Science.gov

Sample records for food aid users

  1. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  2. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  3. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  4. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Rocha, Andressa Vital; Honório, Heitor Marques

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1) the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA) users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2) the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women) and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66%) and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%). No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas. PMID:25991994

  5. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign...

  6. User interface for integrated computer aided design systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was the development of a user interface and other appropriate tools to be used in Computer Aided Design systems which can integrate a wide variety of independently developed design and analysis tools. The interface was intended for the integration of programs to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace systems. A user's manual is included.

  7. Crack users: the new AIDS risk group?

    PubMed

    Fullilove, R E; Fullilove, M T; Bowser, B; Gross, S

    1990-01-01

    Crack cocaine, a smokable form of cocaine hydrochloride, is now widely available in American inner cities. Reports of high rates of unprotected sexual activity among crack users, coupled with reports of high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), have raised fears that this population of drug users may soon be contracting and disseminating sexually transmitted HIV. In a study of 205 black adolescent crack users conducted in Oakland and San Francisco, California, 101 respondents (49% of the sample) who reported using crack in combination with sexual activity were examined. Those respondents who reported having a history of one or more STD were compared using discriminant analysis (DA). A successful discrimination (canonical correlation = 0.61, p = 0.000) identified five variables that distinguished those with a STD history from those with no STD history: gender (being female) (p = 0.000), frequency of marijuana use (p = 0.005), response to the question; "Do you plan for sex or does it just happen?" (p = 0.002), response to the statement, "I use drugs to get away from my problems" (0.029), and response to the question, "Do you agree that sex doesn't feel as good when you use a condom?" (p = 0.006). The selection of these variables was thought to represent an underlying passivity in the way that crack users who combine crack use with sex approach sexual activity. PMID:2386974

  8. Observing Users: An Empirical Analysis of User Interaction with Online Finding Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Joyce Celeste

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results from a usability study of the finding aid Web display at the Southern Historical Collection. The results show that Internet proficiency may be slightly more important than archival expertise when navigating online finding aids, that novice users are able to attain a considerable understanding of finding aids…

  9. Computer-Aided-Instruction (user/CSO computer security training)

    SciTech Connect

    Twyman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a Computer-Aided-Instruction (CAI) course that has been implemented at Rocky Flats. Trying to train 2000 computer users and Computer Security Officers (CSO) has been a real dilemma at Rocky Flats. In order to resolve this problem, our Training Department implemented a CAI training course on Computer Security. Presently, we are training approximately 100 users/CSOs per month, and soon these numbers should increase. The duration of the User course is about an hour and the CSO's is about an hour and a half. CAI is being used on the unclassified VAX computer system in conjunction with IBM PC XTs.

  10. User preference and reliability of bilateral hearing aid gain adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Mueller, H Gustav

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consistency and reliability of user adjustments to hearing aid gain and the resulting effects on speech understanding. Sixteen bilaterally aided individuals with hearing loss adjusted their hearing aid gain to optimize listening comfort and speech clarity while listening to speech in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Following these adjustments, participants readjusted their aids to optimize clarity and comfort while listening to speech in quiet. These final gain settings were recorded and compared to those provided by NAL-NL1 prescriptive targets. In addition, speech understanding was tested with the hearing aids set at target and user gain settings. Performance differences between the gain settings were then assessed. Study results revealed that although some listeners preferred more or less gain than prescribed, on average, user and prescribed gain settings were similar in both ears. Some individuals, however, made gain adjustments between ears resulting in "gain mismatches." These "mismatches" were often inconsistent across trials suggesting that these adjustments were unreliable. Speech testing results, however, showed no significant difference across the different gain settings suggesting that the gain deviations introduced in this study were not large enough to significantly affect speech understanding. PMID:18669129

  11. Food aid in emergencies: a case for wheat?

    PubMed

    Landman, J

    1999-05-01

    As disasters and conflict increase, a higher proportion of total food aid is given as humanitarian aid. Most food aid is in the form of cereals, primarily wheat. The main donors are the USA and the EU, but there is an increase in the numbers of donors, including non-governmental organizations, buying food rather than using surpluses. Alongside the greater diversity and complexity of food aid, there is more controversy about policy and practice. If disasters are development failures, emergency food aid must be a step in the continuum from relief to rehabilitation. Comparisons of the seventeen countries that were major recipients of food aid (> 10,000 t) in 1997, show diversity in social development, dietary pattern, number of refugees, relative food inadequacy and wasting (i.e. % standard weight-for-height > 2 SD). In the absence of information of consistent quality, what influences the scale of emergency aid is unclear and susceptible to politicization, so that need and supply may not be matched. Local considerations seem to be as important as external food aid for the nutrition of the recipients. Challenges for the future include assuring the nutritional quality of rations to solve deficiency problems. The implications for the professional public health nutritionist working on emergency food provision include continuing professional development to enhance the technical expertise necessary to design appropriate feeds or rations. These public health nutritionists, more than others, require a grounding in social science theories that underpin management, ethics of professionalism and the politics of food aid. PMID:10466177

  12. HIV/AIDS, Undernutrition and Food Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Louise C; Cullen, Kimberly A; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Block, Steven; Coates, Jennifer; Webb, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in HIV care and increased funding for treatment, morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS in developing countries remains unacceptably high. A major contributing factor is that globally over 800 million people remain chronically undernourished and the HIV epidemic largely overlaps with populations already suffering from low diet quality and quantity. We present an updated review of the relationship between HIV, nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity, and consider efforts to interrupt this cycle at a programmatic level. As HIV infection progresses, it causes a catabolic state and increased susceptibility to infection which are compounded by lack of caloric and other nutrient intake, leading to progressive worsening of malnutrition. Despite calls from national and international organizations to integrate HIV and nutrition programs, data are lacking on how such programs can be effectively implemented in resource-poor settings, on the optimum content and duration of nutrition support and on ideal target recipients. PMID:19725790

  13. International epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Choopanya, K; Vanichseni, S; Ward, T P

    1992-10-01

    HIV/AIDS and iv drug use (IVDU) are of significant multinational scope and growing. Supporting increased IVDU in many countries are countries' geographical proximity to illicit drug trafficking distribution routes, law enforcement efforts which increase the demand for more efficient drug distribution and consumption, and countries' infrastructural and social modernization. Given the failures of intensified law enforcement efforts to thwart the use and proliferation of illegal drugs, countries with substantial IVDU should look away from preventing use to preventing HIV transmission within drug user populations. With HIV seroprevalence rates rapidly reaching 40-50% in some developing country IVDU groups, a variety of prevention programs is warranted. Such programs should be supported and implemented while prevention remains feasible. This paper examines the variation in HIV seroprevalence among IVD users, rapid HIV spread among users, HIV among IVDUs in Bangkok, emerging issues in HIV transmission among IVDUs, non-AIDS manifestations of HIV infection among IVDUs, prevention programs and effectiveness, and harm reduction. PMID:1466837

  14. Food and Nutrition: Supplemental Lessons for Training Extension Aides: Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn H.; And Others

    The lessons were written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in Extension's Expanded Food and Nutrition Program. The purpose is to enrich the aides' background in food preparation and to provide practical teaching methods that can be used in presenting food preparation information to families. The 21 lessons are an…

  15. Brainstem Encoding of Aided Speech in Hearing Aid Users with Cochlear Dead Region(s)

    PubMed Central

    Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan; Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Galhom, Dalia Helal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Neural encoding of speech begins with the analysis of the signal as a whole broken down into its sinusoidal components in the cochlea, which has to be conserved up to the higher auditory centers. Some of these components target the dead regions of the cochlea causing little or no excitation. Measuring aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response elicited by speech stimuli with different spectral maxima can give insight into the brainstem encoding of aided speech with spectral maxima at these dead regions. Objective  This research aims to study the impact of dead regions of the cochlea on speech processing at the brainstem level after a long period of hearing aid use. Methods  This study comprised 30 ears without dead regions and 46 ears with dead regions at low, mid, or high frequencies. For all ears, we measured the aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response using speech stimuli of low, mid, and high spectral maxima. Results  Aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was producible in all subjects. Responses evoked by stimuli with spectral maxima at dead regions had longer latencies and smaller amplitudes when compared with the control group or the responses of other stimuli. Conclusion  The presence of cochlear dead regions affects brainstem encoding of speech with spectral maxima perpendicular to these regions. Brainstem neuroplasticity and the extrinsic redundancy of speech can minimize the impact of dead regions in chronic hearing aid users. PMID:27413404

  16. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products. PMID:27005492

  17. Food Purchasing Pointers for School Food Service. Program Aid No. 1160.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Joan; Cazier, Amelia

    This publication is designed to aid school food service personnel in implementing effective food purchasing practices and obtaining optimum food quality. Part 1 outlines procedures for sound purchasing practices and presents suggested forms for use in implementing these procedures. Information is also provided on inventory systems and stock…

  18. Food Aid and the African Food Crisis. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 221.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapouri, Shahla; And Others

    Nine of 11 low and medium income Sub-Saharan African countires studied may face even greater problems feeding their populations if recent trends continue. These countries rely on food imports and, increasingly, on food aid to meet minimum nutritional requirements for their populations. Food production is hampered by droughts which hit about every…

  19. Food aid in emergencies and public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rita; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    HUNGER LEAVES SCARS: The visible kind may be born by the survivors of famine. Less visible, but all the more damaging, are the long-term effects of hunger that run through families through generations. Hunger passed from mother to child represents a ruinous inheritance. It marks a cycle of hunger that transcends generations, unless the cycle is broken. Food aid provided at crucial times in the lives of women and infants represents an investment for future. Thus, in contrast to former conceptions of food aid as an exclusively life-saving vehicle, modern aims of food aid also include preventing increases in the prevalence of malnutrition and asset depletion. Mass migration and food shortages have been responsible for most deaths following civil conflicts around the world. The most visible form of migration occurs when people cross international borders. The reasons for the flight of refugees and internally displaced persons are generally same; war, civil strife, and persecution. "NUTRITIONAL GATEWAYS": Finally, the importance of timely and sustained delivery of adequate food aid adequate in quality and quantity to people in dire need during the emergency is paramount. Food aid is the most direct means for conveying nutritional benefits: the time frame is often limited, sustainability is not an issue. However, in the case of drought victims, refugees or displaced people, the nutritional situation and the actions needed are more complex. In many situations people arrive are often in very bad state. While high prevalence of malnutrition is associated with inadequate food rations, in some situation malnutrition developed primarily because of the high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases. The synergism between high malnutrition and increased incidence of communicable diseases explains much of excess mortality seen in refugee and displaced persons. PMID:15806950

  20. First Entry: Report on a Qualitative Exploratory Study of Novice User Experience with Online Finding Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheir, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Many of those now accessing archives through online finding aids are encountering primary materials (albeit virtually) for the first time. These users are often unfamiliar with finding aid structure, terminology, and principles. This article reports on a qualitative, exploratory study of a subset of these novice users. The study concentrated on…

  1. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Annabel K.; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user’s regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User’s also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user’s understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered. PMID:26554836

  2. Acceptance of Noise Growth Patterns in Hearing Aid Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Plyler, Patrick N.; Thelin, James W.; Muenchen, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether the effects of speech presentation level on acceptance of noise could differentiate full-time, part-time, and nonusers of hearing aids and whether these effects could predict hearing aid use. Method: Participants were separated into 3 groups on the basis of hearing aid use: (a) full-time use, (b) part-time use, or (c)…

  3. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future. PMID:25284965

  4. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods. PMID:7703003

  5. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  6. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... (FSA) proposes adding export food aid commodities (EFAC) to the agricultural products for which... operators storing EFAC. This proposal is in response to the concerns of export food aid providers...

  7. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users.

    PubMed

    Uys, Marinda; van Dijk, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research was twofold: firstly, to develop a music perception test (MPT) for hearing-aid users, and secondly, to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of the MPT. To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing-aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. As hearing-aid technology has improved, interest has grown in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing-aid users' quality of life. The MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design-based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording, while phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n = 15) and hearing-aid users (n = 4). Based on the findings of phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n = 4) and 20 hearing-aid users. Results proved that adults with normal hearing as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT, although hearing-aid users scored lower on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing-aid users; for the timbre section the scores were 83% versus 62.3% respectively. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section, compared with the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing-aid users. This implies that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing-aid users within the South African context and may therefore result in

  8. Medication compliance aids: a qualitative study of users' views

    PubMed Central

    Lecouturier, Jan; Cunningham, Bill; Campbell, David; Copeland, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid rise in the use of multicompartmental compliance aids (MCAs), little is known about the role they play in self-management of medication. Aim To explore the perceived benefits of MCAs for people using them to manage their own or a relative's medication. Design of study Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting West Northumberland. Method Recruitment was via posters and leaflets in general practices and community pharmacies. In-depth interviews were conducted using a topic guide. Results Nineteen people were interviewed. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to medicine taking: disruption, organisation, and adherence, which impacted on control. The medication regime had caused disruption to their lives and this had led to the purchase of an MCA. The MCA enabled them to organise their medication, which they believed had improved the efficiency of medicine taking and saved time. Although the MCA did not prompt them to take their medication, they could see whether they had actually taken it or not, which alleviated their anxiety. To meet their individual needs and lifestyles, some had developed broader systems of medication management, incorporating the MCA. For a small cost – the initial outlay for the MCA and time spent loading it – they gained control over the management of their medication and their condition. Conclusion This group found the use of an MCA to be beneficial, but advice and support regarding how best to manage their medication and on the most appropriate design to suit their needs would be helpful. PMID:21276336

  9. User-friendly computer-aided integrated optics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Guido; Petazzi, Diego; Montrosset, Ivo

    1993-04-01

    We have developed a user friendly program to analyze the electromagnetic behavior of general integrated optics circuits with a two-dimensional Beam Propagation Method. As a graphical interface for the description of the circuit under analysis we used a file produced by the optical layout generator Sigraph-Optik (copyright by Siemens-Nixdorf), while we acquire all the parameters necessary for the simulation via pop-up menus or a command file. The electromagnetic analysis is at the moment performed with the Beam Propagation Method based on FFT but we are working to extend it to a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme with transparent boundary conditions to minimize the computational window. The program final output are color maps and data files containing the effective refractive index and the field amplitude and phase. It is then possible to carry out a post processing on such files to make three dimensional graphs that summarize the circuit performance, to extract two dimensional plots at particular circuit sections and to project the field on the local normal modes of the waveguides. Examples of the simulation capabilities are given.

  10. The impact of a school food aid program on household food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Petralias, Athanassios; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Riza, Elena; Karagas, Margaret R.; Zagouras, Alexia B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We had a unique opportunity to establish the extent of food insecurity and the potential impact of a large-scale school-based nutritional program, in low-socioeconomic status districts of Greece, during the current economic crisis. Methods: Around 162 schools with 25 349 students participated during the 2012–2013 school year. Each student received a daily healthy meal designed by nutrition specialists. Food insecurity levels, measured using the Food Security Survey Module were assessed at baseline and after a 1–8-month intervention period. Pre–post intervention responses were matched at an individual level. Results: Around 64.2% of children’s households experienced food insecurity at baseline. This percentage decreased to 59.1% post-intervention, P < 0.001. On an individual level, food insecurity score diminished by 6.5%, P < 0.001. After adjustment for various socioeconomic factors, for each additional month of participation, the odds of reducing the food insecurity score increased by 6.3% (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.11). Those experiencing food insecurity with hunger at baseline were more likely to improve food insecurity score than those who did not (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.92–4.21). Conclusion: Children and families residing in low socioeconomic areas of Greece, experience high levels of food insecurity. Our findings suggest that participation in a school-based food aid program may reduce food insecurity for children and their families in a developed country in times of economic hardship. PMID:26873860

  11. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119

  12. Searching Databases without Query-Building Aids: Implications for Dyslexic Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berget, Gerd; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies document the information searching behaviour of users with cognitive impairments. This paper therefore addresses the effect of dyslexia on information searching in a database with no tolerance for spelling errors and no query-building aids. The purpose was to identify effective search interface design guidelines that…

  13. Re-Imagining Archival Display: Creating User-Friendly Finding Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daines, J. Gordon, III; Nimer, Cory L.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how finding aids are structured and delivered, considering alternative approaches. It suggests that single-level displays, those that present a single component of a multilevel description to users at a time, have the potential to transform the delivery and display of collection information while improving the user…

  14. DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.

  15. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... commodities to be stored. On March 15, 2011 (76 FR 13972-13973), FSA published a notice in the Federal... developed in response to concerns of export food aid providers; specifically, the sanitation and security of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid...

  16. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  17. AIDS in New York City: the role of intravenous drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, A.; Rogers, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    The key to the future of the HIV epidemic is the intravenous drug user. In New York City the future has arrived--intravenous drug use is now the predominant risk factor among new cases of AIDS. Our limited knowledge of most facets of drug abuse prevention and treatment and the emotional polarity and politicalization of the issues surrounding AIDS have made control of its spread among intravenous drug users very difficult. Clearly new research efforts are needed better to decide how to reduce the further spread of HIV infection among this group. But efforts to stop the spread cannot await these results. Intense and immediate efforts should focus on five areas for potential control of the spread of HIV infection among drug users: education, treatment on demand, expanding support services, providing sterile equipment, and readjustment of some of society's moral judgments that currently block action. Let us hope that in 10 years we do not look back and realize that we did too little too late while it was still possible to make a difference. PMID:2695203

  18. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  19. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  20. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  1. Investigating Differences in Preferred Noise Reduction Strength Among Hearing Aid Users.

    PubMed

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C

    2016-01-01

    Even though hearing aid (HA) users can respond very differently to noise reduction (NR) processing, knowledge about possible drivers of this variability (and thus ways of addressing it in HA fittings) is sparse. The current study investigated differences in preferred NR strength among HA users. Participants were groups of experienced users with clear preferences ("NR lovers"; N = 14) or dislikes ("NR haters"; N = 13) for strong NR processing, as determined in two earlier studies. Maximally acceptable background noise levels, detection thresholds for speech distortions caused by NR processing, and self-reported "sound personality" traits were considered as candidate measures for explaining group membership. Participants also adjusted the strength of the (binaural coherence-based) NR algorithm to their preferred level. Consistent with previous findings, NR lovers favored stronger processing than NR haters, although there also was some overlap. While maximally acceptable noise levels and detection thresholds for speech distortions tended to be higher for NR lovers than for NR haters, group differences were only marginally significant. No clear group differences were observed in the self-report data. Taken together, these results indicate that preferred NR strength is an individual trait that is fairly stable across time and that is not easily captured by psychoacoustic, audiological, or self-report measures aimed at indexing susceptibility to background noise and processing artifacts. To achieve more personalized NR processing, an effective approach may be to let HA users determine the optimal setting themselves during the fitting process. PMID:27604781

  2. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Farm Service Agency (FSA) are seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES). FSA and CCC procure various processed foods and commodities to be exported and donated for......

  3. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  4. U.S. Cuts Food Aid for Schools Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The U.N. World Food Program fed about 110 million people around the world last year, including 15.6 million children who receive their meals at school. The United States provides money for school feeding programs that is awarded to the U.N. program and other relief agencies. Judith Lewis, U.S.-relations director for the World Food Program, said…

  5. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses. PMID:22317485

  6. Food meanings in HIV and AIDS caregiving trajectories: Ritual, optimism and anguish among caregivers in Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Makoae, Mokhantšo G.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes the caregiving responsibility to provide food for chronically ill family members and the meanings attached to food and eating when ill created stress for family caregivers. The results come from a qualitative phenomenological study using in-depth interviews with 21 family caregivers of chronically ill HIV and AIDS patients in one district in Lesotho. Analysis of the interview data showed that the caregivers attached profound meanings to food and feeding care recipients. Their perceptions about food as part of family life and caring, the role of food and eating in curbing disease progression, the link between food and medical efficacy and the link between food and life led to ritualised behaviour around food, and moments of optimism and anguish in caregiving. Patients’ behaviour in relation to food was in most instances inconsistent with the caregivers’ goals, thus leading this aspect of caregiving to induce stress. Services intended to support home-based caregivers and patients could contribute to the reduction of stress associated with food through suitably tailored food assistance and professional support to caregivers to enhance their competences and understanding of the dynamics of food intake as AIDS progressed. PMID:21328147

  7. Food meanings in HIV and AIDS caregiving trajectories: ritual, optimism and anguish among caregivers in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Makoae, Mokhantso G

    2011-03-01

    The article describes the caregiving responsibility to provide food for chronically ill family members and the meanings attached to food and eating when ill created stress for family caregivers. The results come from a qualitative phenomenological study using in-depth interviews with 21 family caregivers of chronically ill HIV and AIDS patients in one district in Lesotho. Analysis of the interview data showed that the caregivers attached profound meanings to food and feeding care recipients. Their perceptions about food as part of family life and caring, the role of food and eating in curbing disease progression, the link between food and medical efficacy and the link between food and life led to ritualized behaviour around food, and moments of optimism and anguish in caregiving. Patients' behaviour in relation to food was in most instances inconsistent with the caregivers' goals, thus leading this aspect of caregiving to induce stress. Services intended to support home-based caregivers and patients could contribute to the reduction of stress associated with food through suitably tailored food assistance and professional support to caregivers to enhance their competences and understanding of the dynamics of food intake as AIDS progressed. PMID:21328147

  8. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p < 0.05). Income was the only variable that remained associated with higher prevalence of food insecurity in the adjusted PR. Knowing the characteristics of soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations. PMID:25099047

  9. Food Safety for People with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... 300 types) Associat ed Foods • Raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, and meat • Unpasteurized (raw) milk or juice • ... made with raw milk; and raw or undercooked eggs, raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, raw shellfish ...

  10. Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

  11. Rising oceans, climate change, food aid, and human rights in the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Ingrid; Yamada, Seiji; Wong, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change impacts are expected to produce more frequent, longer and unpredictable drought periods with further saltwater intrusion in the Marshall Islands. As a result, a significant return to traditional food cropping is unlikely. This will lead to an increased dependence on food aid, especially in the outer atoll populations. An examination of the nutritional content of food aid suggests it is likely to lead to poor health outcomes. Dependence on food aid has gradually increased over the past 70 years in the Marshall Islands, starting with population relocation because of war and nuclear testing and most recently because of climate change. The authors argue that the health impacts of the supplemental imported diet, combined with migration to population centers, may result in an even greater prevalence of chronic diseases, and exert pressures that lead to more communicable disease, further exacerbating the syndemics in the Marshall Islands. The authors conclude that food aid donors and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government have human rights obligations to ensure that the people in the Marshall Islands have access to adequate nutrition. Accordingly, donors and the government should re-examine the content of food and ensure it is of sufficient quality to meet the right to health obligations. PMID:25618915

  12. Conceptual framework for understanding the bidirectional links between food insecurity and HIV/AIDS1234

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera L; Cohen, Craig R; Kushel, Margot B; Tsai, Alexander C; Tien, Phyllis C; Hatcher, Abigail M; Frongillo, Edward A; Bangsberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    Food insecurity, which affects >1 billion people worldwide, is inextricably linked to the HIV epidemic. We present a conceptual framework of the multiple pathways through which food insecurity and HIV/AIDS may be linked at the community, household, and individual levels. Whereas the mechanisms through which HIV/AIDS can cause food insecurity have been fairly well elucidated, the ways in which food insecurity can lead to HIV are less well understood. We argue that there are nutritional, mental health, and behavioral pathways through which food insecurity leads to HIV acquisition and disease progression. Specifically, food insecurity can lead to macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies, which can affect both vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV, and can also contribute to immunologic decline and increased morbidity and mortality among those already infected. Food insecurity can have mental health consequences, such as depression and increased drug abuse, which, in turn, contribute to HIV transmission risk and incomplete HIV viral load suppression, increased probability of AIDS-defining illness, and AIDS-related mortality among HIV-infected individuals. As a result of the inability to procure food in socially or personally acceptable ways, food insecurity also contributes to risky sexual practices and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as to antiretroviral therapy nonadherence, treatment interruptions, and missed clinic visits, which are strong determinants of worse HIV health outcomes. More research on the relative importance of each of these pathways is warranted because effective interventions to reduce food insecurity and HIV depend on a rigorous understanding of these multifaceted relationships. PMID:22089434

  13. The social context of food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Emenyonu, Nneka; Senkungu, Jude K.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and food insecurity are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, with each heightening the vulnerability to, and worsening the severity of, the other. Less research has focused on the social determinants of food insecurity in resource-limited settings, including social support and HIV-related stigma. In this study, we analyzed data from a cohort of 456 persons from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, an ongoing prospective cohort of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) initiating HIV antiretroviral therapy in Mbarara, Uganda. Quarterly data were collected by structured interviews. The primary outcome, food insecurity, was measured with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Key covariates of interest included social support, internalized HIV-related stigma, HIV-related enacted stigma, and disclosure of HIV serostatus. Severe food insecurity was highly prevalent overall (38%) and more prevalent among women than among men. Social support, HIV disclosure, and internalized HIV-related stigma were associated with food insecurity; these associations persisted after adjusting for household wealth, employment status, and other previously identified correlates of food insecurity. The adverse effects of internalized stigma persisted in a lagged specification, and the beneficial effect of social support further persisted after the inclusion of fixed effects. International organizations have increasingly advocated for addressing food insecurity as part of HIV/AIDS programming to improve morbidity and mortality. This study provides quantitative evidence on social determinants of food insecurity among PLWHA in resource-limited settings and suggests points of intervention. These findings also indicate that structural interventions to improve social support and/or decrease HIV-related stigma may also improve the food security of PLWHA. PMID:22019367

  14. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  15. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  16. Filamentous fungi for production of food additives and processing aids.

    PubMed

    Archer, David B; Connerton, Ian F; MacKenzie, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are metabolically versatile organisms with a very wide distribution in nature. They exist in association with other species, e.g. as lichens or mycorrhiza, as pathogens of animals and plants or as free-living species. Many are regarded as nature's primary degraders because they secrete a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes that degrade waste organic materials. Many species produce secondary metabolites such as polyketides or peptides and an increasing range of fungal species is exploited commercially as sources of enzymes and metabolites for food or pharmaceutical applications. The recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided a major opportunity to explore and further exploit fungi as sources of enzymes and metabolites. In this review chapter we focus on the use of fungi in the production of food additives but take a largely pre-genomic, albeit a mainly molecular, view of the topic. PMID:18253709

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  18. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  19. Food and Nutrition, In-Service Training for Extension Aides: A Problem-Centered Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to assist trainer agents in providing inservice training for extension aides working with low-income families whose resources are limited. Included are a list of reference materials from which additional information may be obtained as well as outlines for units of study on: (1) What Food Means To People, (2) Breads and…

  20. How to Buy Food: Lesson Aids for Teachers. Agriculture Handbook No. 443. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Agricultural Marketing Services.

    This teachers guide presents lesson aids on how to buy food for home economics or consumer education in high school or adult education courses. An introductory section explains how to get the supplementary materials (publications, films, and slides/filmstrips), what the contents and objectives of these materials are, suggestions for lesson…

  1. What Do You Mean It Doesn't Make Sense? Redesigning Finding Aids from the User's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimer, Cory; Daines, J. Gordon, III

    2008-01-01

    Archivists have begun to rethink the way that they present finding aids to patrons online. They are utilizing user studies to gain a better understanding of what information patrons expect to find and are investigating how to utilize Web 2.0 technologies to better meet patron needs. This article examines how the L. Tom Perry Special Collections is…

  2. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    PubMed

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy. PMID:17934944

  3. AIDS and food production in East and Central Africa: a research outline.

    PubMed

    Barnett, T; Blaikie, P

    1989-02-01

    AIDS has penetrated at least 42 countries in Africa. Death of Africans usually occurs within 3 years of diagnosis. Not much is currently known about the demographics of the disease or about its impact on economic and social behavior, farming, and food production. There is currently a food crisis in Africa, so it is appropriate to study how much of an impact this disease has on future food production. In order to study the problem, one must predict the spread of AIDS. 2nd, one must infer how labor loss effects current rural production. Labor loss will cause changes in organization of production, technology, and types of crops grown. As a crisis increases, certain groups will be cut out of the food distribution. Characterizations such as these allow the mapping of areas vulnerable to labor loss. Field analysis and modeling must substantiate the theories and predictions. This paper describes the research design which will be used by 2 researchers from the Overseas Development Group of the University of East Anglia to measure the impact of AIDS on food production, working initially in a high HIV - prevalent area in Uganda. PMID:12281937

  4. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  5. Modeling the HIV/AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users and sex workers in Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Bacaër, Nicolas; Abdurahman, Xamxinur; Ye, Jianli

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kunming, the provincial capital of Yunnan, China. The population is divided into several groups, with individuals possibly changing group. Two transmission routes of HIV are considered: needle sharing between injecting drug users (IDUs) and commercial sex between female sex worker (FSWs) and clients. The model includes male IDUs who are also clients and female IDUs who are also FSWs. Groups are split in two--risky and safe--according to condom use and needle sharing. A system of partial differential equations is derived to describe the spread of the disease. For the simulation, parameters are chosen to fit as much as possible data publicly available for Kunming. Some mathematical properties of the model--in particular the epidemic threshold R0 which determines the goal of public health interventions--are also presented. Though the model couples two transmission routes of HIV, the approximation R0 approximately = max[R0(IDU), R0(sex)], with closed formulas for R0(IDU) and R0(sex), appears to be quite good. The critical levels of condom use and clean needle use necessary to stop both the sexual transmission and the transmission among IDUs can therefore be determined independently. PMID:16794944

  6. DeMAID: A Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A design problem is viewed as a complex system divisible into modules. Before the design of a complex system can begin, the couplings among modules and the presence of iterative loops is determined. This is important because the design manager must know how to group the modules into subsystems and how to assign subsystems to design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. Determining these subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. Moreover, the planning task must be repeated as new information become available or as the design specifications change. The purpose of this research is to develop a knowledge-based tool called the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID) to act as an intelligent advisor for the design manager. DeMaid identifies the subsystems of a complex design problem, orders them into a well-structured format, and marks the couplings among the subsystems to facilitate the use of multilevel tools. DeMAID also provides the design manager with the capability of examining the trade-offs between sequential and parallel processing. This type of approach could lead to a substantial savings or organizing and displaying a complex problem as a sequence of subsystems easily divisible among design teams. This report serves as a User's Guide for the program.

  7. 75 FR 22601 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g); Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  8. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing...

  9. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19640968

  10. 77 FR 20825 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... classification information.'' In the Federal Register of April 29, 2010 (75 FR 22601), FDA announced the...; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for...

  11. Demographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual behavior of i.v. drug user with AIDS in Bronx, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Schrager, L; Friedland, G; Feiner, C; Kahl, P

    1991-01-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) drug users are a key factor in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, yet epidemiologic information about this population, especially those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is scarce. The demographic characteristics, drug use behavior, and sexual practices of i.v. drug users who developed AIDS were prospectively studied at the Montefiore Medical Center from October 1984 to February 1988. The early wave of i.v. drug users with AIDS was characterized by poverty, minority overrepresentation (more than 80 percent were black or Hispanic), and initiation of i.v. drug use at an early age (median age 19 years). Injection of drugs and sharing of needles was frequent. Most had used so-called shooting galleries, but only for a minority of injection episodes. Heroin or cocaine use was almost universal, nearly always accompanied by abuse of another substance, usually alcohol or marijuana. Fewer than a third had ever participated in a methadone maintenance program, but more than 40 percent had been in prison since 1978. All patients had been sexually active, often with partners who were not i.v. drug users. The research suggests a complex interaction existing between high-risk demographic characteristics, drug use practice, and certain types of sexual behavior, all of which contributed to the early spread of HIV infection in this population. Efforts that are directed toward interrupting i.v. drug user-related transmission of HIV need to include consideration of these characteristics. PMID:1899944

  12. Effect of preparation method on viscosity and energy density of fortified humanitarian food-aid commodities.

    PubMed

    Black, Cameron T; Pahulu, Heather F; Dunn, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Corn soy blend, wheat soy blend, and corn soy milk are fortified food-aid commodities distributed by the US Government, and often used in complementary feeding programs. The viscosity and energy density of these products was compared in cooked porridges, at concentrations between 8% and 20% (w/w), using a Bostwick consistometer. All three products required nearly 20% addition of dry meal in water to achieve the energy density of 0.8 kcal/g, recommended for complementary foods. At this concentration, all three were excessively viscous. Cooking times beyond 1 min showed no significant increase in viscosity. Corn soy milk was less viscous than the other products at lower concentrations. Replacement of corn meal and soy with vegetable oil produces less viscous porridges but reformulation would be needed to maintain protein and micronutrient levels. Significant process and formulation changes are needed in these products to increase their suitability for use as complementary foods. PMID:19449279

  13. Encoded Archival Description: Are Finding Aids Boundary Spanners or Barriers for Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The article reports the results of a usability study of an EAD interface. Findings indicate that subjects had trouble understanding archival terminology and how best to search for information in finding aids. Furthermore, they were not familiar with the structure or contents of finding aids. In addition to building interfaces that minimize…

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Food Insufficiency Among HIV-Infected Crack Users in Atlanta and Miami

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Craig; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Valverde, Eduardo E.; del Rio, Carlos; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Depression contributes to worse general and HIV-related clinical outcomes. We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology among HIV-infected crack cocaine users recruited for Project HOPE (Hospital Visit is an Opportunity for Prevention and Engagement with HIV-positive Crack Users). We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates associated with screening in for depression. Among 291 participants, three-quarters (73.5%) were identified as depressed. Higher odds of screening in for depression was associated with food insufficiency and monthly income below $600. Alcohol and crack use were not associated with screening in for depression. Depressive symptomatology is extremely prevalent among HIV-infected crack cocaine users and is associated with food insufficiency and lower income. Screening for depression and food insecurity should be included in HIV prevention and treatment programs. Improved recognition and mitigation of these conditions will help alleviate their contribution to HIV-related adverse health outcomes. PMID:20099017

  15. Users of EAD Finding Aids: Who Are They and Are They Satisfied?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Lisa R.

    2004-01-01

    User studies have been conducted for many years in the information and library science fields. In the archival world, this phenomenon has not been as common and less emphasis has been placed on collecting and studying the user's perspective in general. However, there are studies showing the "use" of these types of studies, particularly in the…

  16. Quality of life in bimodal hearing users (unilateral cochlear implants and contralateral hearing aids).

    PubMed

    Farinetti, A; Roman, S; Mancini, J; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Meller, R; Lavieille, J P; Triglia, J M

    2015-11-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the bimodal self-rated benefits on auditory performance under real conditions and the quality of life in two groups of cochlear-implanted adults, with or without a contralateral hearing aid. The secondary objective was to investigate correlations between the use of a hearing aid and residual hearing on the non-implanted ear. This retrospective study was realized between 2000 and 2010 in two referral centers. A population of 183 postlingually deaf adults, implanted with a cochlear experience superior to 6 months, was selected. The Speech, Spatial, and other Qualities of Hearing Scale were administered to evaluate the auditory performances, and the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life. The population was divided into two groups: a group with unilateral cochlear implants (Cochlear Implant-alone, n = 54), and a bimodal group with a cochlear implant and a contralateral hearing aid (n = 62). Both groups were similar in terms of auditory deprivation duration, duration of cochlear implant use, and pure-tone average on the implanted ear. There was a significant difference in terms of pure-tone average on low and low-to-mid frequencies on the non-implanted ear. The scores on both questionnaires showed an improvement in the basic sound perception and quality of social activities for the bimodal group. The results suggest that the bimodal stimulation (cochlear implant and contralateral hearing aid) improved auditory perception in quiet and the quality of life domain of social activities. PMID:25373837

  17. High School and Beyond. Financial Aid Supplement (Senior Cohort). Data File User's Manual. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James E.; Hall, Kevin B.

    Supplementary data on college student financial aid recipients for academic years 1980-1981 through 1983-1984 are presented for a sample of the Senior Cohort of the High School and Beyond Study (HS&B). By 1984 the HS&B senior cohort had been out of high school for 4 years. Background information on the Center for Education Statistics Longitudinal…

  18. Games Children Play: Playthings as User Friendly Aids for Learning in Art Appreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Elementary school art history lessons may be aided by the use of everyday games and playthings, such as jigsaw puzzles, board games, card games, puppets, and dolls, that have been altered to include an art history overlay. Such activities should help children better understand art and encourage them to talk about art. Specific examples of such…

  19. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: lessons from an interactive and integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Swaans, Kees; Broerse, Jacqueline; Meincke, Maylin; Mudhara, Maxwell; Bunders, Joske

    2009-02-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from easy and straight forward. This study reports of the Interactive Learning and Action (ILA) approach, a methodology for agricultural innovation which has been adapted to the context of HIV/AIDS. Role players in agriculture and health were brought together to stimulate and sustain innovation among three support groups for poor and affected households in a rural high HIV/AIDS prevalence area in South Africa. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using both outcome and process criteria. The results indicate that an interactive approach in which service providers/researchers engage themselves as actors to explore the livelihood system and develop appropriate solutions in joint collaboration with resource users has potential. However, it also revealed that cooperation among participants and stakeholders at the interface of agriculture and HIV/AIDS is complicated and sensitive to erosion. Of particular concern was the difficulty of mobilizing members from poor and affected households to participate and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Lessons and potential applications for the further development of interactive approaches are discussed. PMID:19004496

  20. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  1. LOGSIM user's manual. [Logic Simulation Program for computer aided design of logic circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The user's manual for the LOGSIM Program is presented. All program options are explained and a detailed definition of the format of each input card is given. LOGSIM Program operations, and the preparation of LOGSIM input data are discused along with data card formats, postprocessor data cards, and output interpretation.

  2. User Interface Preferences in the Design of a Camera-Based Navigation and Wayfinding Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arditi, Aries; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a sensing device that can provide a sufficient perceptual substrate for persons with visual impairments to orient themselves and travel confidently has been a persistent rehabilitation technology goal, with the user interface posing a significant challenge. In the study presented here, we enlist the advice and ideas of…

  3. Adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy among drug users: A qualitative study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Zahra; Eftkhar, Hasan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ebadi, Abbas; Abbasian, Ladan; Zamani, Fereshte; Aghamollaei, Teamur; Shojaeizade, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy has caused a remarkable decrease in the occurrence of diseases and mortality among HIV-positive patients, while this success has not been achieved among injection addicts due to a low adherence to antiretroviral medicine. This study aims at clarifying the important factors affecting adherence to treatment in addicts suffering from HIV. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and field notes, and were interpreted through content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 16 drug addicts living with HIV/AIDS. Most of them had records of imprisonment and were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug treatments in the AIDS center of Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was started in a purposive method and was continued until data were saturated. Results: Four main categories including psychological reactions, contradictory beliefs, perceived support, and individual and environmental barriers were extracted from the data, each having some sub-categories. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that adherence to the treatment of HIV is not constant and mono-dimensional, but is a function of different factors. Hence, an individual having feeble adherence in a specific time and under specific circumstances may show desirable adherence under a different circumstance. Thus, treatment of addicts living with HIV/AIDS requires physical, psychological, and social attention along with drug treatments. PMID:26985220

  4. Evaluation of Speech-Perception Training for Hearing Aid Users: A Multisite Study in Progress.

    PubMed

    Miller, James D; Watson, Charles S; Dubno, Judy R; Leek, Marjorie R

    2015-11-01

    Following an overview of theoretical issues in speech-perception training and of previous efforts to enhance hearing aid use through training, a multisite study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of two types of computerized speech-perception training for adults who use hearing aids, is described. One training method focuses on the identification of 109 syllable constituents (45 onsets, 28 nuclei, and 36 codas) in quiet and in noise, and on the perception of words in sentences presented in various levels of noise. In a second type of training, participants listen to 6- to 7-minute narratives in noise and are asked several questions about each narrative. Two groups of listeners are trained, each using one of these types of training, performed in a laboratory setting. The training for both groups is preceded and followed by a series of speech-perception tests. Subjects listen in a sound field while wearing their hearing aids at their usual settings. The training continues over 15 to 20 visits, with subjects completing at least 30 hours of focused training with one of the two methods. The two types of training are described in detail, together with a summary of other perceptual and cognitive measures obtained from all participants. PMID:27587914

  5. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers’ care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients’ experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58–71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers’ valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation. PMID:20439347

  6. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation. PMID:20439347

  7. An Examination of Users' Influence in Online HIV/AIDS Communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Shi, Jingyuan; Chen, Liang; Peng, Tai-Quan

    2016-05-01

    A network perspective was adopted in this study to identify influential users in an online HIV community in China. Specifically, the indegree centrality, outdegree centrality, betweenness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and clustering coefficient of individuals were evaluated to measure the user influence in such a community. Moreover, this study examined how the digital divide, which is presently one of the major social equity issues in the information society, is associated with an individual's influence within the community. Two networks were formed on the basis of the behavioral data retrieved from the HIV community: the follower-followee network and the post-reply network. In the follower-followee network, members from areas with well-developed technologies demonstrated more connections, received more attention, and secured more critical positions in the network than their counterparts. However, such differences were insignificant in the post-reply network. PMID:27186897

  8. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  9. CAMEO-Valdez: A user's perspective. [Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, T.J.

    1990-01-11

    On the morning of March 24, 1989, the tanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground on Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound. The vessel was carrying over 53 million gallons of North Slope crude oil of which almost 11 million gallons were spilled in the water. The immediately impacted area included most of the western part of the Sound, but eventually, the area expanded to include parts of Seward, Homer, and Kodiak. This event constituted the worst oil spill in the history of this country, and was identified as a 'spill of national significance.' A major response to clean up the oil by EXXON, which was closely monitored by Federal and State agencies and various interest groups, was necessary. Early in the response it was obvious to the Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) that a computer-aided management system was necessary to monitor the progress of the spill clean-up operations. This paper will describe CAMEO (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) - Valdez, developed for the FOSC by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration acting in its role as the Scientific Support Coordinator (SSC). A discussion of how CAMEO was used and an evaluation of its effectiveness will also be presented.

  10. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience. Methods Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n = 94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1 month period, along with key informant interviews. Results Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis. Conclusions The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access

  11. School Nutrition and Food Service Techniques for Children with Exceptional Needs: Guidelines for Food Service Personnel, Teachers, Aides, Volunteers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Margaret L.; Troftgruben, Judith A.

    Designed to help school food service personnel, teachers, aides, and volunteers extend the benefits of the school meal program to handicapped children, this manual discusses eating problems resulting from such conditions as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness, orthopedic handicaps, and other health impairments. Specific recommendations…

  12. Evaluation of an AIDS education model for women drug users in jail.

    PubMed

    Magura, S; Kang, S Y; Shapiro, J L; O'Day, J

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports outcome evaluation results of an AIDS education program for drug-using women in jail, of whom the majority were current drug injectors, had high-risk sexual partners, and never used condoms for insertive sex. The women participated in four small-group health/HIV education sessions. Education participants and controls were followed-up 7 months after their release from jail; the two groups did not differ significantly on drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors at follow-up. However, being in drug dependency treatment (primarily methadone maintenance) at follow-up was associated with reduced heroin use, crack use, drug dealing, and criminal activity. Although improved HIV education in jail is important, better networks of community resources, including more accessible community drug dependency treatment, also must be developed to support drug-dependent women after their release from jail. PMID:7790127

  13. Interactive Voice Response Self-Monitoring to Assess Risk Behaviors in Rural Substance Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4–10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease. PMID:21311964

  14. Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers' individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient's undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver's limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater number of current drug users in their network, and poorer perceptions of the care recipient's mental health. Results further understandings of interpersonal relationship factors important to PLHIV's health outcomes, and the need for caregiving relationship-focused intervention to promote viral suppression among PLHIV. PMID:25969180

  15. Horizontal sound localization in cochlear implant users with a contralateral hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Veugen, Lidwien C E; Hendrikse, Maartje M E; van Wanrooij, Marc M; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Chalupper, Josef; Mens, Lucas H M; Snik, Ad F M; John van Opstal, A

    2016-06-01

    Interaural differences in sound arrival time (ITD) and in level (ILD) enable us to localize sounds in the horizontal plane, and can support source segregation and speech understanding in noisy environments. It is uncertain whether these cues are also available to hearing-impaired listeners who are bimodally fitted, i.e. with a cochlear implant (CI) and a contralateral hearing aid (HA). Here, we assessed sound localization behavior of fourteen bimodal listeners, all using the same Phonak HA and an Advanced Bionics CI processor, matched with respect to loudness growth. We aimed to determine the availability and contribution of binaural (ILDs, temporal fine structure and envelope ITDs) and monaural (loudness, spectral) cues to horizontal sound localization in bimodal listeners, by systematically varying the frequency band, level and envelope of the stimuli. The sound bandwidth had a strong effect on the localization bias of bimodal listeners, although localization performance was typically poor for all conditions. Responses could be systematically changed by adjusting the frequency range of the stimulus, or by simply switching the HA and CI on and off. Localization responses were largely biased to one side, typically the CI side for broadband and high-pass filtered sounds, and occasionally to the HA side for low-pass filtered sounds. HA-aided thresholds better than 45 dB HL in the frequency range of the stimulus appeared to be a prerequisite, but not a guarantee, for the ability to indicate sound source direction. We argue that bimodal sound localization is likely based on ILD cues, even at frequencies below 1500 Hz for which the natural ILDs are small. These cues are typically perturbed in bimodal listeners, leading to a biased localization percept of sounds. The high accuracy of some listeners could result from a combination of sufficient spectral overlap and loudness balance in bimodal hearing. PMID:27178443

  16. Protein Quality, Growth, and Malnutrition: Advances in Science and the Role of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Whitsett-Morrow, Dacia; LaGrange, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This article is the introduction to our formal proceedings of the symposium titled "Protein Quality, Growth and Malnutrition: Latest Scientific Findings and the Role of Dairy in Food Aid," held during the Experimental Biology 2015 annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. PMID:26880664

  17. Speech perception and quality of life of open-fit hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA, Tatiana Manfrini; JACOB, Regina Tangerino de Souza; MONDELLI, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To relate the performance of individuals with hearing loss at high frequencies in speech perception with the quality of life before and after the fitting of an open-fit hearing aid (HA). Methods The WHOQOL-BREF had been used before the fitting and 90 days after the use of HA. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) had been conducted in two phases: (1) at the time of fitting without an HA (situation A) and with an HA (situation B); (2) with an HA 90 days after fitting (situation C). Study Sample Thirty subjects with sensorineural hearing loss at high frequencies. Results By using an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test comparing the three HINT situations in quiet and noisy environments, an improvement has been observed after the HA fitting. The results of the WHOQOL-BREF have showed an improvement in the quality of life after the HA fitting (paired t-test). The relationship between speech perception and quality of life before the HA fitting indicated a significant relationship between speech recognition in noisy environments and in the domain of social relations after the HA fitting (Pearson’s correlation coefficient). Conclusions The auditory stimulation has improved speech perception and the quality of life of individuals. PMID:27383708

  18. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and tuberculosis among minority injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Antonio L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on the impact of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), and tuberculosis on minority drug injectors in the United States. OBSERVATIONS: Injection drug use is a key factor in the transmission of blood-borne pathogens, and HIV disease is exacerbated by tuberculosis infection. Minority drug injectors are disproportionately represented in the national statistics on these infections. Behavioral epidemiologic studies show that both injection-related risk factors years of injecting drugs, type of drug injected, direct and indirect sharing of injection paraphernalia) and sex-related risk factors (lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, survival sex) are conducive to the spread of HIV, HBV, and HCV. CONCLUSIONS: Two issues must be addressed to halt the spread of HIV infection and hepatitis B and C. The capacity of syringe-exchange programs to refer participants to drug treatment programs and facilitate access to health and social services must be increased. Culturally appropriate behavioral interventions targeting risk behaviors among ethnic and racial minorities, especially women, must be developed and put in place. PMID:12435836

  19. Gender differences in clinical manifestations before AIDS diagnosis among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, I J; Langendam, M W; van Ameijden, E J; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, A

    1998-04-01

    We compared incidence rates of self-reported HIV-related symptoms and illnesses, verified clinical manifestations and findings on physical examination between female and male injecting drug users (IDU) stratified by HIV serostatus in the Amsterdam cohort study on the natural history of HIV infection. HIV-positive female IDU (n = 100) reported a higher frequency of several symptoms and illnesses than male IDU (n = 139). Symptoms were reported more chronically by women compared to men, while clinical manifestations were reported by a greater proportion of women affected by these illnesses compared to men. In HIV-negative IDU (163 women and 232 men) the incidence rates were lower compared to HIV-positives, and a similar gender effect on reported symptoms and illnesses was found. Adjusting for biological, behavioral, demographic and study related variables did not change the gender effect on clinical manifestations substantially. We conclude that the gender effect among HIV-positive IDU was not caused by a differential impact of HIV infection on the incidence of the studied clinical manifestations among female and male IDU, but reflects a higher morbidity of female IDU compared to male IDU. PMID:9663511

  20. Using feature objects aided strategy to evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yuan, Hairong; Liu, Yanping; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Chufo, Wachemo A; Jaffar, Muhammad; Li, Xiujin

    2015-03-01

    Feature objects aided strategy was used to predict and evaluate the biomethane production of food waste and corn stalk anaerobic co-digestion. The kinetics of co-digestion and mono-digestion of food waste and/or corn stalk was also analyzed. The results indicated that the compositions of food waste and corn stalk were significantly different. The anaerobic digestion of three feature objects at different mixing ratios showed the different biomethane yields and kinetic constants. Food waste and corn stalk co-digestion enhanced the digestion rate and achieved 22.48% and 41.55% higher biomethane production than those of food waste and corn stalk mono-digestion, respectively. PMID:25575585

  1. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Julia; Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  2. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    PubMed

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022

  3. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension

    PubMed Central

    Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. PMID:27579217

  4. Atraumatic Restoration of Vertical Food Impaction with an Open Contact Using Flowable Composite Resin Aided by Cerclage Wire under Tension.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan-Li; Ying Cao, Chris; Xu, Qiang-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Yin, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    To date, treating vertical food impaction with open contact effectively, especially with an atraumatic therapy, remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a simple, atraumatic, and economic therapeutic measure to treat vertical food impaction. The scientific rationale of our therapeutic technique is to restore an intact and firm proximal contact with proper location and form relationships to prevent forceful interproximal wedging of food, which in turn protects interdental papilla. We performed the procedure using flowable composite resin or composite resin cement with the aid of a cerclage wire under tension to rebuild the contact area. The reported method is especially useful for some challenging clinical cases, such as food impaction after crown and inlay on onlay restoration, and some conventional treatment methods, such as contouring the marginal ridge and developmental grooves, are ineffective. PMID:27579217

  5. Significant relationships and social supports of injecting drug users and their implications for HIV/AIDS services.

    PubMed

    Stowe, A; Ross, M W; Wodak, A; Thomas, G V; Larson, S A

    1993-01-01

    Strong social support networks have been associated with positive outcomes for health and well-being throughout the life-cycle. This paper investigates the structural and functional nature of social support networks of 100 injecting drug users (IDUs) in Sydney and the implications for HIV/AIDS services. Using a modified ISEL respondents saw support in terms of its tangibility of people and support, in terms of an appraisal of having friends, and as a self-esteem measure. We found the majority of respondents 'hung around' with other IDUs, lived with other IDUs, and were satisfied with the support they received from their friends. Friends appeared to be a more important source of social support than biological families and if respondents were to become HIV infected they would be more open about their status with friends than family. Where family was involved in support it was likely to be provided by mothers and siblings who were also the family members who knew about the respondent's drug use. There was no relationship between numbers of supports and satisfaction of support, suggesting quality and quantity of support were independent. Non-social supports were conceptualized primarily in terms of medical services. PMID:8461357

  6. Update and Overview of Practical Epidemiologic Aspects of HIV/AIDS among Injection Drug Users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Garfein, Richard S.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Purcell, David W.; Paxton, Lynn A.; Greenberg, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    In a changing public health landscape in which local, state, and federal agencies must confront threats of bioterrorism, emerging infections, and numerous chronic diseases, transmission of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) continues to be an important public health issue and one of the driving forces behind the HIV epidemic. Using a computerized MEDLINE search of published articles from January 1981 through October 2005, we conducted a literature review of practical epidemiologic aspects of HIV/AIDS among IDUs in the United States. Although recent trends indicate a decline in the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections associated with injection drug use, drug-use behaviors overall still account for 32% of new HIV diagnoses. Factors in addition to syringe sharing contribute to HIV transmission among IDUs: risky sexual behaviors, sharing of drug preparation equipment and drug solutions, and contextual and social factors. Promising approaches for HIV prevention include rapid HIV testing, office-based substance abuse treatment, behavioral interventions, improved communication about syringe exchange programs, and case management. HIV among IDUs continues to be an important public health problem in the 21st century. It is imperative that public health agencies continue to monitor and combat the HIV epidemic among IDUs to ensure that hard-won gains will not be eroded. PMID:16736357

  7. Efficacy of a Food Safety Comic Book on Knowledge and Self-Reported Behavior for Persons Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. Methods/Results AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, p<0.001). The intervention produced a significant increase in all the food safety knowledge, belief, and behavior items that comprised the food safety score. Many of these increases were from baseline knowledge below 80 percent to well above 90%. Most (85%) of the patients stated they made a change to their behavior since receiving the educational booklet. Conclusion This comic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result. PMID:24124447

  8. 75 FR 46909 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding Assessments Focused on Improving Food Aid and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... American consumers including global food security and hunger, climate change, sustainable energy, childhood obesity and food safety. Section 724 of Title VII, General Provisions, in the Agriculture,...

  9. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-10: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2009-10 is to convert the 8,190 foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 5.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2009-10 to USDA Food ...

  10. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 is to convert the 7,000+ foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 3.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006, to USDA...

  11. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2007-08: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2007-08 is to convert the 8,076 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 4.1 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2007-08...

  12. A NEW PORTION SIZE ESTIMATION AID FOR WEDGE-SHAPED FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foods consumers eat come in a vast array of sizes and shapes. Many popular foods eaten in the United States are wedge-shaped (e.g., pizza, cakes, and pies), and these foods may affect intake of nutrients such as saturated fat and sugar that are associated with degenerative health conditions. T...

  13. Clustering and meso-level variables in cross-sectional surveys: an example of food aid during the Bosnian crisis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Focus groups, rapid assessment procedures, key informant interviews and institutional reviews of local health services provide valuable insights on health service resources and performance. A long-standing challenge of health planning is to combine this sort of qualitative evidence in a unified analysis with quantitative evidence from household surveys. A particular challenge in this regard is to take account of the neighbourhood or clustering effects, recognising that these can be informative or incidental. Methods An example of food aid and food sufficiency from the Bosnian emergency (1995-96) illustrates two Lamothe cluster-adjustments of the Mantel Haenszel (MH) procedure, one assuming a fixed odds ratio and the other allowing for informative clustering by not assuming a fixed odds ratio. We compared these with conventional generalised estimating equations and a generalised linear mixed (GLMM) model, using a Laplace adjustment. Results The MH adjustment assuming incidental clustering generated a final model very similar to GEE. The adjustment that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced a final multivariate model and effect sizes very similar to GLMM. Discussion In medium or large data sets with stratified last stage random sampling, the cluster adjusted MH is substantially more conservative than the naïve MH computation. In the example of food aid in the Bosnian crisis, the cluster adjusted MH that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced similar results to the GLMM, which identified informative clustering. PMID:22376353

  14. Improving the nutritional quality of charitable meals for homeless and vulnerable adults. A case study of food provision by a food aid organisation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Pelham-Burn, Sophie E; Frost, Catherine J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of homelessness in the UK is rising, and demand for food aid through charitable meal services has increased. Charitable services make a substantial contribution to the food and nutrient intake of vulnerable people, and thus offer a platform for dietary improvement. This study examined food provision by a large charitable organisation in a major UK city. It had several objectives: Firstly to quantify nutritional composition of breakfast and lunch meals, secondly to understand factors that influence the composition of menus and meals, and thirdly to determine whether, within the context of these influences, improvements to the menu would be possible and whether these would be acceptable to clients. Mixed methods of ethnography, semi-structured interviews, quantitative nutrient analysis, recipe adaptation and taste tests were employed. The research team worked as volunteers in the organisation for a 3-week period and interviews were held with the kitchen staff. Food choice was recorded for 189 clients at breakfast and 251 clients at lunch over a 5-day period and nutrient content of these meals was estimated. Meals were weighted towards fat and sugar energy. Energy, potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc and magnesium content of meals were below Dietary Reference Value (DRV) targets for at least 20% of breakfast and lunch meals. Such inadequacies may be addressed by the addition of simple foods to the breakfast menu and adaptation of lunchtime recipes. Twelve lunchtime dishes were proposed and eight of these were seemingly acceptable to clients in taste testing. Barriers to provision of healthier meals include budget, food donations and acceptability of meals. PMID:25042088

  15. Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases 2003-08: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases (FICRCD) 2003-08 is to convert foods consumed in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 to respective amounts of retail-level fo...

  16. New governance: can user-promulgated certification schemes provide safer, higher quality food?

    PubMed

    Hass, Tacy Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores whether private regulation of food safety may fill in the gaps of statutory food reforms such as the Food Modernization Safety Act. The relatively new economic school of thought labeled "New Governance" centers around non-state actors acting not just as the object of but also as the creators of the norms regulating their own behavior. This regime may not only enable more efficient food safety regulations in the domestic setting, but also in the international context, as cooperation between non-state actors may overcome the traditional frictions between nations regarding regulatory schemes. It seems, therefore, as one example of "New Governance" rules, that third-party certification schemes may indeed play a vital and successful role in achieving a higher level of quality and safety for foods imported into the United States. PMID:24640638

  17. Food Production, Management, and Services. Reference Book, Student Activity Book, Student Aid Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document includes three of a set of four components covering the food service occupational cluster. The reference book (1985) provides information needed by employees in this occupational area, concentrating on the skills and attitudes needed for successful employment in the food service industry. It provides basic and current information on…

  18. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users

    PubMed Central

    Amlani, Amyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed. PMID:27516718

  19. User evaluation of two electronic mobility aids for persons who are visually impaired: a quasi-experimental study using a standardized mobility course.

    PubMed

    Roentgen, Uta R; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to enhance insight into the functionality, usability, and efficacy of two systematically selected Electronic Mobility Aids (EMA) aimed at obstacle detection and orientation. Eight persons who are visually impaired participated in a user evaluation of the UltraCane and the Miniguide. The participants' mobility performance was observed while completing a standardized indoor mobility course with their regular mobility aid, then with each EMA, and assessed in terms of speed, Percentage Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), type and number of mobility incidents made. Interviews were administered to ascertain users' satisfaction with the functionality, effectiveness and specific features of the assistive devices. Walking speed and PPWS declined when using an EMA compared to the long cane. The mean total number of previously defined mobility incidents decreased significantly and also the type of mobility incidents changed. Generally, participants were quite satisfied with the use of the EMA, and detailed advantageous as well as disadvantageous aspects concerning functionality and certain features of both devices. The UltraCane and the Miniguide have proven to be effective on an indoor mobility course. Individual users' characteristics and preferences appear to be critical for their appraisal of the devices. PMID:22876733

  20. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

  1. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users. PMID:20105286

  2. The acceptability of a computer HIV/AIDS risk assessment to not-in-treatment drug users.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Freeman, R C; Bowen, A M; Saunders, L

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study assessing the acceptability of a computer HIV risk assessment instrument administered to not-in-treatment drug users. The study asked three questions related to acceptability: (1) are drug users comfortable responding to HIV risk questions using the computer assessment; (2) do drug users feel that they possess the requisite skill to respond to questions using a computer; and (3) do drug users believe that the responses they provide using the computer assessment will remain private and confidential. This study differs from other assessments of the acceptability of computer assisted data collection in that the population of interest has only limited education and interaction with computers. Furthermore, the study was implemented under field conditions. To conduct the study, an existing HIV risk assessment instrument was adapted for use with the computer. Only slight modifications were made to the content of the instrument. To facilitate data collection with this population, audio enhancement and touch screen were used. Three scales measuring comfort, skill and perceived privacy were developed. Results of analysis showed that drug users are comfortable responding to an HIV risk assessment using computer assisted interviewing. Drug users also perceived that they possessed the requisite skill to successfully complete the interview. And, study participants reported that they believed that their responses using the computer interview would remain private and confidential. Only minor differences in scale scores based on sociodemographic characteristics were found among study participants. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:9924525

  3. Critical Issues in Sensor Science To Aid Food and Water Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Farahi, R. H.; Passian, A.; Tetard, L.; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-26

    The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the complex food matrix, and operating in difficult environments are still the focus of current efforts. While the traditional pursuit of robust recognition methods remains important, emerging engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnology promise better sensor performance but also bring about new challenges. Both advanced receptor-based sensors and emerging non-receptor-based physical sensors are evaluated for their critical challenges toward out-of-laboratory applications.

  4. An Alternative to Aural Rehabilitation for the Older Hearing-Aid User: An Educational Model Using Supportive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Karen; Dancer, Jess

    1987-01-01

    Describes model for delivering aural rehabilitation services to help older hearing impaired persons adjust to a hearing aid and to foster more successful communication. Discusses training of providers by audiologists and explains the four phases of program: education, desensitization, rehabilitation strategies, and responsibility training.…

  5. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  6. Explaining end-users' intentions to use innovative medical and food biotechnology products.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Bob C; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Lugtig, Peter; de Bruin, Marijn

    2014-08-01

    Low public acceptance hinders the successful introduction of biotechnological innovations, such as genetically modified foods or vaccinations against infectious diseases. Earlier studies indicated that a lack of knowledge is not a key barrier to acceptance. This was confirmed in the current study, which examined an integrated theoretical model tested among 579 participants from the Dutch public. The results suggest that communication strategies should instead target attitudes, social norms, and risk perceptions, and appeal to people's tendency (or lack thereof) to be innovative. PMID:24919762

  7. Joining forces for food security - Linking earth observation and crowd-sourcing for improved decision-support to aid organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Pham, P.

    2013-12-01

    Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in spatio-temporal extent, number of people affected or financial loss. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. Consequently, this study is focused on two complementary developments - a new satellite-derived agricultural drought index and a mobile phone application. The Combined Drought Index (CDI) is enhanced by replacing field measurements of temperature and rainfall modelled/assimilated data. The vegetation component is replaced by a smoothed NDVI dataset. A soil moisture component is introduced to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. The mobile phone application enables the validation of drought index outputs and gives aid organizations an opportunity to increase the speed of socio-economic vulnerability assessments. Supported by Doctors without Borders (MSF) this approach aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework.

  8. Injecting risk behavior among drug users in Amsterdam, 1986 to 1992, and its relationship to AIDS prevention programs.

    PubMed Central

    van Ameijden, E J; van den Hoek, A R; Coutinho, R A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Serial, cross-sectional trends in injecting risk behavior were studied among drug users from 1986 to 1992. METHODS. From a cohort study in Amsterdam, 616 intake visits of drug users who had injected in the 6 months preceding intake were selected. RESULTS. The proportion of drug users who reported borrowing and lending used injection equipment and reusing needles/syringes (in the previous 6 months), continuously declined from 51% to 20%, from 46% to 10% and from 63% to 39%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, it appeared unlikely that a selective recruitment of participants over time was responsible for these trends. Participants, recruited later in time, had been previously tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) more often, had received daily methadone less often, and had obtained a higher proportion of new needles via exchange programs. Indications were found that (1) voluntary HIV testing and counseling leads to less borrowing, lending, and reusing equipment; and (2) obtaining needles via exchange programs leads to less reusing needles/syringes. It appeared that nonattenders of methadone and exchange programs have reduced borrowing and lending to the same extent as attenders. CONCLUSIONS. Methodologically, evaluating specific measures is difficult. However, the combination of various preventive measures in Amsterdam is likely to be responsible for the observed decrease in injecting risk behavior. PMID:8296953

  9. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Napoles, Tessa; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Ching, Irene; Hecht, Frederick M; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Background Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities. PMID:26546789

  10. Fragment-Based Docking: Development of the CHARMMing Web User Interface as a Platform for Computer-Aided Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Web-based user interfaces to scientific applications are important tools that allow researchers to utilize a broad range of software packages with just an Internet connection and a browser.1 One such interface, CHARMMing (CHARMM interface and graphics), facilitates access to the powerful and widely used molecular software package CHARMM. CHARMMing incorporates tasks such as molecular structure analysis, dynamics, multiscale modeling, and other techniques commonly used by computational life scientists. We have extended CHARMMing’s capabilities to include a fragment-based docking protocol that allows users to perform molecular docking and virtual screening calculations either directly via the CHARMMing Web server or on computing resources using the self-contained job scripts generated via the Web interface. The docking protocol was evaluated by performing a series of “re-dockings” with direct comparison to top commercial docking software. Results of this evaluation showed that CHARMMing’s docking implementation is comparable to many widely used software packages and validates the use of the new CHARMM generalized force field for docking and virtual screening. PMID:25151852

  11. Agreement between Prospective Interactive Voice Response Telephone Reporting and Structured Recall Reports of Risk Behaviors in Rural Substance Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Cathy A.; Xie, Lili; Blum, Elizabeth; Tucker, Jalie A.

    2014-01-01

    Sound measurement of risk behaviors is essential to guide tailored risk reduction strategies as HIV infection patterns shift toward rural minorities, particularly in the South where HIV disease remains highly stigmatized. Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems appear to enhance reports of sensitive behaviors and can support telehealth applications to extend the reach of care in rural, underserved areas. This study evaluated the feasibility and data quality of an IVR telephone reporting system with rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS. Community-dwelling patients were recruited from a non-profit HIV medical clinic in rural Alabama (N = 35 men, 19 women). Participants engaged in daily IVR reporting of substance use and sexual practices for up to 10 weeks. IVR reports were compared with retrospective Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview reports for the same period. IVR and TLFB reports showed good to excellent agreement for summary measures of alcohol consumption and sexual activity. Agreements for illicit drug use reports were less satisfactory. Reports of monetary spending on alcohol and drugs were significantly higher on the IVR. Most individuals showed good agreements for reports of day-to-day alcohol and drug use and sexual practices. The study established the utility of IVR assessment with rural, disadvantaged adults living with HIV/AIDS who are priority targets for risk reduction interventions. PMID:21443312

  12. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  13. Computer-aided learning--a solution for the training needs of users & maintainers of medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Fouladinejad, F; Roberts, J R

    1997-01-01

    It can be argued that the strategic role of training and assessment in the use and maintenance of medical equipment for the delivery of safe and efficient healthcare is underestimated. While there has been frequent comment on this issue, the resources provided for this activity are most often insufficient. New methods are required to deliver regular, cost-effective training within the working environment, at the time and place of need. Similarly, the administrative workload has to be automated--and thus reduced--if training is to improve in both frequency and content. Computer-aided learning has had increasing and diverse application in education and training over the past few decades. The sophistication of software tools and the reduced cost of the necessary hardware makes this a viable and appropriate method for application in the field of Clinical Engineering. However, this technology has not yet been fully exploited to provide instruction in the use and maintenance of equipment. In this paper, it is proposed that computer-based training packages should not only be a source of interactive instruction and assessment, but also act as rapidly accessible reference materials or simulators of the actual device for the purpose of fault finding or troubleshooting. Brief details of a sample package are given for training in the use and maintenance of the Siemens Elema Servo Ventilator 900C. PMID:10179108

  14. Preferences for professional versus informal care at end of life amongst African-American drug users with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Smith, Thomas J; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of antiretroviral therapies, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs) are living longer but with increased impairment and care needs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a vulnerable population of PLHIVs preferred informal versus professional care when unable to care for themselves, and individual and support network factors associated with preference for informal care. The findings have potential implications for facilitating the population's informal care at end of life. Data were from the BEACON study, which examined social factors associated with health outcomes among former or current drug-using PLHIVs in Baltimore, MD. Structural equation modeling was used to identify individual and support network characteristics associated with PLHIVs' preference for informal (family or friends) compared to professional care. The structural equation model indicated preference for informal care was associated with female sex, greater informal care receipt, reporting one's main partner (i.e., boy/girlfriend or spouse) as the primary source of informal care, and a support network comprised greater numbers of female kin and persons supportive of the participant's HIV treatment adherence. Not asking for needed help to avoid owing favors was associated with preferring professional care. Findings suggest that interventions to promote informal end of life care should bolster supportive others' resources and skills for care provision and treatment adherence support, and should address perceived norms of reciprocity. Such intervention will help ensure community caregiving in a population with high needs for long-term care. PMID:25196174

  15. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI. PMID:25714917

  16. Performance Enhancement of MC-CDMA System through Novel Sensitive Bit Algorithm Aided Turbo Multi User Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI. PMID:25714917

  17. Preferences for Professional vs. Informal Care at End of Life Amongst African American Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Mary M.; Robinson, Allysha C.; Nguyen, Trang Q.; Smith, Thomas J.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With the advent of antiretroviral therapies (ART), persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs) are living longer, but with increased impairment and care needs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a vulnerable population of PLHIVs preferred informal versus professional care when unable to care for themselves, and individual and support network factors associated with preference for informal care. The findings have potential implications for facilitating the population’s informal care at end of life. Method Data were from the BEACON study, which examined social factors associated with health outcomes among former or current drug using PLHIVs in Baltimore, Maryland. Structural equation modeling was used to identify individual and support network characteristics associated with PLHIVs’ preference for informal (family or friends) compared to professional care. Results The structural equation model indicated preference for informal care was associated with female sex, greater informal care receipt, reporting one’s main partner (i.e., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as the primary source of informal care, and a support network comprised of greater numbers of female kin and persons supportive of the participant’s HIV treatment adherence. Not asking for needed help to avoid owing favors was associated with preferring professional care. Discussion Findings suggest that interventions to promote informal end of life care should bolster supportive others’ resources and skills for care provision and treatment adherence support, and should address perceived norms of reciprocity. Such intervention will help ensure community caregiving in a population with high needs for long term care. PMID:25196174

  18. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality.

    PubMed

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings. PMID

  19. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings. PMID

  20. Food Aid Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Royce, Edward R. [R-CA-39

    2013-05-15

    05/22/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. The social geography of AIDS and hepatitis risk: qualitative approaches for assessing local differences in sterile-syringe access among injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M; Stopka, T; Siano, C; Springer, K; Barton, G; Khoshnood, K; Gorry de Puga, A; Heimer, R

    2000-01-01

    While significant gains have been achieved in understanding and reducing AIDS and hepatitis risks among injection drug users (IDUs), it is necessary to move beyond individual-level characteristics to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of social context on risk. In this study, 6 qualitative methods were used in combination with more traditional epidemiologic survey approaches and laboratory bioassay procedures to examine neighborhood differences in access to sterile syringes among IDUs in 3 northeastern cities. These methods consisted of (1) neighborhood-based IDU focus groups to construct social maps of local equipment acquisition and drug use sites; (2) ethnographic descriptions of target neighborhoods; (3) IDU diary keeping on drug use and injection equipment acquisition; (4) ethnographic day visits with IDUs in natural settings; (5) interviews with IDUs about syringe acquisition and collection of syringes for laboratory analysis; and (6) focused field observation and processual interviewing during drug injection. Preliminary findings from each of these methods are reported to illustrate the methods' value in elucidating the impact of local and regional social factors on sterile syringe access. PMID:10897181

  2. Audio-visual speechreading in a group of hearing aid users. The effects of onset age, handicap age, and degree of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tillberg, I; Rönnberg, J; Svärd, I; Ahlner, B

    1996-01-01

    Speechreading ability was investigated among hearing aid users with different time of onset and different degree of hearing loss. Audio-visual and visual-only performance were assessed. One group of subjects had been hearing-impaired for a large part of their lives, and the impairments appeared early in life. The other group of subjects had been impaired for a fewer number of years, and the impairments appeared later in life. Differences between the groups were obtained. There was no significant difference on the audio-visual test between the groups in spite of the fact that the early onset group scored very poorly auditorily. However, the early-onset group performed significantly better on the visual test. It was concluded that the visual information constituted the dominant coding strategy for the early onset group. An interpretation chiefly in terms of early onset may be the most appropriate, since dB loss variations as such are not related to speechreading skill. PMID:8976000

  3. Food Insecurity and Other Poverty Indicators among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Effects on Treatment and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O.; Grebler, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61% (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

  4. Food Management System--Daily Production Reports: General Description and Users Guide. Project SIMU-School: Dallas Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronshey, Raymond W.; Dunklau, M. William

    This booklet describes the Daily Production Reports subsystem of the School Food Management System, a computer program package developed as one part of a family of educational management systems. The Daily Production Reports system produces two major types of reports on a daily basis. Business Analysis Reports display all food service costs, as…

  5. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  6. "I Want My Robot to Look for Food": Comparing Kindergartner's Programming Comprehension Using Tangible, Graphic, and Hybrid User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawhacker, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, educational robotics has become an increasingly popular research area. However, limited studies have focused on differentiated learning outcomes based on type of programming interface. This study aims to explore how successfully young children master foundational programming concepts based on the robotics user interface (tangible,…

  7. A review of the role of food insecurity in adherence to care and treatment among adult and pediatric populations living with HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera; Wheeler, Amanda; McCoy, Sandi; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for reducing HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality. Food insecurity (FI) is emerging as an important barrier to adherence to care and treatment recommendations for people living with HIV (PLHIV), but this relationship has not been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we reviewed the literature to explore how FI may impact ART adherence, retention in medical care, and adherence to health care recommendations among PLHIV. We found data to support FI as a critical barrier to adherence to ART and to other health care recommendations among HIV-infected adults, HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants, and child and adolescent populations of PLHIV. Associations between FI and ART non-adherence were seen in qualitative and quantitative studies. We identified a number of mechanisms to explain how food insecurity and ART non-adherence may be causally linked, including the exacerbation of hunger or ART side effects in the absence of adequate food and competing resource demands. Interventions that address FI may improve adherence to care and treatment recommendations for PLHIV. PMID:23842717

  8. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  9. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  10. Sensitive quantitation of polyamines in plant foods by ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Edgar; Melo, Armindo; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-05-14

    A new method involving ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was optimized with the aid of chemometrics for the extraction, cleanup, and determination of polyamines in plant foods. Putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine were derivatized with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride and extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Two-level full factorial design and central composite design were applied to select the most appropriate derivatization and extraction conditions. The developed method was linear in the 0.5-10.0 mg/L range, with a R(2) ≥ 0.9989. Intra- and interday precisions ranged from 0.8 to 6.9% and from 3.0 to 10.3%, respectively, and the limit of detection ranged between 0.018 and 0.042 μg/g of fresh weight. This method was applied to the analyses of six different types of plant foods, presenting recoveries between 81.7 and 114.2%. The method is inexpensive, versatile, simple, and sensitive. PMID:24773181

  11. “MY MOTHER TOLD ME I MUST NOT COOK ANYMORE”—FOOD, CULTURE, AND THE CONTEXT OF HIV- AND AIDS-RELATED STIGMA IN THREE COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA*

    PubMed Central

    OKOROR, T. A.; AIRHIHENBUWA, C. O.; ZUNGU, M.; MAKOFANI, D.; BROWN, D. C.; IWELUNMOR, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa. PMID:19095587

  12. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  13. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  14. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  15. Computer Applications in Geotechnical Engineering (CAGE) and Geotechnical aspects of the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (G-CASE) projects. User's guide. UTEXAS2 slope-stability package. Volume 1: User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edria, Earl V., Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This report is the user's guide volume of the UTEXAS2 (University of Texas Analysis of Slopes - version 2) slope-stability package. This package describes a slope-stability program which can calculate the factor of safety by Spencer's method, simplified Bishop's procedure, force equilibrium procedure with Corps of Engineers Modified Swedish side-force assumption of parallel side forces at a user-specified inclination and force equilibrium procedure with Lowe and Karafiath's side force assumptions. The program will calculate the safety factor for either a prescribed shear surface or for a search of the critical shear surface. Both circular and noncircular shear surfaces can be evaluated. There are five options for the type of shear strength data and six options for specifying pore pressures. All analysis procedures and major features can be run in a single data file which is free-field format and utilizes command words. Graphics capability for displaying the input data and the final shear surface is available. Special capabilities include pseudo-static seismic analysis, slope reinforcement, curved (multi-linear) shear strength envelope, anisotropic shear strength, and the ability to have multiple piezometric lines.

  16. HIV/AIDS and disability: a pilot survey of HIV/AIDS knowledge among a deaf population in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Groce, Nora; Yousafzai, Aisha; Dlamini, Phindile; Zalud, Sarah; Wirz, Shelia

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to establish whether there were measurable differences in the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS between hearing individuals and individuals who identified themselves as deaf sign language users in Swaziland. A cross-sectional survey of 191 rural and urban hearing and deaf adults was undertaken in Swaziland in December 2003. A structured questionnaire was administered, seeking to establish whether there were statistically significant differences between hearing and deaf populations in their level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS symptoms, transmission and prevention, as well as differences in sources of information about HIV/AIDS. Additional questions were asked regarding whether there were differences in accessibility of HIV testing services and HIV/AIDS-related healthcare for the two groups. Significant differences in levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS were identified between the hearing and deaf respondents. The deaf population was significantly more likely (P<0.05) to believe in incorrect modes of HIV transmission (e.g. hugging and airborne transmission) and HIV prevention (e.g. avoiding sharing utensils and eating healthy foods). Almost all of the deaf respondents (99%) reported difficulties in communicating with healthcare facility staff, which may result in less use of HIV voluntary counseling and testing services. This paper reports the results of this study, and discusses the need for targeted HIV/AIDS education campaigns and improved accessibility in healthcare facilities for deaf sign language users in countries such as Swaziland. PMID:17106349

  17. FoodSwitch: A Mobile Phone App to Enable Consumers to Make Healthier Food Choices and Crowdsourcing of National Food Composition Data

    PubMed Central

    Trevena, Helen; Goodsell, Chester; Ng, Ka Hung; Webster, Jacqui; Millis, Audra; Goldstein, Stan; Hugueniot, Orla; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background Front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FoPL) schemes can help consumers understand the nutritional content of foods and may aid healthier food choices. However, most packaged foods in Australia carry no easily interpretable FoPL, and no standard FoPL system has yet been mandated. About two thirds of Australians now own a smartphone. Objective We sought to develop a mobile phone app that would provide consumers with easy-to-understand nutrition information and support the selection of healthier choices when shopping for food. Methods An existing branded food database including 17,000 Australian packaged foods underpinned the project. An iterative process of development, review, and testing was undertaken to define a user interface that could deliver nutritional information. A parallel process identified the best approach to rank foods based on nutritional content, so that healthier alternative products could be recommended. Results Barcode scanning technology was identified as the optimal mechanism for interaction of the mobile phone with the food database. Traffic light labels were chosen as the preferred format for presenting nutritional information, and the Food Standards Australia New Zealand nutrient profiling method as the best strategy for identifying healthier products. The resulting FoodSwitch mobile phone app was launched in Australia in January 2012 and was downloaded by about 400,000 users in the first 18 months. FoodSwitch has maintained a 4-plus star rating, and more than 2000 users have provided feedback about the functionality. Nutritional information for more than 30,000 additional products has been obtained from users through a crowdsourcing function integrated within the app. Conclusions FoodSwitch has empowered Australian consumers seeking to make better food choices. In parallel, the huge volume of crowdsourced data has provided a novel means for low-cost, real-time tracking of the nutritional composition of Australian foods. There appears

  18. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 p< 0.024) . In the cohort in HAART, both the mean of BMI value (initial value: 20.7 ± 3.9; final value: 21.9 ± 3.3 p< 0.001) and of haemoglobin (initial value: 9.9 ± 2.2; final value: 10.8 ± 1.7 p< 0.001) showed a higher significant increase. The increase in BMI was statistically associated with the DDS in HAART patients. In conclusion nutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement

  19. Methodology and User Guide for the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases: CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998; NHANES 1999-2000; WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD) is to convert foods consumed in the national dietary surveys, 1994-2002, to respective amounts of retail-level food commodities. Food commodities are defined as those available for purchase in retail store...

  20. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. “Vulnerability” is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the “vulnerability” of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households — both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses (“external” vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope (“internal” vulnerability) — are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle

  1. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  2. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  3. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  8. Usage and Users of Online Self-Management Programs for Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Leent- de Wit, Ilse; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Knulst, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Two online self-management programs for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or food allergy (FA) were developed with the aim of helping patients cope with their condition, follow the prescribed treatment regimen, and deal with the consequences of their illness in daily life. Both programs consist of several modules containing information, personal stories by fellow patients, videos, and exercises with feedback. Health care professionals can refer their patients to the programs. However, the use of the program in daily practice is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use and characteristics of users of the online self-management programs “Living with eczema,” and “Living with food allergy,” and to investigate factors related to the use of the trainings. Methods A cross-sectional design was carried out in which the outcome parameters were the number of log-ins by patients, the number of hits on the system’s core features, disease severity, quality of life, and domains of self-management. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize sample characteristics and to describe number of log-ins and hits per module and per functionality. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the relation between the number of log-ins and patient characteristics. Results Since the start, 299 adult patients have been referred to the online AD program; 173 logged in for at least one occasion. Data from 75 AD patients were available for analyses. Mean number of log-ins was 3.1 (range 1-11). Linear regression with the number of log-ins as dependent variable showed that age and quality of life contributed most to the model, with betas of .35 ( P=.002) and .26 (P=.05), respectively, and an R 2 of .23. Two hundred fourteen adult FA patients were referred to the online FA training, 124 logged in for at least one occasion and data from 45 patients were available for analysis. Mean number of log-ins was 3.0 (range 1-11). Linear regression

  9. FAO/INFOODS Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data Prior to the Publication of a User Table/Database, Version 1.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition data play an essential role in many sectors, including nutrition, health, agriculture, environment, food labeling and trade. Over the last 25 years, International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has developed many international standards, guidelines and tools to obtain harmo...

  10. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  11. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  12. Aid as Obstacle: Twenty Questions about Our Foreign Aid and the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others

    Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…

  13. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  14. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  16. Understanding the Lived Experience of Five Individuals with Mobility Aids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tanja; Petrie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our research is to understand the lived experience of people with mobility aids: How do people use their mobility aids and what is their lived experience with them? What problems do mobility aid users have outside the clinic? Our goal is to further study the needs of mobility aid users, mainly wheelchair, walker and prosthesis users, and furthermore, develop a technology platform and an application that supports more independent life for mobility aid users. In our study we interviewed five individuals about their experiences of using mobility aids. The aim was to recognize the main stages of the lived experience with mobility aids in order to understand how technology could help mobility aid users outside the clinic. The stages found in the lived experience with mobility aids are 1) Expectations 2) Getting the mobility aid 3) Using and living with the aid and 4) Change/Abandonment of the aid. In each of these stages we found important issues concerning the lived experience with mobility aids such as the importance of training to use mobility aids, the meaning of peer support, finding information online, what makes a mobility aid good, what kind of issues other people's perceptions may cause and how the built environment poses challenges for people with mobility aids. PMID:27534353

  17. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  18. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  19. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  20. Do Hearing Aids Improve Affect Perception?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Herzog, Diana; Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Normal-hearing listeners use acoustic cues in speech to interpret a speaker's emotional state. This study investigates the effect of hearing aids on the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (aroused/calm) and valence (positive/negative attitude) in older adults with hearing loss. More specifically, we investigate whether wearing a hearing aid improves the correlation between affect ratings and affect-related acoustic parameters. To that end, affect ratings by 23 hearing-aid users were compared for aided and unaided listening. Moreover, these ratings were compared to the ratings by an age-matched group of 22 participants with age-normal hearing.For arousal, hearing-aid users rated utterances as generally more aroused in the aided than in the unaided condition. Intensity differences were the strongest indictor of degree of arousal. Among the hearing-aid users, those with poorer hearing used additional prosodic cues (i.e., tempo and pitch) for their arousal ratings, compared to those with relatively good hearing. For valence, pitch was the only acoustic cue that was associated with valence. Neither listening condition nor hearing loss severity (differences among the hearing-aid users) influenced affect ratings or the use of affect-related acoustic parameters. Compared to the normal-hearing reference group, ratings of hearing-aid users in the aided condition did not generally differ in both emotion dimensions. However, hearing-aid users were more sensitive to intensity differences in their arousal ratings than the normal-hearing participants.We conclude that the use of hearing aids is important for the rehabilitation of affect perception and particularly influences the interpretation of arousal. PMID:27080645

  1. 75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). The... FDA to continue collecting user fees for the prescription drug program. The Federal Food, Drug,...

  2. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  3. Short-term evaluation of the impact of a fortified food aid program on the micronutrient nutritional status of Argentinian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Ferrari, María Guillermina; Varea, Ana; Falivene, Mariana; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Vojkovic, María; Carmuega, Estéban; Disalvo, Liliana; Apezteguía, María; Pereyras, Silvia; Tournier, Andrea; Vogliolo, Daniel; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2013-11-01

    We studied the impact of a food supplementation program (Plan Más Vida (PMV)) on the micronutrient nutritional condition of pregnant women from low-income families 1 year after its implementation. The food program provided supplementary diet (wheat and maize--fortified flour, rice or sugar, and fortified soup). We performed a prospective, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, evaluating pregnant women at baseline (n = 164) and 1 year after PMV implementation (n = 108). Biochemical tests (hemogram, ferritin, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid), anthropometric assessments (weight and height), and dietary surveys (24 h recall) were performed at the two study points. One year after PMV implementation, no significant changes in anthropometric values were observed. Folic acid deficiency and the risk of vitamin A deficiency (retinol, 20-30 μg/dl) decreased significantly (35.8 to 6.1 % and 64 to 41 %, respectively; p < 0.000). Anemia and prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency values did not change. Diet survey results showed that although nutrient intake increased significantly, it was still below recommendations. Implementation of the PMV and of the government nutritional strategies had a high impact on the prevalence of folic acid deficiency. We also observed a decrease in the risk of vitamin A deficiency, and no impact on iron and zinc nutritional status. Adherence to the specific fortified food (soup) was not good and intra-family dilution and distribution of food was high. PMID:23999776

  4. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  10. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  11. Suggested Curriculum for Distance Vision Training with Optical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William; Vopata, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a sequential training curriculum in the use of telescopic visual aids. The curriculum covers 29 topics, including aid maintenance, holding aid properly, focusing, scanning, target location, tracking, aid use for city bus travel, in a shopping center, and in a fast food type restaurant. (Author/SBH)

  12. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  13. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  3. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110 Section 333.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110...

  4. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  5. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  6. User Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) impact of frequency change of user and spacecraft antenna gain and size; (2) basic personal terminal antennas (impact of 20/30 GHz frequency separation; parametric studies - gain, size, weight; gain and figure of merit (G/T); design data for selected antenna concepts; critical technologies and development goals; and recommendations); and (3) user antenna radiation safety concerns.

  7. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  8. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  9. Some interrelated thermophysical properties of liquid water and ice. I. A user-friendly modeling review for food high-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura; Molina-García, Antonio D; Sanz, Pedro D

    2002-07-01

    A bibliographic search yielded a set of empirical equations that constitute an easy method for the calculation of some thermophysical properties of both liquid water and ice I, properties that are involved in the modeling of thermal processes in the high-pressure domain, as required in the design of new high-pressure food processes. These properties, closely interrelated in their physical derivation and experimental measurement, are specific volume, specific isobaric heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility coefficient. Where no single equation was found, an alternative method for calculation is proposed. Keeping in mind the intended applications and considering the availability of both experimental data and empirical equations, the limits for the set of equations where set in -40 to 120 degrees C and 0 to 500 MPa for liquid water and -30 to 0 degrees C and 0 to 210 MPa for ice I. The equations and methods selected for each property are described and their results analyzed. Their good agreement with many existing experimental data is discussed. In addition, the routines implemented for the calculation of these properties after the described equations are made available in the public domain. PMID:12180776

  10. Food Service. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneisen, Barbara K.

    This guide is designed as an aid to the teacher in using the student manual titled "Food Service" and an accompanying language workbook (see related note), all of which are intended for use with deaf students in their vocational preparation for a food service occupation. Eleven units are included, with each unit containing from three to eleven…

  11. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  12. STS ancillary equipment study. User reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plough, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A record of what is currently known about STS ancillary equipment is presented in this user-oriented design so that a potential user may evaluate whether he could use the described ancillary equipment or if he would need to design and fabricate a payload-unique item. References that the user can use to obtain additional details and requirements to aid in his evaluation and decision are included.

  13. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  14. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  15. Treatments for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS HIV medicines are giving women longer, healthier futures and new strength. While there's no cure for HIV, the treatments today allow women to live longer, fuller lives. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved many drugs for treating HIV. ...

  16. 76 FR 76738 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration... Drug User Fee Act (GDUFA), which will authorize FDA to collect fees and use them for the process...

  17. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  18. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  19. Evaluation of the Siemens Minifonator vibrotactile aid.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, J M

    1989-03-01

    The Siemens Hearing Instruments Minifonator, a single-channel, wrist-worn vibrotactile aid, was evaluated in a laboratory setting with hearing-impaired adults. Eight subjects, with hearing loss greater than 70 dB in the better ear, were administered a test battery including sound-field detection, speech awareness threshold, environmental sound identification, syllable rhythm and stress categorization, and sentence identification subtests. Performance on each subtest was compared for hearing-aided and tactile-aided conditions. Mean performance levels for the two conditions were comparable for all but one subtest. However, closer inspection revealed that the data for the hearing-aided condition were bimodal: some subjects proved to be good hearing aid users and other performed at chance levels with their hearing aids. Performance in the tactile-aided conditions did not show such variability and mean levels fell between the hearing-aided levels for "good" and "poor" hearing aid users. The effects of training with the device were assessed for two normal-hearing subjects, who were trained in 1-hour daily sessions over a several week period on the environmental sounds and syllable rhythm and stress subtests. Results indicated substantial improvements in performance over the course of training. The implications of these results for long-term use of the device are discussed. PMID:2704198

  20. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  7. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  10. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  11. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  12. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  15. Relative benefits of linear analogue and advanced digital hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sally A; Lutman, Mark E

    2004-03-01

    Speech recognition performance and self-reported benefit from linear analogue and advanced (digital) hearing aids were compared in 100 first-time hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss fitted monaurally with a behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid in a single-blind randomized crossover trial. Subjects used each aid for 5 weeks in turn, with aid order balanced across subjects. Three alternative models of digital hearing aid were assigned to subjects according to a balanced design. Aid type was disguised to keep subjects blind within practical limitations. Aided speech recognition performance in noise was measured at speech levels of 65 and 75dB at a speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) of +2dB for closed sets of single words. Self-rated benefit was measured using the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP). Quality of life, hearing aid use and user preferences were also assessed. Speech recognition scores with the digital aids were significantly better at 75dB than with the analogue aids Self-reported benefit (APHAB, GHABP) and improvement in quality of life were generally not significantly different between analogue and digital aids, although aversiveness measured with the APHAB was significantly lower with digital aids, and satisfaction measured with the GHABP was greater. The digital aids were preferred significantly more often than the analogue aids, with 61 subjects choosing their digital aid, 26 choosing the analogue aid, and nine being equivocal. Overall, this study shows advantages for advanced digital over simple linear analogue aids in terms of both objective and subjective outcomes, although average differences are not large. PMID:15198378

  16. AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cathy L.

    2013-04-28

    Would you like to know when someone has dropped an undesirable executable binary on our system? What about something less malicious such as a software installation by a user? What about the user who decides to install a newer version of mod_perl or PHP on your web server without letting you know beforehand? Or even something as simple as when an undocumented config file change is made by another member of the admin group? Do you even want to know about all the changes that happen on a daily basis on your server? The purpose of an intrusion detection system (IDS) is to detect unauthorized, possibly malicious activity. The purpose of a host-based IDS, or file integrity checker, is check for unauthorized changes to key system files, binaries, libraries, and directories on the system. AIDE is an Open Source file and directory integrity checker. AIDE will let you know when a file or directory has been added, deleted, modified. It is included with the Red Hat Enterprise 6. It is available for other Linux distros. This is a case study describing the process of configuring AIDE on an out of the box RHEL6 installation. Its goal is to illustrate the thinking and the process by which a useful AIDE configuration is built.

  17. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  18. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  19. 75 FR 45636 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2008 (AGDUFA), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for...

  20. 77 FR 45629 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2008 (AGDUFA), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for...

  1. Usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Petro, S J; Herrmann, D; Burrows, D; Moore, C M

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has produced disagreement about the usage and usefulness of external memory aids across age groups. The present study examined the use and perceived usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of the ages of users and potential users. Three age groups (ages 20, 45 and 65 years) were asked to indicate whether they owned each of thirty different commercial aids and regardless of ownership, to rate the degree of usefulness of each of the aids. Each age group used certain aids or perceived certain aids as more useful, than did other age groups. The pattern of results suggest that memory aid usage differs with age partly because the memory tasks required of a person change with life stage. PMID:1761318

  2. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  3. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  4. User instructions for the CIDER Dose Code

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides user instructions for the CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides) computer code. The CIDER code computes estimates of annual doses estimated for both reference individuals with a known residence and food consumption history. This document also provides user instructions for four utility codes used to build input data libraries for CIDER. These utility codes are ENVFAC (environmental factors), FOOFAC (food factors), LIFFAC (lifestyle factors), and ORGFAC (organ factors). Finally, this document provides user instructions for the EXPAND utility code. The EXPAND code processes a result file from CIDER and extracts a summary of the dose information for reporting or plotting purposes.

  5. Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) Tenth Users' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Chris (Editor); Harris, Elfrieda (Editor); Yeager, Arleen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Conference proceedings are represented in graphic visual-aid form. Presentation and panel discussion topics include user experiences with C++ and Ada; the design and interaction of the user interface; the history and goals of TAE; commercialization and testing of TAE Plus; Computer-Human Interaction Models (CHIMES); data driven objects; item-to-item connections and object dependencies; and integration with other software. There follows a list of conference attendees.

  6. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  7. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  8. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician

  9. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  11. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  12. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  13. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  14. Enhancing the User-Friendliness of Macintosh Foreign Character Fonts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests some ways to enhance the user-friendliness of many Macintosh (personal computer) foreign language character fonts with the aid of three commercial programs: MacKeymeleon; FONTastic Plus; and Tempo. (Author/CB)

  15. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  16. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  17. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  18. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  19. AIDS in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  20. MOBIC: Designing a Travel Aid for Blind and Elderly People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Helen; Johnson, Valerie; Strothotte, Thomas; Raab, Andreas; Fritz, Steffi; Michel, Rainer

    This paper presents the research for the development of a new travel aid to increase the independent mobility of blind and elderly travellers. This aid will build on the technologies of geographical information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The MOBIC Travel Aid (MOTA) consists of two interrelated components: the MOBIC Pre-journey System (MOPS) to assist users in planning journeys and the MOBIC Outdoor System (MOODS) to execute these plans by providing users with orientation and navigation assistance during journeys. The MOBIC travel aid is complementary to primary mobility aids such as the long cane or guide dog. Results of a study of user requirements are presented and their implications for the initial design of the system are discussed.

  1. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  2. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

  3. 21 CFR 801.421 - Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale. 801.421 Section 801.421 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.421 Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. 333.150 Section 333.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products §...

  5. CHEMFORM user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoreen, A.; Toran, L.

    1996-01-01

    CHEMFORM is a DOS-based program which converts geochemical data files into the format read by the U.S. Geological Survey family of models: WATEQ4F, PHREEQE, or NETPATH. These geochemical models require data formatted in a particular order, which typically does not match data storage. CHEMFORM converts geochemical data that are stored in an ASCII file to input files that can be read by these models, without being re-entered by hand. The data may be in any order and format in the original file, as long as they are separated by blanks. The location of each data element in the input file is entered in CHEMFORM. Any required data that are not present in your file may also be entered. The positions of the data in the input file are saved to be used as defaults for the next run. CHEMFORM runs in two modes. In the first mode, it will read one input file and write one output file. The input file may contain data on multiple lines, and the user will specify both line number and position of each item in CHEMFORM. This mode facilitates the conversion of the input from one model to the format needed by another model. In the second mode, the CHEMFORM input files contains more than one water analysis. All the geochemical data for a given sample are stored on one line, and CHEMFORM writes an output file for each line. This mode is useful when many samples are available for a site in the same format (different monitoring points or samples taken at different times from one monitoring point).

  6. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Sound Amplification Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff... Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products.'' This draft guidance clarifies the distinction between hearing aids and personal sound amplification products (PSAPs), as well as the...

  7. HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, K

    1999-04-01

    By the end of 1998, 33.4 million people worldwide were infected with HIV, 10% more than in 1997, and there were 2.5 million AIDS-related deaths. New estimates by the UN AIDS organization, UNAIDS, and the World Health Organization show that practically every country in the world has been affected by the pandemic. HIV prevalence in eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean currently appears to be concentrated in, but not limited to, marginalized groups. MAP (Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic), a network of experts with more than 120 members in 40 countries around the world, has estimated that more than 1.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean, or 5.4% of all HIV/AIDS cases worldwide in January 1998. Infection trends in the area differ both between and within countries. HIV in the region does, however, appear to be mainly in socially and economically marginalized populations, and is most noticeable among men who have sex with men and IV drug users. Evidence also exists that HIV is increasingly spreading among the poor and illiterate segments of society. Infection rates are rising among women, showing that heterosexual transmission is becoming more important. The Caribbean Regional Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS was created out of a 3-day consultation in Port of Spain, Trinidad, sponsored by a number of international organizations. That the number of HIV-positive people in the region is increasing should not be taken lightly. PMID:12349101

  8. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  9. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  10. IDSE Version 1 User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The integrated development support environment (IDSE) is a suite of integrated software tools that provide intelligent support for information modelling. These tools assist in function, information, and process modeling. Additional tools exist to assist in gathering and analyzing information to be modeled. This is a user's guide to application of the IDSE. Sections covering the requirements and design of each of the tools are presented. There are currently three integrated computer aided manufacturing definition (IDEF) modeling methodologies: IDEF0, IDEF1, and IDEF2. Also, four appendices exist to describe hardware and software requirements, installation procedures, and basic hardware usage.

  11. The IDL astronomy user's library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    IDL (Interactive Data Language) is a commercial programming, plotting, and image display language, which is widely used in astronomy. The IDL Astronomy User's Library is a central repository of over 400 astronomy-related IDL procedures accessible via anonymous FTP. The author will overview the use of IDL within the astronomical community and discuss recent enhancements at the IDL astronomy library. These enhancements include a fairly complete I/O package for FITS images and tables, an image deconvolution package and an image mosaic package, and access to IDL Open Windows/Motif widgets interface. The IDL Astronomy Library is funded by NASA through the Astrophysics Software and Research Aids Program.

  12. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  13. Sandia Cognitive Aide V2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-15

    The Sandia Cognitive Aide (SCA) collects data from personal computer use and uses this information to make suggestions to the user. It records interactions with MS Outlook, MS Word, MS PowerPoint, and the Internet Explorer, indexing email messages, documents, presentation, and web pages accessed, The user can then query the indexed documents from any Windows application. The system also suggests what it believes to be relevant terms to a given query. The software provides facilities for constructing and submitting queries to WWW search engines. This version of the software also enables the user to define different "task contexts" within the user works. The contexts are defined in terms of related terms. The user can associate documents with these contexts. The contexts can be searched as well as the documents. This software is designed to access and utilize the cognitive model being build by Sandia National Laboratories, org. 15311 and uses the STANLEY text analysis library.

  14. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  15. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  16. Cognitive Costs of Navigation Aids in Hypermedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waniek, Jacqueline; Ewald, Karolin

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the cognitive costs of navigation aids in a hypermedia learning task. In a 2(navigable vs. non-navigable) x 2(map vs. content list) experimental design cognitive requirements were measured by users' eye movement data. Additionally, data from users' navigation operations, knowledge acquisition, and subjective evaluation of the…

  17. National Occupational Skill Standards. CADD: Computer Aided Drafting and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    This document identifies computer-aided drafting and design (CADD) skills that companies require of training programs and future employees. The information was developed by two committees of technically knowledgeable CADD users from across the United States and validated by several hundred other CADD users. The skills are aimed at a beginner CADD…

  18. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section 801.435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... commonly used by industry after the completion of the accelerated storage tests described in paragraphs...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.40 - Food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food services. 15b.40 Section 15b.40 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.40 Food services. (a) Recipients which provide food services shall serve special meals, at no extra charge, to persons...

  20. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  1. 7 CFR 15b.40 - Food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food services. 15b.40 Section 15b.40 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.40 Food services. (a) Recipients which provide food services shall serve special meals, at no extra charge, to persons...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.40 - Food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food services. 15b.40 Section 15b.40 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.40 Food services. (a) Recipients which provide food services shall serve special meals, at no extra charge, to persons...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.40 - Food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food services. 15b.40 Section 15b.40 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.40 Food services. (a) Recipients which provide food services shall serve special meals, at no extra charge, to persons...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.40 - Food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food services. 15b.40 Section 15b.40 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.40 Food services. (a) Recipients which provide food services shall serve special meals, at no extra charge, to persons...

  5. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  7. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. Always ...

  8. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  9. Aids in the Black Community: Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    As of the end of September 1988, 16,600 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported in New York City, including 5,248 cases among blacks, 32 percent of the total. Of these, 4,220 (80 percent of adults) are men, 1,028 (19 percent of adults) are women, and 195 are children. The major source of the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within the black community is the intravenous (IV) drug user. Half of New York City's 200,000 IV drug users are estimated to be black; almost half of the women infected with AIDS through sexual contact with IV drug users are black. Every option for breaking the AIDS-IV drug abuser connection must be explored. AIDS among blacks is especially charged with the potential for discrimination or widespread backlash. AIDS education efforts must be increased, and legislation to protect against unauthorized disclosures of confidential health records must be supported. Comprehensive education programs must destigmatize AIDS among health care workers. To keep up with the epidemic, a national prevention strategy must consist of a massive national public health education program; voluntary, confidential counseling and HIV antibody testing expanded into every public and private clinical facility; and major efforts to curtail AIDS transmission by the IV drug user. PMID:3249321

  10. 78 FR 46958 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...,'' from the upper right-hand corner of your completed Animal Generic Drug User Fee Cover Sheet. Also write... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended...

  11. 77 FR 72356 - Animal Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Animal Drug User Fee Act. The topic to be discussed is proposed recommendations for the reauthorization of the Animal Drug User...

  12. Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Obesity among Food Pantry Participants in Hartford, CT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robaina, Kate A.; Martin, Katie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examine relationships between food security, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI) among food pantry users. Methods: Convenience sample of 212 food pantry clients in Hartford, CT from June, 2010 to May, 2011. Main outcomes included food security (United States Department of Agriculture module), fruit and vegetable consumption (Block…

  13. [Latino Religious Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS].

    PubMed

    Chacon, G

    1996-01-01

    The Latino community has strong religious and spiritual traditions, and there is a need for spiritual leadership. To address these needs, the Latino Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS offers prevention and education activities. The Commission refers religious leaders to the Latino community. Churches offer food and clothing banks, and counseling services to persons living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:11363629

  14. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  15. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  16. 21 CFR 801.420 - Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... the ear. Special care should be exercised in selecting and fitting a hearing aid whose maximum sound... hearing aid user. (This provision is required only for those hearing aids with a maximum sound...

  17. Food Allergy: Epidemiology and Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy is persistent into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:25459576

  18. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  19. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  20. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  1. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  2. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  3. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  4. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  5. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  6. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  7. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  8. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  9. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  10. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  11. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  12. A Self-Fitting Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries. PMID:22143873

  13. 21 CFR 1002.3 - Notification to user of performance and technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification to user of performance and technical data. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS General Provisions § 1002.3 Notification to user of performance and technical...

  14. Senior Aids for Senior Readers; A Visual Aids Pamphlet for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Public Library, TX.

    A pamphlet on special aids for senior library users lists items available from the Houston Public Library. Magnifiers (some illuminated), bedspecs (prism glasses), book holders, large print telephone dials, and games suitable for the visually handicapped or bedridden are described. The library's collections of slides and films, both 8mm and 16mm,…

  15. AIDS--Policies and Prospects: I. The Failure of AIDS--Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemeyer, William E.; Franc, Michael G

    1989-01-01

    Discusses failure of education programs to affect spread of AIDS by intravenous drug users in inner cities. Suggests following policy responses: confidential, identity-linked reporting of HIV test results; programs to alert the sexual partners of HIV-positive persons; elimination of barriers to HIV testing; routine offering of HIV testing; and…

  16. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model. PMID:27072929

  17. Network Analytical Tool for Monitoring Global Food Safety Highlights China

    PubMed Central

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003 – August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i) capture complexity, ii) analyze trends, and iii) predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i) Google's PageRank algorithm and ii) the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. Conclusions/Significance This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios. PMID:19688088

  18. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  19. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  20. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  1. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  2. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  3. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  4. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  5. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  6. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  7. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  8. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  9. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  10. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  11. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  12. Laos: rural economy threatened by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zola, A M

    1994-01-01

    Laos is a rural country in which more than 70% of the work force depends upon the agricultural sector for its livelihood. Crop production in Laos is a low-productivity, labor-intensive affair which is highly vulnerable to disruption by natural disasters and outbreaks of disease. Laos is also a crossroads for trade from Cambodia, China, Thailand, and Vietnam. While such trade has some positive effect upon the domestic economy, it also facilitates the spread of sexually transmitted diseases into Laos from neighboring countries with high rates of HIV infection. The northwestern trading corridor bordering Thailand, Myanmar, and China is of particular concern with regard to the spread of HIV. The Lao government identified eleven individuals infected with HIV and had officially reported only one case of AIDS to the World Health Organization (WHO) as of April 1992. Although WHO has not yet confirmed or projected the number of HIV-seropositive and AIDS cases in Laos, scant available data suggest that AIDS is concentrated in urban areas. Poverty and isolation will not, however, protect rural villages from HIV. The implications of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic for rural social structures are considered. It is clear that such a situation could lead to agroeconomic dislocation and jeopardize national food security. The following measures are recommended to confront HIV/AIDS in the agricultural sector: change cropping systems, provide AIDS prevention education and technical assistance, and recruit village cadres to increase AIDS awareness among young Lao and care for the very ill. PMID:12287639

  13. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  14. 75 FR 4523 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Additives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... for food additives and processing aids in codex standards. Draft and proposed draft food additive... Food Additives AGENCY: Office of the Acting Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... of food additives for risk assessment by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives...

  15. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  16. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    , intravenous drug users, and prison inmates. 3) HIV testing of foreigners and students returning from abroad was discouraged due to its logistic impracticality and consumption of health resources. 4) AIDS education in the schools and sterile needle distribution to drug addicts was encouraged. PMID:12342138

  17. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  18. 76 FR 24035 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... legislation would be required for FDA to establish and collect user fees for generic drugs, and FDA is... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments... gather additional stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. A user...

  19. 76 FR 44014 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... required for FDA to establish and collect user fees for generic drugs, and FDA has been engaged in... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments... gather additional stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. A user...

  20. Zidovudine Adherence in Persons with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Meredith Y; Rapkin, Bruce D; Morrison, Anne; Kammerman, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relation of patient beliefs about medication usage and adherence to zidovudine (ZDV) therapy in persons with AIDS. DESIGN Face-to-face interviews were used to determine attitudes of persons with AIDS toward ZDV and other prescribed medications, history of ZDV usage, and sociodemographics. SETTING A public hospital infectious disease clinic, an AIDS day care program, and an inpatient unit in a voluntary hospital where care was provided cooperatively by staff and an informal–care partner. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS One hundred forty-one people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome agreed to be reinterviewed as part of a longitudinal, New York City–based study examining outcomes related to quality of life. Initial recruitment procedures were to approach all active AIDS patients at each of the three sites between January and July of 1992; reinterviews, which were conducted an average of 6 months later, occurred from mid-1992 through May of 1993. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The Zidovudine Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess subjective feelings and attitudes concerning ZDV and prescribed medications in general. Respondents were grouped into five categories on the basis of their ZDV usage history: (1) “short-term” users (i.e., those who had been taking ZDV for 25 months or less); (2) “long-term” users (i.e., those who had been taking ZDV for more than 25 months); (3) self-terminated users; (4) doctor-terminated users; and (5) never users. Long-term users were likely to view ZDV as an illness prophylactic. In contrast, self-terminated users and never users were most likely to believe that ZDV caused adverse side effects and that medicine need not be taken as prescribed. CONCLUSIONS Patients’ beliefs about ZDV were significantly associated with adherence-related behavior. In particular, those who had self-terminated ZDV treatment believed that taking the drug was harmful, were skeptical of its ability to prevent illness, and

  1. Relationship between acceptance of background noise and hearing aid use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Burchfield, Samuel B.; Webster, Joanna D.

    2003-04-01

    Background noise produces complaints among hearing-aid users, however speech-perception-in-noise does not predict hearing-aid use. It is possible that hearing-aid users are complaining about the presence of background noise and not about speech perception. To test this possibility, acceptance of background noise is being investigated as a predictor of hearing-aid use. Acceptance of background noise is determined by having subjects select their most comfortable listening level (MCL) for a story. Next, speech-babble is added and the subjects select the maximum background noise level (BNL) which is acceptable while listening to and following the story. The difference between the MCL and the BNL is the acceptable noise level (ANL), all in dB. ANLs are being compared with hearing-aid use, subjective impressions of benefit (APHAB), speech perception in background noise (SPIN) scores, and audiometric data. Individuals who accept higher levels of background noise are more successful users than individuals who accept less background noise. Mean ANLs are 7.3 dB for full-time users (N=21), 12.6 dB for part-time users (N=44), and 13.8 dB for rejecters (N=17). ANLs are not related to APHAB, SPIN, or audiometric data. Results for about 120 subjects will be reported. [Work supported by NIDCD (NIH) RO1 DC 05018.

  2. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  3. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

  4. Preferred hearing aid gain in everyday environments.

    PubMed

    Cox, R M; Alexander, G C

    1991-04-01

    Thirty-three hearing-impaired individuals were each fitted with three hearing aids. The instruments conformed to three frequency-gain prescriptions, differing by a total of 8 dB/octave, with the middle prescription derived using the MSU version 3.0 procedure. The subjects were divided into three matched groups of eleven. Each group used the fitted hearing aids in one of three everyday listening environments representing quiet, reverberant, and noisy situations, respectively. In each listening environment, preferred hearing aid gain for conversationally produced speech was measured in each hearing aid condition for each subject. Preferred gain in daily listening situations was compared to prescribed gain. Results indicated that: (1) preferred gain averaged across all three environments was about equal to prescribed gain, (2) mean preferred gain in each separate environment was substantially different from the prescribed level, (3) volume control adjustments of about +/- 8 dB relative to the prescribed level would be necessary to accommodate the preferred gain settings of the typical hearing aid wearer in daily life. Guidelines are presented for establishing recommended volume control settings for hearing aid users who may be unable to set the volume control independently. PMID:2065837

  5. Thermal enclosure system functional simulation user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1994-01-01

    A form and function simulation of the thermal enclosure system (TES) for a microgravity protein crystal growth experiment has been developed as part of an investigation of the benefits and limitations of intravehicular telerobotics to aid in microgravity science and production. A user can specify the time, temperature, and sample rate profile for a given experiment, and menu options and status are presented on an LCD display. This report describes the features and operational procedures for the functional simulation.

  6. Identifying User Interaction Patterns in E-Textbooks

    PubMed Central

    Saarinen, Santeri; Heimonen, Tomi; Turunen, Markku; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Raisamo, Roope; Erdmann, Norbert; Yrjänäinen, Sari; Keskinen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new architecture for e-textbooks which contains two navigational aids: an index and a concept map. We report results from an evaluation in a university setting with 99 students. The interaction sequences of the users were captured during the user study. We found several clusters of user interaction types in our data. Three separate user types were identified based on the interaction sequences: passive user, term clicker, and concept map user. We also discovered that with the concept map interface users started to interact with the application significantly sooner than with the index interface. Overall, our findings suggest that analysis of interaction patterns allows deeper insights into the use of e-textbooks than is afforded by summative evaluation. PMID:26605377

  7. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  8. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  9. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  10. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  11. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  12. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  13. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  14. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  15. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  16. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  17. 21 CFR 338.50 - Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. 338... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 338.50 Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling...

  18. 21 CFR 338.50 - Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. 338... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 338.50 Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling...

  19. 21 CFR 338.50 - Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. 338... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 338.50 Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling...

  20. 21 CFR 338.50 - Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. 338... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 338.50 Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling...

  1. 76 FR 45811 - Animal Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates and payment procedures for fiscal year (FY) 2012 animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Animal Drug User Fee Act of 2003 (ADUFA) and the Animal Drug User Fee Amendments of 2008 (ADUFA II), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for certain animal drug applications and......

  2. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  3. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  4. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check the date. Lots of packaged foods have expiration dates or "sell by" (which means that the food ... a food if today's date is after the expiration date. Use it before it expires. Ask an adult ...

  5. NASCAP user's manual, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. J., III

    1978-01-01

    NASCAP simulates the charging process for a complex object in either tenuous plasma (geosynchronous orbit) or ground test (electron gun source) environment. Program control words, the structure of user input files, and various user options available are described in this computer programmer's user manual.

  6. Atmoshperic Science User Forum

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-26

    article title:  Atmospheric Science User Forum     View Larger Image ... ASDC is pleased to announce the release of the Atmospheric Science User Forum. The purpose of this forum is to improve user service, quality, and efficiency of NASA atmospheric science data by providing a quick and easy way to facilitate scientific ...

  7. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  8. DOSFAC2 user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Chanin, D.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the DOSFAC2 code, which is used for generating dose-to-source conversion factors for the MACCS2 code. DOSFAC2 is a revised and updated version of the DOSFAC code that was distributed with version 1.5.11 of the MACCS code. included are (1) an overview and background of DOSFAC2, (2) a summary of two new functional capabilities, and (3) a user`s guide. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  10. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  11. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  12. Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--worldwide.

    PubMed

    1988-05-13

    As of March 21, 1988, 136 countries or territories throughout the world had reported a total of 84,256 cases of AIDS to the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) (formerly the Special Programme on AIDS) of the World Health Organization (WHO). 37 countries or territories had reported no AIDS cases. Reports are based on either the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/WHO surveillance definition, the WHO clinical definition, or a physician's diagnosis. From 1979 through March 21, 1988, the number of AIDS cases increased markedly in all geographic regions. The cumulative world total increased from 11,965 in 1984 to 25,150 in 1985 (a 11% increase) and to 48,413 in 1986 (a 92% increase). Because of reporting lags, the global total of AIDS cases reported for 1987 is not yet complete; however, as of March 21, 1988, 34,913 cases had been reported for 1987 (a 72% increase). Data on the distribution of AIDS cases by region are presented, followed by a discussion of the findings. Regions include: Americas, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Asia, and eastern Mediterranean countries. Epidemiologic studies indicate 3 broad yet distinct geographic patterns of transmission. Pattern I is typical of industrialized countries with large numbers of reported AIDS cases, such as North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Latin America. In these areas, most cases occur among homosexual or bisexual males and urban intravenous (IV) drug users. Pattern II is observed in areas of central, eastern, and southern Africa and in some Carribean countries. In these areas, most cases occur among heterosexuals. Pattern III is found in areas of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and most of the Pacific. Only small numbers of cases have been reported in these areas. PMID:3129644

  13. Adaptive mobility aids for the elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Glenn; Gunderson, James; Cvetanovich, Michael; Kell, Steven; Graves, S.; Felder, Robin A.

    2001-10-01

    Loss of mobility in the elderly causes a significant economic burden to caregivers and is one of the most significant determinants of depression and loss of muscle strength and productivity in this age group. Mobility aids can assist with locomotion by providing physical support, however they fail to provide direction guidance and avoidance of obstacles and hazards. This talk will focus on design of intelligent adaptive wheeled walkers. By allowing the user varying degrees of control, from complete to collaborative, these walkers afford the user with the feeling of control, while helping to increase the ease and safety of their daily travels. The control systems of these walkers differ from those of other mobility aids and mobile robots because they must both assist in mobility and provide balance and support, but also give directional aid if necessary. These functions must be performed in a tight loop adaptation with a human whose input may be difficult to predict. Through the use of a wheeled walker equipped with force and sonar sensors, we were able to develop an intelligent self-guided mobility aid that can provide improved independence, autonomy, and quality of life for the elderly.

  14. Clinical Care of the HIV-Infected Drug User

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, R. Douglas; Altice, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and chemical dependency, both of which are complicated by and intertwined with mental illness, are complex, overlapping spheres that adversely influence each other and the overall clinical outcomes of the affected individual [1]. Each disorder individually impacts tens of millions of people, with explosive epidemics described worldwide. Drug users have increased age matched morbidity and mortality for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions. HIV/AIDS, with its immunosuppressed states and direct virologic effects, exacerbate morbidity and mortality further among HIV-infected drug users. This article addresses the adverse consequences of HIV/AIDS, drug injection, the secondary comorbidities of both, and the impact of immunosuppression on presentation of disease as well as approaches to managing the HIV-infected drug user. PMID:17502234

  15. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  16. Speech intelligibility of children with cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Maso, M; Sam, L K

    1993-02-01

    Speech intelligibility was measured in 31 children who used the 3M/House single-channel implant (n = 12), the Nucleus 22-Channel Cochlear Implant System (n = 15), or the Tactaid II + two-channel vibrotactile aid (n = 4). The subjects were divided into subgroups based on age at onset of deafness (early or late). The speech intelligibility of the experimental subjects was compared to that of children who were profoundly hearing impaired who used conventional hearing aids (n = 12) or no sensory aid (n = 2). The subjects with early onset of deafness who received their single- or multichannel cochlear implant before age 10 demonstrated the highest speech intelligibility, whereas subjects who did not receive their device until after age 10 had the poorest speech intelligibility. There was no obvious difference in the speech intelligibility scores of these subjects as a function of type of device (implant or tactile aid). On the average, the postimplant or tactile aid speech intelligibility of the subjects with early onset of deafness was similar to that of hearing aid users with hearing levels between 100 and 110 dB HL and limited hearing in the high frequencies. The speech intelligibility of subjects with late onset of deafness showed marked deterioration after the onset of deafness with relatively large improvements by most subjects after they received a single- or multichannel implant. The one subject with late onset of deafness who used a tactile aid showed no improvement in speech intelligibility. PMID:8450658

  17. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  18. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  19. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... (76 FR 76738). The document announced a public meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.'' The...: In FR Doc. 2011-31630, appearing on page 76738 ] in the Federal Register of Thursday, December 8... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction...

  20. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  1. Speech perception abilities of children with cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Robbins, A M; Miyamoto, R T; Berry, S W; Myres, W A; Kessler, K S; Pope, M L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was first, to compare the performance of three matched groups of experimental subjects who used either a single-channel cochlear implant, a multichannel cochlear implant, or a two-channel vibrotactile aid on a battery of speech perception measures, and second, to compare the performance of subjects with residual hearing who used hearing aids to that of the three groups of experimental subjects. The results revealed that the subjects using hearing aids achieved the highest scores on all measures. The performance of the group of multichannel implant users was significantly higher than that of the single-channel implant users on tests involving discrimination of speech features, categorization of stress patterns, closed-set identification of familiar words, and identification of common phrases with and without visual cues. The performance of the subjects using 3M/House and Tactaid II devices was similar on all tests except those requiring integration of auditory or tactile cues and visual cues, on which the 3M/House device users achieved significantly higher scores than did the Tactaid II device users. PMID:2069171

  2. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  3. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  4. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  5. 78 FR 78366 - Draft Generic Drug User Fee Act Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Generic Drug User Fee Act Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51,...

  6. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Agricultural Service (FAS) announces it is inviting proposals for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program Micronutrient- Fortified Food Aid Products...

  7. Initial findings with a wearable multichannel vibrotactile aid.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Robbins, A M; Todd, S L; Brown, C J

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on the speech perception performance of two profoundly hearing-impaired subjects while using a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Tactaid II) or a new, seven-channel instrument. Both subjects, one a profoundly hearing-impaired teenager and one a postlingually deaf adult, are experienced users of tactile aids. The data suggest better recognition of speech features, words, environmental sounds, and enhancement of lipreading skills with the new multichannel instrument than with the two-channel device. PMID:2069179

  8. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  9. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  10. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  11. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  12. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  13. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  14. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  15. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  16. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  17. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  18. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  19. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  20. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  1. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  2. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  3. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  4. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  5. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  6. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  7. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  8. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  9. 21 CFR 338.50 - Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of nighttime sleep-aid drug products. 338.50 Section 338.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 338.50 Labeling of nighttime...

  10. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV. PMID:8782442

  11. Resources on Food, Nutrition and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Donna, Comp.

    The materials listed in this booklet provide background information on theories of the interrelationships of food, nutrition, and culture; the social history of food and culture; and ethnic cuisine. Also included are citations for basic nutrition information and sources of translated teaching aids for use in group settings. The first section…

  12. A Case for Food Service Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korey, Herbert A.

    1973-01-01

    In this satellite system, all food is prepared fresh daily in the junior high school and shipped in refrigerated trucks to other school locations. Explains how increasing operational costs forced the Long Branch, New Jersey, School District to seek the aid of a food management company to plan and implement this new program. (Author)

  13. Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

  14. EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

  15. Network Control Center User Planning System (NCC UPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dealy, Brian

    1991-01-01

    NCC UPS is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: UPS overview; NCC UPS role; major NCC UPS functional requirements; interactive user access levels; UPS interfaces; interactive user subsystem; interface navigation; scheduling screen hierarchy; interactive scheduling input panels; autogenerated schedule request panel; schedule data tabular display panel; schedule data graphic display panel; graphic scheduling aid design; and schedule data graphic display.

  16. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  17. [The AIDS epidemic in the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Babenko, L

    1996-01-01

    According to laboratory statistics, 32 new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed in Kiev, and 1986 cases were counted in Odessa in the first 4 months of 1996. The central location of Ukraine and permanent international population mobility are probable factors in the spread of HIV infection. Several factors may have contributed to the eruption of the HIV epidemic in the city of Nikolayev in 1995. The city was long closed to foreigners because of its military activity. After the fall of the Soviet Union, most military factories were closed, plunging numerous workers into unemployment. Drug use thrived, facilitated by the cultivation of marijuana in the region. The HIV epidemic appears to have been brought to the Ukraine by addicts returning from military service in Poland. In 1996, the National Committee to Combat AIDS will collaborate with the Ministry of Internal Affairs to develop a plan to prevent AIDS in drug users. The National Committee was established in 1992 to coordinate AIDS prevention activities in Ukraine. The first program, undertaken in 1987, consisted of large scale screening, beginning with foreigners and especially African students. The first case was diagnosed in 1987. Over 300 new cases were diagnosed annually during 1992-94, all sexually transmitted. The national program is funded solely by the government, which has very limited resources. There is no possibility of access to private funds, and few efforts are underway to provide information on AIDS through media programs. The UN AIDS program recently allocated US $50,000 for AIDS prevention in Odessa, the city with the largest number of seropositive individuals. The funds will be used for a seminar on AIDS prevention for Ukrainian political authorities and construction of a drug treatment facility. Other projects have been planned, but remain unfunded. PMID:12179245

  18. 78 FR 32581 - Tobacco Products, User Fees, Requirements for the Submission of Data Needed To Calculate User...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing this proposed rule that would require domestic tobacco product manufacturers and importers to submit information needed to calculate the amount of user fees assessed under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been collecting this information and providing FDA with......

  19. User Registration in EOSDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the lifetime of EOSDIS the topic of user registration has received varied attention. Initially, for example, users ordering data from the Earth Science Data Gateway were required to register for delivery of media orders, to check order status and save profile information for future interactions. As EOSDIS embraced evolution of its data systems, the mostly centralized search and order system was replaced with a more diverse set of interfaces allowing (mostly) anonymous online access to data, tools and services. The changes to EOSDIS were embraced by users but the anonymous nature of the interaction made it more difficult to characterize users, capture metrics and provide customized services that benefit users. Additionally, new tools and interfaces have been developed without a centralized registration system. Currently a patchwork of independent registration systems exists throughout EOSDIS for ordering data and interacting with online tools and services. Each requires a separate username and password that must be managed by users. A consolidation of registration systems presents an opportunity to improve not only the user experience through tool customization and simplification of password management, but the understanding of users. This work discusses the options for implementing a common user registration for the EOSDIS, anticipated benefits and pitfalls.

  20. Preliminary ISIS users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Interactive Software Invocation (ISIS), an interactive data management system, was developed to act as a buffer between the user and host computer system. The user is provided by ISIS with a powerful system for developing software or systems in the interactive environment. The user is protected from the idiosyncracies of the host computer system by providing such a complete range of capabilities that the user should have no need for direct access to the host computer. These capabilities are divided into four areas: desk top calculator, data editor, file manager, and tool invoker.

  1. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their

  2. SERV user`s guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, M.D.; Bakhsh, H.; Lee, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Sizing of Energy Recovery Ventilator (SERV) software described in this manual is intended to size an energy recovery ventilator in new and existing single-family residences, based on ASHRAE guidelines for the rate at which outdoor air is to be delivered to an indoor space to ensure acceptable air quality. The user is asked to select a city that has climatic conditions most representative of the house under consideration. Other inputs required from the user include: (1) house leakiness and terrain sheltering factors; (2) estimated annual house energy costs; (3) number, capacity and weekly operation hours for vented exhaust fans; and (4) HVAC system COP/efficiency values. Default values (which the user can override) are provided for most input parameters, and help screens are provided to assist the user in determining appropriate input values. The program estimates the average air infiltration rates for summer and winter, and combines these calculations with estimates of ventilation due to intermittent use of exhaust fans in determining the baseline ventilation rate. An energy recovery ventilator is sized to provide any supplemental ventilation necessary to satisfy air change requirements imposed by ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 (Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality). The program then calculates (1) the annual energy and associated cost for providing the supplemental ventilation, and (2) the relative impact of the added ventilation on indoor concentrations of four pollutants--carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and radon.

  3. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  4. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  5. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  6. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  7. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  8. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  9. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  10. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  11. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  12. Audiological results using single-channel intracochlear implant, vibrotactile aid or acoustic hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Rihkanen, H; Jauhiainen, T; Linkola, H; Palva, T

    1989-01-01

    Users of a single-channel intracochlear implant (CI, n = 10) (3M/House), a single-channel vibrotactile aid (V, n = 8) (Minivib 3/Special Instrument Ab) and acoustic hearing aids (HA, n = 9) were tested. The comparison was made after training and a minimum of 11 months' use of the devices. All subjects were considered profoundly deaf, but the HA group had some residual hearing. The HA group achieved the best mean test scores in all the tests given. The difference between the CI group and V group increased, in favour to the CI users, as the auditory task was changed from the level of simple signal analysis to the level of linguistic interpretation. PMID:2816334

  13. Global food security: challenges and policies.

    PubMed

    Rosegrant, Mark W; Cline, Sarah A

    2003-12-12

    Global food security will remain a worldwide concern for the next 50 years and beyond. Recently, crop yield has fallen in many areas because of declining investments in research and infrastructure, as well as increasing water scarcity. Climate change and HIV/AIDS are also crucial factors affecting food security in many regions. Although agroecological approaches offer some promise for improving yields, food security in developing countries could be substantially improved by increased investment and policy reforms. PMID:14671289

  14. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  15. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  16. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  17. MIRADS-2 user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An on-line data storage and retrieval system which allows the user to extract and process information from stored data bases is described. The capabilities of the system are provided by a general purpose computer program containing several functional modules. The modules contained in MIRADS are briefly described along with user terminal operation procedures and MIRADS commands.

  18. LANES 1 Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.

    1985-01-01

    This document is intended for users of the Local Area Network Extensible Simulator, version I. This simulator models the performance of a Fiber Optic network under a variety of loading conditions and network characteristics. The options available to the user for defining the network conditions are described in this document. Computer hardware and software requirements are also defined.

  19. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ... formal activity and status reports to ASDC and EOSDIS management as appropriate.  UWG members are expected to attend the UWG ...

  20. KDYNA user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Levatin, J.A.L.; Attia, A.V.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1990-09-28

    This report is a complete user's manual for KDYNA, the Earth Sciences version of DYNA2D. Because most features of DYNA2D have been retained in KDYNA much of this manual is identical to the DYNA2D user's manual.

  1. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  2. User's Guide for SKETCH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgley, David R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A user's guide for the computer program SKETCH is presented on this disk. SKETCH solves a popular problem in computer graphics-the removal of hidden lines from images of solid objects. Examples and illustrations are included in the guide. Also included is the SKETCH program, so a user can incorporate the information into a particular software system.

  3. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression. PMID:25508776

  4. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression. PMID:25481924

  5. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems. PMID:22799560

  6. Section 4. The GIS Weasel User's Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland J.; Leavesley, George H.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The GIS Weasel was designed to aid in the preparation of spatial information for input to lumped and distributed parameter hydrologic or other environmental models. The GIS Weasel provides geographic information system (GIS) tools to help create maps of geographic features relevant to a user's model and to generate parameters from those maps. The operation of the GIS Weasel does not require the user to be a GIS expert, only that the user have an understanding of the spatial information requirements of the environmental simulation model being used. The GIS Weasel software system uses a GIS-based graphical user interface (GUI), the C programming language, and external scripting languages. The software will run on any computing platform where ArcInfo Workstation (version 8.0.2 or later) and the GRID extension are accessible. The user controls the processing of the GIS Weasel by interacting with menus, maps, and tables. The purpose of this document is to describe the operation of the software. This document is not intended to describe the usage of this software in support of any particular environmental simulation model. Such guides are published separately.

  7. FACET: The New User Facility at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.J.; Erikson, R.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Li, S.Z.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; Seryi, A.; Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.

    2011-12-13

    FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Its high power electron and positron beams make it a unique facility, ideal for beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration studies. The first 2 km of the SLAC linac produce 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron and positron beams with short bunch lengths of 20 {mu}m. A final focusing system can produce beam spots 10 {mu}m wide. User-aided Commissioning took place in summer 2011 and FACET will formally come online in early 2012. We present the User Facility, the current features, planned upgrades and the opportunities for further experiments. Accelerators are our primary tool for discovering the fundamental laws to the universe. Each new frontier we probe requires a new, more powerful method. Accelerators are therefore increasing in size and cost. The future of this field requires new accelerating techniques that can reach the high energies required over shorter distances. New concepts for high gradient acceleration include utilizing the wakes in plasma and dielectric and metallic structures. FACET was built to provide a test bed for novel accelerating concepts with its high charge and highly compressed beams. As a test facility unlike any other, it has also attracted groups interested in beam diagnostic techniques and terahertz studies. The first phase of the construction was completed in May 2011. Beam commissioning began in June and was interleaved with the installation of five experiments. Users were invited to aid with the commissioning for the month of August during which time experimental hardware and software were checked out and some first measurements were taken. FACET is currently in the process of becoming a Department of Energy User Facility for High Energy Physics.

  8. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  9. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating or drinking: ...

  10. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  12. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs get into the food, it is called contamination. This can happen in different ways: Meat or ... means the food has been treated to prevent contamination) Undercooked meats or eggs Water from a well ...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3305 Wireless...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3305 Wireless...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3305 Wireless...

  1. Continuing education through computer-aided instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computer-aided and managed instruction has been incorporated into the continuing education program in the Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two Control Data Corporation PLATO terminals have been installed in the learning center, and have been providing individualized instruction to the employees for approximately 2 years. Reactions from users and total usage figures indicate that there are unique advantages to computer-aided instruction. User interaction with a computer assures individual response from a student. The learner must be actively involved in the course and cannot passively allow content to flow by. Complex simulations can be programed and used in the learning process; thus, expensive equipment can be spared the wear and tear attributed to learners. The breadth of course topics included in the on-line library assures that PLATO has a continuing education offering for most employees. New lessons appear on line at the rate of three or four per week; PLATO cost effectiveness is thus certified. Comparisons of courses taken on the terminal to the same or similar courses offered elsewhere indicate that PLATO is advantageous. Computer-aided instruction is available when the learner is ready for initial instruction and later for reviews. At Los Alamos, the demand for PLATO service is growing. The Laboratory will have eight terminals installed and operating by April 1981. 8 tables.

  2. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  3. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  4. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  5. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  6. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  7. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  8. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  9. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... shield, pads, and bandages Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads, non- ... aid manual Hand sanitizer Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage ...

  10. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  11. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  12. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  13. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  14. Sandia Cognitive Aide V2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-15

    The Sandia Cognitive Aide (SCA) collects data from personal computer use and uses this information to make suggestions to the user. It records interactions with MS Outlook, MS Word, MS PowerPoint, and the Internet Explorer, indexing email messages, documents, presentation, and web pages accessed, The user can then query the indexed documents from any Windows application. The system also suggests what it believes to be relevant terms to a given query. The software provides facilitiesmore » for constructing and submitting queries to WWW search engines. This version of the software also enables the user to define different "task contexts" within the user works. The contexts are defined in terms of related terms. The user can associate documents with these contexts. The contexts can be searched as well as the documents. This software is designed to access and utilize the cognitive model being build by Sandia National Laboratories, org. 15311 and uses the STANLEY text analysis library.« less

  15. MFIX documentation: User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, M.

    1994-11-01

    MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) is a general-purpose hydro-dynamic model for describing chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, which typically occur in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give time-dependent information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. The theoretical basis of the calculations is described in the MFIX Theory Guide. This report, which is the MFIX User`s Manual, gives an overview of the numerical technique, and describes how to install the MFIX code and post-processing codes, set up data files and run MFIX, graphically analyze MFIX results, and retrieve data from the output files. Two tutorial problems that highlight various features of MFIX are also discussed.

  16. User`s guide to MIDAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C.; Chun, K.C.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  17. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  18. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  19. [The liver and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  20. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  1. Electronic Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  2. Radiant Heat Test Facility (RHTF): User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelPapa, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the RHTF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  3. Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility (VATF): User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the VATF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  4. Audio Development Laboratory (ADL) User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ADL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Antenna Test Facility (ATF): User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ATF. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  6. Chamber B Thermal/Vacuum Chamber: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montz, Mike E.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of Chamber B. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  7. Structures Test Laboratory (STL). User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipay, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the STL. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  8. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  9. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  10. Quality user support: Supporting quality users

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    During the past decade, fundamental changes have occurred in technical computing in the oil industry. Technical computing systems have moved from local, fragmented quantity, to global, integrated, quality. The compute power available to the average geoscientist at his desktop has grown exponentially. Technical computing applications have increased in integration and complexity. At the same time, there has been a significant change in the work force due to the pressures of restructuring, and the increased focus on international opportunities. The profile of the user of technical computing resources has changed. Users are generally more mature, knowledgeable, and team oriented than their predecessors. In the 1990s, computer literacy is a requirement. This paper describes the steps taken by Oryx Energy Company to address the problems and opportunities created by the explosive growth in computing power and needs, coupled with the contraction of the business. A successful user support strategy will be described. Characteristics of the program include: (1) Client driven support; (2) Empowerment of highly skilled professionals to fill the support role; (3) Routine and ongoing modification to the support plan; (4) Utilization of the support assignment to create highly trained advocates on the line; (5) Integration of the support role to the reservoir management team. Results of the plan include a highly trained work force, stakeholder teams that include support personnel, and global support from a centralized support organization.

  11. Aztec user`s guide. Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    Aztec is an iterative library that greatly simplifies the parallelization process when solving the linear systems of equations Ax = b where A is a user supplied n x n sparse matrix, b is a user supplied vector of length n and x is a vector of length n to be computed. Aztec is intended as a software tool for users who want to avoid cumbersome parallel programming details but who have large sparse linear systems which require an efficiently utilized parallel processing system. A collection of data transformation tools are provided that allow for easy creation of distributed sparse unstructured matrices for parallel solution. Once the distributed matrix is created, computation can be performed on any of the parallel machines running Aztec: nCUBE 2, IBM SP2 and Intel Paragon, MPI platforms as well as standard serial and vector platforms. Aztec includes a number of Krylov iterative methods such as conjugate gradient (CG), generalized minimum residual (GMRES) and stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) to solve systems of equations. These Krylov methods are used in conjunction with various preconditioners such as polynomial or domain decomposition methods using LU or incomplete LU factorizations within subdomains. Although the matrix A can be general, the package has been designed for matrices arising from the approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In particular, the Aztec package is oriented toward systems arising from PDE applications.

  12. Nutrition Education. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Inservice training should motivate school food workers to participate in children's nutrition education. The training lesson includes a series of service manager/director guidelines, information sheets, and an audiovisual aids list. Food staff nutrition lessons for classroom presentation to grades 4 to 6 cover the daily food guide, snacks,…

  13. [Food allergies].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  14. A User's Guide to CGNS. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Poirier, Diane M. A.; Bush, Robert H.; Towne, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    The CFD General Notation System (CGNS) was developed to be a self-descriptive, machine-independent standard for storing CFD aerodynamic data. This guide aids users in the implementation of CGNS. It is intended as a tutorial on the usage of the CGNS mid-level library routines for reading and writing grid and flow solution datasets for both structured and unstructured methodologies.

  15. Semi-Automatic Determination of Citation Relevancy: User Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, G. David

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of online bibliographic database searches focuses on a software system, SORT-AID/SABRE, that ranks retrieved citations in terms of relevance. Results of a comprehensive user evaluation of the relevance ranking procedure to determine its effectiveness are presented, and implications for future work are suggested. (10 references) (LRW)

  16. Tanzanian women's organizations respond to HIV / AIDS. Women's forum.

    PubMed

    Shariff, H

    1995-07-01

    The cumulative number of AIDS cases reported to the National AIDS Control Program from Arusha rose from 579 in 1990 to 1599 in 1994. The Women's AIDS Control Society of Arusha (CHAWAKUA) is a 3-year-old, 100-member organization which educates the public about HIV/AIDS prevention, counsels people who are HIV-seropositive, distributes condoms, and provides child care, including orphan support. CHAWAKUA's goal is to empower women to cope with HIV infection and its effects by providing a forum in which infected women can openly share their experiences and console each other. CHAWAKUA is supported by members' entry and annual fees as well as in-kind contributions of food, clothing, and medicine. A similar organization in Kilimanjaro region, KIWAKKUKI, educates female adolescents about human relations, sexuality, and the consequences of teenage sexual relations. KIWAKKUKI also works with churches, schools, and youth groups; develops educational materials; and airs radio programs about HIV/AIDS. PMID:12291827

  17. Characteristics and determinants of music appreciation in adult CI users.

    PubMed

    Philips, Birgit; Vinck, Bart; De Vel, Eddy; Maes, Leen; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the associations between self-reported listening habits and perception of music and speech perception outcomes in quiet and noise for both unilateral cochlear implant (CI) users and bimodal (CI in one ear, hearing aid in contra-lateral ear) users. Information concerning music appreciation was gathered by means of a newly developed questionnaire. Moreover, audiological data (pure-tone audiometry, speech tests in noise and quiet) were gathered and the relationship between speech perception and music appreciation is studied. Bimodal users enjoy listening to music more in comparison with unilateral CI users. Also, music training within rehabilitation is still uncommon, while CI recipients believe that music training might be helpful to maximize their potential with current CI technology. Music training should not be exclusively reserved for the good speech performers. Therefore, a music training program (MTP) that consists of different difficulty levels should be developed. Hopefully, early implementation of MTP in rehabilitation programs can enable adult CI users to enjoy and appreciate music and to maximize their potential with commercially available technology. Furthermore, because bimodal users consider the bimodal stimulation to be the most enjoyable way to listen to music, CI users with residual hearing in the contra-lateral ear should be encouraged to continue wearing their hearing aid in that ear. PMID:21847672

  18. Radiological Toolbox User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, KF

    2004-07-01

    A toolbox of radiological data has been assembled to provide users access to the physical, chemical, anatomical, physiological and mathematical data relevant to the radiation protection of workers and member of the public. The software runs on a PC and provides users, through a single graphical interface, quick access to contemporary data and the means to extract these data for further computations and analysis. The numerical data, for the most part, are stored within databases in SI units. However, the user can display and extract values using non-SI units. This is the first release of the toolbox which was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  19. Multiple Program Participation: Comparison of Nutrition and Food Assistance Program Benefits with Food Costs in Boston, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; Palombo, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    Boston food costs exceed the combined value of government cash and food assistance benefits that households whose sole income is Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) may receive. This contradicts findings by the General Accounting Office. Food stamps and AFDC benefits indexed to the actual costs of living are needed. (Author/BJV)

  20. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.