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Sample records for food availability snow

  1. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID

  2. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  3. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, T P; Adam, J C; Lettenmaier, D P

    2005-11-17

    All currently available climate models predict a near-surface warming trend under the influence of rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to the direct effects on climate--for example, on the frequency of heatwaves--this increase in surface temperatures has important consequences for the hydrological cycle, particularly in regions where water supply is currently dominated by melting snow or ice. In a warmer world, less winter precipitation falls as snow and the melting of winter snow occurs earlier in spring. Even without any changes in precipitation intensity, both of these effects lead to a shift in peak river runoff to winter and early spring, away from summer and autumn when demand is highest. Where storage capacities are not sufficient, much of the winter runoff will immediately be lost to the oceans. With more than one-sixth of the Earth's population relying on glaciers and seasonal snow packs for their water supply, the consequences of these hydrological changes for future water availability--predicted with high confidence and already diagnosed in some regions--are likely to be severe. PMID:16292301

  4. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: Evidence for variable anorexia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Hobson, K.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research suggests that foods eaten during laying and incubation play a greater role in supplying energy and nutrients to arctic-nesting geese than previously believed. We conducted food-supplementation experiments with Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens) geese to evaluate: (1) if supplemental food was consumed by laying and incubating geese, (2) how food consumption influenced mass dynamics of somatic tissues of breeding geese, (3) if patterns of mass loss were consistent with fasting adaptations, and (4) whether energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their body size than would larger Snow Geese. Quantity of supplemental food eaten by both species during laying and incubation was highly variable among individuals. Consumption of supplemental food during laying resulted in differences in overall body composition between control and treatment females. Treatment female Ross's Geese completed laying at a higher mass and with more abdominal fat than controls, whereas treatment female Snow Geese completed laying with heavier breast muscles and hearts. Overall body composition did not differ between control and treatment geese (both sexes and species) at the end of incubation, but treatment geese had heavier hearts than control geese. This suggests that treatment females did not rely to the same extent on metabolic adaptations associated with anorexia to meet energetic costs of incubation as did controls. Stable-nitrogen isotope analysis revealed patterns of protein maintenance during incubation consistent with metabolic adaptations to prolonged fasting. Our prediction that energetic constraints would cause smaller Ross's Geese to consume more food relative to their size than would Snow Geese was not supported. Mass-specific food consumption by Ross's Geese was 30% lower than that of Snow Geese during laying and 48% higher during incubation.

  5. Food availability/convenience and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight. PMID:25398746

  6. Food Availability/Convenience and Obesity12345

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood environments have received considerable attention in recent local, state, and national obesity prevention initiatives, with a particular focus on food deserts, or areas with poor access to healthy foods. Yet, there are inconsistencies in the evidence base, suggesting a nuanced association between neighborhood environment, food availability, diet behaviors, and obesity. There is heterogeneity in associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes across race/ethnicity, gender, region, and urbanicity, which results in complexity in the interpretation of findings. There are several limitations in the literature, including a predominance of cross-sectional studies, reliance on commercial business listings, lack of attention to the process by which diet resources are established and expanded within neighborhoods and the potential for individuals to selectively migrate to locate near such facilities, a predominant focus on residential neighborhoods, and lack of information about the decision-making process underlying purchasing patterns. More research is needed to address the complexity of individual-level residential decision making as well as the purposeful placement of food environment resources across social and geographic space using longitudinal data and complex statistical approaches. In addition, improvements in data quality and depth related to food access and availability are needed, including behavioral data on purchase patterns and interactions with the food environment, and greater attention to heterogeneity across subpopulations. As policy changes to the food environment move forward, it is critical that there is rigorous and scientific evaluation of environmental changes and their impact on individual-level diet choices and behaviors, and their further influence on body weight. PMID:25398746

  7. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  8. 100 Years of Glacier Photographs: Available Online at the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballagh, L. M.; Wolfe, J.; Wang, I.; Casey, A.; Fetterer, F.

    2004-12-01

    Historic glacier photographs can be used to study fluctuations in glacier extent over time in response to climate change. Researchers can also use the photographs to approximate changes in glacier terminus location and mass balance. The "Glacier Photograph Collection" at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) contains approximately 5,000 photographs, including both aerial and terrestrial images. NSIDC received funding from the NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) to digitize a portion of the photographs and make an Online Glacier Photograph Database available. The CDMP's primary objective is to preserve climate data and facilitate access to the data. Although digitizing images is expensive, long-term data preservation is a major benefit. When historic photographs are stored on film, images can easily be scratched or damaged. Scanning the images and having them online makes browsing images easier for users. At present, there are 1,313 glacier photographs available online. Additional photos and metadata are being added. The Online Glacier Photograph Database will date from 1883 to 1995, totaling nearly 3,000 photographs available as high resolution TIFF images and lower resolution reference images and thumbnails by the end of 2004. Maintaining accurate metadata records for each photograph is very important. The database is searchable by various fields, including photographer name, photograph date, glacier name, glacier coordinates, state/province, and keyword.

  9. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-domintaed rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  10. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  11. [A comparison of parrot food commercially available in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Robben, J H; Lumeij, J T

    1989-01-01

    The composition of a number of parrot foods commercially available in the Netherlands was put to the test for the (partly hypothetical) needs of the larger psittacine birds such as African Grey parrots, Amazon parrots, macaws and cockatoos. These studies showed that the majority of the foods is multideficient. When the deficient foods are supplied to parrots without any additions, this will give rise to the appearance of disease. However, some of the products recently put on the market (Bogena and Kasper Fauna Food) comply better with the requirements of a 'complete parrot food'. As regards public enlightenment, food producers, petshops, consumer organisations and veterinarians are obviously responsible. PMID:2913689

  12. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  13. The value of data availability versus model complexity to estimate snow, glacier and rain water in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Vis, Marc; Seibert, Jan

    2014-05-01

    various observational datasets in order to constrain model parameters and compute realistic discharge estimations. Finally, we postulate based on the comparison of model performance of HBV-light and the physically based, fully distributed model that the availability and use of different datasets to calibrate hydrological models might be more important than model complexity in regard to realistic predictions of runoff composition. REFERENCES: Finger, D., A. Hugentobler, M. Huss, A. Voinesco, H.R. Wernli, D. Fischer, E. Weber, P-Y. Jeannin, M. Kauzlaric, A. Wirz, T. Vennemann, F. Hüsler, B. Schädler, and R. Weingartner (2013). Identification of glacial melt water runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. 10, 1-45, doi: 10.5194/hessd-10-1-2013. Finger, D., Heinrich, G., Gobiet, A., and Bauder, A.: Projections of future water resources and their uncertainty in a glacierized catchment in the Swiss Alps and the subsequent effects on hydropower production during the 21st century, Water Resources Research, 48, doi: 10.1029/2011wr010733, W02521, 2012. Finger, D., Pellicciotti, F., Konz, M., Rimkus, S., and Burlando, P.: The value of glacier mass balance, satellite snow cover images, and hourly discharge for improving the performance of a physically based distributed hydrological model, Water Resources Research, 47, doi: W07519, 10.1029/2010wr009824, 2011. Huss, M.: Present and future contribution of glacier storage change to runoff from macroscale drainage basins in Europe, Water Resources Research, 47, doi: W07511, 10.1029/2010wr010299, 2011. Seibert, J., and Vis, M. J. P.: Teaching hydrological modeling with a user-friendly catchment-runoff-model software package, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3315-3325, doi: 10.5194/hess-16-3315-2012, 2012.

  14. #AskBerkeleyLab: Cost and Availability of Healthy Food

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2014-10-22

    Shashi Buluswar, Executive Director at the LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies, answers a question from Ashley on why healthy food costs so much and is not available in low-income neighborhoods.

  15. 77 FR 471 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This notice announces the surplus and purchased foods that the Department expects to make available for donation to States for use in providing nutrition assistance to the needy under The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The foods made available under this notice must, at the discretion of the State, be distributed to eligible recipient agencies for use in......

  16. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Robinson, Hugh S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Alaback, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between foraging ecology and the presence of human-dominated landscapes is important, particularly for American black bears (Ursus americanus), which sometimes move between wildlands and urban areas to forage. The food-related factors influencing this movement have not been explored, but can be important for understanding the benefits and costs to black bear foraging behavior and the fundamental origins of bear conflicts. We tested whether the scarcity of wildland foods or the availability of urban foods can explain when black bears forage near houses, examined the extent to which male bears use urban areas in comparison to females, and identified the most important food items influencing bear movement into urban areas. We monitored 16 collared black bears in and around Missoula, Montana, during 2009 and 2010, while quantifying the rate of change in green vegetation and the availability of 5 native berry-producing species outside the urban area, the rate of change in green vegetation, and the availability of apples and garbage inside the urban area. We used parametric time-to-event models in which an event was a bear location collected within 100 m of a house. We also visited feeding sites located near houses and quantified food items bears had eaten. The probability of a bear being located near a house was 1.6 times higher for males, and increased during apple season and the urban green-up. Fruit trees accounted for most of the forage items at urban feeding sites (49%), whereas wildland foods composed <10%. Black bears foraged on human foods near houses even when wildland foods were available, suggesting that the absence of wildland foods may not influence the probability of bears foraging near houses. Additionally, other attractants, in this case fruit trees, appear to be more important than the availability of garbage in influencing when bears forage near houses.

  17. Performance of the snowmelt runoff model when remotely-sensed estimates of snow covered area are not available

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) is usually run with snow cover depletion data. These daily depletion data can be derived through interpolation of periodic, remotely sensed measurements of basin snow covered area (SCA). It is also possible to run SRM successfully without snow depletion data in “no sn...

  18. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  19. Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, Charlotte; Bosch, Guido; van der Poel, Antonius F B; Wierenga, Peter A; Alexander, Lucille; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2014-01-01

    The Maillard reaction can occur during processing of pet foods. During this reaction, the ε-amino group of lysine reacts with reducing sugars to become unavailable for metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the reactive lysine (RL; the remaining available lysine) to total lysine (TL) ratio of commercial pet foods and to evaluate whether RL levels meet minimal lysine requirements (MLR). Sixty-seven extruded, canned and pelleted commercially available dog and cat foods for growth and maintenance were analysed for proximate nutrient composition, TL and RL. RL was expressed on a metabolisable energy basis and compared with the MLR for maintenance and growth. In dog foods, average RL:TL ratios were 0·87 (se 0·02) for extruded, 0·97 (se 0·02) for canned and 0·85 (se 0·01) for pelleted foods, with the lowest ratio of 0·77 in an extruded diet for growing dogs. In extruded and canned cat foods, the average ratio was 0·91 (se 0·02) and 0·90 (se 0·03), respectively, with the lowest ratio being 0·67 in an extruded diet for growing cats. Variation in the RL:TL ratio between and within processing type indicate that ingredients rather than processing might be the key factor influencing RL content in pet foods. Eight dry foods for growing dogs had RL contents between 96 and 138 % of MLR, indicating that RL has to be between 62 and 104 % digestible to meet the MLR. Considering the variability in RL digestibility, these foods could be at risk of not meeting the MLR for growing dogs. Ingredients and pet foods should be characterised with respect to the RL content and digestibility, to avoid limitations in the lysine supply to growing dogs. PMID:26101604

  20. Epinephrine autoinjector availability among children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those <5 years old. Many children do not have their epinephrine autoinjectors readily available despite parental report. Epinephrine autoinjector training improved the odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector readily available. Continued patient education on the importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important. PMID:21781405

  1. Improved food availability for food security in Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ray-Yu; Hanson, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Food security requires that all people can access sufficient food for a healthy life. Enough food is produced to feed the global population, but more than 1.02 billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition and chronic food insecurity are widespread in some countries of the Asia-Pacific region; as much as 20 to 60 percent of the region's population lacks sufficient food to meet their minimum energy requirement. Food security greatly depends on food availability, although this alone is not sufficient to secure satisfactory nutritional status. Food security at the national level requires an effective framework of food, health, and economic systems coupled with awareness and consideration of environmental conditions. To improve food availability and security in the short term, lower income countries should focus on increasing productivity in the food system to generate higher incomes for workers on-farm and off-farm in the food chain. Over the long term, sustainable and small-scale farming based on ecologically viable systems should be the emphasis for agricultural development. Nutrition and health sectors should help promote food-based approaches that lead to diversification of crops, balanced diets, and ultimately better health. PMID:19965357

  2. Dining Dovekies Demand, "When, Where and What's for Dinner?" The Impact of Seasonal Changes in Snow Melt and the Development of the Arctic Marine Food Web on Seabirds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnovsky, N. J.; Harding, A.; Welcker, J.; Brown, Z. W.; Kitaysky, A.; Kwasniewski, S.; Walkusz, W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Atlantic sector of the Arctic is undergoing widespread climate change with increases in air and sea temperatures which impact the timing of ice retreat, snow melt and the development of the marine food web. Dovekies (Alle alle) are small seabirds that migrate to the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic to feed in ice free waters that have abundant lipid-rich zooplankton. In the Greenland Sea, the dovekies are largely dependent on the advection of Calanus copepods into the area. We hypothesized that dovekies breeding adjacent to water masses which bring smaller, less energy-rich prey into the region (Calanus finmarchicus), work harder to find food and have higher stress levels. We tested this hypothesis by attaching time-depth recorders to provisioning dovekies at three colonies adjacent to different water masses (the West Spistbergen Current, the East Greenland Current, and the Sorkapp Current). We determined the length of time dovekies at different colonies spent at-sea collecting food for themselves and their chicks. We measured circulating corticosteroid hormone levels in their blood to assess stress levels. We collected chick meals to determine the energetic content of prey fed chicks at the different colonies. We found that dovekies are sensitive to the quality of prey available to them. Dovekies exposed to less profitable prey made longer foraging trips and worked harder while at-sea to collect prey for themselves and their chicks. Furthermore, over the past 50 years, dovekies breeding along the western shores of Spitsbergen have initiated breeding earlier in spring as their nest sites have become snow-free at earlier dates. We evaluate the impact of earlier breeding and the timing of the development of the marine food web within different currents which advect and/or support Calanus copepods into the Greenland Sea. Future possible declines in dovekies may impact terrestrial food webs which are highly influenced by the annual input of nitrogen rich guano on the

  3. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  4. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). Results The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Conclusion Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively. PMID:23672409

  5. Seston Dynamics and Food Availability on Mussel and Cockle Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaal, A. C.; Haas, H. A.

    1997-08-01

    To provide a better understanding of seston dynamics in relation to food supply to the benthos, a series of 13-h tidal cycle sampling programmes was executed in the Oosterschelde estuary (The Netherlands). Samples were taken near the surface and near the bottom on two subtidal mussel cultivation plots and on two intertidal cockle beds. Long-term annual variablity of seston concentrations was lower than coefficients of variance of the short-term tidal cycle seston data at the intertidal stations, and higher than at the subtidal stations. Near-bottom relative to surface concentrations were highest for suspended particulate matter (SPM), followed by particulate organic carbon (POC), and chlorophyll. There was no food depletion near the bottom but food quality was lower, presumably due to re-suspension of sediment, including low-quality biodeposits. Chlorophyll concentrations were lower in ebb than flood water at all stations, which was ascribed to feeding activity of the bivalves. At the subtidal stations, SPM and POC concentrations were also lower during low water, owing to sedimentation. There was a positive correlation at the intertidal stations of seston quantity with wind speed and wave action. At a wave length exceeding twice the water depth, re-suspension of low quality bottom material was observed and seston quality decreased. It was concluded that food availability for benthic suspension feeders was lower than suggested by routine monitoring data. At the intertidal stations, food quality was further reduced during periods of increased wind velocities and wave action. The low near-bottom food quality can partly be considered as an effect of the feeding activity of the benthic suspension feeders.

  6. Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Seiden, Andrew; Hawley, Nicola; Schulz, Dirk; Raifman, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe long term food availability and prices from 1961 to 2007 and BMI trends from 1980–2010 in Samoa, and to contextualize these trends within political, economic, cultural, behavioral, and climatic influences. Methods National level data on food availability and pricing were obtained from the open access database FAO (http://faostat.fao.org). Data for Samoa were collected from annual food balance sheets available for the period 1961 to 2007. Mean BMI for Samoan men and women ages 35–44 years of age is reported from four different time periods, 1979–82, 1991, 2003, and 2010. Results Total energy availability increased substantially, by 47%, with more than 900 extra calories available per capita per day in 2007 than in 1961. Many of these extra calories are supplied by dietary fat, the availability of which rose by a proportionally greater amount, 73%. Availability of both meat and vegetable oils rose substantially. Poultry meat increased the most proportionally, from 10 to 117 kcal per capita per day. Coconut products, fruit and starchy root crops – all locally grown – showed little to no increase over this time. As import prices for poultry and mutton increased their availability decreased, but the availability of vegetable oils rose despite a rise in their price. Mean BMI for men and women ages 35–44 years rose 18% rise from 1980–2010. Conclusions These long-term trends in food availability and prices, and the temporal pattern of BMI provide national level data for understanding the process of the nutrition transition in Samoa. Further work on consumer food prices, diet, food security and health is needed to further contextualize the transformation of the local food system in Samoa. PMID:22371334

  7. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  8. Interactions between oxygen homeostasis, food availability, and hydrogen sulfide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iranon, Nicole N.; Miller, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to stressful conditions is essential to maintain organismal homeostasis. It has long been recognized that stress response factors that improve survival in changing conditions can also influence longevity. In this review, we discuss different strategies used by animals in response to decreased O2 (hypoxia) to maintain O2 homeostasis, and consider interactions between hypoxia responses, nutritional status, and H2S signaling. O2 is an essential environmental nutrient for almost all metazoans as it plays a fundamental role in development and cellular metabolism. However, the physiological response(s) to hypoxia depend greatly on the amount of O2 available. Animals must sense declining O2 availability to coordinate fundamental metabolic and signaling pathways. It is not surprising that factors involved in the response to hypoxia are also involved in responding to other key environmental signals, particularly food availability. Recent studies in mammals have also shown that the small gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against cellular damage and death in hypoxia. These results suggest that H2S signaling also integrates with hypoxia response(s). Many of the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of hypoxia, food deprivation, and H2S signaling have also been implicated in the control of lifespan. Understanding how these pathways are coordinated therefore has the potential to reveal new cellular and organismal homeostatic mechanisms that contribute to longevity assurance in animals. PMID:23233860

  9. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....120 Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. (a) The Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20.120 Records available in Food and...

  11. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available "Spirulina" food supplements.

    PubMed

    Vardaka, Elisabeth; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as "Spirulina." While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of "Spirulina" supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of "Spirulina" dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9-157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  12. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinjiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Itsubo, Norihiro; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of freshwater use is often evaluated based on the total volume of water consumption or withdrawal. However, the renewable freshwater resource and potential impacts of water depletion differ with location and water source. In addition, most estimates of the environmental impacts of water use have focused on depletion from a single-source perspective without separating geographically different water sources. Therefore, comprehensive potential impacts from multiple water sources remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the potential impacts of the global food production on freshwater availability (water availability footprint), applying the Water Availability Factor (fwa). Each water source including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater had individual fwa, which is calculated based on the geophysical hydrological cycle, to reflect the differences among renewable freshwater resources by place and source. The fwa for each water source was estimated based on land area or time period required to obtain the reference volume of freshwater. The reference volume was regarded as 1 m3 of rainfall over an area of 1.0 m2 (1,000 mm/year), based on the global mean annual precipitation. This concept is consistent with the Ecological Footprint (EF), which measures how much biologically productive land area is required to provide the resources consumed. The EF concept is measured in global hectares, a standardized unit equal to one hectare with global average bioproductivity. We found that the current agriculture consumes freshwater resources at 1.3 times the rapid rate than sustainable water use. This rate can also indicate environmental water scarcity. Among environmentally water-scarce countries, well-financed countries tend to import cereal products as virtual water to compensate for their domestic water resources. Among water-abundant countries, well-financed countries tend to export cereal products by exploiting their freshwater availability. The fwa

  13. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  14. 21 CFR 1.243 - Is food registration information available to the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is food registration information available to the public? 1.243 Section 1.243 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Registration of Food Facilities Additional Provisions §...

  15. Simulation of water available for runoff in clearcut forest openings during rain-on-snow events in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Heeswijk, Marijke; Kimball, J.S.; Marks, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Rain-on-snow events are common on mountain slopes within the transient-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest. These events make more water available for runoff than does precipitation alone by melting the snowpack and by adding a small amount of condensate to the snowpack. In forest openings (such as those resulting from clearcut logging), the amount of snow that accumulates and the turbulent- energy input to the snowpack are greater than below forest stands. Both factors are believed to contribute to a greater amount of water available for runoff during rain-on-snow events in forest openings than forest stands. Because increased water available for runoff may lead to increased downstream flooding and erosion, knowledge of the amount of snowmelt that can occur during rain on snow and the processes that control snowmelt in forest openings is useful when making land-use decisions. Snow accumulation and melt were simulated for clearcut conditions only, using an enery- balance approach that accounts for the most important energy and mass exchanges between a snowpack and its environment. Meteorological measurements provided the input for the simulations. Snow accumulation and melt were not simulated in forest stands because interception of precipitation processes are too complex to simulate with a numerical model without making simplifying assumptions. Such a model, however, would need to be extensively tested against representative observations, which were not available for this study. Snowmelt simulated during three rain-on-snow events (measured in a previous study in a clearcut in the transient-snow zone of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon) demonstrated that melt generation is most sensitive to turbulent- energy exchanges between the air and the snowpack surface. As a result, the most important climate variable that controls snowmelt is wind speed. Air temperature, however, is a significant variable also. The wind speeds were light, with a maximum of 3

  16. 75 FR 17145 - Food Additives; Bisphenol A; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Bisphenol A (BPA) and soliciting public comments on the four documents prepared by FDA's Center for Food... BPA, on which an interim update was recently provided. (See http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealth... considered by FDA as it continues its safety assessment of BPA. This action will enable FDA to...

  17. To eat or not to eat: Effects of food availability on reward system activity during food picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Blechert, Jens; Klackl, Johannes; Miedl, Stephan F; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2016-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies have started to explore the role of food characteristics (e.g., calorie-content) and psychological factors (e.g., restrained eating, craving) for the human appetitive system, motivated by the significant health implications of food-choice, overeating and overweight/obesity. However, one key aspect of modern food environments, food availability, especially of high energy foods, has not been adequately modeled in experimental research. Food that is immediately available for consumption could elicit stronger reward system activity and associated cognitive control than food that is not currently available for consumption and this could vary as a function of energy density. To examine this question, 32 healthy participants (16 women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing available foods - i.e. foods that could be eaten during and after the experiment - and unavailable foods of either high or low-caloric density in a 2 × 2 design. Available compared to unavailable foods elicited higher palatability ratings as well as stronger neural activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and left caudate nucleus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - and thus structures implicated in reward and appetitive motivation as well as cognitive control, respectively. Availability effects in the caudate were mainly attributable to the high calorie condition (availability × calorie density interaction). These neuroimaging results support the contention that foods are particularly rewarding when immediately available and particularly so when high in caloric density. Thus, our results are consistent with health promoting interventions utilizing a nudging approach, i.e. aiming at decreasing accessibility of high calorie and increasing accessibility of low calorie foods in daily life. Results also imply that controlling/manipulating food availability may be an important methodological aspect in neuroscientific

  18. BOREAS HYD-3 Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains measurements of snow depth, snow density in three cm intervals, an integrated snow pack density and snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow pack physical properties from snow pit evaluation taken in 1994 and 1996. The data were collected from several sites in both the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA). A variety of standard tools were used to measure the snow pack properties, including a meter stick (snow depth), a 100 cc snow density cutter, a dial stem thermometer, and the Canadian snow sampler as used by HYD-4 to obtain a snow pack-integrated measure of SWE. This study was undertaken to predict spatial distributions of snow properties important to the hydrology, remote sensing signatures, and the transmissivity of gases through the snow. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The snow measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Assessing gull abundance and food availability in urban parking lots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Daniel E.; Whitney, Jillian J.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Feeding birds is a common activity throughout the world; yet, little is known about the extent of feeding gulls in urban areas. We monitored 8 parking lots in central Massachusetts, USA, during the fall and winter of 2011 to 2013 in 4 monitoring sessions to document the number of gulls present, the frequency of human–gull feeding interactions, and the effectiveness of signage and direct interaction in reducing human-provisioned food. Parking lots were divided between “education” and “no-education” lots. In education lots, we erected signs about problems caused when people feed birds and also asked people to stop feeding birds. We did not erect signs or ask people to stop feeding birds at no-education lots. We spent >1,200 hours in parking lots (range = 136 to 200 hours per parking lot), and gulls were counted every 20 minutes. We conducted >4,000 counts, and ring-billed gulls (Lorus delawarensis) accounted for 98% of all gulls. Our educational efforts were minimally effective. There were fewer feedings (P = 0.01) in education lots during one of the monitoring sessions but significantly more gulls (P = 0.008) in education lots during 2 monitoring sessions. While there was a marginal decrease (P = 0.055) in the number of feedings after no-education lots were transformed into education lots, there was no difference in gull numbers in these lots (P = 0.16). Education appears to have some influence in reducing the number of people feeding gulls, but our efforts were not able to reduce the number of human feeders or the amount of food enough to influence the number of gulls using parking lots.

  20. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41%) of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2%) were convenience stores and 12 (5.8%) supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health outcomes, and identify

  1. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1) developing the methodology for the direct observation of the presence and amount of food items in the home; 2) conducting five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; and 3) determining the frequency that food items were present in the participating households. Methods After the development and pre-testing of the 251-item home observation guide that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained researchers recruited a convenience sample of 9 households (44.4% minority); administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, food resources, and food security); and conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period. Each in-home assessment included food-related activities since the last assessment, and an observational survey of types and amounts of foods present. Results Complete data were collected from all 9 women (32.8 y ± 6.0; 3 married; 4 ± 1.6 adults/children in household; 4 received food assistance; and 6 had very low food security) and their households. Weekly grocery purchases (place, amount, and purpose) varied from once (n = 1) to every week (n = 5); 4 used fast food 2-3 times/wk for 4 weeks. The weekly presence and amounts of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and dairy varied. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting multiple in-home assessments was confirmed with 100% retention of participants through 5 in

  2. Appalachia Snow

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... on December 4 and 5, 2002, also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and ...

  3. Measuring food availability and accessibility among adolescents: Moving beyond the neighbourhood boundary.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cindy; Rainham, Daniel; Blanchard, Chris; Dummer, Trevor; Lyons, Renee; Kirk, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Geographic methods have provided insight about food location availability and accessibility in understanding neighbourhood variations in health. However, quantifying exposure to food locations within a pre-defined range of an individual's residence ignores locations outside of the residential neighbourhood encountered in daily life. Global positioning system (GPS) data enables exploration of multiple contextual influences on health. This study defines place in relation to behaviour, employing GPS data to 1) describe adolescent food environments within and outside of the residential buffer, 2) quantify actual food location visits, and 3) explore associations between availability and accessibility of food locations and dietary intake. Adolescents (N = 380; ages 12-16), wore GPS loggers for up to seven days. Availability and accessibility of food locations were defined by counts and distances to food locations within a 15-min walk (1 km) of home, as well as within 50 m of an adolescent's GPS track. We compared the proportion of food locations within the residential buffer to the proportion outside but within the GPS buffer. These proportions were compared to counts and distances to food locations actually visited. We explored associations between food location availability and accessibility with dietary intake variables. Food location availability and accessibility was greater and visits occurred more commonly outside of the residential buffer than within it. Food location availability and accessibility was greater for urban than suburban and rural adolescents. There were no associations between home-based measures of availability and accessibility and dietary intake and only one for GPS-based measures, with greater distance to convenience stores associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption. This study provides important descriptive information about adolescent exposure to food locations. Findings confirm that traditional home-based approaches

  4. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  5. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  6. Availability of Non-Nutritious Foods in Alberta Schools. Research Bulletin 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    School authorities in a total of 68 Alberta school jurisdictions (representing 82 percent of the student population of the province) responded to a request for details about the availability in schools of nonnutritious foods--defined as food that contains minimal nutrients in proportion to number of calories. Foods that are commonly consumed at…

  7. City Level of Income and Urbanization and Availability of Food Stores and Food Service Places in China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Tan, Yayun; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Shengfeng; Yu, Canqing; Cao, Weihua; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Objective The contribution of unhealthy dietary patterns to the epidemic of obesity has been well recognized. Differences in availability of foods may have an important influence on individual eating behaviors and health disparities. This study examined the availability of food stores and food service places by city characteristics on city level of income and urbanization. Methods The cross-sectional survey was comprised of two parts: (1) an on-site observation to measure availability of food stores and food service places in 12 cities of China; (2) an in-store survey to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits in all food stores. Trained investigators walked all the streets/roads within study tracts to identify all the food outlets. An observational survey questionnaire was used in all food stores to determine the presence of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits. Urbanization index was determined for each city using a principal components factor analysis. City level of income and urbanization and numbers of each type of food stores and food service places were examined using negative binomial regression models. Results Large-sized supermarkets and specialty retailers had higher number of fresh/frozen vegetables or fruits sold compared to small/medium-sized markets. High-income versus low-income, high urbanized versus low urbanized areas had significantly more large-sized supermarkets and fewer small/medium-sized markets. In terms of restaurants, high urbanized cities had more western fast food restaurants and no statistically significant difference in the relative availability of any type of restaurants was found between high- and low-income areas. Conclusions The findings suggested food environment disparities did exist in different cities of China. PMID:26938866

  8. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  9. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    PubMed

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  10. Agriculture and food availability -- remote sensing of agriculture for food security monitoring in the developing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.

  11. Small Food Stores and Availability of Nutritious Foods: A Comparison of Database and In-Store Measures, Northern California, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara; Kelly, Maggi; Adler, Nancy; Yen, Irene H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Small food stores are prevalent in urban neighborhoods, but the availability of nutritious food at such stores is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether data from 3 sources would yield a single, homogenous, healthful food store category that can be used to accurately characterize community nutrition environments for public health research. Methods We conducted in-store surveys in 2009 on store type and the availability of nutritious food in a sample of nonchain food stores (n = 102) in 6 predominantly urban counties in Northern California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Santa Clara). We compared survey results with commercial database information and neighborhood sociodemographic data by using independent sample t tests and classification and regression trees. Results Sampled small food stores yielded a heterogeneous group of stores in terms of store type and nutritious food options. Most stores were identified as convenience (54%) or specialty stores (22%); others were small grocery stores (19%) and large grocery stores (5%). Convenience and specialty stores were smaller and carried fewer nutritious and fresh food items. The availability of nutritious food and produce was better in stores in neighborhoods that had a higher percentage of white residents and a lower population density but did not differ significantly by neighborhood income. Conclusion Commercial databases alone may not adequately categorize small food stores and the availability of nutritious foods. Alternative measures are needed to more accurately inform research and policies that seek to address disparities in diet-related health conditions. PMID:22789445

  12. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  13. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  14. Baltimore City Stores Increased The Availability Of Healthy Food After WIC Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Bilal, Usama; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    As part of a 2009 revision to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, the Department of Agriculture required WIC-authorized stores to stock additional varieties of healthy food. The long-term effects of this policy on access to healthy food are unknown. Using surveys conducted in 118 Baltimore City, Maryland, food stores in 2006 and 2012, we examined associations of the change in healthy food availability with store type, neighborhood demographics, and the 2009 WIC policy change. Overall, healthy food availability improved significantly between 2006 and 2012, with the greatest increases in corner stores and in census tracts with more than 60 percent black residents. On an 11-point scale measuring availability of fruit (3 points), vegetables (4 points), bread (2 points), and milk (2 points), the WIC policy change was associated with a 0.72-point increase in WIC-relevant healthy food availability, while joining WIC was associated with a 0.99-point increase. Stores that carry a limited variety of food items may be more receptive to stocking healthier food than previously thought, particularly within neighborhoods with a majority of black residents. Policies targeting healthy food availability have the potential to increase availability and decrease health disparities. PMID:26526242

  15. Functional responses to food diversity: the effect of seed availability on the feeding of facultative granivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative importance and availability of different foods to animals is critical in determining how they function within food webs. We examined how the diverse communities of carabid beetles and crickets in a perennial hayfield respond to seed availability numerically and in their feeding behavior...

  16. Snow Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    It was nearing the end of a very long, rough winter with a lot of snow and too little time to play outside. The snow had formed small hills and valleys over the bushes and this was at the perfect height for the students to paint. In this article, the author describes how her transitional first-grade students created snow art paintings. (Contains 1…

  17. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Helen

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, research and public policy attention has increasingly focused on understanding whether modifiable aspects of the local food environment - the types and composition of food outlets families have proximate access to - are drivers of and potential solutions to the problem of childhood obesity in the United States. Given that much of the earlier published research has documented greater concentrations of fast-food outlets alongside limited access to large grocery stores in neighborhoods with higher shares of racial/ethnic minority groups and residents living in poverty, differences in retail food contexts may indeed exacerbate notable child obesity disparities along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines. This paper examines whether the lack of access to more healthy food retailers and/or the greater availability of "unhealthy" food purveyors in residential neighborhoods explains children's risk of excessive weight gain, and whether differential food availability explains obesity disparities. I do so by analyzing a national survey of U.S. children followed over elementary school (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort) who are linked to detailed, longitudinal food availability measures from a comprehensive business establishment database (the National Establishment Time Series). I find that children who live in residentially poor and minority neighborhoods are indeed more likely to have greater access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. However, these neighborhoods also have greater access to other food establishments that have not been linked to increased obesity risk, including large-scale grocery stores. When examined in a multi-level modeling framework, differential exposure to food outlets does not independently explain weight gain over time in this sample of elementary school-aged children. Variation in residential food outlet availability also does not explain socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences. It may thus be

  18. 75 FR 78674 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... in FY 2010 are being delivered to States in FY 2011. These foods include potatoes, cran-apple juice, apple juice, cranberry sauce, dried cranberries, dried cherries, strawberries, applesauce, wild..., blackeye beans, garbanzo beans, great northern beans, light red kidney beans, lentils, lima beans,...

  19. Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livore, Juan P.; Connell, Sean D.

    2012-02-01

    The origin of food is recognised to be an important trait for sedentary consumers that have little control over the source of their food. Elevated herbivory in sea urchins is often linked to poor gonad condition as provoked by reduced food availability, but there is little recognition of the possibility that the origin of food may contribute to their poor condition and elevated feeding. This study assesses the possibility that variation in food availability and origin may together affect urchin condition and feeding rates such that they account for more intensive grazing (by Heliocidaris erythrogramma) on sheltered than exposed coasts (South Australia). We experimentally tested the hypothesis that reduced food availability from sheltered coasts would result in poor gonad condition and greater feeding rate; whilst enhanced food availability from exposed coasts would result in better condition and reduced feeding rates. We found that reduced food had negative effects on condition and positive effects on feeding rates independently of coastal source. Greater food availability did not equate to better condition, rather it was the delivery of more food from exposed than sheltered coasts that translated into the better gonad condition and lower feeding rates. These results suggest that plant origin and availability could help explain the greater impacts of these urchins on sheltered coasts. Whilst other factors such as water energy and sea urchin density may contribute to variation in herbivory our results suggest that origin of food may also play a role in sea urchin condition and behaviour. Understanding how such traits link to large scale features of the environment may improve models that account for variation in strength of consumer effects across landscapes.

  20. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings. PMID:25236206

  1. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  2. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20... opinions, as well as orders, made in the adjudication of cases; (2) Statements of policy and...

  3. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20... opinions, as well as orders, made in the adjudication of cases; (2) Statements of policy and...

  4. 21 CFR 20.120 - Records available in Food and Drug Administration Public Reading Rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Public Reading Rooms. 20.120 Section 20.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Availability of Specific Categories of Records § 20... opinions, as well as orders, made in the adjudication of cases; (2) Statements of policy and...

  5. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  6. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular) at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38%) and back (median 33%) of store), and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres). Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets. PMID:22420759

  7. Disparities of food availability and affordability within convenience stores in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T S; Salazar, Camerino I; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our "grab and go" society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ (2) = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ (2) = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ (2) = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = -2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  8. Monitoring food and nutrient availability in a nationally representative sample of Bolivian households.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cueto, F J Armando; Naska, Androniki; Monterrey, Javier; Almanza-Lopez, Magaly; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2006-03-01

    The study objective was to estimate food and nutrient availability in Bolivian households using data from the nationally representative under the Programme for the household surveys undertaken yearly from 1999 to 2002 Improvement of Surveys and the Measurement of Living Conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean (MECOVI). In the present study, we analysed data from four repeated, cross-sectional surveys and applied European Data Food Networking (DAFNE) methodology for post-harmonising the data. Raw data of 19 483 households in Bolivia (3035 in 1999, 4857 in 2000, 5845 in 2001 and 5746 in 2002) were retrieved from the databases of the national household surveys. Results showed that the Bolivian diet is characterised by higher availability of foods of plant origin (cereals, fruits, potatoes and vegetables). Meat, milk and their products follow in the dietary preferences of Bolivians. Disparities in food availability within the country were also observed. Rural households systematically recorded lower amounts of food available, in comparison with the urban ones. Households of higher social status recorded higher availability values for all food groups, except for potatoes and cereals. Findings suggest that Bolivian households of lower socio-economic status prefer energy-dense and cheaper food sources. We concluded the dietary and socio-demographic data collected in the MECOVI household surveys could serve nutrition surveillance purposes. In addition, the application of DAFNE methodology for post-harmonising the data allows both national and international comparisons. PMID:16512943

  9. SPATIAL AND DIEL AVAILABILITY OF FLYING INSECTS AS POTENTIAL DUCKLING FOOD IN PRAIRIE WETLANDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined spatial and diel availibility of flying insects that are a critical food resource to young duckings. Insects were sampled in three native prairie wetlands on the Woodworth Study Area of south-central North Dakota.

  10. Competitive foods in schools: Availability and purchasing in predominately rural small and large high schools

    PubMed Central

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Befort, Christie; Davis, Ann McGrath; Snow, Tricia; Mahnken, Jonathan; Hou, Qingjiang; Story, Mary; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Schools have an important role to play in obesity prevention, but little is known about the food environment in small, predominately rural schools. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the availability and student purchasing of foods sold outside of the reimbursable meals program through a la carte (ALC) or vending (i.e., competitive foods) in small (n = 7) and large (n = 6) Kansas high schools. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study design was used to capture the number of ALC and vending items available and purchased, and the fat and caloric content of all available and purchased items on a single school day between January and May 2005. RESULTS Small schools had significantly fewer vending machines than large schools [median=3.0 (range=2.0–5.0) versus 6.5 (range=4.0–8.0), p<0.01]. Vending and ALC items at small schools contained a median of 2.3 fewer fat grams per item (p≤0.05), while vending products contained a median of 25.0 fewer calories per item (p≤0.05) than at large schools. Significantly less fat (median= −15.4 grams/student) and fewer calories (median= −306.8 kcal/student) were purchased per student from all competitive food sources and from ALC (median= −12.9 fat grams and −323.3 kcal/student) by students in small schools compared to students in large schools (p≤0.05). CONCLUSIONS The findings, which highlight less availability and lower energy content from competitive foods at small compared to large schools, have implications for understanding how small schools support their food service programs with limited dependence on competitive foods and the impact that food and nutrition professionals can have on the school environment by providing more oversight into the nutritional quality of foods available. PMID:19394472

  11. Healthful food availability in stores and restaurants--American Samoa, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Kumar, Gayathri; Ayscue, Patrick; Santos, Marjorie; McGuire, Lisa C; Blanck, Heidi M; Nua, Motusa Tuileama

    2015-03-20

    American Samoa, one of the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands, has documented the highest prevalence of adults with obesity (75%) in the world. The nutritionally poor food and beverage environment of food retail venues has been suspected to be a contributing factor, although an evaluation of these venues in American Samoa has not been conducted. In January 2014, American Samoa established an Obesity Task Force to develop policies and strategies to combat obesity. To inform the efforts of the task force, the American Samoa Department of Health and CDC conducted a baseline assessment of the availability, pricing, and promotion of healthful foods at retail food venues. Previously validated food environment assessment tools were modified to incorporate American Samoa foods and administered in a geographically representative sample of 70 stores (nine grocery stores and 61 convenience stores) and 20 restaurants. In convenience stores, healthful items were not found as available as less healthful counterparts, and some healthful items were more expensive than their less healthful counterparts. For restaurants, 70% offered at least one healthful entrée, whereas only 30% had healthful side dishes, such as vegetables. Actions to promote healthy eating, such as providing calorie information, were rare among restaurants. Improving availability, affordability, and the promotion of healthful foods in American Samoa stores and restaurants could support healthy eating among American Samoa residents. PMID:25789743

  12. Influence of food availability on the spatial distribution of juvenile fish within soft sediment nursery habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tableau, A.; Brind'Amour, A.; Woillez, M.; Le Bris, H.

    2016-05-01

    Soft sediments in coastal shallow waters constitute nursery habitats for juveniles of several flatfishes. The quality of a nursery is defined by its capacity to optimize the growth and the survival of juvenile fish. The influence of biotic factors, such as food availability, is poorly studied at the scale of a nursery ground. Whether food availability limits juvenile survival is still uncertain. A spatial approach is used to understand the influence of food availability on the distribution of juvenile fish of various benthic and demersal species in the Bay of Vilaine (France), a productive nursery ground. We quantified the spatial overlap between benthic macro-invertebrates and their predators (juvenile fish) to assess if the latter were spatially covering the most productive areas of the Bay. Three scenarios describing the shapes of the predator-prey spatial relationship were tested to quantify the strength of the relationship and consequently the importance of food availability in determining fish distribution. Our results underline that both food availability and fish densities vary greatly over the nursery ground. When considering small organisational levels (e.g., a single fish species), the predator-prey spatial relationship was not clear, likely because of additional environmental effects not identified here; but at larger organisational level (the whole juvenile fish community), a strong overlap between the fish predators and their prey was identified. The evidence that fish concentrate in sectors with high food availability suggests that either food is the limiting factor in that nursery or/and fish display behavioural responses by optimising their energetic expenditures associated with foraging. Further investigations are needed to test the two hypotheses and to assess the impact of benthic and demersal juvenile fish in the food web of coastal nurseries.

  13. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  14. Effects of substrate differences on water availability for Arctic lichens during the snow-free summers in the High Arctic glacier foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Uchida, Masaki; Tanabe, Yukiko; Inoue, Masakane; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We used observational and experimental analyses to investigate the photosynthetic activity and water relationships of five lichen species attached to different substrates in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N) during the snow-free season in 2009 and 2010. After the rains ceased, lichens and their attached substrates quickly dried, whereas photosynthetic activity in the lichens decreased gradually. The in situ photosynthetic activity was estimated based on the relative electron transportation rate (rETR) in four fruticose lichens: Cetrariella delisei, Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula ssp. mitis, and Cladonia pleurota. The rETR approached zero around noon, although the crustose lichen Ochrolechia frigida grown on biological soil crust (BSC) could acquire water from the BSC and retain its WC to perform positive photosynthesis. The light-rETR relationship curves of the five well-watered lichens were characterized into two types: shade-adapted with photoinhibition for the fruticose lichens, and light-adapted with no photoinhibition for O. frigida. The maximum rETR was expected to occur when they could acquire water from the surrounding air or from substrates during the desiccation period. Our results suggest that different species of Arctic lichens have different water availabilities due to their substrates and/or morphological characteristics, which affect their photosynthetic active periods during the summer.

  15. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes. PMID:17763963

  16. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-09-01

    1. Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. 2. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. 3. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). 4. SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. 5. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species' resilience in the face of global change. PMID:25939669

  17. Flexibility in metabolic rate confers a growth advantage under changing food availability

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B; Ardia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic flexibility in physiological, morphological and behavioural traits can allow organisms to cope with environmental challenges. Given recent climate change and the degree of habitat modification currently experienced by many organisms, it is therefore critical to quantify the degree of phenotypic variation present within populations, individual capacities to change and what their consequences are for fitness. Flexibility in standard metabolic rate (SMR) may be particularly important since SMR reflects the minimal energetic cost of living and is one of the primary traits underlying organismal performance. SMR can increase or decrease in response to food availability, but the consequences of these changes for growth rates and other fitness components are not well known. We examined individual variation in metabolic flexibility in response to changing food levels and its consequences for somatic growth in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). SMR increased when individuals were switched to a high food ration and decreased when they were switched to a low food regime. These shifts in SMR, in turn, were linked with individual differences in somatic growth; those individuals that increased their SMR more in response to elevated food levels grew fastest, while growth at the low food level was fastest in those individuals that depressed their SMR most. Flexibility in energy metabolism is therefore a key mechanism to maximize growth rates under the challenges imposed by variability in food availability and is likely to be an important determinant of species’ resilience in the face of global change. PMID:25939669

  18. MODIS Snow and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorthoy K.; Hoser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Daily, global snow cover maps, and sea ice cover and sea ice surface temperature (IST) maps are derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are available at no cost through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Included on this CD-ROM are samples of the MODIS snow and ice products. In addition, an animation, done by the Scientific Visualization studio at Goddard Space Flight Center, is also included.

  19. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

  20. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed Central

    Oro, Daniel; Cam, Emmanuelle; Pradel, Roger; Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the effects of food availability as a proximate factor affecting local adult survival in long-lived organisms and their consequences at local population dynamics. We used capture-recapture analysis of resightings of 10 birth cohorts of ringed Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii, to estimate adult survival and dispersal (both emigration and immigration). For the first time, permanent emigration (the transient effect in capture-recapture analysis) was modelled for the whole population and not only for the newly marked birds. Gulls exploit to a large extent fishes discarded from trawlers, and a trawling moratorium established since 1991 has decreased food supply for the colony. This was used as a natural experiment of food availability to assess its effects on adult survival and emigration. These and other demographic parameters were used in a projection modelling to assess the probabilities of extinction of the colony under two scenarios of lower and higher food availability. Food availability (together with the age of individuals) influenced emigration probabilities, but not adult survival, which was estimated at 0.91 (s.e. = 0.02). When food was in shorter supply during the chick-rearing period, emigration was very high (ca. 65%) for younger breeders, although this rate decreased sharply with age. Probabilities of extinction were very high when food availability was low, and when environmental stochasticity was introduced, and only stochastic immigration from the outside seemed to prevent extinction. The results highlight the importance of dispersal processes in the population dynamics of long-lived organisms. PMID:15101698

  1. Demand-feeding rhythm in rainbow trout and European catfish. Synchronisation by photoperiod and food availability.

    PubMed

    Bolliet, V; Aranda, A; Boujard, T

    2001-07-01

    The effect of light-dark (LD) cycle and food availability was tested on the demand-feeding rhythm of single and groups of rainbow trout and European catfish. Under LD and free food access, most trout and catfish displayed, respectively, a diurnal and a nocturnal pattern of demand-feeding activity, whereas a few fish or groups of fish switched from diurnalism to nocturnalism or vice versa. In both species held under constant lighting conditions and a restricted feeding (RF) cycle (RF 20:4), the demand-feeding rhythm rapidly synchronised to food availability. The demand-feeding rhythm was under endogenous control and, in rainbow trout, periodogram analysis suggested the existence of two oscillators, one synchronised by photoperiod (LEO) and the other by food (FEO). When submitted to both LD and RF cycles, LD was, at least in the rainbow trout, the dominant zeitgeber synchronising the demand-feeding rhythm. In catfish, food availability rapidly synchronised demand-feeding rhythm. Finally, in both species, the synchronisation of single fish to LD or feed availability appeared slower than that of groups of fish, supporting the idea that social organisation affects the circadian activity in fish. PMID:11495668

  2. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  3. Development and acceptability testing of ready-to-use supplementary food made from locally available food ingredients in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. Methods A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6–18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Results Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Conclusions Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice

  4. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  5. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Colin A.; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Bonnell, Tyler R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  6. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  7. Feeding ecology, food availability and ranging patterns of wild hamadryas baboons at Filoha.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Amy L

    2010-01-01

    Most hamadryas baboons rely on Acacia species for subsistence in their semidesert habitats. Unlike other hamadryas sites, palm forests at Filoha in Awash National Park, Ethiopia, provide the baboons with a preferred food resource close to a commonly used sleeping site. The baboons are expected to feed on doum palm trees when fruit is available, and this resource use should play a role in ranging patterns. This paper describes the feeding ecology, food availability and ranging patterns of a band of wild hamadryas baboons at Filoha from March 2005 to February 2006. Data on feeding and ranging behavior derive from band scans during all-day follows of baboons, and data on food availability derive from monthly phenological monitoring of frequently consumed food species. The baboons fed predominantly on palms when fruit was available, and preferred the flowers of Acacia senegal to its leaves. There was no relationship between daily path length and the proportion of palm fruit in the baboons' diet, but changes in the availability of fruit across the Filoha region appear to mirror the baboons' shifting use of its home range. The large band sizes at Filoha may obscure the effects doum palm fruit might have on ranging patterns. PMID:20714160

  8. Short-term effects of hurricane disturbance on food availability for migrant songbirds during autumn stopover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobbs, R.C.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Jeske, C.W.; Dimiceli, J.; Michot, T.C.; Beck, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of hurricanes on the food resources available to neotropical-nearctic migrant songbirds may provide important insight into the effects of hurricanes on migratory populations. During autumn migration 2006 we investigated the foraging ecology of two species of insectivorous migrants, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), and the availability of their foraging substrates and arthropod food resources in two coastal forests in western Louisiana, which were impacted to different degrees by Hurricane Rita in autumn 2005. Both migrant species attacked prey on bark substrates significantly more frequently, and on live foliage less frequently, in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest (??2 tests, P < 0.05). However, both species attacked prey on bark less than expected given its availability (i.e., migrants avoided bark), and attacked prey on live foliage more than expected given its availability (i.e., migrants selected live foliage), in severely damaged forest (??2 tests, P < 0.03). Branch-clipping revealed that arthropod biomass on live hackberry (Celtis laevigata) and sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana) branches was significantly higher in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). However, because live foliage was significantly less available in severely damaged forest, overall food availability for migrants was lower in severely damaged forest than in lightly damaged forest. Migrant use of, and arthropod biomass on, bark and live-foliage substrates were thus dependent on the availability of those substrates, which differed between sites as a result of hurricane-related habitat disturbance. These results demonstrate that severe hurricane disturbance reduces food availability for insectivorous songbirds during migratory stopover by reducing the availability of preferred foraging substrates. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems. PMID:26236877

  10. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Óscar M.; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items–ripe fruits and young leaves–influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore

  11. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown

  12. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  13. Commercially Available Rapid Methods for Detection of Selected Food-borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Dudley, Edward G; Doores, Stephanie; Cutter, Catherine N

    2016-07-01

    Generally, the enumeration and isolation of food-borne pathogens is performed using culture-dependent methods. These methods are sensitive, inexpensive, and provide both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microorganisms present in a sample, but these are time-consuming. For this reason, researchers are developing new techniques that allow detection of food pathogens in shorter period of time. This review identifies commercially available methods for rapid detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples. Three categories are discussed: immunologically based methods, nucleic acid-based assays, and biosensors. This review describes the basic mechanism and capabilities of each method, discusses the difficulties of choosing the most convenient method, and provides an overview of the future challenges for the technology for rapid detection of microorganisms. PMID:25749054

  14. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment. PMID:21491151

  15. A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.

    PubMed

    Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G

    2015-01-21

    We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although

  16. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P < 0.0001), but not between age classes (P = 0.066). Throughout staging, snow geese consumed more tall cotton-grass during the afternoon than during the morning (P < 0.05). Tall cotton-grass was a larger component of the afternoon diet in September than in August (P < 0.05). In September, snow geese consumed more northern scouring rush in the mornings than in the afternoon (P < 0.05). Nighttime freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  17. Home food availability mediates associations between mothers' nutrition knowledge and child diet.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Abbott, Gavin; Spence, Alison C; Crawford, David A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie

    2013-12-01

    Evidence suggests that mothers' nutrition knowledge and home food availability (HFA) are directly and independently associated with children's food intakes. In this study we test the hypothesis that HFA mediates the association between maternal nutrition knowledge and child diet. In this cross-sectional study of Australian women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Melbourne, Australia, mothers with dependent children (aged 5-12 years) provided data on their child's diet, HFA, nutrition knowledge and a range of sociodemographic characteristics. To test our hypothesis we assessed associations between nutrition knowledge and HFA, and between HFA and child food intake (adjusting for nutrition knowledge and child age). In all instances significant associations were found. HFA was found to mediate relationships between mother's nutrition knowledge and children's intake of fruit, vegetables, salty foods and soft drink. Our analyses showed that HFA was a mediator of the associations between maternal nutrition knowledge and child's diet in this population. This supports a focus on nutrition education that expands mothers' understanding of what foods to buy, prepare and serve. Further exploration of these associations will provide a stronger evidence base upon which to inform 'best bets' for parent-focussed nutrition promotion seeking to promote children's healthy eating. PMID:23891673

  18. Food availability controls seasonal cycle of growth in Macoma balthica (L.) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Nichols, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-yr field study of growth in the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) at four locations in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S., showed that the timing and rate of growth (increase in shell length) were related to food supply. This clam feeds on both planktonic and benthic microalgae, depending on availability. Growth was apparently food-limited during some months, during one year more than the other, and at some locations more than others. Tissue-weight changes were also related to food availability. The heaviest animals were found in that year and at those locations with the highest chl a concentrations. Tissue-weight gains usually coincided with increased shell-growth rate or with reproductive development, although some large animals showed weight gain independent of both of these factors during periods with mid-range chl a levels. Weight losses coincided with spawning or periods of low growth rate, except at one station where, during a period when most animals were reproductively ripe, food concentrations were high, and shell growth was rapid, animals lost weight. This study failed to show a relation between salinity and the timing or rate of change of either shell length or tissue weight. The mild temperatures (10-23 ??C water temperature) of the area studied resulted in no growth inhibition due to low temperature, but there was some indication that the high air temperatures found in these intertidal areas limited growth rates. ?? 1988.

  19. Food availability determines the response to pond desiccation in anuran tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Urzelai, Urtzi; San Sebastián, Olatz; Garriga, Núria; Llorente, Gustavo A

    2013-09-01

    Food availability and pond desiccation are two of the most studied factors that condition amphibian metamorphosis. It is well known that, when food is abundant, organisms undergo metamorphosis early and when they are relatively large. The capability of anurans to accelerate their developmental rate in response to desiccation is also common knowledge. These two variables must act together in nature, since we know that, as a pond dries, the per capita resources decrease. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the effects of desiccation and food availability separately and in combination in tadpoles of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus). We demonstrate that food deprivation leads to slow growth rates, which delay metamorphosis and produce smaller size and weight. The capability to accelerate metamorphosis when facing a drying pond is also confirmed, but, nevertheless, with factor interaction (when the pool is drying and resources are scarce) the capacity to respond to desiccation is lost. In addition, slow drying rates are shown to be stressful situations, but not enough to provoke a shortening of the larval period; in fact, the larval period becomes longer. We also demonstrate that the interaction of these factors changes the allometric relationship of different parts of the hind limb, which has implications for the biomechanics of jumping. Due to low mortality rates and an adequate response to both environmental factors, we expect D. pictus to have a great invasive potential in its new Mediterranean distribution area, where lots of temporary and ephemeral ponds are present. PMID:23344427

  20. Accessibility Over Availability: Associations Between the School Food Environment and Student Fruit and Green Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: No national studies have examined associations between (1) school food availability and accessibility and (2) secondary student fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. This article uses 5 years of nationally representative data from secondary school students to examine associations between the school food environment and student fruit and green vegetable consumption. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, cross-sectional, nationally representative data from US middle and high school students were collected annually on self-reported fruit and green vegetable consumption. Each year, data from administrators at each relevant school were collected on food item availability (any venue) and accessibility (total number of school sources). Data were obtained from 10,254 eighth-grade students in 317 schools and 18,898 tenth- and 12th-grade students in 518 schools. Associations were estimated by multi-level models controlling for student- and school-level characteristics. Results: Availability showed minimal association with student consumption. Candy/regular-fat snack accessibility was associated negatively with middle school fruit consumption. Salad bar availability and accessibility were positively associated with middle school green vegetable consumption; FV accessibility was associated positively with high school fruit and green vegetable consumption. Significant associations were consistent across student racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Conclusions: Forthcoming USDA nutrition standards for school foods and beverages sold outside of reimbursable meal programs should result in the removal of school candy/regular-fat snacks. In deciding which items to make available under the new standards, schools should consider increasing the number of FV sources—including salad bars—thereby potentially increasing student FV consumption. PMID:24872011

  1. SnowClim: Snow climate monitoring for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissolli, P.; Maier, U.

    2009-09-01

    Snow cover, particularly its depth and its frequency, is a very essential climate element. It influences the earth's surface radiation budget considerably due to its reflectivity properties and also it has large impact on economy and daily life (e.g. traffic, tourism). Although a lot of research and many national activities of snow monitoring have been done, there are very few products describing an integrated snow monitoring for whole Europe. In the light of a foreseen future Regional Climate Centre on Climate Monitoring (RCC-CM), the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) has established some first operational snow climate monitoring activities for the WMO Region VI (Europe and the Middle East). First selected key elements are the number of snowdays with a snow cover > 1 cm, the mean and the maximum snow depth per month. Results are presented in form of monthly and climatological maps, tables and diagrams of time series starting in 1981. Data presently are taken from observations at synoptical stations, received by the Global Telecommunication System. A first quality control based on threshold tests has been developed. The snow climate monitoring products are currently under further development. New evaluations will be carried out also on a daily data basis, additional satellite data, and also the quality control procedure will be extended. Some operational SnowClim products are available on the DWD web site: www.dwd.de/snowclim

  2. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  3. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    PubMed

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability. PMID:23489045

  4. Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons.

    PubMed

    Kemnitz, Joseph W; Sapolsky, Robert M; Altmann, Jeanne; Muruthi, Philip; Mott, Glen E; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2002-05-01

    The relationship between food availability and metabolic physiology was studied in groups of free-ranging baboons (Papio spp.) living in the Amboseli National Park and the Masai Mara National Reserve of Kenya. Three groups subsisted entirely on natural forage, while two other groups lived near tourist facilities and often consumed food wastes from these lodges. The refuse provided a very accessible food source with relatively high caloric density. Consumption of the refuse was associated with reduced locomotion. Sexually mature individuals from all five groups were sedated surreptitiously in the early morning and blood samples were collected. Compared to animals foraging exclusively in the wild, animals that supplemented their diet with the refuse items had two- to threefold elevations in serum insulin concentrations, as well as increased total cholesterol (C), HDL-C, and VLDL+LDL-C levels. No sex differences in physiological measures were observed except in body mass. Elevated serum insulin, and cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations influence the development of cardiovascular disease and have been shown to be subject to dietary manipulation and exercise under controlled conditions. The present results suggest potentially deleterious effects of a highly accessible, calorically dense food source, and associated reduction of physical activity for baboons living in an otherwise natural environment. PMID:11977122

  5. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host-microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia. PMID:26405832

  6. Availability, preference, and consumption of indigenous forest foods in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Msuya, Tuli S; Kideghesho, Jafari R; Mosha, Theobald C E

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the availability, preference, and consumption of indigenous forest foods in Uluguru North (UNM) and West Usambara Mountains (WUM) of Tanzania. Data collection techniques involved focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, and botanical identification. Results revealed (1) there were 114 indigenous forest food plant species representing 57 families used by communities living adjacent to the two mountains; (2) sixty-seven species supplied edible fruits, nuts and seeds: 24 and 14 species came from WUM and UNM, respectively, while 29 came from both study areas; (3) of the 57 identified vegetable species, 22 were found in WUM only, 13 in UNM only, and 12 in both areas; (4) there were three species of edible mushrooms and five species of roots and tubers; (5) unlike the indigenous roots and tubers, the preference and consumption of indigenous vegetables, nuts, and seeds/oils was higher than exotic species in both study areas; and (6) UNM had more indigenous fruits compared to WUM, although preference and consumption was higher in WUM. We recommend increased research attention on forest foods to quantify their contribution to household food security and ensure their sustainability. PMID:21883080

  7. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    1. The seasonal dynamics of body condition (BC), circulating corticosterone levels (baseline, BL) and the adrenocortical response to acute stress (SR) were examined in long-lived Black-legged Kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, breeding at Duck (food-poor colony) and Gull (food-rich colony) Islands in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. It was tested whether the dynamics of corticosterone levels reflect a seasonal change in bird physiological condition due to reproduction and/or variation in foraging conditions. 2. BC declined seasonally, and the decline was more pronounced in birds at the food-poor colony. BL and SR levels of corticosterone rose steadily through the reproductive season, and BL levels were significantly higher in birds on Duck island compared with those on Gull Island. During the egg-laying and chick-rearing stages, birds had lower SR on Duck Island than on Gull Island. 3. The results suggest that, in addition to a seasonal change in bird physiology during reproduction, local ecological factors such as food availability affect circulating levels of corticosterone and adrenal response to acute stress.

  8. NASA’s Sense of Snow: the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water is a critical resource in the western U.S. NASA’s Airborne Snow Observatory is giving California water agencies the first complete measurements of the water available in the Sierra snowpack ...

  9. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500 m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5 km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  10. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500-m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5-km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  11. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low. PMID:24444917

  12. Food availability promotes rapid recovery from thermal stress in a scleractinian coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, S. R.; Lopez-Yglesias, M. A.; Anthony, K. R. N.

    2012-12-01

    Bleaching in corals due to environmental stress represents a loss of energy intake often leading to an increase in mortality risk. Successful coral recovery from severe bleaching events may depend on the rate of replenishment of algal symbiont populations following the period of thermal stress, the supply of an alternative food source, or both. Here, we explore the role of food availability in promoting the survival and recovery of a common coral ( Acropora intermedia) following acute experimentally induced thermal stress. Fed corals were provided with live rotifers daily, to maintain densities of zooplankton in tanks that are typical of coral reefs. After a 6-week acclimation phase, heated corals were subjected to a +4 °C thermal anomaly for a 7-day period (bleaching phase) then temperatures were returned to normal for a further 2 weeks (recovery phase). Results demonstrated that heated corals had higher survival when they were provided with heterotrophic food. Fed corals experienced reduced loss of chlorophyll a, relative to unfed corals. During the recovery phase, both fed and unfed corals recovered within a few days; however, fed corals recovered to pre-bleaching phase levels of chlorophyll a, whereas unfed corals stabilized approximately one-third below this level. Protein levels of fed corals declined markedly during the bleaching phase, but recovered all of their losses by the end of the recovery phase. In contrast, unfed corals had low protein levels that were maintained throughout the experiment. To the extent that these results are representative of corals' responses to thermal anomalies in nature, the findings imply that availability of particulate food matter has the potential to increase corals' capacity to survive thermally induced bleaching and to ameliorate its sub-lethal effects. They also support the hypothesis that different rates of heterotrophy are an important determinant of variation in resilience to thermal stress among reef environments.

  13. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  14. Availability and price of food products with and without trans fatty acids in food stores around elementary schools in low- and medium-income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Bruna Maria; Kliemann, Nathalie; Silva, Daniele Pagliarini; Colussi, Cláudia Flemming; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between the price and availability of food products with and without trans fatty acids in food stores near elementary schools located in low- and medium-income neighborhoods of a Brazilian city. The supply of products containing trans fatty acids was higher in both regions, and these products were also cheaper. It is noteworthy that this availability may influence food choices and, consequently, the health status of children and adolescents, since this population is more likely to buy less-healthy foods when these are more available, accessible, and financially attractive. PMID:23282191

  15. Linking food availability, body growth and survival in the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Mangel, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Population dynamics of black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in Bering Sea colonies are likely to increasingly experience climate-induced changes in the physical environment. Since adult kittiwakes are central place foragers with high energy requirements, increased variability of forage patch dynamics, as predicted for polar regions, may influence both quantity and quality of food available and consequently alter the population dynamics of kittiwake colonies. Here, we describe, conceptualize, and model the effects of environment and energy resources on kittiwake growth, fledging age (from 35 to 50 days) and survival from hatching up to first breeding (post-hatching productivity). For our life-history model, we use a von Bertalanffy growth function for body growth in mass. We model nestling mortality as a function of somatic growth, in order to account for oxidative damage and trade-offs in the allocation of resources, and energy available, since low food availability increases the risk of chicks' starvation and predation risk. In the case of a good environment (i.e., high food availability), the best strategy (i.e., highest post-hatching productivity) is to grow fast (about 18.6 g d-1) and to spend a moderately long time in the nest (up to 45 days), while in the case of a poor environment the best strategy is to grow fast (about 18 g d-1) and leave the nest soon (35-40 days). Different ages at first breeding do not change the optimal strategies. We discuss the implications of optimal growth strategy in terms of evolution of life histories in kittiwakes and how our work, coupled with models of post-breeding survival and reproductive dynamics, could lead to the development of a full life-history model and the exploration of future evolutionary trajectories for traits like body growth and age at first breeding.

  16. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  17. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  18. City snow's physicochemical property affects snow disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbysh, V. O.; Sharukha, A. V.; Evtin, P. V.; Vershinina, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    At the present day the industrial cities run into severe problem: fallen snow in a city it's a concentrator of pollutants and their quantity is constantly increasing by technology development. Pollution of snow increases because of emission of gases to the atmosphere by cars and factories. Large accumulation of polluted snow engenders many vexed ecological problems. That's why we need a new, non-polluting, scientifically based method of snow disposal. This paper investigates polluted snow's physicochemical property effects on snow melting. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there.

  19. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  20. Iodisation of Salt in Slovenia: Increased Availability of Non-Iodised Salt in the Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Žmitek, Katja; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union’s free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply. PMID:27438852

  1. Effects of variable sequences of food availability on interval time-place learning by pigeons.

    PubMed

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Carpio, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The effects of within session variability of the sequences of food availability in a 16 period Time Place Learning (TPL) task on the performance of pigeons were assessed. Two groups of birds were exposed to two conditions. For group 1 (N=3), the first condition consisted of a TPL task in which food could be obtained according to a Random Interval (RI) 25s schedule of reinforcement in one of four feeders, the correct feeder changed every 3min. The same sequence was repeated four times within every training session (Fixed Sequence). The second condition was exactly the same as the first one with the exception that the sequence in which the correct feeder changed was randomized, yielding a total of four randomized sequences of food availability each session (Variable Sequence). An Open Hopper Test (OHT) was conducted at the end of each condition. Birds in group 2 (N=3) experienced the same conditions but in the reverse order. Results showed high percent correct responses for both group of birds under both conditions. However, birds were able to time the availability period's duration only under the Fixed Sequence condition, as shown by anticipation, anticipation of depletion and persistence of visiting patterns on the OHT. The implications of these results to Gallistels (1990) tripartite time-place-event memory code model are discussed, pointing out that these results are in line with previous findings about the important role that spatial parameters of a TPL task can play, for accurate timing was precluded when a variable sequence was employed. PMID:27425658

  2. Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

  3. Reproductive seasonality in female goats adapted to a subtropical environment persists independently of food availability.

    PubMed

    Duarte, G; Flores, J A; Malpaux, B; Delgadillo, J A

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the seasonal change in food availability provides a predictive cue that synchronizes the breeding season in goats adapted to the subtropical conditions of Northern Mexico. Groups of multiparous intact (n=7) and ovariectomized does bearing a subcutaneous implant constantly releasing estradiol-l7 beta (OVX+E; n=12) were allocated in two pens and received a constant amount of feed. Another group of OVX+E does (n=10) was incorporated into a flock raised under natural grazing conditions with seasonal fluctuations in food availability. Blood samples were taken twice weekly. Ovulation of intact goats was inferred from plasma progesterone levels. In OVX+E does plasma levels of LH were measured. Intact does displayed seasonal variations in ovulation and the breeding season lasted from September to February. OVX+E goats displayed large seasonal variations in LH secretion regardless of whether they were fed constantly indoors or kept under natural grazing conditions (P<0.0001). The mean date of increase in LH secretion varied between years (P<0.0001) but did not differ between groups (naturally grazed: August 13+/-10 days; constantly fed: August 26+/-10 days). In contrast, the seasonal decline in LH secretion differed between groups: it was consistently delayed in constantly fed animals compared to those feeding naturally (naturally grazed: January 28+/-4 days; constantly fed: February 24+/-6 days, group effect, P<0.01). These results show that local female goats from subtropical Mexico display large reproductive seasonality independently of food availability. PMID:18790595

  4. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  5. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, Ken E; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J A; van Wijk, Mark T

    2016-01-12

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  6. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    PubMed Central

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; van Wijk, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available. Using only three explanatory variables (household size, number of livestock, and land area), we were able to predict correctly the agricultural determined status of food availability for 72% of the households, but the relationships were strongly influenced by the degree of market access. Our analyses suggest that targeting poverty through improving market access and off-farm opportunities is a better strategy to increase food security than focusing on agricultural production and closing yield gaps. This calls for multisectoral policy harmonization, incentives, and diversification of employment sources rather than a singular focus on agricultural development. Recognizing and understanding diversity among smallholder farm households in sub-Saharan Africa is key for the design of policies that aim to improve food security. PMID:26712016

  7. Evaluating snow density models for integration in operational snow water resources monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, T.; Magnusson, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Alps, the distribution of seasonal snow is highly complex in time and space. Being able to monitor snow water resources is crucial for lake and reservoir management as well as for forecasting of snow-melt related spring floods. In Switzerland, while networks for periodic SWE measurements exist, they do not resolve the variability of snow at spatial and temporal scales as required by the national snow water resources monitoring program. However, there are hundreds of stations that provide daily snow depth information. Including these stations into SWE monitoring schemes requires the use of snow density models. In this study we first look at several model approaches to predict SWE under different scenarios regarding data availability: single snow depth reading, daily snow depth, daily snow and temperature data, etc. The model assessment is based on a large archive of snow pit data measured in the Swiss Alps over several decades. In a second step, we apply the above models to integrate daily snow depth readings in a data assimilation scheme to provide SWE distribution at medium to large scale. Finally, we compare the results of the data assimilation scheme intended for larger scale applications against field data from a 50 km2 test catchment that resolves the natural variability of snow depth and density at a smaller scale. This comparison reveals interesting differences in average density and depth from both data sets, suggesting that including a basic representation of small-scale variability may enhance larger-scale model approaches.

  8. MODIS Snow and Sea Ice Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the suite of Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua snow and sea ice products. Global, daily products, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, are archived and distributed through the National Snow and Ice Data Center at various resolutions and on different grids useful for different communities Snow products include binary snow cover, snow albedo, and in the near future, fraction of snow in a 5OO-m pixel. Sea ice products include ice extent determined with two different algorithms, and sea ice surface temperature. The algorithms used to develop these products are described. Both the snow and sea ice products, available since February 24,2000, are useful for modelers. Validation of the products is also discussed.

  9. Effect of food availability and leptin on the physiology and hypothalamic gene expression of the golden spiny mouse: a desert rodent that does not hoard food.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Hacmon-Keren, Ronit; Choshniak, Itzhak; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2008-12-01

    Food availability and quality in desert habitats are spatially and temporally unpredictable, and animals face periods of food shortage. The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is an omnivorous desert rodent that does not hoard food, requiring it to withstand such periods by physiological means alone. In response to food restriction, plasma leptin concentrations, core body temperature, and energy expenditure of the spiny mouse decrease significantly after 24 h, and most spiny mice are able to maintain their body mass to approximately 85% of ad libitum for a prolonged period of time. Both 1-day food deprivation and long-term food restriction had a significant effect on body mass and plasma leptin concentrations, which decreased significantly with a high correlation, as well as on the orexigenic agouti-related protein, which increased significantly as a result of the 24-h food deprivation; and on neuropeptide Y (NPY), in which the increase was more pronounced under long-term food restriction. Food restriction and food deprivation had no effect, however, on the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript. Leptin administration to food-restricted spiny mice did not affect food intake or the rate of decrease in body mass, indicating that it cannot overcome the drive to eat when food is scarce. However, it did result in a significant decrease in NPY levels, and the spiny mice spent less time at low body temperatures compared with PBS-treated golden spiny mice. These results show that in food-restricted golden spiny mice, leptin affects thermogenesis, but not food consumption, and suggest that the thermoregulatory effects of leptin are mediated by NPY. PMID:18843093

  10. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  11. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module III-C-1: Food Availability in Economically Depressed Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on food availability in economically depressed areas (EDA) is the first in a set of three modules on foods and nutrition in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  12. In kittiwakes food availability partially explains the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Roulin, A.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Boulinier, T.

    2006-01-01

    1. The immune system plays an important role in fitness, and interindividual variation in immunocompetence is due to several factors including food supply. 2. Seasonal variation in food resources may therefore explain why immunocompetence in bird nestlings usually declines throughout the breeding season, with chicks born early in the season receiving more food than chicks born later, and thereby possibly developing a more potent immune system. Although there are studies supporting this hypothesis, none has been experimental. 3. We performed an experiment in the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla by manipulating the food supply of pairs that were left to produce a first brood, and of pairs that were induced to produce a late replacement brood. 4. If food supply mediates, at least partially, seasonal variations in chick immunocompetence, non-food-supplemented chicks would show a stronger seasonal decline in immunocompetence than food-supplemented chicks. 5. Food supplementation improved humoral immunocompetence (the production of immunoglobulins Y), but not T-cell immunocompetence (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA response). T-cell immunocompetence of food-supplemented and non-food- supplemented chicks decreased through the season but to a similar extent, whereas the humoral immunocompetence of non-food-supplemented chicks decreased more strongly than that of food-supplemented chicks. 6. Our results suggest that the seasonal decline in humoral immunocompetence can be explained, at least partly, by variations in food supply throughout the breeding season. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of a Connecticut Program to Reduce Availability of Unhealthy Competitive Food in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael W.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Methods: Food…

  14. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., modifying processing practices, and choosing ingredients, so as to reduce acrylamide in potato-based foods (such as fries, sliced potato chips, and fabricated potato chips) and cereal-based foods (such as... service operations on preparation of potato-based and cereal-based foods. II. Paperwork Reduction Act...

  15. Yeah!!! A Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Theresa Purcell; Cone, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    As children see the first snowflake fall from the sky, they are filled with anticipation of playing in the snow. The snowy environment presents a wonderful opportunity for presenting interdisciplinary activities that connect snow play, snow formation, and snow stories with manipulative activities, gymnastic balances, and dance sequences. In this…

  16. Snow economics and the NOHRSC Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T.; Cline, D.; Berkowitz, E.; Savage, D.

    2003-04-01

    .7 trillion (16%) of the Nation's GDP related to the water contained in seasonal snowpacks, reliable snow information is critical to the management of the U.S. economy. In addition to helping improve river and flood forecasts and water supply forecasts, NOHRSC snow information has the potential also to support better decision making and improved efficiency in manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and thermo- and hydroelectric power generation. A 0.1% improvement in revenue resulting from reliable snow information results in an economic benefit to the Nation of 1.7 billion each year (in 2002 dollars). In an effort to provide snow information to support hydrologic forecasting operations in the NWS as well as to enhance the national economy, the NOHRSC has developed and implemented a Snow Information System (SNOW-INFO) that generates and distributes a variety of snow cover products in a variety of formats for the coterminous U.S. SNOW-INFO provides several new products that include: modeled snowpack characteristics such as snow ripeness, melt rates, mean snowpack temperature, and sublimation losses in a variety of alphanumeric, gridded, map, and time-series representations. SNOW-INFO products and data sets are available in near real-time to end-users from the NOHRSC web site (www.nohrsc.nws.gov) and FTP. A variety of SNOW-INFO products and maps from the 2003 snow season depicting simulated and assimilated snow model state variables for the coterminous U.S. are presented.

  17. 76 FR 66073 - Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About Administrative Detention of Foods; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on What You Need to Know About.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry... part 1, subpart K (21 CFR part 1, subpart K), (76 FR 25538), that pertain to the criteria for...

  18. Operational snow mapping with simplified data assimilation using the seNorge snow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloranta, Tuomo M.

    2016-07-01

    Frequently updated maps of snow conditions are useful for many applications, e.g., for avalanche and flood forecasting services, hydropower energy situation analysis, as well as for the general public. Numerical snow models are often applied in snow map production for operational hydrological services. However, inaccuracies in the simulated snow maps due to model uncertainties and the lack of suitable data assimilation techniques to correct them in near-real time may often reduce the usefulness of the snow maps in operational use. In this paper the revised seNorge snow model (v.1.1.1) for snow mapping is described, and a simplified data assimilation procedure is introduced to correct detected snow model biases in near real-time. The data assimilation procedure is theoretically based on the Bayesian updating paradigm and is meant to be pragmatic with modest computational and input data requirements. Moreover, it is flexible and can utilize both point-based snow depth and satellite-based areal snow-covered area observations, which are generally the most common data-sources of snow observations. The model and analysis codes as well as the "R" statistical software are freely available. All these features should help to lower the challenges and hurdles hampering the application of data-assimilation techniques in operational hydrological modeling. The steps of the data assimilation procedure (evaluation, sensitivity analysis, optimization) and their contribution to significantly increased accuracy of the snow maps are demonstrated with a case from eastern Norway in winter 2013/2014.

  19. Snow particle speeds in drifting snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kouichi; Yokoyama, Chika; Ito, Yoichi; Nemoto, Masaki; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Bellot, Hervé; Fujita, Koji

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of snow particle speeds is necessary for deepening our understanding of the internal structures of drifting snow. In this study, we utilized a snow particle counter (SPC) developed to observe snow particle size distributions and snow mass flux. Using high-frequency signals from the SPC transducer, we obtained the sizes of individual particles and their durations in the sampling area. Measurements were first conducted in the field, with more precise measurements being obtained in a boundary layer established in a cold wind tunnel. The obtained results were compared with the results of a numerical analysis. Data on snow particle speeds, vertical velocity profiles, and their dependence on wind speed obtained in the field and in the wind tunnel experiments were in good agreement: both snow particle speed and wind speed increased with height, and the former was always 1 to 2 m s-1 less than the latter below a height of 1 m. Thus, we succeeded in obtaining snow particle speeds in drifting snow, as well as revealing the dependence of particle speed on both grain size and wind speed. The results were verified by similar trends observed using random flight simulations. However, the difference between the particle speed and the wind speed in the simulations was much greater than that observed under real conditions. Snow transport by wind is an aeolian process. Thus, the findings presented here should be also applicable to other geophysical processes relating to the aeolian transport of particles, such as blown sand and soil.

  20. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security); conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the pilot data, the Friedman

  1. Effect of food availability on the growth and thermal physiology of juvenile Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister)

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine M.; Todgham, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dungeness crabs spend ~1 year in the San Francisco Estuary, where they undergo considerable growth before returning to the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that competition, food scarcity and avoidance of conspecifics may cause some juvenile Dungeness crabs in the San Francisco Estuary to become food limited. Food limitation may force these crabs to forage in higher temperature intertidal environments in the estuary, exposing them to stressful conditions in order to sustain growth and, potentially, necessitating physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between growth and stress tolerance. To investigate the effects of food limitation on aerobic metabolism and physiological performance of crabs, we assessed growth, moulting frequency, metabolic rate, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and cardiac performance, as an index of temperature sensitivity and upper temperature tolerance. Summer- and winter-caught crabs were acclimated to either a high- or a low-food ration for 5 weeks. Overall, our results demonstrated that while food limitation had a negative effect on growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs in both the summer and the winter feeding trials, crabs in the low-food group maintained both metabolic rate at ambient San Francisco Estuary temperatures (15°C; summer trial only) and upper temperature tolerance as determined by failure of cardiac function when compared with crabs in the high-food group (summer and winter trials). Therefore, the ability to maintain stress tolerance when food is limited appears to come as a physiological trade-off to growth. Food-limited crabs were unable to increase their metabolic rate to the same level as that achieved by well-fed crabs; therefore, if exposure to elevated temperatures persists and requires more energy than can be met by crabs in their food-limited state, physiological performance may be compromised. PMID:27293698

  2. Scattering optics of snow.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A; Zege, Eleonora P

    2004-03-01

    Permanent snow and ice cover great portions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. It appears in winter months in northern parts of America, Asia, and Europe. Therefore snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Also, it is a main regulator of the seasonal variation of the planetary albedo. This seasonal change in albedo is determined largely by the snow cover. However, the presence of pollutants and the microstructure of snow (e.g., the size and shape of grains, which depend also on temperature and on the age of the snow) are also of importance in the variation of the snow's spectral albedo. The snow's spectral albedo and its bidirectional reflectance are studied theoretically. The albedo also determines the spectral absorptance of snow, which is of importance, e.g., in studies of the heating regime in snow. We investigate the influence of the nonspherical shape of grains and of close-packed effects on snow's reflectance in the visible and the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The rate of the spectral transition from highly reflective snow in the visible to almost totally absorbing black snow in the infrared is governed largely by the snow's grain sizes and by the load of pollutants. Therefore both the characteristics of snow and its concentration of impurities can be monitored on a global scale by use of spectrometers and radiometers placed on orbiting satellites. PMID:15015542

  3. Molecular diversity of bacteria in commercially available “Spirulina” food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kormas, Konstantinos A.; Katsiapi, Matina; Genitsaris, Savvas; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Arthrospira is among the most well-known food supplements worldwide known as “Spirulina.” While it is a widely recognized health-promoting natural product, there are no reports on the molecular diversity of commercially available brands of “Spirulina” supplements and the occurrence of other cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial microorganisms in these products. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing analysis of the total bacterial occurrence in 31 brands of “Spirulina” dietary supplements from the Greek market was applied for the first time. In all samples, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Arthrospira platensis were the predominant cyanobacteria. Some products contained additional cyanobacterial OTUs including a few known potentially toxic taxa. Moreover, 469 OTUs were detected in all 31 products collectively, with most of them being related to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. All samples included heterotrophic bacterial OTUs, ranging from 9–157 per product. Among the most common OTUs were ones closely related to taxa known for causing health issues (i.e., Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Enterococcus). The observed high cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial OTUs richness in the final product is a point for further research on the growth and processing of Arthrospira biomass for commercial purposes. PMID:26819852

  4. Advertised quality, caste and food availability influence the survival cost of juvenile hormone in paper wasps.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Banan, Maral

    2010-11-22

    Life-history trade-offs are often hormonally mediated. Here, we provide a comparative perspective on the endocrine basis of life-history trade-offs by examining the invertebrate hormone juvenile hormone (JH). JH is often associated with benefits, including increased dominance and reproductive success. We tested whether JH reduced survival of Polistes dominulus wasps and whether this survival cost was influenced by factors such as advertised quality, food availability, caste and body size. Overall, JH reduced individual survival. Among fed and unfed queens, JH reduced survival in a dose-dependent manner. Among workers, JH had a stronger effect on survival of fed workers than unfed workers. Unfed workers died quickly and body size was the best predictor of survival. Surprisingly, queens and workers treated with JH survived longer when they had signals advertising high quality than when they had signals advertising low quality. The relationship between advertised quality and ability to withstand high levels of JH suggests that there are differential physiological costs associated with ornament elaboration that could play a role in maintaining signal accuracy over evolutionary time. Overall, the convergence of endocrine-mediated costs across diverse systems suggests that endocrine-mediated trade-offs may be an adaptive way to optimize resource allocation rather than a non-adaptive constraint specific to a particular hormone. PMID:20534614

  5. Are corticosterone levels a good indicator of food availability and reproductive performance in a kittiwake colony?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Eens, M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the use of corticosterone to gauge forage availability and predict reproductive performance in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding in Alaska during 1999 and 2000. We modeled the relationship between baseline levels of corticosterone and a suite of individual and temporal characteristics of the sampled birds. We also provided supplemental food to a sample of pairs and compared their corticosterone levels with that of pairs that were not fed. Corticosterone levels were a good predictor of forage availability in some situations, although inconsistencies between corticosterone levels and reproductive performance of fed and unfed kittiwakes suggested that this was not always the case. In general, higher corticosterone levels were found in birds that lacked breeding experience and in birds sampled shortly after arriving from their wintering grounds. All parameters investigated, however, explained only a small proportion of the variance in corticosterone levels. We also investigated whether corticosterone, supplemental feeding, year of the study, breeding experience, body weight, and sex of a bird were able to predict laying, hatching, and fledging success in kittiwakes. Here, breeding experience, year of the study, and body weight were the best predictors of a bird's performance. Corticosterone level and supplemental feeding were good predictors of kittiwake reproductive performance in some cases. For example, corticosterone levels of birds sampled during the arrival stage reliably predicted laying success, but were less reliable at predicting hatching and fledging success. Counts of active nests with eggs or chicks may be more reliable estimates of the actual productivity of the colony. Supplemental feeding had strong effects on kittiwake productivity when natural forage was poor, but had little effect when natural forage was plentiful. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of Increased Food Availability on Reproduction in a Long-Distance Migratory Songbird: Implications for Environmental Change?

    PubMed Central

    Seward, Adam M.; Beale, Colin M.; Gilbert, Lucy; Jones, T. Hefin; Thomas, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of migratory songbirds are declining or shifting in distribution. This is likely due to environmental changes that alter factors such as food availability that may have an impact on survival and/or breeding success. We tested the impact of experimentally supplemented food on the breeding success over three years of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe), a species in decline over much of Europe. The number of offspring fledged over the season was higher for food-supplemented birds than for control birds. The mechanisms for this effect were that food supplementation advanced breeding date, which, together with increased resources, allowed further breeding attempts. While food supplementation did not increase the clutch size, hatching success or number of chicks fledged per breeding attempt, it did increase chick size in one year of the study. The increased breeding success was greater for males than females; males could attempt to rear simultaneous broods with multiple females as well as attempting second broods, whereas females could only increase their breeding effort via second broods. Multiple brooding is rare in the study population, but this study demonstrates the potential for changes in food availability to affect wheatear breeding productivity, primarily via phenotypic flexibility in the number of breeding attempts. Our results have implications for our understanding of how wheatears may respond to natural changes in food availability due to climate changes or changes in habitat management. PMID:25333485

  7. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes

  8. The reflectance characteristics of snow covered surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data analysis techniques were developed to most efficiently use available satellite measurements to determine and understand components of the surface energy budget for ice and snow-covered areas. The emphasis is placed on identifying the important components of the heat budget related to snow surfaces, specifically the albedo and the energy consumed in the melting process. Ice and snow charts are prepared by NOAA from satellite observations which map areas into three relative reflectivity zones. Field measurements are analyzed of the reflectivity of an open snow field to assist in the interpretation of the NOAA reflectivity zones.

  9. Modeling the spatial variability of snow instability with the snow cover model SNOWPACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Bettina; Reuter, Benjamin; Gaume, Johan; Fierz, Charles; Bavay, Mathias; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Snow stratigraphy - key information for avalanche forecasting - can be obtained using numerical snow cover models driven by meteorological data. Simulations are typically performed for the locations of automatic weather station or for virtual slopes of varying aspect. However, it is unclear to which extent these simulations can represent the snowpack properties in the surrounding terrain, in particular snow instability, which is known to vary in space. To address this issue, we implemented two newly developed snow instability criteria in SNOWPACK relating to failure initiation and crack propagation, two fundamental processes for dry-snow slab avalanche release. Snow cover simulations were performed for the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps), where snowpack data from several field campaigns are available. In each campaign, about 150 vertical snow penetration resistance profiles were sampled with the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). For each profile, SMP and SNOWPACK- based instability criteria were compared. In addition, we carried out SNOWPACK simulations for multiple aspects and slope angles, allowing to obtain statistical distributions of the snow instability at the basin scale. Comparing the modeled to the observed distributions of snow instability suggests that it is feasible to obtain an adequate spatial representation of snow instability without high resolution distributed modeling. Hence, for the purpose of regional avalanche forecasting, simulations for a selection of virtual slopes seems sufficient to assess the influence of basic terrain features such as aspect and elevation.

  10. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  11. Group-Living Herbivores Weigh Up Food Availability and Dominance Status when Making Patch-Joining Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Stears, Keenan; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Shrader, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus). When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits). However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual’s patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs). Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions. PMID:25271889

  12. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  13. Black bear habitat use in relation to food availability in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Clapp, Daniel L.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Ederington, Belinda

    1994-01-01

    A black bear (Ursus americanus) food value index (FVI) was developed and calculated for forest cover type classifications on Ozark Mountain (White Rock) and Ouachita Mountain (Dry Creek) study areas in western Arkansas. FVIs are estimates of bear food production capabilities of the major forest cover types and were calculated using percent cover, mean fruit production scorings, and the dietary percentage of each major plant food species as variables. Goodness-of-fit analyses were used to determine use of forest cover types by 23 radio-collared female bears. Habitat selection by forest cover type was not detected on White Rock but was detected on Dry Creek. Use of habitats on Dry Creek appeared to be related to food production with the exception of regeneration areas, which were used less than expected but had a high FVI ranking. In general, pine cover types had low FVI rankings and were used less than expected by bears. Forest management implications are discussed. 

  14. When to initiate torpor use? Food availability times the transition to winter phenotype in a tropical heterotherm.

    PubMed

    Vuarin, Pauline; Dammhahn, Melanie; Kappeler, Peter M; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2015-09-01

    Timing of winter phenotype expression determines individual chances of survival until the next reproductive season. Environmental cues triggering this seasonal phenotypic transition have rarely been investigated, although they play a central role in the compensation of climatic fluctuations via plastic phenotypic adjustments. Initiation of winter daily torpor use-a widespread energy-saving phenotype-could be primarily timed according to anticipatory seasonal cues (anticipatory cues hypothesis), or flexibly fine-tuned according to actual energy availability (food shortage hypothesis). We conducted a food supplementation experiment on wild heterothermic primates (grey mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus) at the transition to the food-limited dry season, i.e. the austral winter. As expected under the food shortage hypothesis, food-supplemented individuals postponed the seasonal transition to normal torpor use by 1-2 month(s), spent four times less torpid, and exhibited minimal skin temperature 6 °C higher than control animals. This study provides the first in situ experimental evidence that food availability, rather than abiotic cues, times the launching of torpor use. Fine-tuning of the timing of seasonal phenotypic transitions according to actual food shortage should provide heterotherms with a flexible adaptive mechanism to survive unexpected environmental fluctuations. PMID:25953115

  15. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources. PMID:25506337

  16. Camping in the Snow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Describes the experience of winter snow camping. Provides suggestions for shelter, snow kitchens, fires and stoves, cooking, latrines, sleeping warm, dehydration prevention, and clothing. Illustrated with full color photographs. (MA)

  17. The Winter Environment: Snow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the structure and formation of snow crystals, outlines the history of snow removal, and describes techniques that can be used by students for studying snowflakes and relating their structure to the conditions under which they were formed. (JR)

  18. Monitoring global snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Richard; Hardman, Molly

    1991-01-01

    A snow model that supports the daily, operational analysis of global snow depth and age has been developed. It provides improved spatial interpolation of surface reports by incorporating digital elevation data, and by the application of regionalized variables (kriging) through the use of a global snow depth climatology. Where surface observations are inadequate, the model applies satellite remote sensing. Techniques for extrapolation into data-void mountain areas and a procedure to compute snow melt are also contained in the model.

  19. Remote sensing of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1987-01-01

    The snow parameters affecting sensor responses at different wavelengths are discussed. The effects of snow depth and background radiation on gamma ray sensors and of crystal size, contaminants, snow depth, liquid water, and surface roughness on visible and near-infrared sensors are considered. The influence of temperature, crystal size, and liquid water on thermal infrared sensors and of liquid water, crystal size, water equivalent depth, stratification, snow surface roughness, density, temperature, and soil condition on microwave sensors are addressed.

  20. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight. PMID:19285205

  1. Snow Bank Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Eric A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    In the city where the authors live, located on the shore of Lake Ontario, children have ample opportunity to interact with snow. Water vapor rising from the relatively warm lake surface produces tremendous "lake effect" snowfalls when frigid winter winds blow. Snow piles along roadways after each passing storm, creating impressive snow banks. When…

  2. Timed food availability affects circadian behavior but not the neuropeptide Y expression in Indian weaverbirds exposed to atypical light environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devraj; Trivedi, Neerja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether daily food availability period would restore rhythmicity in individuals with disrupted circadian behavior with no effect on appetite regulation. Particularly, we investigated the effects of timed food availability on activity behavior, and Fos and neuropeptide Y expressions in Indian weaverbirds (Ploceus philippinus) under atypical light conditions. Initially, weaverbirds in 3 groups of 7-8 each were entrained to 7L:17D (25: <0.3lx) with food ad libitum. Thereafter, food availability was restricted for 7h such that it overlapped with the light period. After a week, 7L:17D was replaced with 3.5L: 3.5D (T7, group 1), 3.5L: 20.5D (T24, group 2) or constant dim light, LLdim (<0.3lx, group 3) for 5weeks. Food cycles synchronized the circadian activity behavior, albeit with group differences, but did not affect body mass, blood glucose levels or testis size. Further, Fos, not NPY mRNA or peptide, expression measured at ZT2 and ZT14 (ZT0=time of food given) showed significant group differences in the hippocampus, dorsomedial hypothalamus and infundibular nuclear complex. Another identical experiment examined after-effects of the 3 light conditions on persistence of the circadian rhythms. Weaverbirds exposed for 4weeks to identical food but different light conditions, as above, were released into the free-running condition of food ad libitum and LLdim. Circadian rhythms were decayed in birds previously exposed to T7 LD cycle. Overall, these results show that timed meal restores rhythmicity in individuals with circadian rhythm disruptions without involving neuropeptide Y, the key appetite regulatory molecule. PMID:27085910

  3. Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1990-12-01

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth. PMID:12285940

  4. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Safe Refrigerator Temperature Safe Handling of Foods for Refrigerating Placement of ... or packed in snow. He realized the cold temperatures would keep game for times when food was ...

  5. EFFECTS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY ON LIPID CLASS COMPOSITION AND C AND N ACCUMULATION IN HEPATOPANCREATIC, OVARIAN AND EMBRYONIC TISSUES OF THE GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO: A LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a laboratory experiment, limited food availability caused severe mortality and reduced growth of adult female grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. However, reproduction, measured by % gravid females and clutch size, was unaffected by food availability. It appears that female shrim...

  6. Sharing, Trading, Stealing: Exploring the Role of Peers in Shaping Foods Available at Lunchtime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major concern in the United States, warranting a comprehensive approach. However, the majority of research studies continue to neglect the influence of peers on dietary behaviors. The present descriptive study aimed to provide information about the ways peers directly shape dietary choices via food exchanges…

  7. Snow depth on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice derived from autonomous (Snow Buoy) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Arndt, Stefanie; Hendricks, Stefan; Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Katlein, Christian; Langevin, Danielle; Rossmann, Leonard; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The snow cover on sea ice received more and more attention in recent sea ice studies and model simulations, because its physical properties dominate many sea ice and upper ocean processes. In particular; the temporal and spatial distribution of snow depth is of crucial importance for the energy and mass budgets of sea ice, as well as for the interaction with the atmosphere and the oceanic freshwater budget. Snow depth is also a crucial parameter for sea ice thickness retrieval algorithms from satellite altimetry data. Recent time series of Arctic sea ice volume only use monthly snow depth climatology, which cannot take into account annual changes of the snow depth and its properties. For Antarctic sea ice, no such climatology is available. With a few exceptions, snow depth on sea ice is determined from manual in-situ measurements with very limited coverage of space and time. Hence the need for more consistent observational data sets of snow depth on sea ice is frequently highlighted. Here, we present time series measurements of snow depths on Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, recorded by an innovative and affordable platform. This Snow Buoy is optimized to autonomously monitor the evolution of snow depth on sea ice and will allow new insights into its seasonality. In addition, the instruments report air temperature and atmospheric pressure directly into different international networks, e.g. the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). We introduce the Snow Buoy concept together with technical specifications and results on data quality, reliability, and performance of the units. We highlight the findings from four buoys, which simultaneously drifted through the Weddell Sea for more than 1.5 years, revealing unique information on characteristic regional and seasonal differences. Finally, results from seven snow buoys co-deployed on Arctic sea ice throughout the winter season 2015/16 suggest the great importance of local

  8. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area.

    PubMed

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56' to 33°01'S, 71°36' to 71°46'W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird's MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  9. Influence of Seasonal Food Availability on the Dynamics of Seabird Feeding Flocks at a Coastal Upwelling Area

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Cristóbal; Simeone, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The formation of multi-species feeding flocks (MSFFs) through visual recruitment is considered an important strategy for obtaining food in seabirds and its functionality has been ascribed to enhanced foraging efficiency. Its use has been demonstrated in much of the world's oceans and includes numerous species. However, there is scant information on the temporal stability of the composition and abundance of MSFFs as well as the effect of seasonal food availability on their dynamics. Between July 2006 and September 2014, we conducted monthly at-sea seabird counts at Valparaiso Bay (32°56′ to 33°01′S, 71°36′ to 71°46′W) within the area of influence of the Humboldt Current in central Chile. This area is characterized by a marked seasonality in primary and secondary production associated with upwelling, mainly during austral spring-summer. Based on studies that provide evidence that flocking is most frequent when food is both scarce and patchy, we hypothesized that seabird MSFF attributes (i.e. frequency of occurrence, abundance and composition) will be modified according to the seasonal availability of food. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), our results show that the contrasting seasonality in food availability of the study area (using chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy) had no significant influence on MSFF attributes, sparsely explaining their variations (P>0.05). Rather than seasonal food availability, the observed pattern for MSFF attributes at Valparaiso Bay suggests a substantial influence of reproductive and migratory (boreal and austral migrants) habits of birds that modulates MSFF dynamics consistently throughout the whole year in this highly variable and patchy environment. We highlight the importance of visual recruitment as a mechanism by which migratory and resident birds interact. This would allow them to reduce resource unpredictability, which in turn has a major impact on structuring seabird’s MSFF dynamics. PMID:26125630

  10. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  11. Evaluating the impact of climate policies on regional food availability and accessibility using an Integrated Assessment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, E.; Cui, Y. R.; Waldhoff, S.

    2015-12-01

    Beyond 2015, eradicating hunger will remain a critical part of the global development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Efforts to limit climate change through both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and land use policies may interact with food availability and accessibility in complex and unanticipated ways. Here, we develop projections of regional food accessibility to 2050 under the alternative futures outlined by the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and under different climate policy targets and structures. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model (IAM), for our projections. We calculate food access as the weighted average of consumption of five staples and the portion of income spend on those commodities and extend the GCAM calculated universal global producer price to regional consumer prices drawing on historical relationships of these prices. Along the SSPs, food access depends largely on expectations of increases in population and economic status. Under a more optimistic scenario, the pressures on food access from increasing demand and rising prices can be counterbalanced by faster economic development. Stringent climate policies that increase commodity prices, however, may hinder vulnerable regions, namely Sub-Saharan Africa, from achieving greater food accessibility.

  12. Multiple excitatory and inhibitory neural signals converge to fine-tune Caenorhabditis elegans feeding to food availability.

    PubMed

    Dallière, Nicolas; Bhatla, Nikhil; Luedtke, Zara; Ma, Dengke K; Woolman, Jonathan; Walker, Robert J; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    How an animal matches feeding to food availability is a key question for energy homeostasis. We addressed this in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which couples feeding to the presence of its food (bacteria) by regulating pharyngeal activity (pumping). We scored pumping in the presence of food and over an extended time course of food deprivation in wild-type and mutant worms to determine the neural substrates of adaptive behavior. Removal of food initially suppressed pumping but after 2 h this was accompanied by intermittent periods of high activity. We show pumping is fine-tuned by context-specific neural mechanisms and highlight a key role for inhibitory glutamatergic and excitatory cholinergic/peptidergic drives in the absence of food. Additionally, the synaptic protein UNC-31 [calcium-activated protein for secretion (CAPS)] acts through an inhibitory pathway not explained by previously identified contributions of UNC-31/CAPS to neuropeptide or glutamate transmission. Pumping was unaffected by laser ablation of connectivity between the pharyngeal and central nervous system indicating signals are either humoral or intrinsic to the enteric system. This framework in which control is mediated through finely tuned excitatory and inhibitory drives resonates with mammalian hypothalamic control of feeding and suggests that fundamental regulation of this basic animal behavior may be conserved through evolution from nematode to human. PMID:26514165

  13. Cyanogenic glycosides in plant-based foods available in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Saunders, Darren; Goodman, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides occur in a wide range of plant species. The potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide, which may result in acute cyanide poisoning and has also been implicated in the aetiology of several chronic diseases. One hundred retail foods were sampled and analysed for the presence of total hydrocyanic acid using an acid hydrolysis-isonicotinic/barbituric acid colourimetric method. Food samples included cassava, bamboo shoots, almonds and almond products, pome fruit products, flaxseed/linseed, stone fruit products, lima beans, and various seeds and miscellaneous products, including taro leaves, passion fruit, spinach and canned stuffed vine leaves. The concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid (the hydrocyanic acid equivalents of all cyanogenic compounds) found were consistent with or lower than concentrations reported in the scientific literature. Linseed/flaxseed contained the highest concentrations of total hydrocyanic acid of any of the analysed foods (91-178 mg kg(-1)). Linseed-containing breads were found to contain total hydrocyanic acid at concentrations expected from their linseed content, indicating little impact of processing on the total hydrocyanic acid content. Simulation modelling was used to assess the risk due to the total hydrocyanic acid in fruit juice and linseed-containing bread.  PMID:23984870

  14. Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: Relationship with available food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiol, V.; Cartes, J. E.; Fanelli, E.; Rumolo, P.

    2013-03-01

    Boundary Layer (BBL). δ15N enrichment was detected in periods of water column stratification, particularly amongst benthic feeder fishes. Megafauna relied on a single source of nutrition after peaks in surface production, presumably marine snow. Conversely, a larger array of food sources, probably from advection, sustained the community in periods of water column stratification. Benthic feeder δ13C values of both taxa were positively correlated with fluorescence measured 5 m above the seabed and negatively correlated with total organic carbon in the sediments, both being food sources for deposit feeding macroinfauna. Macroplankton feeder δ13C values were linked to environmental variables related to vertical transport from surface production, i.e. lipids and chlorophyll and their degradation products, likely due to their stronger reliance on sinking phytodetritus through consumption of planktonic prey.

  15. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interaction<0.001], but not insulin resistance [3rd tertile: β=-0.07 (95% CI: -0.24, 0.09); 1st tertile: β=0.09 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.26); p-interaction=0.40]. We observed no modification of fast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  16. Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study’s aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain’s general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t = 146.9, p < .001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. PMID:24171876

  17. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, p<.001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI: $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains.  PMID:24171876

  18. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications. PMID:22827164

  19. Nonexercise muscle tension and behavioral fidgeting are positively correlated with food availability/palatability and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2003-07-01

    While certain measures of energy expenditure such as respiratory quotient and thermogenesis are readily quantifiable using existing animal models, the mechanism for and measurement of energy expenditure via nonexercise activity have not been thoroughly characterized. This low intensity form of physical exertion, associated with involuntary fidgeting and postural changes in man, was quantified in the present studies using passive measurement of muscle tension in rats. In particular, long-term weight loss and gain were induced using diet yoking and feeding of preferred foods in order to assess corresponding changes in locomotor activity and radiotelemetered measures of muscle tension, temperature and global activity. Hind limb muscle tension, but not body temperature, was increased 30-60% by enhancing the availability or palatability of food relative to the decreased muscle tension resulting from limited food availability. Enhancing food availability or palatability also produced a relative 5-15% increase in the amount of telemetered global activity. Importantly, neither diet yoking nor provision of a highly preferred diet altered a precise measure of behavioral locomotor activity. These results suggest that muscle tension and activity-in-place are positively correlated with weight change in the present studies and that these mechanisms of energy expenditure are mobilized by environmental changes in diet composition and meal pattern. PMID:12834791

  20. Using snowboards and lysimeters to constrain snow model choices in a rain-snow transitional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, N. E.; Massmann, A.; Clark, M. P.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Physically based models of the hydrological cycle are critical for testing our understanding of the natural world and enabling forecasting of extreme events. Previous intercomparison studies (i.e. SNOWMIP I & II, PILPS) of existing snow models that vary in complexity have been hampered by multiple differences in model structure. Recent efforts to encompass multiple model hypothesizes into a single framework (i.e. the Structure for Understanding Multiple Modeling Alternatives [SUMMA] model), have provided the tools necessary for a more rigorous validation of process representation. However, there exist few snow observatories that measure sufficient physical states and fluxes to fully constrain the possible combinations within these multiple model frameworks. In practice, observations of bulk snow states, such as the snow water equivalent (SWE) or snow depth, are most commonly available. The downfall of calibrating a snow model using such single bulk variables can lead to parameter equanimity and compensatory errors, which ultimately impacts the skill of a model as a predictive tool. This study provides two examples of diagnosing modeled snow processes through novel error source identification. Simulations were performed at a recently upgraded (Oct. 2012) snow study site located at Snoqualmie Pass (917 m), in the Washington Cascades, USA. We focused on two physical processes, new snow accumulation and snowpack outflow during mid-winter rain-on-snow events, for their importance towards controlling runoff and flooding in this rain-snow transitional basin. Main results were: 1) modifying the snow model structure to match what was actually observed (i.e. a snow board), allowed the attribution of daily errors in model new snow accumulation to either partitioning, new snow density, or compaction. 2) Observed snow pit temperature profiles from infrared cameras and manual thermometers found that cold biases in the model snowpack temperature prior to rain-on-snow events could

  1. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  2. Sensitivity of Passive Microwave Snow Depth Retrievals to Weather Effects and Snow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Powell, Dylan C.; Wang, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Snow fall and snow accumulation are key climate parameters due to the snow's high albedo, its thermal insulation, and its importance to the global water cycle. Satellite passive microwave radiometers currently provide the only means for the retrieval of snow depth and/or snow water equivalent (SWE) over land as well as over sea ice from space. All algorithms make use of the frequency-dependent amount of scattering of snow over a high-emissivity surface. Specifically, the difference between 37- and 19-GHz brightness temperatures is used to determine the depth of the snow or the SWE. With the availability of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (launched in May 2002), a wider range of frequencies can be utilized. In this study we investigate, using model simulations, how snow depth retrievals are affected by the evolution of the physical properties of the snow (mainly grain size growth and densification), how they are affected by variations in atmospheric conditions and, finally, how the additional channels may help to reduce errors in passive microwave snow retrievals. The sensitivity of snow depth retrievals to atmospheric water vapor is confirmed through the comparison with precipitable water retrievals from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-B). The results suggest that a combination of the 10-, 19-, 37-, and 89-GHz channels may significantly improve retrieval accuracy. Additionally, the development of a multisensor algorithm utilizing AMSR-E and AMSU-B data may help to obtain weather-corrected snow retrievals.

  3. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  4. Home Food Availability, Parental Dietary Intake, and Familial Eating Habits Influence the Diet Quality of Urban Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alexandra K.; Carrel, Aaron L.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Methods: Hispanic children, 10–14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. Results: The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had “good” scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that “need improvement” (HEI, 51–80), and 14% had “poor” scores (HEI, <50). Children with lower HEI scores had sugar-sweetened beverages available at home and participated in family meals while watching television more frequently, when compared with children with higher HEI scores. Conclusions: Home food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health. PMID:25259675

  5. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangbourne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Winter in the UK has, in recent years, brought a significant amount of snow and cold weather. This was the case while the author was a trainee teacher on placement at a rural primary school in Dartmoor early in 2010. The day started promisingly with the class looking at the weather forecast on the interactive whiteboard and having a short…

  6. 76 FR 45221 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Progress (FFPr) program. The total resources available are estimated at about $160 million. The FFPr... estimated number of beneficiaries? (e) Is the number of beneficiaries realistic for the proposed...

  7. Food availability and offspring sex in a monogamous seabird: insights from an experimental approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merkling, Thomas; Leclaire, Sarah; Danchin, Etienne; Lhuillier, Emeline; Wagner, Richard H.; White, Joël; Hatch, Scott A.; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2012-01-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should favor offspring of the sex that provides the greatest fitness return. Despite growing evidence suggesting that vertebrates are able to overcome the constraint of chromosomal sex determination, the general pattern remains equivocal, indicating a need for experimental investigations. We used an experimental feeding design to study sex allocation during 3 years in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Intense male–male competition for securing a breeding site is common in this species in which males are heavier and larger than females. Hence, we hypothesized that parents producing fledglings in better than average condition, as supplementarily fed pairs do, would increase their fitness return by producing sons. Conversely, producing daughters would be a better tactic for Unfed parents. Hence, we predicted that Fed parents produce more sons than Unfed parents. This prediction is particularly expected if sexual dimorphism arises as early as during chick rearing, suggesting strong selective pressures for optimal male development. Our results showed that 1) males were heavier and larger than females prior to fledging and that 2) Fed parents produced relatively more male hatchlings than Unfed parents. We interpret this result in terms of a Trivers–Willard-type process. Furthermore, our data revealed that Unfed parents significantly overproduced female hatchlings, whereas offspring sex ratio was balanced among Fed parents. Because the 3 reproductive seasons we considered were particularly poor food years, Unfed parents may have overproduced daughters to avoid the apparent higher reproductive costs of raising sons.

  8. Demand for food on fixed-ratio schedules as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Lea, S. E. G.; Roper, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Six rats lever pressed for food on concurrent fixed-ratio schedules, in a two-compartment chamber. In one compartment, mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio schedules of 1, 6, 11, and 16; in the other, either no food was delivered, or sucrose or mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio 8. The number of pellets obtained in the first compartment declined as a function of fixed-ratio size in that compartment in all three conditions, but the decline was greatest overall with mixed diet pellets concurrently available in the other compartment, and least with no food concurrently available. The result is discussed in terms of economic demand theory, and is consistent with the prediction that elasticity of demand for a commodity (defined in operant terms as the ratio of the proportionate change in number of reinforcements per session to the proportionate change in fixed-ratio size) is greater the more substitutable for that commodity are any concurrently available commodities. PMID:16811999

  9. A Distributed Snow Evolution Modeling System (SnowModel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liston, G. E.; Elder, K.

    2004-12-01

    A spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) has been specifically designed to be applicable over a wide range of snow landscapes, climates, and conditions. To reach this goal, SnowModel is composed of four sub-models: MicroMet defines the meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowMass simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D accounts for snow redistribution by wind. While other distributed snow models exist, SnowModel is unique in that it includes a well-tested blowing-snow sub-model (SnowTran-3D) for application in windy arctic, alpine, and prairie environments where snowdrifts are common. These environments comprise 68% of the seasonally snow-covered Northern Hemisphere land surface. SnowModel also accounts for snow processes occurring in forested environments (e.g., canopy interception related processes). SnowModel is designed to simulate snow-related physical processes occurring at spatial scales of 5-m and greater, and temporal scales of 1-hour and greater. These include: accumulation from precipitation; wind redistribution and sublimation; loading, unloading, and sublimation within forest canopies; snow-density evolution; and snowpack ripening and melt. To enhance its wide applicability, SnowModel includes the physical calculations required to simulate snow evolution within each of the global snow classes defined by Sturm et al. (1995), e.g., tundra, taiga, alpine, prairie, maritime, and ephemeral snow covers. The three, 25-km by 25-km, Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) mesoscale study areas (MSAs: Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears) are used as SnowModel simulation examples to highlight model strengths, weaknesses, and features in forested, semi-forested, alpine, and shrubland environments.

  10. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  11. BOREAS HYD-4 Standard Snow Course Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, John R.; Goodison, Barry E.; Walker, Anne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-4 work was focused on collecting data during the winter focused field campaign (FFC-W) to improve the understanding of winter processes within the boreal forest. Knowledge of snow cover and its variability in the boreal forest is fundamental if BOREAS is to achieve its goals of understanding the processes and states involved in the exchange of energy and water. The development and validation of remote sensing algorithms will provide the means to extend the knowledge of these processes and states from the local to the regional scale. A specific thrust of the research is the development and validation of snow cover algorithms from airborne passive microwave measurements. Snow surveys were conducted at special snow courses throughout the 1993/94, 1994/95, 1995/96, and 1996/97 winter seasons. These snow courses were located in different boreal forest land cover types (i.e., old aspen, old black spruce, young jack pine, forest clearing, etc.) to document snow cover variations throughout the season as a function of different land cover. Measurements of snow depth, density, and water equivalent were acquired on or near the first and fifteenth of each month during the snow cover season. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-4 standard snow course data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  13. GulfSnow Peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GulfSnow peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. GulfSnow was previously tested as AP06-09W and originated from a cross of AP98-3...

  14. "Snowing" Core in Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Chen, B.; Cormier, V.; Gao, L.; Gubbins, D.; Kharlamova, S. A.; He, K.; Yang, H.

    2008-12-01

    As a planet cools, an initially molten core gradually solidifies. Solidification occurs at shallow depths in the form of "snow", if the liquidus temperature gradient of the core composition is smaller than the adiabatic temperature gradient in the core. Experimental data on the melting behavior of iron-sulfur binary system suggest that the cores of Mercury and Ganymede are probably snowing at the present time. The Martian core is predicted to snow in the future, provided that the sulfur content falls into the range of 10 to 14 weight percent. Is the Earth's core snowing? If so, what are the surface manifestations? If the Earth's core snowed in the past, how did it affect the formation of the solid inner core and the geodynamo? Here, we evaluate the likelihood and consequences of a snowing core throughout the Earth's history, on the basis of mineral physics data describing the melting behavior, equation-of-state, and thermodynamic properties of iron-rich alloys at high pressures. We discuss if snowing in the present-day Earth can reproduce the shallow gradients of compressional wave velocity above the inner-core boundary, and whether or not snowing in the early Earth may reconcile the apparent young age of the solid inner core with a long-lived geodynamo.

  15. Do Food Availability and Microclimate Determine Bird Use of Forest Canopy Gaps?

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMPLIN, TRACEY BERNICE

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod availability and microclimate on avian use of forest canopy gaps in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and observation of foraging effort (attack rates) to determine the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) of 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration).

  16. Impacts of Change in Irrigation Water Availability on Food Production in the Yellow River Basin under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y. Y.; Tang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 9 percent of China's population and 17 percent of its agricultural area are settled in the Yellow River Basins. Irrigation, which plays an important role in agricultural production, occupies the largest share of human consumptive water use in the basin. Given increasing water demands, the basin faces acute water scarcity. Previous studies have suggested that decrease in irrigation water availability under climate change might have an overall adverse impact on the food production of the basin. The timing and area that would face severe water stress are yet to be identified. We used a land surface hydrological model forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from 5 climate models under 4 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to estimate total water availability in the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin. The future socioeconomic conditions, the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), were used to estimate the water requirement in the nonagricultural water use sectors. The irrigation water availability was estimated from the total water availability and nonagricultural water use, and the irrigation water demands were estimated based on the current irrigation project efficiencies. The timing and area of irrigation water shortage were shown and the implication of change in irrigation water availability on food production was assessed. The results show that the sub-basins with high population density and gross domestic product (GDP) are likely to confront severe water stress and reduction in food production earlier because irrigation water was to be appropriated by the rapid increase in nonagricultural water use sectors. The study stresses the need for adaptive management of water to balance agriculture and nonagricultural demands in northern China.

  17. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability. PMID:17154390

  18. Validation of the Snow Submodel of the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme with Russian Snow Cover and Meteorological Observational Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zong-Liang; Dickinson, Robert E.; Robock, Alan; Vinnikov, K. Ya.

    1997-02-01

    Snow cover is one of the most important variables affecting agriculture, hydrology, and climate, but detailed measurements are not widely available. Therefore, the effectiveness and validity of snow schemes in general circulation models have been difficult to assess. Using long-term snow cover data from the former Soviet Union, this paper focuses on the validation of the snow submodel in the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) using 6 years of data (1978-83) at six stations. Fundamental uncertainties in the datasets limit the accuracy of our assessment of the model's performance.In the absence of a wind correction for the gauge-measured precipitation and with the standard rain-snow transition criterion (2.2°C), the model gives reasonable simulations of snow water equivalent and surface temperature for all of the six stations and the six winters examined. In particular, the time of accumulation and the end of ablation and the alteration due to aging are well captured. With some simple modifications of the code, the model can also reproduce snow depth, snow cover fraction, and surface albedo. In view of the scheme's simplicity and efficiency, these results are encouraging.However, if a wind correction is applied to the gauge-measured precipitation, the model shows increased root-mean-square errors in snow water equivalent for all six stations except Tulun. Perhaps, the better agreement without wind correction means that the snow has blown beyond the area of snow measurement, as might be accounted for only by a detailed regional snow-wind distribution model.This study underlines four aspects that warrant special attention: (i) estimation of the downward longwave radiation, (ii) separation of the aging processes for snowpack density and snow surface albedo, (iii) parameterization of snow cover fraction, and (iv) choice of critical temperature for rain-snow transition.

  19. Albedo reduction by dirty snow: measurements and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Gallet, J.; Domine, F.; Picard, G.

    2008-12-01

    Industrial and biomass burning emissions of black carbon (BC) from low- and mid-latitudes dominate the radiative forcing by absorbing impurities trapped in snow and ice at mid- and high- northern latitudes. Correct model representation of albedo reduction by BC-contaminated snow is crucial because our GCM simulations show that dirty snow can explain about 30% of the observed 20th century Arctic warming. Until now, measurements of actual snow darkening by BC have been attempted only in the field, under non- reproducible conditions, and limited to the environmental BC concentration. We have conducted the first measurements of the direct effect of BC-contamination on snow albedo by in a controlled environment. We doped natural snow with a commercially available BC-analogue and measured the resulting albedo change at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Snow albedo was measured in a (portable) integrating sphere system. Snow grain size is estimated from the near-infrared albedo. Snow density, temperature, and BC properties were known a priori. The albedo measurement reproducibility is about 1% for natural snow. Our measurements agree with model predictions that BC concentrations from 250 ppbm to 200 ppmm darken snow albedo by 1--70%. Our results lend confidence to the current model representations of surface darkening in the cryosphere. Applying these methods to impurity records in polar ice cores yields surface radiative forcing estimates that can be extrapolated to regional scales.

  20. Low-fat milk and high-fiber bread availability in food stores in urban and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hosler, Akiko S; Varadarajulu, Deepa; Ronsani, Adrienne E; Fredrick, Bonnie L; Fisher, Brian D

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Albany Prevention Research Center's Core Project to understand environmental influences on a healthy lifestyle, all food stores in downtown Albany (N=79) and rural Columbia and Greene counties (N=177) in New York State were visited and surveyed for their availability of low-fat milk and high-fiber bread. Stores in the rural community were significantly (P < .01) more likely to stock low-fat milk (71%) and high-fiber bread (55%) than stores in Albany (40% and 33%, respectively). The rural community also had a significantly higher population ratio of "healthy milk & bread (M&B) stores" (carrying both items) than Albany (7.6 vs 3.9 per 10,000 residents). Urban healthy M&B stores were more likely to be a convenience store and accept food stamps, whereas rural healthy M&B stores were more likely to be a gas station store and offer off-street parking. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that healthy M&B stores were inversely associated with proportions of ethnic/racial minorities in the census block group (CBG). More than 80 percent of minorities in Albany resided in a CBG without a healthy M&B store. Urban residents in predominantly minority neighborhoods were most likely to encounter environmental barriers to obtain healthy staple food, and intervention should be tailored to aid this population. PMID:17041304

  1. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, C.R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Improved Snow Mapping Accuracy with Revised MODIS Snow Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    The MODIS snow cover products have been used in over 225 published studies. From those reports, and our ongoing analysis, we have learned about the accuracy and errors in the snow products. Revisions have been made in the algorithms to improve the accuracy of snow cover detection in Collection 6 (C6), the next processing/reprocessing of the MODIS data archive planned to start in September 2012. Our objective in the C6 revision of the MODIS snow-cover algorithms and products is to maximize the capability to detect snow cover while minimizing snow detection errors of commission and omission. While the basic snow detection algorithm will not change, new screens will be applied to alleviate snow detection commission and omission errors, and only the fractional snow cover (FSC) will be output (the binary snow cover area (SCA) map will no longer be included).

  3. "Proximal Sensing" capabilities for snow cover monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valt, Mauro; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Plini, Paolo; Salzano, Roberto; Giusti, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Sigismondi, Daniele; Cagnati, Anselmo

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal snow cover represents one of the most important land cover class in relation to environmental studies in mountain areas, especially considering its variation during time. Snow cover and its extension play a relevant role for the studies on the atmospheric dynamics and the evolution of climate. It is also important for the analysis and management of water resources and for the management of touristic activities in mountain areas. Recently, webcam images collected at daily or even hourly intervals are being used as tools to observe the snow covered areas; those images, properly processed, can be considered a very important environmental data source. Images captured by digital cameras become a useful tool at local scale providing images even when the cloud coverage makes impossible the observation by satellite sensors. When suitably processed these images can be used for scientific purposes, having a good resolution (at least 800x600x16 million colours) and a very good sampling frequency (hourly images taken through the whole year). Once stored in databases, those images represent therefore an important source of information for the study of recent climatic changes, to evaluate the available water resources and to analyse the daily surface evolution of the snow cover. The Snow-noSnow software has been specifically designed to automatically detect the extension of snow cover collected from webcam images with a very limited human intervention. The software was tested on images collected on Alps (ARPAV webcam network) and on Apennine in a pilot station properly equipped for this project by CNR-IIA. The results obtained through the use of Snow-noSnow are comparable to the one achieved by photo-interpretation and could be considered as better as the ones obtained using the image segmentation routine implemented into image processing commercial softwares. Additionally, Snow-noSnow operates in a semi-automatic way and has a reduced processing time. The analysis

  4. Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

    1996-01-01

    Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

  5. Adaptation of Locally Available Portion Sizes for Food Frequency Questionnaires in Nutritional Epidemiological Studies: How Much Difference does it Make?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Verma, Sonika; Singh, Abhishek; Tandon, Nikhil; Puri, Seema; Arora, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. Methodology: The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site), Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml), medium (320 ml) and large (600 ml). The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. Results: The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local) portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. Conclusion: In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique. PMID:27385878

  6. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  7. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  8. ESA Globsnow - Hemispherical Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Records for Climate Research Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, K.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Takala, M.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Derksen, C.; Bojkov, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    The efforts of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project has resulted in two new global records of snow parameters intended for climate research purposes. The datasets contains satellite-retrieved information on snow extent (SE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) extending 15 and 30 years respectively. The dataset on snow extent is based on optical data of Envisat AATSR and ERS-2 ATSR-2 sensors covering Northern Hemisphere between years 1995 to 2010. The record on snow water equivalent is based on satellite-based radiometer measurements (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E) combined with ground-based weather station data, starting from 1979 and extending to present day. The GlobSnow SWE product is the first satellite-based dataset of snow water equivalent information on a daily basis at a hemispherical scale for 30+ years. In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service has been implemented. The current data, including the prototype products and the used validation data are available for all interested parties through the GlobSnow www-pages (http://www.globsnow.info). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results enabled the selection of the final algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow products. The SWE product is derived using an assimilation algorithm by FMI and the SE product is a combination of NR and SYKE developed algorithms utilizing optical data. Both algorithms showed enhanced estimation characteristics when compared with currently available existing products. Prototype SE and SWE products were released for user evaluation during November 2009 covering the years 2003-2008 for SWE and 2004-2006 for SE. The final SWE product covers the Northern Hemisphere, spanning 1979 - 2010. The SE product covers the Northern

  9. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than

  10. North American Land Data Assimiliation (NLDAS) Data: 30 Years of Hourly Gridded Precipitation, Surface Meteorology and Fluxes, Soil Moisture, Runoff, and Snow Cover Available at the NASA Goddard GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Mitchell, K.; Fang, H.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.; Lei, G.; Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.; Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Livneh, B.; Alonge, C. J.; Meng, C. J.; Wei, H.; Koren, V.; Schaake, J. C.; Mo, K. C.; Robock, A.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) has produced 30-years (1979 to present in near real-time) of hourly 1/8th-degree surface meteorology and hydrology datasets over CONUS and parts of Canada and Mexico. The NLDAS project has many government and university partners involved in producing and using these datasets, many funded under the Climate Prediction Program of the Americas (CPPA). NLDAS combines observations from many different sources (rain gauges, radar, satellite, model reanalysis) to generate a surface forcing dataset, which is used to drive several different land-surface models. Hourly datasets of gridded precipitation, surface meteorology and surface fluxes, soil moisture at multiple depths, surface runoff and baseflow, and snow cover are produced and available to users. This presentation will describe NLDAS forcing and land-surface model output datasets, and provide an example or two of the many applications of NLDAS data already in use. One such application is the NLDAS Drought Monitor, which updates in near real-time using several different drought indices. All 30-plus years of hourly data are now available at the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Users can access the data by searching and downloading via anonymous ftp or Mirador. Mirador, a Spanish word for a window offering an extensive view, uses keywords to find data quickly in a Google-like interface. The NLDAS data are also provided via a GrADS Data Server (GDS). GDS users can access the data and perform subsetting and analysis operations online. More advanced tools will be provided in later releases, such as spatial and parameter subsetting, data format transformation, and an online visualization and analysis tool (Giovanni). Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC that provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download

  11. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... Agricultural Service (FAS) announces it is inviting proposals for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program Micronutrient- Fortified Food Aid Products...

  12. Metabolic Physiology of the Invasive Clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: The Interactive Role of Temperature, Salinity, and Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan A.; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations. PMID:24599347

  13. Metabolic physiology of the invasive clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: the interactive role of temperature, salinity, and food availability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan A; Chen, Xi; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2014-01-01

    In biological systems energy serves as the ultimate commodity, often determining species distributions, abundances, and interactions including the potential impact of invasive species on native communities. The Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis invaded the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) in 1986 and is implicated in the decline of native fish species through resource competition. Using a combined laboratory/field study we examined how energy expenditure in this clam is influenced by salinity, temperature and food availability. Measures of metabolism were made at whole organism (metabolic rate) and biochemical (pyruvate kinase (PK) and citrate synthase (CS) enzyme activities) levels. We found in the field, over the course of a year, the ratio of PK to CS was typically 1.0 suggesting that aerobic and fermentative metabolism were roughly equivalent, except for particular periods characterized by low salinity, higher temperatures, and intermediate food availabilities. In a 30-day laboratory acclimation experiment, however, neither metabolic rate nor PK:CS ratio was consistently influenced by the same variables, though the potential for fermentative pathways did predominate. We conclude that in field collected animals, the addition of biochemical measures of energetic state provide little additional information to the previously measured whole organism metabolic rate. In addition, much of the variation in the laboratory remained unexplained and additional variables, including reproductive stage or body condition may influence laboratory-based results. Further study of adult clams must consider the role of organismal condition, especially reproductive state, in comparisons of laboratory experiments and field observations. PMID:24599347

  14. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  15. The frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm is modulated on a circadian period and is entrained by food availability

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Robert G. K.; Tyree, Susan M.; McNaughton, Neil; Bilkey, David K.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in the generation of episodic memory. While the encoding of the spatial and contextual components of memory have been extensively studied, how the hippocampus encodes temporal information, especially at long time intervals, is less well understood. The activity of place cells in hippocampus has previously been shown to be modulated at a circadian time-scale, entrained by a behavioral stimulus, but not entrained by light. The experimental procedures used in the previous study of this phenomenon, however, necessarily conflated two alternative entraining stimuli, the exposure to the recording environment and the availability of food, making it impossible to distinguish between these possibilities. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of theta-band hippocampal EEG varies with a circadian period in freely moving animals and that this periodicity mirrors changes in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons. Theta activity serves, therefore, as a proxy of circadian-modulated hippocampal neuronal activity. We then demonstrate that the frequency of hippocampal theta driven by stimulation of the reticular formation also varies with a circadian period. Because this effect can be observed without having to feed the animal to encourage movement we were able to identify what stimulus entrains the circadian oscillation. We show that with reticular-activated recordings started at various times of the day the frequency of theta varies quasi-sinusoidally with a 25 h period and phase-aligned when referenced to the animal’s regular feeding time, but not the recording start time. Furthermore, we show that theta frequency consistently varied with a circadian period when the data obtained from repeated recordings started at various times of the day were referenced to the start of food availability in the recording chamber. This pattern did not occur when data were referenced to the start of the recording session or to the actual time of

  16. Long-term changes in food availability mediate the effects of temperature on growth, development and survival in striped marsh frog larvae: implications for captive breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Courtney Jones, Stephanie K.; Munn, Adam J.; Penman, Trent D.; Byrne, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability and temperature are known to trigger phenotypic change, but the interactive effects between these factors are only beginning to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of long-term stochastic food availability and water temperature on larval survivorship, growth and development of the striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Larval L. peronii were reared in conditions of either constant or stochastic food availability and in water at three different temperatures (18, 22 and 26°C), and effects on survival, growth and development were quantified. Over the experimental period, larval growth rate was highest and survivorship lowest at the warmest temperature. However, changes in food availability mediated the effects of temperature, with slower larval growth and higher survivorship in stochastic food availability treatments. Tadpoles in the stochastic food availability treatments did not reach metamorphosis during the experimental period, suggesting that developmental stasis may have been induced by food restriction. Overall, these results demonstrate that changes in food availability alter the effects of water temperature on survival, growth and development. From an applied perspective, understanding how environmental factors interact to cause phenotypic change may assist with amphibian conservation by improving the number of tadpoles generated in captive breeding programmes. PMID:27293714

  17. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  18. Effects of Light, Food Availability and Temperature Stress on the Function of Photosystem II and Photosystem I of Coral Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Campbell, Douglas A.; Beraud, Eric; DeZeeuw, Katrina; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to “bleach,” lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host. PMID:22253915

  19. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture’s Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.6%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (63.4%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply. PMID:26378899

  20. Assessment of the Particulate Food Supply Available for Mussel ( Mytilus spp.) Farming in a Semi-enclosed, Northern Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penney, R. W.; McKenzie, C. H.; Mills, T. J.

    2001-07-01

    Temporal variability in the quantity, organic content, and phytoplankton composition of the particulate food supply available to a cultured mussel population was assessed for a 3-year period in a small inlet of Notre Dame Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. The study site had a restricted flushing rate estimated at 1-2·75 times wk -1for a complete water exchange. The quantity of both total (TPM) and organic (POM) seston varied temporally from 0·7-23·7 mg l -1and 0·05-1·97 mg l -1respectively during the 3-year sampling period. TPM typically remained relatively high (>10 mg l -1) through the winter and spring period. Most of the seasonal variation in total seston was due to seasonal variability in the PIM component. Both PIM and POM concentrations were seasonally lowest during summer. The organic fraction of the seston (POM/TPM ratio) was seasonally low in winter and increased steadily through spring and summer to reach its maximum in the autumn. The living phytoplankton component of the seston was typically dominated, both numerically and in biomass, by a variety of diatom and autotrophic nanoflagellate species in the 2- 20-μm diameter size range. Discrete diatom population blooms occurred in the autumn of all three years and largely consisted of a single species, Skeletonema costatum. Phytoplankton:detritus ratios were significantly lower during winter. Total phytoplankton biomass levels were seasonally low during winter and summer and were associated with seasonal variation in diatom biomass. We conducted modelling simulations of relationships among seston organic food levels, their temporal variability, tidal flushing rates, cultured mussel biomass and production indices, and estimates of mussel maintenance ration requirements to predict the adequacy of northern inlets to sustain commercial-scale mussel farm development. We conclude from these simulations that small, semi-enclosed, northern inlets likely frequently experience periods when naturally occurring organic

  1. Effects of preparation and cooking of folic acid-fortified foods on the availability of folic acid in a folate depletion/repletion rat model.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, K; Sheehy, P J

    2001-09-01

    The practice of food fortification with folic acid offers the potential to increase the folate intake of the general population. To fully exploit the potential of fortification for raising folate nutriture, appropriate food vehicles need to be selected. Selection should involve determination of the availability of folic acid as affected by characteristics of the carrier food, food matrix, food preparation, and cooking. The present study investigated the effects of preparation and cooking of a range of folic acid-fortified foods on the folate status of folate-deficient rats. Fifty-six weanling male rats (Wistar strain) were fed a folate-deficient diet containing 1% succinyl sulfathiazole for 28 days. Following depletion, six rats were randomly assigned to each of eight repletion diets containing cooked or uncooked meringue mix, quick bread mix, brownie mix, or pizza base mix. The test foods were fortified with 1400 microg of folic acid/kg of food and incorporated as 19% of the repletion diets. Each of the first four groups was pair-fed a diet containing a cooked fortified food with another group fed the corresponding uncooked fortified food. After a further 28 days, plasma, liver, and kidney folate concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. Mean plasma and liver folate concentrations of rats fed diets containing cooked fortified foods were similar to those of rats fed uncooked fortified foods. Preparation and cooking did not affect the availability of folic acid from the selected cereal-based convenience foods in this rat model system, suggesting that these foods are appropriate vehicles for fortification with folic acid. PMID:11559162

  2. Integrating snow albedo from the Airborne Snow Observatory into the distributed energy balance snowmelt model iSnobal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiles, M.; Painter, T. H.; Marks, D. G.; Hedrick, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013 the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) has been measuring spatial and temporal distribution of both snow water equivalent and snow albedo, the two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing, across key basins in the Western US. It is generally understood that net solar radiation (as controlled by variations in snow albedo and irradiance) provides the energy available for melt in almost all snow-covered environments. Until now, sparse measurements have restricted the ability to utilize measured net solar radiation in energy balance models, and current process simulations and model prediction of albedo evolution rely on oversimplifications of the processes. Data from ASO offers the unprecedented opportunity to utilize weekly measurements of spatially extensive spectral snow albedo to constrain and update snow albedo in a distributed snowmelt model for the first time. Here, we first investigate the sensitivity of the snow energy balance model SNOBAL to prescribed changes in snow albedo at two instrumented alpine catchments: at the point scale across 10 years at Senator Beck Basin Study Area in the San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, and at the distributed scale across 25 years at Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho. We then compare distributed energy balance and snowmelt results across the ASO measurement record in the Tuolumne Basin in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, for model runs with and without integrated snow albedo from ASO.

  3. Observations of distributed snow depth and snow duration within diverse forest structures in a maritime mountain watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Gersonde, Rolf; Martin, Kael A.; Forsyth, Jenna E.; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-11-01

    Spatially distributed snow depth and snow duration data were collected over two to four snow seasons during water years 2011-2014 in experimental forest plots within the Cedar River Municipal Watershed, 50 km east of Seattle, Washington, USA. These 40 × 40 m forest plots, situated on the western slope of the Cascade Range, include unthinned second-growth coniferous forests, variable density thinned forests, forest gaps in which a 20 m diameter (approximately equivalent to one tree height) gap was cut in the middle of each plot, and old-growth forest. Together, this publicly available data set includes snow depth and density observations from manual snow surveys, distributed snow duration observations from ground temperature sensors and time-lapse cameras, meteorological data collected at two open locations and three forested locations, and forest canopy data from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs. These colocated snow, meteorological, and forest data have the potential to improve understanding of forest influences on snow processes, and provide a unique model-testing data set for hydrological analyses in a forested, maritime watershed. We present empirical snow depletion curves within forests to illustrate an application of these data to improve subgrid representation of snow cover in distributed modeling.

  4. Quantifying tradeoffs between water availability, water quality, food production and bioenergy production in a Central German Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, M.; Lautenbach, S.; Strauch, M.; Whittaker, G. W.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide increasing bioenergy production is on the political agenda. It is well known that bioenergy production comes at a cost - several trade-offs with food production, water quality and quantity issues, biodiversity and ecosystem services are known. However, a quantification of these trade-offs is still missing. Hence, our study presents an analysis of trade-offs between water availability, water quality, bioenergy production and production in a Central German agricultural catchment. Our analysis is based on using SWAT and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA II). The genetic algorithm is used to find Pareto optimal configurations of crop rotation schemes. The Pareto-optimality describes solutions in which an objective cannot be improved without decreasing other objectives. This allows us to quantify the costs at which several levels of increase in bioenergy production come and to derive recommendations for policy makers.

  5. 76 FR 20305 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Pilot... the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FAS published a notice in the Federal Register on March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13598)...

  6. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  7. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  8. Impact of metal pollution, food availability, and excessive fishing on Rhabdosargus haffara stock (family: Sparidae) in Timsah lake.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Sahar F; Abd El-Azim, Hoda; Belal, Aisha A

    2016-08-01

    The lakes' fisheries play an important role in Egyptian economy. In 1980s, they provided more than 50 % of harvested fish in Egypt but now their contribution to the Egypt fish production decreased to only 12.5 % in 2012. Lake Timsah, one of the Suez Canal lakes, faced many challenges that lead to serious changes in its water and fish quality, fish production, as well as the catch composition. The present work investigated the impact of pollution, food availability, and excessive fishing mortality on the haffara production in lake Timsah. The distribution of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, and Fe) was detected seasonally in water and in muscles, gills, and livers of Rhabdosargus haffara, during 2012 through 2013. Fe and Zn were presented by high values in liver, while Pb and Ni in gills. Generally, the lowest concentrations of all metals were found in muscles. The recorded crustacean organisms (the main food of haffara) decreased from 12 species and 32,079 organisms⁄m(2) in 2012 to only 7 species and 7290 organisms⁄m(2) in 2013 while the amphipods completely disappeared. This serious change was due to the severe pollution in the lake. A logistic surplus production model was fitted to the catch per unit effort indices, to estimate the maximum sustainable yield and the optimum level of fishing effort. The results revealed that haffara stock at lake Timsah is overfished, and the estimated precautionary target reference points advised the reduction of fishing effort by about 30-50 %. PMID:27234823

  9. Maternal nutritional status may be stressed by seasonal fluctuations in food availability: evidence from rural women in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kigutha, H N; van Staveren, W A; Wijnhoven, T M; Hautvast, J G

    1995-08-01

    The effect of seasonal changes in household food availability on the dietary intakes and the nutritional status of 24 lactating women from smallholder rural households in Nakuru district Kenya, were investigated over a 15-month period in 1992/93 agricultural cycle. Dietary intakes and body weights were measured on monthly basis. Significant seasonal differences were found in intakes of calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, and niacin respectively (P < 0.01), as well as in the intake of protein, iron, and thiamin (P < 0.05), but not with energy and fat intake. Large interseasonal weight losses of 5.6 kg (about 9%) at the rate of 1.1 kg/month, were observed between baseline measurements and the peak of the lean months when the energy intakes were 36.7 kcal/kg/day and protein at 1.1 g/kg/day. About 50% of the lost weight (2.8 kg) were recovered during the harvest months of January and February, when energy intakes improved to 41.0 kcal/kg/day, and protein to 1.2 g/kg/day. However, further weight losses of 1.6 kg or 0.5 kg/month occurred in the immediate postharvest months between March and June. While much of the weight loss may have been due to reduced energy intake during periods of food scarcity, part of the lost weight may have been due to increased energy requirement as a result of lactation and to increased physical activities. Further investigations are recommended. PMID:7584164

  10. The stress hormone corticosterone in a marine top predator reflects short-term changes in food availability

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Robert T; Erikstad, Kjell E; Sandvik, Hanno; Myksvoll, Mari; Jenni-Eiermann, Susi; Kristensen, Ditte L; Moum, Truls; Reiertsen, Tone K; Vikebø, Frode

    2015-01-01

    In many seabird studies, single annual proxies of prey abundance have been used to explain variability in breeding performance, but much more important is probably the timing of prey availability relative to the breeding season when energy demand is at a maximum. Until now, intraseasonal variation in prey availability has been difficult to quantify in seabirds. Using a state-of-the-art ocean drift model of larval cod Gadus morhua, an important constituent of the diet of common guillemots Uria aalge in the southwestern Barents Sea, we were able to show clear, short-term correlations between food availability and measurements of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in parental guillemots over a 3-year period (2009–2011). The model allowed the extraction of abundance and size of cod larvae with very high spatial (4 km) and temporal resolutions (1 day) and showed that cod larvae from adjacent northern spawning grounds in Norway were always available near the guillemot breeding colony while those from more distant southerly spawning grounds were less frequent, but larger. The latter arrived in waves whose magnitude and timing, and thus overlap with the guillemot breeding season, varied between years. CORT levels in adult guillemots were lower in birds caught after a week with high frequencies of southern cod larvae. This pattern was restricted to the two years (2009 and 2010) in which southern larvae arrived before the end of the guillemot breeding season. Any such pattern was masked in 2011 by already exceptionally high numbers of cod larvae in the region throughout chick-rearing period. The findings suggest that CORT levels in breeding birds increase when the arrival of southern sizable larvae does not match the period of peak energy requirements during breeding. PMID:25859335

  11. The association of binge eating and neighbourhood fast-food restaurant availability on diet and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O’Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one’s home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. Design All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants’ neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ≥1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Setting Houston and Austin, TX, USA. Subjects African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25–60 years. Results Of the total sample (n 162), 48% had 1–15 neighbourhood FFR and 29% were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P=0·05). Binge eaters with ≥1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P>0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P=0·005) and fat (P=0·005) than non-binge eaters. Conclusions Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/ Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet. PMID:24476972

  12. Investigation of the available technologies and their feasibility for the conversion of food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-04-01

    Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk. In order to examine the feasibility of converting food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong, this paper investigates the market demand, technical viability, feed quality, regulatory hurdles, and potential contribution. The results show that a significant amount of food waste can be recycled by converting it into fish feed due to the enormous demand from feed factories in mainland China. Two conversion technologies, heat drying and black soldier fly bioconversion, are studied extensively. Black soldier fly bioconversion is preferable because the end-product, insect powder, is anticipated to gain import approval from mainland China. The authors suggest further research efforts to speed up its application for food waste recycling in urban cities. PMID:25982983

  13. Secrets of Snow Liveshot Recap

    NASA Video Gallery

    Research Physical Scientist and Deputy Project Scientist for GPM Gail Skofronick-Jackson answers questions about the importance of studying snow from space, the impact of not enough snow, and the f...

  14. Recent research in snow hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1987-01-01

    Recent work on snow-pack energy exchange has involved detailed investigations on snow albedo and attempts to integrate energy-balance calculations over drainage basins. Along with a better understanding of the EM properties of snow, research in remote sensing has become more focused toward estimation of snow-pack properties. In snow metamorphism, analyses of the physical processes must now be coupled to better descriptions of the geometry of the snow microstructure. The dilution method now appears to be the best direct technique for measuring the liquid water content of snow; work on EM methods continues. Increasing attention to the chemistry of the snow pack has come with the general focus on acid precipitation in hydrology.

  15. Snow Water Equivalent estimation based on satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchiavello, G.; Pesce, F.; Boni, G.; Gabellani, S.

    2009-09-01

    The availability of remotely sensed images and them analysis is a powerful tool for monitoring the extension and typology of snow cover over territory where the in situ measurements are often difficult. Information on snow are fundamental for monitoring and forecasting the available water above all in regions at mid latitudes as Mediterranean where snowmelt may cause floods. The hydrological model requirements and the daily acquisitions of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), drove, in previous research activities, to the development of a method to automatically map the snow cover from multi-spectral images. But, the major hydrological parameter related to the snow pack is the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE). This represents a direct measure of stored water in the basin. Because of it, the work was focused to the daily estimation of SWE from MODIS images. But, the complexity of this aim, based only on optical data, doesn’t find any information in literature. Since, from the spectral range of MODIS data it is not possible to extract a direct relation between spectral information and the SWE. Then a new method, respectful of the physic of the snow, was defined and developed. Reminding that the snow water equivalent is the product of the three factors as snow density, snow depth and the snow covered areas, the proposed approach works separately on each of these physical behaviors. Referring to the physical characteristic of snow, the snow density is function of the snow age, then it was studied a new method to evaluate this. Where, a module for snow age simulation from albedo information was developed. It activates an age counter updated by new snow information set to estimate snow age from zero accumulation status to the end of melting season. The height of the snow pack, can be retrieved by adopting relation between vegetation and snow depth distributions. This computes snow height distribution by the relation between snow cover fraction and the

  16. Improving the snow physics of WEB-DHM and its point evaluation at the SnowMIP sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Xue, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the snow physics of a distributed biosphere hydrological model, referred to as the Water and Energy Budget based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM) is significantly improved by incorporating the three-layer physically based energy balance snowmelt model of Simplified Simple Biosphere 3 (SSiB3) and the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) albedo scheme. WEB-DHM with improved snow physics is hereafter termed WEB-DHM-S. Since the in-situ observations of spatially-distributed snow variables with high resolution are currently not available over large regions, the new distributed system (WEB-DHM-S) is at first rigorously tested with comprehensive point measurements. The stations used for evaluation comprise the four open sites of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP) phase 1 with different climate characteristics (Col de Porte in France, Weissfluhjoch in Switzerland, Goose Bay in Canada and Sleepers River in USA) and one open/forest site of the SnowMIP phase 2 (Hitsujigaoka in Japan). The comparisons of the snow depth, snow water equivalent, surface temperature, snow albedo and snowmelt runoff at the SnowMIP1 sites reveal that WEB-DHM-S, in general, is capable of simulating the internal snow process better than the original WEB-DHM. Sensitivity tests (through incremental addition of model processes) are performed to illustrate the necessity of improvements over WEB-DHM and indicate that both the 3-layer snow module and the new albedo scheme are essential. The canopy effects on snow processes are studied at the Hitsujigaoka site of the SnowMIP2 showing that the snow holding capacity of the canopy plays a vital role in simulating the snow depth on ground. Through these point evaluations and sensitivity studies, WEB-DHM-S has demonstrated the potential to address basin-scale snow processes (e.g., the snowmelt runoff), since it inherits the distributed hydrological framework from the WEB-DHM (e.g., the slope-driven runoff generation

  17. Snow as Field-Teaching Medium for Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Stephan Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Snow is a widely available earth-science teaching medium which can be used to explore scientific concepts in the field, either directly or by analogy. Snow can be considered a mineral, sediment, sedimentary rock, or metamorphic rock. Natural processes such as crystal growth, melting, sedimentation, and metamorphism can be studied in practical time…

  18. Spatial Scale for Modelling Blowing Snow on the Canadian Prairieis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Fang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Blowing snow transports and sometimes sublimates much of the seasonal snowfall in the Prairies of western Canada. Snow redistribution is an important feature of Prairie hydrology as deep snowdrifts provide a source of meltwater to replenish ponds and generate streamflow in this dry region. The spatial distribution of snow water equivalent in the spring is therefore of great interest for Prairie hydrology. A test of the appropriate spatial scale for modelling blowing snow redistribution and sublimation was conducted at St Denis National Wildlife Area in the rolling, internally drained prairie pothole region east of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. A LiDAR based DEM and LANDSAT based vegetation map were available for this region. A coupled complex windflow and blowing snow model was run with ~250,000 6 m x 6 m grid cells to produce spatially distributed estimates of seasonal blowing snow transport and sublimation. The calculation was then aggregated, using 7 landscape units that represented the major influences of surface roughness, topography and fetch on blowing snow transport and sublimation. Both the distributed and aggregated simulations described similar end of winter snow water equivalent with substantive redistribution of blowing snow from exposed sparsley vegetated sites across topographic drainage divides to the densely vegetated pothole wetlands. Both simulations also agreed well with snow survey observations. While the distributed calculations provide a fascinating and detailed visual image of the interaction of complex landscapes and blowing snow redistribution and sublimation, it is clear that blowing snow transport and sublimation calculations can be successfully aggregated to the spatial scale of the major landscape units in this environment.

  19. Snow and the ground temperature record of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Marshall G.; Chapman, David S.; Harris, Robert N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain a record of surface ground temperature (SGT) changes with time and complement surface air temperature (SAT) analysis to infer climate change over multiple centuries. Ground temperatures are generally warmer than air temperatures due to solar radiation effects in the summer and the insulating effect of snow cover during the winter. The low thermal diffusivity of snow damps surface temperature variations; snow effectively acts as an insulator of the ground during the coldest part of the year. A numerical model of snow-ground thermal interactions is developed to investigate the effect of seasonal snow cover on annual ground temperatures. The model is parameterized in terms of three snow event parameters: onset time of the annual snow event, duration of the event, and depth of snow during the event. These parameters are commonly available from meteorological and remotely sensed data making the model broadly applicable. The model is validated using SAT, subsurface temperature from a depth of 10 cm, and snow depth data from the 6 years of observations at Emigrant Pass climate observatory in northwestern Utah and 217 station years of National Weather Service data from sites across North America. Measured subsurface temperature-time series are compared to changes predicted by the model. The model consistently predicts ground temperature changes that compare well with those observed. Sensitivity analysis of the model leads to a nonlinear relationship between the three snow event parameters (onset, duration, and depth of the annual snow event) and the influence snow has on mean annual SGT.

  20. Crystal growth of artificial snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, S.; Oka, A.; Taki, M.; Kuwano, R.; Ono, H.; Nagura, R.; Narimatsu, Y.; Tanii, J.; Kamimiytat, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Snow crystals were grown onboard the space shuttle during STS-7 and STS-8 to facilitate the investigation of crystal growth under conditions of weightlessness. The experimental design and hardware are described. Space-grown snow crystals were polyhedrons looking like spheres, which were unlike snow crystals produced in experiments on Earth.

  1. A Blended Global Snow Product using Visible, Passive Microwave and Scatterometer Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, James L.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Eylander, John B.; Riggs, George A.; Nghiem, Son V.; Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward; Montesano, Paul M.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Choudhury, Bhaskar

    2009-01-01

    A joint U.S. Air Force/NASA blended, global snow product that utilizes Earth Observation System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and QuikSCAT (Quick Scatterometer) (QSCAT) data has been developed. Existing snow products derived from these sensors have been blended into a single, global, daily, user-friendly product by employing a newly-developed Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Snow Algorithm (ANSA). This initial blended-snow product uses minimal modeling to expeditiously yield improved snow products, which include snow cover extent, fractional snow cover, snow water equivalent (SWE), onset of snowmelt, and identification of actively melting snow cover. The blended snow products are currently 25-km resolution. These products are validated with data from the lower Great Lakes region of the U.S., from Colorado during the Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX), and from Finland. The AMSR-E product is especially useful in detecting snow through clouds; however, passive microwave data miss snow in those regions where the snow cover is thin, along the margins of the continental snowline, and on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains, for instance. In these regions, the MODIS product can map shallow snow cover under cloud-free conditions. The confidence for mapping snow cover extent is greater with the MODIS product than with the microwave product when cloud-free MODIS observations are available. Therefore, the MODIS product is used as the default for detecting snow cover. The passive microwave product is used as the default only in those areas where MODIS data are not applicable due to the presence of clouds and darkness. The AMSR-E snow product is used in association with the difference between ascending and descending satellite passes or Diurnal Amplitude Variations (DAV) to detect the onset of melt, and a QSCAT product will be used to

  2. Georectification and snow classification of webcam images: potential for complementing satellite-derrived snow maps over Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizerens, Céline; Hüsler, Fabia; Wunderle, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of snow cover has a significant impact on climate and environment and is of great socio-economic importance for the European Alps. Satellite remote sensing data is widely used to study snow cover variability and can provide spatially comprehensive information on snow cover extent. However, cloud cover strongly impedes the surface view and hence limits the number of useful snow observations. Outdoor webcam images not only offer unique potential for complementing satellite-derived snow retrieval under cloudy conditions but could also serve as a reference for improved validation of satellite-based approaches. Thousands of webcams are currently connected to the Internet and deliver freely available images with high temporal and spatial resolutions. To exploit the untapped potential of these webcams, a semi-automatic procedure was developed to generate snow cover maps based on webcam images. We used daily webcam images of the Swiss alpine region to apply, improve, and extend existing approaches dealing with the positioning of photographs within a terrain model, appropriate georectification, and the automatic snow classification of such photographs. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the implemented procedure and demonstrate how our registration approach automatically resolves the orientation of a webcam by using a high-resolution digital elevation model and the webcam's position. This allows snow-classified pixels of webcam images to be related to their real-world coordinates. We present several examples of resulting snow cover maps, which have the same resolution as the digital elevation model and indicate whether each grid cell is snow-covered, snow-free, or not visible from webcams' positions. The procedure is expected to work under almost any weather condition and demonstrates the feasibility of using webcams for the retrieval of high-resolution snow cover information.

  3. Improving WEPP snow simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snow simulation is essential to reliable prediction of runoff and erosion, particularly in high-latitude areas in the northern tier of states and forested watersheds at high elevations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is one of a few including a component for winter hydrology simul...

  4. Principles of Snow Hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snow hydrology is a specialized field of hydrology that is of particular importance for high latitudes and mountainous terrain. In many parts of the world, river and groundwater supplies for domestic, irrigation, industrial and ecosystem needs are generated from snowmelt, and an in-depth understand...

  5. Snow surface temperature, radiative forcing and snow depth as determinants of snow density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, P. B.; Painter, T. H.; Skiles, M.; Deems, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed scale observations of snow water equivalence (SWE) are becoming increasingly important globally as the quantity and timing of snowmelt has become less predictable. In the Colorado River watershed, where dust deposition can hasten snowmelt by several weeks, the need for these observations is critical. While advances in measuring snow depth and albedo from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory have greatly improved our ability to constrain snow depth and radiative forcing, we have yet to develop a method for remotely observing snow density, which is required for calculating SWE. We evaluate measured and modeled variables of snow- infrared surface temperature, radiative forcing and snow depth as predictors of snow density. We use 10 seasons of in situ measured snow surface temperature, cumulative modeled dust in snow radiative forcing, snow depth and manually measured snow density from locations in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado. We also use measured snow depth and SWE from the 2013 and 2014 water years, from 23-35 locations stratified by modeled downwelling short wave radiation, and evaluate them as predictors of snow density. Our analysis shows that daily mean snow surface temperature (R2 0.61, p = <0.001) and cumulative radiative forcing (R2 0.54, p = <0.001) individually have significant coefficients of determination whereas snow depth alone was not significant. Multiple regression with all three variables (R2 0.84, p = <0.001) was the best predictor of density. Furthermore, when snowpack conditions were isothermal at 0° C, the diurnal coefficient of variation, of measured hourly surface temperature, exhibited consistently high variance. In 2013 we found significant correlations between spatially distributed measurements of snow density (R2 0.33, p = <0.001) and modeled downwelling short wave radiation. However, in 2014 the correlation was very low, supporting our hypothesis that seasonal differences in dust driven radiative forcing are also

  6. 76 FR 45223 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program Announcement Type: New. Catalog of Federal Domestic... applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition program (McGovern-Dole... education and nutrition plans; and (e) Demonstrated cooperation with other USG agencies doing...

  7. Snow and ice ecosystems: not so extreme.

    PubMed

    Maccario, Lorrie; Sanguino, Laura; Vogel, Timothy M; Larose, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Snow and ice environments cover up to 21% of the Earth's surface. They have been regarded as extreme environments because of their low temperatures, high UV irradiation, low nutrients and low water availability, and thus, their microbial activity has not been considered relevant from a global microbial ecology viewpoint. In this review, we focus on why snow and ice habitats might not be extreme from a microbiological perspective. Microorganisms interact closely with the abiotic conditions imposed by snow and ice habitats by having diverse adaptations, that include genetic resistance mechanisms, to different types of stresses in addition to inhabiting various niches where these potential stresses might be reduced. The microbial communities inhabiting snow and ice are not only abundant and taxonomically diverse, but complex in terms of their interactions. Altogether, snow and ice seem to be true ecosystems with a role in global biogeochemical cycles that has likely been underestimated. Future work should expand past resistance studies to understanding the function of these ecosystems. PMID:26408452

  8. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander.

    Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol.

    Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened.

    The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

    Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Objective While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. Design Quasi-experimental study. Setting Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. Subjects Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. Results During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. Conclusions Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community. PMID:19402943

  10. Importance of snow to global precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, P. R.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    Precipitation controls the availability of drinking water and viability of the land to support agriculture. Failure to accurately predict the location, magnitude, and frequency of precipitation impacts not only numerical weather forecasting but also climate modeling. It has been proposed that most rainfall events originate from ice that has melted to form rain. Here we use remote sensing from spaceborne cloud radar to quantify that idea. A new metric is constructed to quantify the fraction of rain events at the surface that are linked to snow melting at a higher altitude. CloudSat is used to show the global variation of the importance of snow in the precipitation process. In the tropics, subtropics, midlatitude and polar regions 0.3, 0.4, 0.8, and >0.9, respectively, of all precipitation events (>1 mm/d) are linked to the production of snow in clouds.