on the effects of overpressure on astrocytes. In the discussion, possible mechanisms of blast-related brain injury are discussed, as well as the concerns and limitations of the published studies. A clearer understanding of the injury mechanisms at both the molecular and macroscopic (organ) level will lead to the development of new treatment, diagnosis and preventive measures. PMID:18751525

  20. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic Map of Boulder-Fort Collins-Greeley Area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colton, Roger B.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude data displayed over the geographic extent of rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Colton in 1976 (U.S.Geological Survey Map I-855-G) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Colton used his own mapping and published geologic maps having varied map unit schemes to compile one map with a uniform classification of geologic units. The resulting published color paper map was intended for planning for use of land in the Front Range Urban Corridor. In 1997-1999, under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project, Colton's map was digitized to provide data at 1:100,000 scale to address urban growth issues(see cross-reference). In general, the west part of the map shows a variety of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, major faults and brecciated zones along an eastern strip (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central part of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depicts a mantle of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and interspersed Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary rock outcrops. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone and shale formations (and sparse limestone) form hogbacks, intervening valleys, and in range-front folds, anticlines, and fault blocks. Localized dikes and sills of Tertiary rhyodacite and basalt intrude rocks near the range front, mostly in the Boulder area.

  1. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude symbols display over the geographic extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette 1973-1977 and published in 1979 (U.S. Geological Survey Map I-856-H) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999), was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (see cross-reference). In general, the mountainous areas in the west part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  2. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in health care: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in health care has become common. However, the literature lacks systematic review trend analysis on the application of MCDA in health care. Aim To systematically identify applications of MCDA to the areas of health care, and to report on publication trends. Methods English language studies published from January 1, 1980 until October 1, 2013 were included. Electronic databases searches were supplemented by searching conference proceedings and relevant journals. Studies considered for inclusion were those using MCDA techniques within the areas of health care, and involving the participation of decision makers. A bibliometric analysis was undertaken to present the publication trends. Results A total of 66 citations met the inclusion criteria. An increase in publication trend occurred in the years 1990, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2012. For the remaining years, the publication trend was either steady or declining. The trend shows that the number of publications reached its highest peak in 2012 (n = 9). Medical Decision Making was the dominant with the highest number published papers (n = 7). The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (n = 29). Medical Decision Making journal published the highest number of articles (n = 7). Analytic Hierarchy Process (n = 33) was the most used MCDA technique. Cancer was the most researched disease topic (n = 12). The most covered area of application was diagnosis and treatment (n = 26). Conclusion The review shows that MCDA has been applied to a broad range of areas in the health care, with the use of a variety of methodological approaches. Further research is needed to develop practice guidelines for the appropriate application and reporting of MCDA methods. PMID:25327341

  3. Groundwater Flow Model of the General Separations Area Using PORFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    FLACH, GREGORY

    2004-07-15

    The E Area PA (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000) includes a steady-state simulation of groundwater flow in the General Separations Area as a prerequisite for saturated zone contaminant transport analyses. The groundwater flow simulations are based on the FACT code (Hamm and Aleman2000). The FACT-based GSA model was selected during preparation of the original PA to take advantage of an existing model developed for environmental restoration applications at the SRS (Flach and Harris 1997, 1999; Flach 1999). The existing GSA/FACT model was then slightly modified for PA use, as described in the PA document. FACT is a finite-element code utilizing deformed brick elements. Material properties are defined at element centers, and state variables such as hydraulic head are located at element vertices. The PORFLOW code (Analytic and Computational Research, Inc. 2000) was selected for performing saturated zone transport simulations of source zone radionuclides and their progeny. PORFLOW utilizes control volume discretization and the nodal point integration method, with all properties and state variables being defined at the center of an interior grid cell. The groundwater flow calculation includes translating the Darcy velocity field computed by FACT into a form compatible for input to PORFLOW. The FACT velocity field is defined at element vertices, whereas PORFLOW requires flux across cell faces. For the present PA, PORFLOW cell face flux is computed in a two-step process. An initial face flux is computed from FACT as an average of the normal components of Darcy velocity at the four corners. The derived flux field approximately conserves mass, but not rigorously. Thus, the flux field is subsequently perturbed to force rigorous mass conservation on a cell-by-cell basis. The undocumented process used is non-unique and can introduce significant artifacts into the final flux field.

  4. Radionuclide Data and Calculations and Loss-On-Ignition, X-Ray Fluorescence, and ICP-AES Data from Cores in Catchments of the Animas River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; Rice, Cyndi A.; Marot, Marci E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Interior Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is focused on the evaluation of the effect of past mining practices on the water quality and the riparian and aquatic habitats of impacted stream reaches downstream from historical mining districts located primarily on Federal lands. This problem is manifest in the eleven western states (west of longitude 102 degrees) where the majority of hardrock mines that had past production are located on Federal lands. In areas of temperate climate and moderate to heavy precipitation, the effects of rapid chemical and physical weathering of sulfides exposed on mine-waste dumps and acidic drainage from mines have resulted in elevated metal concentrations in the stream water and stream-bed sediment. The result of these mineral weathering processes has an unquantified impact on the quality of the water and the aquatic and riparian habitats that may limit their recreational resource value. One of the confounding factors in these studies is the determination of the component of metals derived from hydrothermally altered but unmined portions of these drainage basins. Several watersheds have been studied to evaluate the effects of acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage on the near-surface environment. The Animas River watershed in southwestern Colorado contains a large number of past-producing metal mines that have affected the watershed. Beginning in October 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a collaborative study of these effects under the USGS-AML Initiative. In this report, we present the radionuclide and geochemical analytical results of sediment coring during 1997-1999 from two cores from oxbow lakes 0.5 mi. upstream from the 32nd Street Bridge near Durango, Colo., and from three cores from beaver ponds within the Mineral Creek drainage basin near Silverton, Colo.

  5. Volcanic emissions of metals and halogens from White Island (New Zealand) and Erebus volcano (Antarctica) determined with chemical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Kyle, P. R.; Counce, D.

    2008-11-01

    Volcanic emission rates of As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Se, Cl, and F were determined at Erebus volcano, Antarctica and White Island, New Zealand, using chemical traps. The trace metal fluxes were determined by combining the species to S ratios in the solutions with SO 2 emission rates measured by correlation spectrometry at the two volcanoes. At Erebus volcano, fluxes for the metals Pb and Hg were 2.0 × 10 - 4 and 8.1 × 10 - 6 kg s - 11 , respectively. Fluxes for Cl, F, As, Sb and Se (0.35, 0.15, 2.5 × 10 - 4 , 1.2 × 10 - 5 , and 4.5 × 10 - 6 kg s - 1 , respectively) agreed within error limits for values determined previously by the LiOH impregnated filter method [Zreda-Gostynska, G., Kyle, P., Finnegan, D., Prestbo, K., 1997. Volcanic gas emissions from Mount Erebus and their impact on the Antarctic environment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(B7): 15039-15055.], demonstrating the utility of the chemical trap method. A fall in the As/S ratio from 7 × 10 - 4 in 1997/1999 to 3 × 10 - 4 in 2000 at Erebus coincided with a change in the frequency and style of eruptive activity that may have been due to injection of magma into the system. At White Island, chemical trap data indicated fluxes of Cl = 0.90, F = 0.0079, Pb = 2.7 × 10 - 4 , Hg = 1.1 × 10 - 5 , As = 1.3 × 10 - 4 , Sb = 1.9 × 10 - 5 and Se = 1.5 × 10 - 5 kg s - 1 . Samples collected 600 m downwind of the active crater were comparable to samples collected adjacent to the main gas vent, showing that this method can still be used at some distance from a degassing vent.

  6. Seasonality in ENSO-related precipitation, river discharges, soil moisture, and vegetation index in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, GermáN.; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Gil, Marta MaríA.; Quiceno, Natalia; Mantilla, Ricardo I.

    2001-08-01

    An analysis of hydrologic variability in Colombia shows different seasonal effects associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Spectral and cross-correlation analyses are developed between climatic indices of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the annual cycle of Colombia's hydrology: precipitation, river flows, soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our findings indicate stronger anomalies during December-February and weaker during March-May. The effects of ENSO are stronger for streamflow than for precipitation, owing to concomitant effects on soil moisture and evapotranspiration. We studied time variability of 10-day average volumetric soil moisture, collected at the tropical Andes of central Colombia at depths of 20 and 40 cm, in coffee growing areas characterized by shading vegetation ("shaded coffee"), forest, and sunlit coffee. The annual and interannual variability of soil moisture are highly intertwined for the period 1997-1999, during strong El Niño and La Niña events. Soil moisture exhibited greater negative anomalies during 1997-1998 El Niño, being strongest during the two dry seasons that normally occur in central Colombia. Soil moisture deficits were more drastic at zones covered by sunlit coffee than at those covered by forest and shaded coffee. Soil moisture responds to wetter than normal precipitation conditions during La Niña 1998-1999, reaching maximum levels throughout that period. The probability density function of soil moisture records is highly skewed and exhibits different kinds of multimodality depending upon land cover type. NDVI exhibits strong negative anomalies throughout the year during El Niños, in particular during September-November (year 0) and June-August (year 0). The strong negative relation between NDVI and El Niño has enormous implications for carbon, water, and energy budgets over the region, including the tropical Andes and Amazon River basin.

  7. Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes: a longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings.

    PubMed

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Knight, Emma J; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Gore, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) estimates individualized reference ranges for key blood markers, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), using predetermined population mean, between- and within-subject variances. Here, we aim to reassess previously published estimates for within-subject [Hb] variance and determine whether sex-, analyzer-, sport-, or season-specific values are required. Our reference population contains 7723 male (mean ± SD, 22.3 ± 4.6 years of age) and 6164 female (21.6 ± 4.3) athlete observations from 49 sports. [Hb] was calculated using one of three cytometers; Bayer-H3 (1997-1999, n = 4554), ADVIA-120 (1999-2010, n = 8636) and Sysmex XT-2000i (2010-2012, n = 697). The final model was a linear mixed model for [Hb] with analyzer (H3, ADVIA, Sysmex), sex (male, female), sport (power-endurance, endurance, skill, team, disabled and non-athletes), season (summer, winter), and the interaction between sex and sport as fixed effects and athlete as a random effect. The model included an exponential correlation structure to allow for within-subject autocorrelation, and allowed different within-subject variances for each sport. Within-subject [Hb] variance (g(2) /L(2) ) was significantly less for power endurance (35.09, 95% CI 33.50 to 36.76), disabled (25.82, 95% CI 21.71 to 35.28) and non-athletes (34.30, 95% CI 28.53 to 35.87) than for endurance (40.35, 95% CI 39.62 to 47.22) and team sports (38.70, 95% CI 37.68 to 39.76) athletes. No new evidence was found to justify adjusting the current within-subject [Hb] variance estimate. PMID:25990883

  8. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition. PMID:25407617

  9. Seismic Swarms at Paricutin Volcano Area. Magmatic Intrusion or Tectonic Seismicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzon, J. I.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero, C. R.; Rowe, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    We relocate a seismic swarm with more than 700 earthquakes that took place between May and June 2006 in the Paricutin volcano area, Mexico inside of the Michoacan monogenetic volcanic field. This seismic swarm was recorded by the project "Mapping the Riviera Subduction Zone" (MARS), a temporary seismic network that was installed in the states of Jalisco, Colima and Michoacán between January 2006 and June 2007. Previously seismic swarms in the area were reported in the years of 1997, 1999 and 2000. For one that took place in the year of 1997 the Servicio Sismologico Nacional deployed a local network in the area, they conclude that the source of the seismicity was tectonic with depths between 18 and 12 km. The episodes of 1999 and 2000 were reported as similar to the 1997 swarm. A previous analysis of the 2006 swarm concludes that the depth of seismicity migrates from 9 to 5 km and was originated by a magmatic intrusion. We did a relocation of this swarm reading all the events and using Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Acelerometric Network; a waveform analysis using cross-correlation method was also carried out. We obtained 15 earthquakes families with a correlation factor equal or greater than 0.79 and composed focal mechanism for each family. These families present a migration in depth beginning at 16 km and ended at 9 km. Our results agrees with a magmatic intrusion, but not so shallow as the previous study of the 2006 swarm.

  10. Spatial and overwinter changes in clam populations of San Pablo Bay, a semiarid estuary with highly variable freshwater inflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulton, V.K.; Lovvorn, J.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In many estuaries worldwide, climate trends together with human diversion of fresh water have dramatically impacted the benthos. Such impacts have sometimes been complicated by exotic species, whose invasion and persistence can be mediated by wide variations in freshwater inflow. Monitoring such changes usually involves periodic samples at a few sites; but sampling that does not recognize variation at a range of spatial and seasonal scales may not reveal important benthic trends. San Pablo Bay, in northern San Francisco Bay, has extreme fluctuations in freshwater inflow. This bay also experienced a major benthic change with introduction of the Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis) in 1986. This species initially displaced the former community, but later appeared to vary in abundance depending on site and freshwater inflow. To investigate such patterns and provide guidelines for research and monitoring, we took 1746 core samples at six sites around San Pablo Bay from 19 October to 17 December 1999 and from 6 March to 19 April 2000. Most biomass consisted of the clams P. amurensis, Macoma balthica and Mya arenaria. Potamocorbula amurensis dominated the benthos at most sites in the fall and recruited a new cohort during winter, while there was weak recruitment in M. balthica and none in M. arenaria. At most but not all sites, densities of P. amurensis and M. arenaria declined dramatically over winter while M. balthica declined only slightly. The dominant clams had patch diameters > 5 m at most but not all sites, and some showed inconsistent patch structure at scales of 100-1400 m. In this semiarid estuary with highly variable freshwater inflow, samples for research and monitoring should include multiple sites and seasons, and samples within sites should be ??? 5 m apart to account for between-patch variation. Species abundance in winter 1999-2000 appeared to be affected by high freshwater inflows in 1997-1999, while spatial patterns were probably most affected by post

  11. M-component mode of charge transfer to ground in lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, Vladimir A.; Crawford, David E.; Rambo, Keith J.; Schnetzer, George H.; Uman, Martin A.; Thottappillil, Rajeev

    2001-10-01

    The M-component mode of charge transfer to ground is examined using (1) multiple-station measurements of electric and magnetic fields at distances ranging from 5 to ˜ 500 m from triggered-lightning channels and (2) measured currents at the channel base. Data have been obtained in 1997, 1999, and 2000 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida, for (1) "classical" M-components that occur during the continuing currents following return strokes and (2) impulsive processes that occur during the initial stage of rocket-triggered lightning and are similar to the "classical" M components. All lightning events considered here effectively transported negative charge to ground. For one triggered-lightning event the electric field 45 km from the lightning channel was measured together with the current and close fields. The shapes and magnitudes of the measured close electric and magnetic fields are generally consistent with the guided-wave mechanism of the lightning M component. Specifically, the M-component electric field peak exhibits logarithmic distance dependence, ln(kr-1), which is indicative of a line charge density that is zero at ground and increases with height. Such a distribution of charge is distinctly different from the more or less uniform charge density that is characteristic of the dart leaders in triggered lightning, as inferred from close electric field measurements. The M-component magnetic field peak decreases as the inverse distance (i.e., r-1), which is generally consistent with a uniform current within the lowest kilometer or so of channel. The M-component electric field at 45 km appeared as a bipolar, microsecond-scale pulse that started prior to the onset of the M-component current at the channel base. M-component-type processes can produce acoustic signals with peak pressure values of the same order of magnitude as those from the leader/return stroke sequences in triggered lightning.

  12. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.

  13. Seismicity and Tectonics of the South Shetland Islands Region From a Combined Land-Sea Seismograph Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, S. D.; Wiens, D. A.; Dorman, L. M.; Shore, P. J.; Vera, E.

    2001-12-01

    During 1997-1999 we deployed seven land seismometers and fourteen ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the South Shetland Island - Antarctic Peninsula region. The seven land stations were part of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA), and they were equipped with broadband STS-2 sensors. The OBSs were deployed between December of 1998 and May of 1999. Seven of the OBSs were equipped with broadband PMD sensors and the other seven used 1 Hz L4 sensors. Although the South Shetland Island area displays a low level of seismicity in global catalogs, our data indicates a high level of local seismicity (Mb 2-4). The combination of OBS and land station data allowed us to accurately locate more than 170 events. Subduction beneath the South Shetland Islands either slowed or stopped with the cessation of spreading at the Aluk spreading ridge 4 million years ago; our results show many earthquakes at locations and depths indicative of ongoing subduction. Earthquakes are located on both the outer rise and along the shallow thrust interface. We determined a focal mechanism for the largest shallow interface event using regional waveform inversion and found that it is indeed a thrusting event. The maximum depth of seismicity is approximately 50 km, but the majority of the events are shallower than 30 km. These seismic results are consistent with recent GPS data that suggests a subduction rate of 1 cm/yr (Taylor, personal communication, 1998). We have also located many earthquakes associated with volcanism and rifting in Bransfield Strait. Swarms of events located on a few submarine volcanoes suggest current eruptive activity. Earthquakes associated with rifting in the northeastern portion of the strait are clustered along well-established rifts that are visible in bathymetric profiles, but the seismicity is much more diffuse to the southwest where the rifts are less established. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the backarc rift is propagating from

  14. Validation of Noah-simulated Soil Temperature in the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Youlong; Ek, Michael; Sheffield, Justin; Livneh, Ben; Huang, Maoyi; Wei, Helin; Song, Feng; Luo, Lifeng; Meng, Jesse; Wood, Eric

    2013-02-25

    Soil temperature can exhibit considerable memory from weather and climate signals and is among the most important initial conditions in numerical weather and climate models. Consequently, a more accurate long-term land surface soil temperature dataset is needed to improve weather and climate simulation and prediction, and is also important for the simulation of agricultural crop yield and ecological processes. The North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) has generated 31-years (1979-2009) of simulated hourly soil temperature data with a spatial resolution of 1/8o. This dataset has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. Thus, the ultimate purpose of the present work is to assess Noah-simulated soil temperature for different soil depths and timescales. We used long-term (1979-2001) observed monthly mean soil temperatures from 137 cooperative stations over the United States to evaluate simulated soil temperature for three soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm) for annual and monthly timescales. We used short-term (1997-1999) observed soil temperature from 72 Oklahoma Mesonet stations to validate simulated soil temperatures for three soil layers and for daily and hourly timescales. The results showed that the Noah land surface model (Noah LSM) generally matches observed soil temperature well for different soil layers and timescales. At greater depths, the simulation skill (anomaly correlation) decreased for all time scales. The monthly mean diurnal cycle difference between simulated and observed soil temperature revealed large midnight biases in the cold season due to small downward longwave radiation and issues related to model parameters.

  15. Who should be screened for postpartum anemia? An evaluation of current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Miller, William C; Cogswell, Mary E; McDonald, Thad

    2002-11-15

    The authors evaluated the utility of selective screening criteria for postpartum anemia developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) versus criteria developed among low-income women using prevalence-based screening principles. Pregnant women in Raleigh, North Carolina, were followed up to the postpartum visit in 1997-1999 (n = 345). Prevalence of postpartum anemia was 19.1%. Independent risk markers, arrived at through multivariate logistic regression, were multiparity (odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8, 2.9), obesity (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.5), anemia at 24-29 weeks' gestation (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4), anemia before delivery (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 6.7), and not exclusively breastfeeding (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.7). Risk scores were calculated by counting risk markers present. Likelihood ratios were determined for all possible risk scores of our algorithm and CDC's algorithm. Anemia screening decisions differed depending on clinic anemia prevalence. For example, if low test thresholds are assumed, when clinic prevalence is 10%, women with risk scores >3 on the authors' algorithm and >0 on CDC's algorithm should be screened. The authors' algorithm, in combination with prevalence information, can save clinics more money than CDC's current algorithm because a broader range of likelihood ratios was obtained, indicating a better ability to distinguish high- from low-risk women. However, if resources are available, universal screening should be considered in high-prevalence settings. PMID:12419762

  16. Migration depths of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to total dissolved gas supersaturation in a Columbia River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The in situ depths of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. were studied to determine whether hydrostatic compensation was sufficient to protect them from gas bubble disease (GBD) during exposure to total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation from a regional program of spill at dams meant to improve salmonid passage survival. Yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss implanted with pressure-sensing radio transmitters were monitored from boats while they were migrating between the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River and the forebay of McNary Dam on the Columbia River during 1997-1999. The TDG generally decreased with distance from the tailrace of the dam and was within levels known to cause GBD signs and mortality in laboratory bioassays. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean depths of juvenile steelhead were similar throughout the study area, ranging from 2.0 m in the Snake River to 2.3 m near the McNary Dam forebay. The mean depths of yearling Chinook salmon generally increased with distance from Ice Harbor Dam, ranging from 1.5 m in the Snake River to 3.2 m near the forebay. Juvenile steelhead were deeper at night than during the day, and yearling Chinook salmon were deeper during the day than at night. The TDG level was a significant covariate in models of the migration depth and rates of each species, but no effect of fish size was detected. Hydrostatic compensation, along with short exposure times in the area of greatest TDG, reduced the effects of TDG exposure below those generally shown to elicit GBD signs or mortality. Based on these factors, our results indicate that the TDG limits of the regional spill program were safe for these juvenile salmonids.

  17. Temperatures of Thermal and Slightly Thermal Springs on Mount Hood, Oregon, Apparently Unperturbed by the Magnitude-4.5 Earthquake on June 29, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Mariner, R. H.

    2002-12-01

    On the basis of water chemistry, three distinct hydrothermal systems have been identified on Mount Hood. Swim Warm Springs has a series of vents with temperatures ranging from 9° to 25°C with temperatures determined by mixing of thermal and nonthermal water. The hottest feature was 25.6° to 26.2°C in 1976-78, 25°C in 1997, and 24.7°C in 2001. The hot-water component is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 187°C, re-equilibrated at 96°C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in various springs. The Meadows Spring is a slightly thermal spring with measured temperatures of 4.8°, 6.1°, 6.6°C in 1997, 1999, and 2001 related to mixing of thermal and nonthermal water. The hot-water component is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 223°C, re-equilibrated at 94°C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in the spring over several years. Both systems contain water from precipitation at high elevation. The summit fumaroles have gas-geothermometer temperatures generally over 300°C, indicating that they are not the steam discharge from the Swim and Meadows hydrothermal systems. Field measurements in July-August, 2002, after the magnitude-4.5 earthquake of June 29, 2002, showed that the highest-temperature vent at Swim Warm Springs was 25.7°C, similar to values found in other years. Measurements on a hot afternoon and a cool morning yielded temperatures of 25.7° and 25.2°C, indicating that this low-flow feature is subject to some solar heating. The Meadows Spring was 6.3°C, consistent with its previous behavior of mixing. The lower temperature indicates that there is a variability associated with unknown hydrologic factors rather than confirming an apparent trend of continuously increasing temperatures for the 1997-2001 period. The Crater Rock fumarole was 89°C, similar to previous measurements. Post-earthquake measurements of spring temperatures

  18. Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids of superficial sediments from three contrasted areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grémare, Antoine; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Anschutz, Pierre; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Deflandre, Bruno; Vétion, Gilles

    2005-04-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA and EHHA) and EHAA/THAA ratios of superficial sediments were assessed during 1997-1999 in three areas (i.e., the Gulf of Lions, the Bay of Biscay, and Central Chile) differing in their primary productivity. In all three areas, and even off Central Chile where a strong El Niño event took place during 1997-1998, spatial changes were always much greater than temporal ones. The factors affecting the spatial distributions of amino acid concentrations differed among areas. In the Gulf of Lions, sediment granulometry was apparently the most important driving force of THAA, EHAA, and EHAA/THAA, and there was no marked difference between stations located on the open slope and those in submarine canyons. Conversely, in the Bay of Biscay, there were clear differences between the stations located off Cap-Breton, on the open slope, and those in the Cap-Ferret canyon; the latter two featuring lower EHAA and THAA but higher EHAA/THAA. This pattern is likely to result from the predominance of different sources of organic matter and especially from the importance of continental inputs to the Cap-Breton canyon. Off Central Chile, amino acid concentrations and ratios were both maximal around 100 m depth, probably reflecting the interaction between the primary productivity gradient and the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) reducing the degradation of sedimentary organics. When comparing the average values collected in the three areas studied, THAA and EHAA were highest in Central Chile, intermediate in the Bay of Biscay and lowest in the Gulf of Lions. EHAA/THAA ratios were also highest in Central Chile but were lowest in the Bay of Biscay. Differences between the Gulf of Lions and the Bay of Biscay could have been affected by sampling design. In Central Chile, the use of labile organic carbon to total organic carbon (C-LOM/TOC) and EHAA/THAA as indices of organic matter lability led to very

  19. Biogeography and phenology of satellite-measured phytoplankton seasonality in the California current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, Nicholas P.; Thomas, Andrew C.

    2014-10-01

    Thirteen years (1998-2010) of satellite-measured chlorophyll a are used to establish spatial patterns in climatological phytoplankton biomass seasonality across the California Current System (CCS) and its interannual variability. Multivariate clustering based on the shape of the local climatological seasonal cycle divides the study area into four groups: two with spring-summer maxima representing the northern and southern coastal upwelling zones, one with a summer minimum offshore in mid-latitudes and a fourth with very weak seasonality in between. Multivariate clustering on the seasonal cycles from all 13 years produces the same four seasonal cycle types and provides a view of the interannual variability in seasonal biogeography. Over the study period these seasonal cycles generally appear in similar locations as the climatological clusters. However, considerable interannual variability in the geography of the seasonal cycles is evident across the CCS, the most spatially extensive of which are associated with the 1997-1999 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and the 2005 delayed spring transition off the Oregon and northern and central California coasts. We quantify linear trends over the study period in the seasonal timing of the two seasonal cycles that represent the biologically productive coastal upwelling zones using four different metrics of phenology. In the northern upwelling region, the date of the spring maximum is delaying (1.34 days yr-1) and the central tendency of the summer elevated chlorophyll period is advancing (0.63 days yr-1). In the southern coastal upwelling region, both the initiation and cessation of the spring maximum are delaying (1.78 days yr-1 and 2.44 days yr-1, respectively) and the peak is increasing in duration over the study period. Connections between observed interannual shifts in phytoplankton seasonality and physical forcing, expressed as either basin-scale climate signals or local forcing, show phytoplankton

  20. The spatial-temporal variations of water quality in controlling points of the main rivers flowing into the Miyun Reservoir from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongqing; Liang, Ji; Di, Yanming; Gong, Huili; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) were used to analyze the interannual, seasonal, and spatial variations of water quality from 1991 to 2011 in controlling points (Xinzhuang Bridge, Daguan Bridge) of the main rivers (Chaohe River, Baihe River) flowing into the Miyun Reservoir. The results demonstrated that total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) exceeded China National Standard II for surface water separately 5.08 times and 1 time. CA showed that the water quality could be divided into three interannual (IA) groups: IAI (1991-1995, 1998), IAII (1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2002-2006), and IAIII (2001, 2007-2011) and two seasonal clusters: dry season 1 (December), dry season 2 (January-February), and non-dry season (March-November). At interannual scale, the higher concentration of SO4 (2-) from industrial activities, atmospheric sedimentation, and fertilizer use in IAIII accelerated dissolution of carbonate, which increased Ca(2+), Mg(2+), total hardness (T-Hard), and total alkalinity (T-Alk). The decreasing trend of CODMn contributed to the establishment of sewage treatment plants and water and soil conservation in the Miyun upstream. The changing trend of NO3 (-)-N indicated increasing non-point pollution load of IAII and effective non-point pollution controlling of IAIII. Only one parameter T in the seasonal scale verified improved non-point pollution controlling. The major pollution in two controlling points was NO3 (-)-N, T-Hard, TN, and other ion pollution (SO4 (2-), F(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), T-Hard, T-Alk). Higher concentration of NO3 (-)-N in Xinzhuang and CODMn in Daguan indicated different controlling measures, especially controlling agriculture intensification in Chaohe River to decrease N pollution and decreasing water and soil loss and cage culture in Baihe River to weaken organic pollution. Controlling SO4 (2-) from industrial activity, atmospheric sedimentation and fertilizer use in

  1. The Coupled Roles of Dust and Clouds in the Mars Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd

    2000-01-01

    During the period October 1997 to September 1999 we obtained and analyzed over 100 millimeter-wave observations of Mars atmospheric CO line absorption for atmospheric temperature profiles. These measurements extend through one full Mars year (solar longitudes L(sub S) of 190 deg in 1997 to 180 deg in 1999) and coincide with atmospheric temperature profile and dust column measurements front the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. A comparison of Mars atmospheric temperatures retrieved by these distinct methods provides the first opportunity to place the long-term (1982-1999) millimeter retrievals of Mars atmospheric temperatures within the context of contemporaneous, spatially mapped spacecraft, observations. Profile comparisons of 0-30 km altitude atmospheric temperatures retrieved with the two techniques agree typically to within the 5 K calibration accuracy of the millimeter observations. At the 0.5 mbar pressure level (approximately 25 km altitude) the 30N/30S average for TES infrared temperatures and the disk-averaged millimeter temperatures are also well correlated in their seasonal and dust-storm-related variations over the 1997-1999 period. This period includes the Noachis Terra regional dust storm, which led to very abrupt heating (approximately 15 K at 0.5 mbar) of the global Mars atmosphere at L(sub S)=224 deg in 1997 [Christensen et al., 1998; Conrath et al., this issue; Smith et al., this issue]. Much colder (10-20 K) global atmospheric temperatures were observed during the 1997 versus 1977 perihelion periods (L(sub S)=200 deg-330 deg), consistent with the much (2 to 8 times) lower global dust loading of the atmosphere during the 1997 perihelion dust storm season versus the Viking period of the 1977a,b storms. The 1998-1999 Mars atmosphere revealed by both the millimeter and TES observations is also 10-15 K colder than presented by the Viking climatology during the aphelion season (L(sub S

  2. Long-term changes in liana abundance and forest dynamics in undisturbed Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Andrade, Ana S; Magrach, Ainhoa; Camargo, José L C; Valsko, Jefferson J; Campbell, Mason; Fearnside, Philip M; Edwards, Will; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Laurance, Susan G

    2014-06-01

    Lianas (climbing woody vines) are important structural parasites of tropical trees and may be increasing in abundance in response to global-change drivers. We assessed long-term (-14-year) changes in liana abundance and forest dynamics within 36 1-ha permanent plots spanning -600 km2 of undisturbed rainforest in central Amazonia. Within each plot, we counted each liana stem (> or = 2 cm diameter) and measured its diameter at 1.3 m height, and then used these data to estimate liana aboveground biomass. An initial liana survey was completed in 1997-1999 and then repeated in 2012, using identical methods. Liana abundance in the plots increased by an average of 1.00% +/- 0.88% per year, leading to a highly significant (t = 6.58, df = 35, P < 0.00001) increase in liana stem numbers. Liana biomass rose more slowly over time (0.32% +/- 1.37% per year) and the mean difference between the two sampling intervals was nonsignificant (t = 1.46, df = 35, P = 0.15; paired t tests). Liana size distributions shifted significantly (chi2 = 191, df = 8, P < 0.0001; Chi-square test for independence) between censuses, mainly as a result of a nearly 40% increase in the number of smaller (2-3 cm diameter) lianas, suggesting that lianas recruited rapidly during the study. We used long-term data on rainfall and forest dynamics from our study site to test hypotheses about potential drivers of change in liana communities. Lianas generally increase with rainfall seasonality, but we found no significant trends over time (1997-2012) in five rainfall parameters (total annual rainfall, dry-season rainfall, wet-season rainfall, number of very dry months, CV of monthly rainfall). However, rates of tree mortality and recruitment have increased significantly over time in our plots, and general linear mixed-effect models suggested that lianas were more abundant at sites with higher tree mortality and flatter topography. Rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2, which may stimulate liana growth, might

  3. Complex seismic anisotropy at the border of a very low velocity province at the base of the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wen, Lianxing

    2007-09-01

    We constrain the anisotropy associated with a very low velocity province (VLVP) at the base of the Earth's mantle using the SKS and SKKS waves sampling the region. Our selected high-quality data sets consist of 415 SKS and 111 SKKS waveforms for 127 deep earthquakes recorded at distances between 90° and 150° by the seismic stations in three temporary broadband PASSCAL seismic arrays: the Kaapvaal seismic array (1997-1999), the Tanzania seismic array (1994-1995), and the Ethiopia/Kenya seismic array (1999-2001), as well as the permanent stations in the Global Seismographic Network. These seismic data provide good sampling coverage for some portion of the VLVP and its surrounding areas. Our results show, when the SKS or SKKS phases sample the regions away from the border of the VLVP (inside or outside the VLVP), the apparent splitting parameters inferred from the SKS phases are consistent with those inferred from the SKKS phases, and their variations strongly correlate with seismic stations but not with the exit points at the core-mantle boundary of these seismic phases. However, when the SKS or SKKS phases sample near the border of the VLVP, the apparent splitting parameters inferred from the SKS phases and SKKS phases are different, and their variations no longer correlate with seismic stations. These features indicate that part of the shear wave splitting for the seismic data sampling the border of the VLVP has to originate from deep mantle, most likely near the border of the VLVP. We assume that the anisotropy in the shallow mantle beneath seismic stations has a horizontal hexagonal symmetry axis and infer the splitting parameters associated with the shallow anisotropy beneath the seismic stations using the SKS and SKKS waveforms for the seismic data sampling the regions away from the border of the VLVP. We then obtain the splitting parameters associated with the lowermost mantle anisotropy using the SKS and SKKS waveforms corrected for the inferred shallow

  4. On the association between high temperature and mortality in warm climates.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Abbas; Tewtel-Salem, Mylene

    2005-05-01

    We conducted a time-series analysis of 1997-1999 data records of air temperature and all-cause mortality in Greater Beirut, using bi-linear Poisson auto-regressive models, and published our findings in the Science of the Total Environment [El-Zein, A., Tewtel-Salem, M., Nehme, G., 2004. A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut. Sci. Total Environ. 330, 71-80]. We compared our results to those of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87.], who subsequently reported that their original results were inaccurate and published new results [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87; Curriero, F.C., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., 2003. Letter to the Editor re. On the Use of Generalized Additive Models in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health" and "Temperature and Mortality in 11 Cities of the Eastern United States". Am. J. Epidemiol. 158(1) 93-94.]. In this letter, we report two changes in the interpretation of our findings as a result of the change in the results of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87]. Their newly-reported results reinforce our conclusion that heat-related mortality can be a significant public health issue even in temperate to warm climates. However, our findings raise a question concerning the ability of socioeconomic indicators to explain differences in vulnerability to heat between high-income and low-income countries. PMID:15862851

  5. Manchester Spring Chinook Broodstock Project : Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Wastel, Michael R.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2000-11-01

    In spring 1995 the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) initiated captive broodstocks as part of conservation efforts for ESA-listed stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The need for this captive broodstock strategy was identified as critical in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Proposed Recovery Plan for Snake River Salmon. These captive broodstock programs are being coordinated by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Chinook Salmon Captive Propagation Technical Oversight Committee (CSCPTOC). Oregon's Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstock program currently focuses on three stocks captured as juveniles from the Grande Ronde River Basin: the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek, and the Lostine River. Idaho's Snake River program includes three stocks captured as eggs and juveniles from the Salmon River Basin: the Lemhi River, East Fork Salmon River, and West Fork Yankee Fork. The majority of captive fish from each stock of the Grande Ronde Basin will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the ODFW Bonneville Hatchery. A minority of the Salmon River Basin stocks will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the IDFG Eagle Hatchery. However, the IDFG and ODFW requested that a portion of each group also be reared in protective culture in seawater. In August 1996, NMFS began a BPA funded project (Project 96-067-00) to rear Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstocks in seawater at the NMFS Manchester Research Station. During 1997-1999, facilities modifications were undertaken at Manchester to provide secure facilities for rearing of these ESA-listed fish. This included construction of a building housing a total of twenty 6.1-m diameter fiberglass rearing tanks, upgrade of the Manchester salt water pumping and filtration/sterilization systems to a total capacity of 5,670 L/min (1,500 gpm), and installation

  6. Time of planting and choice of maize hybrids in controlling WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) in Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Baca, F; Videnovic, Z; Erski, P; Stankovic, R; Dobrikovic, Danica

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the length of growing season of maize hybrids (FAO maturity groups 400, 500, 600 and 700) and planting dates on the maize crop, as an attractive supplemental feeding for western corn rootworm (WCR) beetles and larval survival, were observed in two locations of South Banat, during a three-year (1997-1999) and a two-year period (2001 and 2002). The feeding attraction of the maize crop for WCR beetles and survival of larvae were evaluated in dependency of the variable "plant lodging". The following results were obtained: First location: A. Plant lodging over time of planting and applied insecticides. 1. Early planting: 44.2%, 77.6%, and 76.7% for FAO 400, 500 and 600, respectively. 2. Late planting: 4.7%, 14.9%, and 7.9% for FAO 400, 500 and 600, respectively. B. Plant lodging over time of planting and cropping practices: 1. Early planting without insecticide application 72.2%, and with insecticide application 7.3%. The efficacy of application of insecticide carbofurane (Furadan 350 FS, dosage 4.0 liter/ha) in larval control was 89.9%. 2. Late planting without insecticide application, plant lodging was 47.7%, and with insecticide application 8.1%. The efficacy of application of insecticide carbofurane (Furadan 350 FS, dosage 4.0 l/ha-1) in larval control was 83.0%. Early planting resulted in greater survival of larvae; hence plant lodging was 10 times greater in early than in late planting. The percentage of lodged plants indicates that the maize crop in late planting was more attractive to imagoes. Therefore, more lodged plants were observed in the treatment where late planting preceded. Second location: Plant lodging as dependent on "treatments" 1. Regular plantings: 90.7% in untreated control and 76.2% in insecticide treated variant. The efficacy of insecticide application in control of high larval population was 16.0%. 2. Replanting date: 12.2% in untreated and 4.4% in treated variant. The efficacy of insecticide in control of low larval population

  7. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Thomas J; Kos, Katarina; Henley, William E; Lang, Iain A; Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Chaves, Paulo H M; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Kuller, Lewis H; Langa, Kenneth M; Lopez, Oscar L; Llewellyn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L) were 0.76 (0.35-1.66) and 1.09 (0.76-1.55) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19) and 1.12 (0.79-1.59) compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54) and 0.73 (0.47-1.95) compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  8. Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1999: An Assessment Report. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    This document is issued in response to the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, Public Law 101-549, which mandates that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other key agencies submit triennial reports to the Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency. NASA specifically is charged with the responsibility of reporting on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part l of this report summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program for the period of 1997-1999. Part 2 (this document) is a compilation of several scientific assessments, reviews, and summaries. Section B (Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998), Section C (a summary of the 1998 Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate, SPARC, ozone trends report), Section D (the policymakers summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere), and Section E (the executive summary of the NASA Assessment of the Effects of High-Speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998) are summaries of the most recent assessments of our current understanding of the chemical composition and the physical structure of the stratosphere, with particular emphasis on how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. Section F (the executive summary of NASA's Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements, M&M 11) and Section G (the end-of-mission statement for the Photochemistry of ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer, POLARIS, campaign) describe the scientific results for a comprehensive modeling intercomparison exercise and an aircraft and balloon measurement campaign, respectively. Section H (Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling: Update to Evaluation Number 12 of the NASA

  9. Satellite views of Pacific chlorophyll variability: Comparisons to physical variability, local versus nonlocal influences and links to climate indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew C.; Ted Strub, P.; Weatherbee, Ryan A.; James, Corinne

    2012-11-01

    Concurrent satellite-measured chlorophyll (CHL), sea surface temperature (SST), sea level anomaly (SLA) and model-derived wind vectors from the 13+ year SeaWiFS period September 1997-December 2010 quantify time and space patterns of phytoplankton variability and its links to physical forcing in the Pacific Ocean. The CHL fields are a metric of biological variability, SST represents vertical mixing and motion, often an indicator of nutrient availability in the upper ocean, SLA is a proxy for pycnocline depths and surface currents while vector winds represent surface forcing by the atmosphere and vertical motions driven by Ekman pumping. Dominant modes of variability are determined using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) applied to a nested set of domains for comparison: over the whole basin, over the equatorial corridor, over individual hemispheres at extra-tropical latitudes (>20°) and over eastern boundary current (EBC) upwelling regions. Strong symmetry exists between hemispheres and the EBC regions, both in seasonal and non-seasonal variability. Seasonal variability is strongest at mid latitudes but non-seasonal variability, our primary focus, is strongest along the equatorial corridor. Non-seasonal basin-scale variability is highly correlated with equatorial signals and the strongest signal across all regions in the study period is associated with the 1997-1999 ENSO cycle. Results quantify the magnitude and geographic pattern with which dominant basin-scale signals are expressed in extra-tropical regions and the EBC upwelling areas, stronger in the Humboldt Current than in the California Current. In both EBC regions, wind forcing has weaker connections to non-seasonal CHL variability than SST and SLA, especially at mid and lower latitudes. Satellite-derived dominant physical and biological patterns over the basin and each sub-region are compared to indices that track aspects of climate variability in the Pacific (the MEI, PDO and NPGO). We map and compare

  10. Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distributions in the Arctic: A neural network analysis of SSM/I data, 1988-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Alpatsky, I.V.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Arctic multiyear sea ice concentration maps for January 1988-2001 were generated from SSM/I brightness temperatures (19H, 19V, and 37V) using modified multiple layer perceptron neural networks. Learning data for the neural networks were extracted from ice maps derived from Okean and ERS satellite imagery to capitalize on the stability of active radar multiyear ice signatures. Evaluations of three learning algorithms and several topologies indicated that networks constructed with error back propagation learning and 3-20-1 topology produced the most consistent and physically plausible results. Operational neural networks were developed specifically with January learning data, and then used to estimate daily multiyear ice concentrations from daily-averaged SSM/I brightness temperatures during January. Monthly mean maps were produced for analysis by averaging the respective daily estimates. The 14-year series of January multiyear ice distributions revealed dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Estimates of total multiyear ice area by the neural network were intermediate to those of other passive microwave algorithms, but annual fluctuations and trends were similar among all algorithms. When compared to Radarsat estimates of multiyear ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (1997-1999), average discrepancies were small (0.9-2.5%) and spatial coherency was reasonable, indicating the neural network's Okean and ERS learning data facilitated passive microwave inversion that emulated backscatter signatures. During 1988-2001, total January multiyear ice area declined at a significant linear rate of -54.3 x 103 km2/yr-1 (-1.4%/yr-1). The most persistent and extensive decline in multiyear ice concentration (-3.3%/yr-1) occurred in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. In autumn 1996, a large multiyear ice recruitment of over 106 km2 (mostly in the Siberian Arctic) fully replenished

  11. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Romero, Oscar; Merkel, Ute; Donner, Barbara; Iversen, Morten; Nowald, Nico; Ratmeyer, Volker; Ruhland, Götz; Klann, Marco; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-05-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analysed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales. High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production (mostly by diatoms) largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter and occasionally in summer/autumn enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on short timescales via the ballasting effect. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) might have weakened the relationships between fluxes and large-scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by incorporating dust into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all bulk fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost 1 year during the warm El Niño and high fluxes in the following cold La Niña phase. For decadal timescales, Bakun (1990) suggested an intensification of coastal upwelling

  12. Mars Aerobraking Data and its Interpretation with Applications to Future Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Keating, G. M.; Withers, P. G.

    Recent Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) (1997-1999) and 2001 Mars Odyssey (Odyssey) (2001-2002) aerobraking exercises have provided a wealth of new measurements that contribute to the characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere structure (100-170 km) [e.g. Keating et al., 1998; Withers et al., 2003; Bougher et al., 2003]. The primary objectives for investigating the Martian upper atmosphere encompass both engineering and scientific purposes. For the former, it is essential to determine the short (diurnal and dust storm) and long term (seasonal and solar cycle) trends in the upper atmosphere climate. This information will be used to plan future aerobraking and descent exercises at the planet. Ultimately, it is important to determine the rates of escape of key species from the Martian upper atmosphere. Aerobraking data is limited in its spatial and temporal sampling, thereby serving only as the starting point for these detailed global studies of the Martian upper atmosphere. Several key discoveries have been made during MGS and Odyssey aerobraking campaigns using Accelerometer measurements. It is confirmed that Mars upper atmosphere temperatures are the product of both solar cycle plus seasonal forcing. Zonal averaged latitudinal densities at constant heights are observed to decrease toward the winter polar night, as expected. However, a winter polar warming is observed during perihelion conditions near the Martian mesopause. No such warming is revealed in the opposite winter polar region during aphelion conditions. Longitude-fixed density features are observed during constant local time sampling; strong wavenumber 1-3 components are identified. Upward propagating non-migrating tides, linked to surface topographic features, are likely responsible. Finally, Mars dust storm impacts are felt at thermospheric heights within a few days of the onset of dust lofting. Thus, the Mars thermospheric structure and dynamics are typically driven by in-situ solar EUV/UV processes with

  13. Atmospheric modes influence on Iberian Poleward Current variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deCastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Álvarez, I.; Crespo, A. J. C.

    2011-04-01

    The inter-annual variability of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) along the northwestern coast of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) (40-43°N) and its intrusion in the Cantabrian Sea (Navidad, 6-8°W) were analyzed in terms of the atmospheric forcing. The January Sea Surface Temperature (J SST) was obtained from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) NOAA satellite from 1985 to 2006. It is a well documented fact that the existence of a tongue of water warmer than the surrounding ones (IPC) which circulates along the western Iberian shelf edge, turn eastward around Cape Finisterre, and enters in the Cantabrian Sea generating Navidad at the beginning of every winter. However, in the present study it has been highlighted that there are several years (1986, 1987, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2004 and 2005) during which water from coast to the adjacent shelf is much colder than the oceanic one remarking a weak or inexistent IPC during these Januaries. In addition, the dependence of SST on the most representative regional patterns with some influence upon the eastern North Atlantic region was analyzed by means of correlations between November-December atmospheric modes and J SST. The considered modes were: North Atlantic Oscillation pattern (NAO), Eastern Atlantic pattern (EA), Eastern Atlantic Western Russia pattern (EA/WR), Polar/Eurasia pattern (POL) and Scandinavia pattern (SCA). This analysis reveals that two atmospheric patterns (N-D NAO and N-D EA/WR) are responsible of the main variability of the J SST of the western and northern IP. J SST is negatively correlated with N-D NAO and positively correlated with N-D EA/WR. Multivariate analysis involving both modes provides correlation coefficients on the order of 0.7 on both coasts (western and northern). The influence of both modes on J SST was observed to be on the same order of magnitude but with different sign. These correlations were physically interpreted by means of an analysis of extreme events and Sea Level

  14. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for

  15. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, G.; Romero, O.; Merkel, U.; Donner, B.; Iversen, M.; Nowald, N.; Ratmeyer, V.; Ruhland, G.; Klann, M.; Wefer, G.

    2015-11-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analyzed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales possibly linked to the Atlantic Multidedadal Oscillation (AMO). High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production mostly by diatoms largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during boreal winter (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter but also in summer/fall enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on rather short timescales via the ballasting effect, thus leading to these episodic sedimentation events. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) weakened the relationships between fluxes and larger scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year in our study area, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by being incorporated into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost one year during the warm El Niño and

  16. Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distributions in the Arctic: A neural network analysis of SSM/I data, 1988-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchansky, Gennady I.; Douglas, David C.; Alpatsky, Ilia V.; Platonov, Nikita G.

    2004-10-01

    Arctic multiyear sea ice concentration maps for January 1988-2001 were generated from SSM/I brightness temperatures (19H, 19V, and 37V) using modified multiple layer perceptron neural networks. Learning data for the neural networks were extracted from ice maps derived from Okean and ERS satellite imagery to capitalize on the stability of active radar multiyear ice signatures. Evaluations of three learning algorithms and several topologies indicated that networks constructed with error back propagation learning and 3-20-1 topology produced the most consistent and physically plausible results. Operational neural networks were developed specifically with January learning data, and then used to estimate daily multiyear ice concentrations from daily-averaged SSM/I brightness temperatures during January. Monthly mean maps were produced for analysis by averaging the respective daily estimates. The 14-year series of January multiyear ice distributions revealed dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Estimates of total multiyear ice area by the neural network were intermediate to those of other passive microwave algorithms, but annual fluctuations and trends were similar among all algorithms. When compared to Radarsat estimates of multiyear ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (1997-1999), average discrepancies were small (0.9-2.5%) and spatial coherency was reasonable, indicating the neural network's Okean and ERS learning data facilitated passive microwave inversion that emulated backscatter signatures. During 1988-2001, total January multiyear ice area declined at a significant linear rate of -54.3 × 103 km2 yr-1 (-1.4% yr-1). The most persistent and extensive decline in multiyear ice concentration (-3.3% yr-1) occurred in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. In autumn 1996, a large multiyear ice recruitment of over 106 km2 (mostly in the Siberian Arctic) fully replenished

  17. Estimating the similarity of earthquake focal mechanisms from waveform cross-correlation in regions of minimal local azimuthal station coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D. L.; Martynov, V.; Bowen, J.; Vernon, F.; Eakins, J.

    2002-12-01

    In the Xinjiang province of China, ~2000 earthquakes were recorded by the Tien Shan network during 1997-1999 that exhibit a clear spatial progression of seismicity. This progression, which is confined to a 50 km diameter region, is undetectable in other data catalogs, both global (e.g., REB, PDE, CMT) and local (KIS). The two largest earthquakes in this sequence were the M6.1 August 2, 1998, and the M6.2 August 27, 1998, earthquakes. According to the Harvard moment tensor solutions, both events ruptured faults that trend parallel to the geologic structures in the region (~N55W). However, the August 27 event was a vertical strike slip event while the August 2 event ruptured a dipping fault and had a normal component of slip. These slip directions are counter to what we expect for this fold-and-thrust-belt, which typically has earthquakes with thrust mechanisms. Often seismological researchers make the assumption that aftershocks have the same focal mechanism as their associated mainshocks and/or assume all aftershock fault planes are similarly oriented. We test this assumption by examining the similarity of aftershock mechanisms from the August 2nd and 27th mainshocks. It is difficult to determine focal mechanisms from inversions of full seismic waveforms because the velocity model in the Tien Shan region is so complicated a 3D velocity model would be required. Also, the azimuthal station coverage is poor. Alternative, it impossible to determine accurate focal mechanisms from first motion data because the closest seismic stations have weak and complicated first arrivals. Our approach more easily determines the similarity of earthquake focal mechanisms using waveform cross-correlation. In this way information from the full waveform is utilized, and there is no need to make estimates of the complicated velocity structure. In general, we find there is minimal correlation between pairs of event waveforms (filter 1-8 Hz) within each aftershock sequence. For example, at

  18. Processes affecting the response of sulfate concentrations to clearcutting in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsch, D.L.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on the biogeochemical processes that affect the sulfur (S) cycle in forested ecosystems are important, but have been studied in only a few locations. In this investigation, the mechanisms that caused large decreases in stream SO42- concentrations after clearcutting a small forested catchment in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York in 1997 were identified through an examination of pH and SO42- concentrations in soil solutions, bulk deposition of SO42- in throughfall collectors, adsorbed SO 42- concentrations in buried soil bags, and spatial variations in SO42- concentrations in shallow groundwater. The load of SO42- -S in stream water during the first 2 years after clearcutting was about 2 kg ha-1.year-1 less than the background value of 8-10 kg ha-1 year-1. The 10 and 19% decrease in net throughfall flux of SO42- -S during the 2nd and 3rd year after the clearcut, respectively, reflects reduced dry deposition of S after removal of the canopy, but this decrease accounts for 0 and 43%, respectively, of the decrease in SO42- load in streamflow for these 2 years. The pH of B-horizon soil water decreased from 4.5 to 4.0 within 8 months after the clearcut, and SO42- concentrations decreased from 45 ??mol L-1 to less than 20 ??mol L-1 during this time. A strong correlation between SO 42- concentrations and pH values (r2=0.71, p<0.01) in B-horizon soil water during the post-harvest period (1997-1999) reflects increased SO42- adsorption in response to soil acidification. Sulfate concentrations in groundwater from 21 spatially distributed wells were inversely related to a topographic index that served as a surrogate for soil wetness; thus, providing additional evidence that SO 42- adsorption was the dominant cause of the decreased SO42- concentrations in the stream after clearcutting. These results are consistent with those from a 1985 whole-tree harvest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire in which increased SO 42

  19. Superficial and subsuperficial features in the Karst Region of Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. The region of Cordisburgo, in the State of Minas Gerais, is developed on the metasediments of the Bambui Group, Lagoa do Jacare Formation (Upper Proterozoic). Its karst is considered to be one of the most significant regions in Minas Gerais State, although less prominent than the features of the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. The region of Cordisburgo, however, presents excellent examples of karst geomorphology. It is distinguished for both the magnificent potential of its endokarst and the important archaeological, paleontological, historical and tourist sites it offers. The region is also of chief historical importance: it is where Paleontology, Archaeology and Speleology were developed together for the first time in the Americas. This was done by the Danish naturalist Peter W. Lund (1801-1880). Like other karst scenarios, the exokarst evolved from the primitive endokarst favoring the development of expressive outcrops, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The third largest cave of the State of Minas Gerais is located in Cordisburgo with 4,620 meters. Other 15 caves, some of them which were studied by Lund in the 19th century, complete the intricate endokarst in this region. The importance of the cave Lapa Nova do Maquiné is reinforced by the State Decree n° 44120 (2005), which creates the Peter Lund Natural Monument as a Conservation Unit. It was created in order to protect the historical-scientific site of the Maquiné Cave and its surroundings. There is little research on the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, especially regarding the amount of CaCO3in comparison to the phyllites, quartz veins, etc. It is possible that pure limestone sites associated to non-carbonatic layers can be found there. Studies about the magnitude and the direction of underground water are still insufficient

  20. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low

  1. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  2. New Seismic Images of Crustal Structure Beneath Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, J. R.; Fouch, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The deep and complex history of southern Africa makes it a geological nexus for understanding how crust forms, evolves, and survives plate tectonic processes over billions of years. The goal of this study is to provide new constraints on crustal thickness and composition across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and surrounding mobile belts across a range of geologic terranes ranging in age from the Archean to the Paleozoic. We use data gathered from the 1997-1999 Southern Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE), a broadband seismometer deployment with ~75 km station spacing. We generated P-wave receiver functions for 79 stations using the iterative deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) with a Gaussian pulse width of 2.5, which corresponds to a dominant period of ~2 sec in the receiver functions. We utilized the Funclab receiver function analysis software of Eagar and Fouch (2012) to trace edit receiver functions, and subsequently perform H-κ stacking and Common Conversion Point (CCP) imaging. The use of CCP stacking differentiates our study from previous studies using these data (e.g. Nguuri et al., 2001, Nair et al., 2006), as it provides us with a continuous three-dimensional image of crustal variations throughout southern Africa. We find that crustal thickness in mobile belt regions is thick compared to the cratons, with the exception of the area affected by the Bushveld Complex. The Kaapvaal and eastern Zimbabwe Cratons have a well-defined average Moho depth of ~34 km and Vp/Vs of ~1.73, indicative of intermediate average crustal composition. These results are consistent with a relatively unmodified continental crust due to limited deformation history of these regions since formation. Conversely, the Archean Okwa-Magondi belt, western Zimbabwe Craton, Proterozoic Kheiss thrust belt and Namaqua-Natal, and Paleozoic Cape-Fold belts have Moho depths with a wide range of values from ~36 km to ~47 km, and Vp/Vs values ranging from 1.74 to 1.85 which seem to

  3. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations of O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Gubalówka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O3 concentrations in the Vychodna and Gubałówka sites reached 160 and 200 microg/m3 (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as microg/m3; and at 25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, 1 microg O3/m3 = 0.51 ppb O3). These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal 03 distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon and lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-h period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O3 levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O3 levels with elevation occurred. Concentrations of O3 determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O3 concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O3 distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O3 on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the AOT40 indices for forest trees and natural vegetation. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the entire Carpathian range were typical

  4. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Mild La Nina Conditions Developing, November 12, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint NASA-French space agency's TOPEX/Poseidon satellite.

    Lower than normal sea-surface heights in the eastern North Pacific and abnormally high sea-surface heights in the western and mid-latitude Pacific are expected to drive storms coming out of the Pacific this winter, the mission data indicate. Those conditions will most likely steer storms north into the Pacific Northwest and keep the southwestern United States dryer than normal.

    The latest measurements, processed after a 10-day data cycle November 4-13 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, are available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino . Sea-surface height is shown relative to normal (green) and reveals cooler water(blue and purple) measuring between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) lower than average in the eastern North Pacific, from the Gulf of Alaska to central Alaska, and along the equator.

    Unusual conditions persist in the western and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean as well, with higher than average sea-surface heights(red and white) of between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches). These areas of increased sea-surface height and unusually warm water were present last year, but the increase in height has surpassed last year's measurements.

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements over the last seven and a half years have provided scientists with a comprehensive record of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring changing sea-surface heights to within 4centimeters (1.5 inches) precision.

    The U.S./French mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  5. Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation of species distributions: A case study of the swift fox in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Sovada, M.A.; Slivinski, C.C.; Johnson, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate maps of species distributions are essential tools for wildlife research and conservation. Unfortunately, biologists often are forced to rely on maps derived from observed occurrences recorded opportunistically during observation periods of variable length. Spurious inferences are likely to result because such maps are profoundly affected by the duration and intensity of observation and by methods used to delineate distributions, especially when detection is uncertain. We conducted a systematic survey of swift fox (Vulpes velox) distribution in western Kansas, USA, and used Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) image restoration to rectify these problems. During 1997-1999, we searched 355 townships (ca. 93 km2) 1-3 times each for an average cost of $7,315 per year and achieved a detection rate (probability of detecting swift foxes, if present, during a single search) of ?? = 0.69 (95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = [0.60, 0.77]). Our analysis produced an estimate of the underlying distribution, rather than a map of observed occurrences, that reflected the uncertainty associated with estimates of model parameters. To evaluate our results, we analyzed simulated data with similar properties. Results of our simulations suggest negligible bias and good precision when probabilities of detection on ???1 survey occasions (cumulative probabilities of detection) exceed 0.65. Although the use of MCMC image restoration has been limited by theoretical and computational complexities, alternatives do not possess the same advantages. Image models accommodate uncertain detection, do not require spatially independent data or a census of map units, and can be used to estimate species distributions directly from observations without relying on habitat covariates or parameters that must be estimated subjectively. These features facilitate economical surveys of large regions, the detection of temporal trends in distribution, and assessments of landscape-level relations between

  6. Simulations of Mississippi river basin streamflows by the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Sensitivity to the forcing resolution and parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimberteau, M.; Laval, K.; Perrier, A.; Polcher, J.

    2009-04-01

    The land surface community had shown motivation in the development of runoff routing schemes during the last decade to simulate streamflow. It is essential for our models because it integrates at large scale all the land surface hydrology processes and it is easily compared to observations for validation. It is a good challenge for the land surface model (LSM) coupled with ocean-atmosphere to close the global water cycle. Before coupling the LSM with a GCM, an evaluation offline of these routing processes is essential to understand them precisely. Therefore, this work explore the sensitivity of the LSM ORCHIDEE (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms) integrating a routing scheme, for two atmospheric forcings differing in resolution, spatially (1° to (1/8)°) and temporally (6 hours to 1 hour), through streamflow variations which are compared to observations (River UCAR and USGS). The forcing data used are NCC (NgoDuc & al., 2005) and NLDAS (Cosgrove & al., 2003) over the Mississippi river basin during a common period 1997-1999. First, we have compared the atmospheric inputs between the forcings. Both give similar mean climatic conditions over the basin (precipitation in particular) excepted the solar radiation. In order to have similar input for the model, a comparison of the downward shortwave radiation is performed between the forcings and FLUXNET data. It shows an agreement between NCC data and measurements but a systematic overestimation (spatially and temporally) of about 25% during the year for the NLDAS data comparing to NCC. Therefore, a basic correction of the NLDAS downward shortwave radiation is performed and the result shows its expected decrease and its similarity with NCC. The first result is the response of the streamflow simulated by ORCHIDEE to the decrease of the NLDAS shortwave radiation. The seasonality is not affected by this modification but the magnitude is increased of about 30% at Vicksburg station during all the period

  7. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  8. Deformation near the Casa Diablo geothermal well field and related processes Long Valley caldera, Eastern California, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, J.F.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Wilkinson, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    local leveling networks spanning the well field and the bounding graben were analyzed for several 2-year periods (1993-1995, 1995-1997, and 1997-1999). Annual rates of change across the normal faults bounding the graben have steadily decreased for each 2-year period between 1993 and 1999, reflecting the slowing decline in geothermal reservoir pressure. Horizontal control data from a two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) defined the lateral extent of subsidence at Casa Diablo. The EDM and leveling data elucidate the localized effect of the shallow source of subsidence and the broader effect of the deeper magmatic inflation source. Data from bench marks common to both the vertical and the horizontal control networks were used to assess the effect of subsidence on the EDM base station (CASA). Modeling of geodetic data collected during periods of little or no magmatic inflation indicated that the CASA two-color EDM station is being drawn toward the well field at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The "African Anomaly" and the "Pacific Anomaly" in the Lower Mantle: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; He, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Seismic results have consistently shown two prominent low-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle, with one beneath southern Africa and the other beneath Pacific. For convenience, we refer them here the "African anomaly" and the "Pacific anomaly". The African anomaly was constrained mostly by the SH, ScS, SHdiff, SKS, SKKS, P, Pdiff and PcP phases recorded in three PASSCAL seismic arrays in Africa: the Tanzania array (1994 - 1995), the Kaapvaal array (1997 - 1999) and the Kenya array (2001-2002). These seismic observations indicate that the African anomaly has a very-low velocity province (VLVP) at its base, extends at least 1300 km above the core-mantle boundary with its edges in the lower mantle dipping toward its center and has a P to S velocity perturbation ratio of 1:3. The VLVP exhibits an "L-shape" changing from a north-south orientation in the South Atlantic Ocean to an east-west direction in the Indian Ocean, and has rapidly varying thicknesses from 300 km to 0 km, steeply dipping edges and a linear gradient of shear velocity reduction from -2% (top) to -9% to -12% (bottom) relative to the preliminary reference Earth model. These structural and velocity features unambiguously indicate that the VLVP, and likely the whole African anomaly, is compositionally distinct. The Pacific anomaly is studied using the ScS and SH waves recorded in the F-net in Japan, the China National Digital Seismographic Network and several dense seismic arrays in the Northern China Interior Structure Project, and the PKP precursors and SKS-SPdKS phases recorded in several WWSSN stations. Our ScS-S differential travel times confirm the early tomographic results that the the base of the Pacific anomaly is broad, but suggest presence of larger shear velocity reductions. The ScS-S differential travel times show residuals as large as 10 seconds when the ScS phases sample the eastern part of the base, which would correspond to an average shear velocity reduction of -5% for a 300-km

  10. Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, Andrew Allan

    Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change

  11. [DNA-containing polygonal structures detected in somatic nuclei of Bursaria ovata during preparation to cryptobiosis].

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, G I; Samoshkin, A A

    2002-01-01

    earlier assumption (Sergejeva et al., 1987; Sergejeva, Bobyleva, 1988) that the Ma chromatin of Bursaria may undergo crystallization during encystment, i.e. in the state of preparation to cryptobiosis. The present data enable us first to suggest that the looping rosette-like chromatin may be transformed into crystal-like structures ("exotic liquid crystal structures") by means of a peculiar loop packing within the limits of an individual resette (Fig. 2-4), these structural transformations taking place without any visible loop destruction. In this paper, we first describe new morphological types of polygonal plates, differing from those earlier reported elsewhere for the Ma of Bursaria (Sergejeva, Bobylova, 1988), and also from the plates earlier described in studies on liquid crystals both in vivo and in vitro (see: Gianonni et al., 1969; Lerman, 1974; Livolant, 1991: Leforestier et al., 1993, 1997, 1999). The technical approaches used in the present work enabled us to obtain, for the first time, a direct evidence of the presence of DNA in the crystallized structures of somatic nuclei of ciliates during their preparation to cryptobiosis, the DNA-containing polygonal structures being highly morphologically diverse. Further studies into the reasons of this diversity are needed. PMID:12498081

  12. Crustal structure beneath southern Africa: insight into how tectonic events affect the Mohorovičić discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Porter, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    The long and complex history of southern Africa makes it a geological nexus for understanding how crust forms, evolves and survives plate tectonic processes over billions of years. The goal of this study is to characterize the crustal thickness, composition, and Moho impedance contrasts across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and surrounding mobile belts, which range in age from Archean to Palaeozoic. We use data gathered from the 1997-1999 Southern Africa Seismic Experiment, the Africa Array (2006-2007) and the Global Seismographic Network (1993-2009) to generate P-wave receiver function Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacks across the region in order to provide a continuous 3-D image of crustal variations throughout southern Africa. We observe thickened crust associated with mobile belts and the intrusion of the Bushveld Complex relative to the less-deformed cratons. The southern Kaapvaal and eastern Zimbabwe Cratons have a well-defined Moho with an average depth of ˜34 km and Vp/Vs of ˜1.73, indicative of felsic average crustal composition. We explain the felsic composition observed in the Kaapvaal Craton in the context of significant crustal modification related to the deposition of the Ventersdorp lavas. We find that the Bushveld Province, the site of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion, has a thick (>40 km) crust with a Vp/Vs > 1.8, indicative of a mafic average crustal composition. The magnitude of Moho conversions beneath the Bushveld Province is variable, with the lowest amplitude conversion appearing between the eastern and western limbs of the Bushveld Complex, indicative of mafic underplating beneath the region. In the Limpopo Belt and western Zimbabwe Craton, we observe low amplitude Moho conversions beneath the Okavango Dyke Swarm, and attribute this to the reworking of the crust by mafic underplating and intrusion during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwanaland. The Namaqua-Natal event thickened the crust and created a gradational

  13. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-02-01

    Lower Granite Dam. A ''D'' equal to one indicates that there is no difference in survival rate after hydrosystem passage, while a ''D'' less than one indicates that transported smolts die at a greater rate after release, than smolts that have migrated through the hydrosystem. While the relative survival rates of transported and in-river migrants are important, the SARs must be also be sufficient to allow the salmon to persist and recover (Mundy et al. 1994). Decreased SARs could result from delayed hydrosystem mortality for either transported or in-river migrants, or both. Major objectives of CSS include: (1) development of a long-term index of transport SAR to in-river SAR for Snake River hatchery spring and summer chinook smolts measured at Lower Granite Dam; (2) develop a long-term index of survival rates from release of smolts at Snake River hatcheries to return of adults to the hatcheries; (3) compute and compare the overall SARs for selected upriver and downriver spring and summer chinook hatcheries; (4) begin a time series of SARs for use in hypothesis testing and in the regional long-term monitoring and evaluation program; (5) evaluate growth patterns of transported and in-river migrating smolts, and of upriver and downriver stocks. Primary CSS focus in this report for the 1997-1999 migration years included hatchery chinook tasks for objectives 1, 4 and 5.

  14. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collie, J.S.; Hermsen, J.M.; Valentine, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  15. Formation of Nanophase Iron in Lunar Soil Simulant for Use in ISRU Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Day, James D. M.

    2005-01-01

    For the prospective return of humans to the Moon and the extensive amount of premonitory studies necessary, large quantities of lunar soil simulants are required, for a myriad of purposes from construction/engineering purposes all the way to medical testing of its effects from ingestion by humans. And there is only a limited and precious quantity of lunar soil available on Earth (i.e., Apollo soils) - therefore, the immediate need for lunar soil simulants. Since the Apollo era, there have been several simulants; of these JSC-1 (Johnson Space Center) and MLS-1 (Minnesota Lunar Simulant) have been the most widely used. JSC-1 was produced from glassy volcanic tuff in order to approximate lunar soil geotechnical properties; whereas, MLS-1 approximates the chemistry of Apollo 11 high-Ti soil, 10084. Stocks of both simulants are depleted, but JSC-1 has recently gone back into production. The lunar soil simulant workshop, held at Marshall Space Flight Center in January 2005, identified the need to make new simulants for the special properties of lunar soil, such as nanophase iron (np-Fe(sup 0). Hill et al. (2005, this volume) showed the important role of microscale Fe(sup 0) in microwave processing of the lunar soil simulants JSC-1 and MLS-1. Lunar soil is formed by space weathering of lunar rocks (e.g., micrometeorite impact, cosmic particle bombardment). Glass generated during micrometeorite impact cements rock and mineral fragments together to form aggregates called agglutinates, and also produces vapor that is deposited and coats soil grains. Taylor et al. (2001) showed that the relative amount of impact glass in lunar soil increases with decreasing grain size and is the most abundant component in lunar dust (less than 20 micrometer fraction). Notably, the magnetic susceptibility of lunar soil also increases with the decreasing grain size, as a function of the amount of nanophase-sized Fe(sup 0) in impact-melt generated glass. Keller et al. (1997, 1999) also

  16. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collie, Jeremy S.; Hermsen, Jerome M.; Valentine, Page C.

    2009-09-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m 2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  17. Wind-wave coupling in the atmospheric boundary layer over a reservoir: field measurements and verification of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted at the Gorky Reservoir to test a quasi-linear model of the atmospheric boundary layer [1]. In the course of the experiment we simultaneously measured profiles of wind speed and surface wave spectra using instruments placed on the Froude buoy, which measures the following parameters: i) the module and the direction of the wind speed using ultrasonic wind sensor WindSonic Gill instruments, located on the 4 - levels from 0.1 x 5 m long; ii) profile of the surface waves with 3-channel string wave-gauge with a base of 5 cm, iii) the temperature of the water and air with a resistive sensor. From the measured profiles of wind speed, we calculated basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer: the friction velocity u*, the wind speed at the standard height of 10 m U10 and the drag coefficient CD. Data on CD(U10), obtained at the Gorky Reservoir, were compared with similar data obtained on Lake George in Australia during the Australian Shallow Water Experiment (AUSWEX) conducted in 1997 - 1999 [2,3]. A good agreement was obtained between measured data at two different on the parameters of inland waters: deep Gorky reservoir and shallow Lake George.To elucidate the reasons for this coincidence of the drag coefficients under strongly different conditions an analysis of surface waves was conducted.Measurements have shown that in both water bodies the surface wave spectra have almost the same asymptotics (spatial spectrum - k-3, the frequency spectrum -5), corresponding to the Phillips saturation spectrum.These spectra are typically observed for the steep surface waves, for which the basic dissipation mechanism is wave breaking. The similarity of the short-wave parts of the spectra can be regarded as a probable cause of coincidence of dependency of drag coefficient of the water surface on wind speed. Quantitative verification of this hypothesis was carried out in the framework of quasi-linear model of the wind

  18. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Ubico, S R; Bourne, D; Komar, N

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  19. Use Of Pre-operative Testing And Physicians’ Response To Professional Society Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Alana E.; Stevens, Elizabeth R.; Blitz, Jeanna; Ladapo, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The value of routine pre-operative testing prior to most surgical procedures is widely considered to be low. To improve the quality of pre-operative care and reduce waste, two professional societies released guidance in 2002, but researchers and policymakers remain concerned about the health and cost burden of low-value care in the pre-operative setting. Objective To examine the long-term, national impact of 2002 professional guidance from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), on physicians’ use of routine pre-operative testing. Design, Setting, Participants U.S. adults evaluated in pre-operative visits in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) between 1997-2010. A quasi-experimental, differences-in-differences (DID) approach evaluated whether professional guidance in 2002 was associated with changes in pre-operative testing patterns, while adjusting for temporal trends in routine testing, as captured by testing patterns in general medical exams. Main Measures Physician orders for outpatient plain radiography, hematocrit, urinalysis, electrocardiogram (ECG), and cardiac stress testing. Results Over the 14-year period, the average annual number of pre-operative visits in the US increased from 6.8 million in 1997-1999, to 9.8 million in 2002-2004, to 14.3 million in 2008-2010. After accounting for temporal trends in routine testing, we found no statistically significant overall changes in the use of plain radiography (11.3% in 1997-2002 to 9.9% in 2003-2010, DID=−1.0-per-100-visits 95% CI-4.1,2.2), hematocrit (9.4% in 1997-2002 to 4.1% in 2003-2010, DID=+1.2-per-100-visits 95% CI-2.2,4.7), urinalysis (12.2% in 1997-2002 to 8.9% in 2003-2010, DID=+2.7-per-100-visits 95% CI-1.7,7.1), or cardiac stress testing (1.0% in 1997-2002 to 2.0% in 2003-2010, DID=+0.7-per-100-visits 95% CI-0.1,1.5) after

  20. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - La Nina Conditions Likely to Prevail, October 10, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    the Southwest, the data show. 'Clearly, these unusual conditions, which have persisted for 2 1/2 years, will not be returning to normal any time soon,' Patzert said. 'This climate imbalance is big and we're definitely going through a decade of wild climatic behavior. But when we look back at the climate record over the past century, we've seen behavior like this before.'

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  1. Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree

  2. Thermal expansion behavior of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G.; Harlov, D.; Gottschalk, M.; Hudacek, W.; Wildermuth, S.

    2009-04-01

    the fluor-chlorapatite series is little affected by composition. This contrasts with relationships in alkali feldspars (Hovis and coworkers, 1997, 1999), which show that K-rich feldspars expand less than Na-rich feldspars. It contrasts also with the behavior of additional AlSi3 feldspars (Hovis and others, 2008), in which room-temperature chemical expansion limits the degree to which the structure can expand thermally. It also differs from expansion in kalsilite crystalline solutions (Hovis and coworkers, 2003, 2006), which depends on K:Na ratio. Among the minerals we have studied previously, only nepheline displays expansion behavior similar to that of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions in that thermal expansion shows little sensitivity to composition. In AlSi3 feldspars and kalsilite one observes a single crystallographically distinct alkali site and a dominating SiO4 tetrahedral framework that limits the vibrational characteristics of the alkali-site occupant(s). Fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions have no such structural framework. Moreover, the anion site in the latter changes structural character in the transition from fluorapatite to chlorapatite. This flexibility apparently allows anion vibrational characteristics, coupled with those of Ca polyhedral components, to change continuously and in a compensating manner across the series. The thermal expansion data also imply that volumes of F-Cl mixing in fluor-chlorapatite are constant from room temperature to 1000 °C. References: Cherniak, D.J. (2000) Rare earth element diffusion in apatite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 3871-3885. Harlov, D.E. and Förster, H-J. (2002) High grade fluid metasomatism on both a local and regional Scale: the Seward Peninsula, Alaska and the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy Part II: phosphate mineral chemistry. Journal of Petrology 43, 801-824. Holland, T.J.B. and Redfern, S.A.T. (1997) Unit-cell refinement: Changing the dependent variable, and use of regression

  3. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the main crops in the Mediterranean region and it forms, along with wheat and olive, what it is known as the 'Mediterranean triad'. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2010), the European Union has 4.5 million hectares of land occupied by vineyards. Out of all, the Mediterranean region has the largest total area of vineyards. France, Italy and Spain together are responsible for 48% of global wine production. In Spain, the total surface occupied by vineyards is 1.048.104 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2009), which is translated in a 13% of world total (Wine Institute, 2014). In terms of environmental factors, vineyards are a source of sediments and water due to the tillage and the soil compaction, the lack of vegetation cover and the soil organic matter depletion (Novara et al., 2011; Lieskovsky' et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). The infiltration capacity of soils is a key component of the hydrological cycle that can control the non-sustainable rates of runoff and erosion (Cerdà, 1997,1999). In this way research focused on the soil hydrological properties will bring knowledge on how to control the high erosion rates (Cammeraat et al., 2010). Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ks, is the most determining physical parameter in terms of quantifying the components of the global water balance as it interferes in all those processes which are related with water and solute movement and transport through the soil. ks values are required for an adequate modelling of the infiltration and runoff generation processes. However, it is a variable with high variability when it comes to agricultural soils due to different soil managements and the fact that the soil is not a continuous media (Polo et al., 2003). For instance, Leonard and Andrieux (1998) reported in a study done in untilled vineyards in France high differences in infiltration rates through the use of rainfall simulations, which

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down

  5. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils. Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability. Many sites have been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. In 2000, the main cadmium actual transfer index ("ATI" by Márton 2004) maximum and minimum values in the case of maize 4-6 foliaged phenophase ranged between +22.0- -89.2%. compared with control soils. The grain "ATI" maximum and minimum values changed between +14.4- -89.2% as opposed to unterated plants. The highest yields reached around 10 t* ha-1. These study shows maize has ability to a different degree to cadmium bioaccumulation from soil to corn and by these way for "FOOD CHAIN". Key words: Phosphorous, Fertilization, Cadmium, Translocation, Corn Introduction Nowadays, sustainable (S) precision (P) agricultural (A) production (P)(SPAP) has become the major issue following global changes in all the world over. It is well known that it has strongly established on soils. The functioning and their ability to supply nutrients, store water, release gases, modify pollutants, decrease physical degradation and produce crops is profundly influenced by their fertiliy. During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils (ATSDR 1997, 1999; ANZECC 1992; CWP 1995; COC 2004; DEFRA 2002; EDF 1998; HSC 2005; IARC 1993; ). Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability (Magher 1991; NEPC 1998; NDH 1986; NTP 1991). Many sites have

  6. Step-by-step synchronous variations of planetary natural processes in 1997-1998 and their uniform mechanism: phenomenon of "galloping of the core"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    "For an explanation of observably step-by-step variations of geodynamic and geophysical processes the mechanism of sharp sporadic relative displacements of the core and the mantle and deformations of the mantle in the certain periods of time (the phenomenon of "galloping of the core") is offered. Apparently, this mechanism results in spasmodic variations of axial rotation of the Earth, causes gallop in value of a phase of Chandler motion of a pole, to sharp changes of the intense condition in zones of catastrophes" ([1], p. 61). According to geodynamic model the step changes first of all should to be observed in motion of a geocenter as it reflects relative displacement of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle [1]. A gallop of natural processes in northern and southern hemispheres is characterized by the certain asymmetry. In result the step changes are tested by trend components of secular changes of parameters. In another words and activity (intensity) and trends of its secular changes test synchronous certain steps. Geocenter. According to observation data of DORIS spasmodic changes of polar rotation of a geocenter in a projection to an equatorial coordinate plane in 1997-1999 are revealed. On data DORIS in values of polar coordinate of a geocenter were observed gallop up to 20-30 cm. Changes of trend components have tested gallop which can be estimated in -2 mm in coordinate x, -5 mm in coordinate y and in -10 mm in coordinate z. Trajectory of a geocenter. A bend of a trajectory of long - periodic trend "trace" of a geocenter (its epicentre) on a surface of the Earth in 1997-1998 has been discovered (Zotov, Barkin, Lyubushin, 2008). It serves as direct confirmation of the assumption about a fundamental role of interaction and the forced relative displacements of the basic shells of the Earth, first of all the core and the mantle, both their stimulating and directing role in all planetary processes (Barkin, 2002). Gravitational field. On the data of

  7. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the main crops in the Mediterranean region and it forms, along with wheat and olive, what it is known as the 'Mediterranean triad'. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2010), the European Union has 4.5 million hectares of land occupied by vineyards. Out of all, the Mediterranean region has the largest total area of vineyards. France, Italy and Spain together are responsible for 48% of global wine production. In Spain, the total surface occupied by vineyards is 1.048.104 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2009), which is translated in a 13% of world total (Wine Institute, 2014). In terms of environmental factors, vineyards are a source of sediments and water due to the tillage and the soil compaction, the lack of vegetation cover and the soil organic matter depletion (Novara et al., 2011; Lieskovsky' et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). The infiltration capacity of soils is a key component of the hydrological cycle that can control the non-sustainable rates of runoff and erosion (Cerdà, 1997,1999). In this way research focused on the soil hydrological properties will bring knowledge on how to control the high erosion rates (Cammeraat et al., 2010). Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ks, is the most determining physical parameter in terms of quantifying the components of the global water balance as it interferes in all those processes which are related with water and solute movement and transport through the soil. ks values are required for an adequate modelling of the infiltration and runoff generation processes. However, it is a variable with high variability when it comes to agricultural soils due to different soil managements and the fact that the soil is not a continuous media (Polo et al., 2003). For instance, Leonard and Andrieux (1998) reported in a study done in untilled vineyards in France high differences in infiltration rates through the use of rainfall simulations, which

  8. Exisulind: Aptosyn, FGN 1, Prevatac, sulindac sulfone.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    in the US. Phase I and II paediatric trials are also underway in the US. Cell Pathways announced in April 2000 that it had completed enrollment in an open-label phase II study in children with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Patients will be evaluated to determine whether polyp numbers have been reduced after 1 year relative to baseline. In June 2000, Cell Pathways announced the results of a 1-year extension of a 1997-1999 phase III trial that showed that exisulind significantly reduced polyp formation in patients with FAP. Enrollment of 282 patients in a multicentre, placebo-controlled phase III trial for the treatment of sporadic colonic polyps was completed in the US in May 1999. In its 2003 Annual Report, Paladin Labs announced that it is conducting a phase III study of exisulind in patients with prostate cancer in Canada. Exisulind has completed a pivotal phase II/III trial for preventing the recurrence of prostate cancer in the US. Two phase II prostate cancer trials were initiated in June 1999. The first study assessed the efficacy of exisulind in 15 patients who had undergone prostatectomy, were receiving LHRH-agonist hormone therapy and had increasing PSA levels (study EX1001). The second trial was to enroll 20 hormone-refractory patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy within 2-8 weeks of diagnosis (study EX1004). This study compared the effect of exisulind + docetaxel on the rate of apoptosis and GMP-PDE expression in premalignant or malignant and normal prostate tissue. Cell Pathways and Rhône-Poulenc Rorer (now Aventis) agreed to collaborate on clinical trials of exisulind in combination with docetaxel in the treatment of various solid tumours. The first phase I/II trial (study 026) was to enroll previously untreated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). OSI Pharmaceuticals and Bristol-Myers Squibb are conducting a phase I/II trial (study EX 2002) of exisulind in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment

  9. An observational and modeling study of the regional impacts of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.

    Climate variability has large impacts on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---regional planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at regional scales. The question is important, since high-quality regional climate projections could assist farmers and regional planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its regional impacts are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify impacts of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its impacts may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even

  10. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    from tertian malaria, which is the most dangerous from the epidemiological point of view since the main vectors in Turkmenistan, are highly susceptible to P. vivax infection. The particular dangerous phenomenon is the higher incidence of imported tertian malaria in rural areas where sick people and those who carry the parasite come into close contact with highly susceptible vectors. Thus, the risk that new malaria outbreaks will occur and the disease will become reestablished in the country is very high. It is also influenced by major changes in water use in the country, which have aggravated the mosquito situation. In the area around the Karakum canal and river basins, 17 large reservoirs have been constructed, with very extensive filtration ponds around them, which have become breeding ground's for malaria mosquitoes. There are 1219 water areas without any economic significance in the country, covering a total area of 1054 ha, which require regular treatment with insecticides. With assistance from the WHO European Regional Office, Dr. Guido Sabatinelli in particular, Turkmenistan has developed a plan for preventive malaria control measures for 1999-2001, which has been approved in a decree issued by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. The material support received has made it possible to provide large-scale prophylaxis for people who suffered from malaria in 1997-1999, seasonal treatment for people living near the active foci of the disease and interseasonal prophylaxis for people visiting these areas. Seasonal treatment with Dellaguil was made in 4,590 people living in the active foci of malaria infection, and 2,281 fixed-term military personnel belonging to the units stationed in the active foci of malaria infection. In all foci of infection, every person with malaria or carrying the parasite underwent epidemiological investigation and all cases were entered in health clinic records. In 1999, four seminars were held to train 75 specialists from all

  11. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils. Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability. Many sites have been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. In 2000, the main cadmium actual transfer index ("ATI" by Márton 2004) maximum and minimum values in the case of maize 4-6 foliaged phenophase ranged between +22.0- -89.2%. compared with control soils. The grain "ATI" maximum and minimum values changed between +14.4- -89.2% as opposed to unterated plants. The highest yields reached around 10 t* ha-1. These study shows maize has ability to a different degree to cadmium bioaccumulation from soil to corn and by these way for "FOOD CHAIN". Key words: Phosphorous, Fertilization, Cadmium, Translocation, Corn Introduction Nowadays, sustainable (S) precision (P) agricultural (A) production (P)(SPAP) has become the major issue following global changes in all the world over. It is well known that it has strongly established on soils. The functioning and their ability to supply nutrients, store water, release gases, modify pollutants, decrease physical degradation and produce crops is profundly influenced by their fertiliy. During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils (ATSDR 1997, 1999; ANZECC 1992; CWP 1995; COC 2004; DEFRA 2002; EDF 1998; HSC 2005; IARC 1993; ). Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability (Magher 1991; NEPC 1998; NDH 1986; NTP 1991). Many sites have

  12. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    groups extended these studies to molten [19] and quasicrystalline metals. The stunning result was that among the distorted structures there was a region where quasicrystals were stable with the lowest energy among all the structures they tried and which had shown up elsewhere [20]. In addition to Jürgen Hafner's actual research work published in over 600 research papers, including numerous review articles, several contributions to books and one monograph, he has done a great deal to establish our field of electronic structure calculation as the basis for understanding materials in Austria and across Europe. The founding and expansion of the Computational Materials Science Centre (CMS) in Vienna owes much to him, as well as the development of the European Psi-k network where he served as acting chairman in 1997-1999. He has been one of the leaders of the 'Surfaces and Catalysis Working Group' of Psi-k, and the instigator of several 'Theory Meets Industry' workshops [21] to stimulate the transfer of our methodology to industrial problems. Jürgen Hafner has always aimed for the highest intellectual standards. His nose for finding the most advanced work going on elsewhere has resulted in many international cooperations, including some in the USA and Japan. His list of international joint research projects runs to many pages. This in turn has been a major contributor to European cooperation, and in making it now the leading area in the world for our field. Hafner's research has always been linked closely to understanding puzzling experimental results, and in this way he has helped to establish a good reputation for computational physics within the mainstream of condensed matter physics of materials. It has taken quite a long time to establish computer simulations as a respectable component of research in condensed matter physics. "It is not real theory" people sneered from one side, and "computer simulations are not like real experiments" from the other. In the late 1990s a